WorldWideScience
1

Polyunsaturated Fats and Monounsaturated Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... on the MyPyramid plan. More Information on Fats Dietary Fat Trans Fat Saturated Fat Cholesterol back to top ... for Everyone Introduction Nutrition Basics Food Groups Water Dietary Fat Trans Fat Saturated Fat Cholesterol Polyunsaturated Fats and ...

2

Dietary Fat  

Science.gov (United States)

... Nutrition for Everyone Nutrition Topics Share Compartir Dietary Fat What counts as fat? Are some fats better ... polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. How much total dietary fat do I need? The Dietary Guidelines for Americans ...

3

Substituting dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat changes abdominal fat distribution and improves insulin sensitivity.  

OpenAIRE

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: British dietary recommendations are to decrease total fat intake to less than 30 % of daily energy intake and saturated fat to less than 10 %. In practice, it is difficult for people to make these changes. It may be easier to encourage people to switch from a diet rich in saturated fatty acids to one rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. METHODS: A total of 17 subjects - six people with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, six non-obese and five obese people with...

Summers, Lk; Fielding, Ba; Bradshaw, Ha; Ilic, V.; Beysen, C.; Clark, Ml; Moore, Nr; Frayn, Kn

2002-01-01

4

Facts about polyunsaturated fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... is one of the healthy fats, along with monounsaturated fat. Polyunsaturated fat is found in plant and animal ... and seeds. Eating moderate amounts of polyunsaturated (and monounsaturated) fat in place of saturated and trans fats can ...

5

The effect of replacing dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat on plasma lipids in free-living young adults.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To examine, in free-living adults eating self-selected diets, the effects on plasma cholesterol of substituting saturated fat rich foods with either n-6 polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat rich foods while at the same time adhering to a total fat intake of 30-33% of dietary energy. DESIGN: Two randomised crossover trials. SETTING: General community. SUBJECTS: Volunteer sample of healthy free-living nutrition students at the University of Otago. Trial I, n=29; and trial II, n=42....

Hodson, L.; Skeaff, Cm; Chisholm, Wa

2001-01-01

6

Vascular Dysfunction Induced in Offspring by Maternal Dietary Fat Involves Altered Arterial Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis  

OpenAIRE

Nutrition during development affects risk of future cardiovascular disease. Relatively little is known about whether the amount and type of fat in the maternal diet affect vascular function in the offspring. To investigate this, pregnant and lactating rats were fed either 7%(w/w) or 21%(w/w) fat enriched in either18:2n-6, trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, or fish oil. Their offspring were fed 4%(w/w) soybean oil from weaning until day 77. Type and amount of maternal dietary fat altere...

Kelsall, Christopher J.; Hoile, Samuel P.; Irvine, Nicola A.; Masoodi, Mojgan; Torrens, Christopher; Lillycrop, Karen A.; Calder, Philip C.; Clough, Geraldine F.; Hanson, Mark A.; Burdge, Graham C.

2012-01-01

7

Different kinetic fates of apolipoproteins A-I and A-II from lymph chylomicra of nonhuman primates. Effect of saturated versus polyunsaturated dietary fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monkeys fed polyunsaturated fat had significantly lower plasma cholesterol (186 +/- 18 vs. 276 +/- 31 mg/dl) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) mass concentrations (466 +/- 28 vs. 518 +/- 34 mg/dl) than did animals fed saturated fat. Plasma apoA-I concentrations also were significantly lower and apoA-II levels were generally, though not significantly, lower in the group fed polyunsaturated fat. In vivo reinjection studies, using thoracic duct lymph chylomicra labeled with (131)I and HDL labeled with (125)I, were done in order to study the mechanism of plasma HDL-lowering by polyunsaturated dietary fat. The peak specific activity (SA) of HDL apoA-I derived from (131)I-labeled chylomicra occurred at 3 hr after injection (172 +/- 11% of 1 min S.A.) and then an exponential decay occurred indicative of a precursor-product relationship between chylomicron apoA-I and HDL apoA-I. In contrast, HDL apoA-II derived from (131)I-labeled chylomicra had no early S.A. increase and began to die away immediately after injection. Labeled apoA-I from chylomicron and HDL origin had similar plasma fractional catabolic rates (FCR = 0.34-0.38 vs. 0.32-0.38 d(-1), respectively); apoA-II from chylomicron or HDL origin also had similar FCR (0.46-0.51 vs. 0.42-0.51 d(-1), respectively), which were significantly shorter than those for HDL apoA-I. There was a consistent trend toward a higher FCR for HDL apoA-I or A-II of polyunsaturated fat-fed recipients. Chylomicron apoA-I/triglyceride and apoA-II/triglyceride mass ratios were lower in polyunsaturated fat-fed animals (A-I/TG = 1.56 x 10(-3); A-II/TG = 1.47 x 10(-3)) vs. saturated fat-fed animals (A-I/TG = 2.58 x 10(-3); A-II/TG = 2.77 x 10(-3)). It was concluded that: (1) dietary polyunsaturated fat significantly lowered plasma cholesterol, HDL, and apoA-I concentrations relative to saturated fat; (2) the HDL-lowering effect of the dietary polyunsaturated fat may be due to the combined effects of decreased apoprotein production by the intestine and increased HDL catabolism; and (3) in the blood, chylomicron apoA-I and A-II differ in their metabolic fates.-Parks, J. S., and L. L. Rudel. Different kinetic fates of apolipoproteins A-I and A-II from lymph chylomicra of nonhuman primates. Effect of saturated versus polyunsaturated dietary fat. PMID:6804585

Parks, J S; Rudel, L L

1982-03-01

8

Dietary Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... such as butter, solid shortening, and lard. Trans fats. These are found in vegetable shortenings, some margarines, crackers, cookies, snack foods, and other foods made with or fried in partially hydrogenated oils. Try to replace them with oils such as ...

9

Dietary Fat and Cholesterol  

Science.gov (United States)

... Good Sources of Polyunsaturated Fat Include: Canola Oil Sardines Corn Oil Sesame Seeds Cottonseed Oil Soybeans Flaxseeds ... as walnuts) Flaxseed Oil Salmon Green, leafy vegetables Sardines Halibut Soy based foods (such as soybeans, soy ...

10

Dietary fat and cancer.  

OpenAIRE

The present review addresses the evidence for a possible link between dietary fat and cancer. International comparisons suggest that a high-fat diet may increase cancer risk, and this hypothesis is supported by animal experiments. However, epidemiological studies within populations show little or inconsistent associations. Taken together, the available evidence for a relation between dietary fat and cancer is weak

Zock, P. L.

1991-01-01

11

Weighing in on Dietary Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Weighing in on Dietary Fats Some Fats Are Healthier Than Others With the ... are especially important for infants and toddlers, because dietary fat contributes to proper growth and development. “Fats are ...

12

N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity-related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only ?-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures. No significant interactions with the dietary macronutrient composition were observed. Pro-inflammatory cytokineswere not associated with absolute PUFA intake, but the macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) was associated with the n-3/n-6 ratio. CONCLUSION: In humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs, in particular ALA, is beneficially associated with body fatness. The favourable association is, however, not reflected in systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nor is it influenced by macronutrients in the diet.

Lund, Anne-Sofie Q; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

2013-01-01

13

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children

Tetens, Inge

2010-01-01

14

Intake of dietary fats and colorectal cancer risk: prospective findings from the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium.  

OpenAIRE

INTRODUCTION: Epidemiologic evidence for an association between colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and total dietary fat, saturated fat (SF), monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) is inconsistent. Previous studies have used food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to assess diet, but data from food diaries may be less prone to severe measurement error than data from FFQ. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within seven prospective UK cohort studies, comprising 579 cases...

Dahm, Cc; Keogh, Rh; Lentjes, Ma; Spencer, Ea; Key, Tj; Greenwood, Dc; Cade, Je; Burley, Vj; Shipley, Mj; Brunner, Ej; Stephen, Am; Mishra, G.; Kuh, D.; Fentiman, Is; White, Ir

2010-01-01

15

What Are the Types of Fat?  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2 of 3 www.move.va.gov Healthy Dietary Fats Monounsaturated Fat Polyunsaturated Fat Olive oil Soybean oil ... 3 of 3 www.move.va.gov Harmful Dietary Fats Saturated Fat Trans Fat High-fat cuts of ...

16

Dietary fat composition and dementia risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a qualitative review of the evidence linking dietary fat composition to the risk of developing dementia. The review considers laboratory and animal studies that identify underlying mechanisms as well as prospective epidemiologic studies linking biochemical or dietary fatty acids to cognitive decline or incident dementia. Several lines of evidence provide support for the hypothesis that high saturated or trans fatty acids increase the risk of dementia and high polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids decrease risk. Dietary fat composition is an important factor in blood-brain barrier function and the blood cholesterol profile. Cholesterol and blood-brain barrier function are involved in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease, and the primary genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, apolipoprotein E-?4, is involved in cholesterol transport. The epidemiologic literature is seemingly inconsistent on this topic, but many studies are difficult to interpret because of analytical techniques that ignored negative confounding by other fatty acids, which likely resulted in null findings. The studies that appropriately adjust for confounding by other fats support the dietary fat composition hypothesis. PMID:24970568

Morris, Martha Clare; Tangney, Christine C

2014-09-01

17

LDL cholesteryl oleate as a predictor for atherosclerosis: evidence from human and animal studies on dietary fat  

OpenAIRE

This review focuses on the relationships among dietary fat type, plasma and liver lipid, and lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids are beneficial for the prevention of coronary artery atherosclerosis. By contrast, dietary monounsaturated fatty acids appear to alter hepatic lipoprotein metabolism, promote cholesteryl oleate accumulation, and confer atherogenic properties to lipoproteins as shown in data from experimental animal studies. Polyunsaturated...

Degirolamo, Chiara; Shelness, Gregory S.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

2009-01-01

18

Dietary Fat and Heart Failure: Moving from Lipotoxicity to Lipoprotection  

OpenAIRE

There is growing evidence suggesting that dietary fat intake affects the development and progression of heart failure. Studies in rodents show that in the absence of obesity replacing refined carbohydrate with fat can attenuate or prevent ventricular expansion and contractile dysfunction in response to hypertension, infarction or genetic cardiomyopathy. Relatively low intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine sources alters cardiac membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, dec...

Stanley, William C.; Dabkowski, Erinne R.; Ribeiro, Rogerio F.; O’connell, Kelly A.

2012-01-01

19

The Influence of Dietary Fat on Liver Fat Accumulation  

OpenAIRE

Obesity is a known risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, it has been suggested that dietary fat, both amount and composition, may play a pivotal role in its development, independent of body fatness. Studies that have investigated the role of dietary fat on liver fat accumulation are reasonably sparse. We review here the available work that has investigated the impact of dietary fat: amount, composition and frequency, on liver fat accumulation i...

Green, Charlotte J.; Leanne Hodson

2014-01-01

20

Dietary fat and breast cancer risk in the Swedish women's lifestyle and health cohort  

OpenAIRE

We investigated whether dietary intakes of total fat, monounsaturated fat (MUFA), polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) and saturated fat (SFA) were associated with breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of 49?261 Swedish women (30–49 years at enrolment), which yielded 974 breast cancer cases by December 2005. Further, we evaluated if associations differed by oestrogen and/or progesterone receptor tumour status. Total fat, MUFA, PUFA or SFA were not associated with risk overall. However, women i...

Lo?f, M.; Sandin, S.; Lagiou, P.; Hilakivi-clarke, L.; Trichopoulos, D.; Adami, H-o; Weiderpass, E.

2007-01-01

21

Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) Spanish (español) Chinese - Simplified (????) Are All Dietary Fats the Same? English ???????? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) PDF ...

22

Dietary fat intake and quality of life: the SUN project  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Few studies have related nutritional factors with quality of life in healthy populations. The purpose of the study was to assess whether dietary fat intake is associated to mental and physical quality of life. Methods This analysis included 8,430 participants from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project. The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was...

del Burgo Cristina; Ruiz-Canela Miguel; Bes-Rastrollo Maira; Henriquez Patricia; Ruano Cristina; Sánchez-Villegas Almudena

2011-01-01

23

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol  

OpenAIRE

This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty ac...

Tetens, Inge

2010-01-01

24

Dietary Fat and Sports Nutrition: A Primer  

OpenAIRE

The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol) choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune funct...

Lowery, Lonnie M.

2004-01-01

25

Modulation of fluid absorption and the secretory response of rat jejunum to cholera toxin by dietary fat.  

OpenAIRE

To study the effects of dietary fat on jejunal water and ion absorption and on cholera toxin-induced secretion, 3 week old Sprague Dawley rats were fed isocaloric diets. Forty per cent of the total calories were given as fat, as butter (high saturated fat), olive oil (high monounsaturated fat), or corn oil (high polyunsaturated fat), with one group on low fat (10% of calories) standard laboratory diet as controls. During in vivo jejunal perfusion studies we found that (i) a polyunsaturated fa...

Sagher, F. A.; Dodge, J. A.; Moore, R; Mcmaster, C.; Mccaughey, G.

1990-01-01

26

Dietary Soybean Oil, but Not Krabok Oil, Diminishes Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Chickens  

OpenAIRE

In broiler chickens we tested the hypothesis that dietary fats rich in medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) would diminish abdominal fat deposition as do fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Broiler chickens were fed on diets containing either tallow, which is rich in Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA), soybean oil, which is rich in PUFA, or krabok oil, which is rich in MCT. Krabok oil was isolated from the seeds of a tree (Irvingia malayana) grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas...

Sasiphan Wongsuthavas; Chalermpon Yuangklang; Suntorn Wittayakun; Kraisit Vasupen; Jamlong Mitchaothai; Paiwan Srenanual; Beynen, Anton C.

2007-01-01

27

DIETARY FAT AND SPORTS NUTRITION: A PRIMER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits. Toward this end, many companies now sell specialty dietary fat supplements and recognized health authorities have begun recommending them to certain populations. This review will cover data regarding the physiology, dietary needs, food sources, and potential benefits and risks most relevant to athletes. Practical suggestions for incorporating healthy fats will be made. Both food-source and supplemental intakes will be addressed with interrelationships to health throughout.

Lonnie M. Lowery

2004-09-01

28

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... eating more monounsaturated fats than saturated or trans fats in your diet. To include more monounsaturated fats, try to substitute ... you want to replace the sources of saturated fat in your diet with polyunsaturated fats. Sources of polyunsaturated fats are: ...

29

Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption...

Mathew Aleyamma; Binukumar Bhaskarapillai

2005-01-01

30

The effects of different dietary fats and cholesterol on serum lipoprotein concentrations in hamsters.  

Science.gov (United States)

(i) We have studied the effect of dietary cholesterol and fat on lipoprotein concentrations in the male Golden Syrian hamster. (ii) On a low fat diet, dietary cholesterol increased the cholesterol concentration in all the major serum lipoprotein fractions. It also increased the storage of cholesterol ester in the liver. (iii) In the absence of added dietary cholesterol, additional dietary fat had little influence on serum or hepatic cholesterol concentrations, and this is irrespective of the nature of the dietary fat. (iv) In the presence of 0.12% (w/w) cholesterol, lard (rich in saturated fatty acids) increased serum VLDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations. By contrast, olive oil (rich in oleic acid) had no effect on VLDL lipid concentrations and sunflower oil, rich linoleic acid, reduced them. (v) Lard also increased serum LDL cholesterol concentrations in cholesterol-fed animals. Olive oil reduced LDL cholesterol concentrations and sunflower oil had no effect. (vi) In cholesterol-fed animals, lard had no effect on the hepatic cholesterol ester concentration, while both olive and sunflower oil increased it. This increase was significantly higher in olive oil-fed hamsters compared to those fed sunflower oil. (vii) Thus, in this species, the primary effects of dietary fat on lipoprotein metabolism appear to represent a modulation of the effects of dietary cholesterol. In cholesterol-fed hamsters we confirm the hypercholesterolaemic effects of saturated fatty acids and highlight important differences in the effects of mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism. PMID:8117748

Sessions, V A; Salter, A M

1994-03-01

31

Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

Mathew Aleyamma

2005-07-01

32

Prior Exercise Increases Subsequent Utilization of Dietary Fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated whether exercise would alter the partitioning of dietary fat between oxidation and storage. Seven women participated in rest, light exercise, and heavy exercise. Researchers calculated stationary cycle exercise sessions and dietary fat oxidation. Prior exercise had a positive effect on oxidation of dietary monosaturated fat but not…

Votruba, Susan B.; Atkinson, Richard L.; Hirvonen, Matt D.; Schoeller, Dale A.

2002-01-01

33

FAMILIAL CONCORDANCE OF DIETARY FAT PRACTICES AND INTAKE  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined parent and child dietary fat practices and child dietary fat intake. High- and low-fat practices and percentage of kilocalories from fat were obtained from food records completed by 132 students in the 4th to 6th grades. Parents completed three scales: meat modifications (MMOD); ...

34

Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been tested for their effectiveness or safety over prolonged periods of time.

Dyck, D. J.

2000-01-01

35

Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and Vitamin E on serum oxidative status in horses performing very light exercise  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In sporting horses the use of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs could enhance performance because these fatty acids are very important in membrane permeability, and in particular they seem to increase the possibility of long chain fatty acids entering mythochondria to be burnt. The composition of cellular membranes and lipoprotein fatty acids com- position is strictly related to dietary fat quality; percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids and amount of antioxidants also affect tissue susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Six horses were used in a latin square design in which three homogeneous groups were subsequently assigned three dif- ferent dietary treatments for one month each: Control group (C: basic diet; Oil group (O: Basic diet + 200g/day oil rich in PUFAs (Crossential GLA TG20, Croda ®; Vitamin E group (O+E: basic diet + 200 g/day oil rich in PUFAs (Crossential GLA TG20, Croda ® + 5 g/day ?-toco- pheryl-acetate (Egon-E, Acme ®. At the end of each experimental period blood samples were taken by jugular vein puncture. Serum oxidative status was evaluated by TBARs and d-ROMs assessment. Oxidative markers showed the high- est mean values for the oil group, even if no statistically significant differences were found.

Liviana Prola

2010-01-01

36

Types and amount of dietary fat and colon cancer risk: Prevention by omega-3 fatty acid-rich diets  

OpenAIRE

Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the Western world including the United Sates. In recent years there is a strong upward trend in colon cancer risk in Japan mainly due to Americanization of Japanese food habits. Several epidemiological studies point to a strong association between nutrient composition of the diet and cancer of the colon. The role of types of dietary fat, especially saturated fats of animal origin, n?6- and n?3-rich polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

Reddy, Bandaru S.

2002-01-01

37

Effects of Increasing Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Within the Guidelines of the AHA Step 1 Diet on Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Levels in Normal Males  

OpenAIRE

We attempted to ascertain the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids by conducting two studies in normal young men, in which monounsaturated fats were replaced by polyunsaturated fats within the guidelines of the American Heart Association step 1 diet. Study A employed a randomized parallel design in which subjects first consumed an average American diet (AAD) containing 37% of calories as fat (saturated fat, 16% calories; monounsaturated fat, 14% calories; and polyunsaturated fat, 7% calorie...

Ginsberg, Henry N.; Karmally, Wahida; Barr, Susan Learner; Johnson, Colleen; Holleran, Steve; Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar

1994-01-01

38

Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammation: The Role of Phospholipid Biosynthesis  

OpenAIRE

The composition of fatty acids in the diets of both human and domestic animal species can regulate inflammation through the biosynthesis of potent lipid mediators. The substrates for lipid mediator biosynthesis are derived primarily from membrane phospholipids and reflect dietary fatty acid intake. Inflammation can be exacerbated with intake of certain dietary fatty acids, such as some ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and subsequent incorporation into membrane phospholipids. Inflammat...

Sordillo, Lorraine M.; William Raphael

2013-01-01

39

Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids slow the progression of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetic nephropathy is associated with lipid deposits in the kidney. We hypothesized that a diet containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could ameliorate pathogenesis of diabetic kidney diseases associated with lipid depositions in the kidneys. We examined if the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic nephropathy are affected by the type of dietary fat using streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight, intravenous)-induced diabetic rats (5-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were fed a lard diet containing saturated fatty acids or a rapeseed oil diet containing PUFAs (DML and DMR, respectively) for 11 days. Similarly, streptozotocin-nontreated rats were fed a lard diet or a rapeseed oil diet (NL and NR, respectively) for 11 days. Hyperglycemia was induced in DML and DMR, compared with NL and NR groups. The levels of plasma ketone, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) were significantly increased in the DML group. Moreover, albuminuria and renal TG content were enhanced in the DML group. The renal TG content correlated positively with urinary albumin excretion (P kidney sections indicated a marked accumulation of neutral lipids in both glomerular and tubular cells in the DML group. In addition, a renal sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 mature protein increment was induced in the DML group. Conversely, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 expression in the kidney was maintained at normal levels in the DMR group. These results suggest that dietary PUFAs may slow the progression of diabetic nephropathy associated with lipid depositions in the kidney. PMID:20417883

Yokoyama, Meiko; Tanigawa, Kanae; Murata, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Tada, Eriko; Suzuki, Isao; Nakabou, Yukihiro; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro

2010-03-01

40

New insights into the health effects of dietary saturated and omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses supporting this approach. Recent studies introducing the concept of myocardial preconditioning have opened new avenues to understand the complex interplay between the various lipids and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The optimal dietary fat profile includes a low intake of both saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and a moderate intake of omega-3 fatty acids. This profile is quite similar to the Mediterranean diet. On the other hand, recent studies have found a positive association between omega-6 and breast cancer risk. In contrast, omega-3 fatty acids do have anticancer properties. It has been shown that certain (Mediterranean polyphenols significantly increase the endogenous synthesis of omega-3 whereas high intake of omega-6 decreases it. Finally, epidemiological studies suggest that a high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio may be the optimal strategy to decrease breast cancer risk. Thus, the present high intake of omega-6 in many countries is definitely not the optimal strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancers. A moderate intake of plant and marine omega-3 in the context of the traditional Mediterranean diet (low in saturated and omega-6 fatty acids but high in plant monounsaturated fat appears to be the best approach to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in particular breast cancer.

de Lorgeril Michel

2012-05-01

41

Hormones and dietary fat as promoters in mammary carcinogenesis.  

OpenAIRE

Hormones, particularly ovarian steroids and pituitary prolactin, promote mammary carcinogenesis in rats treated with a carcinogen. Hormones also play a critical role during the initiation process as demonstrated by mammary carcinogenesis in ovariectomized rats. A diet high in fat content, especially polyunsaturated fat, promotes mammary tumorigenesis when it is fed to carcinogen-treated rats for a prolonged period of time. Although a high fat diet is not essential for neoplastic transformatio...

Dao, T. L.; Chan, P. C.

1983-01-01

42

Effects of different dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of three different lipid sources (soybean oil, chicken oil or bovine fat on the abdominal fat fatty acid composition in 50 day-old broiler chickens was evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments, 8 repetitions and 40 Arbor Acres broiler chicks of each sex. The four treatments were isocaloric and isoproteic with the following characteristics: T1 Control (Soybean-corn; T2 Control + 3% soybean oil; T3 Control + 3% chicken oil; and T4 Control + 3% bovine fat. The lipids from the diets had significantly statistical effects (p<0,05 on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat. Multivariate techniques also showed differences in fatty acid composition within treatments due to sex. The studied dietary lipids affected the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S but had only small effects on the n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio.

SG Rondelli

2004-09-01

43

Lipase/acyltransferase-catalysed interesterification of fat blends containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

OpenAIRE

The lipase/acyltransferase from Candida parapsilosis is an original biocatalyst that preferentially catalyses alcoholysis over hydrolysis in biphasic aqueous/organic media. In this study, the performance of the immobilised biocatalyst in the interesterification in solvent-free media of fat blends rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was investigated. The interesterification activity of this biocatalyst at a water activity (aw) of 0.97 was similar to that of commercia...

Oso?rio, Nata?lia Melo; Dubreucq, Eric; Fonseca, Maria Manuela R.; Ferreira-dias, Suzana

2009-01-01

44

Metabolic and Histological Effects of Different Polyunsaturated Fat Types in the Diet: Omega-3 and Omega-6  

OpenAIRE

The beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fats and omega 3 supplements in human and animal nutrition have been widely discussed and established though clinical and experimental studies. In this study the High-Fat (HF) diet rodent models were used to evaluate the effects high doses of two polyunsaturated fats omega-3 and omega-6 on metabolic parameters and histology of liver and kidney. Male and female Wistar rats were fed High-Fat (HF) diets containing Omega-3 fish oil supplements (HF-F...

Ayman EL-Meghawry EL-Kenawy; Promy Virk; Maha Hasan Daghestani

2012-01-01

45

Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: possible effect modification by gender and age  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a 16-year follow-up study (ending in 1998) of 3,686 Danish men and women aged 30-71 years at recruitment, the association between energy intake from dietary fat and the risk of coronary heart disease was evaluated while assessing the possible modifying role of gender and age. In the models used, total energy and protein intake were fixed. Differences in intake of energy from fat thus reflected complementary differences in intake of energy from carbohydrates. A 5% higher level of energy from saturated fat intake was associated with a 36% greater risk of coronary heart disease among women (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98, 1.88). No overall association between saturated fat and coronary heart disease was found among men. However, age-dependent analyses showed that saturated fat was positively associated with coronary heart disease among the younger men (HR = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.87, 1.91) and the younger women (HR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.40, 5.12) but not among the older men (HR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.70, 1.28) and the older women (HR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.71). Polyunsaturated fat was inversely associated with coronary heart disease among women and men, although not significantly. In conclusion, the present study suggests that coronary heart disease risk relates to both the quantity and the quality of dietary fats.

Jakobsen, Marianne U; Overvad, Kim

2004-01-01

46

Dietary fat intake and quality of life: the SUN project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have related nutritional factors with quality of life in healthy populations. The purpose of the study was to assess whether dietary fat intake is associated to mental and physical quality of life. Methods This analysis included 8,430 participants from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Project. The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA was assessed through a 136-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Quality of life was measured with the SF-36 Health Survey after 4 years of follow-up. Generalized Linear Models were fitted to assess the regression coefficients (b and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the 8 domains of the SF-36 according to successive quintiles of each kind of fatty acids intake. Results The multivariate-adjusted models revealed a significant inverse association for SFA intake (in quintiles and two of the physical domains (physical functioning and general health. E.g. for general health domain: (highest quintile of intake (Q5 vs. lowest quintile (Q1, b = -1.6; 95% CI = -3.1, -0.1. General health also showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend Conclusions A detrimental relationship between TFA intake at baseline and most of the SF-36 mental domains measured 4 years later were found, whereas weak inverse associations were found for SFA intake and some physical domains.

del Burgo Cristina

2011-11-01

47

Visual evoked potentials and dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in preterm infants.  

OpenAIRE

The influence of dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) supply, and especially of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on evoked potential maturation, was studied in 58 healthy preterm infants using flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs), flash electroretinography (ERG), and brainstem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEPs) at 52 weeks of postconceptional age. At the same time, the fatty acid composition of red blood cell membranes was examined. The infants were fed on breast milk (n = 12), a p...

Faldella, G.; Govoni, M.; Alessandroni, R.; Marchiani, E.; Salvioli, G. P.; Biagi, P. L.; Spano, C.

1996-01-01

48

Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes  

OpenAIRE

Although type 2 diabetes is determined primarily by lifestyle and genes, dietary composition may affect both its development and complications. Dietary fat is of particular interest because fatty acids influence glucose metabolism by altering cell membrane function, enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and gene expression. This paper focuses on the prevention of type 2 diabetes and summarizes the epidemiologic literature on associations between types of dietary fat and diabetes risk. It also s...

Rise?rus, Ulf; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

2008-01-01

49

PREDICTION OF MONOUNSATURATED, POLYUNSATURATED, AND SATURATED FATS BY NIR AND FT-NIR SPECTROSCOPY IN PROCESSED CEREAL PRODUCTS  

Science.gov (United States)

U.S. nutrition labeling legislation requires the declaration of total and saturated fat content on a product’s nutrition label, while declaration of mono- and polyunsaturated fat is voluntary. The accepted method for analysis of these components is extremely labor-intensive and time consuming. Pre...

50

Effect of dietary fat restriction on vascular function  

OpenAIRE

Overweight and obesity are chronic diseases, which are increasingly affecting children and adolescents, and if not treated immediately then fat children from today will become patients from tomorrow. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dietary fat restriction normalizes body weight, impaired glucose tolerance and endothelium-dependent contractions induced by high dietary fat intake in young rodents. C57BL/6J mice, 4 weeks of age, were divided into Control group, which was f...

Baltensperger-schneider, Heidi Lea

2010-01-01

51

Effect of dietary krill oil supplementation on the endocannabinoidome of metabolically relevant tissues from high-fat-fed mice  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3-PUFA) are known to ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an association between elevated peripheral levels of endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids) and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of dietary ?-3-PUFA supplementation, given as krill oil (KO), on metabolic parameters in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and, in parallel, ...

Cohn Jeffrey S; Berge Kjetil; Tandy Sally; Cordeddu Lina; Murru Elisabetta; Bisogno Tiziana; Carta Gianfranca; Piscitelli Fabiana; Griinari Mikko; Banni Sebastiano; Di Marzo Vincenzo

2011-01-01

52

Influence of dietary fat on pork eating quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the influence of dietary fat sources on meat quality, fatty acid composition and sensory attributes in pork. The experiment was conducted with 43 entire male pigs (Pietrain×(Landrace×Large White)) which were fed a basal diet without added fat (control diet) or supplemented with different sources of fat: animal fat (1%, AF1; 3%, AF3), soyabean oil (1%, SBO1) and calcium soaps of palm oil (1%, CaSPO1). Dietary fat supplementation did not significantly affect ultimate pH, colour, Warner-Bratzler shear force values, sensory attributes or SFA. Pigs fed SBO1 had the lowest proportion of MUFA and the highest of PUFA. In conclusion, these dietary fat sources could be recommended for inclusion in diets, at these levels, with no detrimental effect on eating quality. Despite finding no significant differences, the PCA afforded a comprehensive view of the predominating attributes of pork from animals fed the different fats. PMID:22771111

Alonso, Verónica; Najes, Luis M; Provincial, Laura; Guillén, Elena; Gil, Mario; Roncalés, Pedro; Beltrán, José A

2012-12-01

53

European Food Safety Authority; Outcome of the Public consultation on the Draft Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

On 2 July 2009, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) endorsed a draft Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats to be released for public consultation. This Scientific Report summarises the comments received through the public consultation and outlines how these were taken into account in the final opinion. EFSA had received contributions from 40 interested parties (individuals, non-governmental organisations, industry organisations, academia and national assessment bodies). The main comments which were received during the public consultation related to: the availability of more recent data, the nomenclature used, the use of a non-European food composition data base, the impact of genetic factors in modulating the absorption, metabolism and health effects of different fatty acids, the definition of “nutritionally adequate diet”, the use of Dietary Reference Values in the labelling of foods, the translation of advice into food-based dietary guidelines, nutrient goals and recommendations, certain risk management issues, and to Dietary Reference Values of fats, individual fatty acids, and cholesterol. All the public comments received that related to the remit of EFSA were assessed and the Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats has been revised taking relevant comments into consideration.

Tetens, Inge

2010-01-01

54

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and "unhealthy fats." To lower you risk of heart disease, try to eat less saturated and trans ... At the same time, you can protect your heart by eating more mono and polyunsaturated fats including ...

55

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... heart by eating more mono and polyunsaturated fats including omega-3s — the healthy fats. It is true ... hydrogenated oil Stick margarines Shortening Some fast food items such as french fries Cholesterol Your body makes ...

56

Ruminant milk fat plasticity: nutritional control of saturated, polyunsaturated, trans and conjugated fatty acids  

OpenAIRE

After a brief survey of metabolic pathways and nutrient fluxes involved in mammary lipogenesis, this review summarises the known effects of diet on ruminant milk fat composition. Special attention is given to fatty acids that could play a positive role for human health, such as butyric acid, oleic acid, C18 to C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The efficiency of the transfer of C18:2, C18:3, C20:5, C22:5 and C22:6, from the duodenum to the milk, is reviewed. T...

Chilliard, Yves; Ferlay, Anne; Mansbridge, Rosemary; Doreau, Michel

2000-01-01

57

Trans Fat  

Science.gov (United States)

... Value of these two components are high. Use monounsaturated fat (canola and olive oil) and polyunsaturated fat (soybean, ... Trans Fat Saturated Fat Cholesterol Polyunsaturated Fats and Monounsaturated Fats Carbohydrates Protein Vitamins and Minerals Fruits and Vegetables ...

58

Dietary saturated and monounsaturated fats protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by altering fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane in rats  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fats increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We evaluated the effect of dietary corn oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and beef tallow (BT) on fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane and acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 15% (wt/wt) CO, OO or BT for 6 weeks. After treatment with acetaminophen (600 mg/kg), samples of plasma and liver were taken for analyses of the fatty acid composition an...

Shim Eugene; Chung Haeyon; Kim Soo; Park Jung; Chang Yun-Hee; Hwang Jinah; Hwang Hye

2011-01-01

59

Dietary Fat Intake among Urban, African American Adolescents  

OpenAIRE

This study examined commonly consumed high-fat food sources to estimate dietary fat intake among 314 urban, African American adolescents (mean age (SD) = 12.57 (.98) years; 66% female; 91% African American non-Hispanic; and 9% African American Hispanic). Youths’ fat intake was measured using the Block Fat Screener. Most (77%) participants had diets very high in fat (i.e., 40% to 50% of energy). Mean frequencies of consumption revealed youths’ preferences for the following high-fat food it...

Di Noia, Jennifer; Schinke, Steven P.; Contento, Isobel R.

2007-01-01

60

The Role of Dietary Fat throughout the Prostate Cancer Trajectory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed world-wide; however, patients demonstrate exceptionally high survival rates. Many lifestyle factors, including obesity and diet, are considered risk factors for advanced prostate cancer. Dietary fat is a fundamental contributor to obesity and may be specifically important for prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer treatment can result in changes in body composition, affecting quality of life for survivors by increasing the risk of co-morbidities, like cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We aim to examine dietary fat throughout the prostate cancer treatment trajectory, including risk, cancer development and survivorship. Focusing on one specific nutrient throughout the prostate cancer trajectory provides a unique perspective of dietary fat in prostate cancer and the mechanisms that may exacerbate prostate cancer risk, progression and recurrence. Through this approach, we noted that high intake of dietary fat, especially, high intake of animal and saturated fats, may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk. In contrast, a low-fat diet, specifically low in saturated fat, may be beneficial for prostate cancer survivors by reducing tumor angiogenesis and cancer recurrence. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF/Akt signaling pathway appears to be the key pathway moderating dietary fat intake and prostate cancer development and progression.

Katie M. Di Sebastiano

2014-12-01

61

European Food Safety Authority; Outcome of the Public consultation on the Draft Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol  

OpenAIRE

On 2 July 2009, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) endorsed a draft Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats to be released for public consultation. This Scientific Report summarises the comments received through the public consultation and outlines how these were taken into account in the final opinion. EFSA had received contributions from 40 interested parties (individuals, non-governmental organisations, industry organisations, academia and national asse...

Tetens, Inge

2010-01-01

62

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... unhealthy fats." To lower you risk of heart disease, try to eat less saturated and trans fat — the unhealthy fats. At the same time, you can protect your heart by eating more mono and polyunsaturated fats including omega-3s — ...

63

Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease  

OpenAIRE

Background Reduction or modification of dietary fat can improve total cholesterol levels, but may also have a variety of effects, both positive and negative, on other cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of reduction or modification of dietary fats on total and cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular morbidity over at least 6 months, using all available randomized clinical trials. Search strategy The Cochrane...

Hooper, L.; Summerbell, C. D.; Higgins, J. P. T.; Thompson, R. L.; Clements, G.; Capps, N.; Davey Smith, G.; Riemersma, R. A.; Ebrahim, S.

2011-01-01

64

Dietary-fat-induced taurocholic acid promotes pathobiont expansion and colitis in Il10-/- mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composite human microbiome of Western populations has probably changed over the past century, brought on by new environmental triggers that often have a negative impact on human health. Here we show that consumption of a diet high in saturated (milk-derived) fat, but not polyunsaturated (safflower oil) fat, changes the conditions for microbial assemblage and promotes the expansion of a low-abundance, sulphite-reducing pathobiont, Bilophila wadsworthia. This was associated with a pro-inflammatory T helper type 1 (T(H)1) immune response and increased incidence of colitis in genetically susceptible Il10(?/?), but not wild-type mice. These effects are mediated by milk-derived-fat-promoted taurine conjugation of hepatic bile acids, which increases the availability of organic sulphur used by sulphite-reducing microorganisms like B. wadsworthia. When mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with taurocholic acid, but not with glycocholic acid, for example, a bloom of B. wadsworthia and development of colitis were observed in Il10(?/?) mice. Together these data show that dietary fats, by promoting changes in host bile acid composition, can markedly alter conditions for gut microbial assemblage, resulting in dysbiosis that can perturb immune homeostasis. The data provide a plausible mechanistic basis by which Western-type diets high in certain saturated fats might increase the prevalence of complex immune-mediated diseases like inflammatory bowel disease in genetically susceptible hosts. PMID:22722865

Devkota, Suzanne; Wang, Yunwei; Musch, Mark W; Leone, Vanessa; Fehlner-Peach, Hannah; Nadimpalli, Anuradha; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Jabri, Bana; Chang, Eugene B

2012-07-01

65

Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and aging modulate glutathione-related antioxidants in rat liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the age-dependent changes in liver glutathione antioxidant system were investigated in male Wistar rats fed diets supplying either balanced amounts of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acids (control) or deficient in alpha-linolenic acid [n-3) deficient]. The animals were studied at the age of 6 or 24 mo. Glutathione antioxidative metabolism was markedly affected by aging. Cytosolic concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) was lower (P < 0.01), whereas that of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) as well as the GSSG:GSH ratio were greater (P<0.001) in the 24-mo-old as compared with the 6-mo-old rats, regardless of the diet. Glutathione peroxidase activities were lower (P < 0.001) in 24-mo-old rats, though more markedly in those fed the control diet. The lipid composition of rat liver microsomal membranes was strongly modified by both diet and aging. The age-related changes mainly involved the polyunsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that the nature of dietary PUFA and not only their degree of unsaturation affects the cellular glutathione-dependent antioxidant system and thus may modify the age-related changes in metabolic reactions. PMID:7500185

Christon, R; Haloui, R B; Durand, G

1995-12-01

66

Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions  

OpenAIRE

Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturate...

Anna Marina; Anize Delfino von Frankenberg; Seda Suvag; Callahan, Holly S.; Mario Kratz; Richards, Todd L.; Utzschneider, Kristina M.

2014-01-01

67

Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA, and slaughtered at an average BW of 117 ± 4.9 kg. Transcription of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), delta-6-desaturase (D6D), and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) were determined by real-time PCR in longissimus thoracis (LT) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles, LT subcutaneous and SM intermuscular fat, and in the liver. Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed using gas chromatography in these tissues, except for SM intermuscular fat. Dietary CLA increased PPAR? in LT muscle (P < 0.05), whereas CLA reduced PPAR? transcription in all tissues studied (P < 0.05) with the exception of intermuscular fat. Transcription of genes related to FA synthesis was reduced by CLA in SM muscle and liver (SREBP1, both P < 0.1; ACC, P < 0.01 in SM; and FAS, P < 0.01 in liver), whereas CLA reduced (P < 0.05) LPL and D6D transcriptions in SM muscle and reduced (P < 0.05) SCD in liver but increased (P < 0.05) SCD in LT muscle and intermuscular fat. Saturated FA were increased in all studied tissues (P < 0.01), while monosaturated and polyunsaturated FA were reduced in a tissue-specific way by CLA. It was concluded that dietary CLA affected transcription of genes and fat metabolism in a tissue-specific manner.

Tous, Nuria; Theil, Peter Kappel

2012-01-01

68

Dietary fat-induced taurocholic acid production promotes pathobiont and colitis in IL-10?/? mice  

Science.gov (United States)

The composite human microbiome of Western populations has likely changed over the past century, brought on by new environmental triggers that often have a negative impact on human health1. Here we show that consumption of a diet high in saturated (milk derived)-fat (MF), but not polyunsaturated (safflower oil)-fat (PUFA), changes the conditions for microbial assemblage and promotes expansion of a low abundance, sulfite-reducing pathobiont, Bilophila wadsworthia2. This was associated with a pro-inflammatory TH1 immune response and increased incidence of colitis in genetically susceptible IL-10?/?, but not wild type mice. These effects are mediated by MF-promoted taurine-conjugation of hepatic bile acids, which increases the availability of organic sulfur used by sulfite-reducing microbes like B. wadsworthia. When mice were fed a low-fat (LF) diet supplemented with taurocholic, but not with glycocholic acid, for example, a bloom of B. wadsworthia and development of colitis were observed in IL10?/? mice. Together these data show that dietary fats, by promoting changes in host bile acid composition, can dramatically alter conditions for gut microbial assemblage, resulting in dysbiosis that can perturb immune homeostasis. The data provide a plausible mechanistic basis by which Western type diets high in certain saturated fats might increase the prevalence of complex immune-mediated diseases like inflammatory bowel diseases in genetically susceptible hosts. PMID:22722865

Devkota, Suzanne; Wang, Yunwei; Musch, Mark; Leone, Vanessa; Fehlner-Peach, Hannah; Nadimpalli, Anuradha; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Jabri, Bana; Chang, Eugene B.

2012-01-01

69

Psychosocial correlates of dietary fat intake in African-American adults: a cross-sectional study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Current dietary guidelines recommend that dietary fat should comprise 20–35% percent of total energy intake, with less than 10% of energy from saturated fat. However, many Americans exceed these goals and data suggest that African Americans tend to consume a higher percentage of energy from dietary fat than Whites. Because diets low in dietary fat, particularly saturated fat, are associated with lower risk for many chronic illnesses, it is important to identify strategie...

Watters Joanne L; Satia Jessie A

2009-01-01

70

Effects of dietary lipids and Clostridium butyricum on fat deposition and meat quality of broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of dietary lipids and Clostridium butyricum on carcass quality, fat deposition, meat quality, and fatty acid contents of breast meat in broiler chickens were investigated. One hundred sixty one-day-old broiler chicks (Arbor Acres) were divided into 4 treatment groups in a 2x2 factorial arrangement and fed 4 diets with 2 lipid sources (soybean oil or fish oil) and 2 levels of C. butyricum (0 or 5 g/kg of diets) were used. Abdominal fat was significantly reduced when chicks were fed the fish oil diet compared with the soybean oil diet (P<0.01). Fish oil diets increased drip losses of the breast and thigh muscles, thawing losses of breast muscle, and boiling losses of thigh muscle (P<0.05). Moreover, the C. butyricum diet profoundly reduced shear force of muscle (P<0.05). The supplementation of C. butyricum increased i.m. fat, the contents of C20:5n-3 (P<0.05), and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (P<0.05) in breast muscle. Additionally, there were significant interactions between lipids and C. butyricum for drip losses of breast muscle (P<0.01) and boiling losses of thigh muscle (P<0.05) and for the contents of C20:5n-3 (P<0.05) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (P<0.05) of breast muscle. The results of this study indicate that dietary inclusion of C. butyricum improves meat quality and fatty acid profiles of breast meat in male broilers, particularly interacting with a fish oil diet. PMID:20075277

Yang, X; Zhang, B; Guo, Y; Jiao, P; Long, F

2010-02-01

71

Diet-gene interactions between dietary fat intake and common polymorphisms in determining lipid metabolism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current dietary guidelines for fat intake have not taken into consideration the possible genetic differences underlying the individual variability in responsiveness to dietary components. Genetic variability has been identified in humans for all the known lipid metabolism-related genes resulting in a plethora of candidate genes and genetic variants to examine in diet-gene interaction studies focused on fat consumption. Some examples of fat-gene interaction are reviewed. These include: the interaction between total intake and the 14C/T in the hepatic lipase gene promoter in determining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism; the interaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the 5G/A polymorphism in the APOA1 gene plasma HDL-C concentrations; the interaction between PUFA and the L162V polymorphism in the PPARA gene in determining triglycerides and APOC3 concentrations; and the interaction between PUFA intake and the -1131T>C in the APOA5 gene in determining triglyceride metabolism. Although hundreds of diet-gene interaction studies in lipid metabolism have been published, the level of evidence to make specific nutritional recommendations to the population is still low and more research in nutrigenetics has to be undertaken. (Author) 31 refs.

Corella, D.

2009-07-01

72

Dietary Fats and Health: Dietary Recommendations in the Context of Scientific Evidence1  

OpenAIRE

Although early studies showed that saturated fat diets with very low levels of PUFAs increase serum cholesterol, whereas other studies showed high serum cholesterol increased the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), the evidence of dietary saturated fats increasing CAD or causing premature death was weak. Over the years, data revealed that dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are not associated with CAD and other adverse health effects or at worst are weakly associated in some analyses when...

Lawrence, Glen D.

2013-01-01

73

Effect of body fat distribution on the transcription response to dietary fat interventions  

OpenAIRE

Combination of decreased energy expenditure and increased food intake results in fat accumulation either in the abdominal site (upper body obesity, UBO) or on the hips (lower body obesity, LBO). In this study, we used microarray gene expression profiling of adipose tissue biopsies to investigate the effect of body fat distribution on the physiological response to two dietary fat interventions. Mildly obese UBO and LBO male subjects (n = 12, waist-to-hip ratio range 0.93–1.12) were subject...

Radonjic, Marijana; Erk, Marjan J.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Ommen, Ben

2009-01-01

74

Nutritional and Health Effects of Dietary Fats  

OpenAIRE

In the 80`s and early 90`s, nutrition recommendations for the prevention of developing coronary heart disease called for a reduction of total fat in the diet through the substitution of carbohydrate for fat. However, the current scientific evidence does not support a position that a reduction in total fat has a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease, or risk factors for coronary heart disease. The cumulative evidence from recent scientific literature suggests that unless there is a conco...

Nimal Ratnayake, W. M.; Sarwar Gilani, G.

2004-01-01

75

Dietary fat modifies lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue of metabolic syndrome patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adipose tissue (AT) is a key organ in the regulation of total body lipid homeostasis, which is responsible for the storage and release of fatty acids according to metabolic needs. We aimed to investigate the effect of the quantity and quality of dietary fat on the lipogenesis and lipolysis processes in the AT of metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, controlled trial conducted within the LIPGENE study assigned MetS patients to one of four diets: (a) high-saturated fatty acid (HSFA) (b) high-monounsaturated fatty acid, and (c, d) two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets supplemented with long chain (LC) n-3 (LFHCC n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or placebo (LFHCC), for 12 weeks each. A fat challenge reflecting the same fatty acid composition as the original diets was conducted post-intervention. Long-term consumption of the LFHCC diet induced an increase in the fasting expression levels of the sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase D9-desaturase genes, whereas the supplementation of this diet with n-3 PUFA reversed this effect (p = 0.007). In contrast, long-term consumption of the HSFA diet increased the expression of the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) gene, at both fasting and postprandial states (both, p diet. Conversely, a diet high in saturated fat increased the expression of the lipolytic gene ATGL relative to the other diets. PMID:24895107

Camargo, Antonio; Meneses, María E; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A; Marín, Carmen; Almadén, Yolanda; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; González-Guardia, Lorena; Fuentes, Francisco; Tinahones, Francisco J; Roche, Helen M; Malagón, María M; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, José

2014-07-01

76

Dietary preparation and per cent fat measurement by hydrostatic weighing.  

OpenAIRE

To examine if the dietary preparation for hydrostatic weighing (HW) alters the % fat measurement, seven men and three women (age 29 +/- 6, Males 11.7 +/- 7.3% fat and Females 24.1 +/- 5.4% fat, mean +/- SD) were assessed before and after three meals. On separate days and in random order, each subject (1) ate a salad with toppings (600 g) with small beverage, (2) ate two bean burritos and one bean tostada (900 g) with small beverage, and (3) drank 800 ml of carbonated beverage. The subject was...

Thomas, T. R.; Crough, L. D.; Araujo, J.

1988-01-01

77

CD36 may determine our desire for dietary fats  

OpenAIRE

There is a strong link between high fat intake and obesity. In addition to its high caloric density, dietary fat has a hyperphagic effect, in part as a result of its high palatability. The recent identification by Laugerette et al. of CD36 as a taste receptor for fatty acids provides insight into the molecular basis of our preference for fat. As we gain more information regarding the function of this receptor, we may be able to devise better strategies to address the addictive potential of di...

Abumrad, Nada A.

2005-01-01

78

Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid ?-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation  

OpenAIRE

A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid ?-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The...

Annie Bouchard-Mercier; Iwona Rudkowska; Simone Lemieux; Patrick Couture; Marie-Claude Vohl

2014-01-01

79

Examining Multiple Parenting Behaviors on Young Children's Dietary Fat Consumption  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To understand the association between parenting and children's dietary fat consumption, this study tested a comprehensive model of parenting that included parent household rules, parent modeling of rules, parent mediated behaviors, and parent support. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Baseline data from the "MOVE/me Muevo" project, a…

Eisenberg, Christina M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Crespo, Noe C.; Lopez, Nanette V.; Zive, Michelle Murphy; Corder, Kirsten; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.

2012-01-01

80

Trends in Dietary Fat Intake and High-Fat Foods from 1991-2008 in the Framingham Heart Study participants  

OpenAIRE

Few longitudinal studies among US adults have evaluated long-term dietary fat intakes and compared them to national recommendations during the 2-decade period when the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance increased substantively. We examined trends in dietary fat intake and rich dietary sources of fats in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort over a 17-year period. The cohort was established in 1971-75 with follow-up examinations approximately every 4 years. Di...

Vadiveloo, Maya; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

2013-01-01

81

The Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Life Span in Calorie Restricted Mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition extends life span in several animal models. It has been proposed that a decrease in the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and especially n-3 fatty acids, in membrane phospholipids may contribute to life span extension with CR. Phospholipid PUFAs are sensitive to dietary fatty acid composition, and thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary lipids on life span in CR mice. C57BL/6J mice were assigned to four groups (a 5% CR control group and three 40% CR groups) and fed diets with soybean oil (high in n-6 PUFAs), fish oil (high in n-3 PUFAs), or lard (high in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids) as the primary lipid source. Life span was increased (p diets. These results indicate that dietary lipid composition can influence life span in mice on CR, and suggest that a diet containing a low proportion of PUFAs and high proportion of monounsaturated and saturated fats may maximize life span in animals maintained on CR. PMID:25313149

López-Domínguez, José A; Ramsey, Jon J; Tran, Dianna; Imai, Denise M; Koehne, Amanda; Laing, Steven T; Griffey, Stephen M; Kim, Kyoungmi; Taylor, Sandra L; Hagopian, Kevork; Villalba, José M; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; McDonald, Roger B

2014-10-13

82

Dietary fat decreases intestinal levels of the anorectic lipids through a fat sensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to investigate the link between dietary fat content and intestinal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), including oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and linoleoylethanolamide (LEA). Male rats were fed high-fat diets (HFDs) with variable percentages of fat [20-45% of total energy (E%)] for 1-7 d; afterward, the jejunums were isolated, and jejunal NAE levels were measured by liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry. Enzyme activities and mRNA expression levels were measured for two synthesizing enzymes, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) and glycerophosphodiesterase (GDE1), and one degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). We found a dose-response relation between the quantity/percentage of dietary fat, irrespective of the energy density, and the reduction of intestinal levels of OEA, PEA, and LEA. The reductions were present after 1 d of 45E% HFD. LEA, the major NAE species, was shown to have an anorectic potency slightly less than that of OEA but higher than PEA. Regulation at the enzyme level seems not to explain the changes in NAE levels. The results suggest the presence of a fat sensor, mediating the reduced intestinal NAE levels. The intestinal NAE levels are reduced in a dose- and time-dependent manner in response to dietary fat intake, and this may contribute to the well-known hyperphagic effect of HFDs. PMID:20959516

Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Holst, Birgitte; Kristiansen, Martin Mørch; Wellner, Niels; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Hansen, Harald Severin

2011-02-01

83

Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF) questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA) dietary "steps". Methods W...

Bindeman Jody; Bell Debulon; Carrow Jon; Wish Karen; Wong Henry; Taylor Allen J; Watkins Tammy; Lehmann Trudy; Bhattarai Saroj; O'Malley Patrick G

2003-01-01

84

Effects of dietary fat and calorie on immunologic function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of dietary fat and calories on immunologic function in specific pathogen-free inbred DBA/2 and CBA/J mice was studied. Three diets were modified from control, the AIN-76 purified diet. The high saturated fat diet contained 22.5% coconut oil and 2.5% safflower oil. The high unsaturated fat diet contained 25% safflower oil. Fat was substituted isoclorically for carbohydrate in these two diets. The low calorie diet contained 40% less protein, carbohydrate and fat than control diet; fiber was substituted for these ingredients. Female weanling mice were on the diets for more than 35 days before testing. The natural killer (NK) activity of spleen cells was determined by in vitro cytolysis of 51Cr-labeled YAC-1 cells. The spleen cells response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or allogeneic tumor EL-4 cells was measured after immunizing the mice with SRBC or EL-4 cells for 4 or 11 days, respectively. The results showed no significant effect of the low calorie diet on NK activity, anti-SRBC or anti-EL-4 response compared to normal diet. Anti-SRBC plaque response was significantly enhanced (27% higher), while anti-EL-4 response was significantly suppressed (15% less) with high saturated fat diet. NK activity was normal. Mice on high unsaturated fat diet showed suppressed anti-SRBC response (16% less) and anti-EL-4 response (17% less), while NK activity was significantly enhanced (70% higher)

85

Effects of dietary fat and calorie on immunologic function  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of dietary fat and calories on immunologic function in specific pathogen-free inbred DBA/2 and CBA/J mice was studied. Three diets were modified from control, the AIN-76 purified diet. The high saturated fat diet contained 22.5% coconut oil and 2.5% safflower oil. The high unsaturated fat diet contained 25% safflower oil. Fat was substituted isoclorically for carbohydrate in these two diets. The low calorie diet contained 40% less protein, carbohydrate and fat than control diet; fiber was substituted for these ingredients. Female weanling mice were on the diets for more than 35 days before testing. The natural killer (NK) activity of spleen cells was determined by in vitro cytolysis of /sup 51/Cr-labeled YAC-1 cells. The spleen cells response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or allogeneic tumor EL-4 cells was measured after immunizing the mice with SRBC or EL-4 cells for 4 or 11 days, respectively. The results showed no significant effect of the low calorie diet on NK activity, anti-SRBC or anti-EL-4 response compared to normal diet. Anti-SRBC plaque response was significantly enhanced (27% higher), while anti-EL-4 response was significantly suppressed (15% less) with high saturated fat diet. NK activity was normal. Mice on high unsaturated fat diet showed suppressed anti-SRBC response (16% less) and anti-EL-4 response (17% less), while NK activity was significantly enhanced (70% higher).

Barness, L.A.; Carver, J.D.; Friedman, H.; Hsu, K.H.L.

1986-03-05

86

The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs from Hy-line and Warren hens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain. (Author) 37 refs.

Gonzalez-Munoz, M. J.; Bastida, S.; Jimenez, O.; Lorenzo, C. de; Vergara, G.; Sanchez-Muniz, F. J.

2009-07-01

87

Effect of dietary fat on plasma glutathione peroxidase levels and intestinal absorption of 75Se-labeled sodium selenite in chicks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of dietary fat on the availability of selenium was investigated in chicks fed either 4 or 20% butter, olive oil, rape oil, corn oil or sunflower oil in the diet for 3 weeks after hatching. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was used as an indicator of the body selenium status. In addition, the intestinal absorption of sodium selenite (75Se-labeled) was determined by using both the in vivo ligated loop procedure and oral administration of the isotope. The plasma GSH-Px levels increased with increasing proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Increasing the amount of fat from 4 to 20% significantly enhanced the GSH-Px activity in the groups receiving butter or olive oil, but had no effect in animals fed the unsaturated fats. The absorption of [75Se]selenite from the ligated duodenal loops tended to be reduced in chicks fed corn oil or sunflower oil as compared to the animals receiving butter in their diet. On the other hand, the type of dietary fat did not appear to affect the absorption of the orally administered selenite. The present study demonstrates that the type of dietary fat can affect the plasma GSH-Px levels in chicks without altering the intestinal absorption of selenite. However, the results on the absorption of the intraduodenally injected sodium selenite suggest that dietary fat plays some role in the intestinal transport of selenium

88

Interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms, dietary fat intake, obesity and serum lipid concentrations in black and white South African women.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat intake adiposity increased in the IVS3 +281 GT+GG and IVS4 +869 AA or AG genotypes. In white women, with increasing omega-3 (n-3) intake and decreasing n-6:n-3 ratio, body mass index (BMI) decreased in those with the -174 C allele, IVS3 +281 T allele and IVS4 +869 AG genotype. In the white women, those with the IVS3 +281 T allele had lower triglycerides. Further, with increasing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA); triglyceride and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (T-C:HDL-C) ratio decreased in those with the -174 C allele. In black women, with increasing total fat intake, triglycerides and T-C:HDL-C ratio increased in those with the IVS4 +869 G allele. This study is the first to show that dietary fat intake modulates the relationship between the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white SA women. PMID:24962479

Joffe, Yael T; van der Merwe, Lize; Evans, Juliet; Collins, Malcolm; Lambert, Estelle V; September, Alison V; Goedecke, Julia H

2014-06-01

89

Update on lipids and mitochondrial function: impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose of review Recent evidence has linked n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation with dramatic alterations of mitochondrial phospholipid membranes and favorable changes in mitochondrial function. In the present review, we examine the novel effects of n-3 PUFA on mitochondria, with an emphasis on cardiac mitochondrial phospholipids. Recent findings There is growing evidence that dietary n-3 PUFA, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has profound effects on mitochondrial membrane phospholipid composition and mitochondrial function. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA increases membrane phospholipid DHA and depletes arachidonic acid, and can increase cardiolipin, a tetra-acyl phospholipid that is unique to mitochondrial and essential for optimal mitochondrial function. Recent studies show that supplementation with DHA decreases propensity for cardiac mitochondria to undergo permeability transition, a catastrophic event often leading to cell death. This finding provides a potential mechanism for the cardioprotective effect of DHA. Interestingly, other n-3 PUFAs that modify membrane composition to a lesser extent have substantially less of an effect on mitochondria and do not appear to directly protect the heart. Summary Current data support a role for n-3 PUFA supplementation, particularly DHA, on mitochondria that are strongly associated with changes in mitochondrial phospholipid composition. PMID:22248591

Stanley, William C.; Khairallah, Ramzi J.; Dabkowski, Erinne R.

2014-01-01

90

Visual evoked potentials and dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in preterm infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) supply, and especially of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on evoked potential maturation, was studied in 58 healthy preterm infants using flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs), flash electroretinography (ERG), and brainstem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEPs) at 52 weeks of postconceptional age. At the same time, the fatty acid composition of red blood cell membranes was examined. The infants were fed on breast milk (n = 12), a preterm formula supplemented with LCP (PF-LCP) (n = 21), or a traditional preterm formula (PF) (n = 25). In the breast milk and PF-LCP groups the morphology and latencies of the waves that reflect the visual projecting system were similar; in the PF group the morphology was quite different and the wave latencies were significantly longer. This could mean that the maturation pattern of VEPs in preterm infants who did not receive LCP was slower. Moreover, a higher level of erythrocyte LCP, especially DHA, was found in breast milk and PF-LCP groups compared with the PF group. ERG and BAEP recordings were the same in all three groups. These results suggest that a well balanced LCP supplement in preterm formulas can positively influence the maturation of visual evoked potentials in preterm infants when breast milk is not available. PMID:8949693

Faldella, G; Govoni, M; Alessandroni, R; Marchiani, E; Salvioli, G P; Biagi, P L; Spano, C

1996-09-01

91

Dietary fat, cholesterol and colorectal cancer in a prospective study  

OpenAIRE

The relationships between consumption of total fat, major dietary fatty acids, cholesterol, consumption of meat and eggs, and the incidence of colorectal cancers were studied in a cohort based on the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey. Baseline (1967–1972) information on habitual food consumption over the preceding year was collected from 9959 men and women free of diagnosed cancer. A total of 109 new colorectal cancer cases were ascertained late 1999. High cholesterol intake w...

Ja?rvinen, R.; Knekt, P.; Hakulinen, T.; Rissanen, H.; Helio?vaara, M.

2001-01-01

92

The Role of Dietary Fat throughout the Prostate Cancer Trajectory  

OpenAIRE

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed world-wide; however, patients demonstrate exceptionally high survival rates. Many lifestyle factors, including obesity and diet, are considered risk factors for advanced prostate cancer. Dietary fat is a fundamental contributor to obesity and may be specifically important for prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer treatment can result in changes in body composition, affecting quality of life for survivors by increasing the risk of ...

Di Sebastiano, Katie M.; Mourtzakis, Marina

2014-01-01

93

Reduction in Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Eicosapentaenoic Acid plus Docosahexaenoic Acid Ratio Minimizes Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation and Inflammatory Response in the LDL Receptor Null Mouse  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary very long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been associated with reduced CVD risk. LDL receptor null mice (LDLr-/-) were used to assess different dietary ratios of omega-6 PUFA to eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-6:EPA+DHA) on atherogenesis and infl...

94

Dietary fat status influencing radiosensitivity of aortic histological structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of lipid dietary status and cummulative doses of whole body gamma irrdiation up to 15 Gy, on histological pattern of the dorsal aorta of male albino rats was studied. Rats fed fat-free diet showed enlarged spaces filled with amorphous fibrous material lying in-between smooth muscle cells, whereas animals fed fat-rich diet showed none of these changes. Rats fed normal fat diet and subjected to the fractionated dose levels showed structural changes in all the 3 layers of the dorsal aorta. Thickening of both tunica media and adventitia, degenerative endothelia cells and granulomatous inflammation of the adventitia were observed. Irradiated rats fed fat-free diet showed more intensive structural changes. These included degeneration of endothelial lining, disorganization of smooth muscle cells and vacuolation in tunica media and degenerated muscle cells. Condensed elastic and collagen fibers could be observed in-between smooth muscles and tunica aventitia looked degenerated with less numbers of fibroblasts. Irradiated rats fed rich-fat diet showed rapid structural changes. These included degeneration of endothelium of tunica intima, reduced numbers of smooth muscle cells, hyaline degeneration of tunica adventitia with signs of necrosis and fragmentation, decreased thickness of the dorsal aorta cells and ill-defined separation between the tunica media and adventitia. (orig.)

95

Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Delay Progression of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma in Fat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ Mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Preclinical studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs may be beneficial for prevention of pancreatic cancer. Nutritional intervention studies are often complex, and there is no clear evidence, without potential confounding factors, on whether conversion of n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in pancreatic tissues would provide protection. Experiments were designed using n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1 transgenic mice, which can convert n-6 PUFA to n-3 FAs endogenously, to determine the impact of n-3 PUFAs on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs and their progression to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. Six-weekold female p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ andcompoundFat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice were fed (AIN-76A diets containing 10% safflower oil for 35 weeks. Pancreata were evaluated histopathologically for PanINs and PDAC. Results showed a dramatic reduction in incidence of PDAC (84%; P 85%; P < .05–0.01 in pancreas of compound transgenic mice than in those of p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice. Molecular analysis of the pancreas showed a significant down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX, 5-LOX-activating protein, Bcl-2, and cyclin D1 expression levels in Fat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice compared to p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice. These data highlight the promise of dietary n-3 FAs for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer in high-risk individuals.

Altaf Mohammed

2012-12-01

96

Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary ?-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R2 = 0.94 and perirenal fat (R2 = 0.96.

Pier Giorgio Peiretti

2012-02-01

97

n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.

Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

1999-08-01

98

Transfer of dietary zinc and fat to milk--evaluation of milk fat quality, milk fat precursors, and mastitis indicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study demonstrated that the zinc concentration in bovine milk and blood plasma is significantly affected by the intake of saturated fat supplements. Sixteen Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4 periods of 12 d, and 4 dietary treatments were conducted. A total mixed ration based on corn silage, grass-clover silages, and pelleted sugar beet pulp was used on all treatments. A high de novo milk fat diet was formulated by adding rapeseed meal and molasses in the total mixed ration [39 mg of Zn/kg of dry matter (DM)], and a low de novo diet by adding saturated fat, fat-rich rapeseed cake, and corn (34 mg of Zn/kg of DM). Dietary Zn levels were increased by addition of ZnO to 83 and 80 mg of Zn/kg of DM. Treatments did not affect daily DM intake, or yield of energy-corrected milk, milk fat, or milk protein. The high de novo diet significantly increased milk fat percentage and milk content of fatty acids with chain length from C6 to C16, and decreased content of C18 and C18:1. Treatments did not influence milk free fatty acids at 4 degrees C at 0 or 28 h after milking. The average diameter of milk fat globules was significantly greater in milk from cows offered low de novo diets. Furthermore, the low de novo diet significantly increased the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and d-beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood plasma, the latter was also increased in milk. Treatments did not affect the enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase in milk or the activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in blood plasma. The low de novo diet significantly increased plasma Zn and milk Zn content, whereas dietary Zn level did not in itself influence these parameters. This indicates that the transfer of fat from diet to milk might facilitate transfer of Zn from diet to milk. PMID:18349247

Wiking, L; Larsen, T; Sehested, J

2008-04-01

99

Dietary fat quality impacts genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in a cross-sectional study of Greek preadolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The type and the amount of dietary fat have a significant influence on the metabolic pathways involved in the development of obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular diseases. However, it is unknown to what extent this modulation is achieved through DNA methylation. We assessed the effects of cholesterol intake, the proportion of energy intake derived from fat, the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA), the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) to SFA, and the ratio of MUFA+PUFA to SFA on genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in normal-weight and obese children. We determined the genome-wide methylation profile in the blood of 69 Greek preadolescents (?10 years old) as well as their dietary intake for two consecutive weekdays and one weekend day. The methylation levels of one CpG island shore and four sites were significantly correlated with total fat intake. The methylation levels of 2 islands, 11 island shores and 16 sites were significantly correlated with PUFA/SFA; of 9 islands, 26 island shores and 158 sites with MUFA/SFA; and of 10 islands, 40 island shores and 130 sites with (MUFA+PUFA)/SFA. We found significant gene enrichment in 34 pathways for PUFA/SFA, including the leptin pathway, and a significant enrichment in 5 pathways for (MUFA+PUFA)/SFA. Our results suggest that specific changes in DNA methylation may have an important role in the mechanisms involved in the physiological responses to different types of dietary fat. PMID:25074463

Voisin, Sarah; Almén, Markus S; Moschonis, George; Chrousos, George P; Manios, Yannis; Schiöth, Helgi B

2015-05-01

100

Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy predicts the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and biohydrogenation products in the subcutaneous fat of beef cows fed flaxseed  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the ability of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to estimate the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their biohydrogenation products in the subcutaneous fat of beef cows fed flaxseed. Subcutaneous fat samples at the 12th rib of 62 cows were stored at 80 degrees C, thawed, scanned over a NIR spectral range from 400 to 2498 nm at 31 degrees C and 2 degrees C, and subsequently analysed for fatty acid composition. Best NIRS calibrations were with sampl...

Prieto, Nuria; Dugan, Mer; Lo?pez Campos, Oscar; Mcallister, T. A.; Aalhus, J. L.; Uttaro, B.

2012-01-01

101

Consumption of dietary n-3 fatty acids decreases fat deposition and adipocyte size, but increases oxidative susceptibility in broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched diet on animal fat depots and lipid oxidation in the blood and meat of broiler chickens. Abdominal fat pad (AFP), sartorius muscle and liver histology were used to assess the effect of the dietary fat on animal lipid depots. A total of 60 female broilers (14 days old) was randomly divided into two groups which received a diet containing 10 % of tallow (S diet), rich in saturated fatty acids or 10 % of a blend of fish oil and linseed oil (N3 diet), rich in n-3 PUFA from 14 to 50 days of life. Both absolute and relative weights of AFP in N3 animals were lower than in the S group (P oxidation susceptibility; however, the erythrocytes from the S group were less resistant to osmotic changes. Results indicate that feeding an n-3 PUFA diet influences fat distribution and the oxidative status of broiler chickens. PMID:23529200

González-Ortiz, Gemma; Sala, Roser; Cánovas, Elisa; Abed, Nourhène; Barroeta, Ana C

2013-07-01

102

Dietary fats and cardiovascular disease: putting together the pieces of a complicated puzzle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fatty acids play significant roles in the cause and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Trans fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils have well-established adverse effects and should be eliminated from the human diet. CVD risk can be modestly reduced by decreasing saturated fatty acids (SFA) and replacing it by a combination of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Although the ideal type of unsaturated fat for this replacement is unclear, the benefits of PUFA appear strongest. Both n-6 and n-3 PUFA are essential and reduce CVD risk. However, additional research is needed to better define the optimal amounts of both and to discern the patients and/or general population that would benefit from supplemental n-3 fatty acid intake. Furthermore, consumption of animal products, per se, is not necessarily associated with increased CVD risk, whereas nut and olive oil intake is associated with reduced CVD risk. In conclusion, the total matrix of a food is more important than just its fatty acid content in predicting the effect of a food on CVD risk, and a healthy diet should be the cornerstone of CVD prevention. PMID:24727233

Michas, George; Micha, Renata; Zampelas, Antonis

2014-06-01

103

Dietary meat fats and burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors, in the elderly: a report from the MEDIS study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Dietary fats have long been associated with human health, and especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). Some observational studies have shown that reduction in dietary fats, and particularly cholesterol is associated with lower cardiovascular risk; however, other prospective studies or randomized controlled trials of dietary fat reduction or modification have shown varying results on CVD morbidity and mortality. In this work we evaluated the relationships between dietary fats and a cl...

Metallinos George; Gotsis Efthimios; Qira Brikena-Eirini; Tsiligianni Ioanna; Zeimbekis Akis; Bountziouka Vassiliki; Pounis George; Polychronopoulos Evangelos; Lionis Christos; Panagiotakos Demosthenes

2010-01-01

104

Increasing Dietary Fat Elicits Similar Changes in Fat Oxidation and Markers of Muscle Oxidative Capacity in Lean and Obese Humans  

OpenAIRE

In lean humans, increasing dietary fat intake causes an increase in whole-body fat oxidation and changes in genes that regulate fat oxidation in skeletal muscle, but whether this occurs in obese humans is not known. We compared changes in whole-body fat oxidation and markers of muscle oxidative capacity differ in lean (LN) and obese (OB) adults exposed to a 2-day high-fat (HF) diet. Ten LN (BMI?=?22.5±2.5 kg/m2, age?=?30±8 yrs) and nine OB (BMI?=?35.9±4.93 kg/m2, 38±5 yrs, Mea...

Bergouignan, Audrey; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Barry, Daniel W.; Leitner, Wayne; Maclean, Paul S.; Hill, James O.; Draznin, Boris; Melanson, Edward L.

2012-01-01

105

The metabolic use of energy from dietary fat in broilers is affected by fatty acid saturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of dietary fat on performance and fat and protein accretion in broiler chickens according to the degree of saturation. 2. The first experiment was designed to test 2 sources of dietary fat and 3 levels of dietary energy using a factorial (2x3) experimental design. The foods were formulated to maintain a constant ratio of energy to protein (and other nutrients). There were no significant differences in weight gain, intake, final body weight or food to gain ratio between broilers fed on diets differing solely in the degree of fat saturation. Broilers fed on diets containing animal fat showed higher whole-body fat retention (P=0.02) and lower protein accretion (P=0.03) than those fed on diets containing vegetable oils. 3. In the second experiment, only 1 concentration of fat (tallow, lard or sunflower oil) was incorporated into the experimental diets, providing different energy to protein ratios. The carcase protein content was not affected by dietary fat source, while total fat accretion (P=0.01) and energy retention (P=0.14) were highest in broilers fed on a diet containing tallow. 4. The findings suggest that the degree of saturation of dietary fats affects their metabolic use and fat accumulation in broiler chickens. PMID:10821524

Sanz, M; Flores, A; Lopez-Bote, C J

2000-03-01

106

Dietary fat and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

OpenAIRE

Background: Epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting results with respect to an association of dietary fat with breast cancer. Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between fat consumption and breast cancer. Design: We prospectively investigated fat consumption in a large (n = 319 826), geographically and culturally heterogeneous cohort of European women enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition who completed a dietary questionnaire. Afte...

Sieri, S.; Krogh, V.; Ferrari, P.; Berrino, F.; Pala, V.; Thie?baut, Acm; Tjønneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Jakobsen, Mu; Clavel-chapelon, F.; Chajes, V.; Boutron-ruault, M-c; Kaaks, R.; Linseisen, J.

2008-01-01

107

Dietary fat intake and gestational weight gain in relation to estradiol and progesterone plasma levels during pregnancy: a longitudinal study in Swedish women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated pregnancy hormone levels, such as oestrogen and progesterone, may increase the risk of developing breast cancer both in mothers and offspring. However, the reasons for large inter-individual variations in estrogen and progesterone levels during pregnancy remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether a intakes of total dietary fat, types of fat (monounsaturated: MUFA, polyunsaturated: n-3 and n-6 PUFA, and saturated and b gestational weight gain are associated with estradiol and progesterone levels in plasma during pregnancy. Methods We measured body weight as well as estradiol and progesterone in plasma among 226 healthy pregnant Swedish women on gestation weeks 12, 25 and 33. At the same time points, dietary intake of total fat and types of fat (MUFA, PUFA, SFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were estimated using 3-day food diaries. Results A large variation in estradiol and progesterone levels was evident. Nulliparous women had 37%, 12% and 30% higher mean estradiol levels on gestation weeks 12, 25 and 33 compared to parous women (P = 0.008. No associations were found between dietary intake of total fat or fat subtypes (including n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA and plasma estradiol or progesterone levels. Gestational weight gain was associated with progesterone levels (P = 0.03 but the effect was very small (20% increase in progesterone levels between gestational weeks 12 and 33 per kg body weight/week. Conclusion No associations among gestational weight gain, maternal dietary fat intake (total or subtypes including n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA and plasma estradiol levels were found. However, pregnancy progesterone levels correlated with weight gain during pregnancy. Identification of other possible determinants of pregnancy estradiol and progesterone levels, important for the development of breast cancer in both mothers and offspring, are needed.

Yu Wei

2009-04-01

108

Food Sources, Dietary Behavior, and the Saturated Fat Intake of Latino Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies dietary patterns that distinguish children with higher and lower mean daily percentages of calories from saturated fat using data from mothers of 205 Latino children aged 4-7 years in New York City. Substituting low-fat for whole milk appears a key strategy for lowering saturated fat intake. (SLD)

Basch, Charles E.; And Others

1992-01-01

109

Trends in Dietary Fat Intake and High-Fat Foods from 1991-2008 in the Framingham Heart Study participants  

Science.gov (United States)

Few longitudinal studies among US adults have evaluated long-term dietary fat intakes and compared them to national recommendations during the 2-decade period when the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance increased substantively. We examined trends in dietary fat intake and rich dietary sources of fats in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort over a 17-year period. The cohort was established in 1971-75 with follow-up examinations approximately every 4 years. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire beginning in 1991 (Exam 5). We included 2,732 adults ages ?25y with complete dietary data in at least three exams from 1991-2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SASv9.3 and a repeated measures model was used to examine trends in macronutrient and food intake using R. Over 17-years of follow-up, the %energy from total fat and protein increased (27.3-29.8% energy and 16.8-18.0% energy respectively) and %energy from carbohydrate decreased (51.0-46.8% energy;p-trendsausages/processed meats increased, whereas intake of milk, margarine, poultry, confectioneries, chips and breads decreased(p-trend<0.001). In this cohort of predominantly Caucasian older adults, %energy from dietary fat increased over time but remained within national recommendations of <35% of total energy, on average. PMID:24047827

Vadiveloo, Maya; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

2014-01-01

110

Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10: 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10: 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate. Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNF?, IFN-? and oxidative stress (urinary F2-? isoprostanes were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI: change ?2.13% (?3.74%, ?0.52%, but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-? isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.

Anna Marina

2014-10-01

111

Effects of dietary fat and saturated fat content on liver fat and markers of oxidative stress in overweight/obese men and women under weight-stable conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNF?, IFN-?) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-? isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change -2.13% (-3.74%, -0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-? isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:25353663

Marina, Anna; von Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L; Utzschneider, Kristina M

2014-11-01

112

Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended MEDFICTS cutpoints are too high, leading to overestimation of dietary quality. A cutpoint of 38 appears to be providing optimal identification of patients who do not meet AHA dietary guidelines for fat intake.

Bindeman Jody

2003-06-01

113

Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease1234  

OpenAIRE

A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed...

Siri-tarino, Patty W.; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B.; Krauss, Ronald M.

2010-01-01

114

Dietary n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and energy balance in overweight or moderately obese men and women: a randomized controlled trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFA have been shown to reduce body weight and fat mass in rodents as well as in humans in one small short-term study. We conducted this controlled randomized dietary trial to test the hypothesis that n-3-PUFA lower body weight and fat mass by reducing appetite and ad libitum food intake and/or by increasing energy expenditure. Methods Twenty-six overweight or moderately obese (body mass index 28–33 kg/m2 men and women were included, and received either a diet rich in n-3-PUFA from both plant and marine sources or a control diet. Diets were administered in an isocaloric fashion for 2 weeks followed by 12 weeks of ad libitum intake. The n-3-PUFA and control diets were identical in all regards except for the fatty acid composition. All foods were provided to subjects, and leftovers were weighed back to assess actual food intake accurately for each day of the study. This design gave us 80% power to detect a difference in weight change between the n-3-PUFA and control diet groups of 2.25 kg at an ?-error level of 5%. Results Both groups lost similar amounts of weight when these diets were consumed ad libitum for 12 weeks [mean (SD: -3.5 (3.7 kg in the control group vs. -2.8 (3.7 kg in the n-3-PUFA group, F(1,24 = 13.425, p = 0.001 for time effect; F(1,24 = 0.385, p = 0.541 for time × group interaction]. Consistent with this finding, we also found no differences between the n-3-PUFA and control groups with regard to appetite as measured by visual analogue scale, ad libitum food intake, resting energy expenditure as measured by indirect calorimetry, diurnal plasma leptin concentrations, or fasting ghrelin concentrations. Conclusion Our results suggest that dietary n-3-PUFA do not play an important role in the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure, or body weight in humans.

Matthys Colleen C

2009-05-01

115

Effects of monensin and dietary soybean oil on milk fat percentage and milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of monensin (MN) and dietary soybean oil (SBO) on milk fat percentage and milk fatty acid (FA) profile. The study was conducted as a randomized complete block design with a 2 x 3 factorial treatment arrangement using 72 lactating multiparous Holstein dairy cows (138 +/- 24 d in milk). Treatments were [dry matter (DM) basis] as follows: 1) control total mixed ration (TMR, no MN) with no supplemental SBO; 2) MN-treated TMR (22 g of MN/kg of DM) with no supplemental SBO; 3) control TMR including 1.7% SBO; 4) MN-treated TMR including 1.7% SBO; 5) control TMR including 3.4% SBO; and 6) MN-treated TMR including 3.4% SBO. The TMR (% of DM; corn silage, 31.6%; haylage, 21.2%; hay, 4.2%; high-moisture corn, 18.8%; soy hulls, 3.3%; and protein supplement, 20.9%) was offered ad libitum. The experiment consisted of a 2-wk baseline, a 3-wk adaptation, and a 2-wk collection period. Monensin, SBO, and their interaction linearly reduced milk fat percentage. Cows receiving SBO with no added MN (treatments 3 and 5) had 4.5 and 14.2% decreases in milk fat percentage, respectively. Cows receiving SBO with added MN (treatments 4 and 6) had 16.5 and 35.1% decreases in milk fat percentage, respectively. However, the interaction effect of MN and SBO on fat yield was not significant. Monensin reduced milk fat yield by 6.6%. Soybean oil linearly reduced milk fat yield and protein percentage and linearly increased milk yield and milk protein yield. Monensin and SBO reduced 4% fat-corrected milk and had no effect on DM intake. Monensin interacted with SBO to linearly increase milk fat concentration (g/100 g of FA) of total trans-18:1 in milk fat including trans-6 to 8, trans-9, trans-10, trans-11, trans-12 18:1 and the concentration of total conjugated linoleic acid isomers including cis-9, trans-11 18:2; trans-9, cis-11 18:2; and trans-10, cis-12 18:2. Also, the interaction increased milk concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Monensin and SBO linearly reduced, with no significant interaction, milk concentration (g/100 g of FA) of short- and medium-chain fatty acids (fat percentage and this effect is accentuated when SBO is added to the ration. PMID:18292273

AlZahal, O; Odongo, N E; Mutsvangwa, T; Or-Rashid, M M; Duffield, T F; Bagg, R; Dick, P; Vessie, G; McBride, B W

2008-03-01

116

Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor ? protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ? expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

Nuernberg Karin

2011-08-01

117

Effects of Dietary Fat Intake on HDL Metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a lipoprotein which has anti-atherogenic property by reversing cholesterol transport from the peripheral tissues to liver. Low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) as well as high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is associated with the development of coronary heart diseases (CHD). Various epidemiological studies have suggested that the development of CHD increase in individuals with less than 40 mg/dL of HDL-C. In spite of accumulation of evidences suggesting a significant association between low HDL-C and CHD, effects of dietary factors on HDL metabolism remained largely unknown. We reviewed published articles about effects of dietary fat intake on HDL metabolism. The substitution of fatty acids (FA) for carbohydrates is beneficially associated with HDL metabolism. Monounsaturated FA intake may not affect HDL-C. Trans-FA is significantly associated with reduction of HDL-C, and is also adversely related with total cholesterol/HDL-C. Fish oils consumption, especially docosahexaenoic acid consumption, may be favorably associated with HDL metabolism. Although plant sterols and stanols may not affect HDL-C, policosanol intake is associated with a clinically significant decrease in the LDL/HDL ratio. PMID:25584098

Yanai, Hidekatsu; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Abe, Shinichi; Tada, Norio; Sako, Akahito

2015-03-01

118

Modelling broilers' abdominal fat in response to dietary treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neural networks are capable of modelling any complex function and can be used in poultry production. Dietary crude fibre (CF) and exogenous enzymes (exEn) extensively affected abdominal fat (AF) of broilers. Current methods to study AF and its correlation with dietary CF levels and exEn supplements are costly, laborious and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to develop an artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to model data on the response of broiler chickens (AF) to CF and exEn from 0 to 42 days of age. A data set containing eight treatments was divided to the train, validation, and test data set of the ANN models. The information about feeding eight diets at two periods [starter (0-21 days of age) and grower (22-42 days of age)] were used to estimate AF of broilers by ANN-GA. A multilayer feed-forward neural network with different structures was developed using matlab software, and optimal values for the ANN weights were obtained using the genetic algorithm (GA). Crude fibre, and exEn were used as input variables and AF of broilers was output variable. The best model of ANN-GA was determined based on the train root mean square error (RMSE). The best selected ANN-GA showed desirable results, RMSE, 0.1286% and R(2) coefficient, 0.876 for test data. PMID:25088089

Salarpour, A; Rahmatnejad, E; Khotanlou, H

2015-04-01

119

Dietary milk fat globule membrane improves endurance capacity in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) comprises carbohydrates, membrane-specific proteins, glycoproteins, phospholipids, and sphingolipids. We evaluated the effects of MFGM consumption over a 12-wk period on endurance capacity and energy metabolism in BALB/c mice. Long-term MFGM intake combined with regular exercise improved endurance capacity, as evidenced by swimming time until fatigue, in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of dietary MFGM plus exercise was accompanied by higher oxygen consumption and lower respiratory quotient, as determined by indirect calorimetry. MFGM intake combined with exercise increased plasma levels of free fatty acids after swimming. After chronic intake of MFGM combined with exercise, the triglyceride content in the gastrocnemius muscle increased significantly. Mice given MFGM combined with exercise had higher mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1? (Pgc1?) and CPT-1b in the soleus muscle at rest, suggesting that increased lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle contributes, in part, to improved endurance capacity. MFGM treatment with cyclic equibiaxial stretch consisting of 10% elongation at 0.5 Hz with 1 h on and 5 h off increased the Pgc1? mRNA expression of differentiating C2C12 myoblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Supplementation with sphingomyelin increased endurance capacity in mice and Pgc1? mRNA expression in the soleus muscle in vivo and in differentiating myoblasts in vitro. These results indicate that dietary MFGM combined with exercise improves endurance performance via increased lipid metabolism and that sphingomyelin may be one of the components responsible for the beneficial effects of dietary MFGM. PMID:25163913

Haramizu, Satoshi; Ota, Noriyasu; Otsuka, Atsuko; Hashizume, Kohjiro; Sugita, Satoshi; Hase, Tadashi; Murase, Takatoshi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

2014-10-15

120

Effects of dietary chitosan on fat deposition and lipase activity in digesta in broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The effect of dietary chitosan on fat deposition and lipase activity in the small intestinal contents was investigated in broiler chickens fed an adequate or high metabolisable energy (ME) diet. 2. Male broiler chickens at 14 d old were fed on the adequate or high ME diet supplemented with 0 or 50 g/kg chitosan, which has a low viscosity, for 3 weeks. 3. Dietary chitosan did not affect food intake, body weight gain or food efficiency in either dietary ME groups. 4. Dietary chitosan reduced the excessive abdominal fat deposition induced by the high ME diet. 5. Dietary chitosan increased the weight of intestinal contents irrespective of dietary ME concentration. 6. Dietary chitosan decreased the lipase activity per g of small intestinal contents. 7. These results suggest that dietary chitosan with low viscosity decreases lipase activity and fat absorption in the small intestine, consequently resulting in a reduction of fat deposition in broiler chickens. 8. It was concluded that dietary chitosan with low viscosity can decrease body fat deposition without reducing food intake and body weight gain in broiler chickens. PMID:12047092

Kobayashi, S; Terashima, Y; Itoh, H

2002-05-01

121

Lipase mediated upgradation of dietary fats and oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present scenario, fats and oil modification is one of the prime areas in food processing industry that demands novel economic and green technologies. In this respect, tailored vegetable oils with nutritionally important structured triacylglycerols and altered physicochemical properties have a big potential in the future market. In this context, it is well established that lipases especially microbial lipases, which are regiospecific and fatty acid specific, are of immense importance and hence could be exploited for retailoring of vegetable oils. Further, of the bulk available, cheap oils could also be upgraded to synthesize nutritionally important structured triacylglycerols like cocoa butter substitutes, low calorie triacylglycerols, PUFA-enriched and oleic acid enriched oils. It is also possible to change the physical properties of natural oils to convert them into margarines and hard butter with higher melting points or into special low calorie spreads with short or medium chain fatty acids. Today, by and large, fat and oil modifications are carried out chemically following the method of directed inter-esterification. The process is energy intensive and non-specific. Lipase mediated modifications are likely to occupy a prominent place in oil industry for tailoring structured lipids since enzymatic modifications are specific and can be carried out at moderate reaction conditions. However, as a commercial venture, lipases are yet to be fully exploited. Once the technologies are established, the demand of lipases in oil industry is expected to increase tremendously in the near future for specific modifications of fats and oils to meet the changing consumers' dietary requirements. PMID:14669881

Gupta, Rani; Rathi, Pooja; Bradoo, Sapna

2003-01-01

122

Impact of Dietary Fat Type and Amount on Growth Performance and Serum Cholesterol in Rabbits  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: Literature data on the effect of dietary fat on growth performance in rabbits are inconclusive. For commercial rabbit production it is relevant to know to what extent dietary fat level and type can be manipulated. In the present study serum cholesterol was also analyzed because its relation to the amount and type of dietary fat was not known for rabbits. Approach: Young growing rabbits were fed diets containing one of four different levels (5.2-41.8 energy %) of either coco...

Alhaidary, A.; Mohamed, H. E.; Beynen, A. C.

2010-01-01

123

Dietary meat and fat intake and prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fat exerts numerous complex effects on proinflammatory and immunologic pathways. Several epidemiological studies have examined the relationships between intake of fatty acids and/or foods high in fat and allergic rhinitis, but have provided conflicting findings. The current cross-sectional study investigated such relationships in Japan. Methods Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. The definition of rhinoconjunctivitis was based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for age; gestation; region of residence; number of older siblings; number of children; smoking; secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work; family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis; household income; education; and body mass index. Results The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months was 25.9%. Higher meat intake was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis: the adjusted odds ratio between extreme quartiles was 1.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-2.35, P for trend = 0.002. No measurable association was found between fish intake and rhinoconjunctivitis. Intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, ?-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and cholesterol and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake were not evidently related to the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis. Conclusions The current results suggest that meat intake may be positively associated with the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in young adult Japanese women.

Miyake Yoshihiro

2012-03-01

124

The effect of dietary sulfur on the metabolism of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of methionine-supplemented diet on the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids was studied by comparing results of control and cysteine-supplemented diets in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a period of 17 days one of the following diets: control, cysteine-supplemented, and/or methionine-supplemented. On the last day of the feeding period, the rats were administered either [1-14C] arachidonic acid (AA) or [1-14C] eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by stomach tube five hours before sacrificing. The cyclooxygenase activity in liver microsomes, the apparent Km of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase in liver and brain homogenates, and the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into the phosphatidylinositol fraction of brain, heat, lung, spleen, and kidney tissues were analyzed

125

The effect of dietary sulfur on the metabolism of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of methionine-supplemented diet on the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids was studied by comparing results of control and cysteine-supplemented diets in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a period of 17 days one of the following diets: control, cysteine-supplemented, and/or methionine-supplemented. On the last day of the feeding period, the rats were administered either (1-{sup 14}C) arachidonic acid (AA) or (1-{sup 14}C) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by stomach tube five hours before sacrificing. The cyclooxygenase activity in liver microsomes, the apparent Km of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase in liver and brain homogenates, and the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into the phosphatidylinositol fraction of brain, heat, lung, spleen, and kidney tissues were analyzed.

Chen, M.F.

1988-01-01

126

Impact of Dietary Fat Type and Amount on Growth Performance and Serum Cholesterol in Rabbits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Literature data on the effect of dietary fat on growth performance in rabbits are inconclusive. For commercial rabbit production it is relevant to know to what extent dietary fat level and type can be manipulated. In the present study serum cholesterol was also analyzed because its relation to the amount and type of dietary fat was not known for rabbits. Approach: Young growing rabbits were fed diets containing one of four different levels (5.2-41.8 energy % of either coconut fat or corn oil. Fat was added to the diets at the expense of an isoenergetic amount of corn starch and dextrose in a 1:1 ratio. The diets were in pelleted form and supplied ad libitum. Results: Increasing fat intakes in the form of either coconut fat or corn oil enhanced weight gain and improved feed efficiency. The effect of coconut fat was maximal at 20.9 energy % (9.9%, w/w and the greatest effect of corn oil was seen at an inclusion level of 41.8 energy % (20.2%, w/w. As would be expected, replacement of dietary corn oil by coconut fat significantly decreased serum cholesterol concentrations. The cholesterol-lowering effect of corn oil versus coconut fat increased markedly with higher dietary inclusion levels of fat. Conclusion: The addition of fat to the diet improved growth performance. It is suggested to find out whether the present observations can be applied in the formulation of diets for fryer rabbits. The new observation for rabbits is that the hypocholesterolemic response to corn oil increased with higher intake levels.

A. Alhaidary

2010-01-01

127

Dietary oxidized poultry offal fat: broiler performance and oxidative stability of thigh meat during chilled storage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to [...] 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC). Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass characteristics were measured. Skinless and deboned thigh meat was stored chilled during 12 days, and samples were periodically collected to assess their quality and oxidative stability. Dietary oxidized fat did not affect bird performance or carcass characteristics. During chilled storage, meat color (L*, a* and b*) was not affected by dietary treatments; however, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances) values were higher (P

128

Role of cholecystokinin in dietary fat-promoted azaserine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in rats.  

OpenAIRE

The role of cholecystokinin in dietary fat-promoted pancreatic carcinogenesis was investigated in azaserine-treated rats, using lorglumide, a highly specific cholecystokinin-receptor antagonist. The animals were killed 8 months after the start of treatment. Cholecystokinin, but not dietary unsaturated fat, increased pancreatic weight. Rats treated with cholecystokinin developed more acidophilic atypical acinar cell nodules, adenomas and adenocarcinomas than control animals. Rats maintained on...

Appel, M. J.; Meijers, M.; Garderen-hoetmer, A.; Lamers, C. B.; Rovati, L. C.; Sprij-mooij, D.; Jansen, J. B.; Woutersen, R. A.

1992-01-01

129

Dietary Fat, Tamoxifen Use and Circulating Sex Hormones in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Survivors  

OpenAIRE

Evidence is inconsistent regarding whether dietary fat influences sex hormone concentrations. This issue is important for breast cancer survivors since clinical recommendations suggest maintaining low hormone levels primarily via pharmacologic agents. This study examines associations between dietary fat and circulating sex hormones among participants in the HEAL (Health, Eating, Activity and Lifestyle) Study, a cohort of breast cancer survivors (n=511). During a post-diagnosis interview, deta...

Neuhouser, Marian L.; Nojomi, Marzieh; Baumgartner, Richard N.; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Gilliland, Frank; Bernstein, Leslie; Stanczyk, Frank; Ballard-barbash, Rachel; Mctiernan, Anne

2010-01-01

130

Dietary Fat, Fiber, and Carbohydrate Intake and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Premenopausal Women  

OpenAIRE

The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of fat, fiber and carbohydrate intake with endogenous estrogen, androgen, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels among 595 premenopausal women. Overall, no significant associations were found between dietary intake of these macronutrients and plasma sex steroid hormone levels. Dietary fat intake was inversely associated with IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels. When substituting 5% of energy from t...

Cui, Xiaohui; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C.; Hankinson, Susan E.

2010-01-01

131

Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Findings from early observational studies have suggested that the intake of dietary fat might be a contributing factor in the etiology of prostate cancer. However, the results from more recent prospective studies do not support this hypothesis, and the possible association between different food sources of fat and prostate cancer risk also remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to assess whether intakes of dietary fat, subtypes of fat, and fat from animal products were as...

Crowe, Fl; Key, Tj; Appleby, Pn; Travis, Rc; Overvad, K.; Jakobsen, Mu; Johnsen, Nf; Tjønneland, A.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Boeing, H.; Pischon, T.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Trichopoulos, D.

2008-01-01

132

Citrus pulp as a dietary source of antioxidants for lactating holstein cows fed highly polyunsaturated Fatty Acid diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of feeding pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as a natural antioxidant source on the performance and milk quality of dairy cows fed highly polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets were evaluated. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin-square. Treatments, on a dry matter (DM) basis, were i) control diet; ii) 3% soybean oil; iii) 3% soybean oil and 9% PCP and; iv) 3% soybean oil and 18% PCP. When cows fed on citrus pulp, the DM intake tended to decrease. The total tract apparent digestibility of DM and ether extract decreased when cows fed on the control diet compared to other diets. Cows fed PCP had higher polyphenols and flavonoids content and higher total ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in milk compared to those fed no pelleted citrus pulp. Cows fed 18% PCP showed higher monounsaturated FA and lower saturated FA in milk fat compared with cows fed the other diets. The lowest n-6 FA proportion was in milk fat from cows fed control. The present study suggests that pelleted citrus pulp added to 9% to 18% DM increases total polyphenols and flavonoids concentration, and the FRAP in milk. PMID:25083104

Santos, G T; Lima, L S; Schogor, A L B; Romero, J V; De Marchi, F E; Grande, P A; Santos, N W; Santos, F S; Kazama, R

2014-08-01

133

Periodontal disease: modulation of the inflammatory cascade by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontal disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is caused by the interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune system. The ensuing oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade result in the destruction of gingival tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This article reviews the underlying mechanisms and host-bacteria interactions responsible for periodontal disease and evidence that nutritional supplementation with fish oil may provide a protective effect. Historical investigations of diet and disease have highlighted an inverse relationship between ingestion of fish oil, which is high in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the incidence of typical inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and coronary heart disease. Ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, results in their incorporation into membrane phospholipids, which can alter eicosanoid production after stimulation during the immune response. These eicosanoids promote a reduction in chronic inflammation, which has led to the proposal that fish oil is a possible modulator of inflammation and may reduce the severity of periodontal diseases. Tentative animal and human studies have provided an indication of this effect. Further human investigation is needed to establish the protective effects of fish oil in relation to periodontal disease. PMID:23889472

Sculley, D V

2014-06-01

134

A Practical Guide for Estimating Dietary Fat and Fiber Using Limited Food Frequency Data.  

Science.gov (United States)

A methodology is presented for estimating daily intake of dietary fat and fiber based on limited food frequency data. The procedure, which relies on National Food Consumption Survey data and daily consumption rates, can provide baseline estimates of dietary patterns for health promotion policymakers. (SLD)

Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

1992-01-01

135

Enrichment of anhydrous milk fat in polyunsaturated fatty acid residues from linseed and rapeseed oils through enzymatic interesterification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipozyme TL IM was used in a solvent-free batch and microaqueous system for enzymatic interesterification of anhydrous milkfat (AMF) with linseed oil (LO) in binary blends and with rapeseed oil (RO) in one ternary blend. The aim was to obtain and characterize physicochemically fats enriched with unsaturated C 18 fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and, especially, linolenic acids) from natural vegetable oils. Binary blends of AMF/LO 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, and 60/40 (w/w) were interesterified. The change in triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles showed that quasi-equilibrium conditions were reached after 4-6 h of reaction. Free fatty acid contents Oxidative stability of the interesterified products was diminished with increasing LO content, resulting in low oxidation induction times. A ternary blend composed of AMF/RO/LO 70/20/10 gave satisfactory rheological and oxidative properties, fulfilling the requirements for a marketable spread and, moreover, offering increased potential health benefits due to the enriched content in polyunsaturated fatty acid residues. PMID:18271538

Aguedo, Mario; Hanon, Emilien; Danthine, Sabine; Paquot, Michel; Lognay, Georges; Thomas, Annick; Vandenbol, Micheline; Thonart, Philippe; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Blecker, Christophe

2008-03-12

136

Trends in dietary fat and high-fat food intakes from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study participants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few longitudinal studies carried out in US adults have evaluated long-term dietary fat intakes and compared them with the national recommendations during the two-decade period when the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance increased substantively. In the present study, we examined trends in the intakes of dietary fats and rich dietary sources of fats in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort over a 17-year period. The cohort was established in 1971-75 with follow-up examinations being conducted approximately every 4 years. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ beginning in 1991 (exam 5). We included 2732 adults aged ? 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in macronutrient and food intakes using R. Over the 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy derived from total fat and protein increased (27·3-29·8% of energy and 16·8-18·0% of energy, respectively) and that derived from carbohydrate decreased (51·0-46·8% of energy; P-trend sausages/processed meats increased, whereas the intake of milk, margarine, poultry, confectioneries, chips and breads decreased (P-trend < 0·001). In this cohort of predominantly Caucasian older adults, the percentage of energy derived from dietary fats increased over time, but it remained within the national recommendations of less than 35 % of total energy, on average. PMID:24047827

Vadiveloo, Maya; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

2014-02-01

137

Effects of dietary fat on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study assessed the effects of dietary fat on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Three-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN-93G standard diet or a 45% fat diet (kcal %) for seven weeks before they were subcutaneously injected with 2.5 x 105 viable cells into th...

138

Food, fat, family and friends: studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake.  

OpenAIRE

The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was developed. Biomarker-based validity (n = 99), relative validity against a dietary history (n = 191), and reproducibility (n = 93) were satisfactory for adults.Up to 40% of the variance in fat intake, expressed as %...

Feunekes, G. I. J.

1996-01-01

139

Effect of dietary fat sources on fatty acid deposition and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens  

OpenAIRE

The hypothesis tested was that dietary vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids, when compared with a vegetable oil rich in linoleic acid, increase fat deposition in broiler chickens and affect synthesis or oxidation, or both, of individual fatty acids. Diets with native sunflower oil (SO), a 50:50 mix of hydrogenated and native SO, palm oil, and randomized palm oil were fed to broiler chickens. Intake of digestible fat and fatty acids, whole body fatty acid deposition, hepatic fatty acid...

Smink, W.; Gerrits, W. J. J.; Hovenier, R.; Geelen, M. J. H.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; Beynen, A. C.

2010-01-01

140

High content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cells of Kenyan Maasai despite low dietary intake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing land restrictions and a reduced livestock-to-human ratio during the 20th century led the Maasai to lead a more sedentary, market-orientated lifestyle. Although plant-derived food nowadays contributes substantially to their diet, dairy products being high in saturated fatty acids (SFA and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA still are an important energy source. Since reliable data regarding the Maasai diet date back to the 1980s, the study objective was to document current diet practices in a Kenyan Maasai community and to investigate the fatty acid distribution in diet and red blood cells. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 26 Maasai (20 women, 6 men from Loodokilani, Kajiado District, Kenya. Food intake was described by the subjects via 24-h recall, and both food and blood samples were analysed. Results Two main foods - milk and ugali - constituted the Maasai diet in this region. A total of 0.9 L of milk and 0.6 kg of ugali were consumed per person and day to yield an energy intake of 7.6 MJ/d per person. A major proportion of ingested food contributing 58.3% to the total dietary energy (en% was plant-derived, followed by dairy products representing 41.1 en%. Fat consumed (30.5 en% was high in SFA (63.8% and low in PUFA (9.2%. Long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA made up only 0.15% of the ingested fatty acids, but 5.9% of red blood cell fatty acids. Conclusion The study indicates the Maasai diet is rich in SFA and low in PUFA. Nevertheless, red blood cells are composed of comparable proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA to populations consuming higher amounts of this fatty acid group.

Kiage-Mokua Beatrice N

2011-08-01

141

High content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cells of Kenyan Maasai despite low dietary intake  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Increasing land restrictions and a reduced livestock-to-human ratio during the 20th century led the Maasai to lead a more sedentary, market-orientated lifestyle. Although plant-derived food nowadays contributes substantially to their diet, dairy products being high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) still are an important energy source. Since reliable data regarding the Maasai diet date back to the 1980s, the study objective was to document current diet practices in a Kenyan Maasai community and to investigate the fatty acid distribution in diet and red blood cells. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 26 Maasai (20 women, 6 men) from Loodokilani, Kajiado District, Kenya. Food intake was described by the subjects via 24-h recall, and both food and blood samples were analysed. Results Two main foods - milk and ugali - constituted the Maasai diet in this region. A total of 0.9 L of milk and 0.6 kg of ugali were consumed per person and day to yield an energy intake of 7.6 MJ/d per person. A major proportion of ingested food contributing 58.3% to the total dietary energy (en%) was plant-derived, followed by dairy products representing 41.1 en%. Fat consumed (30.5 en%) was high in SFA (63.8%) and low in PUFA (9.2%). Long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) made up only 0.15% of the ingested fatty acids, but 5.9% of red blood cell fatty acids. Conclusion The study indicates the Maasai diet is rich in SFA and low in PUFA. Nevertheless, red blood cells are composed of comparable proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA to populations consuming higher amounts of this fatty acid group. PMID:21854590

2011-01-01

142

Dietary protein deficiency affects n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids hepatic storage and very low density lipoprotein transport in rats on different diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty livers and the similarity between the skin lesions in kwashiorkor and those described in experimental essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency have led to the hypothesis that protein and EFA deficiencies may both occur in chronic malnutrition. The relationship between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and hepatic lipid composition was studied after 28 d of protein depletion to determine the interactions between dietary protein levels and EFA availability. Rats were fed purified diets containing 20 or 2% casein and 5% fat as either soybean oil rich in EFA, or salmon oil rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, or hydrogenated coconut oil poor in EFA. Animals were divided into six groups, SOC (20% casein + 5% soybean oil), SOd (2% casein + 5% soybean oil), COC (20% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), COd (2% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), SAC (20% casein + 5% salmon oil) and SAd (2% casein + 5% salmon oil). After 28 d, liver steatosis and reduced VLDL-phospholipid contents (P < 0.001) were observed in protein-deficient rats. In protein deficiency, triacylglycerol and phospholipid fatty acid compositions in both liver and VLDL showed a decreased polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio. This ratio was higher with the salmon oil diets and lower with the hydrogenated coconut oil diets. Furthermore, independent of the oil in the diet, protein deficiency decreased linoleic and arachidonic acids in VLDL phospholipids. Conversely, despite decreased proportions of EPA at low protein levels, DHA levels remained higher in rats fed salmon oil diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8177019

Bouziane, M; Prost, J; Belleville, J

1994-04-01

143

Effect of Dietary Fats on Glucose Tolerance, Insulin Sensitivity and Membrane Free Fatty Acids in Rats  

OpenAIRE

The present work was designed to assess the possible effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) as fish oil, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) as olive oil (OO), saturated fatty acid (SFA) as butter oil (BO) and their combinations on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and membrane free fatty acid levels. Relatively high fat (20% w/w, 40% energy) content diets were prepared and supplemented to adult male Wistar rats for 5-weeks. Body growth, intravenous glucose tolerance, insulin...

Mohammed Abdullah Alsaif

2004-01-01

144

Energy metabolism and lactation performance of primiparous sows as affected by dietary fat and vitamin E.  

OpenAIRE

In this thesis different levels of dietary fat (37, 43, 75 and 125 g/kg DM, respectively) and vitamin E (from 14 to 151 mg ?-tocopherol/kg diet) in the lactation diet, were studied for their effect on the energy metabolism, and lactation performance of primiparous sows. The effects of different levels of vitamin E (13, 48 and 136 mg ?-tocopherol/kg diet, respectively) and types of dietary fat (50 g/kg sunflower oil or animal fat) in gestation and lactation diets, on some immunological par...

Babinszky, L.

1992-01-01

145

Effects of dietary fat and enterostatin on dopamine and 5-hydroxytrytamine release from rat striatal slices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have demonstrated defects of DA and 5HT neurotransmission in dietary fat induced obese animals. In the present study, we used a perfusion system to assay the release of DA and 5HT from striatal slices preloaded with [(3)H]-DA or [(3)H]-5HT. The release of both DA and 5HT from striatal slices of rats fed a high fat diet for 10 days, but not 3 days, was reduced when compared to striatal slices taken from rats fed a low fat diet. Enterostatin, an endogenous pentapeptide inhibits dietary fat intake when administered peripherally and centrally in animals. The central mechanism for the action of enterostatin is not yet determined even though several mechanisms have been suggested. We have shown that enterostatin enhanced [(3)H]-DA release, but not [(3)H]-5HT release from striatal slices of rats that had been adapted to high fat diet for 10 days. The enterostatin-induced increase in [(3)H]-DA release was blocked by nomifensine. Enterostatin did not alter [(3)H]-DA or [(3)H]-5HT release from striatal slices of rats adapted to high fat or low fat diet feeding for 3 days. These findings suggest that enterostatin may inhibit dietary fat intake by blocking dopamine reuptake transport to increase central striatal DA release from rats that have acquired diminished dopamine signal after an adaptive period of fat consumption. PMID:20599830

York, David A; Teng, Lihong; Park-York, Miejung

2010-08-19

146

Dietary Fat Content and Fiber Type Modulate Hind Gut Microbial Community and Metabolic Markers in the Pig  

OpenAIRE

Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2×2...

Yan, Hui; Potu, Ramesh; Lu, Hang; Vezzoni Almeida, Vivian; Stewart, Terry; Ragland, Darryl; Armstrong, Arthur; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.

2013-01-01

147

Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs  

OpenAIRE

Background Diabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet. Methods Streptozotocin-diabetic pigs (~45 kg) were fed for 10 weeks supplemental (40% of dietary energy) saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC), unsaturated fat (UF) or starch (S) in an e...

Serlie Mireille J; Sauerwein Hans P; Ackermans Mariette T; Dekker Ruud; Koopmans Sietse J; Mm, Beusekom Heleen; van den Heuvel Mieke; van der Giessen Wim J

2011-01-01

148

Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the diets of Danish children, and to examine the associations between dietary GI, GL and body fatness. Data were collected during 1997-8 as part of the European Youth Heart Study. The study population comprised 485 children aged 10 years and 364 children aged 16 years from Odense County, Denmark. Dietary GI and GL were estimated using international food tables, and the associations between energy-adjusted dietary GI, GL and body fatness were analysed by multiple linear regression. The mean daily dietary GI value was 85 (SD 6 center dot 9) with a range of 62-111. No significant differences were found between age groups and gender. The daily dietary GL was higher among boys aged 16, with a GL of 330 (sd 95) (P < 0 center dot 05), compared with girls or younger boys. Dietary GL was higher among 10-year-old boys than girls (250 (sd 81) v. 230 (sd 66) P < 0 center dot 05), whereas dietary GL among 16-year-old girlswas 230 (sd 56). Neither dietary GI nor GL was associated with the sum of four skinfolds (Sigma SF) among girls or among 10-year-old boys. Among 16-year-old boys, significant associations were observed between dietary GI and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 60, SE=0 center dot 21, P=0 center dot 006), and between dietary GL and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 15, SE=0.06, P=0 center dot 009). In conclusion, dietary GI and GL were positively associated with body fatness among Danish boys aged 16 years, whereas no associations were found among girls or younger boys

Nielsen, B. M.; BjØrnsbo, K. B.

2005-01-01

149

A review of nutritional effects on fat composition of animal products with special emphasis on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fatty acid composition of animal products (eggs, milk and meat) is the reflect of both the tissue fatty acid biosynthesis and the fatty acid composition of ingested lipids. This relationship is stronger in monogastrics (pigs, poultry and rabbits) than in ruminants, where dietary fatty acids are hydrogenated in the rumen. There is an increasing recognition of the health benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), because these fatty acids are essential for humans. In addition, the ratio n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the human diet is important. This ratio by far exceeds the recommended value of 5. Therefore, inclusion of fish meals, or n-3 PUFA rich oils, or linseed in animal diets is a valid means of meeting consumer demand for animal products that are nutritionally beneficial. The studies that are undertaken on animals mainly use diets supplemented with linseed, as a source of n-3 fatty acids. The use of linseed diets generally leads to an increased n-3 fatty acid content in animal products (egg, meat, milk) in ruminants and monogastrics. Recent studies have also demonstrated that neither the processing nor the cooking affects the PUFA content of pork meat or meat products. The ability of unsaturated fatty acids, especially those with more than two double bonds, to rapidly oxidise, is important in regulating the shelf life of animal products (rancidity and colour deterioration); however, a good way to avoid such problems is to use antioxidant products (such as vitamin E) in the diet. Some studies also show that it is not necessary to feed animals with linseed-supplemented diets for a long time to have the highest increase in PUFA content of the products. So, short-term diet manipulation can be a practical reality for industry. As the market for n-3 PUFA enriched products is today limited in most countries, other studies must be undertaken to develop this kind of production. PMID:20188790

Kouba, Maryline; Mourot, Jacques

2011-01-01

150

Dietary oxidized poultry offal fat: broiler performance and oxidative stability of thigh meat during chilled storage  

OpenAIRE

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC). Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass ch...

Amc, Racanicci; Jfm, Menten; Mab, Regitano-d Arce; Eafs, Torres; Lm, Pino; Aa, Pedroso

2008-01-01

151

Dietary fat type, body composition and fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens  

OpenAIRE

An increased intake of PUFA in the form of soybean oil at the expense of SFA in the form of tallow reduced abdominal deposition by broiler chickens in a does-dependent fashion, the relationship being essentially independent of the fat level of the diet. Dietary fats rich in MCT would diminish abdominal fat deposition as do fats rich in PUFA. Broiler chickens were fed on diets containing either tallow, which is rich in SFA, soybean oil, which is rich in PUFA, or krabok oil, which is rich in MC...

Wongsuthavas, S.

2007-01-01

152

Dietary fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are inconsistent and limited data available to assess the relationship between fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We examined the consumption of total fat, fat sources and fat subtypes in relation to risk of EOC and its major histologic subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition which includes incident invasive (n=1095) and borderline (n=96) EOC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In multivariate models, we observed no association with consumption of total fat, animal or plant fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, monounsaturated fat, or fatty fish and risk of invasive EOC. There was, however, an increased risk of invasive EOC in the highest category of intake (Quartile 4 vs. Quartile 1) of polyunsaturated fat (HR=1.22, 95% CI=1.02-1.48, P(trend)=0.02). We did not observe heterogeneity in the risk associations in comparisons of serous and endometrioid histologic subtypes. This study does not support an etiological role for total fat intake in relation to EOC risk; however, based on observations of a positive association between intake of polyunsaturated fat and invasive EOC risk in the current and previous studies, this fat subtype warrants further investigation to determine its potential role in EOC development. PMID:25155210

Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Dossus, Laure; Fagherazzi, Guy; Baglietto, Laura; Fortner, Renée T; Ose, Jennifer; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Gram, Inger Torhild; Quirós, J Ramón; Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta Castaño, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Chamosa, Saioa; Sonestedt, Emily; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Chajes, Veronique; Gunter, Marc J

2014-10-01

153

Dietary fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There are inconsistent and limited data available to assess the relationship between fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We examined the consumption of total fat, fat sources and fat subtypes in relation to risk of EOC and its major histologic subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition which includes incident invasive (n=1095) and borderline (n=96) EOC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In multivariate models, we observed no association with consumption of total fat, animal or plant fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, monounsaturated fat, or fatty fish and risk of invasive EOC. There was, however, an increased risk of invasive EOC in the highest category of intake (Quartile 4 vs. Quartile 1) of polyunsaturated fat (HR=1.22, 95% CI=1.02-1.48, Ptrend=0.02). We did not observe heterogeneity in the risk associations in comparisons of serous and endometrioid histologic subtypes. This study does not support an etiological role for total fat intake in relation to EOC risk; however, based on observations of a positive association between intake of polyunsaturated fat and invasive EOC risk in the current and previous studies, this fat subtype warrants further investigation to determine its potential role in EOC development.

Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio

2014-01-01

154

Long chain fatty acids and dietary fats in fetal nutrition  

OpenAIRE

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for a healthy diet. The different kinds consumed by the mother during gestation and lactation may influence pregnancy, fetal and also neonatal outcome. The amount of fatty acids transferred from mother to fetus depends not only on maternal metabolism but also on placental function, i.e. by the uptake, metabolism and then transfer of fatty acids to the fetus. The third trimester of gestation is characterized by an increase of long...

Cetin, Irene; Alvino, Gioia; Cardellicchio, Manuela

2009-01-01

155

Characterization of the Hyperphagic Response to Dietary Fat in the MC4R Knockout Mouse  

Science.gov (United States)

Defective melanocortin signaling causes hyperphagic obesity in humans and the melanocortin-4 receptor knockout mouse (MC4R?/?). The human disease most commonly presents, however, as haploinsufficiency of the MC4R. This study validates the MC4R+/? mouse as a model of the human disease in that, like the MC4R?/?, the MC4R+/? mouse also exhibits a sustained hyperphagic response to dietary fat. Furthermore, both saturated and monounsaturated fats elicit this response. N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) is a signaling lipid induced after several hours of high-fat feeding, that, if dysregulated, might explain the feeding behavior in melanocortin obesity syndrome. Remarkably, however, MC4R?/? mice produce elevated levels of NAPE and are fully responsive to the anorexigenic activity of NAPE and oleoylethanolamide. Interestingly, additional differences in N-acylethanolamine (NAE) biochemistry were seen in MC4R?/? animals, including reduced plasma NAE levels and elevated hypothalamic levels of fatty acid amide hydrolase expression. Thus, while reduced expression of NAPE or NAE does not explain the high-fat hyperphagia in the melanocortin obesity syndrome, alterations in this family of signaling lipids are evident. Analysis of the microstructure of feeding behavior in response to dietary fat in the MC4R?/? and MC4R+/? mice indicates that the high-fat hyperphagia involves defective satiation and an increased rate of food intake, suggesting defective satiety signaling and enhanced reward value of dietary fat. PMID:21239438

Srisai, Dollada; Gillum, Matthew P.; Panaro, Brandon L.; Zhang, Xian-Man; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich; Shulman, Gerald I.; Ellacott, Kate L. J.

2011-01-01

156

High levels of dietary unsaturated fat decrease alpha-tocopherol content of whole body, liver, and plasma of chickens without variations in intestinal apparent absorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was designed to assess the effect of dietary unsaturated fat inclusion level on alpha-tocopherol apparent absorption and deposition in broiler chickens at 2 ages (20 and 39 d). The dietary fat was a mixture of linseed and fish oil, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The experimental treatments were the result of 4 levels of supplementation with alpha-tocopheryl acetate (0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg; E0, E100, E200, and E400 treatments, respectively) and 4 dietary oil inclusion levels (2, 4, 6, and 8%; O2, O4, O6, and O8 treatments respectively). Almond husk was used as an energy dilutor in the high-fat diets. Apparent absorption of total fatty acids was high in all treatments averaging 88% and was higher with high fat dietary inclusion level. alpha-Tocopheryl acetate hydrolysis and apparent absorption of alpha-tocopherol were similar in both ages and were not affected by fat inclusion level, except for a reduction of the absorption in the low-fat diet (O2) in the E100 treatment at 20 d of age. Despite this lack of differences in hydrolysis and absorption, higher-fat PUFA diets induced lower concentrations of free alpha-tocopherol in the excreta, at high alpha-tocopherol doses, suggesting an increase in the destruction of alpha-tocopherol by lipid oxidation in the gastrointestinal tract. Similarly, total and hepatic alpha-tocopherol deposition was lower in the birds fed high-PUFA diets in the E200- and E400-supplemented birds, possibly due to a destruction of vitamin E when protecting these PUFA from lipid peroxidation. alpha-Tocopherol concentration in liver and, to a lesser extent, in plasma was a useful indicator of the degree of response of this vitamin to different factors that can affect its bioavailability; however, in the present experiment, CV were too high to use liver and plasma concentrations as estimators of total body vitamin E. PMID:18281576

Villaverde, C; Baucells, M D; Manzanilla, E G; Barroeta, A C

2008-03-01

157

Partial replacement of dietary linoleic acid with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Imbalances in the dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been implicated in the increased prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated the effects of substitution of linoleic acid with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and hence decreasing n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on inflammatory response in dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis. Male weanling Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets with n-6:n-3 fatty acid in the ratios of 215,50,10 or 5 for 3 months and colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water during last 11 days. Decreasing the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio to 10 and 5 significantly attenuated the severity of colitis as evidenced by improvements in clinical symptoms, reversal of shortening of colon length, reduced severity of anemia, preservation of colonic architecture as well as reduced colonic mucosal myeloperoxidase activity. This protection was associated with suppression of colonic mucosal proinflammatory mediators such as TNF?, IL-1? and nitric oxide. These findings suggest that long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 3.0 g/kg diet (n-6:n-3 ratio of 10) prevents dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators. PMID:25451558

Tyagi, Anupama; Kumar, Uday; Santosh, Vadakattu Sai; Reddy, Suryam; Mohammed, Saazida Bhanu; Ibrahim, Ahamed

2014-12-01

158

Dietary fat level affecting histochemical radiosensitivity in dorsal aorta in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work has been conducted to investigate the effect of dietary fat status and/or cumulative whole body gamma radiation exposures up to 15 Gy the histochemical pattern of the dorsal aortas of male albino rats. Experimental animals were fed on either fat-rich or fat-free diet and the observations compared with those fed normal fat diet. The histochemical investigations has been confined to the concentration levels of mucopolysaccharide substance and total lipids. The dorsal aorta normal fat group showed higher content of PAS-positive material in the first two layers of the aorta wall in comparison with decreased amount of collagen fibers was shown in fat-rich group

159

Effects of partial replacement of dietary fat by olestra on dietary cholesterol absorption in man  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Olestra, a nonabsorbable fat substitute comprising long-chain fatty acid esters of sucrose, had been previously shown to reduce cholesterol absorption in humans when ingested at a level of 50 g/d. To determine whether or not a lower level of dietary olestra would also reduce cholesterol absorption, we studied the effect of 7 g of olestra twice a day in 20 normocholesterolemic male inpatients in a double-blind, crossover trial. Two 6-day diet treatment and stool collection periods were separated by a 14-day washout period. Half of the subjects received butter, and half, a butter-olestra blend during each treatment period according to a crossover design. All subjects ingested trace amounts of 3H-cholesterol and 14C-beta-sitosterol with the butter or the butter-olestra blend. Cholesterol absorption was determined from the 3H/14C ratios in the diet and in saponified and extracted stools according to previously validated methodology. Cholesterol absorption during the butter regimen was significantly greater than that during the olestra regimen (56.1% +/- 1.6% v 46.7% +/- 1.1%, P less than .01)

160

Effects of dietary chromium polynicotinate supplementation on performance, fat deposition and plasma lipids of broiler chickens  

OpenAIRE

The present study was conducted to determine the effect of chromium polynicotinate supplementation on performance, fat deposition and plasma lipids of broiler chickens. A total of 540 male broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were allotted to 6 dietary treatments. The dietary chromium polynicotinate levels were 0 (Control), 250, 500, 750, 1000 or 1250 ?g/kg, respectively. At 10-28 days of age (grower phase), the 500 ?g/kg concentration of chromium polynicotinate supplementation had a beneficial ef...

Yadollah Chashnidel; Zarbakht Ansari Pirsaraei; Bahman Navidshad

2010-01-01

161

Dietary fat influences on polyp phenotype in multiple intestinal neoplasia?mice  

OpenAIRE

Significant differences in colon cancer incidence worldwide have led to the hypothesis that this variation can be explained largely by environmental, notably dietary influences. Although a positive correlation between dietary fat intake and incidence is suggested from some human epidemiological and rodent carcinogenesis studies, a direct association remains contentious. Using a spontaneous mouse tumor model of multiple intestinal neoplasia, we demonstrate that there is a generalized increase ...

Wasan, Harpreet S.; Novelli, Marco; Bee, Julie; Bodmer, Walter F.

1997-01-01

162

Ethnic and Gender Differences in the Relationships between Television Viewing and Obesity, Physical Activity, and Dietary Fat Intake.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed ninth graders for evidence of ethnic and gender differences in the relationships between television viewing and adiposity, physical activity, and dietary fat intake. Television viewing related to increased dietary fat intake, and cultural factors influenced the susceptibilities of children to the effects of television viewing.…

Robinson, Thomas N.; Killen, Joel D.

1995-01-01

163

Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Growth Performance Responses and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows...

Poorghasemi, Mohammadreza; Seidavi, Alireza; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

164

Postprandial oxidative stress is modified by dietary fat: evidences from a human intervention study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Previous evidences support the concept that increased oxidative stress may play an important role in the metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related manifestations. Dietary fat quality has been proposed to be critical in oxidative stress and the pathogenesis of the MetS. We investigated whether oxidative stress parameters are affected by diets with different fat quantity and quality during the postprandial state in subjects with the MetS. Patients were randomly assigned to one of fo...

Perez-martinez, Pablo; Garcia-quintana, Jose M.; Yubero-serrano, Elena M.; Tasset-cuevas, Inmaculada; Tunez, Isaac; Garcia-rios, Antonio; Delgado-lista, Javier; Marin, Carmen; Perez-jimenez, Francisco; Roche, Helen M.; Lopez-miranda, Jose

2010-01-01

165

Acute liver failure caused by ‘fat burners’ and dietary supplements: A case report and literature review  

OpenAIRE

Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, non-conventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepati...

Radha Krishna, Y.; Mittal, V.; Grewal, P.; Fiel, Mi; Schiano, T.

2011-01-01

166

Effect of dietary oil supplementation on fatty acid profile of backfat and intramuscular fat in finishing pigs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two groups of finishing gilts were fed, for 4 weeks, a commercial feed enriched (2% with either rapeseed oil or sunflower oil. Pig growth was monitored bi-weekly and the fatty acid composition of backfat and Longissimus muscle was determined after slaughtering. Type of dietary oil affected significantly the fatty acid profile of pork fat, especially the C18:3n-3 concentration which was higher in pigs fed rapeseed oil than in those fed sunflower oil. The content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA of Longissimus muscle was significantly higher than that of backfat, due to the its higher concentration of C18:1cis9 and C16:1. Differently, the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content was higher in backfat than in Longissimus muscle. These results confirm that it is possible to manipulate the fatty acid composition of the diet, in order to improve the health properties of the adipose tissues of pork meat.

Giuseppe Pulina

2010-01-01

167

Dietary fat modulates immunoresponsiveness in UV-irradiated mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have shown that a high level of dietary lipid (corn oil) exacerbates UV-carcinogenic expression in hairless mice. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that this effect occurs at the postinitiation, or promotion, stage of UV-carcinogenesis-a stage believed to be modulated immunologically. Thus, we sought to examine the influence of dietary lipid on specific immune parameters at various times within a UV-carcinogenic protocol, with the purpose of detecting potential relationships to UV carcinogenesis. (author)

168

The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain.El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar los efectos de la grasa de la dieta de dos estirpes de ponedoras (Hy-line y Warren sobre el contenido de ácidos grasos y colesterol del huevo durante un periodo del ciclo de puesta de 20 meses. Ambas estirpes recibieron 3 dietas consecutivas que contenían 7% de lípidos de los cuales 3% provenía de los componentes basales de la dieta y 4% fue adicionado en forma de grasa, aceites u oleínas con objeto de aumentar progresivamente el contenido de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados y disminuir el contenido de los ácidos grasos saturados y monoinsaturados. El cambio de grasa en la dieta afectó al perfil de la mayoría de los ácidos grasos del huevo, sugiriéndose la existencia de un mínimo de ácido elaídico en la grasa añadida para su aparición en el huevo. El contenido de AGP se incrementó mientras que el de AGM disminuyó en el huevo a lo largo del estudio. El contenido de colesterol fue mas elevado con la mezcla de grasa animal/aceite de soja que con la grasa animal o con la mezcla oleica/aceite de soja. La grasa añadida a la dieta más que la estirpe de ponedora influyó sobre la composición de ácidos grasos el cociente AGS/AGP contenido de colesterol e índices aterogénicos y trombogénicos.

Vergara, G.

2009-09-01

169

On the binding ratio of ?-cyclodextrin to dietary fat in humans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available KL Catherine Jen,1,2 George Grunberger,3 Joseph D Artiss2,4 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2ArtJen Complexus Inc, Windsor, ON, Canada; 3The Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA; 4Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: ?-Cyclodextrin (?-CD, a soluble dietary fiber, has been shown to bind and eliminate nine times of its own weight in dietary fat. Studies with different animal models have reported that ?-CD preferentially binds saturated fatty acids, reducing saturated and trans fatty acid levels in blood. A clinical trial demonstrated that ?-CD prevented weight gain in obese diabetic patients. The present study was designed to examine whether ?-CD also shows a preference in binding saturated fatty acids in humans and to confirm the 1:9 binding ratio in humans. Sixty-six obese diabetic patients were recruited at the beginning of this 3-month, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to the Active or Placebo group. Blood samples and 3-day dietary records were collected at baseline and at the end of months 1, 2, and 3. A bottle of 180 tablets of active or placebo tablets was dispensed to each participant at the beginning of each month. Dietary records were analyzed using The Food Processor software. It was observed that ?-CD has a higher affinity towards saturated fats than to unsaturated fats. Participants with higher intakes of total and saturated fat lost more weight than those with lower intakes (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively. These data support the earlier observation in both in vitro and animal studies that ?-CD binds with dietary fat in a 1:9 ratio and further demonstrate the efficacy of ?-CD in binding to and eliminating dietary fat, especially saturated fats. ?-CD may play a significant role in reducing blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as stopping chronic weight gain. Keywords: FBCx®, fat binding capacity, 1:9 binding ratio, reducing blood cholesterol levels, saturated, dietary analysis

Jen KLC

2013-07-01

170

INFLUENCE OF DIETARY FAT ON LEPTIN AND INSULIN IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixty male albino rats were arranged into 5 equal groups which were used in this study to investigate the relation between leptin and insulin hormones under high fat intake and to assess the role of fresh vegetable intake on minimizing dyslipidemia.The results denoted that dietary fat caused significant increase in the levels of blood glucose and leptin hormone with significant decrease in insulin concentration and with prolonged high fat intake, insulin level was increased. However, the increased leptin and glucose indicated that prolonged fatty diet may cause insulin resistance. Addition of green vegetables to the diet normalized to a great extent the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, glucose and insulin

171

Relationship between Dietary Beef, Fat, and Pork and Alcoholic Cirrhosis  

OpenAIRE

Nanji and French [1] investigated the relationship between per-caput consumption of total fat, beef, and pork and for alcohol consumption and rates of mortality for cirrhosis for 16 countries for 1965. The present study reports significant and positive associations for 1996 and 2003 between the following: alcohol consumption and cirrhosis mortality, pork consumption and cirrhosis mortality, the product of alcohol and pork consumption and the product of alcohol and fat consumption. These suppo...

Francis Stephen Bridges

2009-01-01

172

Dietary fat and breast cancer: comparison of results from food diaries and food-frequency questionnaires in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies of dietary fat and breast cancer risk are inconsistent, and it has been suggested that a true relation may have been obscured by the imprecise measurement of fat intake. OBJECTIVE: We examined associations of fat with breast cancer risk by using estimates of fat intake from food diaries and food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) pooled from 4 prospective studies in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: A total of 657 cases of breast cancer in premenopausal and postmenopa...

Key, Tj; Appleby, Pn; Cairns, Bj; Luben, R.; Dahm, Cc; Akbaraly, T.; Brunner, Ej; Burley, V.; Cade, Je; Greenwood, Dc; Stephen, Am; Mishra, G.; Kuh, D.; Keogh, Rh; White, Ir

2011-01-01

173

Hepatic origin of cholesteryl oleate in coronary artery atherosclerosis in African green monkeys. Enrichment by dietary monounsaturated fat.  

OpenAIRE

Relationships among plasma lipoprotein cholesterol, cholesterol secretion by the isolated, perfused liver, and coronary artery atherosclerosis were examined in African green monkeys fed diets containing cholesterol and 35% of calories as fat enriched in polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, or saturated fatty acids. The livers of animals fed monounsaturated fat had significantly higher cholesteryl ester concentrations (8.5 mg/g wet wt) than the livers of the other diet groups (3.65 and 3.37 mg/g ...

Rudel, L. L.; Haines, J.; Sawyer, J. K.; Shah, R.; Wilson, M. S.; Carr, T. P.

1997-01-01

174

Effect of dietary fats on hepatic lipid metabolism in the growing turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of dietary fatty acids on hepatic capacity of lipid synthesis and secretion was investigated in 7-week-old male turkeys. They were fed 10% of either lard (rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids) or linseed oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 18:3n-3). Fattening was identical with both diets (0.15-0.20% of abdominal adipose tissue), but the proportion of muscle Pectoralis major was lower with linseed oil (6.6 vs. 7.4%). Specific activities of lipogenic enzymes (ME, G6PDH, ACX, and Delta9-desaturase) were not influenced by the diet, however, FAS activity was lower with linseed oil (14.3 vs. 25.4 nM NADPH fixed/min). Fasting concentrations of lipoproteins synthesized and secreted by the liver, VLDL and HDL, were also lower with linseed oil, as well as plasma concentrations of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters. However, when VLDL catabolism was inhibited by injection of an antiserum against LPL, VLDL concentration was identical in both groups (100-120 mg/l), whereas that of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters, that are transported by HDL mainly, remained lower with linseed oil. Thus, in the growing turkeys, and contrary to mammals and the chicken, feeding n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids did not decrease hepatic triglyceride synthesis and secretion, nor fattening. By contrast, in this species, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids appear to influence mostly HDL metabolism, with a negative impact on muscular growth. PMID:12031474

Mossab, Amal; Lessire, Michel; Guillaumin, Solange; Kouba, Maryline; Mourot, Jacques; Peiniau, Philippe; Hermier, Dominique

2002-06-01

175

Dietary fat quality and risk of sudden cardiac death in women123  

OpenAIRE

Background: Dietary n?3 PUFAs are inversely associated with risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD); however, little is known about other fats and SCD. Furthermore, concerns have been raised that high n?6 PUFA intake may attenuate the benefits of n?3 PUFAs.

Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Rimm, Eric B.; Sandhu, Roopinder K.; Bernstein, Adam M.; Rexrode, Kathy M.; Manson, Joann E.; Willett, Walter C.; Albert, Christine M.

2012-01-01

176

Dietary Fats and Oils: Knowledge and Preferences of School-Aged Children in Greece.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated knowledge and preferences of 176 Greek children, aged 9 to 11, with regard to dietary oils and fats. Results indicate that these children lacked the knowledge they needed to make healthy food choices, and that teaching strategies should be developed to address their needs. (SLD)

Zimvraki, Eleni; Athanasiou, Kyriakos; Makris, George

1997-01-01

177

Influence of Self-Efficacy on Fat-Related Dietary Behavior in Chinese Americans  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between self-efficacy and fat-related dietary behavior among a sample of first and second generation Chinese Americans living in New York City. A survey questionnaire was administered to a purposive sample of 743 Chinese Americans, ranging from ages 21 to 73. The questionnaire measured…

Liou, Doreen

2004-01-01

178

Template to improve glycemic control without reducing adiposity or dietary fat  

Science.gov (United States)

Drugs that improve chronic hyperglycemia independently of insulin signaling or reduction of adiposity or dietary fat intake may be highly desirable. Ad36, a human adenovirus, promotes glucose uptake in vitro independently of adiposity or proximal insulin signaling. We tested the ability of Ad36 to i...

179

Oral and Gastrointestinal Sensing of Dietary Fat and Appetite Regulation in Humans: Modification by Diet and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fat interacts with receptors in both the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to regulate fat and energy intake. This review discusses recent developments in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of fat, through its digestive products, fatty acids (FAs), on GI function and energy intake, the role of oral and intestinal FA receptors, and the implications that changes in oral and small intestinal sensitivity in response to ingested fat may have for the development of obesity. PMID:21088697

Little, Tanya J.; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

2010-01-01

180

Dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y), attending public or private schools in ...

Doak Colleen; Mathias Paul; Vossenaar Marieke; Montenegro-Bethancourt Gabriela; Toher Claire; Bermudez Odilia I.; Solomons Noel W

2010-01-01

181

Oral and Gastrointestinal Sensing of Dietary Fat and Appetite Regulation in Humans: Modification by Diet and Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Dietary fat interacts with receptors in both the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to regulate fat and energy intake. This review discusses recent developments in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of fat, through its digestive products, fatty acids (FA), on GI function and energy intake, the role of oral and intestinal FA receptors, and the implications that changes in oral and small intestinal sensitivity in response to ingested fat may have for the de...

TanyaJLittle

2010-01-01

182

Effect of dietary fat level on carcass traits and flesh quality of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax from mariculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the effect of the reduction of dietary fat on juvenile European sea bass nutritional value and quality traits. Fish were reared in floating cages (Trieste Gulf, Italy from July (11 to October (10. Two isoproteic diets were compared: LF (low fat, EE = 19.4% vs. HF (high fat, EE = 24.6%. No significantly different growth performance was observed. LF diet-fed fish were characterized by the reduction of celomatic fat (not edible fraction and by the increase in dressing percentage. The tested dietary fat level also affected both fillet and epiaxial white muscle proximate composition, resulting in a significantly lower fillet lipid concentration in LF diet-fed fish. Dietary treatment influenced cooked fillet colour and texture probably as a consequence of the different intramuscular fat deposition. Fillet from HF-fed fish, in fact, presented higher lightness (L* value and lower instrumental strengthness.

Severino Segato

2010-01-01

183

Interleukin-6 Gene Polymorphisms, Dietary Fat Intake, Obesity and Serum Lipid Concentrations in Black and White South African Women  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 ?174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat...

Joffe, Yael T.; Lize van der Merwe; Juliet Evans; Malcolm Collins; Lambert, Estelle V.; September, Alison V.; Goedecke, Julia H.

2014-01-01

184

TFAP2B Influences the Effect of Dietary Fat on Weight Loss under Energy Restriction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. Methods and Findings: Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. (Registration: ISRCTN25867281.) One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat%) in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6) greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1) greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p=0.00007). The replication study showed a similar (non-significant) interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i) the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii) the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii) the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i) the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii) the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii) some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. Conclusions: Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction.

Stocks, T.; Angquist, L.

2012-01-01

185

Effects of Skip a Day Feeding and Dietary Fat Type on Abdominal Fat Pad and Blood Lipids in Broiler Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experiment carried out to study the effects of skip a day feeding and different dietary unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and carcass traits. A total of 720 10-days-old male Ross chicks were fed diets with Unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (U/S of 2, 3.5, 5 or 6.5 as ad lib or skip a day feeding program during 18-28 days of age. Generally at 28 day of age, chicks body, liver and abdominal fat pad weights and serum triglyceride concentration were significantly (p<0.05 lower and serum cholesterol level were significantly higher in the restricted compared with ad libitum birds. Re-feeding moved out these differences at 42 days of age except for body weight. The serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were decreased (p<0.05 by increased dietary U/S.

M. Nosrati

2006-01-01

186

Effect of dietary fat levels on the susceptibility of colonic cells to nuclear-damaging agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of two levels and types of dietary fats on the susceptibility of colonic cells to the nuclear-damaging effect of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (MeIQ), and gamma-radiation was investigated. Corn oil and beef tallow were added to the semisynthetic diet at 5% and 20% levels (weight/weight). A diet-related effect was not evident until after two weeks of feeding. Animals (C57BL/6J female mice) that were given the 20% corn oil or beef tallow diets had significantly (p less than 0.05) more nuclear aberrations in their colons 24 hours following treatment with DMH (5 mg or 10 mg/kg body wt or MeIQ (100 mg/kg body weight) than did those given low-fat diets (5% corn oil or beef tallow). The nuclear-damaging effect of gamma radiation was unaffected by dietary treatments. A high-fat diet had the most pronounced effect on DMH-treated animals, and maximum nuclear aberrations were observed 24 hours following the treatment. Thus, we concluded that increased levels of dietary fats elevate the toxicity of DMH and MeIQ to colonic epithelial cells. PMID:3703688

Bird, R P; Bruce, W R

1986-01-01

187

Effect of dietary fat levels on the susceptibility of colonic cells to nuclear-damaging agents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of two levels and types of dietary fats on the susceptibility of colonic cells to the nuclear-damaging effect of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (MeIQ), and gamma-radiation was investigated. Corn oil and beef tallow were added to the semisynthetic diet at 5% and 20% levels (weight/weight). A diet-related effect was not evident until after two weeks of feeding. Animals (C57BL/6J female mice) that were given the 20% corn oil or beef tallow diets had significantly (p less than 0.05) more nuclear aberrations in their colons 24 hours following treatment with DMH (5 mg or 10 mg/kg body wt or MeIQ (100 mg/kg body weight) than did those given low-fat diets (5% corn oil or beef tallow). The nuclear-damaging effect of gamma radiation was unaffected by dietary treatments. A high-fat diet had the most pronounced effect on DMH-treated animals, and maximum nuclear aberrations were observed 24 hours following the treatment. Thus, we concluded that increased levels of dietary fats elevate the toxicity of DMH and MeIQ to colonic epithelial cells

188

Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina® and AIN-93M), which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad lib...

Moura Leandro P; Figueredo Gabriella A; Bertolini Natália O; Ceccato Marilia; Pereira Jessica R; Sponton Amanda Christine S; Mello Maria Alice R

2012-01-01

189

Palm Oil and Animal Fats for Increasing Dietary Energy in Rearing Pullets  

OpenAIRE

A total of 300 Nera chicks at 8 weeks of age were randomized into five experimental rearing diets containing 170g/kg crude protein and 2800Kcal/kg of metabolizable energy to determine the comparative advantage of palm oil and animal fat as sources of increasing dietary energy in pullets. Five diets were supplemented with 2.5% and 5.0% palm oil or broiler offal fat at the expense of maize. Birds on diets with palm oil tended to retard attainment of sexual maturity, but egg production wa...

Isika, M. A.; Agiang, E. A.; Okon, B. I.

2006-01-01

190

Effect of bile diversion on satiety and fat absorption from liquid and solid dietary sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In previous studies, liquid fat has been used to determine the effect of bile diversion on fat absorption. Since protein digests, in addition to bile salts, are capable of solubilizing lipids, we hypothesized that fat incorporated in the protein-rich matrix of solid food would be less sensitive to bile diversion than fat ingested as an oil or liquid. Using [3H]glycerol triether as a nonabsorbable fat recovery marker, we determined how much [14C]triolein was absorbed from solid (chicken liver) and liquid (margarine) dietary sources. After a standard liquid/solid meal with either the chicken liver or margarine labeled, midintestinal chyme was collected for 6 hr, extracted, and counted for 14C and 3H activity. Zero, eighty, or one hundred percent of endogenous bile was diverted. Fat absorption from both chicken liver and margarine was nearly complete by midintestine with 0% diversion and was little affected by diversion of 80% of bile. Complete biliary diversion significantly decreased fat absorption from margarine (87.9 +/- 4.4 to 37.2 +/- 9.2%, P less than 0.05) but reduced [14C]triolein absorption from chicken liver less consistently and insignificantly (78.8 +/- 6.9 to 43.9 +/- 10.6%). These data indicate that fat absorption is not solely dependent on bile and support the hypothesis that fat ingested in a cellular matrix is less dependent on bile than liquid fat. Using these same animals but with the midintestinal cannulas plugged to expose the distal intestine to unugged to expose the distal intestine to unabsorbed luminal nutrients, we also demonstrated that bile diversion of an initial meal reduced food consumption at a meal offered 3 hr later

191

Dietary fat content and fiber type modulate hind gut microbial community and metabolic markers in the pig.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease) and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose). High fat diets (HFD) resulted in a higher (P<0.05) total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05) the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05) expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO), a marker of peroxisomal ?-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity. PMID:23573202

Yan, Hui; Potu, Ramesh; Lu, Hang; Vezzoni de Almeida, Vivian; Stewart, Terry; Ragland, Darryl; Armstrong, Arthur; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Ajuwon, Kolapo M

2013-01-01

192

Effect of Inuline and Oatmeal Addition on Fat and Dietary Fiber Content in Hot Press Wheat Flour Tortilla  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reduced fat wheat tortilla was formulated A formulation reduced in shortening with the fiber dietary properties of the whole grain has been proposed. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the replacement of wheat flour by oatmeal and shortening by inuline, on some physical characteristics and fat and dietary content of wheat tortillas. Three treatments of tortilla were tested: refined, whole and a 4:3:3 refined: whole flour: oatmeal plus 9:1 shortening: inuline. Analysis of dietary fiber, fat, texture, diameter, thickness and color were performed. Results showed that this oatmeal-inuline tortillas had similar texture and thickness and lower diameter that conventional wheat tortillas. Oatmeal-inuline tortillas are redder than refined wheat tortilla. Oatmeal-inuline substitution tortilla had 45% less fat and 71% more dietary fiber than refined flour tortilla with same textural characteristics.

Erick Heredia-Olea

2014-12-01

193

Dietary fat and kinetics of chloesterol metabolism in miniature swine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Female, Hormel derived miniature swine were fed corn-soy rations containing 40% of energy as beef fat (SFA) or 8% beef fat and 32% safflower oil (PUFA) from a weight of 23 until 44 to 46 kg. At that time, surgery was performed to implant a cannula in the proximal jejunum. Two wk later, a second surgery was performed to implant cannulae in the portal vein and aorta. The pigs were fed sufficient ration to maintain weight in two meals per day. 4-14C-cholesterol was incubated with homologous serum and reinjected. Samples were withdrawn from the portal vein or aorta and the jejunal cannula at intervals. Specific activity of serum and jejunal cholesterol was determined. Bile acids were isolated, quantitated by enzymatic assay and specific activity was calculated. Diet did not affect T1/2 of serum cholesterol, but the fractional turnover rate from pool 2 to pool 1 was greater for SFA than PUFA. Pool 1 was larger for PUFA than SFA and the flow rate was greater between pools; there was greater net loss from PUFA than SFA fed pigs. Jejunal cholesterol kinetics were similar to serum from SFA but not PUFA pigs. Flow rates between pools were lower in jejunal than serum pools. Bile acid specific activity rose within 15 hr to a maximum, then exhibited a plateau for about two wk before beginning disappearance

194

Effect of dietary fat sources on fatty acid deposition and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypothesis tested was that dietary vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids, when compared with a vegetable oil rich in linoleic acid, increase fat deposition in broiler chickens and affect synthesis or oxidation, or both, of individual fatty acids. Diets with native sunflower oil (SO), a 50:50 mix of hydrogenated and native SO, palm oil, and randomized palm oil were fed to broiler chickens. Intake of digestible fat and fatty acids, whole body fatty acid deposition, hepatic fatty acid profile, and hepatic enzyme activities involved in fatty acid oxidation and synthesis were measured. The fat deposition:digestible fat intake ratio was significantly lower for the SO group in comparison with the groups fed the vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids. The difference between digestible intake and deposition of C18:2, reflecting its maximum disappearance rate, was highest for the SO group and lowest for the palm oil- and randomized palm oil-fed birds. The calculated minimal rate of de novo synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), calculated as deposition minus digestible intake, was more than 50% lower for the SO group than for the other 3 dietary groups. Based on the fatty acid profiles in the liver, it would appear that increasing contents of C18:2 decrease the desaturation of saturated fatty acids into MUFA. It is concluded that a diet rich in C18:2 in comparison with different kinds of vegetable saturated fatty acids decreases the deposition of fat, especially of MUFA. It appears to be caused by a higher ?-oxidation and a reduced de novo synthesis of MUFA, but this conclusion is not fully supported by the measured activities of enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. PMID:20952707

Smink, W; Gerrits, W J J; Hovenier, R; Geelen, M J H; Verstegen, M W A; Beynen, A C

2010-11-01

195

Prolonged stimulation of corticosterone secretion by corticotropin-releasing hormone in rats exhibiting high preference for dietary fat  

Science.gov (United States)

Through the secretion of corticosterone, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to play an important role in the regulation of caloric intake and dietary fat preference. In an earlier study, we demonstrated a positive correlation between urinary corticosterone output and dietary fat preference. Furthermore, dietary fat preference was augmented following chronic but not acute hypercorticosteronemia produced by exogenous corticosterone administration. These observations led us to explore whether the HPA axis of rats exhibiting high preference for fat may have exaggerated sensitivity to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). The results of these studies show a delayed and blunted but more prolonged corticosterone response to CRH in the fat-preferring rats compared with that of the carbohydrate-preferring rats.

Herminghuysen, D.; Plaisance, K.; Pace, R. M., III; Prasad, C.

1998-01-01

196

Socio-cultural perceptions and practices of dietary choices with focus on fat intake in middle aged  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT Socio-cultural perceptions and practices of dietary choices with focus on fat intake in middle aged Pakistani women in Oslo ? a qualitative study Introduction: The nutritional transition has resulted globally in dietary changes, of which high intake of fats, sugar and refined carbohydrates are some of the main characteristics. This has resulted in increase in lifestyle diseases like type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease. In Norway, a dramatic increase of type 2 Diabetes has bee...

Dawes, Twinkle

2006-01-01

197

Dietary fat, abdominal obesity and smoking modulate the relationship between plasma complement component 3 concentrations and metabolic syndrome risk  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Chronic inflammation plays a role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Complement component 3 (C3) is a novel cardiometabolic risk factor. Whether dietary fat intake modulates MetS risk conferred by elevated C3 concentrations is unknown. Our objective is to investigate the relationship between C3 concentrations and risk of the MetS and its phenotypes, and to further examine whether dietary fat intake modulates these relationships. ...

Mc Manus, Ross

2012-01-01

198

Inhibition by dietary D-psicose of body fat accumulation in adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the anti-obesity effects of dietary D-psicose on adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Wistar rats (16 weeks old) that had previously been fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD) were fed HSD or a high-starch diet (HTD) with or without 5% D-psicose for 8 weeks. The food efficiency, carcass fat percentage, abdominal fat accumulation, and body weight gain were all significantly suppressed by dietary D-psicose. PMID:23649241

Ochiai, Masaru; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

2013-01-01

199

Steatohepatitis in laboratory opossums exhibiting a high lipemic response to dietary cholesterol and fat  

OpenAIRE

Plasma VLDL and LDL cholesterol were markedly elevated (>40-fold) in high-responding opossums, but moderately elevated (6-fold) in low-responding opossums after they had consumed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet for 24 wk. In both high- and low-responding opossums, plasma triglycerides were slightly elevated, threefold and twofold, respectively. Dietary challenge also induced fatty livers in high responders, but not in low responders. We studied the lipid composition, histopathological fe...

Chan, Jeannie; Sharkey, Francis E.; Kushwaha, Rampratap S.; Vandeberg, Jane F.; Vandeberg, John L.

2012-01-01

200

Stability and Reliability of Plasma Level of Lipid Biomarkers and Their Correlation with Dietary Fat Intake  

OpenAIRE

The reliability and stability of plasma lipid biomarkers and their association with dietary fat intake were evaluated among 48 subjects who were randomly chosen from the participants of a validation study of the population-based cohort, the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS). Four spot blood samples, one taken each season, were measured for total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels. The reliability and stability of these measurements were assessed by intracl...

Sang-Ah Lee; Wanqing Wen; Yong-Bing Xiang; Sergio Fazio; Linton, Macrae F.; Qiuyin Cai; Dake Liu; Wei Zheng; Xiao-Ou Shu

2008-01-01

201

IMPACTS OF HIGH DIETARY FAT ON SERUM CHOLESTEROL AND DEVELOPMENT OF FATTY LIVER IN RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the impacts of high dietary fat on serum Total cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in rats. Rats are fed on diets containing cholesterol; they develop fatty livers which are characterized by the presence in the liver of excessive amounts of cholesteryl esters, and glyceride. Increasement of glyceride content depend on a number of factors, such as the dietary contents of choline, While the nature of the "cholesterol" fatty liver and the effects on its composition of a number of dietary and other factors. In the present paper, we investigated the quantitative changes which occur in the "cholesterol" fatty liver, as a result of variations in the fat content of the diet, with particular reference to the deposition of cholesterol and of glyceride on diets of constant cholesterol content. Investigation was conducted on 90 day old Wister rats. It was observed that the serum TC values in rats of groups B and C were higher than control group. Furthermore, the serum TC and TG value was higher in rats of group C than group B. Grossly, the livers of rats of groups B and C were enlarged, pale in colour, soft in consistency and were having petechial haemorrhages with fat and fibrin deposits. Histopathologically, livers of groups B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. The results suggested that addition of dietary fat from animal and vegetable sources in the diet of rats not only resulted in increase in serum TC and TG but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in vital organ liver.

Rajesh Pandey et al

2012-09-01

202

Dietary protein and urinary nitrogen in relation to 6-year changes in fat mass and fat-free mass  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: In contrast to the physiological expectation, observational studies show that greater protein intake is associated with subsequent body weight (BW) gain. An increase in fat-free mass (FFM) due to the anabolic effects of protein could explain this. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between protein intake and subsequent changes in fat mass (FM) and FFM in longitudinal, observational data. DESIGN: A health examination, including measures of FM and FFM by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and follow-up 6 years later, was conducted. Diet history interviews (DHI) were performed, and 24-h urinary nitrogen collection at baseline was done. In total, 330 participants with DHI, of whom 227 had validated and complete 24-h urine collection data, were analyzed. Macronutrient energy substitution models were used. RESULTS: Mean estimated protein intake was 14.6 E% from DHI and 11.3 E% from urinary nitrogen. Estimated from DHI, FM increased 46?g per year, with every 1 E% protein substituted for fat (95% confidence interval (CI)=13, 79; P=0.006), and FFM increased 15?g per year (1, 30; P=0.046). RESULTS were similar in other substitution models. Estimated from urinary nitrogen, FM increased 53?g per year, with 1 E% protein substituted for other macronutrients (24, 81; P<0.0005), and FFM increased 18?g per year (6, 31; P=0.004). CONCLUSION: Within a habitual range, a greater protein intake was associated with BW gain, mostly in FM. This is in contrast to the expectations based on physiological and clinical trials, and calls for a better understanding of how habitual dietary protein influences long-term energy balance, versus how greater changes in dietary proteins may influence short-term energy balance.

Ankarfeldt, M Z; Gottliebsen, K

2015-01-01

203

Dietary l-Arginine Supplementation Reduces White Fat Gain and Enhances Skeletal Muscle and Brown Fat Masses in Diet-Induced Obese Rats1–3  

OpenAIRE

Previous studies showed that dietary l-arginine supplementation decreased white fat mass in genetically obese rats. This study tested the effectiveness of l-arginine in diet-induced obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 15 wk a high-fat (HF) (40% energy) or low-fat (LF) (10% energy) diet beginning at 4 wk of age, resulting in 18% higher body weight gains and 74% higher weights of major white fat pads (retroperitoneal, epididymal, subcutaneous, and mesenteric adipose tissues) in HF th...

Jobgen, Wenjuan; Meininger, Cynthia J.; Jobgen, Scott C.; Li, Peng; Lee, Mi-jeong; Smith, Stephen B.; Spencer, Thomas E.; Fried, Susan K.; Wu, Guoyao

2009-01-01

204

Effect of dietary krill oil supplementation on the endocannabinoidome of metabolically relevant tissues from high-fat-fed mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3-PUFA are known to ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an association between elevated peripheral levels of endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of dietary ?-3-PUFA supplementation, given as krill oil (KO, on metabolic parameters in high fat diet (HFD-fed mice and, in parallel, on the levels, in inguinal and epididymal adipose tissue (AT, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, kidneys and heart, of: 1 the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, 2 two anandamide congeners which activate PPAR? but not cannabinoid receptors, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine, and 3 the direct biosynthetic precursors of these compounds. Methods Lipids were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS or high resolution ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-ToF-MS. Results Eight-week HFD increased endocannabinoid levels in all tissues except the liver and epididymal AT, and KO reduced anandamide and/or 2-AG levels in all tissues but not in the liver, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Levels of endocannabinoid precursors were also generally down-regulated, indicating that KO affects levels of endocannabinoids in part by reducing the availability of their biosynthetic precursors. Usually smaller effects were found of KO on OEA and PEA levels. Conclusions Our data suggest that KO may promote therapeutic benefit by reducing endocannabinoid precursor availability and hence endocannabinoid biosynthesis.

Cohn Jeffrey S

2011-07-01

205

Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

2004-06-01

206

Examining the Minimal Required Elements of a Computer-Tailored Intervention Aimed at Dietary Fat Reduction: Results of a Randomized Controlled Dismantling Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the minimally required feedback elements of a computer-tailored dietary fat reduction intervention to be effective in improving fat intake. In all 588 Healthy Dutch adults were randomly allocated to one of four conditions in an randomized controlled trial: (i) feedback on dietary fat intake [personal feedback (P feedback)],…

Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Brug, Johannes

2008-01-01

207

Individual and environmental correlates of dietary fat intake in rural communities: a structural equation model analysis. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Total dietary fat and saturated fat intake are associated with obesity, elevated cholesterol, and heart disease. This study tested a multi-group structural equation model to explore differences in the relative influence of individual, social, and physical environment factors on dietary fat intake amongst adults aged 40-70 years.

208

Effects of Cactus Fiber on the Excretion of Dietary Fat in Healthy Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Investigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusions: Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667.

Ralf Uebelhack, MD, PhD

2014-12-01

209

Dietary cholesterol, female gender and n-3 fatty acid deficiency are more important factors in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than the saturation index of the fat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The central feature of NAFLD is a disturbed fatty-acid metabolism with hepatic lipid accumulation. However, the factors that determine the severity of NAFLD, including the role of nutrition, gender, and plasma lipid levels, remain to be determined. Methods High-fat diets (42 en% fat, containing 0.2% cholesterol, were fed to male and female wild-type and hyperlipidemic APOE2ki C57BL/6J mice for three weeks. The fats were, in order of decreasing saturation, fractionated palm fat (fPF; ~95%, cocoa butter (CB; ~60%, olive oil (OO; ~15%, sunflower oil (SO; ~12%, and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (hoSO; ~7%. Plasma and liver triglycerides (concentration and composition, liver inflammation (Ccl2, Cd68, Tnf-? mRNA, and infiltration of macrophages (Cd68, Cd11b immunohistochemistry and neutrophils (Mpo were quantified. Results Addition of cholesterol to a low-fat diet decreased plasma HDL and increased (VLDL levels in APOE2ki mice. Plasma cholesterol levels in female, but not male APOE2ki mice correlated significantly with inflammation. Kupffer cells of inflamed livers were swollen. Wild-type mice refused the highly saturated fPF diet. The high-fat CB, OO, and SO diets induced hyperglycemia and a 2-fold increase in hepatic fat content in male, but not female wild-type mice (in females, hepatic fat content was similar to that in males fed a high-fat diet. All high-fat diets induced macrovesicular setatosis. APOE2ki mice were protected against high-fat diet-induced steatosis and hyperglycemia, except when fed a hoSO diet. This diet caused a 5-fold increase in liver triglyceride and mead-acid content, and an increased expression of lipogenic genes, suggesting a deficiency in poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Irrespective of the composition of the high-fat diet, oleic acid was the main triglyceride component of liver fat in wild-type and APOE2ki mouse livers. Liver inflammation was dependent on genotype (APOE2ki > wild type, gender (female > male, and cholesterol content (high > low of the diet, but not on dietary fat composition. Conclusions Dietary cholesterol plays a determining, independent role in inflammation, especially in female mice. The fatty-acid saturation of the diet hardly affected hepatic steatosis or inflammation.

Garcia Caraballo Sonia C

2011-01-01

210

Effect of dietary fat on x-ray-induced mammary cancer in Sprague-Dawley rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied the effect of dietary fat levels on the induction of mammary cancer by 350 rads total-body x-radiation given to noninbred albino Sprague-Dawley rats at 50 days of age. Compared to rats on a low-fat (LF) diet (5% lard), rats on a high-fat (HF) diet (20% lard) from 30 days of age had more tumors, with a higher multiplicity of carcinomas per rat. LF-fed groups exhibited a longer median tumor latency period than did HF-fed groups. A similar trend toward more tumors with an earlier time of death was seen in rats given single iv doses of 50 mg 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea/kg and fed an HF diet as compared to an LF diet

211

[Effect of fats on cardiovascular disease prevention in Denmark.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Denmark death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) has decreased, mainly due to a 72% reduction since 1990 in death from ischaemic heart disease from reduced smoking, elimination of industrial trans fatty acids in the diet, and more effective medical treatment. Replacement of saturated fat by carbohydrate and/or n-6 polyunsaturated fat may increase CVD, but it is reduced by substitution with n-3 fats, monounsaturated fat, or low glycaemic index carbohydrates. Despite a high saturated fat content dark chocolate and cheese may reduce CVD and diabetes risk and eggs may be neutral, and less restrictive dietary recommendations are indicated. PMID:25351669

Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn

2014-05-01

212

Randomized clinical trials on the effects of dietary fat and carbohydrate on plasma lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease  

OpenAIRE

A review.Several dietary approaches have decreased cardiovascular events in randomized clin.trials.Replacing satd.fat with polyunsatd.fat prevented coronary events in men and the Mediterranean diets and fatty fish improved survival.None of these tria

Sacks, F. M.; Katan, M.

2002-01-01

213

Effects of dietary fat on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma and changes in plasma cytokine concentrations in mice  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study assessed the effects of dietary fat on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Three-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN-93G standard diet or a 45% fat diet (kcal %) for seven weeks before they were subcutaneously injected with 2.5 x 105 viable cells into th...

214

Dietary alpha-linolenic acid does not enhance accumulation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in barramundi (Lates calcarifer).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of substituting fish oil and fish meal with a blend of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3) rich vegetable oils (14%, w/w) and defatted poultry meal (34%, w/w) in a formulated diet, on growth and tissue fatty acid profiles in barramundi fingerlings. Results indicated that on average, while the ALA levels of the barramundi liver and fillet increased with increasing dietary ALA, there was no corresponding increase in the levels of the omega-3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA). Compared to fish consuming a commercial feed, which contained fish meal and fish oil, fish on the ALA diets grew slower, had a lower feed intake and lower n-3 LCPUFA levels in the tissues. Hepatic mRNA expression of ?6 desaturase (FADS2) and elongase (ELOVL5/2) was ~10 fold and ~3 fold higher, respectively, in all the ALA dietary groups, relative to those fed the commercial feed. However, the level of expression of the two genes was not different between fish fed differing ALA levels. These data demonstrate that increasing the ALA level of the diet is not an appropriate strategy for replacing marine sources of n-3 LCPUFA in barramundi. It was also noted, however, that within the different ALA dietary groups there was a large amount of variation between individual fish in their tissue DHA levels, suggesting a significant heterogeneity in their capacity for conversion of ALA and/or retention of n-3 LCPUFA. When dietary ALA intakes were greater than 0.8% en, tissue DHA levels were inversely related to ALA intake, suggesting that high intake of dietary ALA may inhibit DHA synthesis. PMID:23085323

Tu, Wei-Chun; Mühlhäusler, Beverly S; James, Michael J; Stone, David A J; Gibson, Robert A

2013-01-01

215

Dietary manipulation reveals an unexpected inverse relationship between fat mass and adipose 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1  

OpenAIRE

Increased dietary fat intake is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic disease. In transgenic mice, adipose tissue-specific overexpression of the glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) exacerbates high-fat (HF) diet-induced visceral obesity and diabetes, whereas 11?-HSD1 gene knockout ameliorates this, favoring accumulation of fat in nonvisceral depots. Paradoxically, in normal mice HF diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated...

Man, Tak Yung; Michailidou, Zoi; Gokcel, Adnan; Ramage, Lynne; Chapman, Karen E.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Morton, Nicholas M.

2011-01-01

216

Dietary Energy Density Affects Fat Mass in Early Adolescence and Is Not Modified by FTO Variants  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Dietary energy density (DED) does not have a simple linear relationship to fat mass in children, which suggests that some children are more susceptible than others to the effects of DED. Children with the FTO (rs9939609) variant that increases the risk of obesity may have a higher susceptibility to the effects of DED because their internal appetite control system is compromised. We tested the relationship between DED and fat mass in early adolescence and its interaction with FTO variants. Methods and Findings We carried out a prospective analysis on 2,275 children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Diet was assessed at age 10 y using 3-day diet diaries. DED (kJ/g) was calculated excluding drinks. Children were genotyped for the FTO (rs9939609) variant. Fat mass was estimated at age 13 y using the Lunar Prodigy Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scanner. There was no evidence of interaction between DED at age 10 y and the high risk A allele of the FTO gene in relation to fat mass at age 13 y (??=?0.005, p?=?0.51), suggesting that the FTO gene has no effect on the relation between DED at 10 y and fat mass at 13 y. When DED at 10 y and the A allele of FTO were in the same model they were independently related to fat mass at 13 y. Each A allele of FTO was associated with 0.35±0.13 kg more fat mass at 13 y and each 1 kJ/g DED at 10 y was associated with 0.16±0.06 kg more fat mass at age 13 y, after controlling for misreporting of energy intake, gender, puberty, overweight status at 10 y, maternal education, TV watching, and physical activity. Conclusions This study reveals the multi-factorial origin of obesity and indicates that although FTO may put some children at greater risk of obesity, encouraging a low dietary energy density may be an effective strategy to help all children avoid excessive fat gain. PMID:19259258

Johnson, Laura; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Rogers, Imogen S.; Ness, Andy R.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Smith, George Davey; Jebb, Susan A.

2009-01-01

217

Dietary Patterns as Predictors of Body Fat and BMI in Women: A Factor Analytic Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. To identify independent patterns of diet using factor analysis to determine the extent to which dietary patterns account for differences in body fat percentage (BF%) and body mass index (BMI). Also, to ascertain the extent to which the associations are influenced by age, education, menopause, energy intake, and physical activity. Design. Study design was cross-sectional. Setting. Study setting was approximately 20 cities in the Mountain West. Subjects. The study included 281 apparently healthy female nonsmokers. Measures. Diet was assessed using 7-day weighed food records, and foods were categorized using the American Diabetes and American Dietetic Associations Exchange Lists and expressed as servings per 1000 kcal. BF% was measured using the Bod Pod, and physical activity was estimated using accelerometers worn for 1 week. Analysis. We used factor analysis, general linear models, and partial correlations. Results. Three dietary patterns were identified: (1) Prudent Pattern, (2) Low-fat Milk, and (3) Meat. Higher consumption of the Prudent Pattern corresponded with significantly lower BF% (F = 8.5, p = .0038) and BMI (F = 4.4, p = .0363). The Low-fat Milk pattern was inversely related to BF% (F = 5.4, p = .0207) and BMI (F = 9.5, p = .0023). Higher intake of the Meat pattern was related to higher levels of BF% (F = 4.5, p = .0346) and BMI (F = 4.2, p = .0418). Conclusion. These findings support an association between dietary patterns and body composition. Dietary patterns reflect the complex interrelationships inherent in day-to-day eating and are strongly related to differences in BF% and BMI in women. PMID:24720387

Tucker, Larry A; Tucker, Jared M; Bailey, Bruce W; LeCheminant, James D

2015-01-01

218

Dietary fat sources differentially modulate intestinal barrier and hepatic inflammation in alcohol-induced liver injury in rats  

OpenAIRE

Endotoxemia is a causal factor in the development of alcoholic liver injury. The present study aimed at determining the interactions of ethanol with different fat sources at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair fed control or ethanol liquid diet for 8 wk. The liquid diets were based on a modified Lieber-DeCarli formula, with 30% total calories derived from corn oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids). To test the effects of saturated fats, corn oil in the ethanol diet was ...

Zhong, Wei; Li, Qiong; Xie, Guoxiang; Sun, Xiuhua; Tan, Xiaobing; Sun, Xinguo; Jia, Wei; Zhou, Zhanxiang

2013-01-01

219

Are the Dietary Guidelines for Meat, Fat, Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Appropriate for Environmental Sustainability? A Review of the Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the current literature around the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations. The focus of the review is on collating evidence relating to environmental impacts of the dietary advice found in the World Health Organisation guidelines, and environmental impact literature: reducing the consumption of fat, reducing the consumption of meat-based protein and animal-based foods, and increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables. The environmental impact of reducing dietary fat intake is unclear, although reducing consumption of the food category of edible fats and oils appears to have little impact. However most, but not all, studies support environmental benefits of a reduced consumption of animal-based foods and increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. In general, it appears that adhering to dietary guidelines reduces impact on the environment, but further study is required to examine the environmental impacts of animal-based foods, and fruit and vegetable intake in depth.

Christian John Reynolds

2014-06-01

220

Dietary fats and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity in healthy humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the effects of different types of dietary fat on the lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity in 20 healthy women aged 26-49 years, consuming 6-week diets containing 54% of the calories as carbohydrates, 16% as protein and 30% as fat. The tested fats were successively: low erucic acid rapeseed (LEAR oil), sunflower oil, peanut oil and milk fats (butter and cream). The fractional and molar rates of LCAT were higher after sunflower and peanut oil diets and decreased significantly after LEAR oil and milk fat diets. The LCAT activity was independent of the P/S ratio of the diet, but positively correlated with the percentage of linoleic acid in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters, and negatively correlated with the percentage of oleic acid in the same fractions. Our results showed no relation between LCAT activity and the concentration of plasma cholesterol or triglycerides, no change in serum cholesteryl ester/total cholesterol ratio and confirmed that the distribution of high density lipoprotein subfractions is due to prerequisites other than LCAT. PMID:3254691

Baudet, M F; Jacotot, B

1988-01-01

221

Reduced triglyceride secretion in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in obese compared to lean mice.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity results in abnormally high levels of triglyceride (TG storage in tissues such as liver, heart and muscle, which disrupts their normal functions. Recently, we found that lean mice challenged with high levels of dietary fat store TGs in cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the absorptive cells of the intestine, enterocytes, and that this storage increases and then decreases over time after an acute dietary fat challenge. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity on intestinal TG metabolism. More specifically we asked whether TG storage in and secretion from the intestine are altered in obesity. We investigated these questions in diet-induced obese (DIO and leptin-deficient (ob/ob mice. We found greater levels of TG storage in the intestine of DIO mice compared to lean mice in the fed state, but similar levels of TG storage after fasting. In addition, we found similar TG storage in the intestine of lean and DIO mice at multiple time points after an acute dietary fat challenge. Surprisingly, we found remarkably lower TG secretion from both DIO and ob/ob mice compared to lean controls in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Furthermore, we found altered mRNA levels for genes involved in regulation of intestinal TG metabolism in lean and DIO mice at fasting and in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. More specifically, we found that many of the genes related to TG synthesis, chylomicron synthesis, TG storage and lipolysis were induced in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in lean mice, but this induction was not observed in DIO mice. In fact, we found a significant decrease in intestinal mRNA levels of genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in DIO mice in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Our findings demonstrate altered TG handling by the small intestine of obese compared to lean mice.

KimberlyK.Buhman

2012-02-01

222

Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) modulates the thermogenic and physical activity responses to high fat feeding and markedly influences dietary fat preference  

OpenAIRE

Complete POMC deficiency causes a human syndrome of hypoadrenalism, altered skin and hair pigmentation and severe hyperphagic obesity. Heterozygote carriers of nonsense mutations are strongly predisposed to obesity. Pomc+/- mice have normal body weight on a chow diet but increase food intake and become more obese than wild-type littermates when placed on a high fat diet. In order to further explore the mechanisms whereby dietary fat interacts with Pomc genotype to produce obesity we examined ...

Tung, Yc Loraine; Rimmington, Debra; O’rahilly, Stephen; Coll, Anthony P.

2007-01-01

223

Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Fats Unhealthy fats Healthy fats No doubt about it, ... your heart health with that single change! Unhealthy Fats Saturated Fat Why should you eat less saturated ...

224

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Fats Unhealthy fats Healthy fats No doubt about it, ... your heart health with that single change! Unhealthy Fats Saturated Fat Why should you eat less saturated ...

225

Low-Fat Dietary Pattern and Cancer Incidence in the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification Randomized Controlled Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) Randomized Controlled Trial evaluated the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on chronic disease incidence, with breast cancer and colorectal cancer as primary outcomes. The trial protocol also listed ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer as outcomes that may be favorably affected by the intervention. Methods A total of 48835 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned during 1993–1998 to a DM intervention (n = 19541) or comparison (usual diet; n = 29294) group and followed up for an average of 8.1 years. The intervention goal was to reduce total fat intake to 20% of energy and to increase consumption of vegetables, fruits, and grains. Cancer outcomes were verified by pathology report review. We used weighted log-rank tests to compare incidence of invasive cancers of the ovary and endometrium, total invasive cancer, and invasive cancers at other sites between the groups. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Ovarian cancer risk was lower in the intervention than in the comparison group (P = .03). Although the overall ovarian cancer hazard ratio (HR) was not statistically significantly less than 1.0, the hazard ratio decreased with increasing intervention duration (Ptrend = .01). For the first 4 years, the risk for ovarian cancer was similar in the intervention and control groups (0.52 cases per 1000 person-years in the intervention group versus 0.45 per 1000 person-years in the comparison group; HR = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73 to 1.84); over the next 4.1 years, the risk was lower in the intervention group (0.38 cases per 1000 person-years in the intervention group versus 0.64 per 1000 person-years in the comparison group; HR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.96). Risk of cancer of the endometrium did not differ between the groups (P = .18). The estimated risk of total invasive cancer was slightly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.89 to 1.01; P = .10). Conclusions A low-fat dietary pattern may reduce the incidence of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women. PMID:17925539

Prentice, Ross L.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Caan, Bette; Hubbell, F. Allan; Anderson, Garnet L.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Pettinger, Mary; Lane, Dorothy S.; Lessin, Lawrence; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Singh, Baljinder; Khandekar, Janardan; Shikany, James M.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Chlebowski, Rowan T.

2009-01-01

226

Effects of dietary chromium polynicotinate supplementation on performance, fat deposition and plasma lipids of broiler chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the effect of chromium polynicotinate supplementation on performance, fat deposition and plasma lipids of broiler chickens. A total of 540 male broiler chicks (Cobb 500 were allotted to 6 dietary treatments. The dietary chromium polynicotinate levels were 0 (Control, 250, 500, 750, 1000 or 1250 ?g/kg, respectively. At 10-28 days of age (grower phase, the 500 ?g/kg concentration of chromium polynicotinate supplementation had a beneficial effect on feed intake and body weight gain of broilers (P<0.05. At 29-42 days of age (finisher phase, feed conversion ratio was decreased (P<0.05 in broilers fed with chromium polynicotinate supplement at levels of 250, 750, 1000 or 1250 ?g/kg. Chromium polynicotinate did not affect the abdominal fat pad deposition. The results indicated that the 500 ?g/kg level of chromium polynicotinate supplement decreased the plasma cholesterol concentration in the finisher phases. The chromium concentrations of 1000 and 500 ?g/kg were more effective at grower and finisher phases, respectively (P<0.05. Plasma triglyceride was not affected by dietary chromium concentration. The results from this study suggest that supplementation of chromium polynicotinate improved growth performance and influenced blood cholesterol concentrations, but in this respect, there was not dose related effects.

Yadollah Chashnidel

2010-02-01

227

Influence of Dietary Fat on the Enantioselective Disposition of 2,2?,3,3?,6,6?-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) in Female Mice  

OpenAIRE

Although ingestion is the major route of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dietary factors altering their absorption and excretion are only poorly understood. In the present study, (±)-PCB 136 was administered orally to female C57BL/6 mice fed an unrefined (URD, 10% fat) or high fat (HFD, 40% fat) diet to investigate the effect of the dietary fat content on the disposition of PCBs. Three days after administration, PCB levels in the adipose tissue were significantly lower in HFD a...

Kania-korwel, I.; Hornbuckle, K. C.; Robertson, L. W.; Lehmler, H. -j

2007-01-01

228

Effect of dietary fat level and exercise on growth, feed utilization, nutrient digestibility and fat deposition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat level and exercise on growth, feed utilization, nutrient digestibility and fat deposition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Atlantic salmon (1409 ± 43.3 g) were reared for 97 days in net pens in sea water with water temperatures ranging from 8.9 to 5.5oC and natural photoperiod. The experiment was designed as a 2x2 factorial design with water current (high and low) and fat level (high and low) as the main fa...

Nguyen Luyen, Giao Quynh

2013-01-01

229

Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer : a systematic review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and prospective cohort studies (PCS) were included as well as nested case-control studies. A few retrospective case-control studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) or monounsaturated fat (MUFA) lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose concentration in these comparisons. There was probable evidence for a moderate direct association between total fat intake and BW. Furthermore, there was convincing evidence that partial replacement of SFA with PUFA decreases the risk of CVD, especially in men. This finding was supported by an association with biomarkers of PUFA intake; the evidence of a beneficial effect of dietary total PUFA, n-6 PUFA, and linoleic acid (LA) on CVD mortality was limited suggestive. Evidence for a direct association between total fat intake and risk of T2DM was inconclusive, whereas there was limited-suggestive evidence from biomarker studies that LA is inversely associated with the risk of T2DM. However, there was limited-suggestive evidence in biomarker studies that odd-chain SFA found in milk fat and fish may be inversely related to T2DM, but these associations have not been supported by controlled studies. The evidence for an association between dietary n-3 PUFA and T2DM was inconclusive. Evidence for effects of fat on major types of cancer was inconclusive regarding both the amount and quality of dietary fat, except for prostate cancer where there was limited-suggestive evidence for an inverse association with intake of ALA and for ovarian cancer for which there was limited-suggestive evidence for a positive association with intake of SFA. This SR reviewed a large number of studies focusing on several different health outcomes. The time period covered by the search may not have allowed obtaining the full picture of the evidence in all areas covered by this SR. However, several SRs and meta-analyses that covered studies published before year 2000 were evaluated, which adds confidence to the results. Many of the investigated questions remain unresolved, mainly because of few studies on certain outcomes, conflicting results from studies, and lack of high quality-controlled studies. There is thus an evident need of highly controlled RCT and PCS with sufficient number of subjects and long enough duration, specifically regarding the effects of the amount and quality of dietary fat on insulin se

Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte

2014-01-01

230

Effect of dietary fat level on carcass traits and flesh quality of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from mariculture  

OpenAIRE

The study aimed at evaluating the effect of the reduction of dietary fat on juvenile European sea bass nutritional value and quality traits. Fish were reared in floating cages (Trieste Gulf, Italy) from July (11) to October (10). Two isoproteic diets were compared: LF (low fat, EE = 19.4%) vs. HF (high fat, EE = 24.6%). No significantly different growth performance was observed. LF diet-fed fish were characterized by the reduction of celomatic fat (not edible fraction) and by the increase in ...

Severino Segato; Adolfo Corato; Anna Liguori; Carla Elia; Luca Fasolato

2010-01-01

231

Effect of Some Dietary Oils and Fats on Serum Lipid Profile, Calcium Absorption and Bone Mineralization in Mice  

OpenAIRE

Amount and type of fats in the diet have an important effect on bone health and lipid profile. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different types of dietary oils and fats on lipid profile, calcium absorption and bone mineralization in male mice. Mice weighing 25±5 g were divided into nine groups and fed on diets without oils or fats (control group) and containing soybean oil, corn oil, olive oil, palm oil, sunflower oil, butter, animal fat or margarine. Mice fed on diet co...

Attia, Abd Elrahman M.; Labib, Fatma A.; Rezq, Amr A.

2010-01-01

232

Citrus Pulp as a Dietary Source of Antioxidants for Lactating Holstein Cows Fed Highly Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diets  

OpenAIRE

The effects of feeding pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as a natural antioxidant source on the performance and milk quality of dairy cows fed highly polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets were evaluated. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin-square. Treatments, on a dry matter (DM) basis, were i) control diet; ii) 3% soybean oil; iii) 3% soybean oil and 9% PCP and; iv) 3% soybean oil and 18% PCP. When cows fed on citrus pulp, the DM intake tended to decrease. The total tract app...

Santos, G. T.; Lima, L. S.; Schogor, A. L. B.; Romero, J. V.; Marchi, F. E.; Grande, P. A.; Santos, N. W.; Santos, F. S.; Kazama, R.

2014-01-01

233

Effects of type of dietary fat and cholecalciferol on magnesium absorption in rats with intestinal resection.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the effect of type of dietary fat and supplementation with cholecalciferol on magnesium absorption in the duodenum, jejunum and proximal colon in rats with resection of 50% of the distal small intestine. Magnesium transport against the concentration gradient was found to occur in all three intestinal segments, although transport increased significantly only in the proximal colon of intestinally resected rats fed a diet supplemented with cholecalciferol at a rate of 0.425 mg/kg diet and mixture of equal parts of medium chain triglycerides, sunflower oil and olive oil as the source of dietary fat (diet B), in comparison with magnesium absorption in control rats subjected to intestinal transection and fed diet B, and in resected rats fed a diet without cholecalciferol supplementation and in which olive oil was the sole source of dietary fat (diet A). Magnesium absorption due to active and passive transport together, was greater in resected than in transected rats in all three intestinal segments, although the difference was significant only in the jejunum (the segment closest to the anastomosis), because of the greater increase in mucosal mass in resected animals. When the three intestinal segments were compared, magnesium absorption in favour of and against the concentration gradient in the proximal colon was significantly greater than in the duodenum or the jejunum, in resected and transected animals fed diet A or diet B. These findings show that the colon is the segment that most efficiently absorbs magnesium in rats with intestinal resection, especially when diet B is given. PMID:7960493

Lisbona, F; Alferez, M J; Barrionuevo, M; Lopez-Aliaga, I; Pallares, I; Hartiti, S; Campos, M S

1994-01-01

234

Cell mechanisms of gustatory lipids perception and modulation of the dietary fat preference.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary lipids are usually responsible of several metabolic disorders. Recent compelling evidences suggest that there is a sixth taste modality, destined for the detection of oro-gustatory fats. The lipid-binding glycoprotein CD36, expressed by circumvallate papillae (CVP) of the mouse tongue, has been shown to be implicated in oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids. We demonstrate that linoleic acid (LA) by activating sPLA2, cPLA2 and iPLA2 via CD36, produced arachidonic acid (AA) and lyso-phosphatidylcholine (Lyso-PC) which triggered Ca(2+) influx in CD36-positive taste bud cells (TBC), purified from mouse CVP. LA induced the production of Ca(2+) influx factor (CIF). CIF, AA and Lyso-PC exerted different actions on the opening of store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) channels, constituted of Orai proteins and regulated by STIM1, a sensor of Ca(2+) depletion in the endoplasmic reticulum. We observed that CIF and Lyso-PC opened Orai1 channels whereas AA-opened Ca(2+) channels were composed of Orai1/Orai3. STIM1 was found to regulate LA-induced CIF production and opening of both kinds of Ca(2+) channels. Furthermore, Stim1(-/-) mice lost the spontaneous preference for fat, observed in wild-type animals. Our results suggest that fatty acid-induced Ca(2+) signaling, regulated by STIM1 via CD36, might be implicated in oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids and the spontaneous preference for fat. Other cell types are involved in, and external factors can influence this preference. PMID:24997404

Dramane, Gado; Akpona, Simon; Besnard, Philippe; Khan, Naim A

2014-12-01

235

Changes in dietary fat and fiber and serum hormone concentrations: nutritional strategies for breast cancer prevention over the life course.  

Science.gov (United States)

The association between dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk has appeared in a meta-analysis of epidemiologic research, migration studies from countries of low to high risk for breast cancer, and animal experiments. With this background, dietary intervention research aims to reduce fat intake and increase fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake, relying on changes in hormone concentrations as biomarkers for reduction in risk of breast cancer. To date, this dietary intervention research spans the life course and has demonstrated stellar success in some studies but sobering results in others. The purpose of this article is to review the intervention research since a 1999 meta-analysis that reported reduced estradiol levels on a low-fat diet and to explore the lessons learned from intervention research on changes in dietary fat and fiber intake and serum hormone concentrations. Secular trends in obesity and ages at pubertal onset and menarche provide dynamic behavioral, genetic, and developmental challenges to the success of dietary prevention. The goal is to formulate an integrative approach to dietary intervention, taking into consideration ethnic group differences in energy expenditure that modulate weight and hormones influencing breast cancer risk over the life course. PMID:17182821

Forman, Michele R

2007-01-01

236

Interaction between dietary conjugated linoleic acid and calcium supplementation affecting bone and fat mass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has shown wide biologically beneficial effects, such as anticancer, antiatherosclerotic, antidiabetic, immunomodulating, and antiobesity effects. However, the effects of CLA on total body ash, reflective of bone mineral content, have not been consistent. We hypothesized that the inconsistency of the CLA effect on ash may be linked to interaction between CLA and dietary calcium levels. Thus, we investigated the effects of CLA on body ash in conjunction with various calcium levels. Male ICR mice were fed three different levels of calcium (0.01, 0.5, and 1%) with or without 0.5% CLA for 4 weeks for Experiment 1 and separate CLA isomers at 0.22% level with 1% calcium in Experiment 2. CLA feeding reduced body fat regardless of dietary calcium level, whereas CLA supplementation increased body ash compared to control only in animals fed the 1% calcium. In Experiment 2 it was confirmed that this observation was associated with the trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer, but not with the cis-9, trans-11 isomer. CLA administration with 1% dietary calcium significantly improved total ash percent (%) in femurs, confirming that CLA has the potential to be used to improve bone mass. PMID:20697754

Park, Yooheon; Terk, Michael; Park, Yeonhwa

2011-05-01

237

Relationship of dietary fat and lysine level with body composition in broiler chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of varying dietary energy to protein/lysine ratio on the body composition of 300, day-old meat-type Tetra-82 hybrid broiler chicks was studied. Body composition was measured by computed tomography (CT) and direct chemical analysis.Ten chickens from each treatment group were euthanized, frozen and subjected to CT, after which carcasses were dissected and ground to obtain homogeneous samples for chemical analysis.Supplementation of the diet with lysine 6 g/kg did not change total body composition but positively influenced final body weight.In the group receiving added fat 40 g/kg and lysine 3 g/kg feed (F-LYS-I) the higher body weight ran parallel with a higher fat content

238

New Study Suggests Weight Loss from Gastric Bypass Might be Partly Due to Dietary Fat Aversion  

Science.gov (United States)

Press release on a recent study finding that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery leads to a significant reduction in dietary fat intake, and that this reduction may be due to digestive consequences and the hormone GLP-1. This study, �Gastric Bypass Reduces Fat Intake and Preference,� was conducted by Carel le Roux, Marco Bueter, Torsten Olbers, Hutan Ashrafian, Thanos Athanasious and Stephen Bloom, all of Imperial Weight Centre, Imperial College London, UK; Nadine Theis, Christian Löwenstein, and Thomas A. Lutz, the Institute of Veterinary Physiology Zurich, Switzerland; Malin Werling, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden; and Alan Spector, Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee. The study is published in the American Journal of Physiology � Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2011-07-27

239

Associations of Dietary Fat, Regional Adiposity, and Blood Pressure in Men  

OpenAIRE

Mediterranean populations have low incidence rates of cardiovascular disease and hypertension that may be due, in part, to dietary factors, particularly a relatively high intake of monounsaturated fat as olive oil. In this study, nutritional components (as grams per 4200 kJ) (1 kcal = 4.2 kJ) from three-day food records were examined in association with resting blood pressure in a cross-sectional survey of 76 sedentary middle-aged American men, aged 30 to 55 years, with resting blood pressure...

Williams, Paul T.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Terry, Richard B.; Garay, Susan C.; Vranizan, Karen M.; Ellsworth, Nancy; Wood, Peter D.

1987-01-01

240

Dietary fat modifies lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue of metabolic syndrome patients  

OpenAIRE

Adipose tissue (AT) is a key organ in the regulation of total body lipid homeostasis, which is responsible for the storage and release of fatty acids according to metabolic needs. We aimed to investigate the effect of the quantity and quality of dietary fat on the lipogenesis and lipolysis processes in the AT of metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, controlled trial conducted within the LIPGENE study assigned MetS patients to one of four diets: (a) high-saturated fatty acid (HSFA)...

Camargo, Antonio; Meneses, Mari?a E.; Pe?rez-marti?nez, Pablo; Delgado-lista, Javier; Rangel-zu?n?iga, Oriol A.; Mari?n, Carmen; Almade?n, Yolanda; Yubero-serrano, Elena M.; Gonza?lez-guardia, Lorena; Fuentes, Francisco; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Roche, Helen M.; Malago?n, Mari?a M.; Pe?rez-jime?nez, Francisco; Lo?pez-miranda, Jose?

2014-01-01

241

Differential effect of high dietary fat intakes on haemorheological parameters in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

High dietary intake of fats has been thought to be one of the major risk factors for the development of CVD. Less is known about the possible influence of fats from various sources on haemorheological abnormalities, which are considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of these diseases. The goal of the present study was to investigate effects of high-fat diets enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (USFA), SFA or trans-fatty acids (TFA), respectively, on haemorheological parameters in rats. Wistar female rats were divided into four groups and fed diets based on the AIN-93M formulation containing approximately 10 % energy from soyabean oil (control group) or 40 % energy from soyabean oil (USFA), palm oil (SFA) and vegetable shortening (TFA) for 8 weeks. The results showed that rats fed high-fat diets exhibited significant increases in serum TAG levels (P < 0.01), plasma viscosity (P < 0.01), whole blood viscosity (P < 0.01) and internal viscosity (P < 0.01) compared to the controls. The TFA group showed a significant decrease in erythrocyte deformability (P < 0.01) and increase in internal viscosity (P < 0.01) compared with the other groups. In addition, a significant increase in blood levels of free radicals (P < 0.01) was found in the TFA group, suggesting that the attack of oxygen-free radicals could be responsible for the impaired erythrocyte deformability. These impairments could be partly responsible for the development of various circulatory disorders. The present haemorheological study provides additional insights into the potential adverse effects of trans-fat and high-fat diets on haemorheological parameters. PMID:19943983

Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Chen, Chao-Hsiang; Chen, Hui-Hsin; Liang, Hong-Jen

2010-04-01

242

Effect of dietary fat source on fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of eggs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of supplementary dietary lipid sources on the fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of eggs. Five isoenergetic (12.6 MJ AME/kg DM) and isonitrogenous (170 g CP/kg DM) diets were formulated, using a control diet (50 : 50 blend of fish- and linseed oil), fish oil, [...] sunflower oil, high oleic acid (HO) sunflower oil and tallow at a 30 g/kg inclusion level. Two hundred individually caged HyLine Silver-Brown hens (20 weeks of age) were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments (n = 40 hens/treatment). Birds received the experimental diets from 20 weeks of age. At 30 weeks of age, 12 eggs per treatment were randomly selected for analyses of egg yolk fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values (PV). Dietary lipid sources affected FAME, TBARS and PV of egg yolk significantly. The fish oil treatment resulted in the highest TBARS (0.27 mg malonaldehyde/kg yolk) and PV (3.96 milli-equivalent peroxide/kg fat) whereas the HO sunflower oil resulted in the lowest TBARS (0.13 mg malonaldehyde/kg yolk) and PV (2.77 milli-equivalent peroxide/kg fat). Fish oil also resulted in the lowest n-6 to n-3 ratio (1.16 to 1), while sunflower oil resulted in the highest ratio (24.6 to 1). Results indicate that the fatty acid profile of eggs could be altered by means of dietary intervention. However, an improvement of omega-3 type fatty acids of eggs will result in a higher susceptibility to lipid oxidation and possibly a shorter shelf-life of stored eggs.

E.J., King; A., Hugo; F.H., de Witt; H.J., van der Merwe; M.D., Fair.

243

The effect of modifying dietary LA and ALA intakes on omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) status in human adults: A systematic review and commentary.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a systematic review of human studies investigating the effect of altering dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) linoleic acid (LA) intakes on n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status in adult humans. The results suggest that it is possible to increase n-3 LCPUFA status by reducing LA and/or increasing ALA intake in humans, although decreasing LA intake to below 2.5%E may be required to specifically increase levels of the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The majority of studies in this area to date have been relatively poor in quality, which limits the ability to draw robust conclusions, and we present a series of recommendations to improve the quality of future studies in fatty acid nutrition in humans. PMID:25687496

Wood, K E; Mantzioris, E; Gibson, R A; Ramsden, C E; Muhlhausler, B S

2015-04-01

244

Effects of dietary fat on hepatic microsomal and cytosolic mutagenic activation of 2-aminofluorene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was designed to examine the effects of different high fat diets on the liver microsomal and cytosolic mutagenic activation of 2-aminofluorene. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a low fat (5% corn oil) or high fat (20%) diets containing either corn oil (CO), menhaden oil (MO) or beef tallow (BT). After 2 weeks on the test diets, animals from each group were placed on a protocol of weekly injection with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) for 10 weeks. Animals were given DMH injections i.p. and killed 3 h after injection following 5 and 10 DMH treatments. The metabolic activity of liver microsomes and cytosol was assessed by the Ames test using 2-aminofluorene as a standard mutagen. Beef tallow-fed rats had the highest microsomal mutagenic activation, followed by the basal diet. Decreased liver microsomal and cytosolic metabolism of the reference mutagen was detected in the MO and CO diets compared to basal or BT diets. However, there was an increased activity in MO and CO fed groups after week 10, while beef tallow showed a slightly decreased activation. These data indicate that type of dietary fat affects liver microsomal mutagenic activation of carcinogens. PMID:1423249

Tsai, S Y; Pence, B C

1992-10-30

245

Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer: a systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW, risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, cardiovascular diseases (CVD, and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT and prospective cohort studies (PCS were included as well as nested case–control studies. A few retrospective case–control studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA or monounsaturated fat (MUFA lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose concentration in these comparisons. There was probable evidence for a moderate direct association between total fat intake and BW. Furthermore, there was convincing evidence that partial replacement of SFA with PUFA decreases the risk of CVD, especially in men. This finding was supported by an association with biomarkers of PUFA intake; the evidence of a beneficial effect of dietary total PUFA, n-6 PUFA, and linoleic acid (LA on CVD mortality was limited suggestive. Evidence for a direct association between total fat intake and risk of T2DM was inconclusive, whereas there was limited-suggestive evidence from biomarker studies that LA is inversely associated with the risk of T2DM. However, there was limited-suggestive evidence in biomarker studies that odd-chain SFA found in milk fat and fish may be inversely related to T2DM, but these associations have not been supported by controlled studies. The evidence for an association between dietary n-3 PUFA and T2DM was inconclusive. Evidence for effects of fat on major types of cancer was inconclusive regarding both the amount and quality of dietary fat, except for prostate cancer where there was limited-suggestive evidence for an inverse association with intake of ALA and for ovarian cancer for which there was limited-suggestive evidence for a positive association with intake of SFA. This SR reviewed a large number of studies focusing on several different health outcomes. The time period covered by the search may not have allowed obtaining the full picture of the evidence in all areas covered by this SR. However, several SRs and meta-analyses that covered studies published before year 2000 were evaluated, which adds confidence to the results. Many of the investigated questions remain unresolved, mainly because of few studies on certain outcomes, conflicting results from studies, and lack of high quality–controlled studies. There is thus an evident need of highly controlled RCT and PCS with sufficient number of subjects and long enough duration, specifically regarding the effects of the amount and quality of dietary f

Ursula Schwab

2014-07-01

246

Induction of lipid oxidation by polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin in small intestine of mice fed a high-fat diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, in particular the long chain marine fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA and eicosapentaenoic (EPA, are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Little is known of the molecular response to DHA and EPA of the small intestine, and the potential contribution of this organ to the beneficial effects of these fatty acids. Here, we assessed gene expression changes induced by DHA and EPA in the wildtype C57BL/6J murine small intestine using whole genome microarrays and functionally characterized the most prominent biological process. Results The main biological process affected based on gene expression analysis was lipid metabolism. Fatty acid uptake, peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation, and omega-oxidation of fatty acids were all increased. Quantitative real time PCR, and -in a second animal experiment- intestinal fatty acid oxidation measurements confirmed significant gene expression differences and showed in a dose-dependent manner significant changes at biological functional level. Furthermore, no major changes in the expression of lipid metabolism genes were observed in the colon. Conclusion We show that marine n-3 fatty acids regulate small intestinal gene expression and increase fatty acid oxidation. Since this organ contributes significantly to whole organism energy use, this effect on the small intestine may well contribute to the beneficial physiological effects of marine PUFAs under conditions that will normally lead to development of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes.

Hooiveld Guido JEJ

2009-03-01

247

Monosodium l-glutamate and dietary fat exert opposite effects on the proximal and distal intestinal health in growing pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. Furthermore, monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a flavour enhancer in China. Previous studies have reported that high-fat diet modifies intestinal metabolism and physiology. However, little information is available on the effects of oral MSG on intestine, and no study focus on the interaction of dietary fat and MSG for intestinal health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of MSG and dietary fat on intestinal health in growing pigs, and to try to identify possible interactions between these 2 nutrients for such effects. A total of 32 growing pigs were used and fed with 4 isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (basal diet, high-fat diet, basal diet with 3% MSG and high fat diet with 3% MSG). Parameters related to reactive oxygen species metabolism, epithelial morphology, pro-inflammation factors and tight junction protein expression and several species of intestinal microbe were measured. Overall, dietary fat and MSG had detrimental effects on several of the physiological and inflammatory parameters measured in the proximal intestine, while exerting beneficial effects on the distal intestine in growing pigs, with generally antagonistic effects. These results may be of particular relevance for nutritional concerns in patients with intestinal diseases. PMID:25781200

Feng, Zemeng; Li, Tiejun; Wu, Chunli; Tao, Lihua; Blachier, Francois; Yin, Yulong

2015-04-01

248

Dietary structured lipids for post-weaning piglets: fat digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

In four groups of post-weaning piglets the effects of triacylglycerol structure and fatty acid profiles of four dietary fats on apparent faecal nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of platelet and erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were examined. Dietary fats included as 10% (w/w) of the diets were two structured fats of rapeseed oil interesterified with tridecanoin (R1) or coconut oil (R2), respectively, one mixture of rapeseed oil and coconut oil (R3) and rapeseed oil as control (R4). Faeces and urine from piglets weaned at 28 days of age were collected quantitatively during three periods each of 5 days, in which the piglets were kept in metabolism cages for measurement of apparent faecal nutrient and energy digestibility and nitrogen retention. Apparent faecal fat digestibilities were significantly improved in groups fed interesterified fats or the physical mixtures (R1, R2 and R3) compared with rapeseed oil (R4). Apparent faecal nitrogen digestibility and retention were similar in all four groups in the three periods, but increased with time. Apparent faecal fat digestibilities were significantly improved from the first to the third week in the groups R1 and R2. Fatty acid profiles in platelet and erythrocyte membranes and in tissues reflected the fatty acid profile of the dietary fat, except for medium-chain fatty acids, which were only found in low proportions, indicating that 10:0 was mainly used as an energy source. PMID:16519757

Straarup, E M; Danielsen, V; Høy, C-E; Jakobsen, K

2006-04-01

249

Dietary structured lipids for post-weaning piglets: fat digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of tissues  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In four groups of post-weaning piglets the effects of triacylglycerol structure and fatty acid profiles of four dietary fats on apparent faecal nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of platelet and erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were examined. Dietary fats included as 10% (w/w) of the diets were two structured fats of rapeseed oil interesterified with tridecanoin (R1) or coconut oil (R2), respectively, one mixture of rapeseed oil and coconut oil (R3) and rapeseed oil as control (R4). Faeces and urine from piglets weaned at 28 days of age were collected quantitatively during three periods each of 5 days, in which the piglets were kept in metabolism cages for measurement of apparent faecal nutrient and energy digestibility and nitrogen retention. Apparent faecal fat digestibilities were significantly improved in groups fed interesterified fats or the physical mixtures (R1, R2 and R3) compared with rapeseed oil (R4). Apparent faecal nitrogen digestibility and retention were similar in all four groups in the three periods, but increased with time. Apparent faecal fat digestibilities were significantly improved from the first to the third week in the groups R1 and R2. Fatty acid profiles in platelet and erythrocyte membranes and in tissues reflected the fatty acid profile of the dietary fat, except for medium-chain fatty acids, which were only found in low proportions, indicating that 10:0 was mainly used as an energy source.

Straarup, Ellen Marie; Danielsen, V.

2006-01-01

250

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... fat. Trans Fat Like saturated fat, trans fat increases blood cholesterol levels. It is actually worse for ... cholesterol. Cholesterol from the food you eat may increase your blood cholesterol, so it's a good idea ...

251

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type ... or less saturated fat per serving are considered low in saturated fat. Trans Fat Like saturated fat, ...

252

Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17-21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p<0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p<0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p<0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

Kristensen, M.; Knudsen, K. E. B.

2013-01-01

253

Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17-21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p <0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p <0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p <0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

2013-01-01

254

Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weigth gain in growing rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p < 0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

Kristensen, Mette; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

2013-01-01

255

Dietary fat and meat intakes and risk of reflux esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary fat and meat intakes are associated with reflux esophagitis (RE), Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). In this all-Ireland case-control study, dietary intake data was collected using a food frequency questionnaire in 219 RE patients, 220 BE patients, 224 EAC patients, and 256 frequency-matched controls between 2002 and 2005. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associatio...

O’doherty, Mark G.; Cantwell, Marie M.; Murray, Liam J.; Anderson, Lesley A.; Abnet, Christian C.

2011-01-01

256

Dietary intake of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction in coronary artery disease patients with or without diabetes mellitus:a prospective cohort study  

OpenAIRE

Background: A beneficial effect of a high n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake has been observed in heart failure patients, who are frequently insulin resistant. We investigated the potential influence of impaired glucose metabolism on the relation between dietary intake of n-3 LCPUFAs and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with coronary artery disease.

Methods: This prospective cohort study was based on the Western Norway B-Vitamin...

Strand, Elin; Pedersen, Eva Ringdal; Svingen, Gard Frodal; Schartum-hansen, Hall; Rebnord, Eirik Wilberg; Bjørndal, Bodil; Seifert, Reinhard; Bohov, Pavol; Meyer, Klaus; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Nordrehaug, Jan Erik; Nilsen, Dennis W. T.; Berge, Rolf K.; Nyga?rd, Ottar

2013-01-01

257

Dietary intake of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction in coronary artery disease patients with or without diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study  

OpenAIRE

Background: A beneficial effect of a high n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake has been observed in heart failure patients, who are frequently insulin resistant. We investigated the potential influence of impaired glucose metabolism on the relation between dietary intake of n-3 LCPUFAs and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with coronary artery disease.Methods: This prospective cohort study was based on the Western Norway B-Vitamin Intervention...

Strand, Elin; Pedersen, Eva R.; Svingen, Gard Ft; Schartum-hansen, Hall; Rebnord, Eirik W.; Bjørndal, Bodil; Seifert, Reinhard; Bohov, Pavol; Meyer, Klaus; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Nordrehaug, Jan E.; Nilsen, Dennis Wt; Berge, Rolf K.; Nyga?rd, Ottar

2013-01-01

258

Dietary fat and hepatic lipogenesis: mitochondrial citrate carrier as a sensor of metabolic changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrate carrier (CIC) is an integral protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane that has a fundamental role in hepatic intermediary metabolism. Its primary function is to catalyze the transport of citrate from mitochondria, where this molecule is formed, to cytosol, where this molecule is used for fatty acid (FA) and cholesterol synthesis. Therefore, mitochondrial CIC acts upstream of cytosolic lipogenic reactions, and its regulation is particularly important in view of the modulation of hepatic lipogenesis. Although a great deal of data are currently available on the dietary modulation of cytosolic lipogenic enzymes, little is known about the nutritional regulation of CIC transport activity. In this review, we describe the differential effects of distinct FAs present in the diet on the activity of mitochondrial CIC. In particular, polyunsaturated FAs were powerful modulators of the activity of mitochondrial CIC by influencing its expression through transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. On the contrary, saturated and monounsaturated FAs did not influence mitochondrial CIC activity. Moreover, variations in CIC activity were connected to similar alterations in the metabolic pathways to which the transported citrate is channeled. Therefore, CIC may be considered as a sensor for changes occurring inside the hepatocyte and may represent an important target for the regulation of hepatic lipogenesis. The crucial role of this protein is reinforced by the recent discovery of its involvement in other cellular processes, such as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, inflammation, tumorigenesis, genome stability, and sperm metabolism. PMID:24829468

Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

2014-05-01

259

Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber ...

Kristensen Mette; Jensen Morten G; Aarestrup Julie; En, Petersen Kristina; Søndergaard Lise; Mikkelsen Mette S; Astrup Arne

2012-01-01

260

Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. Design: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1 630 069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of th...

Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Fahimi, Saman; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G.; Engell, Rebecca E.; Powles, John; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

2014-01-01

261

Effect of high versus low doses of fat and vitamin A dietary supplementation on fatty acid composition of phospholipids in mice  

OpenAIRE

Dietary fat and vitamin A provide important precursors for potent bioactive ligands of nuclear hormone receptors, which regulate various enzymes involved in lipid homeostasis, metabolism and inflammation. We determined the effects of dietary fat and dietary vitamin A on hepatic expression of two fatty acid metabolizing enzymes, elongase 6 (ELOVL6) and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) and the concentration of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) of phosphol...

Weiss, Kathrin; Miha?ly, Johanna; Liebisch, Gerhard; Marosvo?lgyi, Tama?s; Garcia, Ada L.; Schmitz, Gerd; Decsi, Tama?s; Ru?hl, Ralph

2013-01-01

262

Effect of Dietary Supplemented Canola Oil and Poultry Fat on the Performance and Carcass Characterizes of Broiler Chickens  

OpenAIRE

This investigating was performed to examine the effect of different dietary fat source (canola oil and poultry fat) on broiler performance. 252 day-old broilers chicks (Ross 308) were randomly distributed in seven groups include 12 in each with 3 replicates and were fed with experimental diets for 3 weeks (21-42 d-old). The diets were as follow: 1) basal diet (control), basal diet with 3 or 6% canola oil, basal diet with 3 or 6% poultry fat, basal diet with mixed 1.5% canola oil +1.5% poultry...

Habib Aghdam Shahryar; Ramin Salamatdoust_nobar; Ali Lak; Alireza Lotfi

2011-01-01

263

Broiler Chick Body Weight and Lipid Compositional Changes of the Yolk Sac and Liver as Influenced by Dietary Fat Sources  

OpenAIRE

A study to determine the effects of dietary fat composition and post-hatching age on lipid changes of the yolk sac membrane (YSM) and the liver. Two groups of ninety-day-old male broiler chicks were fed diets containing a saturated fat (tallow oil) Diet 1 and unsaturated fat (soybean oil) Diet 2 for two weeks. Twelve birds from each treatment were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 14 post-hatch and samples of the YSM, liver and gall bladder bile were collected. Weight changes of the chick...

Mutayoba, S. K.; Mutayoba, B. M.; Noble, R. C.

2013-01-01

264

Subtype of Dietary Fat in Relation to Risk of Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Population-based Case-Control Study in Connecticut and Massachusetts  

OpenAIRE

Few epidemiological studies have examined the relationship between dietary fat, which may affect immune function, and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that high dietary intake of fat and specific subtypes of fat is associated with the risk of HL among 486 HL cases and 630 population-based controls recruited between 1997–2000 in Connecticut and Massachusetts. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confi...

Gao, Yongshun; Li, Qian; Bassig, Bryan A.; Chang, Ellen T.; Dai, Min; Qin, Qin; Zhang, Yawei; Zheng, Tongzhang

2013-01-01

265

Examining the minimal required elements of a computer-tailored intervention aimed at dietary fat reduction: Results of a randomized controlled dismantling study  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated the minimally required feedback elements of a computer-tailored dietary fat reduction intervention to be effective in improving fat intake. In all 588 Healthy Dutch adults were randomly allocated to one of four conditions in an randomized controlled trial: (i) feedback on dietary fat intake [personal feedback (P feedback)], (ii) P feedback and feedback on one's own behavior relative to that of peers [personal-normative feedback (PN feedback)], (iii) PN feedback and pra...

Kroeze, W.; Oenema, A.; Dagnelie, P. C.; Brug, J.

2008-01-01

266

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... doubt about it, carbohydrate gets all of the attention in diabetes management. More important than total fat is the type of fat you eat. There are "healthy fats" and "unhealthy fats." To lower you risk of heart disease, try to eat less saturated and trans fat — ...

267

Impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognition, motor skills and hippocampal neurogenesis in developing C57BL/6J mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is critical during perinatal development of the brain. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 PUFA in the brain and influences neuronal membrane function and neuroprotection. The present study aims to assess the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA availability during the gestational and postnatal period on cognition, brain metabolism and neurohistology in C57BL/6J mice. Female wild-type C57BL/6J mice at day 0 of gestation were randomly assigned to either an n-3 PUFA deficient diet (0.05% of total fatty acids) or an n-3 PUFA adequate diet (3.83% of total fatty acids) containing preformed DHA and its precursor ?-linolenic acid. Male offspring remained on diet and performed cognitive tests during puberty and adulthood. In adulthood, animals underwent (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess brain energy metabolites. Thereafter, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed assessing inflammation, neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Compared to the n-3 PUFA deficient group, pubertal n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice demonstrated increased motor coordination. Adult n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice exhibited increased exploratory behavior, sensorimotor integration and spatial memory, while neurogenesis in the hippocampus was decreased. Selected brain regions of n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice contained significantly lower levels of arachidonic acid and higher levels of DHA and dihomo-?-linolenic acid. Our data suggest that dietary n-3 PUFA can modify neural maturation and enhance brain functioning in healthy C57BL/6J mice. This indicates that availability of n-3 PUFA in infant diet during early development may have a significant impact on brain development. PMID:25444517

Janssen, Carola I F; Zerbi, Valerio; Mutsaers, Martina P C; de Jong, Bas S W; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Arnoldussen, Ilse A C; Geenen, Bram; Heerschap, Arend; Muskiet, Frits A J; Jouni, Zeina E; van Tol, Eric A F; Gross, Gabriele; Homberg, Judith R; Berg, Brian M; Kiliaan, Amanda J

2015-01-01

268

Interactive effect of ractopamine and dietary fat source on pork quality characteristics of fresh pork chops during simulated retail display.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crossbred pigs (n = 216) were used to test the interactive effect, if any, of ractopamine (RAC) and dietary fat source on the performance of finishing pigs, pork carcass characteristics, and quality of LM chops during 5 d of simulated retail display (2.6 degrees C and 1,600 lx warm-white fluorescent lighting). Pigs were blocked by BW and allotted randomly to pens (6 pigs/pen), and, after receiving a common diet devoid of RAC for 2 wk, pens within blocks were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 diets in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, with 5% fat [beef tallow (BT) vs. soybean oil (SBO)] and RAC (0 vs. 10 mg/kg). Diets were formulated to contain 3.1 g of lysine/Mcal of ME and 3.48 Mcal/kg of ME. Across the entire 35-d trial, pigs fed RAC had greater (P or= 0.07) by dietary fat source. Carcass weight, LM depth, and lean muscle yield were increased (P or= 0.27) between fat sources. Feeding 10 mg/kg of RAC reduced (P rancidity was not affected by dietary RAC (P = 0.58) or fat source (P = 0.47). Neither RAC nor fat source altered LM cooking losses and shear force values. Feeding 10 mg/kg of RAC will improve rate and efficiency of gain, carcass composition, and LM quality. And, even though fatty acid composition of backfat samples was altered by dietary fat source, performance and carcass composition, as well as quality during 5 d of retail display, were similar when pigs were fed diets formulated with BT or SBO. PMID:18502886

Apple, J K; Maxwell, C V; Kutz, B R; Rakes, L K; Sawyer, J T; Johnson, Z B; Armstrong, T A; Carr, S N; Matzat, P D

2008-10-01

269

Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on brain lipid fatty acid composition, learning ability, and memory of senescence-accelerated mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal studies have shown that a deficiency in brain of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with memory loss and diminished cognitive function. The senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mouse develops impairments in learning and memory at 8-12 months of age. The effect of diet supplemented with n-3 PUFA on brain phospholipid DHA status, learning, and memory ability in aged SAMP8 mice was investigated. At the age of 10 months, SAMP8 mice were fed either a low-DHA or a high-DHA diet for 8 weeks. In comparison to SAMP8 mice fed the low-DHA diet, those fed a high-DHA diet had improved acquisition and retention in a T-maze foot shock avoidance test and a higher proportion of DHA in hippocampal and amygdala phospholipids. This study demonstrates that, in mature animals, DHA is incorporated into brain phospholipids and that dietary n-3 PUFA is associated with delay in cognitive decline. PMID:19038829

Petursdottir, Anna L; Farr, Susan A; Morley, John E; Banks, William A; Skuladottir, Gudrun V

2008-11-01

270

An Educational Intervention for Reducing the Intake of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol among Middle-Aged and Older Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Middle aged and older women (n=14) attended a seminar on reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Their 4-month follow-up reflections showed they adopted an average of 14.5 of 34 dietary practices. Those with higher adoption scores tended to be older and had less education and lower income. (SK)

Gorman, Charlotte

2001-01-01

271

Adiponectin Gene Variants are Associated with Insulin Sensitivity in Response to Dietary Fat Consumption in Caucasian Men  

Science.gov (United States)

Adiponectin (adipoQ) gene variants have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Our aim was to examine whether the presence of several polymorphisms at the adipoQ gene locus (211391 G . A, 211377C.G, 45 T.G, and 276 G.T) influences the insulin sensitivity to dietary fat...

272

Dietary Fat Intake and Exercise among Two- and Four-Year College Students: Differences in Behavior and Psychosocial Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the demographic differences among two-year colleges and four-year universities and the relatively limited access to health education and campus-based health resources, this study compares the frequency of limiting dietary fat intake and exercising among two- and four-year college students. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18-25…

Berg, Carla J.; An, Lawrence C.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2013-01-01

273

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... carbohydrate gets all of the attention in diabetes management. More important than total fat is the type ... have improved your heart health with that single change! Unhealthy Fats Saturated Fat Why should you eat ...

274

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... healthy fats in their place. Instead of 1 cheese stick for an afternoon snack, have 12 almonds. ... High-fat dairy products such as full-fat cheese, cream, ice cream, whole milk, 2% milk and ...

275

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks ... hot dogs, sausage, bacon and spareribs High-fat dairy products such as full-fat cheese, cream, ice ...

276

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the attention in diabetes management. More important than total fat is the type of fat you eat. ... listed on the Nutrition Facts food label under total fat. As a general rule, compare foods with ...

277

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... cream, ice cream, full-fat cheese) Egg yolks Liver and other organ meats High-fat meat and ... from the FDA . Patient Education Materials — Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats This two-page introduction to ...

278

Effect of Dietary n ? 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Macrosomic Offspring of Diabetic Rats  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work was to determine the effect of dietary n ? 3 PUFA on oxidant/antioxidant status, in vitro very low and low density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL), and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition in macrosomic pups of diabetic mothers. We hypothesized that n ? 3 PUFA would improve oxidative stress in macrosomia. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats fed with the ISIO diet (control) or with the EPAX diet (enriched in n ? 3 PUFAs), by streptozotocin. The macrosomic pups were killed a...

Guermouche, B.; Soulimane-mokhtari, N. A.; Bouanane, S.; Merzouk, H.; Merzouk, S.; Narce, M.

2014-01-01

279

Dietary fat modulation of mammary tumor growth and metabolism demonstrated by 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship of dietary fat concentration and saturation on the growth and metabolic activity of line 168 was studied using syngeneic mice fed 6 experimental diets before and during tumor growth. Tumor latency was significantly greater for mice fed a diet containing the minimum of essential fatty acids (EFA, 0.5% corn oil) or 8% coconut oil (SF) than for mice fed 8 or 20% safflower oil (PUF) or 20% SF. Changes in dietary fat resulted in alterations of tumor cell and serum fatty acid composition but not the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor. 31P-surface coil NMR was used to measure possible changes in tumor metabolism in vivo. Although pH decreased from 7.2 to 6.6 as the tumor volume increased, there was no difference in pH among dietary groups. There was an inverse relationship between both sugar phosphate (SP)/Pi and ATP/Pi ratios and tumor volume; those ratios for mice fed an EFA deficient or minimal EFA diet decreased at a different rate than ratios for mice fed diets with additional fat. Tumors of mice fed diets containing no or a low level (0.3%) of 18:2 had higher SP/ATP ratios than mice fed diets containing a moderate level (? 4%) of 18:2. Thus, high levels of dietary fat had a significant effect on promotion of mammary tumors during early stages of tumor growth. Differences in tumor volume associated with dietary fat may be related to changes in the levels of high energy phosphate metabolites

280

The effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on attention and impulsivity in an animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The main symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. Both etiology and neurobiological basis of ADHD are unknown. In this context, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs, especially omega-3 (n-3 PUFAs, have become a focus of interest. The symptoms of ADHD have been suggested to be associated with a deficiency of n-3 PUFAs. In addition, the impact of a supply of dietary n-3 PUFAs in the treatment of ADHD has frequently been discussed. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of n-3 PUFA supplementation on attention and impulsivity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR which has been proposed to be a valid genetic animal model of ADHD. Methods: Seven-week-old male SHRs were randomly divided into two groups of 15 rats and fed one of two experimental diets (n-3 PUFA-enriched or n-3 PUFA-deficient prior to and during behavioral testing. Attention and impulsivity were assessed using a three-choice??serial-reaction-time-task (3CSRTT which is based on the five-choice-serial-reaction-time??task. The experiment was performed with three-month-old rats. Results: Our findings demonstrate a marked difference between groups regarding impulsivity but not attention. The n-3 PUFA-enriched diet significantly reduced impulsivity in SHRs compared with rats fed with the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet. Conclusion: The present data show a decrease in impulsivity following a dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation, but no changes in attention. A possible explanation for these results is that the attention displayed by SHR may not be linked to n-3 PUFA supply. It is important to note that inattention and impulsiveness are two of the main symptoms of ADHD. Our results regarding dietary n-3 PUFA supply may support the positive findings in human studies demonstrating that n-3 PUFA administration can improve the cognitive or behavioral symptoms in children with ADHD

Ewelina Makulska-Gertruda

2014-07-01

281

The effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation of rams on semen quality and subsequent quality of liquid stored semen.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation of rams on semen quality and subsequent sperm function of liquid stored semen. Mature rams of proven fertility were individually housed and were blocked according to breed, body weight, and body condition score and randomly allocated within block to one of two dietary treatments (N = 7 per treatment). Rams were offered a base diet of hay and concentrate, with the concentrate enriched with either: (1) saturated palmitic acid (CON) or (2) high n-3 PUFA fish oil (FO) supplements. Both lipid supplements were added at 2% (wt/wt) of the total diet as fed and both were partially rumen-protected. The animals were fed their respective diets for a total of 9 weeks and blood samples were collected on weeks 0 (pre-experimental), 4, and 9, relative to initial allocation of diet (week 0), for measurement of plasma concentration of fatty acids, metabolites, insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin. Semen was collected from each ram (on 1 day in each week) in weeks 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9, and each ejaculate was assessed for volume, wave motion, and concentration of sperm, after which it was diluted in a skim milk-based extender and stored at 4 °C. A second ejaculate was collected on weeks 4, 7, and 9, centrifuged, and the sperm frozen for subsequent lipid analysis. A sample of semen from each ram was assessed at 24, 48, and 72 hours after collection for sperm progressive linear motion, ability to penetrate artificial mucus, and the ability to resist lipid peroxidation (at 24 and 48 hours only) using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay. There was no effect of diet on plasma insulin concentrations or on any of the metabolites measured, however, there was a diet by week interaction for plasma IGF-1 concentration (P rams having higher IGF-1 concentrations on week 9 compared with the control treatment (P rams (P rams supplemented with FO yielded a higher semen concentration (P semen quality parameters including semen volume, wave motion, progressive linear motion, ability to penetrate artificial mucus, or ability to resist lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of rams with n-3 PUFA successfully increased the n-3 PUFA content of plasma and sperm but has limited effects on the quality of liquid stored semen. PMID:24100164

Fair, S; Doyle, D N; Diskin, M G; Hennessy, A A; Kenny, D A

2014-01-15

282

Effect of dietary fat blend enriched in oleic or linoleic acid and monensin supplementation on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of feeding increasing levels of oleic and linoleic acid both independently and together, with or without monensin, on milk fat depression was evaluated. Fifty-six Holstein cows were blocked by parity and then were divided by milk production into 2 groups (high or low) of 14 cows each within each parity block. A cow pair of 1 high and 1 low production cow within each parity block was fed in a single electronic feeding gate. Gates (n = 28) were considered the experimental unit and were assigned to monensin (17.5 g/t of dry matter) or control as the main plot (n = 14 each). The 7 cow pairs in each of the fixed effect groups were further assigned to a sequence of fat blend diets as split plot. Seven fat blend treatments in the split plot 7 × 7 Latin square were no added fat (no fat) and diets with increasing levels of oleic or linoleic acid: low C18:1 + low C18:2 (LOLL); low C18:1 + medium C18:2 (LOML); low C18:1 + high C18:2 (LOHL); medium C18:1 + low C18:2 (MOLL); medium C18:1+medium C18:2 (MOML); and high C18:1+low C18:2 (HOLL). Monensin feeding did not affect milk yield or concentration and yield of milk fat. Feeding monensin decreased the proportion of C <16, increased the proportion of total C18, increased the proportion and yield of trans-10 C18:1, and increased the proportion of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid in milk fatty acids (FA). As dietary C18:1 or C18:2 increased beyond the concentration present in LOLL, milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, and proportion and yield of milk C <16 all decreased, and the proportion and yield of milk trans-10 C18:1 increased. A quadratic effect on milk fat concentration and yield was noticed for C18:2 feeding, but not for C18:1 feeding. When dietary contents of total FA and FA other than C18:1 and C18:2 were similar, C18:2-rich diets decreased milk fat concentration and yield compared with C18:1-rich diets (LOML vs. MOLL, and LOHL vs. HOLL), indicating that C18:2 is more potent than C18:1 for depressing milk fat. Increasing dietary FA content from no fat to LOLL, which increased primarily C18:1 and C18:2 with small increases in C18:0 and C16:0, decreased the secretion of C <16 but increased total C18 secretion in milk. This suggests that biohydrogenation intermediates act to decrease mammary FA synthesis at low levels of added C18:1 and C18:2. No significant monensin × fat interactions were detected for the milk composition parameters analyzed; however, a monensin × fat interaction was found for milk fat trans-10 C18:1 proportion. PMID:22365227

He, M; Perfield, K L; Green, H B; Armentano, L E

2012-03-01

283

Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG wasaffected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as dietary fat type significantly affects microbiota activity in the broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract.

Jozefiak, D; Kieronczyk, B

2014-01-01

284

Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as dietary fat type significantly affects microbiota activity in the broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24674938

Józefiak, D; Kiero?czyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

2014-06-01

285

Effect of dietary fatty acid pattern on growth, body fat composition and antioxidant parameters in broilers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of dietary fat supplementation on performance, fatty acid (FA) composition of tissues and antioxidant defence system of broilers were studied. Male broilers were placed in 20 floor pens (60 broilers per pen). The broilers were fed by diets with added different energy sources: lard (L); sunflower oil (SFO); soybean oil (SBO); and linseed oil (LSO). The treatments did not modify significantly growth performance and feed intake of the broilers. There was no effect of dietary FA pattern on reduced glutathione level and glutathione peroxidase activity of plasma, erythrocyte and liver samples. However, higher PUFA content of the diet resulted in a significant increase in malondialdehyde level of erythrocytes and liver. The broilers fed LSO diet more effectively maintained their antioxidant status with enhanced plasma radical scavenger capacity. FA composition in tissues reflected the FA pattern of the diets, although proportion of FAs with four or more double bonds was metabolic specific. LSO diet increased the level of C18:3, C20:5 and C22:6 in tissue lipids in relation to L, SFO and SBO diets. Significantly increased plasma radical scavenging capacity in concert with the enhanced C20:5 and C22:6 proportion in liver and muscle during LSO feeding indicate metabolic changes to counteract the oxidative injury. This may be related to the compounds produced after different biochemical pathways of n-6 and n-3 FAs. PMID:18477319

Fébel, H; Mézes, M; Pálfy, T; Hermán, A; Gundel, J; Lugasi, A; Balogh, K; Kocsis, I; Blázovics, A

2008-06-01

286

The fat of the matter: how dietary fatty acids can affect exercise performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty-acid composition of fat stores affects exercise performance in a variety of vertebrates although few such studies focus on flying vertebrates such as migratory birds, which are exceptional exercisers. We first discuss the natural variation in quality of fat available in natural foods eaten by migratory birds and their behavioral preferences for specific fatty acids in these foods. We then outline three proposed hypotheses for how dietary fatty acids can affect exercise performance, and some of the evidence to date that pertains to these hypotheses with special emphasis on the exercise performance of migratory birds. In theory, selectively feeding on certain long-chain unsaturated fatty acids may be advantageous because (1) such fatty acids may be metabolized more quickly and may stimulate key facets of aerobic metabolism (fuel hypothesis); (2) such fatty acids may affect composition and key functions of lipid-rich cell membranes (membrane hypothesis); and (3) such fatty acids may directly act as signaling molecules (signal hypothesis). Testing these hypotheses requires cleverly designed experiments that can distinguish between them by demonstrating that certain fatty acids stimulate oxidative capacity, including gene expression and activity of key oxidative enzymes, and that this stimulation changes during exercise. PMID:25009307

Pierce, Barbara J; McWilliams, Scott R

2014-11-01

287

Dietary fat interacts with PCBs to induce changes in lipid metabolism in LDL receptor deficient mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From epidemiological studies, there is substantial evidence that cardiovascular diseases are linked to environmental pollution and that exposure to polycyclic and/or polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons can lead to human cardiovascular toxicity. A major route of exposure to PCBs in humans is via oral ingestion of contaminated food products. Therefore, circulating environmental contaminants derived from diets, such as PCBs, are in intimate contact with the vascular endothelium. Endothelial activation and dysfunction is an important factor in the overall regulation of vascular lesion pathology. In addition to endothelial barrier dysfunction, another functional change in atherosclerosis is the activation of the endothelium that is manifested as an increase in the expression of specific cytokines and adhesion molecules. These cytokines and adhesion molecules are proposed to mediate the inflammatory aspects of the disease by regulating the vascular entry of leukocytes. Alterations in lipid profile and lipid metabolism as a result of exposure to PCBs may be important components of endothelial cell dysfunction. Little is known about the interaction of dietary fats and PCBs in the pathology of atherosclerosis. We have reported a significant disruption in endothelial barrier function when cells were exposed to linoleic acid. In the current study we aimed to demonstrate the PCB-fatty acid interaction in vivo and hypothesized that PCB toxicity can be modulated by the type of fat consumed.

Hennig, B.; Reiterer, G.; Toborek, M.; Matveev, S.V.; Daugherty, A.; Smart, E. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States); Robertson, L.W. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)

2004-09-15

288

Effect of intestinal resection, type of dietary fat and time on biliary lipid secretion in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of time and the type of dietary fat on biliary physiology in rats with 50% resection of the distal small intestine were investigated. The effects of ursodeoxycholic acid as an exogenous source of bile acid added to the diet were also studied. The fat composition of all diets was the same in quantitative terms (4%), and differed only in the type of lipid supplied: olive oil (diet A) or one-third medium chain triglycerides, one-third sunflower seed oil and one-third olive oil (diet B). In resected rats given diet A for 1 or 3 months, there was a decrease in biliary secretion of cholesterol and phospholipids, and in the lithogenic index, with respect to the control group. Resected rats fed diet B for 1 or 3 months showed increases in biliary secretion of cholesterol and phospholipids, and in the lithogenic index, in comparison with resected rats fed diet A. The addition of ursodeoxycholic acid to diet B led to the decoupling of bile acid and bile lipid secretion. PMID:8011314

Gómez-Ayala, A E; Lisbona, F; López-Aliaga, I; Barrionuevo, M; Pallarés, I; Alférez, M J; Hartiti, S; Campos, M S

1994-01-01

289

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... carbohydrate gets all of the attention in diabetes management. More important than total fat is the type of fat you eat. There are "healthy fats" and "unhealthy fats." To lower you risk of heart disease, try to eat less saturated ...

290

Diet quality, nutrient intake, weight status, and feeding environments of girls meeting or exceeding the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for total dietary fat  

OpenAIRE

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that children consume no more than 30% but no less than 20% of energy as dietary fat intake, and tills recommendation, is accompanied by suggestions that fat calories should be replaced by eating more grain products, fruits, vegetables, low fat datiy products, beans, lean meat, poultry, fish, and other protein rich foods. In comparing diets of girls meeting this AAP recommendation with girls who consumed diets higher in fat, we noted that gi...

Lee, Y.; Birch, L. L.

2002-01-01

291

Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control, a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day (Flax drink, and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day (Flax bread. Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004

Kristensen Mette

2012-02-01

292

The impact of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone and cartilage in gilts and sows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary long-chain PFO including arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are precursors for several inflammatory mediators. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of dietary PFO supplementation on bone, cartilage, and synovial fluid in 2 ages of pigs. Sows and gilts were fed either control corn/soybean meal based diets or the control diet supplemented with PFO from Gromega (PFO; JBS United, Sheridan, IN). Sows were fed their diets for 24.5 mo and slaughtered at 43 mo while gilts were fed their diets from weaning until slaughter at 111 kg. Cartilage was harvested from both humeroulnar joints of 14 sows (7/treatment) and 16 gilts (8/treatment) within 30 h of slaughter for fatty acid analysis and explant cultures. Synovial fluid was collected from the carpal joints of each pig postmortem. The right fused radius/ulna was collected for computed tomography (CT) analysis. Cortical width and density were determined and trabecular density was measured at the distal radius. Cartilage explants were allocated to 24-well culture plates with 2 discs per well and cultured over 72 h at 37°C in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium: nutrient mixture F-12 (Ham) medium. Six wells/pig were treated with 10 ng/mL of recombinant porcine interleukin-1 (rpIL-1). At 24, 48, and 72 h of culture, media were removed and reserved for analysis of proteoglycans, nitric oxide (NO), and PGE2 concentrations. The CT scans of the radius/ulna from gilts revealed no differences for cortical width and bone density. Sows fed PFO had greater cortical width of the proximal ulna (P Gilts fed PFO had increased DHA (P gilts and sows had no effect on the variables tested in vitro. Although the PFO diet increased omega-3 incorporation into chondrocytes, the biological significance is unclear since concentrations of ARA were at least 9-fold higher than EPA or DHA. Therefore, if omega-3 fatty acids can mitigate inflammation in joints, the benefit would likely either be the result of systemic changes in inflammatory mediators or higher concentrations in the diet. PMID:25184850

O'Connor-Robison, C I; Spencer, J D; Orth, M W

2014-10-01

293

Effect of Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Animals Susceptible or Resistant to Ventricular Fibrillation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs has been reported to reduce cardiac mortality following myocardial infarction as well as to decrease resting heart rate (HR and increase heart rate variability (HRV. However, it has not been established whether n-3 PUFAs exhibit the same actions on HR and HRV in individuals known to be either susceptible or resistant to ventricular fibrillation (VF. Therefore, HR and HRV (high frequency and total R-R interval variability were evaluated before and 3 months after n-3 PUFA treatment in dogs with healed myocardial infarction that were either susceptible (VF+, n = 31 or resistant (VF-, n = 31 to ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a 2 min coronary artery occlusion during the last minute of a submaximal exercise test. HR and HRV were evaluated at rest, during submaximal exercise and in response to acute myocardial ischemia at rest before and after either placebo (1 g/day, corn oil, VF+, n = 9; VF- n = 8 or n-3 PUFA (docosahexaenoic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters, 1-4g/day, VF+, n = 22; VF-, n = 23 treatment for 3 months. The n-3 PUFA treatment elicited similar increases in red blood cell membrane, right atrial, and left ventricular n-3 PUFA levels in both the VF+ and VF- dogs. The n-3 PUFA treatment also provoked similar reductions in baseline HR and increases in baseline HRV in both groups that resulted in parallel shifts in the response to either exercise or acute myocardial ischemia (that is, the change in these variables induced by physiological challenges was not altered after n-3 PUFA treatment. These data demonstrate that dietary n-3 PUFA decreased HR and increased HRV to a similar extent in animals known to be prone to or resistant to malignant cardiac tachyarrhythmias.

GeorgeEBillman

2012-03-01

294

Enhancement of reproductive performances of Gangetic leaffish, Nandus nandus through up regulation of serum Ca²? concentration, improved morphological alteration of liver and ovary with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) as biofunctional compounds with feed is an effective way for gonadal maturation without any hazardous effects on animal health, and thus it is possible to save the vulnerable species from the danger of extinction. In the present study sperm quality, level of Ca(2+) concentration in serum, histological structure of the liver and developmental stages of ovary of an endangered fish species, Nandus nandus were investigated for the confirmation of the positive effects of PUFAs in reproduction and gonadal maturation. Fishes were collected from Brahmaputra River, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Treated group was fed 1% squid extracted phospholipid supplemented diet that was mixed with silver carp fish muscle where as controlled group was fed the same except phospholipid. For histology of liver and gonads, samples were dehydrated, cleaned and infiltrated, embedded in paraffin wax and sectioned. After that, the samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The photomicrographs of the stained samples were taken by using light microscope. In comparison with the control group, treated group exhibited higher gonadal maturation which resulted in spontaneous spawning. Treated female demonstrated advanced gonadal developmental stages in comparison with the controlled female during different months. During spawning season, lipid granules and normal morphological alteration were observed in case of treated fish liver, whereas less lipid granules with more histological alteration of liver were observed in control group. Serum Ca(2+) concentration in treated female was found significantly higher (P < 0.01) in contrast to the controlled female during the breeding season which was an indicator of the augment of estrogen secretion during ovarian maturation. Better sperm quality, early maturation of oocytes, less histological alteration of liver hepatocytes and spontaneous spawning performances of PUFA-treated fish were as a result of the efficiency of PUFAs in enhancing maturation. The experiment suggests that supplementation of dietary PUFAs improve the spawning performances of fish. PMID:23108804

Reza, A H M M; Rakhi, S F; Hossen, M S; Takahashi, K; Hossain, Z

2013-08-01

295

Dose-dependent effects of dietary fat on development of obesity in relation to intestinal differential gene expression in C57BL/6J mice  

OpenAIRE

Excessive intake of dietary fat is known to be a contributing factor in the development of obesity. In this study, we determined the dose-dependent effects of dietary fat on the development of this metabolic condition with a focus on changes in gene expression in the small intestine. C57BL/6J mice were fed diets with either 10, 20, 30 or 45 energy% (E%) derived from fat for four weeks (n?=?10 mice/diet). We found a significant higher weight gain in mice fed the 30E% and 45E% fat diet comp...

Wit, N. J. W.; Boekschoten, M. V.; Machmair, E. M.; Hooiveld, G. J. E. J.; Groot, P. J.; Rubio-aliaga, I.; Daniel, H.; Muller, M. R.

2011-01-01

296

Polyunsaturated fatty acids result in greater cholesterol lowering and less triacylglycerol elevation than do monounsaturated fatty acids in a dose-response comparison in a multiracial study group.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholesterol-lowering effects of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were compared as they were varied in a reciprocal dose-dependent fashion in the context of a National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step 1 diet. The study population comprised 63 moderately hypercholesterolemic African American and white men and women. After a 6-wk baseline diet containing 37% of energy from total fat and 15% from saturated fat, participants consumed four diets for 6 wk each, in random order, containing 10% of energy as saturated fatty acids; 3%, 6%, 10%, and 14% of energy as polyunsaturated fatty acids; and 17%, 14%, 10%, and 6% of energy as monounsaturated fatty acids. Dietary cholesterol, fiber, plant sterol, and squalene contents were constant with all four diets. There was a progressive decrease in total (P = 0.028) and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.184) across the four diets, with the greatest decrease observed in the diet with the highest content of polyunsaturated fatty acids; a small but significant decrease in high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol that did not show a trend between the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated diets; and a trend between the four diets in triacylglycerol elevations (P = 0.029), with the smallest increment occurring in the diets highest in polyunsaturates. The magnitude of the cholesterol-lowering response was greater in those with higher baseline cholesterol and less in those who were more obese. The dietary response was similar in both ethnic groups and in both sexes. In conclusion, in an NCEP Step 1 diet containing 30% total fat, with all other known cholesterol-influencing dietary factors held constant, the substitution of polyunsaturated fatty acid for monounsaturated fatty acid from 3% to 14% resulted in a progressive decline in total cholesterol and less triacylglycerol elevations, without effect on HDL cholesterol. PMID:7625348

Howard, B V; Hannah, J S; Heiser, C C; Jablonski, K A; Paidi, M C; Alarif, L; Robbins, D C; Howard, W J

1995-08-01

297

Antigen-driven murine CD4+ T lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production are diminished by dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is the first to describe the impact of consuming a diet rich in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish oil on antigen-driven activation of naive CD4+ T lymphocytes. To accomplish this, we used lymphocytes isolated from T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice (i.e., DO11.10). A large portion of the T lymphocytes from these mice expresses a TCR specific for a peptide within the ovalbumin (OVA) molecule (OVA(323-339)). When this antigen is presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex I-A(d) with costimulation, these naive CD4+ T cells become activated, produce interleukin (IL)-2 and clonally expand. (n-3) PUFA enrichment was accomplished by feeding DO11.10 mice one of two nutritionally complete experimental diets that differed only in the source of fat: lard or menhaden fish oil [high in (n-3) PUFA]. After 2 wk of consuming the experimental diets, lymphocytes were isolated from the spleen of each mouse, then cultured in the presence of antigen (i.e., OVA(323-339)) or concanavalin A (Con A), a nonspecific, polyclonal T cell stimulus. IL-2 production and lymphocyte proliferation were determined after 48 and 72 h, respectively. Naive CD4+ T lymphocytes from fish oil-fed mice stimulated with antigen produced less IL-2 ( approximately 33%; P < 0.001) and proliferated to a lesser extent ( approximately 50%; P < 0.0001) than the same cells from lard-fed DO11.10 mice. When stimulated with Con A, (n-3) PUFA did not affect either proliferation or IL-2 production. In summary, we report for the first time that feeding mice a diet enriched with (n-3) PUFA reduces in vitro antigen-stimulated production of IL-2 and subsequent proliferation of naive CD4+ T lymphocytes. PMID:12421842

Pompos, Lisa J; Fritsche, Kevin L

2002-11-01

298

Dietary fish oils containing eicosapentaenoic acid and the prevention of atherosclerosis and thrombosis.  

OpenAIRE

Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that rates of cardiovascular disease are lower in populations such as the Greenland Eskimos than in those that do not eat seafood, even though the levels of dietary fat intake are often similar. Dietary fish oils are rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid of the omega-3 series. EPA has been shown to prolong bleeding time and to decrease platelet aggregation and blood viscosity. EPA inhibits the production of prostaglandins fro...

Holub, B. J.

1988-01-01

299

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... grams are listed on the Nutrition Facts food label under total fat. As a general rule, compare ... cholesterol level. Trans fats are listed on the label, making it easier to identify these foods. However, ...

300

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... heart attack or stroke. Foods containing saturated fat include: Lard Fatback and salt pork High-fat meats like regular ground beef, bologna, hot dogs, sausage, bacon and spareribs ...

301

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... palm kernel oil Coconut and coconut oil Poultry (chicken and turkey) skin The goal for people with ... provider. Saturated fat grams are listed on the Nutrition Facts food label under total fat. As a ...

302

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... High-fat meats like regular ground beef, bologna, hot dogs, sausage, bacon and spareribs High-fat dairy ... diabetes news, research and food & fitness tips. Email: Sign Up Thank you for signing up ' + ' '); $('.survey-form'). ...

303

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... saturated fat. Many adults, especially women or sedentary men, may need less. To find out a specific goal for you, talk with your dietitian or health care provider. Saturated fat grams are listed on the ...

304

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips ... Eat Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Fats Alcohol Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Protein ...

305

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Facts food label under total fat. As a general rule, compare foods with less saturated fat. Foods ... Research Research Resources Practice Resources Ways to Give General Donation Monthly Donation Memorial Donation Honor Donation Planned ...

306

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... fat as possible, you must read the ingredient list on food labels. Look for words like hydrogenated ... liquid oil is listed first in the ingredient list. Sources of trans fat include: Processed foods like ...

307

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... LDL) cholesterol. Sources of monounsaturated fat include: Avocado Canola oil Nuts like almonds, cashews, pecans, and peanuts ... more monounsaturated fats, try to substitute olive or canola oil instead of butter, margarine or shortening when ...

308

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type ... cream, ice cream, full-fat cheese) Egg yolks Liver and other organ meats High-fat meat and ...

309

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... for heart disease. People with diabetes are at high risk for heart disease and limiting your saturated fat ... Get a more detailed explanation from the FDA . Patient Education Materials — Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats ...

310

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... dietitian to include healthy fats into your meal plan without increasing your total calories. Monounsaturated fats are ...

311

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... saturated fat. Many adults, especially women or sedentary men, may need less. To find out a specific ... for you than saturated fat and for a heart-healthy diet, you want to eat as little ...

312

Fats and Your Child  

Science.gov (United States)

... peanut, and canola oils polyunsaturated , found in most vegetable oils omega-3 fatty acids , a type of polyunsaturated fat found in oily fish like tuna and salmon 2. Saturated fats: Found in meat and other animal products, such as butter, shortening, lard, cheese, and milk (except skim or nonfat), ...

313

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... as full-fat cheese, cream, ice cream, whole milk, 2% milk and sour cream. Butter Cream sauces Gravy made ... include: High-fat dairy products (whole or 2% milk, cream, ice cream, full-fat cheese) Egg yolks ...

314

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... hot dogs, sausage, bacon and spareribs High-fat dairy products such as full-fat cheese, cream, ice cream, ... contains it. Sources of cholesterol include: High-fat dairy products (whole or 2% milk, cream, ice cream, full- ...

315

Shifts in microbiota species and fermentation products in a dietary model enriched in fat and sucrose.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gastrointestinal tract harbours a 'superorganism' called the gut microbiota, which is known to play a crucial role in the onset and development of diverse diseases. This internal ecosystem, far from being a static environment, can be manipulated by diet and dietary components. Feeding animals with high-fat sucrose (HFS) diets entails diet-induced obesity, a model which is usually used in research to mimic the obese phenotype of Western societies. The aim of the present study was to identify gut microbiota dysbiosis and associated metabolic changes produced in male Wistar rats fed a HFS diet for 6 weeks and compare it with the basal microbial composition. For this purpose, DNA extracted from faeces at baseline and after treatment was analysed by amplification of the V4-V6 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Short-chain fatty acids, i.e. acetate, propionate and butyrate, were also evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. At the end of the treatment, gut microbiota composition significantly differed at phylum level (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) and class level (Erisypelotrichi, Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Bacilli). Interestingly, the class Clostridia showed a significant decrease after HFS diet treatment, which correlated with visceral adipose tissue, and is likely mediated by dietary carbohydrates. Of particular interest, Clostridium cluster XIVa species were significantly reduced and changes were identified in the relative abundance of other specific bacterial species (Mitsuokella jalaludinii, Eubacterium ventriosum, Clostridium sp. FCB90-3, Prevotella nanceiensis, Clostridium fusiformis, Clostridium sp. BNL1100 and Eubacterium cylindroides) that, in some cases, showed opposite trends to their relative families. These results highlight the relevance of characterising gut microbial population differences at species level and contribute to understand the plausible link between diet and specific gut bacterial species that are able to influence the inflammatory status, intestinal barrier function and obesity development. PMID:25213025

Etxeberria, U; Arias, N; Boqué, N; Macarulla, M T; Portillo, M P; Milagro, F I; Martinez, J A

2015-03-01

316

Influence of dietary fat and selenium fed during initiation or promotion on the development of preneoplastic lesions in rat liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci in rat liver were assessed in animals fed different levels of fat and selenium (Se) during either initiation (IN) or promotion (PR). Male Sprague Dawley rats (50g) were divided into 12 groups. One of six modified AIN-76 experimental diets were fed to groups 1-6 during weeks 1-4.5 (IN) and to groups 7-12 during weeks 4.5-15 (PR). During weeks 3-4, 13 rats/group received 10 daily doses of AFB1 (.4 mg/kg bwt/dose, i.g.). Two levels of corn oil (2% and 20%) were fed, each containing 3 levels of Se: < 0.02; 0.15; 2.5 (IN) or 1.9 (PR) ppm. When not fed the experimental diets rats were fed a standard AIN-76 diet. In groups 1-6, 0.03% phenobarbital was added to the standard diet. At week 15 rats were sacrificed. Compared to all low-fat groups, the high-fat diets with either < 0.02 or 0.15 ppm Se fed during IN resulted in a marked increase in mean diameter of GGT-positive foci and % liver section occupied by foci. In rats fed high-fat 2.5 ppm Se, preneoplastic development was decreased below all low-fat groups. During PR, Se status but not dietary fat level influenced foci formation. Rats fed < 0.02 ppm Se had greater mean diameter of foci and % section occupied by foci than either 0.15 or 1.9 ppm Se. Thus, an interaction was observed between dietary fat and selenium during IN, but not during PR

317

Effect of dietary oil supplementation on fatty acid profile of backfat and intramuscular fat in finishing pigs  

OpenAIRE

Two groups of finishing gilts were fed, for 4 weeks, a commercial feed enriched (2%) with either rapeseed oil or sunflower oil. Pig growth was monitored bi-weekly and the fatty acid composition of backfat and Longissimus muscle was determined after slaughtering. Type of dietary oil affected significantly the fatty acid profile of pork fat, especially the C18:3n-3 concentration which was higher in pigs fed rapeseed oil than in those fed sunflower oil. The content of monounsaturated...

Giuseppe Pulina; Roberto Rubattu; Maria Grazia Manca; Anna Nudda; Gianni Battacone

2009-01-01

318

Yeast as a model to investigate the mitochondrial role in adaptation to dietary fat and calorie surplus  

OpenAIRE

Several research strategies are focused towards understanding the genetic basis and molecular mechanisms that regulate uptake, synthesis, deposition, and mobilization of lipids, in the context of energy homeostasis. Because of the complexity of the problem, major input comes from the use of model systems. The aim of this work was to test the feasibility of using yeast as a model organism for studies related to dietary challenges due to high fat diet and investigate the correlation between FA ...

Marchi, E.; Cavalieri, D.

2008-01-01

319

Association between dietary fat and skin cancer in an Australian population using case-control and cohort study designs  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Human studies of dietary fat as a possible risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) – principally basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) – have produced inconsistent results. We had the opportunity to examine the association concurrently for all three types of skin cancer in a population-based study in Tasmania, Australia, involving 652 cases of CMM, BCC and SCC and a common set of 471 controls. Method...

Fryer Jayne L; Blizzard Leigh; Granger Robert H; Dwyer Terence

2006-01-01

320

Quality of Raw, Frozen and Cooked Duck Meat as Affected by Dietary Fat and ?-Tocopheryl Acetate Supplementation  

OpenAIRE

Poultry meat, particularly that of duck, has relatively high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and low levels of antioxidants. Ducks consume twice as much feed as broilers during growth, therefore, duck meat is more likely to be influenced by diet than chicken meat. The effects of dietary fat differing in unsaturation level (2.5% tallow or olive, sunflower or linseed oils) together with ?-tocopheryl acetate ( ?-TA) at either a control (20 mg ?-TA/kg feed) or a supplemented level (400 mg ?...

Russell, E. A.; Lynch, A.; Galvin, K.; Lynch, P. B.; Kerry, J. P.

2003-01-01

321

Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010 : a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1,630,069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. SETTING AND POPULATION: Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. RESULTS: In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world's adult population, the mean intake was <10%E. Country-specific omega 6 consumption ranged from 1.2 to 12.5%E (global mean=5.9%E); corresponding range was 0.2 to 6.5%E (1.4%E) for trans fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and <100 to 5,542 mg/day (1,371 mg/day) for plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat ? 5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (? 0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (<300 mg/day); 18.9% for seafood omega 3 fat (? 250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (? 1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased. CONCLUSIONS: These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic diversity across nations and inform policies and priorities for improving global health.

Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab

2014-01-01

322

Effect of dietary fat type on the fatty acids composition of irradiated and frozen storage japanese quails meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of substitution of dietary cotton seed oil (CSO) by used restaurant oil (URO) with different percentages 25% group 2 (G2), 50% group 3 (G3) and 100% group 4 (G4) in Japanese quail diets on the fatty acids composition of their meat especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The effect of gamma irradiation doses (1.5, 3 and 5 kGy) at frozen storage -18 C (degree) for 2 and 4 months in comparison with unirradiated and un storage were studied. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in quail meat fed G4 diet (100% URO) increased significantly in comparison with SFA in G2 (25% URO) and G3 (50% URO) but there is no significant effect with G2 and G3 in comparison with G1 (100% CSO).The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were not affected by G2 and G3 diet. Also, linoleic acid (C 18:2, n-6) had the same trend in those groups with range (32.75% to 33.35%). It is concluded that feeding a diet with URO 25% and 50% conserve the content of linoleic acid and the content of PUFA in quail meat. The irradiation doses and storage periods had no significant effect on the linoleic acid, MUFA and PUFA content.

323

Hypolipidemic effect of fruit fibers in rats fed with high dietary fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypolipidemic effect of 10% fruit fibers in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD) was evaluated. This study was conducted on a total of 50 male Albino rats divided into 10 equal groups fed with different types of dietary fruits. The feeding period lasted for 24 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected and sera separated and subjected to lipid profile assay and atherogenic index. In addition, total antioxidant activity of different fruits was determined. The results obtained showed that pomegranate had higher content of antioxidants followed by apple, strawberry and guava compared with other fruits. Rats fed with 20% coconut oil showed a highly significant elevation in the levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic factor while the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly decreased when compared with control rats. Histological examination revealed that there was a large lipid and cholesterol deposition in the livers of rats fed with HFD. The potential in lowering the levels of plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride is in the following order: pomegranate > apple > strawberry > guava > papaya > mandarin and orange. Accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets was diminished when compared with the HFD group. Also, antiatherogenic is better than the untreated groups. Accordingly these hypolipidemic effects may be due to high-fiber content and antioxidant activity of these fruits. PMID:23315090

Esmael, O A; Sonbul, S N; Kumosani, T A; Moselhy, S S

2015-03-01

324

Effect of dietary fat on uptake of lysine, phenylalanine, leucine and methionine by bovine mammary tissue slices in vitro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four mature Holstein cows in late lactation were blocked in two groups based on milk production, in a 2x2 reversal with 21-day periods, and fed: (A) control diet; (B) A plus 1 kg/day tallow. Cows were fed sorghum silage ad libitum. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on day 15, 17, and 19 of each period. Fat did not effect DM intake or milk yield, however milk CP yield was 20% lower. Plasma lipids increased 33.6%, glucose decreased 9% and insulin/glucagon ratio decreased 21.2% in cow fed fat. After period two, cows were slaughtered and mammary tissue sampled for incubation in Krebs Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 22 AA at arterial concentration and .225 {mu}Ci/ml of {sup 14}C-labelled L-Leu, L-Phe, L-Lys or D/L Met. Dietary fat decreased tissue AA uptake rate by 21.2%. Uptake was 4.8, 10.3, 17.8 and 2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} {mu}M/min/gm of tissue DM for Phe, Lys, Leu and Met, respectively. Results suggest that dietary fat may decrease milk protein synthesis by lowering the rate of AA uptake.

Nianogo, A.J.; Amos, H.E.; Dean, R.; Froetschel, A. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA)); Fernandez, J.M. (Langston Univ., OK (USA))

1989-08-01

325

Effect of dietary fat on uptake of lysine, phenylalanine, leucine and methionine by bovine mammary tissue slices in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four mature Holstein cows in late lactation were blocked in two groups based on milk production, in a 2x2 reversal with 21-day periods, and fed: (A) control diet; (B) A plus 1 kg/day tallow. Cows were fed sorghum silage ad libitum. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on day 15, 17, and 19 of each period. Fat did not effect DM intake or milk yield, however milk CP yield was 20% lower. Plasma lipids increased 33.6%, glucose decreased 9% and insulin/glucagon ratio decreased 21.2% in cow fed fat. After period two, cows were slaughtered and mammary tissue sampled for incubation in Krebs Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 22 AA at arterial concentration and .225 ?Ci/ml of 14C-labelled L-Leu, L-Phe, L-Lys or D/L Met. Dietary fat decreased tissue AA uptake rate by 21.2%. Uptake was 4.8, 10.3, 17.8 and 2.4 x 10-3 ?M/min/gm of tissue DM for Phe, Lys, Leu and Met, respectively. Results suggest that dietary fat may decrease milk protein synthesis by lowering the rate of AA uptake

326

Cholesterol kinetic effects of dietary fat in CBA/J and C57BR/cdJ mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small differences in dietary fats cause marked differences in cholesterol metabolism in different strains of mice. CBA/J mice adjust HMGCOA reductase activity and C57BR/cdJ mice change fecal excretion of cholesterol. Phenomenological compartmental modeling of movement of 414C-cholesterol in the two strains of mice fed 40 en % fat, P/S = 0.24 (SFA) or 30 en % fat, P/S = 1 (PUFA) was used to analyze rates of movement between serum, liver, heart, and carcass. The C57 mice had slower movement between all compartments than CBA. Residence times in tissues were longer in mice fed SFA than those fed PUFA diet. The kinetic results are in agreement with the organ concentrations and enzyme activities measured

327

Impact of dietary fat source and concentration and daily fatty acid intake on the composition of carcass fat and iodine value sampled in three regions of the pork carcass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increased inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to more precisely measure how differing levels of daily fatty acid intake alters the fatty acid composition in 3 different fat depots. A total of 42 gilts and 21 barrows (PIC 337×C22/29) with an average initial weight of 77.80±0.38 kg were allotted randomly based on sex and BW to 7 treatments: 3 and 6% of each of tallow (TAL; iodine value [IV]=41.9), choice white grease (CWG; IV=66.5), or corn oil (CO; IV=123.1) and a control (CNTR) corn-soybean meal-based diet with no added fat. Pigs were individually housed to allow accurate measurement of individual feed intake, in particular, daily dietary fatty acid and energy intake. Fat samples were collected from the jowl, belly, and loin at slaughter. Diet and carcass fat samples were analyzed for IV. Belly weights were recorded at slaughter along with a subjective belly firmness score (1=firmest to 3=least firm). Carcass lipid IV was increased (P0.05) by inclusion levels; however, carcass lipid IV was greater (P<0.001) in pigs fed 6 than 3% CO (80.0 vs. 72.6), and carcasses of gilts had greater IV (P<0.001) than carcasses of barrows (71.5 vs. 69.1). Increasing the level of TAL and CO but not CWG from 3 to 6% decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, resulting in a source×level interaction (P<0.05). Dietary fat source had no effect (P?0.66) on apparent total tract digestibility of either DM or GE, but feeding 6% dietary fat increased G:F (P=0.006) over pigs fed 3% fat (0.358 vs. 0.337). Of all the fatty acids measured, only linoleic acid intake presented a reasonable coefficient of determination (R2=0.61). Overall, IV product (IVP) was approximately equal to linoleic acid intake as a predictor of carcass IV (R2=0.93 vs. R2=0.94). When inclusion of dietary fat and PUFA intake increased, IVP placed more emphasis on the dietary fat inclusion level rather than the dietary fat composition. Linoleic acid intake corrected the overemphasis placed on dietary fat inclusion by IVP. To conclude, linoleic acid intake showed a strong relationship with carcass IV and can be used as a predictor. PMID:25367509

Kellner, T A; Prusa, K J; Patience, J F

2014-12-01

328

Effect of dietary antioxidant and increasing corn oil inclusion on milk fat yield and fatty acid composition in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a dietary synthetic antioxidant on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components and milk fatty acids (FA), in combination with increasing concentrations of dietary corn oil to provide increasing rumen unsaturated fatty acid load (RUFAL) challenges. Twenty-six Holstein cows (177 ± 57 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were assigned to treatment in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were a control diet (CON; n=13 cows) or the same diet supplemented with a synthetic antioxidant (AOX; 6.1g/d; dry blend of ethoxyquin and propyl gallate, Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO; n=13 cows). In period 1 (21 d), no supplemental corn oil was fed; in periods 2, 3, and 4 (14 d each), corn oil was supplemented at 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8% of the diet [dry matter (DM) basis] to incrementally increase RUFAL. For all variables measured, no significant interactions were detected between treatment and period, indicating no differences between the CON and AOX treatments at all levels of oil inclusion. Intake of DM was lower for AOX compared with CON but AOX had no effect on milk yield or milk fat concentration and yield. Milk protein yield and feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/DM intake) tended to be greater for AOX compared with CON. Increasing dietary corn oil concentration (RUFAL) decreased DM intake, milk yield, milk fat concentration and yield, and feed efficiency. The AOX treatment increased the concentration and yield of 16-carbon milk FA, with no effect on de novo (16 carbon) milk FA. Milk FA concentration of trans-10 C18:1, trans-10,cis-12 C18:2, and trans-9,cis-11 C18:2 were unaffected by AOX but increased with increasing RUFAL. In conclusion, supplementation with AOX did not overcome the dietary-induced milk fat depression caused by increased RUFAL. PMID:25306271

Boerman, J P; Preseault, C L; Lock, A L

2014-12-01

329

Impacts of dietary fat level and saturation when feeding distillers grains to high producing dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment was conducted to determine whether increasing the net energy (NEL ) of a total mixed ration (TMR) with mainly unsaturated fat from corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) vs. rumen inert (RI)-saturated fat has similar impacts on animal performance. The experiment was an incomplete Youden square with three treatments and four 28-days periods, completed on a large commercial dairy using three early lactation pens each with approximately 380 multiparity cows. The TMR for all treatments was the same, except for 150 g/kg dry matter (DM) of each TMR which contained 90 g/kg high-protein DDGS (HPDDGS) and 60 g/kg beet pulp (i.e. low-fat control diet; LFC); 150 g/kg DDGS (i.e. high-fat diet with unsaturated fat; HFU); or 111 g/kg HPDDGS, 20 g/kg beet pulp and 19 g/kg RI fat (i.e. high-fat diet with saturated fat; HFS). The DM intake was highest (p fat and true protein yields, as well as milk energy output, were higher (p fat % was lowest (p fat digestion was lowest (p fat control diet, although addition of an RI-saturated fat to create a diet with a similarly higher fat level resulted in higher animal productivity. PMID:25040565

Havlin, J M; Robinson, P H; Karges, K

2015-06-01

330

Dietary fat interacts with PCBs to induce changes in lipid metabolism in mice deficient in low-density lipoprotein receptor.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is evidence that dietary fat can modify the cytotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and that coplanar PCBs can induce inflammatory processes critical in the pathology of vascular diseases. To test the hypothesis that the interaction of PCBs with dietary fat is dependent on the type of fat, low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDL-R(-/-)) mice were fed diets enriched with either olive oil or corn oil for 4 weeks. Half of the animals from each group were injected with PCB-77. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in aortic arches was nondetectable in the olive-oil-fed mice but was highly expressed in the presence of PCB-77. PCB treatment increased liver neutral lipids and decreased serum fatty acid levels only in mice fed the corn-oil-enriched diet. PCB treatment increased mRNA expression of genes involved in inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress in all mice. Upon PCB treatment, mice in both olive- and corn-oil-diet groups showed induction of genes involved in fatty acid degradation but with up-regulation of different key enzymes. Genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were reduced only upon PCB treatment in corn-oil-fed mice, whereas lipid transport/export genes were altered in olive-oil-fed mice. These data suggest that dietary fat can modify changes in lipid metabolism induced by PCBs in serum and tissues. These findings have implications for understanding the interactions of nutrients with environmental contaminants on the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. PMID:15626652

Hennig, Bernhard; Reiterer, Gudrun; Toborek, Michal; Matveev, Sergey V; Daugherty, Alan; Smart, Eric; Robertson, Larry W

2005-01-01

331

Effects of Dietary Fat Types on Growth Performance, Pork Quality, and Gene Expression in Growing-finishing Pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary fat sources, i.e., beef tallow, soybean oil, olive oil and coconut oil (each 3% in feed), on the growth performance, meat quality and gene expression in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 72 crossbred pigs (Landrace×Large White×Duroc) were used at 71±1 kg body weight (about 130 d of age) in 24 pens (320×150 cm) in a confined pig house (three pigs per pen) with six replicate pens per treatment. The growing diet was given for periods of 14±3 d and the finishing diet was given for periods of 28±3 d. The fat type had no significant effect either on growth performance or on chemical composition or on meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. Dietary fat type affected fatty acid composition, with higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in the olive oil group. Microarray analysis in the Longissimus dorsi identified 6 genes, related to insulin signaling pathway, that were differentially expressed among the different feed groups. Real time-PCR was conducted on the six genes in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM). In particular, the genes encoding the protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha (PRKAR2A) and the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1, beta isoform (PPP1CB) showed the highest expression level in the olive oil group (respectively, p<0.05, p<0.001). The results of this study indicate that the type of dietary fat affects fatty acid composition and insulin signaling-related gene expression in the LM of pigs. PMID:25049542

Park, J C; Kim, S C; Lee, S D; Jang, H C; Kim, N K; Lee, S H; Jung, H J; Kim, I C; Seong, H H; Choi, B H

2012-12-01

332

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know ... fats. It is true that all fat is high in calories so it is important to watch ...

333

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... provider. Saturated fat grams are listed on the Nutrition Facts food label under total fat. As a ...

334

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... provider. Saturated fat grams are listed on the Nutrition Facts food label under total fat. As a general rule, ... 24, 2014 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-nutrition, In this section Food What Can I Eat Making Healthy Food Choices ...

335

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a risk factor for heart disease. People with diabetes are at high risk for heart disease and limiting your saturated fat can help lower your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Foods containing saturated fat include: Lard ...

336

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy ... Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Fats Alcohol Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Protein Foods What Can ...

337

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... sauces Gravy made with meat drippings Chocolate Palm oil and palm kernel oil Coconut and coconut oil Poultry (chicken and turkey) skin The goal for ... contain it. Trans fats are produced when liquid oil is made into a solid fat. This process ...

338

Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammation : Observational and Interventional Studies  

OpenAIRE

Dietary fat quality influences the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A low-grade inflammation is suggested to contribute to the disease development, often accompanied by obesity. Whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been considered anti-inflammatory, n-6 PUFA have been proposed to act pro-inflammatory. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) act pro-inflammatory in vitro. This thesis aimed to investigate effects of different fatty acids on low-grade inflammation in observ...

Bjermo, Helena

2011-01-01

339

The Effect of Dietary Fat Level on the Response of Broiler Chicks to Betaine and Choline Supplements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary betaine (Betafine supplementation as a replacement for choline on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. Three betaine replacement levels (0, 50 and 100% in substitution for choline were used in two various basal diets (without or containing 30 g kg-1 oil in a 2x3 factorial arrangement with four replicates of 10 birds. Two hundred-forty day-old broiler chicks were fed with the experimental diets from 1 to 49 days of age and at 49 days of age, two birds from each replicate were selected randomly for blood sampling and comparison of carcass characteristics. Dietary betaine inclusion had no effect on feed intake, but the significant differences in body weight (BW gain (at 1-3 and 3-5 weeks of age and feed conversion ratio (at 3-5 weeks of age were observed among the experimental diets. Replacing choline with betaine increased (p<0.05 dressing and breast meat percentages and reduced (p<0.01 abdominal fat percent, but had no significant effect on thigh and liver weight percentages. Plasma levels of cholesterol and low density lipoproteins (LDL were not affected by dietary substitution of betaine for choline. Dietary betaine replacement caused a significant decrease in plasma triglycerides (p<0.05 and very low density lipoproteins (p<0.01 and significant increase in (p<0.05 high density lipoproteins (HDL. These findings indicate that although dietary betaine inclusion instead of choline had little benefit in terms of performance parameters, but resulted favourable changes in abdominal fat and breast meat percentages.

R. Jahanian

2008-01-01

340

Effect of prepartal and postpartal dietary fat level on performance and plasma concentration of metabolites in transition dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 2 levels of dietary fat (low and high) offered during the prepartal and postpartal periods on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma concentration of metabolites, and milk yield and composition. Twenty-four Holstein dry cows were assigned on d 21 relative to expected parturition date to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 levels of fat fed during the prepartal period and 2 levels of fat fed during the postpartal period: prepartal low fat and postpartal low fat (LF-LF), prepartal low fat and postpartal high fat (LF-HF), prepartal high fat and postpartal low fat (HF-LF), or prepartal high fat and postpartal high fat (HF-HF). Prepartal and postpartal LF diets contained no fat supplement. Prepartal HF diets contained 1.60% calcium salts of soybean oil. The proportion of calcium salts of soybean oil was increased to 1.70% of DM for the first 21 d of lactation and to 2.27% of DM from d 21 to 56 of lactation in the HF diet. Diets were fed for ad libitum intake from d 21 before calving until d 56 of gestation. Prepartal DMI was lower for cows fed the HF diet compared with those fed the LF diet (12.6 vs. 16.2kg/d). Postpartum, cows fed the HF-HF and HF-LF diets had, respectively, the lowest and highest DMI, although no significant differences existed between HF-LF and LF-LF. Net energy intake was higher for cows fed the postpartal HF diets compared with those fed the LF diets. Prepartal fat level had no effect on net energy intake. Cows offered the prepartal HF diet had higher milk yield when offered the postpartal LF diet compared with those offered the postpartal HF diet and no effect of the postpartal fat level was detected when cows were fed the prepartal LF diet. Milk composition was similar among treatments. Plasma cholesterol concentration postpartum was higher for cows fed the prepartal LF diet than for those fed the prepartal HF diet (5.16 vs. 3.74mmol/L) and postpartal fat level had no effect. Prepartal diet had no significant effect on postpartal plasma triglyceride concentration but the postpartal HF diet increased triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein concentrations compared with the postpartal LF diet. In conclusion, switching from a high to a low fat proportion in the postpartal diet may alleviate the negative effects of a high proportion of fat in the prepartal diet as shown by increased feed intake and milk production during the first 56 d of lactation. PMID:25468706

Karimian, M; Khorvash, M; Forouzmand, M A; Alikhani, M; Rahmani, H R; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

2015-01-01

341

Dietary saturated fat, gender and genetic variation at the TCF7L2 locus predict the development of metabolic syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is the strongest genetic determinant of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and insulin-related phenotypes to date. Dietary fat is a key environmental factor which may interact with genotype to affect risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and T2DM. This study investigated the relationship between the TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism, insulin sensitivity/resistance and MetS in the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX study of MetS cases and matched controls (n=1754) and determined potential interactions with dietary fat intake. Female minor T allele carriers of rs7903146 had increased MetS risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.70, P=.04) and displayed elevated insulin concentrations (P=.005), impaired insulin sensitivity (P=.011), increased abdominal obesity (P=.008) and body mass index (P=.001) and higher blood pressure (Prs7903146 polymorphism influences MetS risk, which is augmented by both gender and dietary SFA intake, suggesting novel gene-diet-gender interactions. PMID:21543200

Phillips, Catherine M; Goumidi, Louisa; Bertrais, Sandrine; Field, Martyn R; McManus, Ross; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Planells, Richard; Roche, Helen M

2012-03-01

342

Adipose tissue dysregulation and metabolic consequences in childhood and adolescent obesity: potential impact of dietary fat quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence suggests that at a population level, childhood and adolescent obesity increase the long-term risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and CVD. At an individual level, however, the metabolic consequences of obesity in youth vary immensely. Despite comparable BMI, some adolescents develop impaired glucose tolerance while others maintain normal glucose homeostasis. It has been proposed that the variation in the capacity to store lipid in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) may partially discriminate metabolically healthy from unhealthy obesity. In positive energy balance, a decreased capacity to expand SAT may drive lipid accumulation to visceral adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle. This state of lipotoxicity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. The present review examines the differential adipose tissue development and function in children and adolescents who exhibit metabolic dysregulation compared with those who are protected. Additionally, the role of manipulating dietary fat quality to potentially prevent and treat metabolic dysfunction in obesity will be discussed. The findings of the present review highlight the need for further randomised controlled trials to establish the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA on the metabolic phenotype of obese children and adolescents. Furthermore, using a personalised nutrition approach to target interventions to those at risk of, or those with established metabolic dysregulation may optimise the efficacy of modifying dietary fat quality. PMID:25497038

McMorrow, Aoibheann M; Connaughton, Ruth M; Lithander, Fiona E; Roche, Helen M

2015-02-01

343

Effect of excessive intake of dietary carbohydrates and fats on incidence of apoptosis and proliferation in male rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was planned to investigate the programmed cell death and cellular aging by estimating the relation between cell proliferation and cell death in tissue of pancreas and testis. All the biochemical parameters in this study were carried out on two aged groups (adult and senile) of male albino rats. Moreover, the study extended to emphasize the possible effect of certain dietary elements such as carbohydrate and fat on the rate of apoptosis and proliferation in some tissues and their physiological functions. Two aged groups of rats (adult and senile) were included in this study. According to the data obtained, it could be concluded that excess dietary carbohydrate could be considered as a high risk factor when given to the adult and senile age, since it produced some significant changes in the blood chemistry with non-significant changes on the proliferative and apoptotic balance of the tested tissues. Moreover, excess dietary fat could be considered as high risk factor when given to adult and senile age groups

344

Dietary supplementation of chinese ginseng prevents obesity and metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity and diabetes are growing health problems worldwide. In this study, dietary provision of Chinese ginseng (0.5?g/kg diet) prevented body weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Dietary ginseng supplementation reduced body fat mass gain, improved glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity, and prevented hypertension in HF diet-induced obese mice. Ginseng consumption led to reduced concentrations of plasma insulin and leptin, but had no effect on plasma adiponectin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Body temperature was higher in mice fed the ginseng-supplemented diet but energy expenditure, respiration rate, and locomotive activity were not significantly altered. Dietary intake of ginseng increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver but not in skeletal muscle. Expression of several transcription factors associated with adipogenesis (C/EBP? and PPAR?) were decreased in the adipose tissue of HF diet-fed mice, effects that were mitigated in mice that consumed the HF diet supplemented with ginseng. Abundance of fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA was greater in the adipose tissue of mice that consumed the ginseng-supplemented HF diet as compared with control or un-supplemented HF diet-fed mice. Ginseng treatment had no effect on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of food intake in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that Chinese ginseng can potently prevent the development of obesity and insulin resistance in HF diet-fed mice. PMID:25076190

Li, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Jing; Anandh Babu, Pon Velayutham; Zhang, Wei; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Cline, Mark; McMillan, Ryan; Hulver, Matthew; Alkhalidy, Hana; Zhen, Wei; Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Dongmin

2014-12-01

345

Effects of Endurance Running and Dietary Fat on Circulating Ghrelin and Peptide YY  

OpenAIRE

Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) are newly recognized gut peptides involved in appetite regulation. Plasma ghrelin concentrations are elevated in fasting and suppressed following a meal, while PYY concentrations are suppressed in fasting and elevated postprandially. We determine whether ghrelin and PYY are altered by a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (10% fat, 75% carbohydrate) or moderate-fat, moderate-carbohydrate (35% fat, 50% carbohydrate) diet and; whether these peptides are affected by intense e...

Larson-meyer, Enette D.; Eric Ravussin; Willis, Kentz S.; Russel, Ryan R.

2009-01-01

346

The optimal dietary fat to carbohydrate ratio to prevent obesity in the Japanese population: a review of the epidemiological, physiological and molecular evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevention of obesity, which leads to diabetes and other diseases, is a major concern for public health. There might be an optimal dietary fat to carbohydrate ratio for prevention and treatment of obesity. According to the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (RDA) for 2010, the optimal fat intake is 20-30% of energy for ages 1-29 y and 20-25% for ages 30 y and over. Upper boundary values of this recommendation were the median of the percentage of energy from dietary fat in Japanese. In a systematic review to estimate the optimal dietary fat to carbohydrate ratio, it was found that obese subjects with hyperinsulinemia (or insulin resistance) lost more weight on a mild low-carbohydrate (LC) (or low-glycemic load diet; 40% carbohydrate, 30-35% fat) than on a low-fat (LF) diet (55-60% carbohydrate, 20% fat), whereas those without hyperinsulinemia showed the opposite. In non-obese primarily insulin-sensitive subjects, decreasing fat rather than carbohydrate intake is generally more effective to prevent obesity. Physiological and molecular evidence supports this conclusion. Increased carbohydrate intake, especially in high-glycemic food, leads to postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, which are exaggerated in obese insulin-resistant subjects. Even in an insulin-resistant state, insulin is able to stimulate fatty acid synthesis in liver, activate lipoprotein lipase, and prevent lipolysis in adipose tissues, which all facilitate adipose tissue enlargement. Optimal dietary fat to carbohydrate ratio may differ in populations depending on their prevalence for obesity. Because the prevalence of overweight/obesity in Japanese is low, a LF diet is recommended in the general population. PMID:22472280

Ezaki, Osamu

2011-01-01

347

Role of anorectic N-acylethanolamines in intestinal physiology and satiety control with respect to dietary fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anandamide is a well-known agonist for the cannabinoid receptors. Along with endogenous anandamide other non-endocannabinoid N-acylethanolamines are also formed, apparently in higher amounts. These include mainly oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoyelethanolamide (PEA) and linoleoylethanolamide (LEA), and they have biological activity by themselves being anorectic and anti-inflammatory. It appears that the major effect of dietary fat on the level of these molecules is in the gastrointestinal system, where OEA, PEA and LEA in the enterocytes may function as homeostatic signals, which are decreased by prolonged consumption of a high-fat diet. These lipid amides appear to mediate their signaling activity via activation of PPAR? in the enterocyte followed by activation of afferent vagal fibers leading to the brain. Through this mechanism OEA, PEA and LEA may both reduce the consumption of a meal as well as increase the reward value of the food. Thus, they may function as homeostatic intestinal signals involving hedonic aspects that contribute to the regulation of the amounts of dietary fat to be ingested. PMID:24681513

Hansen, Harald S

2014-08-01

348

Effects of dietary Angelica keiskei on serum and liver lipid profiles, and body fat accumulations in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Angelica keiskei (Ashitaba) is a perennial plant belonging to the Umbelliferae family. Recently, much attention has been focused on Ashitaba products as a so-called health food for the breakdown of cellulite among various physiological benefits of Ashitaba. The current study was carried out to investigate the physiological efficacy of dietary Ashitaba on serum and liver lipid profiles and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were fed a high-fat diet with various amounts of Ashitaba for 28 d. Perirenal adipose tissue weights of rats fed the x 10 (170 mg/100 g BW) Ashitaba diet were significantly higher (p Ashitaba diet were significantly higher (p Ashitaba diet were significantly higher (p Ashitaba had no significant pathological impact on the liver or kidney. These results indicate that the large intake of Ashitaba products may supply dietary fiber and thus improve gastrointestinal condition through the increased excretion of feces containing high level of bile acids, although even excessive intake of Ashitaba for a short period of 28 d did not show any impact on the decrease in body fat or modification of lipid profiles in this study. PMID:17616000

Nagata, Junichi; Morino, Tomoko; Saito, Morio

2007-04-01

349

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... rest comes from foods you eat. Foods from animals are sources of dietary cholesterol. Cholesterol from the ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

350

A diet rich in OMEGA-6 polyunsaturated fat and sucrose reproduces key features of metabolic syndrome in C57BL/6 mice  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine whether a diet enriched in v-6 fatty acids and sucrose will reproduce features of metabolic syndrome in C57BL/6 mice. 4- to 7-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomized to chow (13% kcal fat, lard and corn oil) or high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet (48% kcal fat, corn oil) for a period ...

351

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... cheese stick for an afternoon snack, have 12 almonds. The calories are about the same, but you ... monounsaturated fat include: Avocado Canola oil Nuts like almonds, cashews, pecans, and peanuts Olive oil and olives ...

352

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I ... and "unhealthy fats." To lower you risk of heart disease, try to eat less saturated and trans ...

353

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and olives Peanut butter and peanut oil Sesame seeds The Association recommends eating more monounsaturated fats than ... when cooking. Sprinkling a few nuts or sunflower seeds on a salad, yogurt, or cereal is an ...

354

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I ... or sunflower seeds on a salad, yogurt, or cereal is an easy way to eat more monounsaturated ...

355

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions Journals for Professionals Professional Books ... a more detailed explanation from the FDA . Patient Education Materials — Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats This ...

356

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... blood cholesterol levels. High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease. People with diabetes are at high risk for heart disease and limiting your saturated fat ...

357

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... this section Food What Can I Eat Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Fats Alcohol Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Protein Foods What Can I Drink? Dairy Fruits donate ...

358

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas ... Vegetables Protein Foods What Can I Drink? Dairy Fruits donate en -- Acknowledge Your Hero - 2015-jan-honor- ...

359

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes ... is true that all fat is high in calories so it is important to watch portion sizes ...

360

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Pacific Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Stop Diabetes at Work Family Link Diabetes EXPO ... can have 8 grams of saturated fat. Many adults, especially women or sedentary men, may need less. ...

361

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Stop Diabetes at Work Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO ... calories as 1 teaspoon of oil or butter. Work with your dietitian to include healthy fats into ...

362

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ... goal for you, talk with your dietitian or health care provider. Saturated fat grams are listed on the ...

363

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... oil Nuts like almonds, cashews, pecans, and peanuts Olive oil and olives Peanut butter and peanut oil Sesame seeds The ... To include more monounsaturated fats, try to substitute olive or canola oil instead of butter, margarine or ...

364

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... fats are: Corn oil Cottonseed oil Safflower oil Soybean oil Sunflower oil Walnuts Pumpkin or sunflower seeds ... 3 fatty acids. Sources include: Tofu and other soybean products Walnuts Flaxseed and flaxseed oil Canola oil ...

365

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type ... carbohydrate gets all of the attention in diabetes management. More important than total fat is the type ...

366

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips ...

367

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... with meat drippings Chocolate Palm oil and palm kernel oil Coconut and coconut oil Poultry (chicken and ... monounsaturated fat include: Avocado Canola oil Nuts like almonds, cashews, pecans, and peanuts Olive oil and olives ...

368

Physicochemical and functional properties of micronized jincheng orange by-products (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) dietary fiber and its application as a fat replacer in yogurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orange by-products from juice extraction are generally discarded or used in animal feed due to their low market value. However, orange by-products show potential as dietary fiber (DF) and fat replacers in products such as yogurt. This study assessed the benefits of using orange by-products in DF-enriched materials such as DF powders (OP) and micronized DF with ball-milling (MDF). The study also investigated the effects of adding different levels of OP and MDF on the quality of low-fat yogurt. Results show that MDF showed better physicochemical and functional properties than OP, and that 2% MDF as a fat replacer in yogurt retained most of the textural and sensory properties of full-fat yogurt. Therefore, this study showed that MDF is a promising alternative as a fat replacer in low-fat yogurt, without sacrificing good taste and other qualities of full-fat yogurt. PMID:24625022

Yi, Tian; Huang, Xingjian; Pan, Siyi; Wang, Lufeng

2014-08-01

369

Effects of Feed Restriction and Dietary Fat Saturation on Performance and Serum Thyroid Hormones of Broiler Chickens  

OpenAIRE

This experiment carried out to study the effects of dietary fat saturation on performance and serum thyroid hormones of broilers under free or skip a day nutrition at 18-28 days of age. We used 720 male Ross 308 broiler chickens in a completely randomized design with a 2*4 factorial arrangement with 3 replicate and 30 chicks for each replicate. Experiment factors were: 1- skip a day or free feeding at days 10-28 of age and, 2- diets with different unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ra...

Navidshad, B.; Shivazad, M.; Zare Shahneh, A.; Rahimi, G.

2006-01-01

370

Diet digestibility in growing rabbits: effect of origin and oxidation level of dietary fat and vitamin e supplementation  

OpenAIRE

The effects of the dietary inclusion of fats with different origin (lard or vegetal oil), fatty acid profile (linseed or sunflower), oxidation level (fresh, peroxidised: 11 d at 55ºC or oxidised: 31 h at 140ºC) and vitamin E supplementation (0 or 100 ppm) on the rabbit diet apparent digestibility were studied. Digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and gross energy were determined in eight diets using 58 rabbits aged 49 d. Contrast analysis be...

Casado, C.; Moya, V. J.; Ferna?ndez, C.; Pascual Amoro?s, Juan Jose?; Blas, E.; Cervera, C.

2010-01-01

371

Effects of Dietary Fat Types on Growth Performance, Pork Quality, and Gene Expression in Growing-finishing Pigs  

OpenAIRE

This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary fat sources, i.e., beef tallow, soybean oil, olive oil and coconut oil (each 3% in feed), on the growth performance, meat quality and gene expression in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 72 crossbred pigs (Landrace×Large White×Duroc) were used at 71±1 kg body weight (about 130 d of age) in 24 pens (320×150 cm) in a confined pig house (three pigs per pen) with six replicate pens per treatment. The growing diet was given for peri...

Park, J. C.; Kim, S. C.; Lee, S. D.; Jang, H. C.; Kim, N. K.; Lee, S. H.; Jung, H. J.; Kim, I. C.; Seong, H. H.; Choi, B. H.

2012-01-01

372

Dietary fat sources differentially modulate intestinal barrier and hepatic inflammation in alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endotoxemia is a causal factor in the development of alcoholic liver injury. The present study aimed at determining the interactions of ethanol with different fat sources at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair fed control or ethanol liquid diet for 8 wk. The liquid diets were based on a modified Lieber-DeCarli formula, with 30% total calories derived from corn oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids). To test the effects of saturated fats, corn oil in the ethanol diet was replaced by either cocoa butter (CB, rich in long-chain saturated fatty acids) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT, exclusively medium-chain saturated fatty acids). Ethanol feeding increased hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration and perturbed hepatic and serum metabolite profiles. Ethanol feeding with CB or MCT alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and attenuated ethanol-induced metabolic perturbation. Both CB and MCT also normalized ethanol-induced hepatic macrophage activation, cytokine expression, and neutrophil infiltration. Ethanol feeding elevated serum endotoxin level, which was normalized by MCT but not CB. In accordance, ethanol-induced downregulations of intestinal occludin and zonula occludens-1 were normalized by MCT but not CB. However, CB normalized ethanol-increased hepatic endotoxin level in association with upregulation of an endotoxin detoxifying enzyme, argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1). Knockdown ASS1 in H4IIEC3 cells resulted in impaired endotoxin clearance and upregulated cytokine expression. These data demonstrate that the protection of saturated fats against alcohol-induced liver injury occur via different actions at the gut-liver axis and are chain length dependent. PMID:24113767

Zhong, Wei; Li, Qiong; Xie, Guoxiang; Sun, Xiuhua; Tan, Xiaobing; Sun, Xinguo; Jia, Wei; Zhou, Zhanxiang

2013-12-01

373

Associations between toenail arsenic concentration and dietary factors in a New Hampshire population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary factors such as folate, vitamin B12, protein, and methionine are important for the excretion of arsenic via one-carbon metabolism in undernourished populations exposed to high levels of arsenic via drinking water. However, the effects of dietary factors on toenail arsenic concentrations in well-nourished populations exposed to relatively low levels of water arsenic are unknown. Methods As part of a population-based case–control study of skin and bladder cancer from the USA, we evaluated relationships between consumption of dietary factors and arsenic concentrations in toenail clippings. Consumption of each dietary factor was determined from a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used general linear models to examine the associations between toenail arsenic and each dietary factor, taking into account potentially confounding effects. Results As expected, we found an inverse association between ln-transformed toenail arsenic and consumption of vitamin B12 (excluding supplements and animal protein. Unexpectedly, there were also inverse associations with numerous dietary lipids (e.g., total fat, total animal fat, total vegetable fat, total monounsaturated fat, total polyunsaturated fat, and total saturated fat. Finally, increased toenail arsenic concentrations were associated with increased consumption of long chain n-3 fatty acids. Conclusion In a relatively well-nourished population exposed to relatively low levels of arsenic via water, consumption of certain dietary lipids may decrease toenail arsenic concentration, while long chain n-3 fatty acids may increase toenail arsenic concentration, possibly due to their association with arsenolipids in fish tissue.

Gruber Joann F

2012-06-01

374

Assessment of erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid composition as a biomarker for dietary MUFA, PUFA or saturated fatty acid intake in a controlled cross-over intervention trial  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Dietary intervention trials rely on self-reported measures of intake for assessment of energy and macronutrient composition. Dietary fat intake is of particular interest due to strong associations with pathophysiology. In epidemiological trials phospholipid fatty acid composition may reflect composition of habitual diet, although strong correlations have been identified only for essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Preliminary evidence shows that saturated fatty ...

Kilmartin Paul; Poppitt Sally D; Butler Paul; Keogh Geraldine F

2005-01-01

375

BMD regulation on mouse distal chromosome 1, candidate genes, and response to ovariectomy or dietary fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distal end of mouse chromosome 1 (Chr 1) harbors quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that regulate bone mineral density (BMD) and share conserved synteny with human chromosome 1q. The objective of this article was to map this mouse distal Chr 1 region and identify gene(s) responsible for BMD regulation in females. We used X-ray densitometry [ie, dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), micro-computed tomography (µCT), and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)] to phenotype a set of nested congenic strains constructed from C57BL/6BmJ (B6/Bm) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice to map the region associated with the BMD QTL. The critical region has been reduced to an interval of 0.152 Mb that contributes to increased BMD when C3H alleles are present. Histomorphometry and osteoblast cultures indicated that increased osteoblast activity was associated with increased BMD in mouse strains with C3H alleles in this critical region. This region contains two genes, Aim2, which binds with cytoplasmic dsDNA and results in apoptosis, and AC084073.22, a predicted gene of unknown function. Ovariectomy induced bone loss in the B6/Bm progenitor and the three congenic strains regardless of the alleles present in the critical BMD region. High dietary fat treatment (thought to suppress distal Chr 1 QTL for BMD in mice) did not induce bone loss in the congenics carrying C3H alleles in the critical 0.152 Mb carrying the AIM2 and AC084073.22 genes. Gene expression studies in whole bone of key congenics showed differential expression of AC084073.22 for strains carrying B6/Bm versus C3H alleles but not for Aim2. In conclusion, our data suggest that osteoblasts are the cellular target of gene action and that AC084073.22 is the best candidate for female BMD regulation in the distal region of mouse Chr 1. PMID:20687154

Beamer, Wesley G; Shultz, Kathryn L; Coombs, Harold F; DeMambro, Victoria E; Reinholdt, Laura G; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L; Canalis, Ernesto; Rosen, Clifford J; Donahue, Leah Rae

2011-01-01

376

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... pregnant; women who are pregnant; nursing mothers; and young children. Your fish and shellfish consumption should be limited to no more than 12 oz. per week. Get a more detailed explanation from the FDA . Patient Education Materials — Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats ...

377

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... this section Food What Can I Eat Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Fats Alcohol Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Protein Foods What Can I Drink? Dairy Fruits donate en -- Acknowledge Your Hero - 2015-jan- ...

378

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... fats are: Corn oil Cottonseed oil Safflower oil Soybean oil Sunflower oil Walnuts Pumpkin or sunflower seeds Soft ( ... 3 fatty acids. Sources include: Tofu and other soybean products Walnuts Flaxseed and flaxseed oil Canola oil NOTE: The Food & Drug Administration and ...

379

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... mothers; and young children. Your fish and shellfish consumption should be limited to no more than 12 oz. per week. Get a more detailed explanation from the FDA . Patient Education Materials — Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats This ...

380

Composition of ?-tocopherol and fatty acids in porcine tissues after dietary supplementation with vitamin E and different fat sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study evaluated the effect of increasing supplementation of all-rac-?-tocopheryl acetate and dietary fatty acid composition during a four week period after weaning on porcine tissue composition of ?-tocopherol stereoisomers and fatty acids, and on hepatic expression of genes involved in transfer of ?-tocopherol, and oxidation and metabolism of fatty acids. From day 28 to 56 of age, pigs were provided 5% of tallow, fish oil or sunflower oil and 85, 150, or 300 mg/kg of all-rac-?-tocopheryl acetate. Samples of liver, heart, and adipose tissue were obtained from littermates at day 56. Tissue fatty acid composition was highly influenced by dietary fat sources. Dietary fatty acid composition (P<0.001) and vitamin E supplementation (P<0.001) influenced the ?-tocopherol stereoisomer composition in liver, i.e. less proportion of the RRR-?-tocopherol was observed in pigs provided fish oil and the highest dose of vitamin E in comparison with other dietary treatments. In addition, the stereoisomer composition of ?-tocopherol in heart, and adipose tissue was influenced by dietary treatments. Expression of genes in liver involved in the regulation of FA conversion, SCD (P=0.002) and D6D (P=0.04) were lower in pigs fed fish oil compared to other treatments, whereas the fatty acid oxidation, as indicated by the expression of PPAR-?, was higher when sunflower and fish oil was provided (P=0.03). Expression of ?-TTP in liver was higher in pigs fed fish oil (P=0.01). Vitamin E supplementation did not influence significantly the hepatic gene expression.

Lauridsen, Charlotte; Theil, Peter Kappel

2013-01-01

381

Effect of dietary fats on cholesterol metabolism and eicosanoid production in hamsters fed undigested fraction of soybean protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

The undigested fraction of soybean protein (UDF) exerts a markedly greater hypocholesterolemic effect than soybean protein itself in rats. The present study was undertaken to confirm the effect in hamsters, a more appropriate animal model for human cholesterol metabolism. Hamsters were given diets containing UDF at a nitrogen level equivalent to the 20% casein diet. Dietary fats, at the 10% level, were perilla oil and safflower oil. There was apparently no increase in the serum and liver cholesterol levels in both groups of animals cholesterol-enriched diets that had been fed for 38 days. Fecal excretion of neutral and acidic steroid tended to be higher in the perilla oil group than in the safflower oil group. The perilla oil group significantly increased 20:5n-3 in liver phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine accompanying a decrease in 20: 4n-6. Such changes were not so evident in liver phosphatidylinositol. The production of leukotriene B4 and the concentration of prostaglandin E2 in the spleen were higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Thus, the hypocholesterolemic effect of the undigested fraction of soybean protein was apparently reproduced even in hamsters. Dietary fat-induced changes in lipid parameters in hamsters resembled those observed in rats. PMID:7891210

Gatchalian-Yee, M; Imamura, M; Nonaka, M; Gu, J Y; Sugano, M

1994-10-01

382

Dietary Whey Protein Lowers the Risk for Metabolic Disease in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet12  

Science.gov (United States)

Consuming a high-fat (HF) diet produces excessive weight gain, adiposity, and metabolic complications associated with risk for developing type 2 diabetes and fatty liver disease. This study evaluated the influence of whey protein isolate (WPI) on systemic energy balance and metabolic changes in mice fed a HF diet. Female C57BL/6J mice received for 11 wk a HF diet, with or without 100 g WPI/L drinking water. Energy consumption and glucose and lipid metabolism were examined. WPI mice had lower rates of body weight gain and percent body fat and greater lean body mass, although energy consumption was unchanged. These results were consistent with WPI mice having higher basal metabolic rates, respiratory quotients, and hepatic mitochondrial respiration. Health implications for WPI were reflected in early biomarkers for fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Livers from WPI mice had significantly fewer hepatic lipid droplet numbers and less deposition of nonpolar lipids. Furthermore, WPI improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We conclude that in mice receiving a HF diet, consumption of WPI results in higher basal metabolic rates and altered metabolism of dietary lipids. Because WPI mice had less hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance, WPI dietary supplements may be effective in slowing the development of fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21310864

Shertzer, Howard G.; Woods, Sally E.; Krishan, Mansi; Genter, Mary Beth; Pearson, Kevin J.

2011-01-01

383

Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dietary Milk Fat  

OpenAIRE

A feeding trial was conducted on the utilization of milk fat as lipid energy source by Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (0.85±0.03 g). The fishes were fed with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20% milk fat based diets respectively for 8 weeks. The results obtained showed significant differences (p

Fawole, S. O.; Orire, A. M.

2012-01-01

384

Effects of supplementary dietary L-carnitine on performance and egg quality of laying hens fed diets different in fat level  

OpenAIRE

The present study aimed to examine the effects of dietary L-carnitine supplementation on performance parameters and egg quality measurements of white Leghorn hens at two dietary fat levels. Two hundred 22-weeks old white Leghorn hens were randomly distributed into 40 cages of five birds each. Two basal diets different in added fat level (0 or 3%) were formulated and supplemented with incremental levels of L-carnitine (0, 50, 100, 150 mg/kg diet). The experiment lasted 98 d (two weeks for adap...

Rahman Jahanian; Hossein Samie; Behrouz Ghods-Alavi

2010-01-01

385

Consumption of added fats and oils in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) centres across 10 European countries as assessed by 24-hour dietary recalls.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consumption of added fats and oils across the European centres and countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN AND SETTING: 24-Hour dietary recalls were collected by means of standardised computer-guided interviews in 27 redefined EPIC centres across 10 European countries. SUBJECTS: From an initial number of 36 900 subjects, single dietary recalls from 22 924 women and 13 031 men in the age range of 35-7...

Linseisen, J.; Bergstro?m, E.; Gafa?, L.; Gonza?lez, Ca; Thie?baut, A.; Trichopoulou, A.; Tumino, R.; Sa?nchez, Cn; Garcia, Cm; Mattisson, I.; Nilsson, S.; Welch, A.; Spencer, Ea; Overvad, K.; Tjønneland, A.

2002-01-01

386

Dietary Supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Plus n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Increases Food IntakeBrown Adipose Tissue in Rats  

OpenAIRE

The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3) was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression ...

Sneddon, Alan A.; Rayner, D. Vernon; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Bashir, Shabina; Ha, Jung-heun; Wahle, Klaus W.; Morris, Amanda C.; Williams, Lynda M.

2009-01-01

387

The effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on attention and impulsivity in an animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)  

OpenAIRE

Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The main symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. Both etiology and neurobiological basis of ADHD are unknown. In this context, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), especially omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs, have become a focus of interest. The symptoms of ADHD have been suggested to be associated with a deficienc...

Ewelina Makulska-Gertruda; Joachim Hauser; Thomas-A. Sontag; Lange, Klaus W.

2014-01-01

388

The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the generation of platelet-activating factor and leukotriene B4 in hypoxic-ischemic brain in young mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Platelet-activating factor (PAF), leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) and other cytokines have been indicated to be responsible for the neuronal damage in hypoxic-ischemic brain. Diets in omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids appear to have an antiinflammatory effect, which is thought to be due to decrease in active prostaglandins and leukotrienes production after incorporation of these fatty acids into cell membrane phospholipids. We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids on endogenous PAF and LTB(4) biosynthesis in hypoxic-ischemic brain of young mice. Young mice were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 mice were fed standard chow (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids free); Group 2 and Group 3 mice were given standard diet supplemented with 10% by weight of fish oil, as source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, for 3 and 6 weeks, respectively. Group 4 mice served as control. We injured the right cerebral hemisphere of young mice by ligating the right common carotid artery and exposing the mice to 8% oxygen for 60 min. Approximately 10-fold increase in PAF concentration was determined in hypoxic-ischemic brain tissue of Group 1 mice. Tissue concentration of PAF showed a profound decline in Group 3 mice compared to Groups 1 and 2 (Pbrain of Group 1 mice when compared to the brain of control mice (Pbrain tissue; however it demonstrates that 6 weeks of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids results in a significant decrease in tissue level of PAF in the brain. PMID:12468264

Akisu, M; Huseyinov, A; Baka, M; Yalaz, M; Kultursay, N

2002-12-01

389

Dietary constituents reduce lipid accumulation in murine C3H10 T1/2 adipocytes: A novel fluorescent method to quantify fat droplets  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Adipocyte volume (fat accumulation) and cell number (adipogenesis) is increased in obese individuals. Our objective was the identification of dietary constituents with inhibitory effects on triglyceride formation during adipogenesis. Therefore an in vitro adipose cell assay in murine C3H10 T1/2 cells was developed, which enabled rapid quantification of intracellular fat droplet accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. Results were corroborated by expression levels of...

Fuhrer Erna; Goralczyk Regina; Warnke Ines; Schwager Joseph

2011-01-01

390

Dietary meat and fat intake and prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Dietary fat exerts numerous complex effects on proinflammatory and immunologic pathways. Several epidemiological studies have examined the relationships between intake of fatty acids and/or foods high in fat and allergic rhinitis, but have provided conflicting findings. The current cross-sectional study investigated such relationships in Japan. Methods Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. The definition of rhinoconjunctivitis was based on criteria from the Internationa...

Miyake Yoshihiro; Tanaka Keiko; Okubo Hitomi; Sasaki Satoshi; Arakawa Masashi

2012-01-01

391

A high proportion of dietary casein attenuates the obesogenic effect of high-fat diets in C57BL/6J mice  

OpenAIRE

The obesity epidemic is on the rise, and currently represents the largest global health threat. Westernization and advances in food production have led to a contemporary diet comprised of 49 % energy from carbohydrates, 35 % from fats and 16 % from proteins. Former studies have demonstrated the weight-reducing benefits of increasing the amount of dietary protein at the expense of sucrose in high-fat diets, but the impact of specific proteins has not been elucidated. An unpublished study from ...

Hasselberg, Astrid Elise

2014-01-01

392

Hepatic and biochemical repercussions of a polyunsaturated fat-rich hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet in Wistar rats / Repercussões hepáticas e bioquímicas da dieta hipercalórica e hiperlipídica rica em gordura poliinsaturada em ratos Wistar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica caracteriza-se por depósito de lipídios nos hepatócitos. Desperta grande interesse por sua associação com obesidade, dislipidemias e diabetes mellitus tipo 2. É considerada a manifestação hepática da síndrome metabólica, cujo principal componente é [...] a resistência à insulina, com consequente hiperinsulinemia e produção aumentada de citocinas inflamatórias. Dietas ricas em gorduras saturadas promovem hipertrigliceridemia, diminuição do colesterol de alta densidade, aumento do colesterol de baixa densidade e hiperinsulinemia, enquanto dietas ricas em gordura poliinsaturada podem apresentar efeitos hipolipidêmicos, antiinflamatórios e imunorreguladores. OBJETIVO: Investigar as repercussões hepáticas e bioquímicas da dieta rica em gordura poliinsaturada em ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Os animais (22) foram distribuidos nos grupos GI-dieta padrao (Biobase Bio-tec Ratos e Camundongos®) com 3000 kcal/kg e GII-dieta hipercalorica e hiperlipidica, com 4250 kcal/kg, relação ?-6: ?-3 = 3:1. Foram mortos apos 23 semanas de administração das dietas. Avaliaram-se peso, exames bioquimicos e alteracoes histológicas do fígado. RESULTADOS: Foram utilizados testes de análise de variância com nível de significância de 5% (P Abstract in english CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by lipid deposits in the hepatocytes and has been associated with obesity, dyslipidemia and type-2 diabetes. It is considered a hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, of which the main component is insulin resistance leading to hy [...] perinsulinemia and increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Saturated fat promotes hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia, reduces levels of high-density cholesterol and increases levels of low-density cholesterol, while polyunsaturated fat is associated with hypolipidemic, antiinflammatory and imunoregulating action. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hepatic and biochemical repercussions of a polyunsaturated fat-rich diet in Wistar rats. METHODS: Twenty-two rats were distributed equally in two groups: GI - standard diet (Biobase Bio-tec Ratos e Camundongos®) providing 3.000 kcal/kg and GII - hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet providing 4.250 kcal/kg (?-6:?-3 = 3:1). The animals were euthanized after 23 weeks of experiment. The weight, biochemical parameters and hepatohistological changes were registered. RESULTS: Findings were submitted to variance analysis with the level of statistical significance at 5%. The average weight did not differ significantly between the groups at baseline (P = 0.711), but was greater in Group II by the end of the experiment (P = 0.000). The levels of triglycerides (P = 0.039), total cholesterol (P = 0.015) and HDL (P = 0.005) were higher in Group I than in Group II. Macrovesicular steatosis was significantly more common in Group II than in Group I (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet rich in polyunsaturated fat promotes weight gain and favors the development of hepatic steatosis while reducing serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL.

Idália M. B., Burlamaqui; Conceição A., Dornelas; José Telmo, Valença Jr; Francisco J. C., Mesquita; Lara B., Veras; Lusmar Veras, Rodrigues.

2011-06-01

393

A Krill Oil Supplemented Diet Suppresses Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Fed Rats  

OpenAIRE

Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular me...

Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

394

Dietary fat modulates dl-?-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E) bioavailability in adult cockerels.  

Science.gov (United States)

A trial was designed to assess the effect of fat supplementation (amount and type of fatty acids) on vitamin E bioavailability in adult cockerels. A total of 60 birds were force-fed three different diets: a semi-purified diet without added fat (Control diet) or supplemented with 3% fat as linseed (Linseed diet) or hydrogenated coconut oil (Coconut diet). The three experimental diets were also supplemented with dl-?-tocopheryl acetate to provide 40 mg vitamin E per bird. After one week of depletion, blood was collected from the wing vein before (baseline) and 6, 12, 24 and 96 h after the gavage. Plasma samples were analysed for their ?-tocopherol, cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Results showed that the addition of 3% fat in the experimental diet increased post-gavage plasma ?-tocopherol response by 153% for Linseed diet and by 75% for Coconut diet (P fat to the diet significantly increases dl-?-tocopheryl acetate bioavailability in adult cockerels. Supplementation of fat rich in unsaturated fatty acids also leads to a higher dl-?-tocopheryl acetate bioavailability than fat rich in saturated fatty acids. PMID:25354175

Prévéraud, D P; Devillard, E; Borel, P

2015-02-01

395

Responses of dietary ileal amino acid digestibility to consumption of different cultivars of potatoes and conventional fibers in grower pigs fed a high-fat basal diet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whereas dietary fibers are well recognized for nutritional management of human health issues, fiber is also known to be one of the dietary factors potentially affecting digestive use of dietary proteins. As a staple food, potato (Solanum tuberosum) may be a significant dietary fiber source. The objective of this study was to examine effects of dietary supplementation of six potato cultivar-genotype samples that differ in soluble fiber content and two conventional fiber components (i.e., cellulose and guar gum) on the apparent ileal AA digestibility in pigs fed a high-fat basal diet. The basal diet was formulated as a zero-fiber negative control (NC) to contain 41.5% poultry meal, 4% casein, 15% animal fat-oil blend, 2.8% sucrose, 31% corn (Zea mays) starch, 0.50% salt, and 0.40% trace mineral-vitamin supplement with fat contributing to 47% of the dietary GE. The two fiber diets were formulated by respectively diluting the basal diet with 10% guar gum and 10% cellulose at the expense of corn starch. Six other test diets were formulated by including 8.5% guar gum and further diluting the basal diet with 25.1% one of the six cultivar-genotype samples of dehydrated potato tuber powder to contain about 10% total dietary fiber at the expense of corn starch. Eighty-one 25-kg barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed the diets according to a completely randomized block design with each block lasting 28 d. Compared with the NC, the ileal digestibility of Ala, Gly, and Pro were decreased (P guar gum whereas the digestibility of Gly was reduced (P guar gum compared with the NC. Our results suggest that dietary inclusion of fiber at 10% from guar gum and cellulose and contributed by potatoes may adversely affect digestive use of dietary protein. PMID:23365378

Wang, Q; Yang, X; Leonard, S; Archbold, T; Sullivan, J A; Duncan, A M; Ma, W D L; Bizimungu, B; Murphy, A; Htoo, J K; Fan, M Z

2012-12-01

396

Effects of different dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The effect of three different lipid sources (soybean oil, chicken oil or bovine fat) on the abdominal fat fatty acid composition in 50 day-old broiler chickens was evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments, 8 repetitions and 40 Arbor Acres broiler chicks of each sex. The [...] four treatments were isocaloric and isoproteic with the following characteristics: T1 Control (Soybean-corn); T2 Control + 3% soybean oil; T3 Control + 3% chicken oil; and T4 Control + 3% bovine fat. The lipids from the diets had significantly statistical effects (p

SG, Rondelli; O, Martinez; PT, García.

2004-09-01

397

TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.

Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars

2012-01-01

398

Intestinal absorption of dietary fat from a liquid diet perfused in rats at a submaximum level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The small intestine of rats was perfused in vivo for 2 h with a nutritionally complete liquid diet (68% calories from fat as corn oil). As the perfusion increased from 106 mg/2 h, the intestinal disappearance of the 14C-triolein marker remained proportional to the load up to 2359 mg fat/2 h. Despite a decrease in absorption from 70 to 17%, this represents a very large fat intake. Fat absorption improved when medium-chain triglycerides or octanoic acid replaced corn oil (both p less than 0.01). Linoleic acid was absorbed from the diet less than corn oil (p less than 0.01). Dry ox bile reduced fat absorption (p less than 0.05); lipase and an antacid had no effect. Corn oil perfused alone was absorbed better than from the diet (p less than 0.01). Data with 14C-triolein was confirmed by dry-weight disappearance of the diet and by net intestinal water balance. Usual feeding underutilizes a large reserve for fat absorption. This reserve should be considered in therapeutic nutrition

399

The effect of a controlled manipulation of maternal dietary fat intake on medium and long chain fatty acids in human breast milk in Saskatoon, Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies in recent years have demonstrated the effect of maternal diet on fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods Fourteen free-living lactating women participated in a cross-over dietary intervention study, consuming a low fat diet (17.6% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 68.0% of energy as carbohydrate and a high fat diet (40.3% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 45.3% of energy as carbohydrate each for periods of 4 days, in randomised order. Each mother was her own control. Mature milk samples were collected during each period and analysed for medium and long chain fatty acids. Results The concentration of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, was 13.6% in breast milk for the low fat diet compared to 11.4% for the high fat (p Conclusions Changing maternal dietary fat intake has a rapid response in terms of changes to fatty acids in breast milk.

Stephen Alison M

2010-02-01

400

Effect of dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids on urinary eicosanoids and sex hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled feeding trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Substantial evidence relates increased sex hormone concentrations with increased breast cancer risk. Varying omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) intake may lead to alterations in eicosanoid balance and subsequent changes in circulating sex hormones that reduce risk. To clarify effects of dietary fat and n-3 i...

401

Effect of dietary fat concentration and wet sorghum distiller's grains plus solubles on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of finishing heifers  

Science.gov (United States)

Three hundred ninety-eight crossbred yearling heifers (initial BW = 373.5 kg) were used in two experiments to examine the effect of dietary fat concentration on the feeding value of wet sorghum distiller's grains plus solubles (WSDGS). Treatments included two 92% concentrate diets based on steam-fl...

402

Effect of dietary fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of alcoholic liver injury and bone loss in rats fed via total enteral nutrition (TEN)  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have examined the effects of diet on the dynamics of injury progression or on alcohol-induced bone loss. In the current study, 300 g male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 10/group) were treated with alcohol containing liquid diets via a stomach tube. Dietary fat content was either 5% (high carbo...

403

The APOB -516C/T polymorphism has no effect on lipid and apolipoprotein response following changes in dietary fat intake in a healthy population  

Science.gov (United States)

Our goal was to determine whether the presence of the '516C/T polymorphism in the APOB gene promoter modifies the lipid response to changes in the amount and quality of dietary fat. We studied 97 young healthy volunteers (70 males and 27 females), 62 homozygotes for the '516C allele (C/C) (47 males ...

404

Nominal group technique-elicited barriers and facilitators to following the Dietary Guidelines for solid fats and added sugars in children: The HEALTH Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The US population has a high intake of discretionary solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS) which currently exceeds federal dietary recommendations. The goal of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to following the DGA. Thirty-eight 5th grade children across six Human Nutrition Resear...

405

The role of the small intestine in the development of dietary fat-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and insulin resistance are two major risk factors underlying the metabolic syndrome. The development of these metabolic disorders is frequently studied, but mainly in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. To gain more insight in the role of the small intestine in development of obesity and insulin resistance, dietary fat-induced differential gene expression was determined along the longitudinal axis of small intestines of C57BL/6J mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet that mimicked the fatty acid composition of a Western-style human diet. After 2, 4 and 8 weeks of diet intervention small intestines were isolated and divided in three equal parts. Differential gene expression was determined in mucosal scrapings using Mouse genome 430 2.0 arrays. Results The high-fat diet significantly increased body weight and decreased oral glucose tolerance, indicating insulin resistance. Microarray analysis showed that dietary fat had the most pronounced effect on differential gene expression in the middle part of the small intestine. By overrepresentation analysis we found that the most modulated biological processes on a high-fat diet were related to lipid metabolism, cell cycle and inflammation. Our results further indicated that the nuclear receptors Ppars, Lxrs and Fxr play an important regulatory role in the response of the small intestine to the high-fat diet. Next to these more local dietary fat effects, a secretome analysis revealed differential gene expression of secreted proteins, such as Il18, Fgf15, Mif, Igfbp3 and Angptl4. Finally, we linked the fat-induced molecular changes in the small intestine to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Conclusion During dietary fat-induced development of obesity and insulin resistance, we found substantial changes in gene expression in the small intestine, indicating modulations of biological processes, especially related to lipid metabolism. Moreover, we found differential expression of potential signaling molecules that can provoke systemic effects in peripheral organs by influencing their metabolic homeostasis. Many of these fat-modulated genes could be linked to obesity and/or insulin resistance. Together, our data provided various leads for a causal role of the small intestine in the etiology of obesity and/or insulin resistance.

Bromhaar Mechteld

2008-05-01

406

Dietary fat assimilation and bile salt absorption in the killifish intestine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiolabeled taurocholate (TC) and triolein were used to study fat assimilation and bile salt absorption in the stomachless saltwater killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Fat absorption occurred primarily in the proximal intestine with approximately 87% of a single dose (9 mg fat/8 g fish) absorbed in 2 h. Luminal triolein hydrolysis and enterocyte triolein resynthesis were tightly coupled. Killifish gallbladder bile contains taurocholate and cholate in an equal molar ratio at a combined concentration of 237 +/- 25 mM (n = 10) in 24-h-fasted fish. During fat assimilation luminal bile salt and fatty acid concentrations ranged between 10 and 30 mM. Between and during meals the total concentration of bile salts in the intestinal tissue remained roughly constant (4-6 mM) with the proximal one-third of the intestine containing 40% of the total and the remainder equally distributed between the mid and distal regions. All three regions of the intestine rapidly incorporated ingested TC in vivo, with the amount incorporated proportional to the pool size. In contrast, in vitro at low TC concentrations (60 nM), the distal one-third of the intestine incorporated 10 times as much TC in 2-min uptake experiments as the proximal and mid regions. Although there are many similarities between fat and bile salt assimilation in killifish and mammals, overall the processes are much simpler in killifish

407

Dietary fat induces sustained reward response in the human brain without primary taste cortex discrimination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To disentangle taste from reward responses in the human gustatory cortex, we combined high density electro-encephalography with a gustometer delivering tastant puffs to the tip of the tongue. Stimuli were pure tastants (salt solutions at two concentrations, caloric emulsions of identical taste (two milk preparations differing in fat content and a mixture of high fat milk with the lowest salt concentration. Early event-related potentials showed a dose-response effect for increased taste intensity, with higher amplitude and shorter latency for high compared to low salt concentration, but not for increased fat content. However, the amplitude and distribution of late potentials were modulated by fat content independently of reported intensity and discrimination. Neural source estimation revealed a sustained activation of reward areas to the two high-fat stimuli. The results suggest calorie detection through specific sensors on the tongue independent of perceived taste. Finally, amplitude variation of the first peak in the event-related potential to the different stimuli correlated with papilla density, suggesting a higher discrimination power for subjects with more fungiform papillae.

JulieHudry

2013-02-01

408

A review of the Canadian "Nutrition recommendations update: dietary fat and children.".  

Science.gov (United States)

A joint Working Group from the Canadian Paediatric Society and Health Canada met in the early 1990s to consider the applicability of recommendations to restrict total and saturated fat in children > or = 2 y of age. The Group weighed information from the literature on the nutritional needs for growth and development against evidence relating diet to risk of nutrition-related diseases. The Group concluded that the efficacy of the fat-restricted diet could not be assumed. There was no evidence that implementation of the diet would reduce illness in later life or provide benefit to children as children. Regarding safety, some children consuming self-selected diets with low fat intakes have lower energy intakes and food patterns that may compromise the intake of certain key nutrients. The primary recommendations of the Group were that the provision of adequate energy and nutrients to ensure adequate growth and development remains the most important consideration in the nutrition of children and that during the preschool and childhood years, nutritious food choices should not be eliminated or restricted because of fat content. Once linear growth has stopped, fat intake as currently recommended (30:10) is appropriate. PMID:8642426

Zlotkin, S H

1996-04-01

409

GDF-3 is an adipogenic cytokine under high fat dietary condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF-3) is structurally a bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor subfamily member of the TGF-? superfamily. GDF-3 exhibits highest level of expression in white fat tissue in mice and is greatly induced by high fat diet if fat metabolic pathway is blocked. To identify its biological function, GDF-3 was overexpressed in mice by adenovirus mediated gene transfer. Mice transduced with GDF-3 displayed profound weight gain when fed with high fat diet. The phenotypes included greatly expanded adipose tissue mass, increased body adiposity, highly hypertrophic adipocytes, hepatic steatosis, and elevated plasma leptin. GDF-3 stimulated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression in adipocytes, a master nuclear receptor that controls adipogenesis. However, GDF-3 was not involved in blood glucose homeostasis or insulin resistance, a condition associated with obesity. In contrast, similar phenotypes were not observed in GDF-3 mice fed with normal chow, indicating that GDF-3 is only active under high lipid load. Thus, GDF-3 is a new non-diabetic adipogenic factor tightly coupled with fat metabolism

410

Effects of Dietary Fats on Blood Cholesterol and Other Measures Related to Chd Risk in Male and Female Laboratory Mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Juvenile and adult male and female Swiss mice were fed one of four specially-formulated, pelleted diets containing respectively 8 per cent saturated vegetable fat, 8 per cent soya oil, 8 per cent olive oil and 2 per cent soya oil (with identities hidden from the experimenter or a local commercial rodent food. It was intended to assess their impact on some blood indices linked to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. Subjects were individually housed and their blood concentrations of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC and triglycerides were assessed. Clearly, these non-isocaloric diets differed in palatability, producing complex effects on growth as well as physiological measures. Many indices were influenced by age, sex, and the duration of dietary exposure. Interactions between factors were common but it appeared that males showed the greater increase in risk factors in response to some diets.

Tahia A. Maimanee

1999-01-01

411

Low eficiency of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the reversal of insulin resistance induced by a high-fat in mice.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 49, Suppl. 1 (2006), s. 345-346. ISSN 0012-186X. [Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes /42./. 14.09.2006-17.09.2006, Copenhagen-Malmoe] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ?R(CZ) GA303/05/2580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : insulin resistance * n-3 PUFA * high fat diet Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

Jílková, Zuzana; Rossmeisl, Martin; Flachs, Pavel; Kopecký, Jan

2006-01-01

412

Nutrition for Everyone  

Science.gov (United States)

... healthier eating habits: Nutrition Basics Food Groups Water Dietary Fat Trans Fat Saturated Fat Cholesterol Polyunsaturated Fats and ... for Everyone Introduction Nutrition Basics Food Groups Water Dietary Fat Trans Fat Saturated Fat Cholesterol Polyunsaturated Fats and ...

413

Effects of different dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat  

OpenAIRE

The effect of three different lipid sources (soybean oil, chicken oil or bovine fat) on the abdominal fat fatty acid composition in 50 day-old broiler chickens was evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments, 8 repetitions and 40 Arbor Acres broiler chicks of each sex. The four treatments were isocaloric and isoproteic with the following characteristics: T1 Control (Soybean-corn); T2 Control + 3% soybean oil; T3 Control + 3% chicken oil; and T4 Control + 3% bovine fa...

Sg, Rondelli; Martinez, O.; Pt, Garci?a

2004-01-01

414

Status of methodology for the determination of fat-soluble vitamins in foods, dietary supplements, and vitamin premixes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fat-soluble vitamins (FSVs) include vitamin A, carotenoids, vitamins D, E, and K. New legislation is being introduced in many countries to reinforce regulatory compliance of declared concentrations of vitamins and other micronutrients in food products and dietary supplements. The levels of FSVs are likely to be more closely scrutinized due to their potential health risks associated with overdosing, in particular of vitamin D. However, a proviso of stricter regulatory compliance is that analytical methods must be fit-for-purpose, providing adequate accuracy and precision. Official methods have been published by organizations such as AOAC INTERNATIONAL, European Committee for Standardization, International Dairy Federation, U.S. Pharmacopeia, and International Organization for Standardization. The methods available for foods, dietary supplements, and vitamin premixes are evaluated in this review. In general, these methods show adequate precision for regulatory compliance; however, the field of application has not often been evaluated for a sufficiently large range of food matrixes. Gaps have been noted in the range of published official procedures, particularly for carotenoids and vitamin premixes. The potential of some recent developments in sample preparation and chromatographic techniques were evaluated to provide improved procedures for FSV analysis the future. PMID:17760326

Blake, Christopher John

2007-01-01

415

Dietary Supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Plus n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Increases Food Intake and Brown Adipose Tissue in Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3 was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression measurements revealed increased expression of orexigenic and decreased expression of anorexigenic signals. Thus, CLA/n-3 increases food intake without affecting body weight potentially through increasing BAT size and up-regulating UCP-1 in rats.

Amanda C. Morris

2009-11-01

416

A Protective Lipidomic Biosignature Associated with a Balanced Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio in fat-1 Transgenic Mice  

OpenAIRE

A balanced omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio has been linked to health benefits and the prevention of many chronic diseases. Current dietary intervention studies with different sources of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) lack appropriate control diets and carry many other confounding factors derived from genetic and environmental variability. In our study, we used the fat-1 transgenic mouse model as a proxy for long-term omega-3 supplementation to determine, in a well-contr...

Astarita, Giuseppe; Mckenzie, Jennifer H.; Wang, Bin; Strassburg, Katrin; Doneanu, Angela; Johnson, Jay; Baker, Andrew; Hankemeier, Thomas; Murphy, James; Vreeken, Rob J.; Langridge, James; Kang, Jing X.

2014-01-01

417

Effect of linoleic acid and dietary vitamin E supplementation on sustained conjugated linoleic acid production in milk fat from dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; cis-9,trans-11 18:2), a bioactive fatty acid (FA) found in milk and dairy products, has potential human health benefits due to its anticarcinogenic and antiatherogenic properties. Conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in milk fat can be markedly increased by dietary manipulation; however, high levels of CLA are difficult to sustain as rumen biohydrogenation shifts and milk fat depression (MFD) is often induced. Our objective was to feed a typical Northeastern corn-based diet and investigate whether vitamin E and soybean oil supplementation would sustain an enhanced milk fat CLA content while avoiding MFD. Holstein cows (n=48) were assigned to a completely randomized block design with repeated measures for 28 d and received 1 of 4 dietary treatments: (1) control (CON), (2) 10,000 IU of vitamin E/d (VE), (3) 2.5% soybean oil (SO), and (4) 2.5% soybean oil plus 10,000 IU of vitamin E/d (SO-VE). A 2-wk pretreatment control diet served as the covariate. Milk fat percentage was reduced by both high-oil diets (3.53, 3.56, 2.94, and 2.92% for CON, VE, SO, and SO-VE), whereas milk yield increased significantly for the SO-VE diet only, thus partially mitigating MFD by oil feeding. Milk protein percentage was higher for cows fed the SO diet (3.04, 3.05, 3.28, and 3.03% for CON, VE, SO, and SO-VE), implying that nutrient partitioning or ruminal supply of microbial protein was altered in response to the reduction in milk fat. Milk fat concentration of CLA more than doubled in cows fed the diets supplemented with soybean oil, with concurrent increases in trans-10 18:1 and trans-11 18:1 FA. Moreover, milk fat from cows fed the 2 soybean oil diets had 39.1% less de novo synthesized FA and 33.8% more long-chain preformed FA, and vitamin E had no effect on milk fat composition. Overall, dietary supplements of soybean oil caused a reduction in milk fat percentage and a shift in FA composition characteristic of MFD. Supplementing diets with vitamin E did not overcome the oil-induced reduction in milk fat percentage or changes in FA profile, but partially mitigated the reduction in fat yield by increasing milk yield. PMID:23063161

O'Donnell-Megaro, A M; Capper, J L; Weiss, W P; Bauman, D E

2012-12-01

418

Effect of various dietary fats on antibody production and lymphocyte proliferation n chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One-day old Babcock-300 female chicks (n = 80) were fed one of four corn-soybean meal based diets which differed only in fat source. Diets contained 7% by weight: corn oil (CO), canola oil (CA), lard (LA), or fish oil (FO). Chicks (n = 12/trt) were injected with sheep red blood cells (sRBC) at day 21 and antibody titers were measured by haemagglutination at d 28. On d 22 (n = 4/trt) and 26 (n = 4/trt) concanavalin A (Con A), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated proliferation of splenocytes was assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation. The results show that feeding young chicks a diet containing fish oil (rich in n-3 fatty acids) significantly increased weight gain, antibody production, and had a tendency to decrease splenocyte proliferation in response to mitogens compared to other fat sources

419

TFAP2B Influences the Effect of Dietary Fat on Weight Loss under Energy Restriction  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. (Registration: ISRCTN25867281.) One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 1...

2012-01-01

420

Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Depression: The SUN Project  

OpenAIRE

Emerging evidence relates some nutritional factors to depression risk. However, there is a scarcity of longitudinal assessments on this relationship. Objective: To evaluate the association between fatty acid intake or the use of culinary fats and depression incidence in a Mediterranean population. Material and Methods: Prospective cohort study (1999–2010) of 12,059 Spanish university graduates (mean age: 37.5 years) initially free of depression with permanently open enrolment...

Sanchez-villegas, A.; Verberne, L.; Irala, J.; Ruiz-canela, M.; Toledo, E.; Serra-majem, L.; Martinez-gonzalez, M. A.

2011-01-01

421

Effects of dietary fish oil and trans fat on rat aorta histopathology and cardiovascular risk markers  

OpenAIRE

Fish oil and shortening have been suggested to have opposite effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the effect of shortening and fish oil on CVD risk factors and aorta histopathology, and the association between risk factors and aorta histopathology. Male Wister rats (n=30) were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 20% fat in the form of fish oil, shortening, or soybean oil for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), triacylglyceride (TG), and C-reactive protein levels were signi...

Park, Seonhye; Park, Yongsoon

2009-01-01

422

The inhibition of fat cell proliferation by fatty acids in dietary obese mice.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 10, - (2011), s. 128. ISSN 1476-511X R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP301/11/0226; GA ?R(CZ) GD305/08/H037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : DHA and EPA * fish oil * fat cell turnover Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.170, year: 2011

Hensler, Michal; Bardová, Kristina; Macek Jílková, Zuzana; Wahli, W.; Meztger, D.; Chambon, P.; Kopecký, Jan; Flachs, Pavel

2011-01-01

423

Effects of dietary fiber, fats, and meat intakes on the risk of Barrett’s Esophagus  

OpenAIRE

Animal and human models suggest associations between fat intake, fiber intake and the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. We evaluated whether these factors may act early in the carcinogenic pathway as a risk factor for Barrett’s esophagus, a potentially premalignant precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma using a case-control design within the Kaiser Permanente, Northern California population. Incident Barrett’s esophagus cases (n=296) were matched to persons with gastroesophageal reflux d...

Kubo, Ai; Block, Gladys; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Buffler, Patricia; Corley, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

424

High dietary intake of saturated fat is associated with reduced semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Saturated fat intake has been associated with both cardiovascular disease and cancer risk, and a newly published study found an association between saturated fat intake and a lower sperm concentration in infertile men. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake and semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, men were recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service from 2008 to 2010. They delivered a semen sample, underwent a physical examination, and answered a questionnaire comprising a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire to assess food and nutrient intakes. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed with semen variables as outcomes and dietary fat intakes as exposure variables, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: A lower sperm concentration and total sperm count in men with a high intake of saturated fat was found. A significant dose-response association was found, and men in the highest quartile of saturated fat intake had a 38% (95% CI: 0.1%, 61%) lower sperm concentration and a 41% (95% CI: 4%, 64%) lower total sperm count than did men in the lowest quartile. No association between semen quality and intake of other types of fat was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are of potentially great public interest, because changes in diet over the past decades may be part of the explanation for the recently reported high frequency of subnormal human sperm counts. A reduction in saturated fat intake may be beneficial for both general and reproductive health.

Jensen, Tina Kold; Heitmann, Berit L

2013-01-01

425

An Investigation into the Association between DNA Damage and Dietary Fatty Acid in Men with Prostate Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostate cancer is a growing problem in New Zealand and worldwide, as populations adopt a Western style dietary pattern. In particular, dietary fat is believed to be associated with oxidative stress, which in turn may be associated with cancer risk and development. In addition, DNA damage is associated with the risk of various cancers, and is regarded as an ideal biomarker for the assessment of the influence of foods on cancer. In the study presented here, 20 men with prostate cancer adhered to a modified Mediterranean style diet for three months. Dietary records, blood fatty acid levels, prostate specific antigen, C-reactive protein and DNA damage were assessed pre- and post-intervention. DNA damage was inversely correlated with dietary adherence (p = 0.013) and whole blood monounsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.009) and oleic acid (p = 0.020). DNA damage was positively correlated with the intake of dairy products (p = 0.043), red meat (p = 0.007) and whole blood omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.015). Both the source and type of dietary fat changed significantly over the course of the dietary intervention. Levels of DNA damage were correlated with various dietary fat sources and types of dietary fat. PMID:25580814

Bishop, Karen S.; Erdrich, Sharon; Karunasinghe, Nishi; Han, Dug Yeo; Zhu, Shuotun; Jesuthasan, Amalini; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

2015-01-01

426

An Investigation into the Association between DNA Damage and Dietary Fatty Acid in Men with Prostate Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a growing problem in New Zealand and worldwide, as populations adopt a Western style dietary pattern. In particular, dietary fat is believed to be associated with oxidative stress, which in turn may be associated with cancer risk and development. In addition, DNA damage is associated with the risk of various cancers, and is regarded as an ideal biomarker for the assessment of the influence of foods on cancer. In the study presented here, 20 men with prostate cancer adhered to a modified Mediterranean style diet for three months. Dietary records, blood fatty acid levels, prostate specific antigen, C-reactive protein and DNA damage were assessed pre- and post-intervention. DNA damage was inversely correlated with dietary adherence (p = 0.013 and whole blood monounsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.009 and oleic acid (p = 0.020. DNA damage was positively correlated with the intake of dairy products (p = 0.043, red meat (p = 0.007 and whole blood omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.015. Both the source and type of dietary fat changed significantly over the course of the dietary intervention. Levels of DNA damage were correlated with various dietary fat sources and types of dietary fat.

Karen S. Bishop

2015-01-01

427

An investigation into the association between DNA damage and dietary fatty acid in men with prostate cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostate cancer is a growing problem in New Zealand and worldwide, as populations adopt a Western style dietary pattern. In particular, dietary fat is believed to be associated with oxidative stress, which in turn may be associated with cancer risk and development. In addition, DNA damage is associated with the risk of various cancers, and is regarded as an ideal biomarker for the assessment of the influence of foods on cancer. In the study presented here, 20 men with prostate cancer adhered to a modified Mediterranean style diet for three months. Dietary records, blood fatty acid levels, prostate specific antigen, C-reactive protein and DNA damage were assessed pre- and post-intervention. DNA damage was inversely correlated with dietary adherence (p = 0.013) and whole blood monounsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.009) and oleic acid (p = 0.020). DNA damage was positively correlated with the intake of dairy products (p = 0.043), red meat (p = 0.007) and whole blood omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.015). Both the source and type of dietary fat changed significantly over the course of the dietary intervention. Levels of DNA damage were correlated with various dietary fat sources and types of dietary fat. PMID:25580814

Bishop, Karen S; Erdrich, Sharon; Karunasinghe, Nishi; Han, Dug Yeo; Zhu, Shuotun; Jesuthasan, Amalini; Ferguson, Lynnette R

2015-01-01

428

THE EGG – FUNCTIONAL FOOD.COMPARATIVE STUDY ON VARIOUS NUTRITIONAL SOLUTIONS TO ENRICH THE EGG POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS. II YOLK FATTY ACIDS PROFILE RESULTING FROM THE DIETARY USE OF SAFFLOWER OIL AND FLAX SEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in a study on the comparative evaluation of the effect of a diet with safflower oil and flax seeds compared to a control soybean oil diet given to layers on the bioproductive effects, egg characteristics and yolk fatty acids profile. The trial involved 32 Lowman Brown layers during the age period 23- 28 weeks (1 week of accommodation and 4 experimental weeks. The layers, assigned to 2 groups (16 layers/group, 4 layers/cage received diets based on corn, wheat and soybean meal. The diets differed by the source of fatty acids: soybean oil for the control group (SO; safflower oil and flax seeds for SSO+FS. The diets were supplemented with 250 ppm vitamin E. Twelve eggs per group were collected randomly 10 and 30 days, respectively, after the beginning of the experiment. The paper presents comparative data on the: average egg weight, egg component (egg shell, yolk, egg white weight, intensity of yolk colour (Hoffman – La Roche colour range, yolk protein, fat yolk pH (measured one week after collection, the eggs being kept at 50C and yolk fatty acids. All data show that the profile of yolk unsaturated fatty acids can be handled quite easily by the nature of the dietary fats, their level of inclusion and their dietary ratio.

CRISTE RODICA. D.

2013-12-01

429

Dietary Rhus coriaria L. powder reduces the blood cholesterol, VLDL-c and glucose, but increases abdominal fat in broilers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In an experiment, 200 one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were used to investigate the effects of sumac fruit (Rhus coriaria L.) powder (SFP) on performance, plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), ver [...] y low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) and plasma fasting blood sugar (FBS), as well as proportional abdominal fat. The chicks were divided into four treatment groups with 5 replicates and 10 birds in each. The birds were fed the basal diet (Z-SFP) or diets supplemented with 2.5 g SFP (L-SFP), 5 g SFP (M-SFP) and 10 g SFP (H-SFP) per kg diet. During the whole experimental period the H-SFP birds had a higher feed intake than the Z-SFP and L-SFP birds, though the H-SFP birds had higher feed conversion ratio compared with birds in the other treatments. No significant differences for body weight gain were recorded between the treatments. The M-SFP and H-SFP birds had lower plasma TC and VLDL-c concentrations than the Z-SFP and L-SFP birds. No significant differences between the treatments were indicated for plasma TG, HDL-c and LDL-c concentrations. Moreover the plasma FBS concentration of the H-SFP birds was lower than the birds in treatments Z-SFP and L-SFP, but no significant differences were observed between the other treatments. Furthermore, significant negative correlations were found between SFP supplementation and plasma TC, VLDL-c and FBS concentrations and a significant positive correlation between SFP supplementation and abdominal fat weight. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of SFP reduces the blood TC, VLDL-c and FBS concentrations, which can be related to decreased activity of HMG-CoA reductase and ?-amylase activities. The higher abdominal fat weight of the SFP-fed birds is possibly related to changes of energy storage towards fat deposition.

M., Golzadeh; P., Farhoomand; M., Daneshyar.

430

/ PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND SENSORIAL EFFECTS OF THE USE OF DIETARY FIBER IN SAUSAGES OF THE VIENNA TYPE OF LOW FAT CONTENT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Bolivia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN En el presente trabajo se estudia los efectos causados por la adición de dos porcentajes de inulina (4% y 6%) como fuente de fibra dietaria, en algunas propiedades fisicoquímicas y sensoriales de salchichas tipo Viena cuyo contenido en grasa se ha reducido, elaboradas bajo los requisitos de [...] calidad del Instituto Boliviano de Normalización y Calidad (IBNORCA) y bajo los lineamientos de la Agencia de Drogas y Alimentos de EE.UU. (FDA) para la reducción de grasas. La adición de 4% de inulina no influyó en los valores proteicos, y de ceniza, pero si generó un aumento en la humedad del 1.5% y una disminución hasta del 27% en grasa. La adición de 6% de inulina no influyó en los valores proteicos y de ceniza, pero si generó un aumento en humedad del 3.5% y una disminución hasta del 42% en grasas. La adición de estos dos porcentajes de inulina mantuvo el sabor y olor, pero la textura y color variaron disminuyendo la suavidad y tonalidad rojiza del producto Abstract in english In this paper were studied the effects caused by the addition of two percentages of inulin (4% and 6%) as a source of dietary fiber, on some physicochemical and sensory properties of sausages type Vienna whose fat content has been reduced, prepared under quality requirements of the Bolivian Institut [...] e for Standards and Quality (IBNORCA) and under the guidelines of the Food and Drug Agency of USA (FDA) for fat reduction. Adding 4% inulin did not influence the protein and ashvalues, but caused an increase in moisture of 1.5% and a decrease to 27% of fat. Adding 6% inulin not influence protein and ash values, but caused an increase in humidity of 3.5% and a decrease to 42% of fat. The addition of these two percentages inulin kept the flavor (taste and odor), but varied texture and color decreasing softness and the reddish hue of the product. Original Spanish mu: Efectos fisicoquímicos y sensoriales del uso de fibra dietaria en salchichas tipo viena reducida en grasas

Marco L, Quino; Juan A, Alvarado.

2014-12-01

431

Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and C16:0 yield. Dietary linoleic acid content also had a positive coefficient for milk trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid yield. These results demonstrate that even when total dietary FA are below 3%, free oils rich in linoleic acid can reduce milk fat yield by reducing secretion of milk FA with fewer than 18 carbons. Fatty acid composition of fat supplements is important even at this low level of total dietary fat. PMID:25468700

Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

2015-01-01