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Dietary Fat  

Science.gov (United States)

... Nutrition for Everyone Nutrition Topics Share Compartir Dietary Fat What counts as fat? Are some fats better ... polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. How much total dietary fat do I need? The Dietary Guidelines for Americans ...

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Substituting dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat changes abdominal fat distribution and improves insulin sensitivity.  

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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: British dietary recommendations are to decrease total fat intake to less than 30 % of daily energy intake and saturated fat to less than 10 %. In practice, it is difficult for people to make these changes. It may be easier to encourage people to switch from a diet rich in saturated fatty acids to one rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. METHODS: A total of 17 subjects - six people with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, six non-obese and five obese people with...

Summers, Lk; Fielding, Ba; Bradshaw, Ha; Ilic, V.; Beysen, C.; Clark, Ml; Moore, Nr; Frayn, Kn

2002-01-01

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Polyunsaturated Fats and Monounsaturated Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... Polyunsaturated Fat Sources Nuts Vegetable oils Canola oil Olive oil High oleic safflower oil Sunflower oil Avocado Soybean ... Polyunsaturated Fat Sources Nuts Vegetable oils Canola oil Olive oil High oleic safflower oil Sunflower oil Avocado Soybean ...

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Vascular dysfunction induced in offspring by maternal dietary fat involves altered arterial polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutrition during development affects risk of future cardiovascular disease. Relatively little is known about whether the amount and type of fat in the maternal diet affect vascular function in the offspring. To investigate this, pregnant and lactating rats were fed either 7%(w/w) or 21%(w/w) fat enriched in either 18:2n-6, trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, or fish oil. Their offspring were fed 4%(w/w) soybean oil from weaning until day 77. Type and amount of maternal dietary fat altered acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated vaso-relaxation in offspring aortae and mesenteric arteries, contingent on sex. Amount, but not type, of maternal dietary fat altered phenylephrine (Pe)-induced vasoconstriction in these arteries. Maternal 21% fat diet decreased 20:4n-6 concentration in offspring aortae. We investigated the role of ?6 and ?5 desaturases, showing that their inhibition in aortae and mesenteric arteries reduced vasoconstriction, but not vaso-relaxation, and the synthesis of specific pro-constriction eicosanoids. Removal of the aortic endothelium did not alter the effect of inhibition of ?6 and ?5 desaturases on Pe-mediated vasoconstriction. Thus arterial smooth muscle 20:4n-6 biosynthesis de novo appears to be important for Pe-mediated vasoconstriction. Next we studied genes encoding these desaturases, finding that maternal 21% fat reduced Fads2 mRNA expression and increased Fads1 in offspring aortae, indicating dysregulation of 20:4n-6 biosynthesis. Methylation at CpG -394 bp 5' to the Fads2 transcription start site predicted its expression. This locus was hypermethylated in offspring of dams fed 21% fat. Pe treatment of aortae for 10 minutes increased Fads2, but not Fads1, mRNA expression (76%; P<0.05). This suggests that Fads2 may be an immediate early gene in the response of aortae to Pe. Thus both amount and type of maternal dietary fat induce altered regulation of vascular tone in offspring though differential effects on vaso-relaxation, and persistent changes in vasoconstriction via epigenetic processes controlling arterial polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. PMID:22509311

Kelsall, Christopher J; Hoile, Samuel P; Irvine, Nicola A; Masoodi, Mojgan; Torrens, Christopher; Lillycrop, Karen A; Calder, Philip C; Clough, Geraldine F; Hanson, Mark A; Burdge, Graham C

2012-01-01

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Facts about polyunsaturated fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... amounts of polyunsaturated fats include: Walnuts Sunflower seeds Flax seeds or flax oil Fish, such as salmon, mackerel, ... 2 meals with fish per week. Sprinkle ground flax seed on your meal. Add walnuts or sunflower seeds ...

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CVD risk in South Asians: the importance of defining adiposity and influence of dietary polyunsaturated fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is known to be higher in populations from the Indian subcontinent compared with the general UK population. While identification of this increased risk is crucial to allow for effective treatment, there is controversy over the applicability of diagnostic criteria, and particularly measures of adiposity in ethnic minorities. Diagnostic cut-offs for BMI and waist circumference have been largely derived from predominantly white Caucasian populations and, therefore, have been inappropriate and not transferable to Asian groups. Many Asian populations, particularly South Asians, have a higher total and central adiposity for a similar body weight compared with matched Caucasians and greater CVD risk associated with a lower BMI. Although the causes of CVD and T2D are multi-factorial, diet is thought to make a substantial contribution to the development of these diseases. Low dietary intakes and tissue levels of long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA in South Asian populations have been linked to high-risk abnormalities in the MetS. Conversely, increasing the dietary intake of LC n-3 PUFA in South Asians has proved an effective strategy for correcting such abnormalities as dyslipidaemia in the MetS. Appropriate diagnostic criteria that include a modified definition of adiposity must be in place to facilitate the early detection and thus targeted treatment of increased risk in ethnic minorities. PMID:17466109

Lovegrove, Julie A

2007-05-01

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Short term effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fat metabolism of healthy volunteers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount and quality of dietary fatty acids can modulate the fat metabolism. Objective This dietary intervention is based on the different metabolic pathways of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCFA, which are mostly stored in adipocytic triacylglycerols, medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA which are preferentially available for hepatic mitochondrial ?-oxidation and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA suggested to modulate fat oxidation and storage by stimulating the peroxisomal ?-oxidation. Combined dietary MCFA and n-3 LCPUFA without LCFA may synergistically stimulate fatty acid oxidation resulting in blood lipid clearance and LCFA release from adipocytes. Design In a short term, parallel, randomized, double-blind trial effects on the fatty acid metabolism of 10 healthy volunteers (Body Mass Index 25–30 of a formula containing 72% MCFA and 22% n-3 LCPUFA without LCFA (intake: 1.500 kcal/day; fat: 55.5% of energy were measured in comparison to an isoenergetic formula with equal fat amount and LCFA dominated lipid profile. Results The plasma triacylglycerol (p Conclusion Combined dietary 72% MCFA and 22% n-3 LCPUFA without LCFA stimulate the fatty acid oxidation and release from adipocytes without affecting any safety parameters measured.

Hauenschild A

2003-11-01

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Dietary Fat and Cholesterol  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 10 December 2012. +Related Content Key Facts Unsaturated fats (both ... warm What are the different types of dietary fat? The four main types of fat found in ...

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n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and HER2-positive breast cancer: interest of the fat-1 transgenic mouse model over conventional dietary supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overexpression of the tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB2/HER2/Neu, occurs in 25%-30% of invasive breast cancer (BC) with poor patient prognosis. Even if numerous studies have shown prevention of breast cancer by n-3 fatty acid intake, the experimental conditions under which n-3 fatty acids exert their protective effect have been variable from study to study, preventing unifying conclusions. Due to confounding factors, inconsistencies still remain regarding protective effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on BC. When animals are fed with dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids (the traditional approach to modify tissue content and decrease the n-6/n-3 ratio) complex dietary interactions can occur among dietary lipids (antioxidants, vitamins…) that can modulate the activity of n-3 fatty acids. So, what are the specific roles of these n-3 PUFA in reducing breast cancer risk and particularly preventing HER2-positive breast cancer? In this review, we discuss crucial points that may account for discrepancies of results and provide a highly effective genetic approach that can eliminate confounding factors of diet for evaluating the molecular mechanisms of n-3 PUFA in HER2 signaling pathway regulation. The fat-1 transgenic mouse model is capable of converting n-6 to n-3 fatty acids leading to an increase in n-3 fatty acid content with a balanced n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio in all tissues. The fat-1 mouse model allows well-controlled studies in HER2-positive breast cancer prevention to be performed, without the conflict of potential confounding factors of diet. PMID:24012777

Zou, Zuquan; Bidu, Célia; Bellenger, Sandrine; Narce, Michel; Bellenger, Jérôme

2014-01-01

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Dietary Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... Saturated fats such as butter, solid shortening, and lard. Trans fats. These are found in vegetable shortenings, some margarines, crackers, cookies, snack foods, and other foods made with or fried in partially hydrogenated oils. Try to replace them with oils such as ...

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[Dietary fats and cardiovascular health].  

Science.gov (United States)

Although dietary fat and its role in cardiovascular prevention has been one of the most extensively studied nutritional topics, it continues to be an ever-expanding research area. Particularly thanks to studies on Mediterranean diet, we now know that fat quality is more relevant than the amount of fat we eat in the diet. Thus, saturated and trans fats have been found to increase the risk of atherogenic disease. This is why it is recommended to substitute complex carbohydrates or unsaturated fat for unsaturated and trans fats with the aim of reducing saturated and trans fat intake to diet, stress the important role of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats as key nutrients in preventing cardiovascular disease in modern societies. Furthermore, a special type of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e. those of the omega-3 (n-3) series, is increasingly becoming essential nutrients for a healthy diet, especially in the case of children. Therefore, there is a rationale for four the Scientific Societies that are strongly committed to disseminate the benefits of a healthy diet in preventing cardiovascular disease, and to prepare a joint statement with the purpose of spreading improved knowledge on the importance of changing to a healthy diet with a well-balanced fat intake for industrialized populations. Accordingly, a multidisciplinary panel of experts from the following institutions has developed the present joint statement targeted at both adults and children of different ages: Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis, Spanish Society of Family and Community Medicine, Spanish Association of Paediatrics, Spanish Society of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Paediatric Nutrition and Dietetics, and Spanish Society for Food Sciences. PMID:21345757

Carrillo Fernández, L; Dalmau Serra, J; Martínez Álvarez, J R; Solà Alberich, R; Pérez Jiménez, F

2011-03-01

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N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity-related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only ?-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures. No significant interactions with the dietary macronutrient composition were observed. Pro-inflammatory cytokineswere not associated with absolute PUFA intake, but the macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) was associated with the n-3/n-6 ratio. CONCLUSION: In humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs, in particular ALA, is beneficially associated with body fatness. The favourable association is, however, not reflected in systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nor is it influenced by macronutrients in the diet.

Heitmann, Berit L; Kyvik, Kirsten O

2013-01-01

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Nutritional and Health Effects of Dietary Fats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the 80`s and early 90`s, nutrition recommendations for the prevention of developing coronary heart disease called for a reduction of total fat in the diet through the substitution of carbohydrate for fat. However, the current scientific evidence does not support a position that a reduction in total fat has a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease, or risk factors for coronary heart disease. The cumulative evidence from recent scientific literature suggests that unless there is a concomitant reduction in saturated fat and trans fatty acids, a reduction in total fat will not lower the risk of developing coronary heart disease. It was also established during the last decade that increased intakes of dietary monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, in particular those fats containing moderate amounts of n-3 fatty acids, might play a role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. The fatty acid composition of canola oil is consistent with current nutrition recommendations aimed at reducing the dietary amount of saturated fat and increasing the amounts of monounsaturated and n-3 fats. Canola is characterized by a low level of saturated fatty acids. It is also characterized by high level of monounsaturated fatty acids (viz. oleic acid and moderate level of n-3 fatty acids, in the form of alpha-linolenic acid. Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that canola oil is one of the most desirable source of dietary fat in terms of human health.

W.M. Nimal Ratnayake

2004-01-01

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EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children

2010-01-01

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Increased sterol excretion with polyunsaturated-fat high-cholesterol diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that polyunsaturated ruminant fats in the diets of human subjects cause an increase in cholesterol and bile acid excretion during the first 3 weeks of such diets. The present studies were designed to compare the effects of polyunsaturated (P) and conventional (S) ruminant fats at two levels of dietary cholesterol intake: a higher (HC) and lower (LC). Four study periods, each of about 3 weeks' duration, were conducted in 5 healthy subjects providing these dietary combinations: HCS, HCP, LCS, LCP. Neutral sterols and bile acids were measured in the feces, and sterol balances were calculated. Plasma cholesterol levels were significantly lower with P than with S diets at both HC and LC intakes. Changes attributable to differences in fatty acids and to differences in cholesterol intake appeared to exert independent effects. The major changes occurred in lipoproteins with density 1.019-1.045. Cholesterol absorption expressed as a percentage of the dietary intake was not significantly different with the four diets. Neutral sterol excretion of probable endogenous origin and bile acid excretion were significantly higher during the HCP than during the HCS periods, but the difference between LCP and LCS periods was less marked. Net sterol excretion was therefore significantly greater with HCP and LCP than with HCS and LCS diets, the differences being greater at HC than at LC intakes. Comparisons of diets with similar fatty acid but differing cholesterol intakes showed lower net sterol excretion with HCS than with LCS diets (presumably due to suppression by HC by cholesterol synthesis), but this difference was not seen between HCP and LCP diets. This finding, together with greater sterol excretion with HCP than with HCS diets, showed that enhanced sterol excretion with polyunsaturated fat was potentiated with higher cholesterol intake. This enhanced excretion was generally greater during the first than during the second 3-week period of polyunsaturated fat. PMID:1113682

Nestel, P J; Havenstein, N; Homma, Y; Scott, T W; Cook, L J

1975-02-01

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Dietary fat and children  

Science.gov (United States)

Children and fat free diets; Fat free diet and children ... Some fat in the diet is needed for normal growth and development. However, many conditions such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes are linked to ...

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Dietary fat in relation to body fat and intraabdominal adipose tissue: a cross-sectional analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous studies report positive links between dietary fat and adiposity. However, the relation between fat intake and intraabdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, is not known. We therefore evaluated the association between dietary fat and adipose tissue stores in 135 white men aged 44 +/- 10 y (mean+/- SD: weight, 86 +/- 14 kg; body fat, 23 +/- 8%) and in 214 white women aged 45 +/- 14 y (weight, 64 +/- 12 kg; body fat, 33 +/- 10%). Dietary intake was estimated from 3-d food records, body composition from hydrostatic weighing, IAAT and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) by computed tomography, and physical activity by using the Baecke Questionnaire. After adjustment for fat-free mass, sex, age, physical activity, and nonfat energy intake, fat intake was weakly correlated with fat mass, explaining only 2% of the variance (partial R2 = 0.018, P physical activity, and nonfat energy intake whereas polyunsaturated fat intake was negatively related (partial R2 = 0.007, P = 0.056). On the basis of partial correlation analyses, dietary fat was also associated with SCAAT adjusted for nonfat energy intake and IAAT (partial R2 = 0.014, P physical activity. Thus, results of this cross-sectional analysis suggest that dietary fat independently plays a very minor role in increasing overall adiposity and does not specifically influence fat accretion in the intraabdominal region. PMID:8901785

Larson, D E; Hunter, G R; Williams, M J; Kekes-Szabo, T; Nyikos, I; Goran, M I

1996-11-01

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What Are the Types of Fat?  

Science.gov (United States)

... move.va.gov What Are the Types of Fat? Most foods contain several different kinds of fat. ... harmful dietary fats. The four major types of fats are: • Monounsaturated fatsPolyunsaturated fats • Saturated fats • Trans ...

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The Influence of Dietary Fat on Liver Fat Accumulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a known risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, it has been suggested that dietary fat, both amount and composition, may play a pivotal role in its development, independent of body fatness. Studies that have investigated the role of dietary fat on liver fat accumulation are reasonably sparse. We review here the available work that has investigated the impact of dietary fat: amount, composition and frequency, on liver fat accumulation in human observational and intervention studies. Overall, it would seem that total calorie consumption, rather than dietary fat composition, is an important factor in the development of fatty liver disease in humans. PMID:25389901

Green, Charlotte J.; Hodson, Leanne

2014-01-01

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Saturated fats: what dietary intake?  

Science.gov (United States)

Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal? PMID:15321792

German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

2004-09-01

 
 
 
 
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21 CFR 101.36 - Nutrition labeling of dietary supplements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C...fat and polyunsaturated fat, monounsaturated fat, soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, sugar alcohol, and other...

2010-04-01

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The Influence of Dietary Fat on Liver Fat Accumulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is a known risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; however, it has been suggested that dietary fat, both amount and composition, may play a pivotal role in its development, independent of body fatness. Studies that have investigated the role of dietary fat on liver fat accumulation are reasonably sparse. We review here the available work that has investigated the impact of dietary fat: amount, composition and frequency, on liver fat accumulation in human observational and intervention studies. Overall, it would seem that total calorie consumption, rather than dietary fat composition, is an important factor in the development of fatty liver disease in humans.

Charlotte J. Green

2014-11-01

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DIETARY FAT AND SPORTS NUTRITION: A PRIMER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits. Toward this end, many companies now sell specialty dietary fat supplements and recognized health authorities have begun recommending them to certain populations. This review will cover data regarding the physiology, dietary needs, food sources, and potential benefits and risks most relevant to athletes. Practical suggestions for incorporating healthy fats will be made. Both food-source and supplemental intakes will be addressed with interrelationships to health throughout.

Lonnie M. Lowery

2004-09-01

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Dietary Fats and Health: Dietary Recommendations in the Context of Scientific Evidence1  

Science.gov (United States)

Although early studies showed that saturated fat diets with very low levels of PUFAs increase serum cholesterol, whereas other studies showed high serum cholesterol increased the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), the evidence of dietary saturated fats increasing CAD or causing premature death was weak. Over the years, data revealed that dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are not associated with CAD and other adverse health effects or at worst are weakly associated in some analyses when other contributing factors may be overlooked. Several recent analyses indicate that SFAs, particularly in dairy products and coconut oil, can improve health. The evidence of ?6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) promoting inflammation and augmenting many diseases continues to grow, whereas ?3 PUFAs seem to counter these adverse effects. The replacement of saturated fats in the diet with carbohydrates, especially sugars, has resulted in increased obesity and its associated health complications. Well-established mechanisms have been proposed for the adverse health effects of some alternative or replacement nutrients, such as simple carbohydrates and PUFAs. The focus on dietary manipulation of serum cholesterol may be moot in view of numerous other factors that increase the risk of heart disease. The adverse health effects that have been associated with saturated fats in the past are most likely due to factors other than SFAs, which are discussed here. This review calls for a rational reevaluation of existing dietary recommendations that focus on minimizing dietary SFAs, for which mechanisms for adverse health effects are lacking. PMID:23674795

Lawrence, Glen D.

2013-01-01

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Weighing in on Dietary Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... be solid at room temperature. Solid fats include butter, meat fats, stick margarine, shortening, and coconut and palm oils. ... Look for recipes that use applesauce instead of butter or oil. Instead of making ... for dessert. Use fat-free or low-fat dairy products when possible. ...

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Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... you than saturated fat and for a heart-healthy diet, you want to eat as little trans fat ... list them. Polyunsaturated Fat Polyunsaturated fats are also "healthy" fats. The Association recommends that you include these in your diet as well as monounsaturated fats. Like the other ...

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NF-Y involvement in the polyunsaturated fat inhibition of fatty acid synthase gene transcription.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) reduce the hepatic content of SREBP-1 65-75%, and this is paralleled by a comparable decrease in the expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene. The close association between the nuclear content of SREBP-1 and FAS transcription has led to the conclusion that PUFA inhibit lipogenic gene transcription by suppressing SREBP-1 expression, but this conclusion is based upon correlative data. When in fact the SREBP-1/USF sites of the insulin response element of FAS were mutated, only 25% of the PUFA inhibition of FAS promoter activity was lost. On the other hand, mutating the -99/-93 NF-Y site reduced overall promoter activity 85%, and eliminated 50% of the PUFA suppression of FAS promoter activity. In addition, extended cloning and transfection-reporter assays revealed that the FAS gene contains a second PUFA response region (PUFA-RR) in the distal area of -7382/-6970. Interestingly, the distal PUFA-RR(FAS) has many similarities to the PUFA-RR of l-pyruvate kinase gene while the proximal PUFA-RR(FAS) is comparable to the PUFA-RR of the S14 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase genes. PMID:11812004

Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Rufo, Caterina; Nakamura, Manabu T; Osborne, Timothy F; Clarke, Steven D

2002-02-01

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OXIDATIVE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT DIETARY FATS ON MOUSE DNA DETECTED BY COMET ASSAY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Here we report on the introduction of the Comet assay for the in vivo testing of oxidative effects of different polyunsaturated dietary fats on mouse nuclear DNA. Five groups of mice were fed with the diet of the same composition but with different fat supplementation: 1st group - oleic acid rich sunflower oil, 2nd group - sunflower oil, 3rd gruop - rape oil, 4th group - lard, 5thgroup - control group. Fats with different degrees of unsaturation have caused different degrees of mice DNA damag...

Romana Marinšek Logar; Karl Salobir

2000-01-01

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Proceedings from the 2013 canadian nutrition society conference on advances in dietary fats and nutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The science of lipid research continues to rapidly evolve and change. New knowledge enhances our understanding and perspectives on the role of lipids in health and nutrition. However, new knowledge also challenges currently held opinions. The following are the proceedings of the 2013 Canadian Nutrition Society Conference on the Advances in Dietary Fats and Nutrition. Content experts presented state-of-the-art information regarding our understanding of fish oil and plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, nutrigenomics, pediatrics, regulatory affairs, and trans fats. These important contributions aim to provide clarity on the latest advances and opinions regarding the role of different types of fats in health. PMID:24749841

Holub, Bruce; Mutch, David M; Pierce, Grant N; Rodriguez-Leyva, Delfin; Aliani, Michel; Innis, Sheila; Yan, William; Lamarche, Benoit; Couture, Patrick; Ma, David W L

2014-07-01

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Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

Mathew Aleyamma

2005-07-01

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Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been tested for their effectiveness or safety over prolonged periods of time.

Dyck, D. J.

2000-01-01

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Dietary fat intake and risk for Parkinson's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous epidemiological studies have generated inconsistent results regarding the associations between dietary fat intakes and risk for Parkinson's disease (PD). We therefore prospectively examined these associations in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons (NIH-AARP) Diet and Health Study. A 124-item food frequency questionnaire was administered at baseline in1995 to 1996, and PD diagnosis was self-reported at the follow-up survey in 2004 to 2006. A total of 1,087 cases with a PD diagnosis between 2000 and 2006 and 299,617 controls were included in the analyses. Overall, intakes of fats and other macronutrients were not associated with PD risk. However, we found a weak positive association between n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the risk for PD. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) between extreme quintiles of n-6 PUFA intake was 1.23 (95% CI?=?1.02-1.49, P for trend?=?0.02). A similar association was observed for the intake of linoleic acid. Results were similar among men and among women. Our study suggests that fat intake in general is not related to the risk for PD. The weak positive association between intake of n-6 PUFA and PD risk needs further investigation. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:25186946

Dong, Jing; Beard, John D; Umbach, David M; Park, YikYung; Huang, Xuemei; Blair, Aaron; Kamel, Freya; Chen, Honglei

2014-11-01

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New insights into the health effects of dietary saturated and omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

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Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses supporting this approach. Recent studies introducing the concept of myocardial preconditioning have opened new avenues to understand the complex interplay between the various lipids and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The optimal dietary fat profile includes a low intake of both saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and a moderate intake of omega-3 fatty acids. This profile is quite similar to the Mediterranean diet. On the other hand, recent studies have found a positive association between omega-6 and breast cancer risk. In contrast, omega-3 fatty acids do have anticancer properties. It has been shown that certain (Mediterranean polyphenols significantly increase the endogenous synthesis of omega-3 whereas high intake of omega-6 decreases it. Finally, epidemiological studies suggest that a high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio may be the optimal strategy to decrease breast cancer risk. Thus, the present high intake of omega-6 in many countries is definitely not the optimal strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancers. A moderate intake of plant and marine omega-3 in the context of the traditional Mediterranean diet (low in saturated and omega-6 fatty acids but high in plant monounsaturated fat appears to be the best approach to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in particular breast cancer.

de Lorgeril Michel

2012-05-01

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Metabolic and Histological Effects of Different Polyunsaturated Fat Types in the Diet: Omega-3 and Omega-6  

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The beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fats and omega 3 supplements in human and animal nutrition have been widely discussed and established though clinical and experimental studies. In this study the High-Fat (HF) diet rodent models were used to evaluate the effects high doses of two polyunsaturated fats omega-3 and omega-6 on metabolic parameters and histology of liver and kidney. Male and female Wistar rats were fed High-Fat (HF) diets containing Omega-3 fish oil supplements (HF-F...

Ayman EL-Meghawry EL-Kenawy; Promy Virk; Maha Hasan Daghestani

2012-01-01

35

Dietary Soybean Oil, but Not Krabok Oil, Diminishes Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Chickens  

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Full Text Available In broiler chickens we tested the hypothesis that dietary fats rich in medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT would diminish abdominal fat deposition as do fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Broiler chickens were fed on diets containing either tallow, which is rich in Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA, soybean oil, which is rich in PUFA, or krabok oil, which is rich in MCT. Krabok oil was isolated from the seeds of a tree (Irvingia malayana grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas. Growth performance was not significantly affected by the type of dietary fat. Possibly, the production of krabok oil for use in broiler rations may become economically relevant. The diets containing either soybean oil or krabok oil showed a significantly higher apparent fat digestibility than did the diet containing tallow. In keeping with earlier investigations, dietary soybean oil versus tallow significantly lowered abdominal fat deposition, the lowering being 21%. The feeding of krabok oil instead of tallow did not affect the weight of abdominal fat, which would lead to rejection of our hypothesis.

Sasiphan Wongsuthavas

2007-01-01

36

Dietary fat, genes, and human health.  

Science.gov (United States)

These studies show that a macronutrient like dietary fat plays an important role in gene expression. In the cases presented here, dietary fat regulates gene expression leading to changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The interesting outcome of these studies is the finding that the molecular targets for dietary fat action did not converge with the principal targets for hormonal regulation of gene transcription, like hormone receptors. Instead, PUFA-RF targets elements that play key ancillary roles in gene transcription. This is important because it shows how PUFA can interfere with hormone regulation of a specific gene without having generalized effect on overall hormonal control, i.e. PUFA effects are promoter-specific. How PUFA-RF interferes with gene transcription will require the isolation and characterization of PUFA-RF along with the tissue-specific factors targeted by PUFA-RF. A different story emerges when fatty acids activate PPAR. Based on the studies presented here and elsewhere, long chain-highly unsaturated fatty acids (like 20:5,n-3 and 22:6, n-3) or high levels of fat activate PPAR. PPAR directly activates genes like AOX, but also inhibits transcription of genes like S14, FAS, apolipoprotein CIII, transferrin. For S14, the mechanism of inhibition involves sequestration of RXR, a critical factor for T3 receptor binding to DNA. Thus, PPAR can have generalized effects on T3 action or on other nuclear receptors, like vit. D (VDR) and retinoic acid (RAR) receptors, that require RXR for action. For apolipoprotein CIII and transferrin, PPAR/RXR heterodimers compete for HNF-4 binding sites (DR + 1). In addition to HNF-4, COUP-TF, ARP-1 and RXR all bind the DR + 1 type motif. These factors are important for tissue-specific regulation of gene transcription. PPAR can potentially interfere with the transcription of multiple genes through disruption of nuclear receptor signaling leading to changes in phenotype. Clearly, more studies are required to assess the role PPAR plays in the fatty acid regulation of gene transcription and its contribution to chronic disease. Finally, it is clear that dietary fat has the potential to affect gene expression through multiple pathways. Depending on the gene examined, PUFA might augment or abrogate gene transcription which leads to specific phenotypic changes altering metabolism, differentiation or cell growth. These effects can be beneficial to the organism, such as the n-3 PUFA-mediated suppression of serum triglycerides or detrimental, like the saturated and n-6 PUFA-mediated promotion of insulin resistance. How such effects contribute to the onset or progression of specific neoplasia is unclear. However, studies in metabolism might provide important clues for this connection. PMID:9361824

Jump, D B; Clarke, S D; Thelen, A; Liimatta, M; Ren, B; Badin, M V

1997-01-01

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OXIDATIVE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT DIETARY FATS ON MOUSE DNA DETECTED BY COMET ASSAY  

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Full Text Available Here we report on the introduction of the Comet assay for the in vivo testing of oxidative effects of different polyunsaturated dietary fats on mouse nuclear DNA. Five groups of mice were fed with the diet of the same composition but with different fat supplementation: 1st group - oleic acid rich sunflower oil, 2nd group - sunflower oil, 3rd gruop - rape oil, 4th group - lard, 5thgroup - control group. Fats with different degrees of unsaturation have caused different degrees of mice DNA damage. The highest degree of DNA damage (2.72 was found in the group fed with oleic acid rich sunflower oil. The lowest degree of DNA damage was found in the control group. The results obtained indicate that Comet assay is sensitive enough to differentiate the quality of nutritional fats from the view of free radicals formation.

Romana Marinšek Logar

2000-06-01

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Effects of different dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat  

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Full Text Available The effect of three different lipid sources (soybean oil, chicken oil or bovine fat on the abdominal fat fatty acid composition in 50 day-old broiler chickens was evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments, 8 repetitions and 40 Arbor Acres broiler chicks of each sex. The four treatments were isocaloric and isoproteic with the following characteristics: T1 Control (Soybean-corn; T2 Control + 3% soybean oil; T3 Control + 3% chicken oil; and T4 Control + 3% bovine fat. The lipids from the diets had significantly statistical effects (p<0,05 on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat. Multivariate techniques also showed differences in fatty acid composition within treatments due to sex. The studied dietary lipids affected the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S but had only small effects on the n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio.

SG Rondelli

2004-09-01

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The antiproliferative effect of dietary calcium on colonic epithelium is mediated by luminal surfactants and dependent on the type of dietary fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bile acids and fatty acids may promote colon cancer by inducing colonic hyperproliferation. Dietary calcium inhibits the promoting effects of bile acids and fatty acids, possibly by precipitating these surfactants and lowering their cytolytic activity. Because bile acids and fatty acids are products of fat digestion, their effects may be dependent on the type of dietary fat. The effects of the type of dietary fat (energy percentage, 40) and of CaHPO4 supplementation (25 versus 225 mumol/g diet) on the luminal solubility of surfactants, cytolytic activity, epitheliolysis, and in vivo colonic proliferation were studied in rats using Western high-risk diets. The different types of commercially available fats were butter, saturated margarine, and polyunsaturated margarine. Supplemental calcium drastically increased fecal fatty acid excretion, the effect being dependent on the type of fat, and slightly stimulated fecal bile acid excretion. Soluble surfactant concentrations were drastically decreased by calcium supplementation with all three types of dietary fat. Consequently, cytolytic activity of fecal water was decreased by supplemental calcium. These luminal effects of calcium resulted in a lower intestinal epitheliolysis. The compensatory proliferation of the colonic epithelium was decreased by supplemental CaHPO4 for the butter and saturated margarine diets. Despite CaHPO4-dependent decreases in luminal effects and epitheliolysis, no significant decrease in proliferation on the polyunsaturated margarine diet was observed. Multiple regression analysis of soluble surfactants with cytolytic activity (R = 0.76), epitheliolysis (R = 0.74), and colonic proliferation (R = 0.84) showed highly significant associations. Cytolytic activity and epitheliolysis as well as epitheliolysis and proliferation were highly correlated (r = 0.97 and r = 0.88, respectively; n = 36) for control and CaHPO4-supplemented diets, suggesting cause-and-effect relationships. It is concluded that the antiproliferative effect of dietary calcium is mediated by the precipitation of luminal surfactants and is dependent on the type of dietary fat. PMID:8428359

Lapré, J A; De Vries, H T; Koeman, J H; Van der Meer, R

1993-02-15

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European Food Safety Authority; Outcome of the Public consultation on the Draft Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

On 2 July 2009, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) endorsed a draft Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats to be released for public consultation. This Scientific Report summarises the comments received through the public consultation and outlines how these were taken into account in the final opinion. EFSA had received contributions from 40 interested parties (individuals, non-governmental organisations, industry organisations, academia and national assessment bodies). The main comments which were received during the public consultation related to: the availability of more recent data, the nomenclature used, the use of a non-European food composition data base, the impact of genetic factors in modulating the absorption, metabolism and health effects of different fatty acids, the definition of “nutritionally adequate diet”, the use of Dietary Reference Values in the labelling of foods, the translation of advice into food-based dietary guidelines, nutrient goals and recommendations, certain risk management issues, and to Dietary Reference Values of fats, individual fatty acids, and cholesterol. All the public comments received that related to the remit of EFSA were assessed and the Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats has been revised taking relevant comments into consideration.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Dietary fat intake and quality of life: the SUN project  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have related nutritional factors with quality of life in healthy populations. The purpose of the study was to assess whether dietary fat intake is associated to mental and physical quality of life. Methods This analysis included 8,430 participants from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Project. The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA was assessed through a 136-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Quality of life was measured with the SF-36 Health Survey after 4 years of follow-up. Generalized Linear Models were fitted to assess the regression coefficients (b and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the 8 domains of the SF-36 according to successive quintiles of each kind of fatty acids intake. Results The multivariate-adjusted models revealed a significant inverse association for SFA intake (in quintiles and two of the physical domains (physical functioning and general health. E.g. for general health domain: (highest quintile of intake (Q5 vs. lowest quintile (Q1, b = -1.6; 95% CI = -3.1, -0.1. General health also showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend Conclusions A detrimental relationship between TFA intake at baseline and most of the SF-36 mental domains measured 4 years later were found, whereas weak inverse associations were found for SFA intake and some physical domains.

del Burgo Cristina

2011-11-01

42

Study of the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids: Molecular mechanisms involved in intestinal inflammation  

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Full Text Available The use of «omic» techniques in combination with model systems and molecular tools allows to understand how foods and food components act on metabolic pathways to regulate transcriptional processes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have distinctive nutritional and metabolic effects because they give rise to lipid mediated products and affect the expression of various genes involved in intestinal inflammation. The present review focuses on the molecular effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on intestinal inflammation.El uso de técnicas «omic» en combinación con sistemas modelo y herramientas moleculares nos permiten entender como los alimentos y sus componentes actúan en las rutas metabólicas que regulan los procesos transcripcionales. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados tienen efectos nutricionales y metabólicos diferenciadores porque producen una elevación de los productos regulados por lípidos y afectan a la expresión de varios genes involucrados en la inflamación intestinal. La presente revisión se enfoca en los efectos moleculares de los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de la dieta en la inflamación intestinal.

Knoch, Bianca

2009-03-01

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Metabolic and Histological Effects of Different Polyunsaturated Fat Types in the Diet: Omega-3 and Omega-6  

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Full Text Available The beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fats and omega 3 supplements in human and animal nutrition have been widely discussed and established though clinical and experimental studies. In this study the High-Fat (HF diet rodent models were used to evaluate the effects high doses of two polyunsaturated fats omega-3 and omega-6 on metabolic parameters and histology of liver and kidney. Male and female Wistar rats were fed High-Fat (HF diets containing Omega-3 fish oil supplements (HF-F and Omega-6 corn oil (HF-C at a level that was equivalent to three times the maximum safe daily dosage and the control group was fed with regular laboratory chow. Body weight and plasma parameters of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured after a 8 week diet course. Rats fed both the high fat oil based diets (HF-F, HF-C reported a significantly higher body weight gain than the control group. Plasma triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the high fat diets being highest in the fish oil based diet. Both the high fat diets fed animals (HF-F, HF-C showed pronounced hepatic micro vesicular steaosis and renal interstitial inflammation in comparison with the control in the histological studies. Thus this study demonstrated that high fat diets with polyunsaturated fats including omega-3 rich fish oil could induce dyslipidemia and obesity in rodent models reflecting signs of metabolic syndrome in the humans.

Ayman EL-Meghawry EL-Kenawy

2012-01-01

44

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and "unhealthy fats." To lower you risk of heart disease, try to eat less saturated and trans ... At the same time, you can protect your heart by eating more mono and polyunsaturated fats including ...

45

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... replace the sources of saturated fat in your diet with polyunsaturated fats. Sources of ... arteries. Some types of fish are high in omega-3 fatty acids. The Association recommends ...

46

European Food Safety Authority; Outcome of the Public consultation on the Draft Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On 2 July 2009, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) endorsed a draft Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats to be released for public consultation. This Scientific Report summarises the comments received through the public consultation and outlines how these were taken into account in the final opinion. EFSA had received contributions from 40 interested parties (individuals, non-governmental organisations, industry organisations, academia and national asse...

Tetens, Inge

2011-01-01

47

Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammation: The Role of Phospholipid Biosynthesis  

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Full Text Available The composition of fatty acids in the diets of both human and domestic animal species can regulate inflammation through the biosynthesis of potent lipid mediators. The substrates for lipid mediator biosynthesis are derived primarily from membrane phospholipids and reflect dietary fatty acid intake. Inflammation can be exacerbated with intake of certain dietary fatty acids, such as some ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and subsequent incorporation into membrane phospholipids. Inflammation, however, can be resolved with ingestion of other fatty acids, such as ?-3 PUFA. The influence of dietary PUFA on phospholipid composition is influenced by factors that control phospholipid biosynthesis within cellular membranes, such as preferential incorporation of some fatty acids, competition between newly ingested PUFA and fatty acids released from stores such as adipose, and the impacts of carbohydrate metabolism and physiological state. The objective of this review is to explain these factors as potential obstacles to manipulating PUFA composition of tissue phospholipids by specific dietary fatty acids. A better understanding of the factors that influence how dietary fatty acids can be incorporated into phospholipids may lead to nutritional intervention strategies that optimize health.

Lorraine M. Sordillo

2013-10-01

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Dietary Fat Intake among Urban, African American Adolescents  

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This study examined commonly consumed high-fat food sources to estimate dietary fat intake among 314 urban, African American adolescents (mean age (SD) = 12.57 (.98) years; 66% female; 91% African American non-Hispanic; and 9% African American Hispanic). Youths’ fat intake was measured using the Block Fat Screener. Most (77%) participants had diets very high in fat (i.e., 40% to 50% of energy). Mean frequencies of consumption revealed youths’ preferences for the following high-fat food it...

Di Noia, Jennifer; Schinke, Steven P.; Contento, Isobel R.

2008-01-01

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A dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid improves consumer performance during challenge with an opportunistic bacterial pathogen.  

Science.gov (United States)

A dietary deficiency in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and/or sterols can severely constrain growth and reproduction of invertebrate consumers. Single nutrients are potentially assigned to different physiological processes, for example to support defence mechanisms; therefore, lipid requirements of healthy and pathogen-challenged consumers might differ. In an oral exposure experiment, we explored the effects of dietary PUFAs and cholesterol on growth, reproduction and survival of an aquatic key herbivore (Daphnia magna) exposed to an opportunistic pathogen (Pseudomonas sp.). We show that healthy and pathogen-challenged D. magna are strongly albeit differentially affected by the biochemical composition of their food sources. Supplementation of a C20 PUFA-deficient diet with arachidonic acid (ARA) resulted in increased survival and reproduction of pathogen-challenged D. magna. We propose that the observed benefit of consuming an ARA-rich diet during pathogen challenge is conveyed partially via ARA-derived eicosanoids. This study is one of the first to consider the importance of dietary PUFAs in modifying fitness parameters of pathogen-challenged invertebrate hosts. Our results suggest that dietary PUFA supply should receive increased attention in host-microorganisms interactions and invertebrate disease models to better understand and predict disease dynamics in natural populations. PMID:25098920

Schlotz, Nina; Pester, Michael; Freese, Heike M; Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik

2014-11-01

50

Dietary fat supplementation and the consequences for oocyte and embryo quality: hype or significant benefit for dairy cow reproduction?  

Science.gov (United States)

In many countries, fat supplementation in the diet has become common in the dairy industry. There are several ideas as to how dietary fat could influence reproductive performance. Saturated fatty acids, such as palm oil, can increase milk yield but may aggravate negative energy balance and thus may impair fertility when fed during the first week post-partum. However, priming the lipid oxidation in the liver by feeding saturated fats during the dry period has recently been shown to be a potentially promising strategy to mitigate fat mobilization and liver accumulation post-partum. Furthermore, polyunsaturated fats (omega-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids) are fed to reduce the 'de novo' fat synthesis in the udder and thus the milk fat content, which may be of modest benefit for overall energy balance. Furthermore, omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are reported to alter follicular growth, steroid synthesis and prostaglandin metabolism in the ovary and endometrium, respectively. Omega-6 fatty acids are believed to have pro-inflammatory and thus PGF2?-stimulating properties rendering them extra value as 'nutraceutical' early post-partum, while omega-3 fatty acids can weaken this inflammatory potency, leading to a higher chance of survival of the embryo when supplemented during the periconceptual period. Unfortunately, research results rarely provide a consensus in this perspective. The consequences of these fat-feeding strategies on oocyte and embryo quality remain an intriguing issue for debate. Fat feeding may alter the microenvironment of the growing and maturing oocyte of the early and older embryo and thus may affect reproductive outcome. We recently reported that dietary-induced hyperlipidaemic conditions can be harmful for embryo development and metabolism. However, to date, research results remain somewhat conflicting most probably due to differences in fat sources used, in diet and duration of supplementation and in experimental set-up in general. PMID:24697981

Leroy, J L M R; Sturmey, R G; Van Hoeck, V; De Bie, J; McKeegan, P J; Bols, P E J

2014-06-01

51

Dietary fats and body lipid composition in relation to hibernation in free-ranging echidnas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory studies have shown that high levels of dietary unsaturated fatty acids prolong torpor and lower body temperatures in hibernating herbivorous rodents, which may in turn improve winter survival. The importance of nutritional ecology in relation to hibernation in insectivorous hibernators is unknown. We therefore studied fatty acid composition of dietary insects and the depot fat of echidnas Tachyglossus aculeatus (Monotremata) during the pre-hibernation season and compared depot fat fatty acid composition before and after hibernation. Echidna depot fat fatty acid composition during the pre-hibernation season was almost identical to that of the most abundant prey species, the ant Iridomyrmex sp. Oleic acid (C18:1) was by far the most common fatty acid in both Iridomyrmex sp. (60%) and echidna depot fat (62%). After about 5 months of hibernation and an 18% loss of body mass, echidna fatty acid composition had changed significantly. The percentage of the monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) had declined, whereas that of the saturated fatty acids (C12:0, C16:0, C18:0) and the polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2) had increased. Our study suggests that, unlike herbivorous rodent hibernators, echidnas rely to a large extent on monounsaturated fatty acids as fuel for hibernation, reflecting the most common fatty acid in their food. Moreover, it appears that the high concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids compensates for the moderate availability of polyunsaturates and enables them to hibernate at low body temperatures. PMID:11352101

Falkenstein, F; Körtner, G; Watson, K; Geiser, F

2001-04-01

52

Interaction of dietary high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls and different fat sources in broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of dietary fat sources (high-oleic-acid sunflower seeds, HOASS; palm oil, PO; and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil, HOASO) and high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls (HOAS hulls; 40 g/kg of diet) on performance, digestive organ size, fat digestibility, and fatty acid profile in abdominal fat and blood serum parameters was evaluated in chickens (from 1 to 21 d of age). Bird performance and digestive organ size were not affected by either dietary fat source or sunflower hull supplementation. Fat digestibility in birds fed diets enriched (HOASS and HOASO) in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was increased compared with those fed the PO diet. The addition of sunflower hulls did not modify fat digestibility. The fatty acids pattern of abdominal fat reflected the dietary fat profile. The greatest concentrations of C16:0 and C18:0 were found in birds fed PO diets. The C18:1n-9 content was increased in birds that received HOASS and HOASO diets compared with those fed PO diets. The greatest content of C18:2n-6 was observed in birds fed HOASS diets. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to MUFA was significantly increased in birds fed PO diets compared with those fed HOASS or HOASO diets. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets resulted in a decrease of C18:2n-6 and PUFA concentrations and PUFA:MUFA ratio in abdominal fat. Dietary fat sources and sunflower hulls modify blood triglycerides and serum lipoproteins. A decrease in triglyceride concentrations was observed in birds fed HOASS diets compared with those fed PO and HOASO diets. The greatest concentrations of serum high density, very low density (VLDL), and low density lipoproteins were found in birds receiving HOASO, PO, and HOASS diets, respectively. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets caused an increase of serum triglycerides and VLDL concentrations. The MUFA-enriched diets had lower triglyceride and VLDL concentrations than did diets rich in saturated fatty acids. However, the sunflower hull addition had the opposite effect. PMID:19096068

Viveros, A; Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Rebolé, A; Alzueta, C; Arija, I; Centeno, C; Brenes, A

2009-01-01

53

Dietary fat in relation to erythrocyte fatty acid composition in men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) composition is used in the validation of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and the evaluation of dietary fat quality. In this cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate associations of diet with EMFA. Altogether, 1,033 randomly selected Finnish men, aged from 47 to 75 years filled in a FFQ and their EMFA composition was analyzed. Marine polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake correlated positively with erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (r(s) = 0.415 and r(s) = 0.340, respectively, P fats correlated positively with alpha-linolenic (ALA), linoleic (LNA) and nervonic acids (r(s) = 0.229, r(s) = 0.160 and r(s) = 0.143, respectively, P fat intake was associated with myristic and behenic acids (r(s) = 0.186 and r(s) = 0.132, respectively P Butter users had lower ALA and LNA proportions (mol%) than non-users (0.16 ± 0.04 vs. 0.19 ± 0.05, P fat were related with EMFA. The dietary effect on the nervonic acid proportion was confirmed. PMID:23975575

Takkunen, Markus; Agren, Jyrki; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Uusitupa, Matti; Schwab, Ursula

2013-11-01

54

Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA, and slaughtered at an average BW of 117 ± 4.9 kg. Transcription of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), delta-6-desaturase (D6D), and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) were determined by real-time PCR in longissimus thoracis (LT) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles, LT subcutaneous and SM intermuscular fat, and in the liver. Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed using gas chromatography in these tissues, except for SM intermuscular fat. Dietary CLA increased PPAR? in LT muscle (P < 0.05), whereas CLA reduced PPAR? transcription in all tissues studied (P < 0.05) with the exception of intermuscular fat. Transcription of genes related to FA synthesis was reduced by CLA in SM muscle and liver (SREBP1, both P < 0.1; ACC, P < 0.01 in SM; and FAS, P < 0.01 in liver), whereas CLA reduced (P < 0.05) LPL and D6D transcriptions in SM muscle and reduced (P < 0.05) SCD in liver but increased (P < 0.05) SCD in LT muscle and intermuscular fat. Saturated FA were increased in all studied tissues (P < 0.01), while monosaturated and polyunsaturated FA were reduced in a tissue-specific way by CLA. It was concluded that dietary CLA affected transcription of genes and fat metabolism in a tissue-specific manner.

Tous, Nuria; Theil, Peter Kappel

2012-01-01

55

Interactions between the dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio and genetic factors determine susceptibility to pediatric Crohn's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased dietary ratios of ?6/?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), but epidemiologic data are limited. We investigated whether variants of genes that control polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism (CYP4F3, FADS1, and FADS2), along with the dietary ratio of ?6/?3, confers susceptibility to CD. Based on data from 182 children newly diagnosed with CD and 250 controls, we found that children who consumed a higher dietary ratio of ?6/?3 were susceptible for CD if they were also carriers of specific variants of CYP4F3 and FADS2 genes. Our findings implicate diet-gene interactions in the pathogenesis of CD. PMID:24406470

Costea, Irina; Mack, David R; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Israel, David; Marcil, Valerie; Ahmad, Ali; Amre, Devendra K

2014-04-01

56

Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol), but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. Objectives To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. Search methods For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised with appropriate control group, 2) intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions), 3) not multi factorial, 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5) intervention at least six months, 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. Main results This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%). Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women). There were no clear effects of dietary fat changes on total mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.04, 71,790 participants) or cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.04, 65,978 participants). This did not alter with sub-grouping or sensitivity analysis. Few studies compared reduced with modified fat diets, so direct comparison was not possible. Authors’ conclusions The findings are suggestive of a small but potentially important reduction in cardiovascular risk on modification of dietary fat, but not reduction of total fat, in longer trials. Lifestyle advice to all those at risk of cardiovascular disease and to lower risk population groups, should continue to include permanent reduction of dietary saturated fat and partial replacement by unsaturates. The ideal type of unsaturated fat is unclear. PMID:21735388

Hooper, Lee; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Thompson, Rachel; Sills, Deirdre; Roberts, Felicia G; Moore, Helen; Smith, George Davey

2014-01-01

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Diet-gene interactions between dietary fat intake and common polymorphisms in determining lipid metabolism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current dietary guidelines for fat intake have not taken into consideration the possible genetic differences underlying the individual variability in responsiveness to dietary components. Genetic variability has been identified in humans for all the known lipid metabolism-related genes resulting in a plethora of candidate genes and genetic variants to examine in diet-gene interaction studies focused on fat consumption. Some examples of fat-gene interaction are reviewed. These include: the interaction between total intake and the 14C/T in the hepatic lipase gene promoter in determining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism; the interaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the 5G/A polymorphism in the APOA1 gene plasma HDL-C concentrations; the interaction between PUFA and the L162V polymorphism in the PPARA gene in determining triglycerides and APOC3 concentrations; and the interaction between PUFA intake and the -1131T>C in the APOA5 gene in determining triglyceride metabolism. Although hundreds of diet-gene interaction studies in lipid metabolism have been published, the level of evidence to make specific nutritional recommendations to the population is still low and more research in nutrigenetics has to be undertaken. (Author) 31 refs.

Corella, D.

2009-07-01

58

Experimental reduction in dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids depresses sperm competitiveness.  

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The health benefits of diets containing rich sources of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) are well documented and include reductions in the risk of several diseases typical of Western societies. The dietary intake of n-3 LC-PUFA has also been linked to fertility, and there is abundant evidence that a range of ejaculate traits linked to fertility in humans, livestock and other animals depend on an adequate intake of n-3 LC-PUFA from dietary sources. However, relatively few studies have explored how n-3 LC-PUFA influence reproductive fitness, particularly in the context of sexual selection. Here, we show that experimental reduction in the level of n-3 LC-PUFA in the diet of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) depresses a male's share of paternity when sperm compete for fertilization, confirming that the currently observed trend for reduced n-3 LC-PUFA in western diets has important implications for individual reproductive fitness. PMID:25252837

Rahman, Md Moshiur; Gasparini, Clelia; Turchini, Giovanni M; Evans, Jonathan P

2014-09-01

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Influence of dietary fats on serum phospholipid fatty acid composition and its relation to obesity in animals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dietary fat and its relation to obesity has been a controversial issue for many years. Experimental data shows that most, though not all animals, which consume a high fat diet, will become obese. However, the effect of fatty acids on animal obesity has not been studied in detail. In order to evaluate the effects of low versus high fat diet on serum phospholipids fatty acids composition a 4-wk study was conducted on male Wister rats. The rats were fed low-fat (10% energy and high-fat (46% energy foods containing constant proportions of fatty acids. Control group C was fed a standard laboratory diet (polyunsaturated/ saturated (P/S fatty ratio 1.3, group M was fed a standard laboratory diet supplemented with margarine (P/S ratio 0.95, and the diet of the SL group was additionally supplemented with a sunflower oil-lard (1:1 mixture (P/S ratio 1.3. All lipid supplemented hyperenergetic diets caused an increase in the average daily energy intake. Both the final and the daily body weight gain were significantly higher in M and SL groups than in group C. Additionally, serum triglyceride levels, LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol were also significantly higher in M and SL groups when compared to the control group. Serum phospholipids fatty acids varied in response to total dietary fat. A significant decrease in saturated fatty acids (SFA content (16:0 and 18:0 and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA content (18:1, n-9 was found in the M group when compared to both C and SL groups. In the SL group, SFA content (18:0 was higher and MUFA content (18:1, n-9 was lower than in group C. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content showed an increase in both experimental groups. The PUFA/SFA ratio was higher in the M group than in the C and SL groups. Our study suggests that the amount of dietary fat has a greater influence on obesity than the effects of the type of fat consumed. However, depending on the type of fat present in the diet the differences were observed in the composition of serum PL fatty acid suggesting that both total fat and individual fatty acids have to be considered when reaching conclusions about the effect of dietary fat and obesity in animals.

Tepši? Vesna

2008-01-01

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Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on transcription factor regulation in the bovine endometrium.  

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Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation is postulated to have positive effects on fertility. The impact of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on physiological and biochemical processes involved in reproduction is likely to be associated with significant alterations in gene expression in key reproductive tissues which is in turn regulated by transcription factors. Beef heifers were supplemented with a rumen protected source of either a saturated fatty acid or high n-3 PUFA diet per animal per day for 45 days and uterine endometrial tissue was harvested post slaughter. A microarray analysis was conducted and bioinformatic tools were employed to evaluate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on gene expression in the bovine endometrium. Clustering of microarray gene expression data was performed to identify co-expressed genes. Functional annotation of each cluster of genes was carried out using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Furthermore, oPOSSUM was employed to identify transcription factors involved in gene expression changes due to supplementary PUFA. Gene functions which showed a significant response to n-3 PUFA supplementation included tissue development, immune function and reproductive function. Numerous transcription factors such as FOXD1, FOXD3, NFKB1, ESR1, PGR, FOXA2, NKX3-1 and PPAR? were identified as potential regulators of gene expression in the endometrium of cattle supplemented with n-3 PUFA. This study demonstrates the complex nature of the alterations in the transcriptional regulation process in the uterine endometrium of cattle following dietary supplementation which may positively influence the uterine environment. PMID:24449365

Waters, Sinéad M; Coyne, Gerard S; Kenny, David A; Morris, Dermot G

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
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Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of hip fracture in men and women  

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Introduction Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are important in the prevention of chronic diseases, but studies of bone health report inconsistent results. Our aim was to investigate the association between dietary PUFA intake and risk of hip fracture in two large prospective cohorts of men and women with long follow-up times and frequently updated dietary data. Methods The study population included 75878 women and 46476 men free of osteoporosis at baseline. Dietary intakes were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and several times during the follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RR). Results During 24 years of follow-up, we identified 1051 hip fracture cases due to low or moderate trauma among the women and 529 cases among the men. In the pooled analyses, no statistically significant associations were found between intakes of total PUFA [RR in the highest vs. lowest quintile: 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69, 1.43; p for trend=0.83], total n-3 PUFA (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75, 1.06; p for trend=0.26), total n-6 PUFA (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.71, 1.38; p for trend=0.82), n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio or individual PUFAs and hip fracture risk. However, in women low intakes of total PUFA, total n-6 PUFA and linoleic acid intakes were associated with higher risk. Conclusions This study does not support a significant role for PUFA intake in the prevention of hip fractures, although low total PUFA, n-6 PUFA or linoleic acid intakes may increase the risk in women. PMID:22270860

Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Willett, Walter C.; Feskanich, Diane

2014-01-01

62

21 CFR 101.75 - Health claims: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease.  

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...false Health claims: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart...75 Health claims: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart...Relationship between dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary...

2010-04-01

63

Dietary fat modifies lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue of metabolic syndrome patients.  

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Adipose tissue (AT) is a key organ in the regulation of total body lipid homeostasis, which is responsible for the storage and release of fatty acids according to metabolic needs. We aimed to investigate the effect of the quantity and quality of dietary fat on the lipogenesis and lipolysis processes in the AT of metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, controlled trial conducted within the LIPGENE study assigned MetS patients to one of four diets: (a) high-saturated fatty acid (HSFA) (b) high-monounsaturated fatty acid, and (c, d) two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets supplemented with long chain (LC) n-3 (LFHCC n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or placebo (LFHCC), for 12 weeks each. A fat challenge reflecting the same fatty acid composition as the original diets was conducted post-intervention. Long-term consumption of the LFHCC diet induced an increase in the fasting expression levels of the sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase D9-desaturase genes, whereas the supplementation of this diet with n-3 PUFA reversed this effect (p = 0.007). In contrast, long-term consumption of the HSFA diet increased the expression of the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) gene, at both fasting and postprandial states (both, p diet. Conversely, a diet high in saturated fat increased the expression of the lipolytic gene ATGL relative to the other diets. PMID:24895107

Camargo, Antonio; Meneses, María E; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A; Marín, Carmen; Almadén, Yolanda; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; González-Guardia, Lorena; Fuentes, Francisco; Tinahones, Francisco J; Roche, Helen M; Malagón, María M; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, José

2014-07-01

64

Permeabilization of enterocytes induced by absorption of dietary fat  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Absorption of dietary fat in the small intestine involves epithelial exposure to potentially harmful molecules such as bile salts and free fatty acids. We used organ culture of porcine jejunal explants incubated with a pre-digested mixture of fat (plant oil), bile and pancreatin to mimick the physiological process of dietary fat absorption, and short exposures to the fat mixture caused fat droplet accumulation within villus enterocytes. Lucifer yellow (LY), a fluorescent membrane-impermeable polar tracer was included to monitor epithelial integrity. Both in controls and during fat absorption LY penetrated the epithelium and accumulated in the basal lamina and the lamina propria. LY was also seen in the paracellular space, whereas villus enterocytes were generally only weakly labeled except for small amounts taken up by apical endocytosis. In the crypts, however, fat absorption induced cell permeabilization with LY accumulating in the cytosol and nucleus. Morphologically, both apical and basolateral membranes appeared intact, indicating that the leakiness was caused by minor lesions in the membrane. Albeit to a lesser extent, bile alone was capable of permeabilizing crypt cells, implying that the surfactant properties of bile salts are involved in the process. In addition to LY, crypt enterocytes also became permeable for albumin, ovalbumin and insulin. In conclusion, during fat absorption the permeability of the gut epithelium is increased mainly in the crypts. A possible explanation is that cell membranes of immature crypt cells, lacking detergent-resistant lipid raft microdomains, are less resistant to the deleterious effects of bile salts and free fatty acids.

Danielsen, Erik Michael; Hansen, Gert H

2013-01-01

65

Antioxidant system response is modified by dietary fat in adipose tissue of metabolic syndrome patients.  

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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with high oxidative stress, which is caused by an increased expression of NADPH-oxidase and a decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes in the adipose tissue. Our aim was to evaluate whether the quality and quantity of dietary fat can modify that process. A randomized, controlled trial conducted within the LIPGENE study assigned MetS patients to one of four diets for 12 wk each: (i) high-saturated fatty acid (HSFA), (ii) high-monounsaturated fatty acid (HMUFA), (iii) and (iv) two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LFHCC n3), or placebo (LFHCC). A fat challenge reflecting the same fatty acid composition as the original diets was conducted post-intervention. The intake of an HSFA meal induced a higher postprandial increase in gp91phox and p67phox mRNA levels than after the intake of HMUFA, LFHCC and LFHCC n-3 meals (all p-values<0.05). The postprandial decrease in CAT, GPXs and TXNRD1 mRNA levels after the HSFA meal intake was higher than after the intake of HMUFA, LFHCC and LFHCC n-3 meals (all p-values<0.05). The intake of an HSFA meal induced a higher postprandial increase in KEAP1 mRNA levels than after the consumption of the HMUFA (P=.007) and LFHCC n-3 (P=.001) meals. Our study demonstrated that monounsaturated fat consumption reduces oxidative stress as compared to saturated fat by inducing higher postprandial antioxidant response in adipose tissue, and thus, replacing SFA for MUFA may be an effective dietary strategy to reduce the oxidative stress in MetS patients and its pathophysiological consequences. PMID:23647888

Peña-Orihuela, Patricia; Camargo, Antonio; Rangel-Zuñiga, Oriol Alberto; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Cruz-Teno, Cristina; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Paniagua, Juan A; Tinahones, Francisco J; Malagon, Maria M; Roche, Helen M; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

2013-10-01

66

Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity. Design Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results The mean weight loss was 5.1 kg (range -15.3 to +1.3 kg). BMI decreased from 36.5 to 34.9 kg/m(2) (P = 0.003). Saturated FA (SFA) decreased 11% (P = 0.0001). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)n-6 increased 4% (P = 0.003). Long-chain PUFAn-3 increased 51% (P = 0.0001), mainly due to a 75% increase (P <0.0001) in docosahexaenoic acid. Changes in HOMA-IR correlated significantly with changes in long-chain PUFAn-3 (R = -0.57, P <0.01), SFA (R = 0.58, P <0.01) and waist circumference (R = 0.46, P <0.05). A multivariate linear regression analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R-2 = 0.33, P <0.01). Conclusions A hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention programme increased incorporation of long-chain PUFAn-3 and reduced SFA in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects, a setting that may impact on insulin action.

HØy, Carl-Erik

2006-01-01

67

Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity. DESIGN Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). RESULTS The mean weight loss was 5.1 kg (range -15.3 to +1.3 kg). BMI decreased from 36.5 to 34.9 kg/m(2) (P=0.003). Saturated FA (SFA) decreased 11% (P=0.0001). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)n-6 increased 4% (P =0.003). Long-chain PUFAn-3 increased 51% (P= 0.0001), mainly due to a 75% increase (P<0.0001) in docosahexaenoic acid. Changes in HOMA-IRcorrelated significantly with changes in long-chain PUFAn-3 (R=-0.57, P< 0.01), SFA (R=0.58, P<0.01) and waist circumference (R=0.46, P<0.05). A multivariate linear regression analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention programme increased incorporation of long-chain PUFAn-3 and reduced SFA in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects, a setting that may impact on insulin action.

Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten

2006-01-01

68

Relationship between Dietary Beef, Fat, and Pork and Alcoholic Cirrhosis  

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Full Text Available Nanji and French [1] investigated the relationship between per-caput consumption of total fat, beef, and pork and for alcohol consumption and rates of mortality for cirrhosis for 16 countries for 1965. The present study reports significant and positive associations for 1996 and 2003 between the following: alcohol consumption and cirrhosis mortality, pork consumption and cirrhosis mortality, the product of alcohol and pork consumption and the product of alcohol and fat consumption. These supportive associations may represent a relationship between the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis and some heretofore unknown dietary or environmental factor related to conditions of pork or fat consumption. Limitations of the study design are discussed.

Francis Stephen Bridges

2009-09-01

69

Dietary fat influences the expression of contractile and metabolic genes in rat skeletal muscle.  

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Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases. To determine whether the intake of different types of dietary fats affect the muscle fiber types that govern the metabolic and contractile properties of the skeletal muscle, we fed male Wistar rats with a 15% fat diet derived from different fat sources. Diets composed of soybean oil (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich), fish oil (n-3 PUFA-rich), or lard (low in PUFAs) were administered to the rats for 4 weeks. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were used as biomarkers to delineate the skeletal muscle fiber types. Compared with soybean oil intake, fish oil intake showed significantly lower levels of the fast-type MyHC2B and higher levels of the intermediate-type MyHC2X composition in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle, which is a fast-type dominant muscle. Concomitantly, MyHC2X mRNA levels in fish oil-fed rats were significantly higher than those observed in the soybean oil-fed rats. The MyHC isoform composition in the lard-fed rats was an intermediate between that of the fish oil and soybean oil-fed rats. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, and porin mRNA showed significantly upregulated levels in the EDL of fish oil-fed rats compared to those observed in soybean oil-fed and lard-fed rats, implying an activation of oxidative metabolism. In contrast, no changes in the composition of MyHC isoforms was observed in the soleus muscle, which is a slow-type dominant muscle. Fatty acid composition in the serum and the muscle was significantly influenced by the type of dietary fat consumed. In conclusion, dietary fat affects the expression of genes related to the contractile and metabolic properties in the fast-type dominant skeletal muscle, where the activation of oxidative metabolism is more pronounced after fish oil intake than that after soybean oil intake. PMID:24244634

Mizunoya, Wataru; Iwamoto, Yohei; Shirouchi, Bungo; Sato, Masao; Komiya, Yusuke; Razin, Farzaneh Rahimi; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Sato, Yusuke; Nakamura, Mako; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide

2013-01-01

70

Examining Multiple Parenting Behaviors on Young Children's Dietary Fat Consumption  

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Objective: To understand the association between parenting and children's dietary fat consumption, this study tested a comprehensive model of parenting that included parent household rules, parent modeling of rules, parent mediated behaviors, and parent support. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Baseline data from the "MOVE/me Muevo" project, a…

Eisenberg, Christina M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Crespo, Noe C.; Lopez, Nanette V.; Zive, Michelle Murphy; Corder, Kirsten; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.

2012-01-01

71

Effect of Dietary Fats on Glucose Tolerance, Insulin Sensitivity and Membrane Free Fatty Acids in Rats  

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Full Text Available The present work was designed to assess the possible effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA as fish oil, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA as olive oil (OO, saturated fatty acid (SFA as butter oil (BO and their combinations on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and membrane free fatty acid levels. Relatively high fat (20% w/w, 40% energy content diets were prepared and supplemented to adult male Wistar rats for 5-weeks. Body growth, intravenous glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and membrane free fatty acid levels in hepatic cells and erythrocytes were measured. Mean body weights and total body fats were significantly increased in both SFA and MUFA diets fed rats as compared to control and n-3 PUFA dietary groups respectively. Significant impaired glucose tolerance and insulin insensitivity was observed in rats supplemented with SFA diet as compared to all other dietary groups. However, MUFA diet has not shown any significant effect on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, although it significantly induced obesity in rats. The presence of (10% fish oil in the diet corrected the adiposity affect of SFA and significantly reduced the impairment in glucose tolerance and insulin insensitivity. In conclusion, the results provide evidence that replacing SFA with MUFA is most beneficial even though MUFA promotes the obesity. Fish oil proven the protective effect against the impairment of glucose tolerance, insulin insensitivity and obesity which induced by butter oil.

Mohammed Abdullah Alsaif

2004-01-01

72

Dietary fat intakes for pregnant and lactating women.  

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Dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation affects pregnancy outcomes and child growth, development and health. The European Commission charged the research project PERILIP, jointly with the Early Nutrition Programming Project, to develop recommendations on dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation. Literature reviews were performed and a consensus conference held with international experts in the field, including representatives of international scientific associations. The adopted conclusions include: dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation (energy%) should be as recommended for the general population; pregnant and lactating women should aim to achieve an average dietary intake of at least 200 mg DHA/d; intakes of up to 1 g/d DHA or 2.7 g/d n-3 long-chain PUFA have been used in randomized clinical trials without significant adverse effects; women of childbearing age should aim to consume one to two portions of sea fish per week, including oily fish; intake of the DHA precursor, alpha-linolenic acid, is far less effective with regard to DHA deposition in fetal brain than preformed DHA; intake of fish or other sources of long-chain n-3 fatty acids results in a slightly longer pregnancy duration; dietary inadequacies should be screened for during pregnancy and individual counselling be offered if needed. PMID:17688705

Koletzko, Berthold; Cetin, Irene; Brenna, J Thomas

2007-11-01

73

Effect of dietary fat sources and zinc and selenium supplements on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat.  

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A factorial design was used to study the effect of changes in broiler feed on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat. One week before slaughter, 1.25% dietary fish oil was removed from the feed and replaced by other fat sources (animal fat or linseed oil) or we continued with fish oil, and diets were supplemented with Zn (0, 300, or 600 mg/kg), and Se (0 or 1.2 mg/kg as sodium selenite or 0.2 mg/kg as Se-enriched yeast). The changes in dietary fat led to distinct fatty acid compositions of mixed raw dark and white chicken meat with skin. The fish oil diet produced meat with the highest eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) content, whereas the linseed oil diet led to meat with the highest content in total n-3 polyunsaturated acids (PUFA), especially linolenic acid. However, meat from animals on the animal fat diet was still rich in very long-chain n-3 PUFA. Se content was affected by Se and Zn supplements. Se content increased with Zn supplementation. However, only Se from the organic source led to a significant increase in this mineral in meat compared with the control. Consumer acceptability scores and TBA values of cooked dark chicken meat after 74 d or after 18 mo of frozen storage were not affected by any of the dietary factors studied. PMID:16050130

Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Barroeta, A C; Codony, R

2005-07-01

74

How selected tissues of lactating holstein cows respond to dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of a 10-week supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids [via sunflower oil/DHA-rich algae (SUNA) or linseed oil/DHA-rich algae (LINA) enriched diets] versus saturated fatty acids (SAT) of lactating German Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation on expression patterns of lipid metabolism-associated genes and gene products in hepatic, longissimus muscle and subcutaneous/perirenal/omental adipose tissue was assessed. Most pronounced transcriptomic responses to dietary PUFA were obtained in hepatic [down-regulated ACACA (FC = 0.83, SUNA; FC = 0.86, LINA), FADS1 (FC = 0.60, SUNA; FC = 0.72, LINA), FADS2 (FC = 0.64, SUNA; FC = 0.79, LINA), FASN (FC = 0.64, SUNA; FC = 0.72, LINA), SCD (FC = 0.37, SUNA; FC = 0.47, LINA) and SREBF1 (FC = 0.79, SUNA, LINA) expression] and omental adipose [up-regulated ACACA (FC = 1.58, SUNA; FC = 1.22, LINA), ADFP (FC = 1.33, SUNA; FC = 1.32, LINA), CEBPA (FC = 1.75, SUNA; FC = 1.40, LINA), FASN (FC = 1.57, SUNA; FC = 1.21, LINA), LPL (FC = 1.50, SUNA; FC = 1.20, LINA), PPARG (FC = 1.36, SUNA; FC = 1.12, LINA), SCD (FC = 1.41, SUNA; FC = 1.17, LINA) and SREBF1 (FC = 1.56, SUNA; FC = 1.18, LINA) expression] tissue. Interestingly, gene/gene product associations were comparatively low in hepatic and omental adipose tissue compared with longissimus muscle, perirenal adipose and subcutaneous adipose tissue, indicating matches only in regard to minor concentrations of SCD product 18:1c9, FADS1 product 20:4n-6 and FADS2 product 18:3n-6 in hepatic tissue, and higher concentrations of ACACA and FASN gene products 12:0 and 14:0 and SCD product 18:2c9,t11 in omental adipose tissue. Whereas all analyzed tissues accumulated dietary PUFA and their ruminally generated biohydrogenation products, tissue-divergent preferences for certain fatty acids were identified. This descriptive study reports tissue-divergent effects of dietary PUFA and outlines the significance of a PUFA intervention with regard to dairy cows' nutritional management. PMID:23129256

Hiller, Beate; Angulo, Joaquin; Olivera, Martha; Nuernberg, Gerd; Nuernberg, Karin

2013-04-01

75

Enterocyte-afferent nerve interactions in dietary fat sensing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The central nervous system (CNS) constantly monitors nutrient availability in the body and, in particular, in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to regulate nutrient and energy homeostasis. Extrinsic parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves are crucial for CNS nutrient sensing in the GI tract. These extrinsic afferent nerves detect the nature and amount of nutrients present in the GI tract and relay the information to the brain, which controls energy intake and expenditure accordingly. Dietary fat and fatty acids are sensed through various direct and indirect mechanisms. These sensing processes involve the binding of fatty acids to specific G protein-coupled receptors expressed either on the afferent nerve fibres or on the surface of enteroendocrine cells that release gut peptides, which themselves can modulate afferent nerve activity through their cognate receptors or have endocrine effects directly on the brain. Further dietary fat sensing mechanisms that are related to enterocyte fat handling and metabolism involve the release of several possible chemical mediators such as fatty acid ethanolamides or apolipoprotein A-IV. We here present evidence for yet another mechanism that may be based on ketone bodies resulting from enterocyte oxidation of dietary fat-derived fatty acids. The presently available evidence suggests that sympathetic rather than vagal afferents are involved, but further experiments are necessary to critically examine this concept. PMID:25200298

Mansouri, A; Langhans, W

2014-09-01

76

Permeabilization of enterocytes induced by absorption of dietary fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Absorption of dietary fat in the small intestine involves epithelial exposure to potentially harmful molecules such as bile salts and free fatty acids. We used organ culture of porcine jejunal explants incubated with a pre-digested mixture of fat (plant oil), bile and pancreatin to mimick the physiological process of dietary fat absorption, and short exposures to the fat mixture caused fat droplet accumulation within villus enterocytes. Lucifer yellow (LY), a fluorescent membrane-impermeable polar tracer was included to monitor epithelial integrity. Both in controls and during fat absorption LY penetrated the epithelium and accumulated in the basal lamina and the lamina propria. LY was also seen in the paracellular space, whereas villus enterocytes were generally only weakly labeled except for small amounts taken up by apical endocytosis. In the crypts, however, fat absorption induced cell permeabilization with LY accumulating in the cytosol and nucleus. Morphologically, both apical and basolateral membranes appeared intact, indicating that the leakiness was caused by minor lesions in the membrane. Albeit to a lesser extent, bile alone was capable of permeabilizing crypt cells, implying that the surfactant properties of bile salts are involved in the process. In addition to LY, crypt enterocytes also became permeable for albumin, ovalbumin and insulin. In conclusion, during fat absorption the permeability of the gut epithelium is increased mainly in the crypts. A possible explanation is that cell membranes of immature crypt cells, lacking detergent-resistant lipid raft microdomains, are less resistant to the deleterious effects of bile salts and free fatty acids. PMID:23527550

Danielsen, Erik Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

2013-05-01

77

Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids upregulate expression of FADS3 transcripts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family at 11q12-13.1 includes FADS1 and FADS2, both known to mediate biosynthesis of omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). FADS3 is a putative desaturase due to its sequence similarity with FADS1 and FADS2, but its function is unknown. We have previously described 7 FADS3 alternative transcripts (AT) and 1 FADS2 AT conserved across multiple species. This study examined the effect of dietary LCPUFA levels on liver FADS gene expression in vivo and in vitro, evaluated by qRT-PCR. Fourteen baboon neonates were randomized to three diet groups for their first 12 weeks of life, C: Control, no LCPUFA, L: 0.33% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/0.67% arachidonic acid (ARA) (w/w); and L3: 1.00% DHA/0.67% ARA (w/w). Liver FADS1 and both FADS2 transcripts were downregulated by at least 50% in the L3 group compared to controls. In contrast, FADS3 AT were upregulated (L3 > C), with four transcripts significantly upregulated by 40% or more. However, there was no evidence for a shift in liver fatty acids to coincide with increased FADS3 expression. Significant upregulation of FADS3 AT was also observed in human liver-derived HepG2 cells after DHA or ARA treatment. The PPAR? antagonist GW9662 prevented FADS3 upregulation, while downregulation of FADS1 and FADS2 was unaffected. Thus, FADS3 AT were directly upregulated by LCPUFA by a PPAR?-dependent mechanism unrelated to regulation of other desaturases. This opposing pattern and mechanism of regulation suggests a dissimilar function for FADS3 AT compared to other FADS gene products. PMID:22398025

Reardon, Holly T; Hsieh, Andrea T; Park, Woo Jung; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Anthony, Joshua C; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Brenna, J Thomas

2013-01-01

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Effects of dietary fat and calorie on immunologic function  

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The effect of dietary fat and calories on immunologic function in specific pathogen-free inbred DBA/2 and CBA/J mice was studied. Three diets were modified from control, the AIN-76 purified diet. The high saturated fat diet contained 22.5% coconut oil and 2.5% safflower oil. The high unsaturated fat diet contained 25% safflower oil. Fat was substituted isoclorically for carbohydrate in these two diets. The low calorie diet contained 40% less protein, carbohydrate and fat than control diet; fiber was substituted for these ingredients. Female weanling mice were on the diets for more than 35 days before testing. The natural killer (NK) activity of spleen cells was determined by in vitro cytolysis of /sup 51/Cr-labeled YAC-1 cells. The spleen cells response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or allogeneic tumor EL-4 cells was measured after immunizing the mice with SRBC or EL-4 cells for 4 or 11 days, respectively. The results showed no significant effect of the low calorie diet on NK activity, anti-SRBC or anti-EL-4 response compared to normal diet. Anti-SRBC plaque response was significantly enhanced (27% higher), while anti-EL-4 response was significantly suppressed (15% less) with high saturated fat diet. NK activity was normal. Mice on high unsaturated fat diet showed suppressed anti-SRBC response (16% less) and anti-EL-4 response (17% less), while NK activity was significantly enhanced (70% higher).

Barness, L.A.; Carver, J.D.; Friedman, H.; Hsu, K.H.L.

1986-03-05

79

Effects of dietary fat and calorie on immunologic function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of dietary fat and calories on immunologic function in specific pathogen-free inbred DBA/2 and CBA/J mice was studied. Three diets were modified from control, the AIN-76 purified diet. The high saturated fat diet contained 22.5% coconut oil and 2.5% safflower oil. The high unsaturated fat diet contained 25% safflower oil. Fat was substituted isoclorically for carbohydrate in these two diets. The low calorie diet contained 40% less protein, carbohydrate and fat than control diet; fiber was substituted for these ingredients. Female weanling mice were on the diets for more than 35 days before testing. The natural killer (NK) activity of spleen cells was determined by in vitro cytolysis of 51Cr-labeled YAC-1 cells. The spleen cells response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or allogeneic tumor EL-4 cells was measured after immunizing the mice with SRBC or EL-4 cells for 4 or 11 days, respectively. The results showed no significant effect of the low calorie diet on NK activity, anti-SRBC or anti-EL-4 response compared to normal diet. Anti-SRBC plaque response was significantly enhanced (27% higher), while anti-EL-4 response was significantly suppressed (15% less) with high saturated fat diet. NK activity was normal. Mice on high unsaturated fat diet showed suppressed anti-SRBC response (16% less) and anti-EL-4 response (17% less), while NK activity was significantly enhanced (70% higher)

80

ACC2 gene polymorphisms, metabolic syndrome, and gene-nutrient interactions with dietary fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase ? (ACC2) plays a key role in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation pathways. Disturbance of these pathways is associated with impaired insulin responsiveness and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Gene-nutrient interactions may affect MetS risk. This study determined the relationship between ACC2 polymorphisms (rs2075263, rs2268387, rs2284685, rs2284689, rs2300453, rs3742023, rs3742026, rs4766587, and rs6606697) and MetS risk, and whether dietary fatty acids modulate this in the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX study of MetS cases and matched controls (n = 1754). Minor A allele carriers of rs4766587 had increased MetS risk (OR 1.29 [CI 1.08, 1.58], P = 0.0064) compared with the GG homozygotes, which may in part be explained by their increased body mass index (BMI), abdominal obesity, and impaired insulin sensitivity (P 35% energy) (OR 1.62 [CI 1.05, 2.50], P = 0.027), particularly a high intake (>5.5% energy) of n-6 polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) (OR 1.82 [CI 1.14, 2.94], P = 0.01; P = 0.05 for gene-nutrient interaction). Saturated and monounsaturated fat intake did not modulate MetS risk. Importantly, we replicated some of these findings in an independent cohort. In conclusion, the ACC2 rs4766587 polymorphism influences MetS risk, which was modulated by dietary fat, suggesting novel gene-nutrient interactions. PMID:20855566

Phillips, Catherine M; Goumidi, Louisa; Bertrais, Sandrine; Field, Martyn R; Cupples, L Adrienne; Ordovas, Jose M; McMonagle, Jolene; Defoort, Catherine; Lovegrove, Julie A; Drevon, Christian A; Blaak, Ellen E; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Riserus, Ulf; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; McManus, Ross; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Planells, Richard; Roche, Helen M

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Effects of dietary ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immunoglobulins, cytokines, fatty acid composition, and performance of lactating sows and suckling piglets.  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the performance of lactating sows and their piglets. Thirty pregnant Landrace sows were assigned to one of three treatments from d 108 of gestation until weaning (26-29 d) and were fed diets containing different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA including 3:1, 9:1 and 13:1. The effects on sow and litter production traits were examined together with an assessment of sow body condition. No differences were detected among the treatments for the daily feed intake of sows or changes in sow weight and back-fat levels during lactation (P?>?0.05). Litter size at d 14 and d 21 were tended to increase in 3:1 treatment compared with 9:1 and 13:1 treatments (P?colostrum, milk, and piglets plasma (P?colostrum, milk, and piglet plasma immunoglobulin concentrations are studied. No difference was observed among treatments in the concentrations of IgM, and IgA in colostrum (P?>?0.05). A great significant difference for IgG concentration was observed among 3 group in colostrum. A great significant difference for IgA, and IgM (P?immunoglobulin and cytokines, and it tended to increase the litter average daily gain and improve the immune status of piglets when dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA was 9:1. PMID:23270637

Yao, Wei; Li, Jie; Wang, Jun Jun; Zhou, Weiliang; Wang, Qingbo; Zhu, Rongchang; Wang, Fenglai; Thacker, Phil

2012-01-01

82

Interleukin-6 Gene Polymorphisms, Dietary Fat Intake, Obesity and Serum Lipid Concentrations in Black and White South African Women  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 ?174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat intake adiposity increased in the IVS3 +281 GT+GG and IVS4 +869 AA or AG genotypes. In white women, with increasing omega-3 (n-3) intake and decreasing n-6:n-3 ratio, body mass index (BMI) decreased in those with the ?174 C allele, IVS3 +281 T allele and IVS4 +869 AG genotype. In the white women, those with the IVS3 +281 T allele had lower triglycerides. Further, with increasing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA); triglyceride and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (T-C:HDL-C) ratio decreased in those with the ?174 C allele. In black women, with increasing total fat intake, triglycerides and T-C:HDL-C ratio increased in those with the IVS4 +869 G allele. This study is the first to show that dietary fat intake modulates the relationship between the IL-6 ?174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white SA women. PMID:24962479

Joffe, Yael T.; van der Merwe, Lize; Evans, Juliet; Collins, Malcolm; Lambert, Estelle V.; September, Alison; Goedecke, Julia H.

2014-01-01

83

Interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms, dietary fat intake, obesity and serum lipid concentrations in black and white South African women.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat intake adiposity increased in the IVS3 +281 GT+GG and IVS4 +869 AA or AG genotypes. In white women, with increasing omega-3 (n-3) intake and decreasing n-6:n-3 ratio, body mass index (BMI) decreased in those with the -174 C allele, IVS3 +281 T allele and IVS4 +869 AG genotype. In the white women, those with the IVS3 +281 T allele had lower triglycerides. Further, with increasing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA); triglyceride and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (T-C:HDL-C) ratio decreased in those with the -174 C allele. In black women, with increasing total fat intake, triglycerides and T-C:HDL-C ratio increased in those with the IVS4 +869 G allele. This study is the first to show that dietary fat intake modulates the relationship between the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white SA women. PMID:24962479

Joffe, Yael T; van der Merwe, Lize; Evans, Juliet; Collins, Malcolm; Lambert, Estelle V; September, Alison V; Goedecke, Julia H

2014-06-01

84

Effect of dietary fat on plasma glutathione peroxidase levels and intestinal absorption of 75Se-labeled sodium selenite in chicks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of dietary fat on the availability of selenium was investigated in chicks fed either 4 or 20% butter, olive oil, rape oil, corn oil or sunflower oil in the diet for 3 weeks after hatching. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was used as an indicator of the body selenium status. In addition, the intestinal absorption of sodium selenite (75Se-labeled) was determined by using both the in vivo ligated loop procedure and oral administration of the isotope. The plasma GSH-Px levels increased with increasing proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Increasing the amount of fat from 4 to 20% significantly enhanced the GSH-Px activity in the groups receiving butter or olive oil, but had no effect in animals fed the unsaturated fats. The absorption of [75Se]selenite from the ligated duodenal loops tended to be reduced in chicks fed corn oil or sunflower oil as compared to the animals receiving butter in their diet. On the other hand, the type of dietary fat did not appear to affect the absorption of the orally administered selenite. The present study demonstrates that the type of dietary fat can affect the plasma GSH-Px levels in chicks without altering the intestinal absorption of selenite. However, the results on the absorption of the intraduodenally injected sodium selenite suggest that dietary fat plays some role in the intestinal transport of selenium

85

Effect of dietary fat on plasma glutathione peroxidase levels and intestinal absorption of /sup 75/Se-labeled sodium selenite in chicks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of dietary fat on the availability of selenium was investigated in chicks fed either 4 or 20% butter, olive oil, rape oil, corn oil or sunflower oil in the diet for 3 weeks after hatching. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was used as an indicator of the body selenium status. In addition, the intestinal absorption of sodium selenite (/sup 75/Se-labeled) was determined by using both the in vivo ligated loop procedure and oral administration of the isotope. The plasma GSH-Px levels increased with increasing proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Increasing the amount of fat from 4 to 20% significantly enhanced the GSH-Px activity in the groups receiving butter or olive oil, but had no effect in animals fed the unsaturated fats. The absorption of (/sup 75/Se)selenite from the ligated duodenal loops tended to be reduced in chicks fed corn oil or sunflower oil as compared to the animals receiving butter in their diet. On the other hand, the type of dietary fat did not appear to affect the absorption of the orally administered selenite. The present study demonstrates that the type of dietary fat can affect the plasma GSH-Px levels in chicks without altering the intestinal absorption of selenite. However, the results on the absorption of the intraduodenally injected sodium selenite suggest that dietary fat plays some role in the intestinal transport of selenium.

Mutanen, M.L.; Mykkaenen, H.M.

1984-05-01

86

Inhibition of the HER2 pathway by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevents breast cancer in fat-1 transgenic mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overexpression of the tyrosine kinase receptor, ErbB2/HER2/Neu, occurs in 25-30% of invasive breast cancer (BC) with poor patient prognosis. Due to confounding factors, inconsistencies still remain regarding the protective effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on BC. We therefore evaluated whether fat-1 transgenic mice, endogenously synthesizing n-3 PUFAs from n-6 PUFAs, were protected against BC development, and we then aimed to study in vivo a mechanism potentially involved in such protection. E0771 BC cells were implanted into fat-1 and wild-type (WT) mice. After tumorigenesis examination, we analyzed the expression of proteins involved in the HER2 signaling pathway and lipidomic analyses were performed in tumor tissues and plasma. Our results showed that tumors totally disappeared by day 15 in fat-1 mice but continued to grow in WT mice. This prevention can be related in part to significant repression of the HER2/?-catenin signaling pathway and formation of significant levels of n-3 PUFA-derived bioactive mediators (particularly 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, and prostaglandin E3) in the tumors of fat-1 mice compared with WT mice. All together these data demonstrate an anti-BC effect of n-3 PUFAs through, at least in part, HER2 signaling pathway downregulation, and highlight the importance of gene-diet interactions in BC. PMID:24052576

Zou, Zuquan; Bellenger, Sandrine; Massey, Karen A; Nicolaou, Anna; Geissler, Audrey; Bidu, Célia; Bonnotte, Bernard; Pierre, Anne-Sophie; Minville-Walz, Mélaine; Rialland, Michaël; Seubert, John; Kang, Jing X; Lagrost, Laurent; Narce, Michel; Bellenger, Jérôme

2013-12-01

87

Effects of Unsaturated Fat Dietary Supplements on Blood Lipids, and on Markers of Malnutrition and Inflammation in Hemodialysis Patients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of commercially available unsaturated fat dietary supplements on blood lipids, and on markers of malnutrition and inflammation, in an adult population of hemodialysis (HD) patients. DESIGN: This was a restricted, randomized (equal blocks), investigator-blinded 2x6 week crossover trial, without a washout interval. SETTING: This study was conducted at the Department of Nephrology, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Herlev, Denmark, in spring 2007. PATIENTS: Participants included 40 (30 males and 10 females) stable, adult patients undergoing regular HD, with a mean age of 64.6 years and a mean body mass index of 23.3kg/m(2). INTERVENTION: In addition to patients' habitual diets, oral unsaturated fat supplements (90mL of Calogen [SHS International, Ltd., Liverpool, UK] and 4 capsules of Pikasol [Dansk Droge, Ishoej, Denmark]) were given in one period, whereas no supplements were given in the other. Dietary supplements contributed 1.8 MJ (430kcal), 47g fat, 26.5g monounsaturated fatty acids, and 3g marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids per day. Blood sampling and nutritional assessments were performed at baseline, after 6 weeks, and after 12 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dietary intakes, blood lipids, dry body weight, serum albumin, and serum C-reactive protein comprised our main outcome measures. RESULTS: According to a per-protocol analysis of 14 study completers, fat supplementation resulted in significantly increased total energy intake (+1.6 MJ/day, or 380kcal/day) and an increased dietary fat energy percentage (+9%). We observed no significant changes in blood lipids. Dry body weight (+0.49kg, P=.04) increased, and serum C-reactive protein concentration fell (-1.69mg/L, P=.01), with fat supplementation. Intention-to-treat analysis of 39 participants confirmed the absence of adverse blood-lipid changes. CONCLUSIONS: Unsaturated fat supplementation increased total dietary energy intake to recommended levels, had no adverse impact on blood lipids, improved nutritional status as assessed according to dry body weight, and reduced systemic inflammation as assessed according to C-reactive protein serum concentrations. Adding unsaturated fat to the diet seems to be a safe and effective way to prevent and treat malnutrition in hemodialysis patients.

Ewers, Bettina; Riserus, Ulf

2009-01-01

88

Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina® and AIN-93M, which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad libitum or in a restricted amount. Methods Thus, 40 Wistar rats (90 days old were separated into 4 groups according to the amount of food offered (ad libitum or dietary restriction and the type of diet (commercial diet, 3,028.0 kcal/g or AIN-93M, 3,802.7 kcal/g: animals fed the commercial Purina® diet ad libitum (AP, animals fed restricted amounts of the commercial Purina® diet (RP, animals fed the AIN-93M diet ad libitum (AD, and animals fed restricted amounts of the AIN-93M diet (RD. Dietary restriction consisted of pair-feeding the RP and RD groups with 60% of the total food consumed by the corresponding ad libitum groups. Results Because of its higher carbohydrate and calorie content, AIN-93M was found to accelerate weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and increase the amount of fat in the liver when compared to the commercial diet. Conversely, a 40% dietary restriction assisted in weight loss without causing malnutrition, contributing to an improved glucose tolerance and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Therefore, differences in the amount of carbohydrates and calories provided by the diet can lead to important metabolic disorders, such as impaired tolerance and accumulation of hepatic fat, and dietary restriction improves serum and tissue lipid profiles in laboratory animals.

Moura Leandro P

2012-01-01

89

The inhibition of fat cell proliferation by n-3 fatty acids in dietary obese mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA of marine origin exert multiple beneficial effects on health. Our previous study in mice showed that reduction of adiposity by LC n-3 PUFA was associated with both, a shift in adipose tissue metabolism and a decrease in tissue cellularity. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effects of LC n-3 PUFA on fat cell proliferation and differentiation in obese mice. Methods A model of inducible and reversible lipoatrophy (aP2-Cre-ERT2 PPAR?L2/L2 mice was used, in which the death of mature adipocytes could be achieved by a selective ablation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? in response to i.p. injection of tamoxifen. Before the injection, obesity was induced in male mice by 8-week-feeding a corn oil-based high-fat diet (cHF and, subsequently, mice were randomly assigned (day 0 to one of the following groups: (i mice injected by corn-oil-vehicle only, i.e."control" mice, and fed cHF; (ii mice injected by tamoxifen in corn oil, i.e. "mutant" mice, fed cHF; (iii control mice fed cHF diet with15% of dietary lipids replaced by LC n-3 PUFA concentrate (cHF+F; and (iv mutant mice fed cHF+F. Blood and tissue samples were collected at days 14 and 42. Results Mutant mice achieved a maximum weight loss within 10 days post-injection, followed by a compensatory body weight gain, which was significantly faster in the cHF as compared with the cHF+F mutant mice. Also in control mice, body weight gain was depressed in response to dietary LC n-3 PUFA. At day 42, body weights in all groups stabilized, with no significant differences in adipocyte size between the groups, although body weight and adiposity was lower in the cHF+F as compared with the cHF mice, with a stronger effect in the mutant than in control mice. Gene expression analysis documented depression of adipocyte maturation during the reconstitution of adipose tissue in the cHF+F mutant mice. Conclusion Dietary LC n-3 PUFA could reduce both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of fat cells in vivo. Results are in agreement with the involvement of fat cell turnover in control of adiposity.

Kopecky Jan

2011-08-01

90

Dietary fat status influencing radiosensitivity of aortic histological structure  

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Effect of lipid dietary status and cummulative doses of whole body gamma irrdiation up to 15 Gy, on histological pattern of the dorsal aorta of male albino rats was studied. Rats fed fat-free diet showed enlarged spaces filled with amorphous fibrous material lying in-between smooth muscle cells, whereas animals fed fat-rich diet showed none of these changes. Rats fed normal fat diet and subjected to the fractionated dose levels showed structural changes in all the 3 layers of the dorsal aorta. Thickening of both tunica media and adventitia, degenerative endothelia cells and granulomatous inflammation of the adventitia were observed. Irradiated rats fed fat-free diet showed more intensive structural changes. These included degeneration of endothelial lining, disorganization of smooth muscle cells and vacuolation in tunica media and degenerated muscle cells. Condensed elastic and collagen fibers could be observed in-between smooth muscles and tunica aventitia looked degenerated with less numbers of fibroblasts. Irradiated rats fed rich-fat diet showed rapid structural changes. These included degeneration of endothelium of tunica intima, reduced numbers of smooth muscle cells, hyaline degeneration of tunica adventitia with signs of necrosis and fragmentation, decreased thickness of the dorsal aorta cells and ill-defined separation between the tunica media and adventitia. (orig.).

El-Malkh, N.M. (Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Zoology); Ashry, M.A. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Zoology); Yousri, R.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Soliman, S.M. (National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt))

1991-01-01

91

Effects of dietary fat on postprandial substrate oxidation and on carbohydrate and fat balances.  

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To study the effect of dietary fat on postprandial substrate utilization and nutrient balance, respiratory exchange was determined in seven young men for 1 h before and 9 h after the ingestion of one of three different breakfasts: i.e., bread, jam, and dried meat (482 kcal: 27% protein, 62% carbohydrate, and 11% fat); bread, jam, and dried meat plus 50 g of margarine containing long-chain triglycerides (LCT); or bread, jam, and dried meat plus 40 g medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and 10 g LC...

Flatt, J. P.; Acheson, K. J.; Je?quier, E.

1985-01-01

92

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... polyunsaturated fats are: Corn oil Cottonseed oil Safflower oil Soybean oil Sunflower oil Walnuts Pumpkin or sunflower seeds Soft ( ... 3 fatty acids. Sources include: Tofu and other soybean products Walnuts Flaxseed and flaxseed oil Canola oil NOTE: The Food & Drug Administration and ...

93

Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet. Methods Streptozotocin-diabetic pigs (~45 kg were fed for 10 weeks supplemental (40% of dietary energy saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC, unsaturated fat (UF or starch (S in an eucaloric dietary intervention study. Results Fasting plasma total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were 3-5 fold higher (p 2 = 0.95. Retroperitoneal fat depot weight (g was intermediate in SFC (260 ± 72, lowest in S (135 ± 51 and highest (p Conclusion Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol induces inflammation, atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition whereas an equally high dietary unsaturated fat load does not induce these abnormalities and shows beneficial effects on postprandial glycaemia in diabetic pigs.

Serlie Mireille J

2011-07-01

94

Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary ?-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R2 = 0.94 and perirenal fat (R2 = 0.96.

Pier Giorgio Peiretti

2012-02-01

95

Transfer of dietary zinc and fat to milk--evaluation of milk fat quality, milk fat precursors, and mastitis indicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study demonstrated that the zinc concentration in bovine milk and blood plasma is significantly affected by the intake of saturated fat supplements. Sixteen Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4 periods of 12 d, and 4 dietary treatments were conducted. A total mixed ration based on corn silage, grass-clover silages, and pelleted sugar beet pulp was used on all treatments. A high de novo milk fat diet was formulated by adding rapeseed meal and molasses in the total mixed ration [39 mg of Zn/kg of dry matter (DM)], and a low de novo diet by adding saturated fat, fat-rich rapeseed cake, and corn (34 mg of Zn/kg of DM). Dietary Zn levels were increased by addition of ZnO to 83 and 80 mg of Zn/kg of DM. Treatments did not affect daily DM intake, or yield of energy-corrected milk, milk fat, or milk protein. The high de novo diet significantly increased milk fat percentage and milk content of fatty acids with chain length from C6 to C16, and decreased content of C18 and C18:1. Treatments did not influence milk free fatty acids at 4 degrees C at 0 or 28 h after milking. The average diameter of milk fat globules was significantly greater in milk from cows offered low de novo diets. Furthermore, the low de novo diet significantly increased the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and d-beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood plasma, the latter was also increased in milk. Treatments did not affect the enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase in milk or the activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in blood plasma. The low de novo diet significantly increased plasma Zn and milk Zn content, whereas dietary Zn level did not in itself influence these parameters. This indicates that the transfer of fat from diet to milk might facilitate transfer of Zn from diet to milk. PMID:18349247

Wiking, L; Larsen, T; Sehested, J

2008-04-01

96

Product Fat-1 Transgenic Simmental Crossbred Cattle Endogenously Synthesizing Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Using OSM  

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Full Text Available Meat products normally contain low omega-3 fatty acids and high ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids may contribute to the prevalence of many diseases. In order to obtained in such beef with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids will be more healthy to meet people’s diet, researchers generated the fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans c fat-1 gene encoding an omega-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the gene is absent in mammals. In this study, researchers successful product the embryo of fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle using OSM. The results of Western Blotting and fluoroscopic examination have proved that the fat-1 gene has been into genome of clone embryo and translated into proteins which could be used to embryo transfer.

Song-Jia Lai

2012-01-01

97

Olestra, a nonabsorbed, noncaloric replacement for dietary fat: a review.  

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Olestra has been shown to be safe for its intended use by extensive testing in animals and in humans. It is not digested or absorbed and has no effect on the structure or physiology of the GI tract, the only organ of the body that it contacts. Olestra can interfere with the absorption of other lipophilic substances from the GI tract. The interference occurs because a portion of those molecules that are sufficiently lipophilic partition into the nonabsorbed olestra and is carried out of the body. Whether olestra will interfere with the absorption of a specific molecule can be predicted from the octanol-water partition coefficient of the molecule, a parameter that can be measured or calculated from a knowledge of the structure of the molecule. Olestra does not affect the absorption or efficacy of oral drugs because, in general, they are not sufficiently lipophilic to partition into the olestra. Olestra does not affect the absorption of water-soluble micronutrients or the absorption and utilization of macronutrients. Olestra can reduce the absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins when olestra foods and the vitamins are coingested. These effects can be offset by adding specific amounts of the vitamins to foods made with olestra. Other than the carotenoids and vitamins A and E, olestra does not affect the absorption of potentially beneficial components of fruits and vegetables. The effects on the vitamins can be offset by adding the vitamins to olestra foods. The reduction in the absorption of carotenoids will be less than 6-10% when olestra snacks are eaten under free-living dietary patterns. Any effect this reduction has on vitamin A status can be offset by addition of vitamin A to the foods. The absorption of flavonoids, polyphenols, and most other phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables, which have been shown to provide beneficial health effects, will not be affected by olestra because they are not sufficiently lipophilic. Individuals consuming large quantities of olestra may experience mild or moderate common GI symptoms such as loose or soft stools, gas, or nausea, symptoms similar to those experienced with certain other foods or changed dietary habits. When olestra snack foods are eaten under free-living dietary patterns, the symptoms are not different from those experienced when eating full-fat snack products, in either incidence or severity. When they are experienced, the symptoms resolve in 1-2 days, but may recur. They do not worsen with continued or increased olestra consumption and pose no health risk to the consumer. Olestra products will carry an information label alerting consumers to the possibility of GI symptoms. Olestra foods provide an additional option to those individuals who want or need to lower their total energy intake and body weight. These individuals will find it easier to change dietary habits and to maintain healthful nutritional practices when they use olestra foods. For those who want or need to reduce fat intake but not lose weight, olestra foods can reduce fat intake without affecting energy. Because olestra foods have taste and other organoleptic properties that are similar to those of full-fat foods, individuals will find it easier to switch to low-fat diets. PMID:9262944

Lawson, K D; Middleton, S J; Hassall, C D

1997-08-01

98

The effect of dietary sulfur on the metabolism of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids  

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The effect of methionine-supplemented diet on the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids was studied by comparing results of control and cysteine-supplemented diets in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a period of 17 days one of the following diets: control, cysteine-supplemented, and/or methionine-supplemented. On the last day of the feeding period, the rats were administered either [1-14C] arachidonic acid (AA) or [1-14C] eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by stomach tube five hours before sacrificing. The cyclooxygenase activity in liver microsomes, the apparent Km of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase in liver and brain homogenates, and the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into the phosphatidylinositol fraction of brain, heat, lung, spleen, and kidney tissues were analyzed

99

Product Fat-1 Transgenic Simmental Crossbred Cattle Endogenously Synthesizing Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Using OSM  

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Meat products normally contain low omega-3 fatty acids and high ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids may contribute to the prevalence of many diseases. In order to obtained in such beef with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids will be more healthy to meet people’s diet, researchers generated the fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans c fat-1 gene encoding an omega-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the gene is ab...

Song-Jia Lai; Jian Wang; Xiao-Mao Guo; Wei Wang,

2012-01-01

100

Psychosocial correlates of dietary fat intake in African-American adults: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Current dietary guidelines recommend that dietary fat should comprise 20–35% percent of total energy intake, with less than 10% of energy from saturated fat. However, many Americans exceed these goals and data suggest that African Americans tend to consume a higher percentage of energy from dietary fat than Whites. Because diets low in dietary fat, particularly saturated fat, are associated with lower risk for many chronic illnesses, it is important to identify strategies to reduce high fat intakes. This study examined associations of psychosocial factors with dietary fat intake in African American adults 18 to 70 years. Methods Data are self-reported from a cross-sectional survey of African Americans (n = 658 using an 11-page questionnaire, collected from June to October 2003. Associations of psychosocial (predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors based on the PRECEDE framework, dietary fat-related behaviors, and participant characteristics (e.g., age, sex, education, BMI with total and saturated fat consumption are described using linear regression and analysis of variance. Results The mean age of participants was 43.9 years, 57% were female, 37% were college graduates, and 76% were overweight/obese. Respondents with lower fat intakes were female, older, had high education and very good/excellent perceived health. Among the psychosocial factors, the strongest (inverse associations with fat intake were with two predisposing factors: belief in the importance of a low-fat diet (both genders and high self-efficacy (women only. Fat intake was also significantly lower among participants who could count on those close for encouragement to eat healthy foods (a reinforcing factor and among men who needed more information about preparing healthy foods (an enabling factor. Conclusion Dietary interventions to decrease fat intake in African American adults may benefit from incorporating predisposing factors, such as personal beliefs and self-efficacy, in their design and implementation.

Watters Joanne L

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Beneficial effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on livers of high-fat dietary hamsters.  

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Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9 mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (pacid outputs in the high-fat dietary hamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, and IL-1? expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:23578611

Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Yang, Deng-Jye; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

2013-09-01

102

Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor ? protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ? expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

Nuernberg Karin

2011-08-01

103

Dietary Fat Reduction Behaviors among African American, American Indian, and White Older Adults with Diabetes  

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Dietary self-management of diabetes is often difficult for older adults to practice, particularly in rural communities. We describe patterns and correlates of dietary fat reduction among older rural adults with diabetes of any type. In-home interviews were conducted with a multiethnic random sample of 701 adults ?65 with diabetes from two North Carolina counties. The Fat and Fiber Behavior Questionnaire was used to measure dietary behaviors. Separate multiple linear regressions assessed eff...

Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Wetmore-arkader, Lindsay K.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2009-01-01

104

Effect of source of dietary fat on pig performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content, distribution and fatty acid composition.  

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Seventy gilts were used to compare the effect of including 10% tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), a fat blend (FB), or an oil blend (OB) in finishing diets vs. feeding a semi-synthetic diet with no added fat (NF) on pig performance, carcass traits and carcass fatty acid (FA) composition. Carcasses from SFO-fed gilts had greater fat and lower lean compositions than carcasses from T-fed gilts. Gilts fed NF had greater loin fat than FB-fed gilts, and greater flare fat, loin intermuscular fat and fat:lean than T-fed gilts. Bellies from NF-fed gilts had lower lean and higher intermuscular fat and fat:lean than other diets except HOSF. Fat source had minor effects on animal performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content and distribution, whereas feeding NF resulted in carcasses and major cuts with higher fat content. Diets rich in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) did not reduce fat deposition in separable fat depots with respect to monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and saturated FA (SFA). Carcasses from gilts fed NF had a high degree of saturation (40.6% SFA) followed by carcasses of T- and FB-fed gilts. Feeding HOSF, SFO and LO enriched diets elevated the percentages of MUFA (56.7%), n-6 (30.0%) and n-3 (16.6%) PUFA, respectively, whereas carcasses from gilts fed OB had greater percentages of n-3 FA (14.8% n-3, 0.9% EPA, 1.0% DPA, 3.1% DHA) than gilts fed FB (6.72% n-3, 0.1% EPA, 0.4% DPA, 0.1% DHA). PMID:20416832

Realini, C E; Duran-Montgé, P; Lizardo, R; Gispert, M; Oliver, M A; Esteve-Garcia, E

2010-08-01

105

Dietary fat intake and gestational weight gain in relation to estradiol and progesterone plasma levels during pregnancy: a longitudinal study in Swedish women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated pregnancy hormone levels, such as oestrogen and progesterone, may increase the risk of developing breast cancer both in mothers and offspring. However, the reasons for large inter-individual variations in estrogen and progesterone levels during pregnancy remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether a intakes of total dietary fat, types of fat (monounsaturated: MUFA, polyunsaturated: n-3 and n-6 PUFA, and saturated and b gestational weight gain are associated with estradiol and progesterone levels in plasma during pregnancy. Methods We measured body weight as well as estradiol and progesterone in plasma among 226 healthy pregnant Swedish women on gestation weeks 12, 25 and 33. At the same time points, dietary intake of total fat and types of fat (MUFA, PUFA, SFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were estimated using 3-day food diaries. Results A large variation in estradiol and progesterone levels was evident. Nulliparous women had 37%, 12% and 30% higher mean estradiol levels on gestation weeks 12, 25 and 33 compared to parous women (P = 0.008. No associations were found between dietary intake of total fat or fat subtypes (including n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA and plasma estradiol or progesterone levels. Gestational weight gain was associated with progesterone levels (P = 0.03 but the effect was very small (20% increase in progesterone levels between gestational weeks 12 and 33 per kg body weight/week. Conclusion No associations among gestational weight gain, maternal dietary fat intake (total or subtypes including n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA and plasma estradiol levels were found. However, pregnancy progesterone levels correlated with weight gain during pregnancy. Identification of other possible determinants of pregnancy estradiol and progesterone levels, important for the development of breast cancer in both mothers and offspring, are needed.

Yu Wei

2009-04-01

106

Low fat diet and skin cancer risk: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial  

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Background Large cohort studies have reported no relationship between dietary fat and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), although a low-fat diet intervention reduced NMSC risk in a small clinical trial. In animal studies, skin tumor development has been reduced by low-fat diet. We evaluated the effect of a low-fat dietary pattern on NMSC and melanoma in the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification trial. Methods Postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years (N=48,835) were randomly assigned to the low-fat dietary pattern intervention (N=19,541) or comparison group (N=29,294). The intervention goals included decreasing fat intake to ?20% of calories, increasing vegetable and fruit intake, and increasing grain intake. Self-reported incident NMSC (N=4,907) and physician-adjudicated incident melanoma (N=279) were ascertained every 6 months. Results Over 8.1 years of follow-up, the low-fat diet intervention did not affect overall incidence of NMSC (hazard ratio [HR] 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92–1.04) or melanoma (HR 1.04, 95% CI: 0.82–1.32). In subgroup analyses of melanoma risk, baseline fat intake interacted significantly with group assignment (Pinteraction=0.006). Among women with higher baseline fat intake, the dietary intervention significantly increased risk (HR 1.48; 95% CI: 1.06–2.07), whereas, among women with lower baseline fat intake, the intervention tended to reduce melanoma risk (HR 0.72, 95% CI: 0.50–1.02). Conclusions In this large randomized trial, a low-fat dietary pattern did not affect overall incidence of NMSC or melanoma. Impact A low-fat diet does not reduce incidence of NMSC, but an interaction between baseline fat intake and dietary intervention on melanoma risk warrants further investigation. PMID:23697610

Gamba, Christina S.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Shikany, James M.; Larson, Joseph; Linos, Eleni; Sims, Stacy T.; Marshall, James; Van Horn, Linda; Zeitouni, Nathalie; Tang, Jean Y.

2013-01-01

107

Dietary protein, fat, and minerals in nephrocalcinosis in female rats.  

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Young female rats fed semipurified diets containing casein or a soy protein isolate had extensive nephrocalcinosis at the junction between the outer and inner stripe of the outer medullary zone after 5 wk on the diets, whereas rats fed a diet containing a lactalbumin concentrate did not. Although the percentages of actual protein and of total ash were similar in all three diets, the concentrations of individual minerals were not, owing to methods used in isolating the proteins. Comparison of the individual mineral contents of these diets with those in other laboratories as compiled from the literature suggested that factors other than minerals, including protein, are also implicated. Dietary fat appeared to be another such factor in a series of experiments in which saturated medium-chain triglycerides and corn oil were included in diets containing soy protein isolate. Although these diets had identical mineral compositions, the rats fed medium-chain triglycerides had less severe lesions. PMID:1246208

Kaunitz, H; Johnson, R E

1976-01-01

108

Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended MEDFICTS cutpoints are too high, leading to overestimation of dietary quality. A cutpoint of 38 appears to be providing optimal identification of patients who do not meet AHA dietary guidelines for fat intake.

Bindeman Jody

2003-06-01

109

Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions.  

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Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNF?, IFN-?) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-? isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change -2.13% (-3.74%, -0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-? isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:25353663

Marina, Anna; van Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L; Utzschneider, Kristina M

2014-01-01

110

Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions  

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Full Text Available Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10: 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10: 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate. Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNF?, IFN-? and oxidative stress (urinary F2-? isoprostanes were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI: change ?2.13% (?3.74%, ?0.52%, but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-? isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.

Anna Marina

2014-10-01

111

Periodontal disease: modulation of the inflammatory cascade by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

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Periodontal disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is caused by the interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune system. The ensuing oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade result in the destruction of gingival tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This article reviews the underlying mechanisms and host-bacteria interactions responsible for periodontal disease and evidence that nutritional supplementation with fish oil may provide a protective effect. Historical investigations of diet and disease have highlighted an inverse relationship between ingestion of fish oil, which is high in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the incidence of typical inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and coronary heart disease. Ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, results in their incorporation into membrane phospholipids, which can alter eicosanoid production after stimulation during the immune response. These eicosanoids promote a reduction in chronic inflammation, which has led to the proposal that fish oil is a possible modulator of inflammation and may reduce the severity of periodontal diseases. Tentative animal and human studies have provided an indication of this effect. Further human investigation is needed to establish the protective effects of fish oil in relation to periodontal disease. PMID:23889472

Sculley, D V

2014-06-01

112

Dietary milk fat globule membrane improves endurance capacity in mice.  

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Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) comprises carbohydrates, membrane-specific proteins, glycoproteins, phospholipids, and sphingolipids. We evaluated the effects of MFGM consumption over a 12-wk period on endurance capacity and energy metabolism in BALB/c mice. Long-term MFGM intake combined with regular exercise improved endurance capacity, as evidenced by swimming time until fatigue, in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of dietary MFGM plus exercise was accompanied by higher oxygen consumption and lower respiratory quotient, as determined by indirect calorimetry. MFGM intake combined with exercise increased plasma levels of free fatty acids after swimming. After chronic intake of MFGM combined with exercise, the triglyceride content in the gastrocnemius muscle increased significantly. Mice given MFGM combined with exercise had higher mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1? (Pgc1?) and CPT-1b in the soleus muscle at rest, suggesting that increased lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle contributes, in part, to improved endurance capacity. MFGM treatment with cyclic equibiaxial stretch consisting of 10% elongation at 0.5 Hz with 1 h on and 5 h off increased the Pgc1? mRNA expression of differentiating C2C12 myoblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Supplementation with sphingomyelin increased endurance capacity in mice and Pgc1? mRNA expression in the soleus muscle in vivo and in differentiating myoblasts in vitro. These results indicate that dietary MFGM combined with exercise improves endurance performance via increased lipid metabolism and that sphingomyelin may be one of the components responsible for the beneficial effects of dietary MFGM. PMID:25163913

Haramizu, Satoshi; Ota, Noriyasu; Otsuka, Atsuko; Hashizume, Kohjiro; Sugita, Satoshi; Hase, Tadashi; Murase, Takatoshi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

2014-10-15

113

Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease1234  

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A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed...

Siri-tarino, Patty W.; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B.; Krauss, Ronald M.

2010-01-01

114

Dietary meat and fat intake and prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fat exerts numerous complex effects on proinflammatory and immunologic pathways. Several epidemiological studies have examined the relationships between intake of fatty acids and/or foods high in fat and allergic rhinitis, but have provided conflicting findings. The current cross-sectional study investigated such relationships in Japan. Methods Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. The definition of rhinoconjunctivitis was based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for age; gestation; region of residence; number of older siblings; number of children; smoking; secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work; family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis; household income; education; and body mass index. Results The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months was 25.9%. Higher meat intake was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis: the adjusted odds ratio between extreme quartiles was 1.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-2.35, P for trend = 0.002. No measurable association was found between fish intake and rhinoconjunctivitis. Intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, ?-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and cholesterol and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake were not evidently related to the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis. Conclusions The current results suggest that meat intake may be positively associated with the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in young adult Japanese women.

Miyake Yoshihiro

2012-03-01

115

Dietary saturated fat and docosahexaenoic acid differentially effect cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl composition and Ca(2+) uptake, without altering permeability transition or left ventricular function.  

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High saturated fat diets improve cardiac function and survival in rodent models of heart failure, which may be mediated by changes in mitochondrial function. Dietary supplementation with the n3-polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3) is also beneficial in heart failure and can affect mitochondrial function. Saturated fatty acids and DHA likely have opposing effects on mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chain composition and mitochondrial membrane function, though a direct comparison has not been previously reported. We fed healthy adult rats a standard low-fat diet (11% of energy intake from fat), a low-fat diet supplemented with DHA (2.3% of energy intake) or a high-fat diet comprised of long chain saturated fatty acids (45% fat) for 6 weeks. There were no differences among the three diets in cardiac mass or function, mitochondrial respiration, or Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. On the other hand, there were dramatic differences in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chains. Dietary supplementation with DHA increased DHA from 7% to ?25% of total phospholipid fatty acids in mitochondrial membranes, and caused a proportional depletion of arachidonic acid (20:4n6). The saturated fat diet increased saturated fat and DHA in mitochondria and decreased linoleate (18:2n6), which corresponded to a decrease in Ca(2+) uptake by isolated mitochondria compared to the other diet groups. In conclusion, despite dramatic changes in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chain composition by both the DHA and high saturated fat diets, there were no effects on mitochondrial respiration, permeability transition, or cardiac function. PMID:24303101

O'Connell, Kelly A; Dabkowski, Erinne R; de Fatima Galvao, Tatiana; Xu, Wenhong; Daneault, Caroline; de Rosiers, Christine; Stanley, William C

2013-06-01

116

Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance metastatic dissemination of murine T lymphoma cells.  

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Epidemiological investigation and animal studies have shown that dietary n-3 PUFA prevent the development and progression of certain types of cancer. However, conflicting results have been reported by the few studies that focused on the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA on the development of metastases. In the present study, we investigated the metastatic dissemination of murine T lymphoma lines with different metastatic potential transplanted into mice fed a fish oil diet, compared with mice fed a maize oil diet. Transplantation of highly metastatic S11 cells into animals fed a fish oil diet induced a large lymphomatoid infiltration in the spleen, associated with an eight-fold increase in spleen weight, compared with normal animals on the same diet. In contrast, only a limited increase in spleen weight was found in animals transplanted with S11 cells while fed a maize oil diet. No significant increase in spleen weight was found in animals transplanted with low-metastatic 164T2 cells regardless of whether they were fed a fish oil or a maize oil diet. At the end of experiment, an overt cachexia was shown by animals fed a fish oil diet transplanted with S11 cells, but not by those transplanted with 164T2 cells. The particularly high pro-metastatic effect of dietary n-3 PUFA on S11 cells rules out the generalisation that dietary n-3 PUFA inhibit tumour growth and progression. PMID:19785932

Mannini, Antonella; Kerstin, Nadja; Calorini, Lido; Mugnai, Gabriele; Ruggieri, Salvatore

2009-10-01

117

High dietary saturated fat intake accentuates obesity risk associated with the fat mass and obesity-associated gene in adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) is the strongest genetic determinant of obesity identified to date. Dietary fat is a key environmental factor that may interact with genotype to affect risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study investigated associations among FTO rs9939609, obesity measures, and MetS phenotypes in adults and determined potential modulation by dietary fat intake at baseline and after a 7.5-y follow-up when MetS cases and controls were selected. FTO rs9939609 genotype, biochemical, dietary, and lifestyle measurements were determined in the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX study (n = 1754). FTO rs9939609 A allele carriers had a higher risk of being overweight or obese [OR = 1.66 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.57); P = 0.02] and of having a larger abdominal circumference [OR = 1.42 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.99); P = 0.04] compared with the TT homozygotes. These associations were independent of physical activity and energy intake and were maintained over the follow-up period, particularly in the MetS individuals. High dietary SFA intake (? 15.5% energy) and a low dietary PUFA:SFA intake ratio (<0.38) further accentuated the risk of having a BMI ? 25 kg/m(2) and being abdominally obese. Non-risk allele carriers appeared to be unresponsive to dietary SFA intake or to the dietary PUFA:SFA intake ratio with respect to obesity measures. In conclusion, FTO rs9939609 was associated with obesity measures, especially in those with the MetS, which was further exacerbated by high dietary SFA intake at baseline and 7.5 y later. These data indicate important novel modulation of genetic risk by dietary fat exposure in individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:22457394

Phillips, Catherine M; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; McManus, Ross; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Planells, Richard; Roche, Helen M

2012-05-01

118

Influence of dietary fat on beta-carotene absorption and bioconversion into vitamin A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fat facilitates the utilization of carotenoids and, based on serum beta-carotene or retinol responses following ingestion of meals containing carotene and fat sources, it has been reported that the amount of fat required in a meal may be minimal (approximately 3-5 g). However, the dietary fat requirement for optimal carotene utilization in humans cannot be fully ascertained without longer-term dose-response studies that measure the changes in vitamin A body stores in response to varying levels of dietary fat. In humans, vitamin A body stores can be determined by use of stable isotope-dilution methods. Animal studies have shown that although the level of dietary fat has no effect on serum vitamin A concentrations of animals fed beta-carotene, higher liver vitamin A concentrations were found in those that ingested higher fat levels. Other factors that might influence the relationship of fat intake and beta-carotene utilization include the type of fat ingested, physicochemical properties of the carotenoid source, amount of carotene ingested, whether fat and beta-carotene sources are provided in the same meal, the presence of helminthic infections, age, and vitamin A status. PMID:12002680

Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D

2002-04-01

119

Adipose tissue expansion and the development of obesity: influence of dietary fat type.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies indicate that the prevalence of obesity in adults has increased by 30% or more in the past decade, with increases in both genders and in all ethnic and racial populations and age groups. Obesity is associated with many chronic diseases and alterations in physiologic function including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, gallbladder disease and certain types of cancer. Much attention regarding dietary influences on obesity development or prevention has focused on high fat diets. Many studies have confirmed that high fat feeding leads to an expansion of adipose tissue mass through an increase in fat cell size and/or number and to the subsequent development of obesity. However, there is little definitive information on the effect of type of dietary fat, especially palm oil, on adipose tissue cellularity and the development of obesity. These studies were designed to determine whether dietary fat of different sources vary in their ability to produce obesity and to begin to elucidate the mechanism by which such divergence occurs. Male Osborne-Mendel rats were fed either a low fat (15% calories) or one of three high fat diets (65% calories) for 12 weeks. The predominant fat source in the high fat diets was either soybean oil, tallow, or palm-olein (a fraction of palm oil). Final body weight was not influenced by fat level or type; however, percent carcass lipid and fat pad weight were higher in soybean oil and tallow fed rats than in low fat and palm-olein fed rats. Fat pad specific increases in cell size and cell number were observed for tallow and soybean oil fed compared to low fat and palm-olein fed rats. Serum triglycerides were higher in the tallow and palm-olein fed rats compared to low fat fed rats; no significant effects of dietary fat type on serum cholesterol were observed. These results indicate that palm-olein, unlike tallow and soybean oil, were comparable to a low fat diet concerning fat pad weight, body composition and adipose tissue cellularity when fed for twelve weeks as 65% of energy intake. The lower fat storage in the palm-olein fed rats is perhaps associated with a slower rate of triglyceride uptake and/ or a reduced fat cell proliferative capacity. The influence of dietary fat type on the proliferative capacity of the pre-adipocytes and on the production of a local or systemic adipogenic factor is being determined in subsequent studies. PMID:24394654

Hausman, D B; Loh, M Y; Flatt, W P; Martin, R J

1997-03-01

120

Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorates acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae in BALB/c mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The immune benefits associated with the optimal intake of dietary fatty acids are widely known. The objective of the present investigation was to elucidate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) food source on acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Three different n-3 PUFA preparations (cod liver oil, Maxigard, and flaxseed oil) were orally supplemented and infection was induced in different groups of experimental mice. Mice fed olive oil and normal saline served as oil and saline controls, respectively. After 2 weeks of fatty acid feeding, no effect on the establishment of infection was observed when acute pneumonia was induced in animals. On the other hand, 6 weeks of n-3 PUFA administration was found to improve resistance in mice, as reduced lung bacterial load coupled with significant improvement in pathology was seen in infected mice. Alveolar macrophages collected from all 3 groups of mice fed n-3 PUFA exhibited a significant decrease in the level of apoptosis following infection with K. pneumoniae and an enhanced in vitro phagocytic potential for the pathogen. Lower lung levels of nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase were associated with a decrease in the severity of tissue damage. There was a significant increase in the lung levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?)). No significant change was observed in the levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10). This study highlights that dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation exerts an overall beneficial effect against acute experimental pneumonia. This mechanism is operative through upregulation of nonspecific and specific immune defenses of the host. PMID:23826960

Sharma, Sonica; Chhibber, Sanjay; Mohan, Harsh; Sharma, Saroj

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Impact of Dietary Fat Type and Amount on Growth Performance and Serum Cholesterol in Rabbits  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Literature data on the effect of dietary fat on growth performance in rabbits are inconclusive. For commercial rabbit production it is relevant to know to what extent dietary fat level and type can be manipulated. In the present study serum cholesterol was also analyzed because its relation to the amount and type of dietary fat was not known for rabbits. Approach: Young growing rabbits were fed diets containing one of four different levels (5.2-41.8 energy % of either coconut fat or corn oil. Fat was added to the diets at the expense of an isoenergetic amount of corn starch and dextrose in a 1:1 ratio. The diets were in pelleted form and supplied ad libitum. Results: Increasing fat intakes in the form of either coconut fat or corn oil enhanced weight gain and improved feed efficiency. The effect of coconut fat was maximal at 20.9 energy % (9.9%, w/w and the greatest effect of corn oil was seen at an inclusion level of 41.8 energy % (20.2%, w/w. As would be expected, replacement of dietary corn oil by coconut fat significantly decreased serum cholesterol concentrations. The cholesterol-lowering effect of corn oil versus coconut fat increased markedly with higher dietary inclusion levels of fat. Conclusion: The addition of fat to the diet improved growth performance. It is suggested to find out whether the present observations can be applied in the formulation of diets for fryer rabbits. The new observation for rabbits is that the hypocholesterolemic response to corn oil increased with higher intake levels.

A. Alhaidary

2010-01-01

122

Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on Stearoyl CoA-Desaturase gene expression in intramuscular lipids of lamb  

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Full Text Available The effect of replacement of dietary sunflower oil (SO with linseed oil (LO on Stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression was investigated. Thirty-six lambs were randomly assigned to four groups and fed with one of the experimental diets, consisting of lucerne pellets with oil (60 g/Kg. The diets varied in the percentage of the oil supplemented and were: 100% SO; 66.6% SO plus 33.3% LO; 33.3% SO plus 66.6% LO and 100% LO. The trial period was of 7 weeks. Longissimus dorsi was removed from each carcass and stored at - 80°C until the analysis. Total fatty acids composition was determined by gas-chromatograph, while SCD gene expression was assessed by Real-Time Reverse-Transcription PCR. Replacement of SO with LO decreases significantly the SCD mRNA content with a concomitant increment of polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA n-3. These results are related to the higher level of PUFA n-3 present in linseed than sunflower. Although, there were differences on mRNA level, there was not a simultaneously changes on SCD activity. In conclusion, PUFA n-3 act on the regulation of mRNA SCD level without affecting the activity of the relative enzyme.

Marcello Mele

2012-10-01

123

Polymorphisms in genes involved in fatty acid ?-oxidation interact with dietary fat intakes to modulate the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid ?-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9-2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA). Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187) and ACOX1 (rs17583163) genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid ?-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation. PMID:24647074

Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

2014-01-01

124

Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid ?-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid ?-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208 participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA. Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187 and ACOX1 (rs17583163 genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid ?-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation.

Annie Bouchard-Mercier

2014-03-01

125

Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid ?-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation  

Science.gov (United States)

A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid ?-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA). Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187) and ACOX1 (rs17583163) genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid ?-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation. PMID:24647074

Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

2014-01-01

126

Dietary oxidized poultry offal fat: broiler performance and oxidative stability of thigh meat during chilled storage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to [...] 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC). Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass characteristics were measured. Skinless and deboned thigh meat was stored chilled during 12 days, and samples were periodically collected to assess their quality and oxidative stability. Dietary oxidized fat did not affect bird performance or carcass characteristics. During chilled storage, meat color (L*, a* and b*) was not affected by dietary treatments; however, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances) values were higher (P

AMC, Racanicci; JFM, Menten; MAB, Regitano-d' Arce; EAFS, Torres; LM, Pino; AA, Pedroso.

127

Dietary saturated and monounsaturated fats protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by altering fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane in rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fats increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We evaluated the effect of dietary corn oil (CO, olive oil (OO, and beef tallow (BT on fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane and acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 15% (wt/wt CO, OO or BT for 6 weeks. After treatment with acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, samples of plasma and liver were taken for analyses of the fatty acid composition and toxicity. Results Treatment with acetaminophen significantly elevated levels of plasma GOT and GPT as well as hepatic TBARS but reduced hepatic GSH levels in CO compared to OO and BT groups. Acetaminophen significantly induced protein expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the CO group. In comparison with the CO diet, lower levels of linoleic acid, higher levels of oleic acids and therefore much lower ratios of linoleic to oleic acid were detected in rats fed OO and BT diets. Conclusions Dietary OO and BT produces similar liver microsomal fatty acid composition and may account for less severe liver injury after acetaminophen treatment compared to animals fed diets with CO rich in linoleic acid. These findings imply that types of dietary fat may be important in the nutritional management of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

Shim Eugene

2011-10-01

128

A Practical Guide for Estimating Dietary Fat and Fiber Using Limited Food Frequency Data.  

Science.gov (United States)

A methodology is presented for estimating daily intake of dietary fat and fiber based on limited food frequency data. The procedure, which relies on National Food Consumption Survey data and daily consumption rates, can provide baseline estimates of dietary patterns for health promotion policymakers. (SLD)

Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

1992-01-01

129

Trends in dietary fat and high-fat food intakes from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study participants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few longitudinal studies carried out in US adults have evaluated long-term dietary fat intakes and compared them with the national recommendations during the two-decade period when the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance increased substantively. In the present study, we examined trends in the intakes of dietary fats and rich dietary sources of fats in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort over a 17-year period. The cohort was established in 1971-75 with follow-up examinations being conducted approximately every 4 years. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ beginning in 1991 (exam 5). We included 2732 adults aged ? 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in macronutrient and food intakes using R. Over the 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy derived from total fat and protein increased (27·3-29·8% of energy and 16·8-18·0% of energy, respectively) and that derived from carbohydrate decreased (51·0-46·8% of energy; P-trend desserts, nuts, butter and sausages/processed meats increased, whereas the intake of milk, margarine, poultry, confectioneries, chips and breads decreased (P-trend < 0·001). In this cohort of predominantly Caucasian older adults, the percentage of energy derived from dietary fats increased over time, but it remained within the national recommendations of less than 35 % of total energy, on average. PMID:24047827

Vadiveloo, Maya; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

2014-02-01

130

Influence of high-fat diet from differential dietary sources on bone mineral density, bone strength, and bone fatty acid composition in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have suggested that high-fat diets adversely affect bone development. However, these studies included other dietary manipulations, including low calcium, folic acid, and fibre, and (or) high sucrose or cholesterol, and did not directly compare several common sources of dietary fat. Thus, the overall objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high-fat diets that differ in fat quality, representing diets high in saturated fatty acids (SFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or n-6 PUFA, on femur bone mineral density (BMD), strength, and fatty acid composition. Forty-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for 65 days on high-fat diets (20% by weight), containing coconut oil (SFA; n = 10), flaxseed oil (n-3 PUFA; n = 10), or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA; n = 11). Chow-fed rats (n = 10), at 105 days of age, were included to represent animals on a control diet. Rats fed high-fat diets had higher body weights than the chow-fed rats (p  0.05) or biomechanical strength properties (p > 0.05). Femurs of groups fed either the high n-3 or high n-6 PUFA diets were stronger (as measured by peak load) than those of the chow-fed group, after adjustment for significant differences in body weight (p = 0.001). As expected, the femur fatty acid profile reflected the fatty acid composition of the diet consumed. These results suggest that high-fat diets, containing high levels of PUFA in the form of flaxseed or safflower oil, have a positive effect on bone strength when fed to male rats 6 to 15 weeks of age. PMID:20962915

Lau, Beatrice Y; Fajardo, Val Andrew; McMeekin, Lauren; Sacco, Sandra M; Ward, Wendy E; Roy, Brian D; Peters, Sandra J; Leblanc, Paul J

2010-10-01

131

Dietary fat reduction behaviors among African American, American Indian, and white older adults with diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary self-management of diabetes is often difficult for older adults to practice, particularly in rural communities. We describe patterns and correlates of dietary fat reduction among older rural adults with diabetes of any type. In-home interviews were conducted with a multiethnic random sample of 701 adults ? 65 with diabetes from two North Carolina counties. The Fat and Fiber Behavior Questionnaire was used to measure dietary behaviors. Separate multiple linear regressions assessed effects of gender, ethnicity, and diabetes education. In general, scores were more favorable for practices that involved modifying food preparation (e.g., avoiding frying) and less favorable for practices that involved changing foods consumed (e.g., substituting fruits and vegetables as desserts or snacks). American Indians and African Americans had less favorable scores than whites, and diabetes education was associated with greater fat restriction for women than men. Older men and ethnic minorities with diabetes should be targeted for dietary change education. PMID:20396599

Quandt, Sara A; Bell, Ronny A; Snively, Beverly M; Vitolins, Mara Z; Wetmore-Arkader, Lindsay K; Arcury, Thomas A

2009-04-01

132

Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dietary Milk Fat  

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Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted on the utilization of milk fat as lipid energy source by Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (0.85±0.03 g. The fishes were fed with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20% milk fat based diets respectively for 8 weeks. The results obtained showed significant differences (p<0.05 for diets containing graded levels of milk fat in terms of weight gain, feed efficiency ratio and specific growth rate when compared with the control diet (0% milk fat. Among the milk fat based diets, containing that had 20% inclusion level of milk fat gave the highest specific growth rate and lowest feed conversion ratio. Carcass analysis showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05 between the control diet and milk fat based diets. Therefore, the results indicated efficient utilization of milk fat as protein sparing which would promote sustainable aquaculture in view of the high cost fish oil.

S.O. Fawole

2012-01-01

133

Dietary Role of Omega - 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA: A Study with Growing Chicks, Gallus domesticus  

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Full Text Available The 7 days old chicks, Gallus domesticus were fed with a diet supplemented with 2.5%, 5% and 10% of ?-3 enriched PUFA (containing 180mg of eciosapentaenoic acid and 120mg docosahexaenoic acid per gram oil for a period of 30 days. Dietary supplementation of PUFA promotes the growth of the birds that was reflected in the elevation of tissue protein, cholesterol and phospholipid along with a reduction in tissue triglycerides concentrations. Accumulation of ?-3 PUFA along with the depletion of ?-6 PUFA, oleic acid, myristic acid and stearic acid in the tissues was detected. Supplementations of 10% ?-3 enriched PUFA promote the health status of the bird as evident from 20% increase in the haemoglobin concentration of blood, 60% decrease in the serum LDH activity and with no change in the serum cholesterol profiles. 75% reduction in HMG CoA reductase activity along with 62% augmentation of the HMG CoA synthase activity in the liver was recorded which suggest the alteration of cholesterol metabolism in the bird.

R. Roy

2008-01-01

134

Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the development of renovascular hypertension in rats  

Science.gov (United States)

The consequences of a dietary n-3 PUFA supply was investigated on the blood pressure (BP) increase elicited by left renal artery stenosis in rats distributed in 3 groups (n = 8) fed for 8 weeks a semi-purified diet either as control diet or enriched diets (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, or eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA). The PUFA intake induced large alterations in heart and kidney phospholipid fatty acid profile, but did not influence body weight, cardiac hypertrophy, renal left atrophy and right hypertrophy. Within 4 weeks, BP raised from 120-180 +/- 2 mm Hg in the control group, but only to 165 +/- 3 mm Hg in the n-3 PUFA groups. After stabilization of BP in the 3 groups, the rats received a short administration of increasing dose of perindopril. The lower dose (0.5 mg/kg) moderately decreased BP only in the control group. With higher doses (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg) BP was normalized in the 3 groups, with a higher amplitude of the BP lowering effect in the control group. A moderate n-3 PUFA intake can contribute to prevent the development of peripheral hypertension in rats by a mechanism that may involve angiotensin converting enzyme.

Rousseau, D.; Helies-Toussaint, C.; Raederstorff, D.; Moreau, D.; Grynberg, A.

2001-01-01

135

Effect of dietary lipid source on conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in milk fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) found in ruminant milk fat are a byproduct of incomplete biohydrogenation of lipids by ruminal bacteria. We examined the effect of different dietary fat supplements and processing methods on CLA. In trial 1, dietary supplements of Ca salts of fatty acids from canola oil, soybean oil, and linseed oil increased CLA content of milk fat by three- to fivefold over the control diet. Trials 2 and 3 examined the effect of processing methods for heat treatment of full fat soybeans. In trial 2, extrusion, micronizing, and roasting resulted in two- to threefold greater concentrations of CLA in milk fat than the control diet (raw ground soybeans). In trial 3, different temperatures of extrusion (120, 130, and 140 degrees C) increased the CLA content of milk fat to a similar extent; CLA averaged 19.9 mg/g of fatty acids for the extrusion treatments compared with 4.2 mg/g of fatty acids for the control diet (raw ground soybeans). Fish oil (200 and 400 ml/d) was examined in trial 4 and both levels resulted in CLA concentrations in milk fat that were about threefold greater than the control diet. In trial 5, grain and silage from a high oil corn hybrid increased the CLA content of milk fat; however, responses were modest with the CLA concentration (mg/g of fatty acids) averaging 4.6 and 2.8 for diets with high oil hybrid and normal hybrid, respectively. Similarly, dietary supplements of animal fat byproducts (tallow plus yellow grease; trial 6) resulted in modest increases in the CLA content of milk fat. Overall, several dietary manipulations involving lipid sources and processing methods were identified that allow for a marked increase in the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk fat. PMID:11286421

Chouinard, P Y; Corneau, L; Butler, W R; Chilliard, Y; Drackley, J K; Bauman, D E

2001-03-01

136

Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the diets of Danish children, and to examine the associations between dietary GI, GL and body fatness. Data were collected during 1997-8 as part of the European Youth Heart Study. The study population comprised 485 children aged 10 years and 364 children aged 16 years from Odense County, Denmark. Dietary GI and GL were estimated using international food tables, and the associations between energy-adjusted dietary GI, GL and body fatness were analysed by multiple linear regression. The mean daily dietary GI value was 85 (SD 6 center dot 9) with a range of 62-111. No significant differences were found between age groups and gender. The daily dietary GL was higher among boys aged 16, with a GL of 330 (sd 95) (P < 0 center dot 05), compared with girls or younger boys. Dietary GL was higher among 10-year-old boys than girls (250 (sd 81) v. 230 (sd 66) P < 0 center dot 05), whereas dietary GL among 16-year-old girlswas 230 (sd 56). Neither dietary GI nor GL was associated with the sum of four skinfolds (Sigma SF) among girls or among 10-year-old boys. Among 16-year-old boys, significant associations were observed between dietary GI and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 60, SE=0 center dot 21, P=0 center dot 006), and between dietary GL and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 15, SE=0.06, P=0 center dot 009). In conclusion, dietary GI and GL were positively associated with body fatness among Danish boys aged 16 years, whereas no associations were found among girls or younger boys

Tetens, Inge

2005-01-01

137

21 CFR 101.75 - Health claims: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

...than 10 percent of calories from saturated fat...percent or less of total calories from all fat. Recommended...claim associating diets low in saturated...exercise, and the type of dietary pattern. A healthful diet low in...

2010-04-01

138

Interaction between dietary fat and exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased physical activity on subsequent sleeping energy expenditure (SEE) measured in a whole room calorimeter under differing levels of dietary fat. We hypothesized that increased physical activity would increase SEE. Six healthy young men participated in a randomized, single-blind, crossover study. Subjects repeated an 8-day protocol under four conditions separated by at least 7 days. During each condition, subjects consumed an isoenergetic diet consisting of 37% fat, 15% protein, and 48% carbohydrate for the first 4 days, and for the following 4 days SEE and energy balance were measured in a respiration chamber. The first chamber day served as a baseline measurement, and for the remaining 3 days diet and activity were randomly assigned as high-fat/exercise, high-fat/sedentary, low-fat/exercise, or low-fat/sedentary. Energy balance was not different between conditions. When the dietary fat was increased to 50%, SEE increased by 7.4% during exercise (P low (20%). Dietary fat content influences the impact of postexercise-induced increases in SEE. This finding may help explain the conflicting data regarding the effect of exercise on energy expenditure. PMID:24644241

Frost, Elizabeth A; Redman, Leanne M; de Jonge, Lilian; Rood, Jennifer; Zachwieja, Jeffrey J; Volaufova, Julia; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R

2014-05-01

139

The Influence of Different Vegetable Oils on Some ?-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Thigh and Abdominal Fat of Broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy sources, especialy vegetable oils, added to the combined fodder can segnificantly modefy the fatty acids profile of the chicken feed, thus through its control the fatty acids profile of the carcases can be modefied, through enrichment in some fatty acids. In this respect an experiment was coduced on broilers, made up of three experimental groups, fed with a combined base fodder (corn and soybean meal in which 2% of different energy sources were added (sunflower oil, soybean oil, linseed oil. At the end of the 42 days growing period, using gaz cromatography, the fatty acids profile, % of fatty acids in 100 g product (EPA,DPA, DHA, ? SFA, ? MUFA, ? PUFA from the studied cut pieces, were determined. The results obtained after statistc processing and interpretation of the data, showed the fact that regarding the fatty acids profile in chicken thigh and abdominal fat we can observe variations, what denotes that the fatty acids profile can be influenced by dietary factors, the quantity being yet determined by the participation % of the energy sources (vegetable oils, but also by the fatty acids content of the participating raw materials.

Drago? Sorin Fota

2011-05-01

140

The Clinical Efficacy of Dietary Fat Restriction in Treatment of Dogs with Intestinal Lymphangiectasia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL), a type of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), is a dilatation of lymphatic vessels within the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary fat restriction previously has been proposed as an effective treatment for dogs with PLE, but limited objective clinical data are available on the efficacy of this treatment. Hypothesis/Objectives To investigate the clinical efficacy of dietary fat restriction in dogs with IL that were unresponsive to prednisolone treatment or showed relapse of clinical signs and hypoalbuminemia when the prednisolone dosage was decreased. Animals Twenty-four dogs with IL. Methods Retrospective study. Body weight, clinical activity score, and hematologic and biochemical variables were compared before and 1 and 2 months after treatment. Furthermore, the data were compared between the group fed only an ultra low-fat (ULF) diet and the group fed ULF and a low-fat (LF) diet. Results Nineteen of 24 (79%) dogs responded satisfactorily to dietary fat restriction, and the prednisolone dosage could be decreased. Clinical activity score was significantly decreased after dietary treatment compared with before treatment. In addition, albumin (ALB), total protein (TP), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were significantly increased after dietary fat restriction. At 2 months posttreatment, the ALB concentrations in the ULF group were significantly higher than that of the ULF + LF group. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Dietary fat restriction appears to be an effective treatment in dogs with IL that are unresponsive to prednisolone treatment or that have recurrent clinical signs and hypoalbuminemia when the dosage of prednisolone is decreased. PMID:24673630

Okanishi, H; Yoshioka, R; Kagawa, Y; Watari, T

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Dietary fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There are inconsistent and limited data available to assess the relationship between fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We examined the consumption of total fat, fat sources and fat subtypes in relation to risk of EOC and its major histologic subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition which includes incident invasive (n=1095) and borderline (n=96) EOC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In multivariate models, we observed no association with consumption of total fat, animal or plant fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, monounsaturated fat, or fatty fish and risk of invasive EOC. There was, however, an increased risk of invasive EOC in the highest category of intake (Quartile 4 vs. Quartile 1) of polyunsaturated fat (HR=1.22, 95% CI=1.02-1.48, Ptrend=0.02). We did not observe heterogeneity in the risk associations in comparisons of serous and endometrioid histologic subtypes. This study does not support an etiological role for total fat intake in relation to EOC risk; however, based on observations of a positive association between intake of polyunsaturated fat and invasive EOC risk in the current and previous studies, this fat subtype warrants further investigation to determine its potential role in EOC development.

Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio

2014-01-01

142

Dietary fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are inconsistent and limited data available to assess the relationship between fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We examined the consumption of total fat, fat sources and fat subtypes in relation to risk of EOC and its major histologic subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition which includes incident invasive (n=1095) and borderline (n=96) EOC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In multivariate models, we observed no association with consumption of total fat, animal or plant fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, monounsaturated fat, or fatty fish and risk of invasive EOC. There was, however, an increased risk of invasive EOC in the highest category of intake (Quartile 4 vs. Quartile 1) of polyunsaturated fat (HR=1.22, 95% CI=1.02-1.48, Ptrend=0.02). We did not observe heterogeneity in the risk associations in comparisons of serous and endometrioid histologic subtypes. This study does not support an etiological role for total fat intake in relation to EOC risk; however, based on observations of a positive association between intake of polyunsaturated fat and invasive EOC risk in the current and previous studies, this fat subtype warrants further investigation to determine its potential role in EOC development. PMID:25155210

Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Dossus, Laure; Fagherazzi, Guy; Baglietto, Laura; Fortner, Renée T; Ose, Jennifer; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Gram, Inger Torhild; Quirós, J Ramón; Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta Castaño, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Chamosa, Saioa; Sonestedt, Emily; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Chajes, Veronique; Gunter, Marc J

2014-10-01

143

Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy predicts the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and biohydrogenation products in the subcutaneous fat of beef cows fed flaxseed.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the ability of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to estimate the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their biohydrogenation products in the subcutaneous fat of beef cows fed flaxseed. Subcutaneous fat samples at the 12th rib of 62 cows were stored at -80°C, thawed, scanned over a NIR spectral range from 400 to 2498 nm at 31°C and 2°C, and subsequently analysed for fatty acid composition. Best NIRS calibrations were with samples at 31°C, showing high predictability for most of the n-3 (R(2): 0.81-0.86; RMSECV: 0.11-1.56 mg g(-1) fat) and linolenic acid biohydrogenation products such as conjugated linolenic acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), non-CLA dienes and trans-monounsaturated fatty acids with R(2) (RMSECV, mgg(-1) fat) of 0.85-0.85 (0.16-0.37), 0.84-0.90 (0.21-2.58), 0.90 (5.49) and 0.84-0.90 (4.24-8.83), respectively. NIRS could discriminate 100% of subcutaneous fat samples from beef cows fed diets with and without flaxseed. PMID:21683533

Prieto, N; Dugan, M E R; López-Campos, O; McAllister, T A; Aalhus, J L; Uttaro, B

2012-01-01

144

Negligible changes in piglet serum clinical indicators or organ weights due to dietary single-cell long-chain polyunsaturated oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Single-cell oils are currently included in human infant formula as sources of the long-chain polyunsaturates (LCP) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) in many countries, but have not yet been approved for use in the USA. We prepared four bovine-milk-based formulas with AA/DHA=0, 34/17, 68/34 and 170/85 (mg per 100 kcal formula) provided by two commercial single-cell oils. These levels correspond approximately to 0, 1, 2 and 5 times the concentrations used in infant formulas and, due to greater consumption of formula per unit body weight, resulted in daily consumption of approximately 0, 3, 6 and 16 times those anticipated for human infants. All other dietary fat (47% of calories) was provided by a vegetable oil blend used in commercial human infant formulas. Domestic piglets were allowed to nurse with the sow for 24 h after parturition, then removed to individual cages and maintained on one of the four diets. At 30 days of age the piglets were sacrificed, and serum collected and organs weighed. With litters treated as a blocked variable, no significant differences among groups were found by analysis of variance for the following serum assays: alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and total protein. No significant differences were found for hematocrit or body weight. No significant differences were found among groups for weights of liver, brain, heart, lung, spleen, kidneys or lung, analyzed as absolute weight and as a fraction of body weight. Hematoxylin/eosin liver sections examined by light microscopy showed no abnormalities as evaluated by an independent pathologist. DHA content in liver and heart and AA content in heart showed significant dose-related accumulation (P<0.05) and confirmed enhanced tissue accretion of DHA and AA from both oils. We conclude that single-cell oils in formula consumed for 1 month in amounts up to 16-fold greater than proposed for human infants in the USA did not result in clinical chemistry or histopathologic indications of toxic effects in neonatal pigs. PMID:11893404

Huang, Meng-Chuan; Chao, A; Kirwan, R; Tschanz, C; Peralta, J M; Diersen-Schade, D A; Cha, S; Brenna, J T

2002-04-01

145

Effects of supplemental dietary calcium on quantitative and qualitative fecal fat excretion in man.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral calcium supplementation is thought to be a useful interventional agent to decrease colon cancer risk. This is supposedly due, at least in part, to the binding of bile acids and fatty acids by calcium in the colon, thus prohibiting the damaging effects of these substances to the epithelium. To determine the effects of calcium supplementation on fecal fat excretion, 24 subjects kept a fat and calcium constant diet for one week and were supplemented with either 0, 2 or 4 g elemental calcium as calcium carbonate in a double-blind fashion. At the end of the week 72-hour feces was collected, and total fat, neutral fat, fatty acids and the ratio of polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids (P/S ratio) were measured. Calcium dose-dependently increased the percentual excretion of total fat as related to fat intake: 6.8 +/- 0.9% during 0 g, 7.4 +/- 1.0% during 2 g and 10.2 +/- 1.4% during 4 g, r = 0.44, p = 0.03. This was due to increased fatty acid excretion, excretion of neutral fat was not affected, nor was the P/S ratio. It is concluded that calcium supplementation modestly increases fecal fatty acid excretion. No adverse metabolic effects are to be expected from this in case of long-term calcium supplementation in subjects at increased risk for colon cancer. PMID:7832578

Welberg, J W; Monkelbaan, J F; de Vries, E G; Muskiet, F A; Cats, A; Oremus, E T; Boersma-van Ek, W; van Rijsbergen, H; van der Meer, R; Mulder, N H

1994-01-01

146

Effects of partial replacement of dietary fat by olestra on dietary cholesterol absorption in man  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Olestra, a nonabsorbable fat substitute comprising long-chain fatty acid esters of sucrose, had been previously shown to reduce cholesterol absorption in humans when ingested at a level of 50 g/d. To determine whether or not a lower level of dietary olestra would also reduce cholesterol absorption, we studied the effect of 7 g of olestra twice a day in 20 normocholesterolemic male inpatients in a double-blind, crossover trial. Two 6-day diet treatment and stool collection periods were separated by a 14-day washout period. Half of the subjects received butter, and half, a butter-olestra blend during each treatment period according to a crossover design. All subjects ingested trace amounts of 3H-cholesterol and 14C-beta-sitosterol with the butter or the butter-olestra blend. Cholesterol absorption was determined from the 3H/14C ratios in the diet and in saponified and extracted stools according to previously validated methodology. Cholesterol absorption during the butter regimen was significantly greater than that during the olestra regimen (56.1% +/- 1.6% v 46.7% +/- 1.1%, P less than .01)

147

RGS6 Variants Are Associated With Dietary Fat Intake in Hispanics: The IRAS Family Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, a genome-wide association scan was completed in the IRAS (Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study) Family Study (IRASFS) Hispanic-American cohort. Multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) gene were found to be associated with adiposity phenotypes. RGS6 has shown downstream antagonistic interplay with opioid receptors, targets of fatty/sugary food agonists. The possibility that RGS6 promotes tolerance and tachyphylaxis among the opioid receptor is a plausible pathway for overconsuming fat/sugar-laden food. Therefore, we hypothesized that RGS6 variants are associated with intake of fatty/sugary foods. In 932 Hispanics from San Antonio and San Luis Valley, CO, the following dietary intake variables were assessed using the Block Brief 2000 food frequency questionnaire: total calories, total fat, % calories from fat, % calories from saturated fat, protein, % calories from protein, carbohydrates, % calories from carbohydrates, and daily frequency of servings of fats/oils/sweets. We tested for association between 23 SNPs in RGS6 and dietary intake using a variance components measured genotype approach. All models were adjusted for gender, recruitment site, admixture, BMI, and age. Using an additive genetic model, rs1402064 was associated with higher intake of fats/oils/sweets, total calories, total fat and saturated fat (P = 0.0007, 0.026, 0.023, and 0.024). SNPs rs847330 and rs847354 were associated with higher intake of fats/oils/sweets (P = 0.002 and 0.018), total fat (P = 0.040 and 0.048) and saturated fat (P = 0.044 and 0.041). Finally, rs769148 was associated with higher intake of fats/oils/sweets (P = 0.002). RGS6 is a new candidate gene for adiposity traits that may be associated with a behavioral tendency toward fat-laden food intake. PMID:21233807

Sibbel, Scott P.; Talbert, Matthew E.; Bowden, Donald W.; Haffner, Steve M.; Taylor, Kent D.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Norris, Jill M.

2013-01-01

148

Dietary fat level affecting histochemical radiosensitivity in dorsal aorta in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work has been conducted to investigate the effect of dietary fat status and/or cumulative whole body gamma radiation exposures up to 15 Gy the histochemical pattern of the dorsal aortas of male albino rats. Experimental animals were fed on either fat-rich or fat-free diet and the observations compared with those fed normal fat diet. The histochemical investigations has been confined to the concentration levels of mucopolysaccharide substance and total lipids. The dorsal aorta normal fat group showed higher content of PAS-positive material in the first two layers of the aorta wall in comparison with decreased amount of collagen fibers was shown in fat-rich group

149

Effect of dietary fat content on the incidence of obesity among ad libitum fed mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Graded increments in the fat-to-carbohydrate ratio of the diet elicited a gradual, but reversible increase in the average mass of body fat maintained by adult female (CDI) albino mice under ad libitum feeding conditions. In addition, the inter-individual variability in the animals' fat mass was greatly magnified by diets with a substantial fat content (greater than 30 percent of calories). As a result, the incidence of obesity (defined as one third or more of body weight as fat) increased progressively from 0 percent to 35 percent when the diet's fat content was varied from 1 percent to 64 percent of its total energy content. A state of weight maintenance can only become established when the relative rates of glucose and fatty acid oxidation are proportional, on average, to the carbohydrate-to-fat ratio of the diet. When diets with a relatively high fat content are consumed, a considerable enlargement of the adipose tissue mass appears to be necessary in many animals before weight maintenance becomes spontaneously established. It is proposed, therefore, that changes in the adipose tissue mass, along with shifts in the range in which glycogen levels are maintained, and other adaptive changes, contribute to bring about rates of fat oxidation commensurate with a diet's fat content. This impact of dietary composition on body composition may be a factor contributing to the increased incidence of obesity in affluent populations consuming diets with a substantial fat content. PMID:3830936

Salmon, D M; Flatt, J P

1985-01-01

150

N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent excessive fat deposition in adulthood in a mouse model of postnatal nutritional programming.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates whether improved quality of nutrients during early postnatal life has effects on adult metabolic profile and body composition in a murine model of nutritional programming. Male offspring of C57Bl/6j dams received a diet containing 21% energy (En%) as fat of either 100% vegetable oils [control (CTRL)] or 80% vegetable oils/20% tuna fish oil [rich in n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCP)] from postnatal day (PN) 2 to 42. Subsequently, mice of both experimental groups were switched to a western style diet (WSD; 21 En% fat, high saturated fatty acid [FA] content, and cholesterol) until dissection at PN98. Body composition was analyzed by dual x-ray absorptiometry during the WSD challenge. Results showed that a n-3 LCP-rich diet during postnatal life not only reduced fat accumulation by ?30% during the WSD challenge from PN42 to 98 (p < 0.001) but also led to a healthier plasma lipid profile, healthier plasma glucose homeostasis, and less hypertrophic adipocytes compared with CTRL. This study shows that postnatal nutrition has programming effects on adult body composition and metabolic homeostasis. In addition, it emphasizes that moderate alterations in fat quality during early postnatal life considerably affect adult metabolic health. PMID:20724957

Oosting, Annemarie; Kegler, Diane; Boehm, Günther; Jansen, Harm T; van de Heijning, Bert J M; van der Beek, Eline M

2010-12-01

151

On the binding ratio of ?-cyclodextrin to dietary fat in humans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available KL Catherine Jen,1,2 George Grunberger,3 Joseph D Artiss2,4 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2ArtJen Complexus Inc, Windsor, ON, Canada; 3The Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA; 4Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: ?-Cyclodextrin (?-CD, a soluble dietary fiber, has been shown to bind and eliminate nine times of its own weight in dietary fat. Studies with different animal models have reported that ?-CD preferentially binds saturated fatty acids, reducing saturated and trans fatty acid levels in blood. A clinical trial demonstrated that ?-CD prevented weight gain in obese diabetic patients. The present study was designed to examine whether ?-CD also shows a preference in binding saturated fatty acids in humans and to confirm the 1:9 binding ratio in humans. Sixty-six obese diabetic patients were recruited at the beginning of this 3-month, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to the Active or Placebo group. Blood samples and 3-day dietary records were collected at baseline and at the end of months 1, 2, and 3. A bottle of 180 tablets of active or placebo tablets was dispensed to each participant at the beginning of each month. Dietary records were analyzed using The Food Processor software. It was observed that ?-CD has a higher affinity towards saturated fats than to unsaturated fats. Participants with higher intakes of total and saturated fat lost more weight than those with lower intakes (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively. These data support the earlier observation in both in vitro and animal studies that ?-CD binds with dietary fat in a 1:9 ratio and further demonstrate the efficacy of ?-CD in binding to and eliminating dietary fat, especially saturated fats. ?-CD may play a significant role in reducing blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as stopping chronic weight gain. Keywords: FBCx®, fat binding capacity, 1:9 binding ratio, reducing blood cholesterol levels, saturated, dietary analysis

Jen KLC

2013-07-01

152

INFLUENCE OF DIETARY FAT ON LEPTIN AND INSULIN IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixty male albino rats were arranged into 5 equal groups which were used in this study to investigate the relation between leptin and insulin hormones under high fat intake and to assess the role of fresh vegetable intake on minimizing dyslipidemia.The results denoted that dietary fat caused significant increase in the levels of blood glucose and leptin hormone with significant decrease in insulin concentration and with prolonged high fat intake, insulin level was increased. However, the increased leptin and glucose indicated that prolonged fatty diet may cause insulin resistance. Addition of green vegetables to the diet normalized to a great extent the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, glucose and insulin

153

The intake of saturated fat and dietary fibre: a possible indicator of diet quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to assess if a simple dietary quality index (SDQI) is a useful indicator for nutritional quality in the Danish diet. Data from the Danish National Dietary Survey 2000-2 for adults (n 3151; age 18-75 years) were used to construct an SDQI based on the intake of dietary fibre and saturated fat. The SDQI was used to rank the individuals into three subgroups: the 25 % closest in meeting the recommended intakes of saturated fat and dietary fibre (compliers), the 25 % furthest away (non-compliers) and the 50 % in between (intermediates). Significant differences in food and nutrient intake between these subgroups were identified by intakes of food groups and intakes of nutrients followed by non-parametric tests. Compared with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2004 and the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, compliers had a significantly better nutrient profile than intermediates and non-compliers, as the diet of compliers contained more whole-grain cereals, fruits, vegetables and fish,and more frequently low-fat dairy products, lean meats and boiled potatoes. The diet of all subgroups, especially non-compliers, had a high content of nutrient-poor, energy-dense foods, for example, salty snacks, confectionery, and beverages, for example, soft drinks and alcohol. The SDQI is a simple and useful tool to characterise the diet quality of Danish adults.

Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Fagt, Sisse

2008-01-01

154

The effects of exercise on the storage and oxidation of dietary fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity has become a worldwide problem of pandemic proportions. By definition, obesity is the accumulation of excess body fat and it represents the long-term results of positive energy and fat balance. The failures in the regulatory mechanisms leading to the development of obesity are still not well understood, but there is growing evidence that exercise is an important element in obesity prevention. Exercise promotes energy/fat balance while providing beneficial alterations to obesity/overweight-related comorbidities and mortality. Also, exercise, in large part, influences whether the fate of dietary fat is storage or oxidation. Many factors including intensity, duration and type (aerobic vs anaerobic) of exercise, energy expended during exercise and individual fitness level impact the amounts of fat oxidised at any given time. Evidence suggests that moderate-intensity exercise yields the most cumulative (during and post-exercise) fat grams used for substrate in the average individual. All intensities of exercise, however, promote fat oxidation during the post-exercise period. We suggest that it is the effects of exercise on 24-hour fat balance that are most important in understanding the role of exercise in the prevention of fat accumulation and obesity. PMID:15896087

Hansen, Kent; Shriver, Tim; Schoeller, Dale

2005-01-01

155

Regulation of hamster hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA levels by dietary fats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of dietary fat on hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein(MTP) large subunit mRNA levels in the hamster was examined. Increasing the dietary fat concentration from 11.7 energy % to 46.8 energy % caused a 60% increase in hepatic MTP mRNA; this increase was shown to be dose-dependent (r = 0.688 p = 0.0023). MTP mRNA levels correlated significantly with several plasma lipoprotein cholesterol parameters. No significant relationship was observed between MTP mRNA and either plasma or VLDL triglyceride. The nature of the dietary fatty acids also influenced MTP mRNA levels, with trimyristin and tripalmitin enriched diets significantly elevating MTP mRNA relative to diets enriched in triolein and trilinolein. PMID:7626061

Bennett, A J; Billett, M A; Salter, A M; White, D A

1995-07-17

156

APOB-516 T allele homozygous subjects are unresponsive to dietary changes in a three-month primary intervention study targeted to reduce fat intake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary guidelines aim to control fat intake and reduce cardiovascular risk but an important interindividual variability occurs among subjects. The objective was to investigate whether the response of lipid and glucose homeostasis parameters after a three-month diet aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk could be modulated by the -516C/T polymorphism in the apolipoprotein B gene (APOB). Middle-aged men (n = 69) and women (n = 100) with moderate cardiovascular disease risk were advised to reduce total energy and fat intakes and replace saturated dietary fat by monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat. Subjects were genotyped for APOB-516C/T polymorphism. At the entry and at the end of the three-month period, fasting and postprandial plasma lipid analyses were performed. At entry, subjects homozygous for the APOB-516 T allele exhibited significantly lower fasting plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein B 48, triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins-triglycerides compared to C carrier subjects. After the diet period, while C carrier subjects presented a clear improvement of most biological parameters, paradoxically T/T subjects did not modify them. In addition, the apoB 48 postprandial response after a standardized mixed test meal was not improved in T/T subjects after the three-month diet, contrary to C allele carriers. Even though their phenotype at entry does not show any significant increase of risk factors when compared to other groups, subjects homozygous for the APOB-516 T allele are unresponsive to a healthy diet that improves cardiovascular risk status in the whole population. PMID:19841959

Hammoud, Ahd; Gastaldi, Marguerite; Maillot, Matthieu; Mercier, Charles S; Defoort, Catherine; Lairon, Denis; Planells, Richard

2010-03-01

157

Effects of Skip a Day Feeding and Dietary Fat Type on Abdominal Fat Pad and Blood Lipids in Broiler Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experiment carried out to study the effects of skip a day feeding and different dietary unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and carcass traits. A total of 720 10-days-old male Ross chicks were fed diets with Unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (U/S of 2, 3.5, 5 or 6.5 as ad lib or skip a day feeding program during 18-28 days of age. Generally at 28 day of age, chicks body, liver and abdominal fat pad weights and serum triglyceride concentration were significantly (p<0.05 lower and serum cholesterol level were significantly higher in the restricted compared with ad libitum birds. Re-feeding moved out these differences at 42 days of age except for body weight. The serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were decreased (p<0.05 by increased dietary U/S.

M. Nosrati

2006-01-01

158

TFAP2B Influences the Effect of Dietary Fat on Weight Loss under Energy Restriction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. Methods and Findings: Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. (Registration: ISRCTN25867281.) One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat%) in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6) greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1) greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p=0.00007). The replication study showed a similar (non-significant) interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i) the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii) the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii) the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i) the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii) the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii) some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. Conclusions: Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction.

Hansen, T.

2012-01-01

159

The role of Odontella aurita, a marine diatom rich in EPA, as a dietary supplement in dyslipidemia, platelet function and oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on the risk factors for high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and were fed with a standard diet (control; with the standard diet supplemented with 3% freeze-dried O. aurita (COA; with a high-fat diet (HF; or with the high-fat diet supplemented with 3% of freeze-dried O. aurita (HFOA for 7 weeks. In this study we evaluated the impact of these different diets on the risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 production, and oxidative stress. Results After 7 weeks of treatment, high fat feeding had increased final body weight, glycemia, triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol levels in plasma and liver compared to the control diet. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and basal platelet thromboxane B2 were also higher in the high-fat fed rats than in those in the control group. In the liver, oxidative stress was greater in the HF group than in the control group. O. aurita intake in HFOA-fed rats resulted in lower glycemia and lipid levels in the plasma and liver relative than in the HF group. Thus, in the HFOA group, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the tissues studied (plasma, liver, and platelets were higher than in the HF group. Platelet hyper-aggregability tended to decrease in HFOA-fed rats as basal platelet thromboxane B2 production decreased. Finally, O. aurita reduced oxidative stress in the liver, with lower malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusions O. aurita is a marine diatom rich in EPA as well as in other bioactive molecules, such as pigments. The synergistic effect of these microalgal compounds, displayed a beneficial effect in reducing the risk factors for high-fat induced metabolic syndrome: hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and oxidative stress.

Haimeur Adil

2012-10-01

160

Effects of Skip a Day Feeding and Dietary Fat Type on Abdominal Fat Pad and Blood Lipids in Broiler Chickens  

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This experiment carried out to study the effects of skip a day feeding and different dietary unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and carcass traits. A total of 720 10-days-old male Ross chicks were fed diets with Unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (U/S) of 2, 3.5, 5 or 6.5 as ad lib or skip a day feeding program during 18-28 days of age. Generally at 28 day of age, chicks body, liver and abdominal fat pad weights and serum triglyceride c...

Nosrati, M.; Qutbi, A.; Navidshad, B.; Mirhoseini, Z.; Jafari Sayadi, A.; Royan, M.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Potentiation of ethanol-induced pancreatic injury by dietary fat. Induction of chronic pancreatitis by alcohol in rats.  

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Effects of sustained ethanol intoxication and dietary fat content on pancreatic morphology were investigated in the rat model implanted with gastrostomy catheters, which permitted continuous intragastric infusion of ethanol plus liquid diet containing one of three levels of corn oil: 5% (low-fat), 25% (high-fat), and 35% (extra-high-fat) of total calories. After various durations of infusion ranging from 30 to 160 days, the pancreatic histology was examined. Mean blood alcohol levels achieved...

Tsukamoto, H.; Towner, S. J.; Yu, G. S.; French, S. W.

1988-01-01

162

Effects of Dietary Fat Source on Tissue Fatty Acid Composition of Carcasses From Heat-distressed Broilers  

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Male broilers (commercial strain) were used to evaluate the effects of diets differing in fat source on fatty acid composition of carcasses of heat-distressed broilers. Dietary treatments included corn oil, animal fat (tallow), fish oil and a dry blended (animal and vegetable) fat product fed in either a thermoneutral (TN) or heat-distressed (HD) environment. Diets were isocaloric with each containing an equal number of calories from fats. Birds were reared in floor brooder pens and ...

Smith, M. O.; Soisuvan, K.; Brown, H. E.; Sun, T. H.

2003-01-01

163

Effects of dietary fat levels on nutrient digestibility and production performance of growing-furring blue foxes (Alopex lagopus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine whether nutrient digestibility and production performance of growing-furring blue foxes (Alopex lagopus) are affected by different dietary fat levels. Sixty-four young animals were randomly assigned to four groups (A, B, C, D) provided with diets containing approximately 12%, 26%, 40%, 54% fat in the dry matter respectively. When dietary fat level was increased, the apparent digestibility of main nutrients except for crude carbohydrates, and gross energy were improved (p fur quality when the amount of fat content was over 40%. In conclusion, the experiment showed that dietary fat could significantly improve some nutrient utilization and significantly reduce feed/gain ratio as a main energy source. The most preferable fur quality and efficiency of ME used for gain were obtained when diet contained 26% fat level in growing-furring period. PMID:21740467

Geng, Y Y; Yang, F H; Xing, X M; Gao, X H

2012-08-01

164

Insulin resistance in adult rat offspring associated with maternal dietary fat and alcohol consumption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal diet during pregnancy has been reported to alter the offspring's ability to respond to a glucose challenge. The current studies report changes in basal and insulin-stimulated, in vitro glucose uptake in red (soleus) and white (extensor digitorum longus) muscle fiber types, as well as whole body insulin responsiveness of adult rat offspring associated with their mother's dietary fat and alcohol content during pregnancy. The offspring of Harlan-derived Sprague-Dawley female rats, dosed during pregnancy with ethanol (ETOH) via a liquid diet (35% of calories as ETOH) with either 12% or 35% of calories as fat, were compared with offspring from litters whose mothers were pair-fed an isocaloric amount of the liquid diet without ETOH. Maternal access to the liquid diets was terminated on day 20 of the pregnancies (sperm plug=day 0). The offspring were surrogate fostered within 48 h of birth to mothers which had consumed commercial chow throughout their pregnancy. Following weaning at 21 days of age, the offspring consumed only commercial rat chow and they were examined over the next 14 months for changes in glucose homeostasis as a consequence of in utero exposure to maternal dietary fat and/or alcohol. The 35% maternal fat diet resulted in both in vivo and in vitro decreases in insulin sensitivity. Thus, compared with adults whose mother's diet contained 12% fat, significant, in vitro muscle and in vivo whole body insulin resistance (measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamping) was observed in adult rats whose mothers consumed 35% of dietary calories as fat. The addition of ethanol to the maternal 35% fat diet further reduced the offspring's red muscle tissues in vitro response to insulin, but did not affect whole body insulin sensitivity. Muscle basal and insulin-stimulated receptor tyrosine kinase activity were significantly decreased (approximately -50%) by the 35% fat maternal diet but there was no compensatory increase in serum insulin or glucose levels. Based upon both in vivo and in vitro data, these studies suggested that in utero exposure to 35% fat has a sustained effect on the adult offspring's glucose uptake/insulin sensitivity and that the effect is paralleled, at least in part, by decreased insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity. In utero ETOH exposure resulted in the loss of basal and insulin-stimulated, in vitro glucose uptake in red muscle fibers but maternal dietary ETOH had no detectable effect on either in vivo insulin sensitivity or muscle tyrosine kinase activity. PMID:11927385

Elton, C W; Pennington, J S; Lynch, S A; Carver, F M; Pennington, S N

2002-04-01

165

Effect of dietary fat levels on the susceptibility of colonic cells to nuclear-damaging agents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of two levels and types of dietary fats on the susceptibility of colonic cells to the nuclear-damaging effect of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (MeIQ), and gamma-radiation was investigated. Corn oil and beef tallow were added to the semisynthetic diet at 5% and 20% levels (weight/weight). A diet-related effect was not evident until after two weeks of feeding. Animals (C57BL/6J female mice) that were given the 20% corn oil or beef tallow diets had significantly (p less than 0.05) more nuclear aberrations in their colons 24 hours following treatment with DMH (5 mg or 10 mg/kg body wt or MeIQ (100 mg/kg body weight) than did those given low-fat diets (5% corn oil or beef tallow). The nuclear-damaging effect of gamma radiation was unaffected by dietary treatments. A high-fat diet had the most pronounced effect on DMH-treated animals, and maximum nuclear aberrations were observed 24 hours following the treatment. Thus, we concluded that increased levels of dietary fats elevate the toxicity of DMH and MeIQ to colonic epithelial cells

166

It is time to revisit current dietary recommendations for saturated fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent to which a high intake of saturated fat (SFA) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a highly controversial topic. Dietary SFA primarily raises low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while having a relatively neutral impact on other key CVD risk factors. Recent epidemiological data also challenge the concept that SFA increases the risk of CVD. This short review provides arguments for the urgency to re-assess the association between dietary SFA and CVD risk in light of recent data on the subject. PMID:25293492

Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick

2014-12-01

167

Dietary fat and kinetics of chloesterol metabolism in miniature swine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Female, Hormel derived miniature swine were fed corn-soy rations containing 40% of energy as beef fat (SFA) or 8% beef fat and 32% safflower oil (PUFA) from a weight of 23 until 44 to 46 kg. At that time, surgery was performed to implant a cannula in the proximal jejunum. Two wk later, a second surgery was performed to implant cannulae in the portal vein and aorta. The pigs were fed sufficient ration to maintain weight in two meals per day. 4-14C-cholesterol was incubated with homologous serum and reinjected. Samples were withdrawn from the portal vein or aorta and the jejunal cannula at intervals. Specific activity of serum and jejunal cholesterol was determined. Bile acids were isolated, quantitated by enzymatic assay and specific activity was calculated. Diet did not affect T1/2 of serum cholesterol, but the fractional turnover rate from pool 2 to pool 1 was greater for SFA than PUFA. Pool 1 was larger for PUFA than SFA and the flow rate was greater between pools; there was greater net loss from PUFA than SFA fed pigs. Jejunal cholesterol kinetics were similar to serum from SFA but not PUFA pigs. Flow rates between pools were lower in jejunal than serum pools. Bile acid specific activity rose within 15 hr to a maximum, then exhibited a plateau for about two wk before beginning disappearance

168

The type of dietary fat affects the severity of autoimmune disease in NZB/NZW mice.  

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The type of dietary fat dramatically affects the onset of autoimmune disease in lupus-prone female New Zealand Black/New Zealand White F1 (B/W) mice. Disease development was strikingly slowed in mice fed a diet containing quantities of omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil, FO). By 10 months of age, 94% of the FO mice were still living, whereas all the mice fed a saturated fat diet (lard,L) were dead. Those mice fed a corn oil (CO) diet were intermediate with 35% alive at the 10-month time evaluation...

Alexander, N. J.; Smythe, N. L.; Jokinen, M. P.

1987-01-01

169

Effect of bile diversion on satiety and fat absorption from liquid and solid dietary sources  

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In previous studies, liquid fat has been used to determine the effect of bile diversion on fat absorption. Since protein digests, in addition to bile salts, are capable of solubilizing lipids, we hypothesized that fat incorporated in the protein-rich matrix of solid food would be less sensitive to bile diversion than fat ingested as an oil or liquid. Using [3H]glycerol triether as a nonabsorbable fat recovery marker, we determined how much [14C]triolein was absorbed from solid (chicken liver) and liquid (margarine) dietary sources. After a standard liquid/solid meal with either the chicken liver or margarine labeled, midintestinal chyme was collected for 6 hr, extracted, and counted for 14C and 3H activity. Zero, eighty, or one hundred percent of endogenous bile was diverted. Fat absorption from both chicken liver and margarine was nearly complete by midintestine with 0% diversion and was little affected by diversion of 80% of bile. Complete biliary diversion significantly decreased fat absorption from margarine (87.9 +/- 4.4 to 37.2 +/- 9.2%, P less than 0.05) but reduced [14C]triolein absorption from chicken liver less consistently and insignificantly (78.8 +/- 6.9 to 43.9 +/- 10.6%). These data indicate that fat absorption is not solely dependent on bile and support the hypothesis that fat ingested in a cellular matrix is less dependent on bile than liquid fat. Using these same animals but with the midintestinal cannulas plugged to expose the distal intestine to unugged to expose the distal intestine to unabsorbed luminal nutrients, we also demonstrated that bile diversion of an initial meal reduced food consumption at a meal offered 3 hr later

170

Reduced Dietary Omega-6 to Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio and 12/15-Lipoxygenase Deficiency Are Protective against Chronic High Fat Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is associated with metabolic perturbations including liver and adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Omega-6 fatty acids (?6) promote and omega-3 fatty acids (?3) reduce inflammation as they can be metabolized to pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) enzymatically produces some of these metabolites and is induced by high fat (HF) diet. We investigated the effects of altering dietary ?6/?3 ratio and 12/15-LO deficiency on HF diet-induced tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. We examined how these conditions affect circulating concentrations of oxidized metabolites of ?6 arachidonic and linoleic acids and innate and adaptive immune system activity in the liver. For 15 weeks, wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a soybean oil-enriched HF diet with high dietary ?6/?3 ratio (11?1, HFH), similar to Western-style diet, or a fat Kcal-matched, fish oil-enriched HF diet with a low dietary ?6/?3 ratio of 2.7?1 (HFL). Importantly, the total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat content was matched in the two HF diets, which is unlike most published fish oil studies in mice. Despite modestly increased food intake, WT mice fed HFL were protected from HFH-diet induced steatohepatitis, evidenced by decreased hepatic mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes and genes involved in lymphocyte homing, and reduced deposition of hepatic triglyceride. Furthermore, oxidized metabolites of ?6 arachidonic acid were decreased in the plasma of WT HFL compared to WT HFH-fed mice. 12/15-LO knockout (KO) mice were also protected from HFH-induced fatty liver and elevated mRNA markers of inflammation and lymphocyte homing. 12/15-LOKO mice were protected from HFH-induced insulin resistance but reducing dietary ?6/?3 ratio in WT mice did not ameliorate insulin resistance or adipose tissue inflammation. In conclusion, lowering dietary ?6/?3 ratio in HF diet significantly reduces steatohepatitis. PMID:25251155

Povero, Davide; Zhao, Iris C.; Chen, Mark; Nalbandian, Madlena; Miller, Yury I.; Chernavsky, Alejandra C.; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Sears, Dorothy D.

2014-01-01

171

Dietary Fat Content and Fiber Type Modulate Hind Gut Microbial Community and Metabolic Markers in the Pig  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2×2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease) and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose). High fat diets (HFD) resulted in a higher (P<0.05) total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05) the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05) expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO), a marker of peroxisomal ?-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity. PMID:23573202

Yan, Hui; Potu, Ramesh; Lu, Hang; Vezzoni de Almeida, Vivian; Stewart, Terry; Ragland, Darryl; Armstrong, Arthur; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.

2013-01-01

172

21 CFR 101.75 - Health claims: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

...pressure, diabetes, cigarette smoking, obesity (body weight 30 percent greater than...weight), and lack of regular physical exercise. (3) Intakes of saturated fat...overweight, cigarette smoking, lack of exercise, and the type of dietary...

2010-04-01

173

Influence of different dietary fats on triacylglycerol deposition in rat adipose tissue  

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It has been demonstrated that triacylglycerol (TAG) mobilization from adipose tissue is selective and depends on fatty acid (FA) chain length, unsaturation and positional isomerism. The present study was performed to determine the influence of dietary fat on the composition of TAG stored in rat perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissues. These results may provide information on the susceptibility of stored TAG to hydrolysis and further mobilization, and may help to establish an interrelations...

Perona, Javier S.; Portillo, Mari?a P.; Macarulla, M. Teresa; Tueros, Ana I.; Ruiz-gutie?rrez, Valentina

2000-01-01

174

The influence of dietary nucleotides and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the incorporation of [³H] arachidonic acid on experimental liver cirrhosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Influência dos nucleotídeos dietéticos e ácidos graxos poliinsaturados na incorporação de ácido araquidônico na cirrose hepática experimental. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar: a) a incorporação de [...] fbpe/alan/v50n3/art07for1.6.gif" WIDTH=36 HEIGHT=21>ácido araquidônico na mucosa intestinal, fígado e plasma, após 1, 3 e 5 horas de administração da emulsão radioativa, b) a incorporação preferencial em diferentes tecidos e c) os efeitos do tratamento dietético, por quatro semanas, com nucleotídeos e ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, em ratos com cirrose hepática induzida por tioacetamida. 209 ratas da raça Wistar, foram divididas em dois grupos (controle e TAA). O grupo TAA recebeu a tioacetamida na concentração de 300 mg/L, dissolvido na água de bebida, por quatro meses. Após este período, uma amostra de 6 animais de cada grupo foram sacrificados para confirmação das mudanças bioquímicas e histológicas, características do modelo experimental e trinta e seis animais foram utilizados para determinar a incorporação do radioisótopo. O restante dos animais foram divididos emquatro subgrupos. Cada grupo recebeu uma dieta suplementada com ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e nucleotídeos, isoladamente ou combinados. Após quatro meses de tioacetamida, a incorporação do ácido araquidônico resultou em: a) aumentada retenção na mucosa intestinal após 3 h, b) reduzida retenção no fígado após 3 e 5 horas, c) uma importante redução no plasma após 3 e 5 horas. O tratamento dietético com ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e nucleotídeos combinados promoveu uma redução do ácido araquidônico acumulado na mucosa intestinal e num aumento da incorporação no fígado e plasma. A suplementação simultânea de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e nucleotídeos dietéticos foi benéfica para reverter anormalidades do metabolismo lipídico existentes, neste modelo experimental de cirrose hepática. Abstract in english The purposes of this study were to determine: a) the incorporation of labeled arachidonic acid on the intestinal mucosa, the liver and plasma, after 1, 3 and 5 hours of administration, b)preferential incorporation by different t [...] issues, c) and the effects on experimental rats with thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis, after four weeks of a dietary supplementation with nucleotides and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. 209 female Wistar rats were divided into two groups (control and TAA group). The TAA group was given 300 mg of thioacetamide/L, in their drinking water for four months. After this period, a sample of 6 rats were taken from each group and examined, to evaluate the biochemical and histological changes of the experimental model, and 36 rats were taken to determine the incorporation of radioactivity by the groups. The rest of the animals were divided into four subgroups. Each group, receiving a supplementary diet with only long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and/or nucleotides or neither, for 4 weeks. After four months of thioacetamide, the incorporation of the arachidonic acid showed: a) an increased within 3 h in the intestinal mucosa, b) a decreased in the liver after 3 lo 5 h c) and a drastic decrease in the plasma after 3 to 5 h. With a dietary supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and nucleotides combined, there was a decrease of accumulate arachidonic acid in the intestine and a increase in the liver and plasma. The simultaneous supply of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and nucleotides was beneficial in the reversal of abnormalities of the lipid metabolism, in this experimental model of liver cirrhosis.

Luísa R.M., Leite; Eliane, Moreira- Vaz; Glorimar, Rosa; Andréa C., Pereira; Christianne R., Monteiro; Femanda J., Medeiros; Vera L.A., Chagas.

175

Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels  

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Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

2004-06-01

176

Socio-cultural perceptions and practices of dietary choices with focus on fat intake in middle aged  

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ABSTRACT Socio-cultural perceptions and practices of dietary choices with focus on fat intake in middle aged Pakistani women in Oslo ? a qualitative study Introduction: The nutritional transition has resulted globally in dietary changes, of which high intake of fats, sugar and refined carbohydrates are some of the main characteristics. This has resulted in increase in lifestyle diseases like type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease. In Norway, a dramatic increase of type 2 Diabetes has bee...

Dawes, Twinkle

2006-01-01

177

Effect of dietary fat type on anxiety-like and depression-like behavior in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fat plays an important role in higher brain functions. We aimed to assess the short and long term intake of three different types of dietary fat (soybean oil, lard, and fish oil) on anxiety-like and depression-like behavior in mice. For the short term intake assessment, a behavioral test battery for anxiety and depression was carried out for a 3-day feeding period. For the long term intake assessment, a behavioral test battery began after the 4-week feeding period. During the short term intake, the time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze was the longest in the fish oil fed group, followed by the soybean oil and lard-fed groups. The elevated plus-maze is a common animal model to assess anxiety, in which an increased time spent in the open arms indicates an anxiolytic effect. The difference between the fish oil-fed group and lard-fed group was statistically significant (p < 0.01), but there was no significant difference between the soybean oil-fed group and the other two groups. Similar results were observed after a 4-week feeding period. On the other hand, there was no significant difference among the three groups in behavior tests to evaluate depression. Thus, the dietary fat types appeared to influence anxiety but not depression in mice, both in short term (3 days) and long term (4 weeks) feeding. PMID:23667814

Mizunoya, Wataru; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Baba, Kento; Miyahara, Hideo; Shimizu, Naomi; Tabata, Kuniko; Kino, Takako; Sato, Yusuke; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide

2013-12-01

178

Acute liver failure caused by 'fat burners' and dietary supplements: a case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, nonconventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful. PMID:21499580

Yellapu, Radha K; Mittal, Vivek; Grewal, Priya; Fiel, Mariaisabel; Schiano, Thomas

2011-03-01

179

Dietary fat intake of Japanese male children and its associated factors: Results of the 1995 National Nutrition Survey in Japan  

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Full Text Available Aim: To clarify the factors associated with reported dietary fat intake by Japanese male children. Methods: This study is based on the data of a nationally representative cross-sectional study in Japan. Three hundred and seventy-seven male children (age, 6 - 11 years whose households were sampled in the 1995 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions of the People on Health and Welfare, and the 1995 National Nutrition Survey and whose parents were identified through record linkage between the 2 survey data sets were enrolled. Results: The final dataset in this study consisted of 377 boys with 329 of their parents. Fifty-two boys were found to be overweight (13.8%. The reported dietary fat intake was higher among the overweight boys than among the non-overweight boys. Maternal obesity was significantly associated with obesity in male children. Boys who frequently consumed foods from the “fats and lipids” group and the “meat” groups, and children from nuclear families rather than 3- generation families reported high dietary fat intake. In addition, parental fat intake was also significantly associated with fat intake of male children. Conclusions: Child and parental dietary habits along with the household status should be considered when implementing nutritional education programmes to control dietary fat intake and reduce the obesity risks of male children.

2012-12-01

180

Dietary Calcium Had No Reducing Effect on Body Fat and Weight Gain in Sprague-Dawley Rats  

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Full Text Available Recently, studies have focused on the effects of dietary calcium on the weight and fatness. Some of these studies have indicated that there is negative relationship between dietary calcium and body fat, while others have reported no such effects. There are also controversies over serum parathyroid hormone, as its mechanism, on body fat and weight. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of three dietary calcium levels (0.2%, 0.5% or 1.2% Ca2+ on body fat and weight gain in male Sprague-Dawley rats, using same diet composition for nutrients other than calcium. The study duration was 72 days. At the end, truncal blood samples were drawn from decapitated rats to measure the effects of diets on serum calcium, PTH and vitamin D. The carcasses were minced and homogenized to measure their body fat percent by the methods of Soxhelet. There were no significant effects of dietary calcium on food intake (p>0.05, body weight gain (p>0.05 or carcass fat content (p>0.05, while the serum PTH levels were inversely related to calcium intake (p<0.05. In conclusion, our findings do not support the effects of dietary calcium and parathyroid hormone on body fat and weight.

J.M. Malekzadeh

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Effect of dietary fat on x-ray-induced mammary cancer in Sprague-Dawley rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied the effect of dietary fat levels on the induction of mammary cancer by 350 rads total-body x-radiation given to noninbred albino Sprague-Dawley rats at 50 days of age. Compared to rats on a low-fat (LF) diet (5% lard), rats on a high-fat (HF) diet (20% lard) from 30 days of age had more tumors, with a higher multiplicity of carcinomas per rat. LF-fed groups exhibited a longer median tumor latency period than did HF-fed groups. A similar trend toward more tumors with an earlier time of death was seen in rats given single iv doses of 50 mg 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea/kg and fed an HF diet as compared to an LF diet

182

Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds) as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA) sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA) analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among t...

Pier Giorgio Peiretti

2012-01-01

183

21 CFR 101.75 - Health claims: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

...and “low fat” food; except that fish and game...Institutes of Health, or “Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary...is consistent with “Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary...claims that may be used in food labeling to describe...cigarette smoking, lack of exercise,...

2010-04-01

184

Dietary cholesterol, female gender and n-3 fatty acid deficiency are more important factors in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than the saturation index of the fat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The central feature of NAFLD is a disturbed fatty-acid metabolism with hepatic lipid accumulation. However, the factors that determine the severity of NAFLD, including the role of nutrition, gender, and plasma lipid levels, remain to be determined. Methods High-fat diets (42 en% fat, containing 0.2% cholesterol, were fed to male and female wild-type and hyperlipidemic APOE2ki C57BL/6J mice for three weeks. The fats were, in order of decreasing saturation, fractionated palm fat (fPF; ~95%, cocoa butter (CB; ~60%, olive oil (OO; ~15%, sunflower oil (SO; ~12%, and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (hoSO; ~7%. Plasma and liver triglycerides (concentration and composition, liver inflammation (Ccl2, Cd68, Tnf-? mRNA, and infiltration of macrophages (Cd68, Cd11b immunohistochemistry and neutrophils (Mpo were quantified. Results Addition of cholesterol to a low-fat diet decreased plasma HDL and increased (VLDL levels in APOE2ki mice. Plasma cholesterol levels in female, but not male APOE2ki mice correlated significantly with inflammation. Kupffer cells of inflamed livers were swollen. Wild-type mice refused the highly saturated fPF diet. The high-fat CB, OO, and SO diets induced hyperglycemia and a 2-fold increase in hepatic fat content in male, but not female wild-type mice (in females, hepatic fat content was similar to that in males fed a high-fat diet. All high-fat diets induced macrovesicular setatosis. APOE2ki mice were protected against high-fat diet-induced steatosis and hyperglycemia, except when fed a hoSO diet. This diet caused a 5-fold increase in liver triglyceride and mead-acid content, and an increased expression of lipogenic genes, suggesting a deficiency in poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Irrespective of the composition of the high-fat diet, oleic acid was the main triglyceride component of liver fat in wild-type and APOE2ki mouse livers. Liver inflammation was dependent on genotype (APOE2ki > wild type, gender (female > male, and cholesterol content (high > low of the diet, but not on dietary fat composition. Conclusions Dietary cholesterol plays a determining, independent role in inflammation, especially in female mice. The fatty-acid saturation of the diet hardly affected hepatic steatosis or inflammation.

Garcia Caraballo Sonia C

2011-01-01

185

Influence of dietary fats on serum phospholipid fatty acid composition and its relation to obesity in animals  

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Dietary fat and its relation to obesity has been a controversial issue for many years. Experimental data shows that most, though not all animals, which consume a high fat diet, will become obese. However, the effect of fatty acids on animal obesity has not been studied in detail. In order to evaluate the effects of low versus high fat diet on serum phospholipids fatty acids composition a 4-wk study was conducted on male Wister rats. The rats were fed low-fat (10% energy) and high-fat (46% ene...

Tepši? Vesna; Pavlovi? Mirjana; Risti?-Medi? Danijela; Risti? Vanja; Leki? N.; Tepši? Jasna; Debeljak-Marta?i? Jasmina; Mili?evi? M.; Glibeti? Marija

2008-01-01

186

Dietary Energy Density Affects Fat Mass in Early Adolescence and Is Not Modified by FTO Variants  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Dietary energy density (DED) does not have a simple linear relationship to fat mass in children, which suggests that some children are more susceptible than others to the effects of DED. Children with the FTO (rs9939609) variant that increases the risk of obesity may have a higher susceptibility to the effects of DED because their internal appetite control system is compromised. We tested the relationship between DED and fat mass in early adolescence and its interaction with FTO variants. Methods and Findings We carried out a prospective analysis on 2,275 children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Diet was assessed at age 10 y using 3-day diet diaries. DED (kJ/g) was calculated excluding drinks. Children were genotyped for the FTO (rs9939609) variant. Fat mass was estimated at age 13 y using the Lunar Prodigy Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scanner. There was no evidence of interaction between DED at age 10 y and the high risk A allele of the FTO gene in relation to fat mass at age 13 y (??=?0.005, p?=?0.51), suggesting that the FTO gene has no effect on the relation between DED at 10 y and fat mass at 13 y. When DED at 10 y and the A allele of FTO were in the same model they were independently related to fat mass at 13 y. Each A allele of FTO was associated with 0.35±0.13 kg more fat mass at 13 y and each 1 kJ/g DED at 10 y was associated with 0.16±0.06 kg more fat mass at age 13 y, after controlling for misreporting of energy intake, gender, puberty, overweight status at 10 y, maternal education, TV watching, and physical activity. Conclusions This study reveals the multi-factorial origin of obesity and indicates that although FTO may put some children at greater risk of obesity, encouraging a low dietary energy density may be an effective strategy to help all children avoid excessive fat gain. PMID:19259258

Johnson, Laura; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Rogers, Imogen S.; Ness, Andy R.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Smith, George Davey; Jebb, Susan A.

2009-01-01

187

Induction of lipid oxidation by polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin in small intestine of mice fed a high-fat diet  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, in particular the long chain marine fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA and eicosapentaenoic (EPA, are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Little is known of the molecular response to DHA and EPA of the small intestine, and the potential contribution of this organ to the beneficial effects of these fatty acids. Here, we assessed gene expression changes induced by DHA and EPA in the wildtype C57BL/6J murine small intestine using whole genome microarrays and functionally characterized the most prominent biological process. Results The main biological process affected based on gene expression analysis was lipid metabolism. Fatty acid uptake, peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation, and omega-oxidation of fatty acids were all increased. Quantitative real time PCR, and -in a second animal experiment- intestinal fatty acid oxidation measurements confirmed significant gene expression differences and showed in a dose-dependent manner significant changes at biological functional level. Furthermore, no major changes in the expression of lipid metabolism genes were observed in the colon. Conclusion We show that marine n-3 fatty acids regulate small intestinal gene expression and increase fatty acid oxidation. Since this organ contributes significantly to whole organism energy use, this effect on the small intestine may well contribute to the beneficial physiological effects of marine PUFAs under conditions that will normally lead to development of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes.

Hooiveld Guido JEJ

2009-03-01

188

Dietary manipulation reveals an unexpected inverse relationship between fat mass and adipose 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1  

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Increased dietary fat intake is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic disease. In transgenic mice, adipose tissue-specific overexpression of the glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) exacerbates high-fat (HF) diet-induced visceral obesity and diabetes, whereas 11?-HSD1 gene knockout ameliorates this, favoring accumulation of fat in nonvisceral depots. Paradoxically, in normal mice HF diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated...

Man, Tak Yung; Michailidou, Zoi; Gokcel, Adnan; Ramage, Lynne; Chapman, Karen E.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Morton, Nicholas M.

2011-01-01

189

An independent validation association study of carcass quality, shear force, intramuscular fat percentage and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content with gene markers in Australian lamb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous association studies revealed several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that explained the observed phenotypic variation for meat tenderness and long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of Australian lamb. To confirm the validity of these associated SNPs at predicting meat tenderness and omega-3 PUFA content, an independent validation study was designed. The OvineSNP50 genotypes of these animals were used to impute the 192 SNP Meat Quality Research (MQR) panel genotypes on nearly 6200 animals from the Cooperative Research Centre for Sheep Industry Innovation Information Nucleus Flock and Sheep Genomics Falkiner Memorial Field Station flock. Association analysis revealed numerous SNP from the 192 SNP MQR panel that were associated with carcass quality - fat depth at the C-site and eye muscle depth; shear force at day 1 and day 5 after slaughter (SF1 and SF5); and omega-3 PUFA content at P<0.01. However, 1 SNP was independently validated for SF5 (i.e. CAST_101781475). The magnitude of the effect of each significant SNP and the relative allele frequencies across Merino-, Maternal- and Terminal-sired progeny was determined. The independently validated SNP for SF5 and the associated SNP with omega-3 PUFA content will accelerate efforts to improve these phenotypic traits in Australian lamb. PMID:23948658

Knight, Matthew I; Daetwyler, Hans D; Hayes, Ben J; Hayden, Matthew J; Ball, Alex J; Pethick, David W; McDonagh, Matthew B

2014-02-01

190

Dietary saturated fat modulates the association between STAT3 polymorphisms and abdominal obesity in adults.  

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Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a key role in body weight regulation and glucose homeostasis, 2 important determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Dietary fat is a key environmental factor that may interact with genotype to affect MetS risk. In this study, we investigated the relationship between STAT3 polymorphisms and MetS phenotypes and determined potential interactions with dietary fatty acids. STAT3 polymorphisms (rs8069645, rs744166, rs2306580, rs2293152, and rs10530050), biochemical measurements, and dietary fat composition were determined in the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX study of MetS cases and matched controls (n = 1754). STAT3 polymorphisms were not associated with MetS risk. However, minor G allele carriers for rs8069645, rs744166, and rs1053005 and major GG homozygotes for rs2293152 had increased risk of abdominal obesity compared with noncarriers [odds ratio (OR) = 2.22, P = 0.0005; OR = 2.08, P = 0.0017; OR = 2.00, P = 0.0033; and OR = 1.95, P = 0.028, respectively]. The number of risk alleles additively increased obesity risk (P = 0.0003). Dietary SFA intake exacerbated these effects; among all participants with the highest SFA intake (> or =15.5% of energy), individuals carrying >2 risk alleles had further increased risk of obesity (OR = 3.30; 95% CI = 1.50-7.28; P = 0.0079) compared with those carrying < or =1 risk allele. Interaction analysis confirmed this gene-nutrient interaction whereby increasing SFA intake was predictive of increased waist circumference (P = 0.038). In conclusion, STAT3 gene polymorphisms influenced the risk of abdominal obesity, which is modulated by dietary SFA intake, suggesting novel gene-nutrient interactions. PMID:19776189

Phillips, Catherine M; Goumidi, Louisa; Bertrais, Sandrine; Field, Martyn R; Peloso, Gina M; Shen, Jian; McManus, Ross; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Planells, Richard; Roche, Helen M

2009-11-01

191

Fat maintenance is a predictor of the murine lifespan response to dietary restriction.  

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Dietary restriction (DR), one of the most robust life-extending manipulations, is usually associated with reduced adiposity. This reduction is hypothesized to be important in the life-extending effect of DR, because excess adiposity is associated with metabolic and age-related disease. Previously, we described remarkable variation in the lifespan response of 41 recombinant inbred strains of mice to DR, ranging from life extension to life shortening. Here, we used this variation to determine the relationship of lifespan modulation under DR to fat loss. Across strains, DR life extension correlated inversely with fat reduction, measured at midlife (males, r= -0.41, P<0.05, n=38 strains; females, r= -0.63, P<0.001, n=33 strains) and later ages. Thus, strains with the least reduction in fat were more likely to show life extension, and those with the greatest reduction were more likely to have shortened lifespan. We identified two significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting fat mass under DR in males but none for lifespan, precluding the confirmation of these loci as coordinate modulators of adiposity and longevity. Our data also provide evidence for a QTL previously shown to affect fuel efficiency under DR. In summary, the data do not support an important role for fat reduction in life extension by DR. They suggest instead that factors associated with maintaining adiposity are important for survival and life extension under DR. PMID:21388497

Liao, Chen-Yu; Rikke, Brad A; Johnson, Thomas E; Gelfond, Jonathan A L; Diaz, Vivian; Nelson, James F

2011-08-01

192

Are the Dietary Guidelines for Meat, Fat, Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Appropriate for Environmental Sustainability? A Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the current literature around the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations. The focus of the review is on collating evidence relating to environmental impacts of the dietary advice found in the World Health Organisation guidelines, and environmental impact literature: reducing the consumption of fat, reducing the consumption of meat-based protein and animal-based foods, and increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables. The environmental impact of reducing dietary fat intake is unclear, although reducing consumption of the food category of edible fats and oils appears to have little impact. However most, but not all, studies support environmental benefits of a reduced consumption of animal-based foods and increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. In general, it appears that adhering to dietary guidelines reduces impact on the environment, but further study is required to examine the environmental impacts of animal-based foods, and fruit and vegetable intake in depth. PMID:24926526

Reynolds, Christian John; Buckley, Jonathan David; Weinstein, Philip; Boland, John

2014-01-01

193

Reduced triglyceride secretion in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in obese compared to lean mice.  

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Full Text Available Obesity results in abnormally high levels of triglyceride (TG storage in tissues such as liver, heart and muscle, which disrupts their normal functions. Recently, we found that lean mice challenged with high levels of dietary fat store TGs in cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the absorptive cells of the intestine, enterocytes, and that this storage increases and then decreases over time after an acute dietary fat challenge. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity on intestinal TG metabolism. More specifically we asked whether TG storage in and secretion from the intestine are altered in obesity. We investigated these questions in diet-induced obese (DIO and leptin-deficient (ob/ob mice. We found greater levels of TG storage in the intestine of DIO mice compared to lean mice in the fed state, but similar levels of TG storage after fasting. In addition, we found similar TG storage in the intestine of lean and DIO mice at multiple time points after an acute dietary fat challenge. Surprisingly, we found remarkably lower TG secretion from both DIO and ob/ob mice compared to lean controls in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Furthermore, we found altered mRNA levels for genes involved in regulation of intestinal TG metabolism in lean and DIO mice at fasting and in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. More specifically, we found that many of the genes related to TG synthesis, chylomicron synthesis, TG storage and lipolysis were induced in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in lean mice, but this induction was not observed in DIO mice. In fact, we found a significant decrease in intestinal mRNA levels of genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in DIO mice in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Our findings demonstrate altered TG handling by the small intestine of obese compared to lean mice.

KimberlyK.Buhman

2012-02-01

194

Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) modulates the thermogenic and physical activity responses to high fat feeding and markedly influences dietary fat preference  

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Complete POMC deficiency causes a human syndrome of hypoadrenalism, altered skin and hair pigmentation and severe hyperphagic obesity. Heterozygote carriers of nonsense mutations are strongly predisposed to obesity. Pomc+/- mice have normal body weight on a chow diet but increase food intake and become more obese than wild-type littermates when placed on a high fat diet. In order to further explore the mechanisms whereby dietary fat interacts with Pomc genotype to produce obesity we examined ...

Tung, Yc Loraine; Rimmington, Debra; O’rahilly, Stephen; Coll, Anthony P.

2007-01-01

195

Effects of dietary chromium polynicotinate supplementation on performance, fat deposition and plasma lipids of broiler chickens  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the effect of chromium polynicotinate supplementation on performance, fat deposition and plasma lipids of broiler chickens. A total of 540 male broiler chicks (Cobb 500 were allotted to 6 dietary treatments. The dietary chromium polynicotinate levels were 0 (Control, 250, 500, 750, 1000 or 1250 ?g/kg, respectively. At 10-28 days of age (grower phase, the 500 ?g/kg concentration of chromium polynicotinate supplementation had a beneficial effect on feed intake and body weight gain of broilers (P<0.05. At 29-42 days of age (finisher phase, feed conversion ratio was decreased (P<0.05 in broilers fed with chromium polynicotinate supplement at levels of 250, 750, 1000 or 1250 ?g/kg. Chromium polynicotinate did not affect the abdominal fat pad deposition. The results indicated that the 500 ?g/kg level of chromium polynicotinate supplement decreased the plasma cholesterol concentration in the finisher phases. The chromium concentrations of 1000 and 500 ?g/kg were more effective at grower and finisher phases, respectively (P<0.05. Plasma triglyceride was not affected by dietary chromium concentration. The results from this study suggest that supplementation of chromium polynicotinate improved growth performance and influenced blood cholesterol concentrations, but in this respect, there was not dose related effects.

Yadollah Chashnidel

2010-02-01

196

The effect of dietary fat supplements on cholesterol metabolism in ruminants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The serum cholesterol on ruminant animals rises when supplemental fat is fed in a form that ensures the absorption of long-chain fatty acids. The effects of these fat supplements on cholesterol metabolism have been studied in sheep and goats. The proximal part of the small intestine was the major site of sterol synthesis in sheep. Supplementing the diet with fat significantly enhanced sterolgenesis in the small intestine both in vivo and in vitro, whereas in vitro sterolgenesis appeared to be suppressed in the liver. Increased intestinal sterolgenesis was seen with several varieties of fat, but was greatest when palm oil was fed. The reciprocal findings in the intestine and liver may reflect the increased requirement for cholesterol for the transport of triglyceride in chylomicrons and the secondary inhibiting effect of this cholesterol on sterol synthesis in the liver. Dietary fat supplementation did not alter the excretion of neutral steroids in the feces of goats but did not cause a marked reduction in the excretion of acidic steroids which may have been due to the decreased formation of sterols in the liver. In two lactating goats in which an injection of [14C] cholesterol was followed by daily intraruminal administration of labeled cholesterol, fat supplementation lowered the specific radioactivity of cholesterol in alimentary particles and in milk, being consistent with an increase in intestinally synthesized cholesterol. The hypercholesterolemia that develops in fat-fed ruminants appears to be primarily due to an increased intestinal biosynthesis of cholesterol but may also be partly due to a decreased fecal excretion of bile acids. PMID:712248

Nestel, P J; Poyser, A; Hood, R L; Mills, S C; Willis, M R; Cook, L J; Scott, T W

1978-09-01

197

Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Fats Unhealthy fats Healthy fats No doubt about it, ... your heart health with that single change! Unhealthy Fats Saturated Fat Why should you eat less saturated ...

198

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Fats Unhealthy fats Healthy fats No doubt about it, ... your heart health with that single change! Unhealthy Fats Saturated Fat Why should you eat less saturated ...

199

Cell signaling mechanisms of oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat: advances and challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

CD36 and two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), i.e., GPR120 and GPR40, have been implicated in the gustatory perception of dietary fats in rodents. These glycoproteins are coupled to increases in free intracellular Ca²? concentrations, [Ca²?](i), during their activation by dietary long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). The transient receptor potential type M5 (TRPM5) channel, activated by [Ca²?](i), participates in downstream signaling in taste bud cells (TBC). The mice, knocked-out for expression of CD36, GPR120, GPR40 or TRPM5 have a reduced spontaneous preference for fat. The delayed rectifying K? (DRK) channels believed to lie downstream of these receptors are also important players in fat taste transduction. The trigeminal neurons by triggering increases in [Ca²?](i) may influence the taste signal to afferent nerve fibers. Why are there so many taste receptor candidates for one taste modality? We discuss the recent advances on the role of CD36, GPR120, GPR40, TRPM5 and DRK channels, in signal transduction in TBC. We shed light on their cross-talk and delineate their roles in obesity as a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind their regulation could eventually lead to new strategies to fight against this condition. PMID:24269201

Gilbertson, Timothy A; Khan, Naim A

2014-01-01

200

Failure to ferment dietary resistant starch in specific mouse models of obesity results in no body fat loss  

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Resistant starch (RS) is a fermentable fiber that decreases dietary energy density and results in fermentation in the lower gut. The current studies examined the effect of RS on body fat loss in mice. In a 12 week study (study 1), the effect of two different types of RS on body fat was compared with two control diets (0% RS) in C57Bl/6J mice: regular control diet or the control diet that had equal energy density as the RS diet (EC). All testing diets had 7% (wt/wt) dietary fat. In a 16 week study (study 2), the effect of RS on body fat was compared with EC in C57BL/6J mice and two obese mouse models (NONcNZO10/LtJ or Non/ShiLtJ). All mice were fed control (0% RS) or 30% RS diet for 6 weeks with 7% dietary fat. On the 7th week, the dietary fat was increased to 11% for half of the mice, and remained the same for the rest. Body weight, body fat, energy intake, energy expenditure, and oral glucose tolerance were measured during the study. At the end of the studies, the pH of cecal contents was measured as an indicator of RS fermentation. Results: Compared with EC, dietary RS decreased body fat and improved glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice, but not in obese mice. For other metabolic characteristics measured, the alterations by RS diet were similar for all three types of mice. The difference in dietary fat did not interfere with these results. The pH of cecal contents in RS fed mice was decreased for C57BL/6J mice but not for obese mice, implying the impaired RS fermentation in obese mice. Conclusion: 1) decreased body fat by RS is not simply due to dietary energy dilution in C57Bl/6J mice, and 2) along with their inability to ferment RS; RS fed obese mice did not lose body fat. Thus, colonic fermentation of RS might play an important role in the effect of RS on fat loss. PMID:19739641

Zhou, June; Martin, Roy J; Tulley, Richard T; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Lissy, Elizabeth; McCutcheon, Kathleen; Keenan, Michael J

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Dietary intake of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction in coronary artery disease patients with or without diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study  

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Background: A beneficial effect of a high n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake has been observed in heart failure patients, who are frequently insulin resistant. We investigated the potential influence of impaired glucose metabolism on the relation between dietary intake of n-3 LCPUFAs and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with coronary artery disease.

Methods: This prospective cohort study was based on the Western Norway B-Vitamin...

Strand, Elin; Pedersen, Eva Ringdal; Svingen, Gard Frodal; Schartum-hansen, Hall; Rebnord, Eirik Wilberg; Bjørndal, Bodil; Seifert, Reinhard; Bohov, Pavol; Meyer, Klaus; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Nordrehaug, Jan Erik; Nilsen, Dennis W. T.; Berge, Rolf K.; Nyga?rd, Ottar

2013-01-01

202

The relation between dietary fructose, dietary fat and leptin responsiveness in rats  

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Others reported that rats fed a high-fructose diet for 6 months were leptin resistant. We tested peripheral and/or central leptin responses in rats fed fructose for shorter time periods. Rats fed a diet containing 60% energy (% kcal) fructose and 10% kcal fat diet for 21 days had the same serum triglycerides (TG), gained less weight than controls, decreased their food intake and weight gain in response to central injections of 0.5 or 1.0 ug leptin, but were resistant to an i.p. injection of 2...

Haring, Samantha J.; Harris, Ruth B. S.

2011-01-01

203

Effect of Some Dietary Oils and Fats on Serum Lipid Profile, Calcium Absorption and Bone Mineralization in Mice  

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Full Text Available Amount and type of fats in the diet have an important effect on bone health and lipid profile. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different types of dietary oils and fats on lipid profile, calcium absorption and bone mineralization in male mice. Mice weighing 25±5 g were divided into nine groups and fed on diets without oils or fats (control group and containing soybean oil, corn oil, olive oil, palm oil, sunflower oil, butter, animal fat or margarine. Mice fed on diet containing soybean oil or olive oil had the lowest levels of TG, TC, LDL-c and HDL-c as compared to the other groups. Diets with palm oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, butter, animal fat or margarine caused significant decreases in the serum level of calcium as compared to the effect of diet without oils or fats. Mice fed diet containing olive oil, butter or animal fat had significant increase in bone density, while those fed diet containing soybean oil, corn oil, sunflower oil or margarine had significant decreases in femur bone density, compared to the control group. The apparent calcium absorption was significantly increased by feeding diets containing soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, butter or animal fat. Dietary intake of vegetable oils improved lipid profile while butter, animal fat and margarine had the opposite effect. Butter and animal fats increased calcium and phosphorus deposition in femur bone more than vegetable oils.

Abd Elrahman M. Attia

2010-01-01

204

Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.  

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We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. PMID:22901684

Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

2013-01-01

205

Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer : a systematic review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and prospective cohort studies (PCS) were included as well as nested case-control studies. A few retrospective case-control studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) or monounsaturated fat (MUFA) lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose concentration in these comparisons. There was probable evidence for a moderate direct association between total fat intake and BW. Furthermore, there was convincing evidence that partial replacement of SFA with PUFA decreases the risk of CVD, especially in men. This finding was supported by an association with biomarkers of PUFA intake; the evidence of a beneficial effect of dietary total PUFA, n-6 PUFA, and linoleic acid (LA) on CVD mortality was limited suggestive. Evidence for a direct association between total fat intake and risk of T2DM was inconclusive, whereas there was limited-suggestive evidence from biomarker studies that LA is inversely associated with the risk of T2DM. However, there was limited-suggestive evidence in biomarker studies that odd-chain SFA found in milk fat and fish may be inversely related to T2DM, but these associations have not been supported by controlled studies. The evidence for an association between dietary n-3 PUFA and T2DM was inconclusive. Evidence for effects of fat on major types of cancer was inconclusive regarding both the amount and quality of dietary fat, except for prostate cancer where there was limited-suggestive evidence for an inverse association with intake of ALA and for ovarian cancer for which there was limited-suggestive evidence for a positive association with intake of SFA. This SR reviewed a large number of studies focusing on several different health outcomes. The time period covered by the search may not have allowed obtaining the full picture of the evidence in all areas covered by this SR. However, several SRs and meta-analyses that covered studies published before year 2000 were evaluated, which adds confidence to the results. Many of the investigated questions remain unresolved, mainly because of few studies on certain outcomes, conflicting results from studies, and lack of high quality-controlled studies. There is thus an evident need of highly controlled RCT and PCS with sufficient number of subjects and long enough duration, specifically regarding the effects of the amount and quality of dietary fat on insulin se

Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte

2014-01-01

206

Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and prospective cohort studies (PCS) were included as well as nested case-control studies. A few retrospective case-control studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) or monounsaturated fat (MUFA) lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose concentration in these comparisons. There was probable evidence for a moderate direct association between total fat intake and BW. Furthermore, there was convincing evidence that partial replacement of SFA with PUFA decreases the risk of CVD, especially in men. This finding was supported by an association with biomarkers of PUFA intake; the evidence of a beneficial effect of dietary total PUFA, n-6 PUFA, and linoleic acid (LA) on CVD mortality was limited suggestive. Evidence for a direct association between total fat intake and risk of T2DM was inconclusive, whereas there was limited-suggestive evidence from biomarker studies that LA is inversely associated with the risk of T2DM. However, there was limited-suggestive evidence in biomarker studies that odd-chain SFA found in milk fat and fish may be inversely related to T2DM, but these associations have not been supported by controlled studies. The evidence for an association between dietary n-3 PUFA and T2DM was inconclusive. Evidence for effects of fat on major types of cancer was inconclusive regarding both the amount and quality of dietary fat, except for prostate cancer where there was limited-suggestive evidence for an inverse association with intake of ALA and for ovarian cancer for which there was limited-suggestive evidence for a positive association with intake of SFA. This SR reviewed a large number of studies focusing on several different health outcomes. The time period covered by the search may not have allowed obtaining the full picture of the evidence in all areas covered by this SR. However, several SRs and meta-analyses that covered studies published before year 2000 were evaluated, which adds confidence to the results. Many of the investigated questions remain unresolved, mainly because of few studies on certain outcomes, conflicting results from studies, and lack of high quality-controlled studies. There is thus an evident need of highly controlled RCT and PCS with sufficient number of subjects and long enough duration, specifically regarding the effects of the amount and quality of dietary fat on insulin se

Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine; Haldorssoni, Thorhallur; Riserus, Ulf; Uusitupa, Matti; Becker, Wulf

2014-01-01

207

New Study Suggests Weight Loss from Gastric Bypass Might be Partly Due to Dietary Fat Aversion  

Science.gov (United States)

Press release on a recent study finding that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery leads to a significant reduction in dietary fat intake, and that this reduction may be due to digestive consequences and the hormone GLP-1. This study, ÃÂGastric Bypass Reduces Fat Intake and Preference,àwas conducted by Carel le Roux, Marco Bueter, Torsten Olbers, Hutan Ashrafian, Thanos Athanasious and Stephen Bloom, all of Imperial Weight Centre, Imperial College London, UK; Nadine Theis, Christian Löwenstein, and Thomas A. Lutz, the Institute of Veterinary Physiology Zurich, Switzerland; Malin Werling, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden; and Alan Spector, Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee. The study is published in the American Journal of Physiology àRegulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2011-07-27

208

Relationship of dietary fat and lysine level with body composition in broiler chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of varying dietary energy to protein/lysine ratio on the body composition of 300, day-old meat-type Tetra-82 hybrid broiler chicks was studied. Body composition was measured by computed tomography (CT) and direct chemical analysis.Ten chickens from each treatment group were euthanized, frozen and subjected to CT, after which carcasses were dissected and ground to obtain homogeneous samples for chemical analysis.Supplementation of the diet with lysine 6 g/kg did not change total body composition but positively influenced final body weight.In the group receiving added fat 40 g/kg and lysine 3 g/kg feed (F-LYS-I) the higher body weight ran parallel with a higher fat content

209

Dietary meat fats and burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors, in the elderly: a report from the MEDIS study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Dietary fats have long been associated with human health, and especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. Some observational studies have shown that reduction in dietary fats, and particularly cholesterol is associated with lower cardiovascular risk; however, other prospective studies or randomized controlled trials of dietary fat reduction or modification have shown varying results on CVD morbidity and mortality. In this work we evaluated the relationships between dietary fats and a cluster of CVD risk factors (i.e., diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, among elderly individuals without known CVD. In particular, dietary and clinical data from 1486 elderly (aged 65 to 100 years men and women living in Cyprus, Mitilini, Samothraki, Cephalonia, Crete, Lemnos, Syros, Naxos, Corfu and Zakynthos islands, and participated in the MEDIS study, were analysed. Data analysis revealed that 18.5% of males and 33.3% of females had three or four cardiovascular disease risk factors; the major source of fat was olive oil (mean intake for men and women 50.0 ± 19.3 g/day and 46.0 ± 16.8 g/day, p

Metallinos George

2010-03-01

210

Oral and gastrointestinal sensing of dietary fat and appetite regulation in humans: modification by diet and obesity  

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Full Text Available Dietary fat interacts with receptors in both the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal (GI tract to regulate fat and energy intake. This review discusses recent developments in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of fat, through its digestive products, fatty acids (FA, on GI function and energy intake, the role of oral and intestinal FA receptors, and the implications that changes in oral and small intestinal sensitivity in response to ingested fat may have for the development of obesity.

TanyaJLittle

2010-10-01

211

A novel mechanism for gut barrier dysfunction by dietary fat: epithelial disruption by hydrophobic bile acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impairment of gut barrier is associated with a fat-rich diet, but mechanisms are unknown. We have earlier shown that dietary fat modifies fecal bile acids in mice, decreasing the proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) vs. deoxycholic acid (DCA). To clarify the potential role of bile acids in fat-induced barrier dysfunction, we here investigated how physiological concentrations of DCA and UDCA affect barrier function in mouse intestinal tissue. Bile acid experiments were conducted in vitro in Ussing chambers using 4- and 20-kDa FITC-labeled dextrans. Epithelial integrity and inflammation were assayed by histology and Western blot analysis for cyclooxygenase-2. LPS was studied in DCA-induced barrier dysfunction. Finally, we investigated in a 10-wk in vivo feeding trial in mice the barrier-disrupting effect of a diet containing 0.1% DCA. DCA disrupted epithelial integrity dose dependently at 1-3 mM, which correspond to physiological concentrations on a high-fat diet. Low-fat diet-related concentrations of DCA had no effect. In vivo, the DCA-containing diet increased intestinal permeability 1.5-fold compared with control (P = 0.016). Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed a clear disruption of the epithelial barrier by 3 mM DCA in vitro. A short-term treatment by DCA did not increase cyclooxygenase-2 content in colon preparations. UDCA did not affect barrier function itself, but it ameliorated DCA-induced barrier disruption at a 0.6 mM concentration. LPS had no significant effect on barrier function at 0.5-4.5 ?g/ml concentrations. We suggest a novel mechanism for barrier dysfunction on a high-fat diet involving the effect of hydrophobic luminal bile acids. PMID:23203158

Stenman, Lotta K; Holma, Reetta; Eggert, Ariane; Korpela, Riitta

2013-02-01

212

Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer: a systematic review  

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Full Text Available The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW, risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, cardiovascular diseases (CVD, and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT and prospective cohort studies (PCS were included as well as nested case–control studies. A few retrospective case–control studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA or monounsaturated fat (MUFA lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose concentration in these comparisons. There was probable evidence for a moderate direct association between total fat intake and BW. Furthermore, there was convincing evidence that partial replacement of SFA with PUFA decreases the risk of CVD, especially in men. This finding was supported by an association with biomarkers of PUFA intake; the evidence of a beneficial effect of dietary total PUFA, n-6 PUFA, and linoleic acid (LA on CVD mortality was limited suggestive. Evidence for a direct association between total fat intake and risk of T2DM was inconclusive, whereas there was limited-suggestive evidence from biomarker studies that LA is inversely associated with the risk of T2DM. However, there was limited-suggestive evidence in biomarker studies that odd-chain SFA found in milk fat and fish may be inversely related to T2DM, but these associations have not been supported by controlled studies. The evidence for an association between dietary n-3 PUFA and T2DM was inconclusive. Evidence for effects of fat on major types of cancer was inconclusive regarding both the amount and quality of dietary fat, except for prostate cancer where there was limited-suggestive evidence for an inverse association with intake of ALA and for ovarian cancer for which there was limited-suggestive evidence for a positive association with intake of SFA. This SR reviewed a large number of studies focusing on several different health outcomes. The time period covered by the search may not have allowed obtaining the full picture of the evidence in all areas covered by this SR. However, several SRs and meta-analyses that covered studies published before year 2000 were evaluated, which adds confidence to the results. Many of the investigated questions remain unresolved, mainly because of few studies on certain outcomes, conflicting results from studies, and lack of high quality–controlled studies. There is thus an evident need of highly controlled RCT and PCS with sufficient number of subjects and long enough duration, specifically regarding the effects of the amount and quality of dietary f

Ursula Schwab

2014-07-01

213

Dietary structured lipids for post-weaning piglets: fat digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of tissues.  

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In four groups of post-weaning piglets the effects of triacylglycerol structure and fatty acid profiles of four dietary fats on apparent faecal nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of platelet and erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were examined. Dietary fats included as 10% (w/w) of the diets were two structured fats of rapeseed oil interesterified with tridecanoin (R1) or coconut oil (R2), respectively, one mixture of rapeseed oil and coconut oil (R3) and rapeseed oil as control (R4). Faeces and urine from piglets weaned at 28 days of age were collected quantitatively during three periods each of 5 days, in which the piglets were kept in metabolism cages for measurement of apparent faecal nutrient and energy digestibility and nitrogen retention. Apparent faecal fat digestibilities were significantly improved in groups fed interesterified fats or the physical mixtures (R1, R2 and R3) compared with rapeseed oil (R4). Apparent faecal nitrogen digestibility and retention were similar in all four groups in the three periods, but increased with time. Apparent faecal fat digestibilities were significantly improved from the first to the third week in the groups R1 and R2. Fatty acid profiles in platelet and erythrocyte membranes and in tissues reflected the fatty acid profile of the dietary fat, except for medium-chain fatty acids, which were only found in low proportions, indicating that 10:0 was mainly used as an energy source. PMID:16519757

Straarup, E M; Danielsen, V; Høy, C-E; Jakobsen, K

2006-04-01

214

Dietary structured lipids for post-weaning piglets: fat digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of tissues  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In four groups of post-weaning piglets the effects of triacylglycerol structure and fatty acid profiles of four dietary fats on apparent faecal nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of platelet and erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were examined. Dietary fats included as 10% (w/w) of the diets were two structured fats of rapeseed oil interesterified with tridecanoin (R1) or coconut oil (R2), respectively, one mixture of rapeseed oil and coconut oil (R3) and rapeseed oil as control (R4). Faeces and urine from piglets weaned at 28 days of age were collected quantitatively during three periods each of 5 days, in which the piglets were kept in metabolism cages for measurement of apparent faecal nutrient and energy digestibility and nitrogen retention. Apparent faecal fat digestibilities were significantly improved in groups fed interesterified fats or the physical mixtures (R1, R2 and R3) compared with rapeseed oil (R4). Apparent faecal nitrogen digestibility and retention were similar in all four groups in the three periods, but increased with time. Apparent faecal fat digestibilities were significantly improved from the first to the third week in the groups R1 and R2. Fatty acid profiles in platelet and erythrocyte membranes and in tissues reflected the fatty acid profile of the dietary fat, except for medium-chain fatty acids, which were only found in low proportions, indicating that 10:0 was mainly used as an energy source.

Straarup, Ellen Marie; HØy, Carl-Erik

2006-01-01

215

The effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation of rams on semen quality and subsequent quality of liquid stored semen.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation of rams on semen quality and subsequent sperm function of liquid stored semen. Mature rams of proven fertility were individually housed and were blocked according to breed, body weight, and body condition score and randomly allocated within block to one of two dietary treatments (N = 7 per treatment). Rams were offered a base diet of hay and concentrate, with the concentrate enriched with either: (1) saturated palmitic acid (CON) or (2) high n-3 PUFA fish oil (FO) supplements. Both lipid supplements were added at 2% (wt/wt) of the total diet as fed and both were partially rumen-protected. The animals were fed their respective diets for a total of 9 weeks and blood samples were collected on weeks 0 (pre-experimental), 4, and 9, relative to initial allocation of diet (week 0), for measurement of plasma concentration of fatty acids, metabolites, insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin. Semen was collected from each ram (on 1 day in each week) in weeks 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9, and each ejaculate was assessed for volume, wave motion, and concentration of sperm, after which it was diluted in a skim milk-based extender and stored at 4 °C. A second ejaculate was collected on weeks 4, 7, and 9, centrifuged, and the sperm frozen for subsequent lipid analysis. A sample of semen from each ram was assessed at 24, 48, and 72 hours after collection for sperm progressive linear motion, ability to penetrate artificial mucus, and the ability to resist lipid peroxidation (at 24 and 48 hours only) using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay. There was no effect of diet on plasma insulin concentrations or on any of the metabolites measured, however, there was a diet by week interaction for plasma IGF-1 concentration (P concentrations on week 9 compared with the control treatment (P concentrations of total n-3 PUFAs by 3.1-fold and decreased n-6 PUFA concentrations by 1.84-fold. Consequently, the ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFA was decreased in the FO-supplemented rams (P concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid in sperm from week 4 to 9 by 2.7-fold (P concentration (P ability to penetrate artificial mucus, or ability to resist lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of rams with n-3 PUFA successfully increased the n-3 PUFA content of plasma and sperm but has limited effects on the quality of liquid stored semen. PMID:24100164

Fair, S; Doyle, D N; Diskin, M G; Hennessy, A A; Kenny, D A

2014-01-15

216

The effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on attention and impulsivity in an animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD  

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Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The main symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. Both etiology and neurobiological basis of ADHD are unknown. In this context, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs, especially omega-3 (n-3 PUFAs, have become a focus of interest. The symptoms of ADHD have been suggested to be associated with a deficiency of n-3 PUFAs. In addition, the impact of a supply of dietary n-3 PUFAs in the treatment of ADHD has frequently been discussed. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of n-3 PUFA supplementation on attention and impulsivity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR which has been proposed to be a valid genetic animal model of ADHD. Methods: Seven-week-old male SHRs were randomly divided into two groups of 15 rats and fed one of two experimental diets (n-3 PUFA-enriched or n-3 PUFA-deficient prior to and during behavioral testing. Attention and impulsivity were assessed using a three-choice??serial-reaction-time-task (3CSRTT which is based on the five-choice-serial-reaction-time??task. The experiment was performed with three-month-old rats. Results: Our findings demonstrate a marked difference between groups regarding impulsivity but not attention. The n-3 PUFA-enriched diet significantly reduced impulsivity in SHRs compared with rats fed with the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet. Conclusion: The present data show a decrease in impulsivity following a dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation, but no changes in attention. A possible explanation for these results is that the attention displayed by SHR may not be linked to n-3 PUFA supply. It is important to note that inattention and impulsiveness are two of the main symptoms of ADHD. Our results regarding dietary n-3 PUFA supply may support the positive findings in human studies demonstrating that n-3 PUFA administration can improve the cognitive or behavioral symptoms in children with ADHD

Ewelina Makulska-Gertruda

2014-07-01

217

A common polymorphism near the interleukin-6 gene modifies the association between dietary fat intake and insulin sensitivity  

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Full Text Available Cristina Cuda1, Bibiana Garcia-Bailo1,2, Mohamed Karmali1,2, Ahmed El-Sohemy1, Alaa Badawi21Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, 2Office of Biotechnology, Genomics and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Increasing evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the development of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, have been associated with insulin resistance, and dietary lipids can increase cytokine production. The objective of this study was to determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism near the IL6 gene (rs7801406 modifies the relationship between dietary fat and markers of insulin sensitivity.Methods: Subjects were healthy men and women aged 20–29 years from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Dietary intake was estimated using a one-month semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken for genotyping and biomarker measurement.Results: The single nucleotide polymorphism was not associated with any of the measures of insulin sensitivity. However, it modified the relationship between total dietary fat and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.053 for interaction. Total fat intake was positively related to HOMA-IR in individuals homozygous for the G allele (ß = 0.005 ± 0.002, P = 0.03, but not among heterozygotes. There was an inverse relationship between total fat intake and HOMA-IR in individuals who were homozygous for the A allele (?= –0.012 ± 0.006, P = 0.047.Conclusion: These findings suggest that dietary fat influences insulin sensitivity differently depending on genotype.Keywords: interleukin-6, insulin sensitivity, nutrigenomics, dietary fat

Cuda C

2012-01-01

218

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... include: High-fat dairy products (whole or 2% milk, cream, ice cream, full-fat cheese) Egg yolks Liver and other organ meats High-fat meat and poultry skin Healthy Fats Monounsaturated Fat Monounsaturated fats are ...

219

Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weigth gain in growing rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p < 0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

Kristensen, Mette; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

2013-01-01

220

Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17-21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p <0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p <0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p <0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

Kristensen, Mette; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Linseed Dietary Fibers Reduce Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Fat and Weight Gain in Growing Rats  

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Full Text Available Dietary fibers (DF may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group: low DF control (C, 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL, CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL or ground linseed (5-GL, CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF, and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF. Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8% and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6% with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001. Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF. The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g, 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g, and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g (p < 0.05. The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01. In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

Arne Astrup

2013-08-01

222

Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17-21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p<0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p<0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p<0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

Tetens, Inge

2013-01-01

223

The impact of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone and cartilage in gilts and sows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary long-chain PFO including arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are precursors for several inflammatory mediators. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of dietary PFO supplementation on bone, cartilage, and synovial fluid in 2 ages of pigs. Sows and gilts were fed either control corn/soybean meal based diets or the control diet supplemented with PFO from Gromega (PFO; JBS United, Sheridan, IN). Sows were fed their diets for 24.5 mo and slaughtered at 43 mo while gilts were fed their diets from weaning until slaughter at 111 kg. Cartilage was harvested from both humeroulnar joints of 14 sows (7/treatment) and 16 gilts (8/treatment) within 30 h of slaughter for fatty acid analysis and explant cultures. Synovial fluid was collected from the carpal joints of each pig postmortem. The right fused radius/ulna was collected for computed tomography (CT) analysis. Cortical width and density were determined and trabecular density was measured at the distal radius. Cartilage explants were allocated to 24-well culture plates with 2 discs per well and cultured over 72 h at 37°C in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium: nutrient mixture F-12 (Ham) medium. Six wells/pig were treated with 10 ng/mL of recombinant porcine interleukin-1 (rpIL-1). At 24, 48, and 72 h of culture, media were removed and reserved for analysis of proteoglycans, nitric oxide (NO), and PGE2 concentrations. The CT scans of the radius/ulna from gilts revealed no differences for cortical width and bone density. Sows fed PFO had greater cortical width of the proximal ulna (P < 0.05) and decreased cortical width of the distal radius (P < 0.05). Sows fed PFO had increased DHA (P < 0.01) and a decrease in the omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (P < 0.05) in cartilage. Gilts fed PFO had increased DHA (P < 0.01), C22:1 (P < 0.01), and docosapentaenoic acid (P < 0.01) and a tendency for increased EPA (P = 0.093) concentrations in cartilage. Changes in dietary fatty acids in the gilts and sows had no effect on the variables tested in vitro. Although the PFO diet increased omega-3 incorporation into chondrocytes, the biological significance is unclear since concentrations of ARA were at least 9-fold higher than EPA or DHA. Therefore, if omega-3 fatty acids can mitigate inflammation in joints, the benefit would likely either be the result of systemic changes in inflammatory mediators or higher concentrations in the diet. PMID:25184850

O'Connor-Robison, C I; Spencer, J D; Orth, M W

2014-10-01

224

Dietary fat modulates the testosterone pharmacokinetics of a new self-emulsifying formulation of oral testosterone undecanoate in hypogonadal men.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the effect of dietary fat on the testosterone (T) pharmacokinetics in hypogonadal men following administration of a self-emulsifying capsule formulation of oral T undecanoate (TU). In an open-label, 2-center, 5-way crossover study, a single oral dose of TU containing 300-mg equivalents of T (maximum anticipated human dose per administration) was administered to 16 hypogonadal men with a washout period of at least 5 days between doses. All participants were randomized to receive the TU capsules fasting or 30 minutes after an approximately 800-calorie meal containing 10%, 20%, 30%, or 50% fat. Serial blood samples were collected from 2 hours predose to 25 hours postdose to determine serum T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Administering TU with a meal increased serum T concentrations, with the magnitude of the increase being directly dependent on the amount of fat in the meal. Average and peak serum T concentrations and area under the curve increased as the fat content of the meal was increased. Neither the high-fat meal (50% fat) nor the lower-fat meal (20% fat) showed a significant food effect relative to the normal-fat (Western diet) meal (30% fat). However, administering TU while fasting resulted in 50% or less of the cumulative exposure obtained when administered with 20%- to 50%-fat meals (albeit still substantial). A very-low-fat meal (10% fat) showed a significant food effect relative to the normal meal, but still exceeded the fasting condition by approximately 50%. Serum DHT concentrations showed corresponding increases to the serum T. As expected with the maximum anticipated clinical dose of TU (300 mg T), oral administration of this new formulation with food containing 20% to 50% dietary fat produced T levels at or above the upper range of adult men, and T levels trended higher as dietary fat content increased. Only with a very-low-fat diet (10%) or in a fasted state did a clinically significant food effect occur, but even then sufficient TU was absorbed with the self-emulsifying TU formulation to produce average serum T concentration predicted to be in the normal reference range (10 to 35 nmol/L). PMID:22790645

Yin, Anthony; Alfadhli, Eman; Htun, Michelle; Dudley, Robert; Faulkner, Sandra; Hull, Laura; Leung, Andrew; Bross, Rachelle; Longstreth, James; Swerdloff, Ronald; Wang, Christina

2012-01-01

225

Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer: a systematic review  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and prospective cohort studies (PCS) were included as well as nested case–control studies. A few retrospective case–control studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) or monounsaturated fat (MUFA) lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose concentration in these comparisons. There was probable evidence for a moderate direct association between total fat intake and BW. Furthermore, there was convincing evidence that partial replacement of SFA with PUFA decreases the risk of CVD, especially in men. This finding was supported by an association with biomarkers of PUFA intake; the evidence of a beneficial effect of dietary total PUFA, n-6 PUFA, and linoleic acid (LA) on CVD mortality was limited suggestive. Evidence for a direct association between total fat intake and risk of T2DM was inconclusive, whereas there was limited-suggestive evidence from biomarker studies that LA is inversely associated with the risk of T2DM. However, there was limited-suggestive evidence in biomarker studies that odd-chain SFA found in milk fat and fish may be inversely related to T2DM, but these associations have not been supported by controlled studies. The evidence for an association between dietary n-3 PUFA and T2DM was inconclusive. Evidence for effects of fat on major types of cancer was inconclusive regarding both the amount and quality of dietary fat, except for prostate cancer where there was limited-suggestive evidence for an inverse association with intake of ALA and for ovarian cancer for which there was limited-suggestive evidence for a positive association with intake of SFA. This SR reviewed a large number of studies focusing on several different health outcomes. The time period covered by the search may not have allowed obtaining the full picture of the evidence in all areas covered by this SR. However, several SRs and meta-analyses that covered studies published before year 2000 were evaluated, which adds confidence to the results. Many of the investigated questions remain unresolved, mainly because of few studies on certain outcomes, conflicting results from studies, and lack of high quality–controlled studies. There is thus an evident need of highly controlled RCT and PCS with sufficient number of subjects and long enough duration, specifically regarding the effects of the amount and quality of diet

Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine; Haldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Riserus, Ulf; Uusitupa, Matti; Becker, Wulf

2014-01-01

226

Dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y, attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E from total fat, saturated fat (SFA and monounsaturated fat (MUFA reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002 and SFA (p 97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions ?-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA. This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting nutrients.

Doak Colleen

2010-04-01

227

Metabolism and secretory function of white adipose tissue: effect of dietary fat  

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Full Text Available Approximately 40% of the total energy consumed by western populations is represented by lipids, most of them being ingested as triacylglycerols and phospholipids. The focus of this review is to analyze the effect of the type of dietary fat on white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory function, particularly on haptoglobin, TNF-?, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and adiponectin secretion. Previous studies have demonstrated that the duration of the exposure to the high-fat feeding, amount of fatty acid present in the diet and the type of fatty acid may or may not have a significant effect on adipose tissue metabolism. However, the long-term or short-term high fat diets, especially rich in saturated fatty acids, probably by activation of toll-like receptors, stimulated the expression of proinflammatory adipokines and inhibited adiponectin expression. Further studies are needed to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids affect white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory functions.Aproximadamente 40% do total de energia consumida pela população ocidental é representada pelos lipídios, a maioria dela sendo ingerida na forma de triglicerídeos e fosfolipídios. O foco desta revisão foi analisar o efeito dos tipos de gordura da dieta sobre o metabolismo e função secretora do tecido adiposo branco, principalmente, sobre a secreção de haptoglobina, TNF-?, inibidor do ativador de plasminogênio-1 e adiponectina. Estudos prévios demonstraram que durante a exposição de dietas hiperlipídicas, a quantidade e o tipo de ácidos graxos presentes na dieta podem ou não ter um efeito significante sobre o metabolismo do tecido adiposo. Entretanto, o tratamento a curto ou longo prazo com dieta hiperlipídica, especialmente rica em ácidos graxos saturados, provavelmente por ativar receptores toll-like, estimula a expressão de adipocinas pró-inflamatórias e inibe a expressão de adiponectina. Estudos adicionais são necessários para investigar os mecanismos celulares pelos quais os ácidos graxos da dieta afetam a função secretória e metabólica do tecido adiposo branco.

Cláudia M. Oller do Nascimento

2009-09-01

228

Body fat distribution with long-term dietary restriction in adult male rhesus macaques.  

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Dietary restriction (DR) is the only intervention that has been shown to increase average and median life span in laboratory rodents. The effect of long-term, moderate DR on body composition and fat distribution was evaluated in male rhesus monkeys. Thirty animals (8-14 years of age)fed either 30% less than baseline intake (R, n = 15) or allowed to eat to satiety (C, n = 15), have been assessed semiannually using somatometrics and dual-energy alpha-ray absorptiometry (DXA)for 7.5 years. R subjects have reduced body weight (p <.0001), total body fat (p < .0001), and percentage body fat located in the abdominal region (p < .05). In addition, there has been a sustained reduction in plasma leptin concentrations (p <.001). These findings suggest reduced risk for common morbidities, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, that are associated with advancing age and increased levels of bodyfat, especially in the visceral depot. PMID:10462160

Colman, R J; Ramsey, J J; Roecker, E B; Havighurst, T; Hudson, J C; Kemnitz, J W

1999-07-01

229

Evaluation of the impact of dietary petroselinic acid on the growth performance, fatty acid composition, and efficacy of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis of farmed Nile tilapia.  

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The present study aimed to investigate the potential role of dietary petroselinic acid (PSA) in enhancing the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content in fish tissues. Three isolipidic casein-based diets were formulated to comprise graded levels of PSA (0, 10, or 20% of total fatty acid) with the incremented inclusion of coriander seed oil. Fish growth and nutrient digestibility were not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by dietary PSA level. In general, dietary PSA affected the fatty acid composition of tilapia tissues and whole-body, which reflected dietary fatty acid ratios. Dietary PSA significantly (P < 0.05) increased ?-oxidation, particularly on ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6). This study provided evidence that PSA, a pseudoproduct mimicking the structure of 18:3n-6, did reduce ?-6 desaturation on 18:2n-6 but, contrary to popular speculation, did not stimulate more ?-6 desaturase activity on 18:3n-3. The overall ?-6 desaturase enzyme activity may be suppressed at high dietary levels of PSA. Nevertheless, the n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA biosynthesis was not significantly inhibited by dietary PSA, indicating that the bioconversion efficiency is not modulated only by ?-6 desaturase. The deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in liver and fillet lipids was higher in fish fed PSA-supplemented diets. PMID:23718861

Teoh, Chaiw-Yee; Ng, Wing-Keong

2013-06-26

230

Effect of Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Animals Susceptible or Resistant to Ventricular Fibrillation  

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Full Text Available The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs has been reported to reduce cardiac mortality following myocardial infarction as well as to decrease resting heart rate (HR and increase heart rate variability (HRV. However, it has not been established whether n-3 PUFAs exhibit the same actions on HR and HRV in individuals known to be either susceptible or resistant to ventricular fibrillation (VF. Therefore, HR and HRV (high frequency and total R-R interval variability were evaluated before and 3 months after n-3 PUFA treatment in dogs with healed myocardial infarction that were either susceptible (VF+, n = 31 or resistant (VF-, n = 31 to ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a 2 min coronary artery occlusion during the last minute of a submaximal exercise test. HR and HRV were evaluated at rest, during submaximal exercise and in response to acute myocardial ischemia at rest before and after either placebo (1 g/day, corn oil, VF+, n = 9; VF- n = 8 or n-3 PUFA (docosahexaenoic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters, 1-4g/day, VF+, n = 22; VF-, n = 23 treatment for 3 months. The n-3 PUFA treatment elicited similar increases in red blood cell membrane, right atrial, and left ventricular n-3 PUFA levels in both the VF+ and VF- dogs. The n-3 PUFA treatment also provoked similar reductions in baseline HR and increases in baseline HRV in both groups that resulted in parallel shifts in the response to either exercise or acute myocardial ischemia (that is, the change in these variables induced by physiological challenges was not altered after n-3 PUFA treatment. These data demonstrate that dietary n-3 PUFA decreased HR and increased HRV to a similar extent in animals known to be prone to or resistant to malignant cardiac tachyarrhythmias.

GeorgeEBillman

2012-03-01

231

Fats  

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Full Text Available ... doubt about it, carbohydrate gets all of the attention in diabetes management. More important than total fat is the type of fat you eat. There are "healthy fats" and "unhealthy fats." To lower you risk of heart disease, try to eat less saturated and trans fat — ...

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Fats  

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Full Text Available ... eat less saturated fat? Because saturated fat raises blood cholesterol levels. High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for ... Trans Fat Like saturated fat, trans fat increases blood cholesterol levels. It is actually worse for you than saturated ...

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Effect of sex and dietary fat intake on the fatty acid composition of phospholipids and triacylglycerol in rat heart  

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Variations in the fatty acid composition of lipids in the heart alter its function and susceptibility to ischaemic injury. We investigated the effect of sex and dietary fat intake on the fatty acid composition of phospholipids and triacylglycerol in rat heart. Rats were fed either 40 or 100 g/kg fat (9:1 lard:soybean oil) from weaning until day 105. There were significant interactive effects of sex and fat intake on the proportions of fatty acids in heart phospholipids, dependent on phosphol...

Slater-jefferies, Joanne L.; Hoile, Samuel P.; Lillycrop, Karen A.; Townsend, Paul A.; Hanson, Mark A.; Burdge, Graham C.

2010-01-01

234

A high-fat diet differentially affects the gut metabolism and blood lipids of rats depending on the type of dietary fat and carbohydrate.  

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The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats. PMID:24496299

Jurgo?ski, Adam; Ju?kiewicz, Jerzy; Zdu?czyk, Zenon

2014-01-01

235

Fats  

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Full Text Available ... healthy fats in their place. Instead of 1 cheese stick for an afternoon snack, have 12 almonds. ... High-fat dairy products such as full-fat cheese, cream, ice cream, whole milk, 2% milk and ...

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Fats  

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Full Text Available ... dairy products such as full-fat cheese, cream, ice cream, whole milk, 2% milk and sour cream. ... fat dairy products (whole or 2% milk, cream, ice cream, full-fat cheese) Egg yolks Liver and ...

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Fats  

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Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Fats Unhealthy fats Healthy fats No doubt about ...

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Fats  

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Full Text Available ... will have improved your heart health with that single change! Unhealthy Fats Saturated Fat Why should you ... is about 20 grams of saturated fat per day. That is not much when you consider just ...

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Fats  

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Full Text Available ... Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Fats Unhealthy fats Healthy fats No doubt ...

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Fats  

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Full Text Available ... carbohydrate gets all of the attention in diabetes management. More important than total fat is the type ... have improved your heart health with that single change! Unhealthy Fats Saturated Fat Why should you eat ...

 
 
 
 
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Fats  

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Full Text Available ... the attention in diabetes management. More important than total fat is the type of fat you eat. ... listed on the Nutrition Facts food label under total fat. As a general rule, compare foods with ...

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Dietary Fat Intake and Exercise among Two- and Four-Year College Students: Differences in Behavior and Psychosocial Factors  

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Given the demographic differences among two-year colleges and four-year universities and the relatively limited access to health education and campus-based health resources, this study compares the frequency of limiting dietary fat intake and exercising among two- and four-year college students. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18-25…

Berg, Carla J.; An, Lawrence C.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2013-01-01

243

21 CFR 101.75 - Health claims: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease.  

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...than ideal body weight), and lack of...claim associating diets low in saturated...claim states that diets low in saturated fat and...degree of risk reduction for coronary heart disease to diets low in dietary...excess body weight, high blood...

2010-04-01

244

An Educational Intervention for Reducing the Intake of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol among Middle-Aged and Older Women.  

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Middle aged and older women (n=14) attended a seminar on reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Their 4-month follow-up reflections showed they adopted an average of 14.5 of 34 dietary practices. Those with higher adoption scores tended to be older and had less education and lower income. (SK)

Gorman, Charlotte

2001-01-01

245

Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus fed high fat diets  

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Full Text Available Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1. Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam vigorously for 3 h and the results were compared with unexercised groups. Fish receiving 1,000 mg carnitine accumulated 2- to 3-fold more carnitine than fish receiving 15 mg carnitine. Plasma acyl-carnitine level was affected by an interaction between dietary treatment and exercise (P < 0.05. Adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine concentrations were higher in the white muscle (WM of exercised fish fed the high-carnitine supplements, compared with the low-carnitine fed fish (P < 0.05. Adenilate energy charge indexes were higher and ammonia concentrations were lower in WM of fish fed high-carnitine and high-fat diets. Dietary carnitine supplements may be needed in growing fish when dietary lipid level is high. In that case extra dietary carnitine can maintain the body energy reserves at adequate level when fish is exposed to a short-term, exhaustive exercise, a physiologic stress common both in nature and in intensive aquaculture systems.

Ozório Rodrigo

2005-01-01

246

Association between dietary fat and skin cancer in an Australian population using case-control and cohort study designs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Human studies of dietary fat as a possible risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC – principally basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC – have produced inconsistent results. We had the opportunity to examine the association concurrently for all three types of skin cancer in a population-based study in Tasmania, Australia, involving 652 cases of CMM, BCC and SCC and a common set of 471 controls. Methods Histopathologically-confirmed cases of CMM, BCC and SCC were ascertained from the Tasmanian Cancer Registry (TCR, and controls were selected at random from the state's electoral roll. We compared subjects categorised by thirds of dietary fat intake score measured by the 'Dobson short fat questionnaire', with logistic regression models that adjusted for age, sex, skin type and usual sun exposure. We then followed all subjects for 56–80 months until 31 August, 2004 for a new NMSC using record linkage with both the TCR and the Births, Deaths, and Marriages registry. Incidence rates were calculated and ratios of rates were estimated using Poisson models. Results Relative to subjects in the lowest fat intake category, the odds ratios (OR comparing cases and controls were OR = 0.76 (95% CI: 0.56–1.03 for medium fat intake, and OR = 0.62 (95% CI: 0.45–0.85 for high fat intake, with a significant (p p = 0.30. Conclusion Using the same dietary instrument with two study designs in the same Caucasian population, we found no evidence that high fat intake increases the risk of developing melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancers. Instead, our results suggest a risk reduction for high fat intake.

Fryer Jayne L

2006-05-01

247

Alterations of ultrastructural and fission/fusion markers in hepatocyte mitochondria from mice following calorie restriction with different dietary fats.  

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We analyzed ultrastructural changes and markers of fission/fusion in hepatocyte mitochondria from mice submitted to 40% calorie restriction (CR) for 6 months versus ad-libitum-fed controls. To study the effects of dietary fat under CR, animals were separated into three CR groups with soybean oil (also in controls), fish oil, and lard. CR induced differential changes in hepatocyte and mitochondrial size, in the volume fraction occupied by mitochondria, and in the number of mitochondria per hepatocyte. The number of cristae per mitochondrion was significantly higher in all CR groups compared with controls. Proteins related to mitochondrial fission (Fis1 and Drp1) increased with CR, but no changes were detected in proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion (Mfn1, Mfn2, and OPA1). Although many of these changes could be attributed to CR regardless of dietary fat, changing membrane lipid composition by different fat sources did modulate the effects of CR on hepatocyte mitochondria. PMID:23403066

Khraiwesh, Husam; López-Domínguez, José A; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; de Cabo, Rafael; Ramsey, Jon J; Villalba, José M; González-Reyes, José A

2013-09-01

248

Effects of supplementary dietary L-carnitine on performance and egg quality of laying hens fed diets different in fat level  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the effects of dietary L-carnitine supplementation on performance parameters and egg quality measurements of white Leghorn hens at two dietary fat levels. Two hundred 22-weeks old white Leghorn hens were randomly distributed into 40 cages of five birds each. Two basal diets different in added fat level (0 or 3% were formulated and supplemented with incremental levels of L-carnitine (0, 50, 100, 150 mg/kg diet. The experiment lasted 98 d (two weeks for adaptation and 12 weeks as the main experimental period. At the final day of trial, ten randomly selected hens per treatment were euthanized to measure abdominal fat content. Dietary inclusion of 3% soybean oil caused a significant (P<0.05 increase in egg weight and egg mass, and decrease in feed consumption by the birds. Daily energy intake, however, was not affected by dietary fat supplementation. Except of feed conversion ratio, none of performance parameters were found to be influenced by dietary fat by carnitine interaction. Feed conversion ratio improved (P<0.05 when L-carnitine was supplemented to diets contained in 3% added fat. The albumen height and subsequently Haugh unit were improved (P<0.05 by dietary supplementation of L-carnitine, particularly the level of 150 mg/kg; however, eggshell quality indexes (thickness and breaking strength were not affected by dietary L-carnitine inclusion, but influenced (P<0.05 by fat supplementation of diets. Moreover, dietary addition of fat increased abdominal fat percentage and supplementary dietary L-carnitine significantly (P<0.05 decreased abdominal fat and yolk cholesterol contents. From the present results, it can be seen that although the supplemental L-carnitine had no considerable effect on most performance parameters, it had a beneficial impacts on lipid metabolism and internal egg quality indexes of 24 to 36 wk-aged laying hens.

Rahman Jahanian

2010-02-01

249

Dietary calcium phosphate promotes Listeria monocytogenes colonization and translocation in rats fed diets containing corn oil but not milk fat.  

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Most Gram-positive bacteria are susceptible to the bactericidal action of fatty acids and bile acids. Because dietary calcium phosphate (CaP(i)) lowers the intestinal concentration of these antimicrobial agents, high CaP(i) intake may enhance intestinal colonization of Gram-positive pathogens and the subsequent pathogenesis. In this study, we tested this hypothesis in a rat model using Listeria monocytogenes. Rats were fed diets containing low (20 micromol/g diet) or high (160 micromol/g diet) amounts of CaP(i). Dietary fat was provided as corn oil or milk fat. Rats were orally inoculated with L. monocytogenes. When rats consumed diets containing corn oil, high CaP(i) intake indeed stimulated colonization of L. monocytogenes and increased L. monocytogenes translocation and diarrhea. In addition, supplemental CaP(i) enhanced ex vivo growth of L. monocytogenes in fecal extracts of rats fed corn oil diets, suggesting that high CaP(i) intake decreased a luminal inhibitory factor. The concentrations of bile salts and fatty acids, which were highly listericidal in vitro, were indeed considerably decreased in fecal water of rats in the high calcium corn oil group. Surprisingly, dietary CaP(i) did not affect colonization and translocation of L. monocytogenes in rats fed the milk fat diet, nor did CaP(i) enhance ex vivo growth in fecal extracts. This absence of Listeria stimulation was associated with a lack of effect of dietary CaP(i) on fecal soluble fatty acids. In addition, residual soluble bile salts were higher in rats fed the high CaP(i) milk fat diet compared with the high CaP(i) corn oil diet. These results suggest that the stimulating effect of CaP(i) on L. monocytogenes infection depends on the type of dietary fat consumed. PMID:12042445

Sprong, R Corinne; Hulstein, Marco F E; Van der Meer, Roelof

2002-06-01

250

Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Nutritional Status of Individuals by Stages of Change for Dietary Fat Reduction  

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Full Text Available Changes in lifestyle and food habits have been implicated in the increasing rate of nutrition related chronic diseases in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify socio-demographic characteristic and nutritional status of individuals by their readiness to reduce dietary fat intake. A total of 202 non-academic staff aged 18-56 years at Universiti Putra Malaysia participated in the study. Information on demographic, socio-economic and stages of change related to dietary fat reduction were collected using a pre-tested interview-administered questionnaire. Subjects were measured for weight, height and waist circumference. Fasting blood through venipuncture was obtained for triglycerides, LDL-, HDL- and total cholesterol. Energy and dietary fat intake were estimated based on two days 24 h diet recall. Chi-square test and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA were used for data analysis. Of the respondents, about 12% reported reduced fat intake, 20% were not committed to change and more than half (68% were in preparation stage. There was no significant association between stages of change and socio-demographic factors. Body mass index was highest in preparation group (Mean±SE = 24.93±0.35 kg/m2 [F = 5.686; p<0.01]. Men in action/maintenance group (Mean±SE = 76.22±4.17 cm had significantly lower adjusted mean waist circumference than those in preparation group (Mean±SE = 89.77±1.85 cm [F = 5.324, p<0.01]. No significant difference across stages was observed in waist circumference for women, lipid profile, caloric and fat intake. It is important to identify characteristics of individuals by their readiness to change dietary behaviors so that effective nutrition strategies can be developed and implemented to meet their dietary needs and goals.

C.Y. Wong

2009-01-01

251

Dietary fat modulation of mammary tumor growth and metabolism demonstrated by 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance  

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The relationship of dietary fat concentration and saturation on the growth and metabolic activity of line 168 was studied using syngeneic mice fed 6 experimental diets before and during tumor growth. Tumor latency was significantly greater for mice fed a diet containing the minimum of essential fatty acids (EFA, 0.5% corn oil) or 8% coconut oil (SF) than for mice fed 8 or 20% safflower oil (PUF) or 20% SF. Changes in dietary fat resulted in alterations of tumor cell and serum fatty acid composition but not the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor. 31P-surface coil NMR was used to measure possible changes in tumor metabolism in vivo. Although pH decreased from 7.2 to 6.6 as the tumor volume increased, there was no difference in pH among dietary groups. There was an inverse relationship between both sugar phosphate (SP)/Pi and ATP/Pi ratios and tumor volume; those ratios for mice fed an EFA deficient or minimal EFA diet decreased at a different rate than ratios for mice fed diets with additional fat. Tumors of mice fed diets containing no or a low level (0.3%) of 18:2 had higher SP/ATP ratios than mice fed diets containing a moderate level (? 4%) of 18:2. Thus, high levels of dietary fat had a significant effect on promotion of mammary tumors during early stages of tumor growth. Differences in tumor volume associated with dietary fat may be related to changes in the levels of high energy phosphate metabolites

252

Dietary fat interacts with PCBs to induce changes in lipid metabolism in LDL receptor deficient mice  

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From epidemiological studies, there is substantial evidence that cardiovascular diseases are linked to environmental pollution and that exposure to polycyclic and/or polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons can lead to human cardiovascular toxicity. A major route of exposure to PCBs in humans is via oral ingestion of contaminated food products. Therefore, circulating environmental contaminants derived from diets, such as PCBs, are in intimate contact with the vascular endothelium. Endothelial activation and dysfunction is an important factor in the overall regulation of vascular lesion pathology. In addition to endothelial barrier dysfunction, another functional change in atherosclerosis is the activation of the endothelium that is manifested as an increase in the expression of specific cytokines and adhesion molecules. These cytokines and adhesion molecules are proposed to mediate the inflammatory aspects of the disease by regulating the vascular entry of leukocytes. Alterations in lipid profile and lipid metabolism as a result of exposure to PCBs may be important components of endothelial cell dysfunction. Little is known about the interaction of dietary fats and PCBs in the pathology of atherosclerosis. We have reported a significant disruption in endothelial barrier function when cells were exposed to linoleic acid. In the current study we aimed to demonstrate the PCB-fatty acid interaction in vivo and hypothesized that PCB toxicity can be modulated by the type of fat consumed.

Hennig, B.; Reiterer, G.; Toborek, M.; Matveev, S.V.; Daugherty, A.; Smart, E. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States); Robertson, L.W. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)

2004-09-15

253

The fat of the matter: how dietary Fatty acids can affect exercise performance.  

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Fatty-acid composition of fat stores affects exercise performance in a variety of vertebrates although few such studies focus on flying vertebrates such as migratory birds, which are exceptional exercisers. We first discuss the natural variation in quality of fat available in natural foods eaten by migratory birds and their behavioral preferences for specific fatty acids in these foods. We then outline three proposed hypotheses for how dietary fatty acids can affect exercise performance, and some of the evidence to date that pertains to these hypotheses with special emphasis on the exercise performance of migratory birds. In theory, selectively feeding on certain long-chain unsaturated fatty acids may be advantageous because (1) such fatty acids may be metabolized more quickly and may stimulate key facets of aerobic metabolism (fuel hypothesis); (2) such fatty acids may affect composition and key functions of lipid-rich cell membranes (membrane hypothesis); and (3) such fatty acids may directly act as signaling molecules (signal hypothesis). Testing these hypotheses requires cleverly designed experiments that can distinguish between them by demonstrating that certain fatty acids stimulate oxidative capacity, including gene expression and activity of key oxidative enzymes, and that this stimulation changes during exercise. PMID:25009307

Pierce, Barbara J; McWilliams, Scott R

2014-11-01

254

Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG wasaffected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as dietary fat type significantly affects microbiota activity in the broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract.

Jozefiak, D; Kieronczyk, B

2014-01-01

255

Metabolism and secretory function of white adipose tissue: effect of dietary fat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Aproximadamente 40% do total de energia consumida pela população ocidental é representada pelos lipídios, a maioria dela sendo ingerida na forma de triglicerídeos e fosfolipídios. O foco desta revisão foi analisar o efeito dos tipos de gordura da dieta sobre o metabolismo e função secretora do tecid [...] o adiposo branco, principalmente, sobre a secreção de haptoglobina, TNF-?, inibidor do ativador de plasminogênio-1 e adiponectina. Estudos prévios demonstraram que durante a exposição de dietas hiperlipídicas, a quantidade e o tipo de ácidos graxos presentes na dieta podem ou não ter um efeito significante sobre o metabolismo do tecido adiposo. Entretanto, o tratamento a curto ou longo prazo com dieta hiperlipídica, especialmente rica em ácidos graxos saturados, provavelmente por ativar receptores toll-like, estimula a expressão de adipocinas pró-inflamatórias e inibe a expressão de adiponectina. Estudos adicionais são necessários para investigar os mecanismos celulares pelos quais os ácidos graxos da dieta afetam a função secretória e metabólica do tecido adiposo branco. Abstract in english Approximately 40% of the total energy consumed by western populations is represented by lipids, most of them being ingested as triacylglycerols and phospholipids. The focus of this review is to analyze the effect of the type of dietary fat on white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory function, p [...] articularly on haptoglobin, TNF-?, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and adiponectin secretion. Previous studies have demonstrated that the duration of the exposure to the high-fat feeding, amount of fatty acid present in the diet and the type of fatty acid may or may not have a significant effect on adipose tissue metabolism. However, the long-term or short-term high fat diets, especially rich in saturated fatty acids, probably by activation of toll-like receptors, stimulated the expression of proinflammatory adipokines and inhibited adiponectin expression. Further studies are needed to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids affect white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory functions.

Cláudia M. Oller do, Nascimento; Eliane B., Ribeiro; Lila M., Oyama.

256

Metabolism and secretory function of white adipose tissue: effect of dietary fat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Aproximadamente 40% do total de energia consumida pela população ocidental é representada pelos lipídios, a maioria dela sendo ingerida na forma de triglicerídeos e fosfolipídios. O foco desta revisão foi analisar o efeito dos tipos de gordura da dieta sobre o metabolismo e função secretora do tecid [...] o adiposo branco, principalmente, sobre a secreção de haptoglobina, TNF-?, inibidor do ativador de plasminogênio-1 e adiponectina. Estudos prévios demonstraram que durante a exposição de dietas hiperlipídicas, a quantidade e o tipo de ácidos graxos presentes na dieta podem ou não ter um efeito significante sobre o metabolismo do tecido adiposo. Entretanto, o tratamento a curto ou longo prazo com dieta hiperlipídica, especialmente rica em ácidos graxos saturados, provavelmente por ativar receptores toll-like, estimula a expressão de adipocinas pró-inflamatórias e inibe a expressão de adiponectina. Estudos adicionais são necessários para investigar os mecanismos celulares pelos quais os ácidos graxos da dieta afetam a função secretória e metabólica do tecido adiposo branco. Abstract in english Approximately 40% of the total energy consumed by western populations is represented by lipids, most of them being ingested as triacylglycerols and phospholipids. The focus of this review is to analyze the effect of the type of dietary fat on white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory function, p [...] articularly on haptoglobin, TNF-?, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and adiponectin secretion. Previous studies have demonstrated that the duration of the exposure to the high-fat feeding, amount of fatty acid present in the diet and the type of fatty acid may or may not have a significant effect on adipose tissue metabolism. However, the long-term or short-term high fat diets, especially rich in saturated fatty acids, probably by activation of toll-like receptors, stimulated the expression of proinflammatory adipokines and inhibited adiponectin expression. Further studies are needed to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids affect white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory functions.

Cláudia M. Oller do, Nascimento; Eliane B., Ribeiro; Lila M., Oyama.

2009-09-01

257

Stimulatory effects of high-fat diets on colon cell proliferation depend on the type of dietary fat and site of the colon.  

Science.gov (United States)

To compare the effects of various types of dietary fat on colon cell proliferation used as an intermediate biomarker for colon carcinogenesis, groups of 10 male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of four high-fat diets (45% of total calories from corn oil, butter, beef tallow, and fish oil) for three weeks. As a control, a low-fat diet (15% of total calories from corn oil) was fed to a separate group. Cell proliferation was measured by in vivo incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into DNA in the proximal and distal colon. Total lipids in feces were measured by a gravimetric method. There were significant differences in colon cell proliferation among the diet groups, where the high corn oil diet stimulated cell proliferation in proximal and distal colon compared with the high fish oil diet (p diet on cell proliferation was similar to that of the low corn oil diet. The effects of high beef tallow and butter diets on colon cell proliferation were highly dependent on sites of the colon, because the hyperproliferative effects by these diets were found only in the distal colon (p types of dietary fat and sites of the colon. PMID:9589429

Kim, D Y; Chung, K H; Lee, J H

1998-01-01

258

Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control, a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day (Flax drink, and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day (Flax bread. Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004

Kristensen Mette

2012-02-01

259

Dietary fat-dependent transcriptional architecture and copy number alterations associated with modifiers of mammary cancer metastasis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Breast cancer is a complex disease resulting from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among environmental factors, body composition and intake of specific dietary components like total fat are associated with increased incidence of breast cancer and metastasis. We previously showed that mice fed a high-fat diet have shorter mammary cancer latency, increased tumor growth and more pulmonary metastases than mice fed a standard diet. Subsequent genetic analysis identified several modifiers of metastatic mammary cancer along with widespread interactions between cancer modifiers and dietary fat. To elucidate diet-dependent genetic modifiers of mammary cancer and metastasis risk, global gene expression profiles and copy number alterations from mammary cancers were measured and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) identified. Functional candidate genes that colocalized with previously detected metastasis modifiers were identified. Additional analyses, such as eQTL by dietary fat interaction analysis, causality and database evaluations, helped to further refine the candidate loci to produce an enriched list of genes potentially involved in the pathogenesis of metastatic mammary cancer Udgivelsesdato: May 2010

Gordon, Ryan A; Merrill, Michele La

2010-01-01

260

Effect of dietary fat on hepatic liver X receptor expression in P-glycoprotein deficient mice: implications for cholesterol metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Pgp (P-glycoprotein, MDR1, ABCB1 is an energy-dependent drug efflux pump that is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC family of proteins. Preliminary studies have reported that nonspecific inhibitors of Pgp affect synthesis and esterification of cholesterol, putatively by blocking trafficking of cholesterol from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum, and that relative increases in Pgp within a given cell type are associated with increased accumulation of cholesterol. Several key efflux proteins involved in the cholesterol metabolic pathway are transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear hormone liver X receptor (LXR. Therefore, to examine the interplay between P-glycoprotein and the cholesterol metabolic pathway, we utilized a high fat, normal cholesterol diet to upregulate LXR? without affecting dietary cholesterol. Our research has demonstrated that mice lacking in P-glycoprotein do not exhibit alterations in hepatic total cholesterol storage, circulating plasma total cholesterol levels, or total cholesterol concentration in the bile when compared to control animals on either a normal (25% calories from dietary fat or high fat (45% calories from dietary fat diet. However, p-glycoprotein deficient mice (Mdr1a-/-/1b-/- exhibit increased hepatic LXR? protein expression and an elevation in fecal cholesterol concentration when compared to controls.

Lee Stephen D

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... For most people, eating this is about 20 grams of saturated fat per day. That is not ... just one ounce of cheese can have 8 grams of saturated fat. Many adults, especially women or ...

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Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Palm oil and palm kernel oil Coconut and coconut oil Poultry (chicken and turkey) skin The goal for ... provider. Saturated fat grams are listed on the Nutrition Facts food label under total fat. As a ...

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Full Text Available ... carbohydrate gets all of the attention in diabetes management. More important than total fat is the type ... However, if there is not at least 0.5 grams or more of trans fat in a ...

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Full Text Available ... calories the same by cutting back on the sources of saturated and trans fats, while substituting the ... oil is listed first in the ingredient list. Sources of trans fat include: Processed foods like snacks ( ...

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Full Text Available ... that contain it. Trans fats are produced when liquid oil is made into a solid fat. This ... do not contain hydrogenated oil or where a liquid oil is listed first in the ingredient list. ...

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Full Text Available ... with diabetes are at high risk for heart disease and limiting your saturated fat can help lower your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Foods containing saturated fat include: Lard Fatback and salt ...

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Full Text Available ... food label under total fat. As a general rule, compare foods with less saturated fat. Foods with ... Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know ...

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Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... LDL) cholesterol. Sources of monounsaturated fat include: Avocado Canola oil Nuts like almonds, cashews, pecans, and peanuts Olive ... more monounsaturated fats, try to substitute olive or canola oil instead of butter, margarine or shortening when cooking. ...

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Full Text Available ... provider. Saturated fat grams are listed on the Nutrition Facts food label under total fat. As a ... 24, 2014 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-nutrition, In this section Food What Can I Eat ...

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Full Text Available ... and "unhealthy fats." To lower you risk of heart disease, try to eat less saturated and trans fat — ... High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease. People with diabetes are at high risk for ...

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Full Text Available ... Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats ... Can I Eat Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Fats Alcohol Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy ...

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Full Text Available ... and trans fat — the unhealthy fats. At the same time, you can protect your heart by eating ... well but you can keep your calories the same by cutting back on the sources of saturated ...

273

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Full Text Available ... Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate ... provider. Saturated fat grams are listed on the Nutrition Facts food label under total fat. As a ...

274

A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

Adam Jurgo?ski

2014-02-01

275

EGFR is required for Colonic Tumor Promotion by Dietary Fat in the Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium Model: Roles of TGF-? and PTGS2  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Colon cancer is a major cause of cancer-deaths. Dietary factors contribute substantially to the risk of this malignancy. Western style diets promote development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer. While we showed that epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) controlled AOM tumorigenesis in standard fat conditions, the role of EGFR in tumor promotion by high dietary fat has not been examined. Experimental Design A/JxC57BL6/J mice with wild type Egfr (Egfrwt) or loss-of-function waved-2 Egfr (Egfrwa2) received AOM followed by standard (std 5% fat) or Western style (20% fat) diet. As F1 mice were resistant to AOM, we treated mice with AOM followed by one cycle of inflammation-inducing dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce tumorigenesis. Mice were sacrificed 12 wks after DSS. Tumors were graded for histology and assessed for EGFR ligands and proto-oncogenes by immunostaining, Western blotting and real time PCR. Results Egfrwt mice gained significantly more weight and had exaggerated insulin resistance compared to Egfrwa2 mice on high fat diet. Dietary fat promoted tumor (71.2% vs. 36.7%, p<0.05) and cancer incidence (43.9% vs. 16.7%, p<0.05) only in Egfrwt mice. The lipid-rich diet also significantly increased tumor and cancer multiplicity only in Egfrwt mice. In tumors, dietary fat and Egfrwt up-regulated TGF??, amphiregulin, CTNNB1, MYC, and CCND1, whereas PTGS2 was only increased in Egfrwt mice and further up-regulated by dietary fat. Notably, dietary fat increased TGF-? in normal colon. Conclusions EGFR is required for dietary fat-induced weight gain and tumor promotion. EGFR-dependent increases in receptor ligands and PTGS2 likely drive diet-related tumor promotion. PMID:19903783

Dougherty, Urszula; Cerasi, Dario; Taylor, Ieva; Kocherginsky, Masha; Tekin, Ummuhan; Badal, Shamiram; Aluri, Lata; Sehdev, Amikar; Cerda, Sonia; Mustafi, Reba; Delgado, Jorge; Joseph, Loren; Zhu, Hongyan; Hart, John; Threadgill, David; Fichera, Alessandro; Bissonnette, Marc

2009-01-01

276

Effect of Dietary Supplemented Canola Oil and Poultry Fat on the Performance and Carcass Characterizes of Broiler Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This investigating was performed to examine the effect of different dietary fat source (canola oil and poultry fat on broiler performance. 252 day-old broilers chicks (Ross 308 were randomly distributed in seven groups include 12 in each with 3 replicates and were fed with experimental diets for 3 weeks (21-42 d-old. The diets were as follow: 1 basal diet (control, basal diet with 3 or 6% canola oil, basal diet with 3 or 6% poultry fat, basal diet with mixed 1.5% canola oil +1.5% poultry fat and basal diet with mixed 3% canola oil +3% poultry fat. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio, daily weight gain and carcass characterizes were evaluated during rearing period. Significant different were observed for feed intake (p<0.05. Adding 3 % canola oil and poultry fat resulted in significant improvement in body weight (p<0.05 and better feed conversion ratio in fed groups 3 % canola oil and poultry fat than other groups observed (p<0.01. No significant different were found in liver, breast, thigh weights in between groups fed lipid in comparison with the control group. Addition of 6% poultry fat caused significant increasing on abdominal fat (p<0.05. Gizzard weight was significantly higher in control group in comparison with supplemented groups (p<0.05. These findings suggest that adding 3% canola oil or 3% poultry fat to the broiler diet based on corn and soybean meal can improve broiler performance and carcass quality in fed 6% canola oil than other groups was better, may be because of adequate mixture of fatty acids in supplemented canola oil.

Habib Aghdam Shahryar

2011-07-01

277

Fats  

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Full Text Available ... Olive oil and olives Peanut butter and peanut oil Sesame seeds The Association recommends eating more monounsaturated fats than saturated or trans fats in your diet. To include more monounsaturated fats, try to substitute olive or canola oil instead of butter, margarine or shortening when cooking. ...

278

Fats  

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Full Text Available ... help lower your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Foods containing saturated fat include: Lard Fatback and salt pork High-fat meats like regular ground beef, bologna, hot dogs, sausage, bacon and spareribs High-fat dairy products ...

279

Dietary fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis of 6,689 subjects from 8 observational studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The etiology of epithelial ovarian cancer is unknown. Prior work suggests that high dietary fat intake is associated with an increased risk of this tumor, although this association remains speculative. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate this suspected relationship. Using previously described methods, a protocol was developed for a meta-analysis examining the association between high vs. low dietary fat intake and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Literature search techniques, study inclusion criteria, and statistical procedures were prospectively defined. Data from observational studies were pooled using a general variance-based meta-analytic method employing confidence intervals (CI) previously described by Greenland. The outcome of interest was a summary relative risk (RRs) reflecting the risk of ovarian cancer associated with high vs. low dietary fat intake. Sensitivity analyses were performed when necessary to evaluate any observed statistical heterogeneity. The literature search yielded 8 observational studies enrolling 6,689 subjects. Data were stratified into three dietary fat intake categories: total fat, animal fat, and saturated fat. Initial tests for statistical homogeneity demonstrated that hospital-based studies accounted for observed heterogeneity possibly because of selection bias. Accounting for this, an RRs was calculated for high vs. low total fat intake, yielding a value of 1.24 (95% CI = 1.07-1.43), a statistically significant result. That is, high total fat intake is associated with a 24% increased risk of ovarian cancer development. The RRs for high saturated fat intake was 1.20 (95% CI = 1.04-1.39), suggesting a 20% increased risk of ovarian cancer among subjects with these dietary habits. High vs. low animal fat diet gave an RRs of 1.70 (95% CI = 1.43-2.03), consistent with a statistically significant 70% increased ovarian cancer risk. High dietary fat intake appears to represent a significant risk factor for the development of ovarian cancer. The magnitude of this risk associated with total fat and saturated fat is rather modest. Ovarian cancer risk associated with high animal fat intake appears significantly greater than that associated with the other types of fat intake studied, although this requires confirmation via larger analyses. Further work is needed to clarify factors that may modify the effects of dietary fat in vivo. PMID:11962260

Huncharek, M; Kupelnick, B

2001-01-01

280

Influence of dietary fat and selenium fed during initiation or promotion on the development of preneoplastic lesions in rat liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci in rat liver were assessed in animals fed different levels of fat and selenium (Se) during either initiation (IN) or promotion (PR). Male Sprague Dawley rats (50g) were divided into 12 groups. One of six modified AIN-76 experimental diets were fed to groups 1-6 during weeks 1-4.5 (IN) and to groups 7-12 during weeks 4.5-15 (PR). During weeks 3-4, 13 rats/group received 10 daily doses of AFB1 (.4 mg/kg bwt/dose, i.g.). Two levels of corn oil (2% and 20%) were fed, each containing 3 levels of Se: < 0.02; 0.15; 2.5 (IN) or 1.9 (PR) ppm. When not fed the experimental diets rats were fed a standard AIN-76 diet. In groups 1-6, 0.03% phenobarbital was added to the standard diet. At week 15 rats were sacrificed. Compared to all low-fat groups, the high-fat diets with either < 0.02 or 0.15 ppm Se fed during IN resulted in a marked increase in mean diameter of GGT-positive foci and % liver section occupied by foci. In rats fed high-fat 2.5 ppm Se, preneoplastic development was decreased below all low-fat groups. During PR, Se status but not dietary fat level influenced foci formation. Rats fed < 0.02 ppm Se had greater mean diameter of foci and % section occupied by foci than either 0.15 or 1.9 ppm Se. Thus, an interaction was observed between dietary fat and selenium during IN, but not during PR

 
 
 
 
281

Broiler Chick Body Weight and Lipid Compositional Changes of the Yolk Sac and Liver as Influenced by Dietary Fat Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study to determine the effects of dietary fat composition and post-hatching age on lipid changes of the yolk sac membrane (YSM and the liver. Two groups of ninety-day-old male broiler chicks were fed diets containing a saturated fat (tallow oil Diet 1 and unsaturated fat (soybean oil Diet 2 for two weeks. Twelve birds from each treatment were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 14 post-hatch and samples of the YSM, liver and gall bladder bile were collected. Weight changes of the chick and tissues and also lipid composition were determined during the experimental period. About 75% decrease in YSM weight occurred during the first 3 days post-hatch and it was negligible by day 9 post-hatch in both groups. Triglycerides (TG was the major lipid component of the YSM at day 1 post-hatch (>60% of total lipid but had declined to less than 2% on day 12 post-hatch. The decreases in TG were accompanied by significant increases of cholesterol esters (CE. These changes were not affected by dietary treatment. The liver constituted 3 and 6% of chick body weight at hatching and at day 6 post-hatch respectively and remained constant thereafter. Changes in total lipid content and lipid composition were noted and were influenced by both dietary fat composition and post-hatching age. It was concluded from these this study major lipid compositional changes occur in the chick body tissues following hatching and these changes are influenced to some extent by dietary composition.

S.K. Mutayoba

2013-01-01

282

Modulating absorption and postprandial handling of dietary fatty acids by structuring fat in the meal: a randomized crossover clinical trial.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Prolonged postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In the context of obesity, this is associated with a chronic imbalance of lipid partitioning oriented toward storage and not toward ?-oxidation. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that the physical structure of fat in a meal can modify the absorption, chylomicron transport, and further metabolic handling of dietary fatty acids. DESIGN: Nine normal-weight and 9 obese subjects were ...

Vors, Ce?cile; Pineau, Gae?lle; Gabert, Laure; Drai, Jocelyne; Louche-pe?lissier, Corinne; Defoort, Catherine; Lairon, Denis; De?sage, Michel; Danthine, Sabine; Lambert-porcheron, Ste?phanie; Vidal, Hubert; Laville, Martine; Michalski, Marie-caroline

2013-01-01

283

Dietary saturated fat, gender and genetic variation at the TCF7L2 locus predict the development of metabolic syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is the strongest genetic determinant of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and insulin-related phenotypes to date. Dietary fat is a key environmental factor which may interact with genotype to affect risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and T2DM. This study investigated the relationship between the TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism, insulin sensitivity/resistance and MetS in the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX study of MetS cases and matched controls (n=1754) and determined potential interactions with dietary fat intake. Female minor T allele carriers of rs7903146 had increased MetS risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.70, P=.04) and displayed elevated insulin concentrations (P=.005), impaired insulin sensitivity (P=.011), increased abdominal obesity (P=.008) and body mass index (P=.001) and higher blood pressure (P<.05) compared to the CC homozygotes. Metabolic syndrome risk was also modulated by dietary saturated fat (SFA) intake (P=.035 for interaction). High dietary SFA intake (?15.5% energy) exacerbated MetS risk (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.29-4.27, P=.005) and was associated with further impaired insulin sensitivity in the T allele carriers relative to the CC homozygotes (P=.025) and particularly to the T allele carriers with the lowest SFA intake (P=.008). No significant genotype effect on MetS risk or insulin sensitivity was evident among low-SFA consumers. In conclusion, the TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism influences MetS risk, which is augmented by both gender and dietary SFA intake, suggesting novel gene-diet-gender interactions. PMID:21543200

Phillips, Catherine M; Goumidi, Louisa; Bertrais, Sandrine; Field, Martyn R; McManus, Ross; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Planells, Richard; Roche, Helen M

2012-03-01

284

Effects of Feed Restriction and Dietary Fat Saturation on Performance and Serum Thyroid Hormones of Broiler Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experiment carried out to study the effects of dietary fat saturation on performance and serum thyroid hormones of broilers under free or skip a day nutrition at 18-28 days of age. We used 720 male Ross 308 broiler chickens in a completely randomized design with a 2*4 factorial arrangement with 3 replicate and 30 chicks for each replicate. Experiment factors were: 1- skip a day or free feeding at days 10-28 of age and, 2- diets with different unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios (2, 3.5, 5 and 6.5 formulated using different levels of sunflower oil and tallow. At 28 and 42 days of age, weight gain and feed consumption recorded and blood samples were taken. SAS software used for Variance analysis and means comparing. Skip a day nutrition at days 18-28 of age significantly reduced feed intake and weight gain and increased feed conversion, But free nutrition at days 29-42 of age removed this differences. At day 28, diet with unsaturated to saturated ratio of 6.5 significantly reduced feed intake and weight gain and increased feed conversion. At day 42 of age dietary fat type didn`t have any significant effect on feed intake and weight gain but altered feed conversion as a manner same to day 28 of age. Skip a day nutrition significantly decreased T3 and increased T4 levels at day 28 of age but this effects were disappeared after re-feeding at day 42 of age. This survey showed that feed restriction didn`t affect bird`s ability to utilize fats with different degrees of saturation. Fat type and feed restriction affect broilers performance separately without any interaction. Dietary fat saturation didn`t have any significant effect on serum thyroid hormones levels, while feed restriction have a pronounce effect.

B. Navidshad

2006-01-01

285

Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010 : a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1,630,069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. SETTING AND POPULATION: Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. RESULTS: In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world's adult population, the mean intake was <10%E. Country-specific omega 6 consumption ranged from 1.2 to 12.5%E (global mean=5.9%E); corresponding range was 0.2 to 6.5%E (1.4%E) for trans fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and <100 to 5,542 mg/day (1,371 mg/day) for plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat ? 5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (? 0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (<300 mg/day); 18.9% for seafood omega 3 fat (? 250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (? 1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased. CONCLUSIONS: These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic diversity across nations and inform policies and priorities for improving global health.

Bjerregaard, Peter

2014-01-01

286

Effect of increased intake of dietary animal fat and fat energy on oxidative damage, mutation frequency, DNA adduct level and DNA repair in rat colon and liver  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of high dietary intake of animal fat and an increased fat energy intake on colon and liver genotoxicity and on markers of oxidative damage and antioxidative defence in colon, liver and plasma was investigated in Big Blue rats. The rats were fed ad libitum with semi-synthetic feed supplemented with 0, 3, 10 or 30% w/w lard. After 3 weeks, the mutation frequency, DNA repair gene expression, DNA damage and oxidative markers were determined in liver, colon and plasma. The mutation frequency of the lambda gene cII did not increase with increased fat or energy intake in colon or liver. The DNA-adduct level measured by P-32-postlabelling decreased in both liver and colon with increased fat intake. In liver, this was accompanied by a 2-fold increase of the mRNA level of nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene ERCC1. In colon, a non-statistically significant increase in the ERCC1 mRNA levels was observed. Intake of lard fat resulted in increased ascorbate synthesis and affected markers of oxidative damage to proteins in liver cytosol, but not in plasma. The effect was observed at all lard doses and was not dose-dependent. However, no evidence of increased oxidative DNA damage was found in liver, colon, or urine. Thus, lard intake at the expense of other nutrients and a large increase in the fat energy consumption affects the redox state locally in the liver cytosol, but does not induce DNA-damage, systemic oxidative stress or a dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency in rat colon or liver.

Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

2003-01-01

287

Response of the modern lactating sow and progeny to source and level of supplemental dietary fat during high ambient temperatures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the response to increments of 2 sources of dietary fat on lactating sow and progeny performance during high ambient temperatures. Data were collected from 391 sows (PIC Camborough) from June to September in a 2,600-sow commercial unit in Oklahoma. Sows were randomly assigned to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments and a control diet. Factors included 1) fat sources, animal-vegetable blend (A-V) and choice white grease (CWG), and 2) fat levels (2%, 4%, and 6%). The A-V blend contained 14.5% FFA with an iodine value of 89, peroxide value of 4.2 mEq/kg, and anisidine value of 23, whereas CWG contained 3.7% FFA with an iodine value of 62, peroxide value of 9.8 mEq/kg, and anisidine value of 5. Diets were corn-soybean meal based, with 8.0% distillers dried grains with solubles and 6.0% wheat middlings, and contained 3.56-g standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal ME. Sows were balanced by parity, with 192 and 199 sows representing parity 1 and parity 3 to 5, respectively. Feed refusal increased linearly (P < 0.001) with the addition of supplemental fat, but feed and energy intake increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary fat. Sows fed CWG diets had reduced (linear, P < 0.05) BW loss during lactation. Litter growth rate was not affected by additional dietary fat. Addition of CWG to the diets improved G:F (sow and litter gain relative to feed intake) compared with the G:F of sows fed the control diet or the diets containing the A-V blend (0.50, 0.43, and 0.44, respectively; P < 0.05). Gain:ME (kg/Mcal ME) was greater (P < 0.05) for CWG (0.146) than A-V blend (0.129) but was not different from that of the control diet (0.131). Addition of A-V blend and CWG both improved (P < 0.05) conception and farrowing rates and subsequent litter size compared with the control diet. In conclusion, energy intake increased with the addition of fat. The A-V blend contained a greater amount of aldehydes (quantified by anisidine value) and was more susceptible to oxidation, resulting in reduced feed efficiency than CWG. Subsequent litter size and reproductive performance was improved by inclusion of both sources of fat in diets fed to lactating sows. PMID:22896733

Rosero, D S; van Heugten, E; Odle, J; Arellano, C; Boyd, R D

2012-08-01

288

Effect of dietary fat on uptake of lysine, phenylalanine, leucine and methionine by bovine mammary tissue slices in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four mature Holstein cows in late lactation were blocked in two groups based on milk production, in a 2x2 reversal with 21-day periods, and fed: (A) control diet; (B) A plus 1 kg/day tallow. Cows were fed sorghum silage ad libitum. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on day 15, 17, and 19 of each period. Fat did not effect DM intake or milk yield, however milk CP yield was 20% lower. Plasma lipids increased 33.6%, glucose decreased 9% and insulin/glucagon ratio decreased 21.2% in cow fed fat. After period two, cows were slaughtered and mammary tissue sampled for incubation in Krebs Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 22 AA at arterial concentration and .225 ?Ci/ml of 14C-labelled L-Leu, L-Phe, L-Lys or D/L Met. Dietary fat decreased tissue AA uptake rate by 21.2%. Uptake was 4.8, 10.3, 17.8 and 2.4 x 10-3 ?M/min/gm of tissue DM for Phe, Lys, Leu and Met, respectively. Results suggest that dietary fat may decrease milk protein synthesis by lowering the rate of AA uptake

289

Cholesterol kinetic effects of dietary fat in CBA/J and C57BR/cdJ mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small differences in dietary fats cause marked differences in cholesterol metabolism in different strains of mice. CBA/J mice adjust HMGCOA reductase activity and C57BR/cdJ mice change fecal excretion of cholesterol. Phenomenological compartmental modeling of movement of 414C-cholesterol in the two strains of mice fed 40 en % fat, P/S = 0.24 (SFA) or 30 en % fat, P/S = 1 (PUFA) was used to analyze rates of movement between serum, liver, heart, and carcass. The C57 mice had slower movement between all compartments than CBA. Residence times in tissues were longer in mice fed SFA than those fed PUFA diet. The kinetic results are in agreement with the organ concentrations and enzyme activities measured

290

Impact of dietary fat source and concentration and daily fatty acid intake on the composition of carcass fat and iodine value sampled in three regions of the pork carcass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increased inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to more precisely measure how differing levels of daily fatty acid intake alters the fatty acid composition in 3 different fat depots. A total of 42 gilts and 21 barrows (PIC 337 × C22/29) with an average initial weight of 77.80 ± 0.38 kg were allotted randomly based on sex and BW to 7 treatments: 3 and 6% of each of tallow (TAL; iodine value [IV] = 41.9), choice white grease (CWG; IV = 66.5), or corn oil (CO; IV = 123.1) and a control (CNTR) corn-soybean meal-based diet with no added fat. Pigs were individually housed to allow accurate measurement of individual feed intake, in particular, daily dietary fatty acid and energy intake. Fat samples were collected from the jowl, belly, and loin at slaughter. Diet and carcass fat samples were analyzed for IV. Belly weights were recorded at slaughter along with a subjective belly firmness score (1 = firmest to 3 = least firm). Carcass lipid IV was increased (P 0.05) by inclusion levels; however, carcass lipid IV was greater (P < 0.001) in pigs fed 6 than 3% CO (80.0 vs. 72.6), and carcasses of gilts had greater IV (P < 0.001) than carcasses of barrows (71.5 vs. 69.1). Increasing the level of TAL and CO but not CWG from 3 to 6% decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, resulting in a source × level interaction (P < 0.05). Dietary fat source had no effect (P ? 0.66) on apparent total tract digestibility of either DM or GE, but feeding 6% dietary fat increased G:F (P = 0.006) over pigs fed 3% fat (0.358 vs. 0.337). Of all the fatty acids measured, only linoleic acid intake presented a reasonable coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.61). Overall, IV product (IVP) was approximately equal to linoleic acid intake as a predictor of carcass IV (R(2) = 0.93 vs. R(2) = 0.94). When inclusion of dietary fat and PUFA intake increased, IVP placed more emphasis on the dietary fat inclusion level rather than the dietary fat composition. Linoleic acid intake corrected the overemphasis placed on dietary fat inclusion by IVP. To conclude, linoleic acid intake showed a strong relationship with carcass IV and can be used as a predictor. PMID:25367509

Kellner, T A; Prusa, K J; Patience, J F

2014-12-01

291

Influence of Stage of Change, Self-Efficacy and Socio-Economic Factor on Dietary Fat Intake Behavior among Saudi Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diet high in fat contributes significantly to development of major chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of stage of change, self-efficacy and socio-economic factors on dietary fat intake behavior among university employee's women in Saudi Arabia. A total 74 non-academic staff aged 23-52 years in of King Faisal University participated in the study. A pre-tested interview questionnaire was used to measure socio-economic, stages of change and self-efficacy related to dietary fat intake, also anthropometric measurement, total energy and dietary fat intake were determined. Chi square test, one way analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis were used for data analysis. Results showed that about 20% of subjects reduce their daily fat intake and more than two-third of subjects (67.5% intend to change. There were significant differences between stages of change for dietary fat and energy from fat (F = 6.57-7.64, respectively; p = 0.00 and significant association between stages of change and age (p = 0.014. The anthropometric measurement did not differ significantly by stages. Stages of change (p = 0.00 and self-efficacy (p = 0.044 were the most relevant predictor for dietary fat intake. This study revealed important relationship between stage of change, self-efficacy and dietary fat intake, which is useful insight for health professionals and nutrition educators to explore other target groups in the community and to design effective intervention.

Hala Hazam Al Otaibi

2011-01-01

292

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Full Text Available ... for you, talk with your dietitian or health care provider. Saturated fat grams are listed on the Nutrition Facts food label under total fat. As a ... a more detailed explanation from the FDA . Patient Education Materials — Protect Your Heart: Choose ... In this section Food What Can I Eat ...

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Full Text Available ... sauces Gravy made with meat drippings Chocolate Palm oil and palm kernel oil Coconut and coconut oil Poultry (chicken and turkey) skin The goal for ... contain it. Trans fats are produced when liquid oil is made into a solid fat. This process ...

295

Dietary Fat Interacts with PCBs to Induce Changes in Lipid Metabolism in Mice Deficient in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor  

Science.gov (United States)

There is evidence that dietary fat can modify the cytotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and that coplanar PCBs can induce inflammatory processes critical in the pathology of vascular diseases. To test the hypothesis that the interaction of PCBs with dietary fat is dependent on the type of fat, low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient (LDL-R?/?) mice were fed diets enriched with either olive oil or corn oil for 4 weeks. Half of the animals from each group were injected with PCB-77. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in aortic arches was non-detectable in the olive-oil–fed mice but was highly expressed in the presence of PCB-77. PCB treatment increased liver neutral lipids and decreased serum fatty acid levels only in mice fed the corn-oil–enriched diet. PCB treatment increased mRNA expression of genes involved in inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress in all mice. Upon PCB treatment, mice in both olive- and corn-oil–diet groups showed induction of genes involved in fatty acid degradation but with up-regulation of different key enzymes. Genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were reduced only upon PCB treatment in corn-oil–fed mice, whereas lipid transport/export genes were altered in olive-oil–fed mice. These data suggest that dietary fat can modify changes in lipid metabolism induced by PCBs in serum and tissues. These findings have implications for understanding the interactions of nutrients with environmental contaminants on the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. PMID:15626652

Hennig, Bernhard; Reiterer, Gudrun; Toborek, Michal; Matveev, Sergey V.; Daugherty, Alan; Smart, Eric; Robertson, Larry W.

2005-01-01

296

Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammation : Observational and Interventional Studies  

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Dietary fat quality influences the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A low-grade inflammation is suggested to contribute to the disease development, often accompanied by obesity. Whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been considered anti-inflammatory, n-6 PUFA have been proposed to act pro-inflammatory. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) act pro-inflammatory in vitro. This thesis aimed to investigate effects of different fatty acids on low-grade inflammation in observ...

Bjermo, Helena

2011-01-01

297

Dietary Fibers and Cardiometabolic Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely attributable to the contemporary lifestyle that is often sedentary and includes a diet high in saturated fats and sugars and low ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, fruit, vegetables, and fiber. Experimental data from both animals and humans suggest an association between increased dietary fiber (DF intakes and improved plasma lipid profiles, including reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentrations. These observations underline that the intake of DF may protect against heart disease and stroke.

Nicolantonio D’Orazio

2012-02-01

298

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Full Text Available ... rest comes from foods you eat. Foods from animals are sources of dietary cholesterol. Cholesterol from the ... 1995-2014. American Diabetes Association. All rights reserved. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of our Terms ...

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Full Text Available ... rest comes from foods you eat. Foods from animals are sources of dietary cholesterol. Cholesterol from the ... Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy Living Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Shop Diabetes » Close nonprofit software

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Comparison of Dietary Control and Atorvastatin on High Fat Diet Induced Hepatic Steatosis and Hyperlipidemia in Rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment with atorvastatin (ATO or dietary control has been demonstrated to benefit patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and hyperlipidemia. However, little is known on whether combination of dietary control and ATO treatment could enhance the therapeutic effect. Methods We employed a rat model of NAFLD to examine the therapeutic efficacy of dietary control and/or ATO treatment. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with normal chow diet as normal controls or with high fat diet (HFD for 12 weeks to establish NAFLD. The NAFLD rats were randomized and continually fed with HFD, with normal chow diet, with HFD and treated with 30 mg/kg of ATO or with normal chow diet and treated with the same dose of ATO for 8 weeks. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed and the serum lipids, aminotranferase, hepatic lipids, and liver pathology were characterized. The relative levels of fatty acid synthesis and ?-oxidation gene expression in hepatic tissues were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Hepatic expression of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase was determined by Western blot assay. Results While continual feeding with HFD deteriorated NAFLD and hyperlipidemia, treatment with dietary control, ATO or ATO with dietary control effectively improved serum and liver lipid metabolism and liver function. In comparison with ATO treatment, dietary control or combined with ATO treatment significantly reduced the liver weight and attenuated the HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and liver steatosis in rats. Compared to ATO treatment or dietary control, combination of ATO and dietary control significantly reduced the levels of serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. However, the combination therapy did not significantly improve triglyceride and free fatty acid metabolism, hepatic steatosis, and liver function, as compared with dietary control alone. Conclusions ATO treatment effectively improved NAFLD-related hyperlipidemia and inhibited liver steatosis, accompanied by modulating the expression of genes for regulating lipid metabolism. ATO enhanced the effect of dietary control on reducing the levels of serum total cholesterol and LDL-C, but not triglyceride, free fatty acid and hepatic steatosis in HFD-induced fatty liver and hyperlipidemia in rats.

Liu Peiyi

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

LIPGENE food-exchange model for alteration of dietary fat quantity and quality in free-living participants from eight European countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlled human intervention trials are required to confirm the hypothesis that dietary fat quality may influence insulin action. The aim was to develop a food-exchange model, suitable for use in free-living volunteers, to investigate the effects of four experimental diets distinct in fat quantity and quality: high SFA (HSFA); high MUFA (HMUFA) and two low-fat (LF) diets, one supplemented with 1.24 g EPA and DHA/d (LFn-3). A theoretical food-exchange model was developed. The average quantity of exchangeable fat was calculated as the sum of fat provided by added fats (spreads and oils), milk, cheese, biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries using data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of UK adults. Most of the exchangeable fat was replaced by specifically designed study foods. Also critical to the model was the use of carbohydrate exchanges to ensure the diets were isoenergetic. Volunteers from eight centres across Europe completed the dietary intervention. Results indicated that compositional targets were largely achieved with significant differences in fat quantity between the high-fat diets (39.9 (sem 0.6) and 38.9 (sem 0.51) percentage energy (%E) from fat for the HSFA and HMUFA diets respectively) and the low-fat diets (29.6 (sem 0.6) and 29.1 (sem 0.5) %E from fat for the LF and LFn-3 diets respectively) and fat quality (17.5 (sem 0.3) and 10.4 (sem 0.2) %E from SFA and 12.7 (sem 0.3) and 18.7 (sem 0.4) %E MUFA for the HSFA and HMUFA diets respectively). In conclusion, a robust, flexible food-exchange model was developed and implemented successfully in the LIPGENE dietary intervention trial. PMID:18680629

Shaw, Danielle I; Tierney, Audrey C; McCarthy, Sinead; Upritchard, Jane; Vermunt, Susan; Gulseth, Hanne L; Drevon, Christian A; Blaak, Ellen E; Saris, Wim H M; Karlström, Brita; Helal, Olfa; Defoort, Catherine; Gallego, Raquel; López-Miranda, José; Siedlecka, Dominika; Malczewska-Malec, Ma?gorzata; Roche, Helen M; Lovegrove, Julie A

2009-03-01

302

Effect of excessive intake of dietary carbohydrates and fats on incidence of apoptosis and proliferation in male rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was planned to investigate the programmed cell death and cellular aging by estimating the relation between cell proliferation and cell death in tissue of pancreas and testis. All the biochemical parameters in this study were carried out on two aged groups (adult and senile) of male albino rats. Moreover, the study extended to emphasize the possible effect of certain dietary elements such as carbohydrate and fat on the rate of apoptosis and proliferation in some tissues and their physiological functions. Two aged groups of rats (adult and senile) were included in this study. According to the data obtained, it could be concluded that excess dietary carbohydrate could be considered as a high risk factor when given to the adult and senile age, since it produced some significant changes in the blood chemistry with non-significant changes on the proliferative and apoptotic balance of the tested tissues. Moreover, excess dietary fat could be considered as high risk factor when given to adult and senile age groups

303

Role of anorectic N-acylethanolamines in intestinal physiology and satiety control with respect to dietary fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anandamide is a well-known agonist for the cannabinoid receptors. Along with endogenous anandamide other non-endocannabinoid N-acylethanolamines are also formed, apparently in higher amounts. These include mainly oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoyelethanolamide (PEA) and linoleoylethanolamide (LEA), and they have biological activity by themselves being anorectic and anti-inflammatory. It appears that the major effect of dietary fat on the level of these molecules is in the gastrointestinal system, where OEA, PEA and LEA in the enterocytes may function as homeostatic signals, which are decreased by prolonged consumption of a high-fat diet. These lipid amides appear to mediate their signaling activity via activation of PPAR? in the enterocyte followed by activation of afferent vagal fibers leading to the brain. Through this mechanism OEA, PEA and LEA may both reduce the consumption of a meal as well as increase the reward value of the food. Thus, they may function as homeostatic intestinal signals involving hedonic aspects that contribute to the regulation of the amounts of dietary fat to be ingested. PMID:24681513

Hansen, Harald S

2014-08-01

304

Role of anorectic N-acylethanolamines in intestinal physiology and satiety control with respect to dietary fat  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anandamide is a well-known agonist for the cannabinoid receptors. Along with endogenous anandamide other non-endocannabinoid N-acylethanolamines are also formed, apparently in higher amounts. These include mainly oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoyelethanolamide (PEA) and linoleoylethanolamide (LEA), and they have biological activity by themselves being anorectic and anti-inflammatory. It appears that the major effect of dietary fat on the level of these molecules is in the gastrointestinal system, where OEA, PEA and LEA in the enterocytes may function as homeostatic signals, which are decreased by prolonged consumption of a high-fat diet. These lipid amides appear to mediate their signaling activity via activation of PPAR? in the enterocyte followed by activation of afferent vagal fibers leading to the brain. Through this mechanism OEA, PEA and LEA may both reduce the consumption of a meal as well as increase the reward value of the food. Thus, they may function as homeostatic intestinal signals involving hedonic aspects that contribute to the regulation of the amounts of dietary fat to be ingested.

Hansen, Harald S.

2014-01-01

305

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Hepatic and biochemical repercussions of a polyunsaturated fat-rich hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet in Wistar rats / Repercussões hepáticas e bioquímicas da dieta hipercalórica e hiperlipídica rica em gordura poliinsaturada em ratos Wistar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica caracteriza-se por depósito de lipídios nos hepatócitos. Desperta grande interesse por sua associação com obesidade, dislipidemias e diabetes mellitus tipo 2. É considerada a manifestação hepática da síndrome metabólica, cujo principal componente é [...] a resistência à insulina, com consequente hiperinsulinemia e produção aumentada de citocinas inflamatórias. Dietas ricas em gorduras saturadas promovem hipertrigliceridemia, diminuição do colesterol de alta densidade, aumento do colesterol de baixa densidade e hiperinsulinemia, enquanto dietas ricas em gordura poliinsaturada podem apresentar efeitos hipolipidêmicos, antiinflamatórios e imunorreguladores. OBJETIVO: Investigar as repercussões hepáticas e bioquímicas da dieta rica em gordura poliinsaturada em ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Os animais (22) foram distribuidos nos grupos GI-dieta padrao (Biobase Bio-tec Ratos e Camundongos®) com 3000 kcal/kg e GII-dieta hipercalorica e hiperlipidica, com 4250 kcal/kg, relação ?-6: ?-3 = 3:1. Foram mortos apos 23 semanas de administração das dietas. Avaliaram-se peso, exames bioquimicos e alteracoes histológicas do fígado. RESULTADOS: Foram utilizados testes de análise de variância com nível de significância de 5% (P Abstract in english CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by lipid deposits in the hepatocytes and has been associated with obesity, dyslipidemia and type-2 diabetes. It is considered a hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, of which the main component is insulin resistance leading to hy [...] perinsulinemia and increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Saturated fat promotes hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia, reduces levels of high-density cholesterol and increases levels of low-density cholesterol, while polyunsaturated fat is associated with hypolipidemic, antiinflammatory and imunoregulating action. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hepatic and biochemical repercussions of a polyunsaturated fat-rich diet in Wistar rats. METHODS: Twenty-two rats were distributed equally in two groups: GI - standard diet (Biobase Bio-tec Ratos e Camundongos®) providing 3.000 kcal/kg and GII - hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet providing 4.250 kcal/kg (?-6:?-3 = 3:1). The animals were euthanized after 23 weeks of experiment. The weight, biochemical parameters and hepatohistological changes were registered. RESULTS: Findings were submitted to variance analysis with the level of statistical significance at 5%. The average weight did not differ significantly between the groups at baseline (P = 0.711), but was greater in Group II by the end of the experiment (P = 0.000). The levels of triglycerides (P = 0.039), total cholesterol (P = 0.015) and HDL (P = 0.005) were higher in Group I than in Group II. Macrovesicular steatosis was significantly more common in Group II than in Group I (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet rich in polyunsaturated fat promotes weight gain and favors the development of hepatic steatosis while reducing serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL.

Idália M. B., Burlamaqui; Conceição A., Dornelas; José Telmo, Valença Jr; Francisco J. C., Mesquita; Lara B., Veras; Lusmar Veras, Rodrigues.

322

Hepatic and biochemical repercussions of a polyunsaturated fat-rich hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet in Wistar rats / Repercussões hepáticas e bioquímicas da dieta hipercalórica e hiperlipídica rica em gordura poliinsaturada em ratos Wistar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica caracteriza-se por depósito de lipídios nos hepatócitos. Desperta grande interesse por sua associação com obesidade, dislipidemias e diabetes mellitus tipo 2. É considerada a manifestação hepática da síndrome metabólica, cujo principal componente é [...] a resistência à insulina, com consequente hiperinsulinemia e produção aumentada de citocinas inflamatórias. Dietas ricas em gorduras saturadas promovem hipertrigliceridemia, diminuição do colesterol de alta densidade, aumento do colesterol de baixa densidade e hiperinsulinemia, enquanto dietas ricas em gordura poliinsaturada podem apresentar efeitos hipolipidêmicos, antiinflamatórios e imunorreguladores. OBJETIVO: Investigar as repercussões hepáticas e bioquímicas da dieta rica em gordura poliinsaturada em ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Os animais (22) foram distribuidos nos grupos GI-dieta padrao (Biobase Bio-tec Ratos e Camundongos®) com 3000 kcal/kg e GII-dieta hipercalorica e hiperlipidica, com 4250 kcal/kg, relação ?-6: ?-3 = 3:1. Foram mortos apos 23 semanas de administração das dietas. Avaliaram-se peso, exames bioquimicos e alteracoes histológicas do fígado. RESULTADOS: Foram utilizados testes de análise de variância com nível de significância de 5% (P Abstract in english CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by lipid deposits in the hepatocytes and has been associated with obesity, dyslipidemia and type-2 diabetes. It is considered a hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, of which the main component is insulin resistance leading to hy [...] perinsulinemia and increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Saturated fat promotes hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia, reduces levels of high-density cholesterol and increases levels of low-density cholesterol, while polyunsaturated fat is associated with hypolipidemic, antiinflammatory and imunoregulating action. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hepatic and biochemical repercussions of a polyunsaturated fat-rich diet in Wistar rats. METHODS: Twenty-two rats were distributed equally in two groups: GI - standard diet (Biobase Bio-tec Ratos e Camundongos®) providing 3.000 kcal/kg and GII - hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet providing 4.250 kcal/kg (?-6:?-3 = 3:1). The animals were euthanized after 23 weeks of experiment. The weight, biochemical parameters and hepatohistological changes were registered. RESULTS: Findings were submitted to variance analysis with the level of statistical significance at 5%. The average weight did not differ significantly between the groups at baseline (P = 0.711), but was greater in Group II by the end of the experiment (P = 0.000). The levels of triglycerides (P = 0.039), total cholesterol (P = 0.015) and HDL (P = 0.005) were higher in Group I than in Group II. Macrovesicular steatosis was significantly more common in Group II than in Group I (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet rich in polyunsaturated fat promotes weight gain and favors the development of hepatic steatosis while reducing serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL.

Idália M. B., Burlamaqui; Conceição A., Dornelas; José Telmo, Valença Jr; Francisco J. C., Mesquita; Lara B., Veras; Lusmar Veras, Rodrigues.

2011-06-01

323

Dietary fat sources differentially modulate intestinal barrier and hepatic inflammation in alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.  

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Endotoxemia is a causal factor in the development of alcoholic liver injury. The present study aimed at determining the interactions of ethanol with different fat sources at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair fed control or ethanol liquid diet for 8 wk. The liquid diets were based on a modified Lieber-DeCarli formula, with 30% total calories derived from corn oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids). To test the effects of saturated fats, corn oil in the ethanol diet was replaced by either cocoa butter (CB, rich in long-chain saturated fatty acids) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT, exclusively medium-chain saturated fatty acids). Ethanol feeding increased hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration and perturbed hepatic and serum metabolite profiles. Ethanol feeding with CB or MCT alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and attenuated ethanol-induced metabolic perturbation. Both CB and MCT also normalized ethanol-induced hepatic macrophage activation, cytokine expression, and neutrophil infiltration. Ethanol feeding elevated serum endotoxin level, which was normalized by MCT but not CB. In accordance, ethanol-induced downregulations of intestinal occludin and zonula occludens-1 were normalized by MCT but not CB. However, CB normalized ethanol-increased hepatic endotoxin level in association with upregulation of an endotoxin detoxifying enzyme, argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1). Knockdown ASS1 in H4IIEC3 cells resulted in impaired endotoxin clearance and upregulated cytokine expression. These data demonstrate that the protection of saturated fats against alcohol-induced liver injury occur via different actions at the gut-liver axis and are chain length dependent. PMID:24113767

Zhong, Wei; Li, Qiong; Xie, Guoxiang; Sun, Xiuhua; Tan, Xiaobing; Sun, Xinguo; Jia, Wei; Zhou, Zhanxiang

2013-12-01

324

Physicochemical and functional properties of micronized jincheng orange by-products (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) dietary fiber and its application as a fat replacer in yogurt.  

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Orange by-products from juice extraction are generally discarded or used in animal feed due to their low market value. However, orange by-products show potential as dietary fiber (DF) and fat replacers in products such as yogurt. This study assessed the benefits of using orange by-products in DF-enriched materials such as DF powders (OP) and micronized DF with ball-milling (MDF). The study also investigated the effects of adding different levels of OP and MDF on the quality of low-fat yogurt. Results show that MDF showed better physicochemical and functional properties than OP, and that 2% MDF as a fat replacer in yogurt retained most of the textural and sensory properties of full-fat yogurt. Therefore, this study showed that MDF is a promising alternative as a fat replacer in low-fat yogurt, without sacrificing good taste and other qualities of full-fat yogurt. PMID:24625022

Yi, Tian; Huang, Xingjian; Pan, Siyi; Wang, Lufeng

2014-08-01

325

Diet digestibility in growing rabbits: effect of origin and oxidation level of dietary fat and vitamin e supplementation  

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The effects of the dietary inclusion of fats with different origin (lard or vegetal oil), fatty acid profile (linseed or sunflower), oxidation level (fresh, peroxidised: 11 d at 55ºC or oxidised: 31 h at 140ºC) and vitamin E supplementation (0 or 100 ppm) on the rabbit diet apparent digestibility were studied. Digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and gross energy were determined in eight diets using 58 rabbits aged 49 d. Contrast analysis be...

Casado, C.; Moya, V. J.; Ferna?ndez, C.; Pascual Amoro?s, Juan Jose?; Blas, E.; Cervera, C.

2010-01-01

326

Effects of isoprothiolane and phytosterol on lipogenesis and lipolysis in adipocytes from rats of dietary fat necrosis.  

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To study effects of isoprothiolane and phytosterol on dietary fat necrosis, 3 groups of rats were fed hardened-tallow (HT) diet. Two groups of rats received either isoprothiolane (50 mg/kg) or phytosterol (20 mg/kg) orally once a day consecutively for 10 weeks. One group of rats received standard diet (CE-2) as a control. Fat necrotic lesions were observed in epididymal and perirenal adipose tissues from all rats in the 3 groups fed HT diet. Rats with fat necrosis were characterized by visceral type obesity and saturation in fatty acid composition of triglyceride in adipose tissue. The highest glucose conversion to total lipids was seen in adipocytes from the rats given phytosterol. There was no lipolytic response to epinephrine stimulation (1-100 microM) in adipocytes from the rats given only HT diet, while similar response of adipocytes from the 2 groups treated with either drug to those from the rats fed standard diet was observed. The levels of total saturated fatty acids of phospholipid in adipose tissue from the rats given either drug were lower than that of the rats given only HT diet. These data suggest that either drug alters fatty acid composition of phospholipid in fat cell membrane and enhances lipolysis of the cells. PMID:2287126

Katamoto, H; Kurihara, S; Shimada, Y

1990-12-01

327

Fats  

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Full Text Available ... Some fast food items such as french fries Cholesterol Your body makes some of the cholesterol in your blood. The rest comes from foods ... eat. Foods from animals are sources of dietary cholesterol. Cholesterol from the food you eat may increase ...

328

Strong influence of dietary intake and physical activity on body fatness in elderly Japanese men: age-associated loss of polygenic resistance against obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged populations; however, it is unclear whether these SNPs are associated with body fatness in elderly people. We examined the association between genetic risk score (GRS) from BMI-associated SNPs and body fatness in elderly Japanese men. We also examined the contribution of GRS, dietary macronutrient intake, and physical activity to body fatness by different age groups. GRS was calculated from 10 BMI-associated SNPs in 84 middle-aged (30-64 years) and 97 elderly (65-79 years) Japanese men; subjects were divided into low, middle, and high GRS groups. Dietary macronutrient intake was assessed using a questionnaire, and physical activity was evaluated using both a questionnaire and an accelerometer. The middle-aged individuals with a high GRS had greater BMI; waist circumference; and total abdominal fat, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat areas than the middle-aged individuals with low GRS, whereas the indicators were not different between the GRS groups in elderly individuals. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that GRS was the strongest predictor of BMI, total abdominal fat, and visceral fat in the middle-aged group, whereas fat, alcohol, and protein intakes or vigorous-intensity physical activity were more strongly associated with these indicators than was GRS in the elderly group. These results suggest that GRS from BMI-associated SNPs is not predictive of body fatness in elderly Japanese men. The stronger contribution of dietary macronutrient intake and physical activity to body fatness may attenuate the genetic predisposition in elderly men. PMID:25030601

Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Sun, Xiaomin; Ise, Ryuken; Oshima, Satomi; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Tanaka, Masashi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

2014-09-01

329

Effect of high versus low doses of fat and vitamin A dietary supplementation on fatty acid composition of phospholipids in mice.  

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Dietary fat and vitamin A provide important precursors for potent bioactive ligands of nuclear hormone receptors, which regulate various enzymes involved in lipid homeostasis, metabolism and inflammation. We determined the effects of dietary fat and dietary vitamin A on hepatic expression of two fatty acid metabolizing enzymes, elongase 6 (ELOVL6) and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) and the concentration of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) of phospholipids in serum and liver. Mice (n = 6) were fed 4 weeks with diets containing 2, 5 and 25 % of fat or vitamin A (0, 2,500 and 326,500 RE/kg as retinyl palmitate). MUFAs and SAFAs were measured using GC and ESI-MS/MS. Hepatic expression of metabolizing enzymes was determined using QRT-PCR. ELOVL6 was significantly down-regulated in response to a high-fat diet (p phospholipids significantly decreased in response to a high-fat diet and increased after a low-fat diet. This tendency was also observed in the liver for various phospholipids sub-classes. In summary, this study shows that fat content in the diet has a stronger impact than the content of vitamin A on hepatic gene expression of SCD1 and ELOVL6 and thereby on MUFA and SAFA concentrations in liver and plasma. PMID:24306959

Weiss, Kathrin; Mihály, Johanna; Liebisch, Gerhard; Marosvölgyi, Tamás; Garcia, Ada L; Schmitz, Gerd; Decsi, Tamás; Rühl, Ralph

2014-01-01

330

Associations between toenail arsenic concentration and dietary factors in a New Hampshire population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary factors such as folate, vitamin B12, protein, and methionine are important for the excretion of arsenic via one-carbon metabolism in undernourished populations exposed to high levels of arsenic via drinking water. However, the effects of dietary factors on toenail arsenic concentrations in well-nourished populations exposed to relatively low levels of water arsenic are unknown. Methods As part of a population-based case–control study of skin and bladder cancer from the USA, we evaluated relationships between consumption of dietary factors and arsenic concentrations in toenail clippings. Consumption of each dietary factor was determined from a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used general linear models to examine the associations between toenail arsenic and each dietary factor, taking into account potentially confounding effects. Results As expected, we found an inverse association between ln-transformed toenail arsenic and consumption of vitamin B12 (excluding supplements and animal protein. Unexpectedly, there were also inverse associations with numerous dietary lipids (e.g., total fat, total animal fat, total vegetable fat, total monounsaturated fat, total polyunsaturated fat, and total saturated fat. Finally, increased toenail arsenic concentrations were associated with increased consumption of long chain n-3 fatty acids. Conclusion In a relatively well-nourished population exposed to relatively low levels of arsenic via water, consumption of certain dietary lipids may decrease toenail arsenic concentration, while long chain n-3 fatty acids may increase toenail arsenic concentration, possibly due to their association with arsenolipids in fish tissue.

Gruber Joann F

2012-06-01

331

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Full Text Available ... oil Nuts like almonds, cashews, pecans, and peanuts Olive oil and olives Peanut butter and peanut oil Sesame ... To include more monounsaturated fats, try to substitute olive or canola oil instead of butter, margarine or shortening when cooking. ...

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Full Text Available ... who might become pregnant; women who are pregnant; nursing mothers; and young children. Your fish and shellfish consumption should be limited to no more than 12 oz. per week. Get a more detailed explanation from the FDA . Patient Education Materials — Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats This ...

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Full Text Available ... this section Food What Can I Eat Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Fats Alcohol Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Protein Foods What Can I Drink? Dairy Fruits donate en -- Cherish their Memory - 2014-sept- ...

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Full Text Available ... foods. However, if there is not at least 0.5 grams or more of trans fat in a food, the label can claim 0 grams. If you want to avoid as much ... and help Stop Diabetes. Each survey earns a $0.50 donation for the Association. » « Connect With Us ...

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Full Text Available ... 24, 2014 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-nutrition, In this section Food What Can I Eat Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Fats Alcohol Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Protein Foods What Can I Drink? Dairy Fruits donate ...

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Full Text Available ... Sources of monounsaturated fat include: Avocado Canola oil Nuts like almonds, cashews, pecans, and peanuts Olive oil and olives Peanut butter and peanut oil Sesame seeds The Association recommends ... when cooking. Sprinkling a few nuts or sunflower seeds on a salad, yogurt, or ...

337

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Full Text Available ... this section Food What Can I Eat Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Fats Alcohol Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Protein Foods What Can I Drink? Dairy Fruits donate en -- Be TWICE as AWESOME! - 2014- ...

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Full Text Available ... Olive oil and olives Peanut butter and peanut oil Sesame seeds The Association recommends eating more monounsaturated fats than ... oil Cottonseed oil Safflower oil Soybean oil Sunflower oil Walnuts Pumpkin or sunflower seeds Soft (tub) margarine Mayonnaise Salad dressings Omega-3 ...

339

Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We tested the hypothesis that a shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet would lead to decreased glucose uptake and impaired muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise compared with ingestion of a carbohydrate diet all along. We studied 13 untrained men; 7 consumed a high-fat (Fat-CHO; 62% fat, 21% carbohydrate) and 6 a high-carbohydrate diet (CHO; 20% fat, 65% carbohydrate) for 7 wk, and thereafter both groups consumed the carbohydrate diet for an eighth week. Training was performed throughout. After 8 wk, during 60 min of exercise (71 +/- 1% pretraining maximal oxygen uptake) average leg glucose uptake (1.00 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.55 +/- 0.21 mmol/min) was lower (P <0.05) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. The rate of muscle glycogen breakdown was similar (4.4 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.2 +/- 0.7 mmol. min(-1). kg dry wt(-1)) despite a significantly higher preexercise glycogen concentration (872 +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels, compared with when the carbohydrate diet is consumed throughout training.

Helge, JØrn Wulff; Watt, Peter W

2002-01-01

340

The effects of dietary saturated fat on basal hypothalamic neuroinflammation in rats.  

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Recent evidence has demonstrated that consumption of high fat diets can trigger brain inflammation and subsequent injury in the absence of any peripheral inflammatory signaling. Here we sought to investigate whether a link exists between the concentration of highly saturated fats in the diet and the development of inflammation in the brain of rats and, whether the source of the saturated fat was an important factor in this process. Adult male rats had access to diets with a moderate level of total fat (32% of calories as fat) varying in level of saturated fat [low (20%) vs high (>60%)] and its source (butter or coconut oil). After 8 weeks of diet exposure peripheral and central tissues were collected for analysis of inflammatory signals. Neither blood nor white adipose tissue exhibited any changes in inflammatory mediators regardless of the saturated fat content or the source. In the brain however, we observed significant hypothalamic upregulation of the expression of markers of glial activation as well as of interleukin (IL)-1,6 and nuclear factor (NF)-IL-6, which were highest in the group fed the butter-based diets. The increase in these inflammatory mediators had no effect on basal body temperature or the temperature response to systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The present results indicate that hypothalamic inflammation associated with consumption of diets high in fat is directly linked to the saturated fat content as well as the source of that fat. These effects are likely linked to other pathophysiological changes in the regulation of metabolism. PMID:24075847

Maric, Tia; Woodside, Barbara; Luheshi, Giamal N

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
341

Dietary intervention with vitamin D, calcium, and whey protein reduced fat mass and increased lean mass in rats.  

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The aim of the current study was to determine the effects and the mechanisms of inclusion of dietary whey protein, high calcium, and high vitamin D intake with either a high-sucrose or high-fat base diets on body composition of rodents. Male Wistar rats were assigned to either no whey protein, suboptimal calcium (0.25%), and vitamin D (400 IU/kg) diet (LD), or a diet containing whey protein, high calcium (1.5%), and vitamin D (10 000 IU/kg) diet (HD), and either high-fat (40% of energy) or high-sucrose (60%) base diets for 13 weeks. Liver tissue homogenates were used to determine [(14)C]glucose and [(14)C]palmitate oxidation. mRNA expression of enzymes related to energy metabolism in liver, adipose, and muscle, as well as regulators of muscle mass and insulin receptor was assessed. The results demonstrated that there was reduced accumulation of body fat mass (P = .01) and greater lean mass (P = .03) for the HD- compared to LD-fed group regardless of the background diet. There were no consistent differences between the LD and HD groups across background diets in substrate oxidation and mRNA expression for enzymes measured that regulate energy metabolism, myostatin, or muscle vascular endothelial growth factor. However, there was an increase in insulin receptor mRNA expression in muscle in the HD compared to the LD groups. In conclusion, elevated whey protein, calcium, and vitamin D intake resulted in reduced accumulation of body fat mass and increased lean mass, with a commensurate increase in insulin receptor expression, regardless of the level of calories from fat or sucrose. PMID:19083488

Siddiqui, Shamim M K; Chang, Eugene; Li, Jia; Burlage, Catherine; Zou, Mi; Buhman, Kimberly K; Koser, Stephanie; Donkin, Shawn S; Teegarden, Dorothy

2008-11-01

342

Dietary fat source affects metabolism of fatty acids in pigs as evaluated by altered expression of lipogenic genes in liver and adipose tissues.  

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Little is known about pig gene expressions related to dietary fatty acids (FAs) and most work have been conducted in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary fats regulate fat metabolism of pigs in different tissues. Fifty-six crossbred gilts (62 ± 5.2 kg BW) were fed one of seven dietary treatments (eight animals per treatment): a semi-synthetic diet containing a very low level of fat (no fat (NF)) and six fat-supplemented diets (ca. 10%) based on barley and soybean meal. The supplemental fat sources were tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), blend (FB) (55% T, 35% SFO and 10% LO) and fish oil (FO) blend (40% FO and 60% LO). Pigs were slaughtered at 100 kg BW and autopsies from liver, adipose tissue and muscle semimembranousus were collected for qPCR. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) abundances of genes related to lipogenesis were modified due to dietary treatments in both liver (sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACACA) and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD)) and adipose tissue (fatty acid synthase (FASN), ACACA and SCD), but were not affected in semimembranousus muscle. In the liver, the mRNA abundances of genes encoding lipogenic enzymes were highest in pigs fed HOSF and lowest in pigs fed FO. In adipose tissue, the mRNA abundances were highest in pigs fed the NF diet and lowest in pigs fed T. The study demonstrated that dietary FAs stimulate lipogenic enzyme gene expression differently in liver, fat and muscles tissues. PMID:22444377

Duran-Montgé, P; Theil, P K; Lauridsen, C; Esteve-Garcia, E

2009-04-01

343

Effects of dietary digestible lysine levels on protein and fat deposition in the carcass of broilers  

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Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of different levels of digestible lysine in the diets of male and female broilers on protein and fat deposition. A total of 2160 Avian Farms broilers. A completely randomized experimental design was applied, and treatments consisted of the effects of three digestible lysine levels nested within each sex, with 12 replicates and 30 birds per experimental unit. The adopted digestible lysine levels corresponded to 92.5, 100.0, and 107.5% of the nutritional requirements of phases 1 to 21 days, 22 to 42 days, and 43 to 56 days of age, respectively. In each phase, the experimental diets contained similar calorie and protein levels within each sex. No significant effects of lysine levels were found on dry matter and fat percentages in the carcass of birds during the evaluated periods. Also, there were no significant effects of lysine levels on protein and fat deposition in males or females. However, males presented higher protein deposition and lower fat deposition than females during the total experimental period. Gompertz equations showed that females deposit more fat and less protein than males, and that this affected the fall in the curve of protein deposition, when the curve of fat deposition was still rising. Therefore, it was concluded that the older the broilers at slaughter, the higher their body fat content and the lower their body protein content, particularly in females.

F de C Tavernari

2009-06-01

344

Dietary fat modifies mitochondrial and plasma membrane apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle of calorie-restricted mice.  

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Calorie restriction decreases skeletal muscle apoptosis, and this phenomenon has been mechanistically linked to its protective action against sarcopenia of aging. Alterations in lipid composition of membranes have been related with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction. However, no study has been designed to date to elucidate if different dietary fat sources with calorie restriction modify apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle. We show that a 6-month calorie restriction decreased the activity of the plasma membrane neutral sphingomyelinase, although caspase-8/10 activity was not altered, in young adult mice. Lipid hydroperoxides, Bax levels, and cytochrome c and AIF release/accumulation into the cytosol were also decreased, although caspase-9 activity was unchanged. No alterations in caspase-3 and apoptotic index (DNA fragmentation) were observed, but calorie restriction improved structural features of gastrocnemius fibers by increasing cross-sectional area and decreasing circularity of fibers in cross sections. Changing dietary fat with calorie restriction produced substantial alterations of apoptotic signaling. Fish oil augmented the protective effect of calorie restriction decreasing plasma membrane neutral sphingomyelinase, Bax levels, caspase-8/10, and -9 activities, while increasing levels of the antioxidant coenzyme Q at the plasma membrane, and potentiating the increase of cross-sectional area and the decrease of fiber circularity in cross sections. Many of these changes were not found when we used lard. Our data support that dietary fish oil with calorie restriction produces a cellular anti-apoptotic environment in skeletal muscle with a downregulation of components involved in the initial stages of apoptosis engagement, both at the plasma membrane and the mitochondria. PMID:23179253

López-Domínguez, José Alberto; Khraiwesh, Husam; González-Reyes, José Antonio; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; Ramsey, Jon Jay; de Cabo, Rafael; Burón, María Isabel; Villalba, José M

2013-12-01

345

Influence of dietary fish oil on conjugated linoleic acid and other fatty acids in milk fat from lactating dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactating cows were fed menhaden fish oil to elevate concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and n-3 fatty acids in milk. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows at 48+/-11 DIM were assigned randomly to a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square. Each treatment period was 35 d in length, with data collected d 15 to 35 of each period. On a dry matter (DM) basis, diets contained 25% corn silage, 25% alfalfa hay, and 50% of the respective concentrate mix. Fish oil was supplemented at 0, 1, 2, and 3% of ration DM. Linear decreases were observed for DM intake (28.8, 28.5, 23.4, and 20.4 kg/d) and milk fat (2.99, 2.79, 2.37, and 2.30%) for 0 to 3% dietary fish oil, respectively. Milk yield (31.7, 34.2, 32.3, and 27.4 kg/d) increased as dietary fish oil increased from 0 to 1% but decreased linearly from 1 to 3% dietary fish oil. Milk protein percentages (3.17, 3.19, 3.21, and 3.17) were similar for all treatments. When the 2% fish oil diet was fed, concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid and transvaccenic acid in milk fat increased to 356% (to 2.2 g/ 100 g of total fatty acids) and 502% (to 6.1 g/100 g), respectively, of amounts when 0% fish oil was fed. There were no additional increases in these fatty acids when cows were fed 3% fish oil. The n-3 fatty acids increased from a trace to over 1 g/100 g of milk fatty acids, when the 3% fish oil diet was fed. Fish oil supplementation to diets of dairy cows increased the conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and n-3 fatty acids in milk. PMID:11104282

Donovan, D C; Schingoethe, D J; Baer, R J; Ryali, J; Hippen, A R; Franklin, S T

2000-11-01

346

Tissue fatty acid composition of pigs fed different fat sources.  

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Dietary fat influences the physico-chemical properties of meat, and fatty acid (FA) composition may have implications on human health. The objectives of the experiment were to study tissue FA partitioning and the effect of dietary fat source on tissue FA composition. Seventy crossbred gilts (61.8 ± 5.2 kg BW average) were fed one of seven treatments: a diet containing a very low level of fat (no fat (NF)) and six fat-supplemented diets (10%: tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), fat blend (FB: 55% tallow, 35% SFO, 10% LO) and fish oil blend (FO: 40% fish oil, 60% LO). Differential tissue FA depositions were observed, with flare fat being the most saturated, followed by intermuscular, and subcutaneous being the least saturated. Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) deposition showed an opposite tissue pattern. Subcutaneous fat showed the highest MUFAs, intermuscular fat showed intermediate values and flare fat showed the lowest MUFAs. Intramuscular polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content was less susceptible to dietary treatment modifications compared with other depots. Significant tissue FA modifications were observed due to dietary treatments, mainly in diets rich in PUFA. The saturated fatty acids (SFA) were high in NF-fed and low in HOSF-fed animals, MUFA were high in HOSF-fed and low in SFO-, LO- and FO-fed animals, while PUFA were high in SFO- and LO-fed and low in HOSF-, T- and NF-fed animals. Pigs fed LO and FB showed detectable levels of EPA, which depended on the linolenic content of the diet. The only effective way to increase tissue DHA contents was to add DHA in the diet through FO feeding. Araquidonic acid was high in SFO diets and low in LO and FB diets, and also high in intramuscular fat compared with other tissues. EPA and DHA were also high in intramuscular fat compared with other fat depots. The deposition of oleic and linoleic acids depended on the composition of dietary fat, as their deposition varied between diets, even at similar levels of intake of each FA. The NF diet resulted in the greatest proportion of SFAs (palmitic and stearic) of all treatments tested. SFAs were less susceptible to modification than MUFA in response to the different PUFA levels supplemented in the diet. T resulted in less fat deposition in some of the fat depots and more in others, suggesting that T could partition fat differently among fat depots. PMID:22444081

Duran-Montgé, P; Realini, C E; Barroeta, A C; Lizardo, R; Esteve-Garcia, E

2008-12-01

347

Gene-nutrient interactions with dietary fat modulate the association between genetic variation of the ACSL1 gene and metabolic syndrome.  

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Long-chain acyl CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. Disturbance of these pathways may result in dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Dietary fat is a key environmental factor that may interact with genetic determinants of lipid metabolism to affect MetS risk. We investigated the relationship between ACSL1 polymorphisms (rs4862417, rs6552828, rs13120078, rs9997745, and rs12503643) and MetS risk and determined potential interactions with dietary fat in the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX study of MetS cases and matched controls (n = 1,754). GG homozygotes for rs9997745 had increased MetS risk {odds ratio (OR) 1.90 [confidence interval (CI) 1.15, 3.13]; P = 0.01}, displayed elevated fasting glucose (P = 0.001) and insulin concentrations (P = 0.002) and increased insulin resistance (P = 0.03) relative to the A allele carriers. MetS risk was modulated by dietary fat, whereby the risk conferred by GG homozygosity was abolished among individuals consuming either a low-fat (5.5% energy). In conclusion, ACSL1 rs9997745 influences MetS risk, most likely via disturbances in fatty acid metabolism, which was modulated by dietary fat consumption, particularly PUFA intake, suggesting novel gene-nutrient interactions. PMID:20176858

Phillips, Catherine M; Goumidi, Louisa; Bertrais, Sandrine; Field, Martyn R; Cupples, L Adrienne; Ordovas, Jose M; Defoort, Catherine; Lovegrove, Julie A; Drevon, Christian A; Gibney, Michael J; Blaak, Ellen E; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Karlstrom, Britta; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; McManus, Ross; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Planells, Richard; Roche, Helen M

2010-07-01

348

Effects of Pullet Nutrition and Dietary Energy and Fat of Layer Rations on the performance of Hy-line Layers  

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Full Text Available An experiment with 720 pullets was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary energy levels of pullet and dietary energy and fat of laying ration on subsequent performance parameters during 14-20 and 22-44 weeks of age. In the first period, white leghorn pullets were fed with two diets of low and high density energy (2600 and 3200 Kcal ME/kg. In the lating period (second period, birds, in each treatment of pullet period, were fed with six diets containing three levels of low, medium and high energy (2600, 2750 and 2900 kcal/kg at two levels of supplemental fat (zero and 2%. All diets were formulated to meet minimum NRC (1994 requirements of amino acids and protein. This experiment was done in randomized complete block designs with 5 replicates. The levels of energy in the growing period did not affect egg production, egg weight, daily feed intake, feed conversion rate and age of pubertal maturity in laying period, but pullets fed with high energy diet had significantly higher weights as compared to low energy diet in the beginning of laying period. In the laying period, the use of supplemental fat (2% improved egg production and egg weight, but feed intake and feed conversion rate were not affected. Means of feed conversion rate, feed intake and egg production during laying period in low energy diet were greater than those as compared to high energy diet, but egg weight was not affected by energy level of diets. Low energy intake to protein intake ratio in low energy diet versus high energy diet may be a reason for greater egg production in lower energy than in higher energy diets.

H. Nassiri Moghaddam

2000-04-01

349

Interactive Effects of Dietary Fat/Carbohydrate Ratio and Body Mass Index on Iron Deficiency Anemia among Taiwanese Women  

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Full Text Available Whether being overweight or obese is associated with increased risk of iron deficiency anemia (IDA remains controversial. We evaluated the dietary intakes and risk for IDA in relation to body mass index (BMI. One thousand two hundred and seventy-four females aged ?19 years, enrolled in the third Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT 2005–2008, were selected. Half of the women were either overweight (24.0% or obese (25.3%. The overall prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency and IDA among adult women was 19.5%, 8.6% and 6.2%. BMI showed a protective effect on IDA: overweight (odds ratio, OR: 0.365 (0.181–0.736 and obese (OR: 0.480 (0.259–0.891 when compared with normal weight. Univariate analysis identified increased IDA risk for overweight/obese women who consumed higher dietary fat but lower carbohydrate (CHO (OR: 10.119 (1.267–80.79. No such relationship was found in IDA women with normal weight (OR: 0.375 (0.036–4.022. Analysis of interaction(s showed individuals within the highest BMI tertile (T3 had the lowest risk for IDA and the risk increased with increasing tertile groups of fat/CHO ratio; OR 0.381 (0.144–1.008; p = 0.051, 0.370 (0.133–1.026; p = 0.056 and 0.748 (0.314–1.783; p = 0.513; for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. In conclusion, a protective effect of BMI on IDA may be attenuated in women who had increased fat/CHO ratio.

Jung-Su Chang

2014-09-01

350

Interactive Effects of Dietary Fat/Carbohydrate Ratio and Body Mass Index on Iron Deficiency Anemia among Taiwanese Women  

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Whether being overweight or obese is associated with increased risk of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) remains controversial. We evaluated the dietary intakes and risk for IDA in relation to body mass index (BMI). One thousand two hundred and seventy-four females aged ?19 years, enrolled in the third Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 2005–2008, were selected. Half of the women were either overweight (24.0%) or obese (25.3%). The overall prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency and IDA among adult women was 19.5%, 8.6% and 6.2%. BMI showed a protective effect on IDA: overweight (odds ratio, OR: 0.365 (0.181–0.736)) and obese (OR: 0.480 (0.259–0.891)) when compared with normal weight. Univariate analysis identified increased IDA risk for overweight/obese women who consumed higher dietary fat but lower carbohydrate (CHO) (OR: 10.119 (1.267–80.79)). No such relationship was found in IDA women with normal weight (OR: 0.375 (0.036–4.022)). Analysis of interaction(s) showed individuals within the highest BMI tertile (T3) had the lowest risk for IDA and the risk increased with increasing tertile groups of fat/CHO ratio; OR 0.381 (0.144–1.008; p = 0.051), 0.370 (0.133–1.026; p = 0.056) and 0.748 (0.314–1.783; p = 0.513); for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. In conclusion, a protective effect of BMI on IDA may be attenuated in women who had increased fat/CHO ratio. PMID:25255383

Chang, Jung-Su; Chen, Yi-Chun; Owaga, Eddy; Palupi, Khairizka Citra; Pan, Wen-Harn; Bai, Chyi-Huey

2014-01-01

351

Dietary Supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Plus n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Increases Food Intake and Brown Adipose Tissue in Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3 was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression measurements revealed increased expression of orexigenic and decreased expression of anorexigenic signals. Thus, CLA/n-3 increases food intake without affecting body weight potentially through increasing BAT size and up-regulating UCP-1 in rats.

Amanda C. Morris

2009-11-01

352

Chronic Aerobic Exercise Associated to Dietary Modification Improve Endothelial Function and eNOS Expression in High Fat Fed Hamsters  

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Obesity is epidemic in the western world and central adipose tissue deposition points to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of any association between obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Physical exercise has been used as non-pharmacological treatment to significantly reverse/attenuate obesity comorbidities. In this study we have investigated effects of exercise and/or dietary modification on microcirculatory function, body composition, serum glucose, iNOS and eNOS expression on 120 male hamsters treated for 12 weeks with high fat chow (HF, n?=?30) starting on the 21st day of birth. From week 12 to 20, animals were randomly separated in HF (no treatment change), return to standard chow (HFSC, n?=?30), high fat chow associated to an aerobic exercise training program (AET) (HFEX, n?=?30) and return to standard chow+AET (HFSCEX, n?=?30). Microvascular reactivity in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside and macromolecular permeability increase induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion were assessed on the cheek pouch preparation. Total body fat and aorta eNOS and iNOS expression by immunoblotting assay were evaluated on the experimental day. Compared to HFSC and HFSCEX groups, HF and HFEX ones presented increased visceral fat [(mean±SEM) (HF)4.9±1.5 g and (HFEX)4.7±0.9 g vs. (HFSC)*3.0±0.7 g and (HFSCEX)*1.9±0.4 g/100 g BW]; impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation [Ach 10?8 M (HF)87.9±2.7%; (HFSC)*116.7±5.9%; (HFEX)*109.1±4.6%; (HFSCEX)*105±2.8%; Ach10?6 M (HF)95.3±3.1%; (HFSC)*126±6.2%; (HFEX)*122.5±2.8%; (HFSCEX)*118.1±4.3% and Ach10?4 M (HF)109.5±4.8%; (HFSC)*149.6±6.6%; (HFEX)*143.5±5.4% and (HFSCEX)*139.4±5.2%], macromolecular permeability increase after ischemia/reperfusion [(HF)40.5±4.2; (HFSC)*19.0±1.6; (HFEX)*18.6±2.1 and (HFSCEX)* 21.5±3.7 leaks/cm2), decreased eNOS expression, increased leptin and glycaemic levels. Endothelial-independent microvascular reactivity was similar between groups, suggesting that only endothelial damage had occurred. Our results indicate that an aerobic routine and/or dietary modification may cause significant improvements to high fat fed animals, diminishing visceral depots, increasing eNOS expression and reducing microcirculatory dysfunction. PMID:25036223

Boa, Beatriz C. S.; Souza, Maria das Gracas C.; Leite, Richard D.; da Silva, Simone V.; Barja-Fidalgo, Thereza Christina; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme; Bouskela, Eliete

2014-01-01

353

Intestinal absorption of dietary fat from a liquid diet perfused in rats at a submaximum level  

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The small intestine of rats was perfused in vivo for 2 h with a nutritionally complete liquid diet (68% calories from fat as corn oil). As the perfusion increased from 106 mg/2 h, the intestinal disappearance of the 14C-triolein marker remained proportional to the load up to 2359 mg fat/2 h. Despite a decrease in absorption from 70 to 17%, this represents a very large fat intake. Fat absorption improved when medium-chain triglycerides or octanoic acid replaced corn oil (both p less than 0.01). Linoleic acid was absorbed from the diet less than corn oil (p less than 0.01). Dry ox bile reduced fat absorption (p less than 0.05); lipase and an antacid had no effect. Corn oil perfused alone was absorbed better than from the diet (p less than 0.01). Data with 14C-triolein was confirmed by dry-weight disappearance of the diet and by net intestinal water balance. Usual feeding underutilizes a large reserve for fat absorption. This reserve should be considered in therapeutic nutrition

354

Intestinal absorption of dietary fat from a liquid diet perfused in rats at a submaximum level  

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The small intestine of rats was perfused in vivo for 2 h with a nutritionally complete liquid diet (68% calories from fat as corn oil). As the perfusion increased from 106 mg/2 h, the intestinal disappearance of the /sup 14/C-triolein marker remained proportional to the load up to 2359 mg fat/2 h. Despite a decrease in absorption from 70 to 17%, this represents a very large fat intake. Fat absorption improved when medium-chain triglycerides or octanoic acid replaced corn oil (both p less than 0.01). Linoleic acid was absorbed from the diet less than corn oil (p less than 0.01). Dry ox bile reduced fat absorption (p less than 0.05); lipase and an antacid had no effect. Corn oil perfused alone was absorbed better than from the diet (p less than 0.01). Data with /sup 14/C-triolein was confirmed by dry-weight disappearance of the diet and by net intestinal water balance. Usual feeding underutilizes a large reserve for fat absorption. This reserve should be considered in therapeutic nutrition.

Simko, V.; Kelley, R.E.

1988-02-01

355

The Effect of Food Images on Mood and Arousal Depends on Dietary Histories and the Fat and Sugar Content of Foods Depicted  

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Full Text Available Background: While brain imaging studies show that reward regions in the human brain that regulate reward-guided behavior and integrate sensory modalities of smell, taste, and texture respond preferentially to high calorie foods, few studies account for dietary histories or account for recent behavioral evidence showing preferential responding for fruits (a low calorie food that tastes sweet. To address these concerns, the present study tested the hypothesis that images of high/low fat and sugar foods, even sugary foods that are low calorie (i.e., fruits, will enhance emotional responsiveness and that these changes may be related to dietary histories with fat and sugar intake. Method: Participants were shown 4 sets of 15 food images with each food image automatically timed every 9 s to transition to a new food image; participant pre-post mood and arousal was measured. The 4 sets of food images were high fat-high sugar (HFHS; desserts, high fat-low sugar (HFLS; fried foods, low fat-high sugar (LFHS; fruits, or low fat-low sugar (LFLS; vegetables foods. To account for dietary histories, participants also completed estimated daily intake scales (EDIS for sugar and fat. Results: Mood and arousal significantly increased in all groups, except Group LFLS, and even in a group that was low calorie but shown foods that taste sweet, i.e., Group LFHS. Interestingly, changes in arousal, but not mood, were dependent on participant histories with sugar and fat intake. Conclusion: Changes in emotional responsiveness to food images were nutrient-specific, which can be a more detailed level of analysis for assessing responsiveness to food images. Also, participant histories with sugar and fat should be taken into account as these histories can explain the changes in arousal observed here.

Heather E. Creary

2013-02-01

356

The role of dietary fatty acids in predicting myocardial structure in fat-fed rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity increases the risk for development of cardiomyopathy in the absence of hypertension, diabetes or myocardial ischemia. Not all obese individuals, however, progress to heart failure. Indeed, obesity may provide protection from cardiovascular mortality in some populations. The fatty acid milieu, modulated by diet, may modify obesity-induced myocardial structure and function, lending partial explanation for the array of cardiomyopathic phenotypy in obese individuals. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 1 of the following 4 diets for 32 weeks: control (CON; 50% saturated fat (SAT; 40% saturated fat + 10% linoleic acid (SAT+LA; 40% saturated fat + 10% ?-linolenic acid (SAT+ALA. Serum leptin, insulin, glucose, free fatty acids and triglycerides were quantitated. In vivo cardiovascular outcomes included blood pressure, heart rate and echocardiographic measurements of structure and function. The rats were sacrificed and myocardium was processed for fatty acid analysis (TLC-GC, and evaluation of potential modifiers of myocardial structure including collagen (Masson's trichrome, hydroxyproline quantitation, lipid (Oil Red O, triglyceride quantitation and myocyte cross sectional area. Results Rats fed SAT+LA and SAT+ALA diets had greater cranial LV wall thickness compared to rats fed CON and SAT diets, in the absence of hypertension or apparent insulin resistance. Treatment was not associated with changes in myocardial function. Myocardial collagen and triglycerides were similar among treatment groups; however, rats fed the high-fat diets, regardless of composition, demonstrated increased myocyte cross sectional area. Conclusions Under conditions of high-fat feeding, replacement of 10% saturated fat with either LA or ALA is associated with thickening of the cranial LV wall, but without concomitant functional changes. Increased myocyte size appears to be a more likely contributor to early LV thickening in response to high-fat feeding. These findings suggest that myocyte hypertrophy may be an early change leading to gross LV hypertrophy in the hearts of "healthy" obese rats, in the absence of hypertension, diabetes and myocardial ischemia.

Miller Melissa L

2011-06-01

357

Cytotoxicity of fecal water is dependent on the type of dietary fat and is reduced by supplemental calcium phosphate in rats.  

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The effects of the type of dietary fat (180 g/kg diet) and of calcium phosphate (CaHPO4) supplementation (25 vs. 225 mmol/kg diet) on luminal solubility of fatty acids and bile acids, cytotoxicity of fecal water and intestinal epitheliolysis were studied in rats. In rats fed the low and high calcium phosphate diets, fecal excretion of fatty acids diminished in the order palm oil > milk fat > corn oil. Palm oil also caused the highest concentration of fatty acids measured in fecal water followed by milk fat and corn oil when fed at both calcium phosphate levels. The differences in concentrations of luminal surfactants in fecal water of rats fed the three fat diets resulted in a fat type-dependent cytotoxicity of fecal water, with that of palm oil-fed rats the most cytotoxic. The concentrations of fatty acids as well as bile acids in fecal water were, however, significantly lowered by calcium phosphate supplementation in rats fed all types of dietary fat. This reduction in concentration of fecal water surfactants resulted in a lower cytotoxicity of fecal water. The concentration of surfactants in fecal water and cytotoxicity were correlated by multiple regression analysis (R = 0.89). Intestinal epitheliolysis measured as alkaline phosphatase activity in fecal water was lowered comparably to the reduction in cytotoxicity by supplemental calcium phosphate. Intestinal epitheliolysis and cytotoxicity of fecal water were correlated (r = 0.92, P < 0.001). The type of dietary fat and the amount of dietary calcium phosphate influence the concentrations of surfactants in fecal water and consequently affect cytotoxicity of fecal water and intestinal epitheliolysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8463858

Lapré, J A; De Vries, H T; Van der Meer, R

1993-03-01

358

GDF-3 is an adipogenic cytokine under high fat dietary condition  

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Growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF-3) is structurally a bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor subfamily member of the TGF-? superfamily. GDF-3 exhibits highest level of expression in white fat tissue in mice and is greatly induced by high fat diet if fat metabolic pathway is blocked. To identify its biological function, GDF-3 was overexpressed in mice by adenovirus mediated gene transfer. Mice transduced with GDF-3 displayed profound weight gain when fed with high fat diet. The phenotypes included greatly expanded adipose tissue mass, increased body adiposity, highly hypertrophic adipocytes, hepatic steatosis, and elevated plasma leptin. GDF-3 stimulated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression in adipocytes, a master nuclear receptor that controls adipogenesis. However, GDF-3 was not involved in blood glucose homeostasis or insulin resistance, a condition associated with obesity. In contrast, similar phenotypes were not observed in GDF-3 mice fed with normal chow, indicating that GDF-3 is only active under high lipid load. Thus, GDF-3 is a new non-diabetic adipogenic factor tightly coupled with fat metabolism

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