WorldWideScience

Sample records for dietary polyunsaturated fat

  1. Inhibition of experimental colorectal carcinogenesis by dietary N-6 polyunsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, M L; Neoptolemos, J P; Clayton, H A; Talbot, I C; Bell, P R

    1990-12-01

    The influence of dietary fats on azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis and erythrocyte, adipose, colon mucosa and tumour tissue fatty acids was investigated in 228 Wistar rats. The two main diets compared were beef suet rich in saturated fatty acids and corn oil rich in a linoleic acid, an N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid. The animals were placed in one of four dietary groups: A = 5% saturated fat, B = 20% saturated fat, C = 5% N-6 fat and D = 20% N-6 fat. There was no difference in the number of adenomas between any of the dietary groups. The mean (+/- SEM) carcinoma yield per rat was A = 0.93 +/- 0.28, B = 1.93 +/- 0.50, C = 0.70 +/- 0.07, D = 0.13 +/- 0.04; the tumour yields in rats fed the saturated fat diets were significantly different from each other and from those fed the N-6 fat diets. The fatty acid profiles in all tissues were dependent upon the type and level of dietary fat and the tissue type. Arachidonate was higher in tumours compared to normal mucosa. Significant correlations were found between adipose linoleate (reflecting dietary intake) and tumour oleate and tumour arachidonate but not with the colorectal mucosa of control animals. This is the first in vivo study to show reduced colorectal carcinogenesis by N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:2124952

  2. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amounts of polyunsaturated fats include: Walnuts Sunflower seeds Flax seeds or flax oil Fish, such as salmon, mackerel, ... 2 meals with fish per week. Sprinkle ground flax seed on your meal. Add walnuts or sunflower seeds ...

  3. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  4. Increasing polyunsaturation of milk fats by feeding formaldehyde protected sunflower-soybean supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenn, T R; Weyant, J R; Wood, D L; Bitman, J; Rawlings, R M; Lyon, K E

    1976-04-01

    A practical means of protecting fats of a feed concentrate containing high polyunsaturated fatty acids is described. A ground mixture of 30% soybeans and 70% sunflower seeds was treated with 1% formaldehyde to protect the unsaturated lipids from microbial hydrogenation in the rumen. This was fed as a supplement to two Holstein cows in amounts that were doubled weekly. These ranged from 524 to 8384 g/day and provided successively increasing intakes of 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 g of linoleic acid daily. Percent milk fat increased by more than one, and linoleic acid (C18:2) of milk fat increased from 2.5 to 20% with compensatory declines in myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids. Cholesterol and vitamin E of plasma both doubled at the highest supplementation. Milk yield, solids-not-fat, protein and milk cholesterol were unaltered. Fat in feces doubled from about 3 to 6%. Daily linoleic acid content of feces increased from 25 g to 120 g, indicating a dietary loss of 7 to 10% of this polyunsaturated acid. These cheaper feed ingredients elevated the polyunsaturated fats in milk as effectively as the expensive purified casein and safflower oil supplements in previous experiments. PMID:944200

  5. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne-Sofie Quist; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Gamborg, Michael; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M; Heitmann, Berit L; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Jess, Tine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity-related...... in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures...

  6. LDL cholesteryl oleate as a predictor for atherosclerosis: evidence from human and animal studies on dietary fat

    OpenAIRE

    Degirolamo, Chiara; Shelness, Gregory S.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the relationships among dietary fat type, plasma and liver lipid, and lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids are beneficial for the prevention of coronary artery atherosclerosis. By contrast, dietary monounsaturated fatty acids appear to alter hepatic lipoprotein metabolism, promote cholesteryl oleate accumulation, and confer atherogenic properties to lipoproteins as shown in data from experimental animal studies. Polyunsaturated...

  7. Dietary Fats and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Ristic-Medic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantity and quality of fats consumed in the diet can have important effects on prevention and/or improvement clustering metabolic abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. Fatty acids as food ingredients regulate cholesterol homeostasis and concentrations of blood lipoproteins, and affect the levels of other cardiometabolic risk factors, such as blood pressure, haemostasis, and body weight, through various mechanisms. There is convincing evidence that exchanging dietary saturated fat with monounsaturated fat produces beneficial effects on metabolic control, i.a. it lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations, improves the postprandial lipid profile and lowers the blood pressure. Serum fatty acid composition mainly reflects dietary fat intake, but also endogenous fatty acid synthesis catalyzed by desaturases. Furthermore, high fat intake and serum fatty acid profile may influence the progression of obesity and insulin sensitivity. This review highlights current dietary guidance of fats quality recommendation in health and cardio metabolic risk.

  8. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sources of Monounsaturated Fat Include: Avocados Olive Oil Almonds Peanut Butter Canola Oil Peanut Oil Cashews Sunflower ... cheese Coconut Oil Canola oil Cream Low-fat milk or fat-free creamer Eggs Egg whites or ...

  9. Dietary fats explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body gets from your food give your body essential fatty acids called linoleic and linolenic acid. They are called " ... fats, which include safflower, sunflower, corn, and soy oil Trans fatty acids are unhealthy fats that form when vegetable oil ...

  10. Dietary fat overload reprograms brown fat mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Tatulli, Giuseppe; Vegliante, Rolando; Cannata, Stefano M.; Bernardini, Sergio; Ciriolo, Maria R.; Aquilano, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD) at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulate health and lifespan. PMID:26483700

  11. Dietary Fat and Sports Nutrition: A Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Lonnie M. Lowery

    2004-01-01

    The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol) choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune funct...

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids; not to...

  13. Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, C.; Ross, R.P.; Fitzgerald, G.F; Patterson, E; Wall, R

    2012-01-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed eicosanoids, which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show str...

  14. How much dietary fat in therapeutic nutrition?

    OpenAIRE

    Simko, V.

    1990-01-01

    Dietary fat has a less prominent role in realimentation than the alternate source of energy, carbohydrate. Presently available therapeutic diets, in typical feeding routines, provide only 3 to 120 g of fat per day. Three major factors contribute to fat underutilization: long-standing belief that fat is to blame for various vague symptoms of indigestion, misconception that daily fecal fat in excess of 7 g represents bowel dysfunction, and fear of fat-induced atherogenesis. None of these apply ...

  15. DIETARY FAT AND SPORTS NUTRITION: A PRIMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonnie M. Lowery

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits. Toward this end, many companies now sell specialty dietary fat supplements and recognized health authorities have begun recommending them to certain populations. This review will cover data regarding the physiology, dietary needs, food sources, and potential benefits and risks most relevant to athletes. Practical suggestions for incorporating healthy fats will be made. Both food-source and supplemental intakes will be addressed with interrelationships to health throughout.

  16. Six Tissue Transcriptomics Reveals Specific Immune Suppression in Spleen by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsson, Britt G.; Peris, Eduard; Nookaew, Intawat; Grahnemo, Louise; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid; Jansson, John-Olov; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are suggested to modulate immune function, but the effects of dietary fatty acids composition on gene expression patterns in immune organs have not been fully characterized. In the current study we investigated how dietary fatty acids composition affects the total transcriptome profile, and especially, immune related genes in two immune organs, spleen (SPL) and bone marrow cells (BMC). Four tissues with metabolic function, skeletal muscle (SKM), white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and liver (LIV), were investigated as a comparison. Following 8 weeks on low fat diet (LFD), high fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S), or HFD rich in PUFA (HFD-P), tissue transcriptomics were analyzed by microarray and metabolic health assessed by fasting blood glucose level, HOMA-IR index, oral glucose tolerance test as well as quantification of crown-like structures in WAT. HFD-P corrected the metabolic phenotype induced by HFD-S. Interestingly, SKM and BMC were relatively inert to the diets, whereas the two adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) were mainly affected by HFD per se (both HFD-S and HFD-P). In particular, WAT gene expression was driven closer to that of the immune organs SPL and BMC by HFDs. The LIV exhibited different responses to both of the HFDs. Surprisingly, the spleen showed a major response to HFD-P (82 genes differed from LFD, mostly immune genes), while it was not affected at all by HFD-S (0 genes differed from LFD). In conclusion, the quantity and composition of dietary fatty acids affected the transcriptome in distinct manners in different organs. Remarkably, dietary PUFA, but not saturated fat, prompted a specific regulation of immune related genes in the spleen, opening the possibility that PUFA can regulate immune function by influencing gene expression in this organ. PMID:27166587

  17. Dietary Fat in Breast Cancer Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Makarem, Nour; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.; Parekh, Niyati

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory evidence suggests a plausible role for dietary fat in breast cancer pathophysiology. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the epidemiological evidence on the impact of total dietary fat and fat subtypes, measured pre- and/or postcancer diagnosis, in relation to breast cancer–specific and all-cause mortality among breast cancer survivors. Studies were included if they were in English, had a sample size ≥200, and presented the hazard ratio/rate ratio for recurrence, ...

  18. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wrong” kinds of fats can trigger additional health hazards. “Some fats are better for our bodies than ... ingredients. “Low-fat and fat-free yogurt and milk still contain the important proteins and minerals found ...

  19. Effect of dietary mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of pigs' adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläser, Karola R; Wenk, C; Scheeder, M R L

    2002-02-01

    In two experiments with growing-finishing pigs six different dietary fats were added to a conventional diet (control--C) to study the effects of dietary monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the fatty acid composition of backfat and kidney fat at similar amounts of double bonds in feed (Exp. 1:7% pork fat--PF, 4.95% olive oil--OO, 3.17% soybean oil--SO) or a constant amount of 5% of processed fats (Exp. 2: partially hydrogenated fat--SAT, fractionated pork fats: olein--OLE, stearin--STE). Compared with the control, PUFA were only slightly increased in backfat of pigs fed PF, OLE, STE or OO, although dietary PUFA intake was up to 70% higher. With SO PUFA were significantly increased in adipose tissues, predominantly at the expense of MUFA. Consequently, a non-linear relationship was found between PUFA intake and proportion in backfat. MUFA were incorporated at the expense of SFA, therefore, adipose tissues of OO fed animals were lowest in SFA. Despite comparable amounts of double bonds in feed (Exp. 1), the degree of unsaturation measured as fat score (sum of double bonds) was in the order SO > OO > PF > C. In contrast, the proportion of SFA was C > PF = SO > OO. Regarding the decisive role of SFA for fat consistency it may be concluded that MUFA should also be considered in feeding recommendations for pigs. Furthermore, in case of a high dietary supply of MUFA, a simple index of double bonds might not be sufficiently conclusive to judge pig fat quality. PMID:12389222

  20. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Polyunsaturated fatty acids in human foods have been shown to have health benefits. We investigated the potential to incorporate them into rabbit meat by adding them to the diet. Good relationships between dietary fatty acids (FAs) and their content in longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of rabbits was established, especially the latter. The results should make it possible to enhance the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of rabbit meat, with benefits to the health of hu...

  1. Opposing effects of prepubertal low- and high-fat n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diets on rat mammary tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Susan E; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2005-09-01

    To determine whether dietary fat intake during childhood affects the later risk of developing breast cancer, we fed prepubertal rats between post-natal days 5 and 25 a low (16% energy) or high-fat (39% energy) diet composed mainly of n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) originating either from corn oil or menhaden oil, respectively, in the ratios of 16-17:1 (n-6 PUFA diets) or 2-3:1 (n-3 PUFA diets). We also examined whether changes in risk are associated with perturbations in biological processes previously linked to fatty acid intake and breast cancer. Mammary tumorigenesis was induced by treating 50-day-old rats with the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. When compared with the reference low-fat n-6 PUFA diet, prepubertal exposure to the low-fat n-3 PUFA diet decreased, whereas a high-fat n-3 PUFA diet increased mammary tumor incidence; the high-fat n-6 PUFA diet had no effect. Both the low and high-fat n-3 PUFA diets induced mammary epithelial differentiation by reducing the number of terminal end buds (TEBs) and increasing the presence of lobulo-alveolar structures. They also increased lipid peroxidation and reduced cyclooxygenase-2 activity. Prepubertal exposure to the low-fat n-3 PUFA diet increased apoptosis, determined using TUNEL assay, and reduced cell proliferation, determined using PCNA staining. In marked contrast, prepubertal exposure to the high-fat n-3 PUFA diet induced cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in the TEBs and lobular structures. The latter is consistent with the finding that pAkt, a survival factor that inhibits apoptosis, was elevated in their mammary glands. In summary, although prepubertal exposure to a low-fat n-3 PUFA diet reduced later mammary tumorigenesis in rats, high levels of this fatty acid can have adverse effects on the prepubertal mammary gland and increase subsequent breast cancer risk. PMID:15888492

  2. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  3. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been tested for their effectiveness or safety over prolonged periods of time.

  4. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and Vitamin E on serum oxidative status in horses performing very light exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Prola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In sporting horses the use of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs could enhance performance because these fatty acids are very important in membrane permeability, and in particular they seem to increase the possibility of long chain fatty acids entering mythochondria to be burnt. The composition of cellular membranes and lipoprotein fatty acids com- position is strictly related to dietary fat quality; percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids and amount of antioxidants also affect tissue susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Six horses were used in a latin square design in which three homogeneous groups were subsequently assigned three dif- ferent dietary treatments for one month each: Control group (C: basic diet; Oil group (O: Basic diet + 200g/day oil rich in PUFAs (Crossential GLA TG20, Croda ®; Vitamin E group (O+E: basic diet + 200 g/day oil rich in PUFAs (Crossential GLA TG20, Croda ® + 5 g/day α-toco- pheryl-acetate (Egon-E, Acme ®. At the end of each experimental period blood samples were taken by jugular vein puncture. Serum oxidative status was evaluated by TBARs and d-ROMs assessment. Oxidative markers showed the high- est mean values for the oil group, even if no statistically significant differences were found.

  5. A dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid improves consumer performance during challenge with an opportunistic bacterial pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Schlotz, Nina; Pester, Michael; Freese, Heike M.; Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    A dietary deficiency in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and/or sterols can severely constrain growth and reproduction of invertebrate consumers. Single nutrients are potentially assigned to different physiological processes, for example to support defence mechanisms; therefore, lipid requirements of healthy and pathogen-challenged consumers might differ. In an oral exposure experiment, we explored the effects of dietary PUFAs and cholesterol on growth, reproduction and survival of an aqua...

  6. Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammation: The Role of Phospholipid Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sordillo, Lorraine M.; William Raphael

    2013-01-01

    The composition of fatty acids in the diets of both human and domestic animal species can regulate inflammation through the biosynthesis of potent lipid mediators. The substrates for lipid mediator biosynthesis are derived primarily from membrane phospholipids and reflect dietary fatty acid intake. Inflammation can be exacerbated with intake of certain dietary fatty acids, such as some ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and subsequent incorporation into membrane phospholipids. Inflammati...

  7. Alcoholic Liver Disease: Update on the Role of Dietary Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Kirpich, Irina A.; Matthew E. Miller; Matthew C. Cave; Swati Joshi-Barve; McClain, Craig J.

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) spans a spectrum of liver pathology, including fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that dietary factors, including dietary fat, as well as alcohol, play critical roles in the pathogenesis of ALD. The protective effects of dietary saturated fat (SF) and deleterious effects of dietary unsaturated fat (USF) on alcohol-induced liver pathology are well recognized and documented in experimental animal models of ALD. Mor...

  8. Lipase/acyltransferase-catalysed interesterification of fat blends containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Osório, Natália Melo; Dubreucq, Eric,; Fonseca, Mania Manuela R.; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana

    2009-01-01

    The lipase/acyltransferase from Candida parapsilosis is an original biocatalyst that preferentially catalyses alcoholysis over hydrolysis in biphasic aqueous/organic media. In this study, the performance of the immobilised biocatalyst in the interesterification in solvent-free media of fat blends rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was investigated. The interesterification activity of this biocatalyst at a water activity (aw) of 0.97 was similar to that of commercia...

  9. Can adverse effects of dietary fat intake be overestimated as a consequence of dietary fat underreporting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Lissner, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the consequences of systematic reporting bias by the obese for diet-disease relationships. DESIGN: The present report used 24-hour urinary nitrogen and estimates of 24-hour energy expenditure to assess error in diet reporting, and examined the consequence of accounting for...... disease, may have overestimated the negative effects of a high-fat diet. If we were able to correctly assess dietary fat intake in general populations, recommendations for fat intake may be more liberal than the 30% suggested today. Improved assessment of fat intake in epidemiological studies is necessary...

  10. European Food Safety Authority; Outcome of the Public consultation on the Draft Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    On 2 July 2009, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) endorsed a draft Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats to be released for public consultation. This Scientific Report summarises the comments received through the public consultation and outlines how these...... in the labelling of foods, the translation of advice into food-based dietary guidelines, nutrient goals and recommendations, certain risk management issues, and to Dietary Reference Values of fats, individual fatty acids, and cholesterol. All the public comments received that related to the remit of...

  11. Hormones and dietary fat as promoters in mammary carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Dao, T. L.; Chan, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    Hormones, particularly ovarian steroids and pituitary prolactin, promote mammary carcinogenesis in rats treated with a carcinogen. Hormones also play a critical role during the initiation process as demonstrated by mammary carcinogenesis in ovariectomized rats. A diet high in fat content, especially polyunsaturated fat, promotes mammary tumorigenesis when it is fed to carcinogen-treated rats for a prolonged period of time. Although a high fat diet is not essential for neoplastic transformatio...

  12. Effects of different dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SG Rondelli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different lipid sources (soybean oil, chicken oil or bovine fat on the abdominal fat fatty acid composition in 50 day-old broiler chickens was evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments, 8 repetitions and 40 Arbor Acres broiler chicks of each sex. The four treatments were isocaloric and isoproteic with the following characteristics: T1 Control (Soybean-corn; T2 Control + 3% soybean oil; T3 Control + 3% chicken oil; and T4 Control + 3% bovine fat. The lipids from the diets had significantly statistical effects (p<0,05 on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat. Multivariate techniques also showed differences in fatty acid composition within treatments due to sex. The studied dietary lipids affected the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S but had only small effects on the n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio.

  13. Estimating the cardiovascular mortality burden attributable to the European Common Agricultural Policy on dietary saturated fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ffion Lloyd-Williams

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of cardiovascular disease within 15 European Union countries (before the 2004 enlargement as a result of excess dietary saturated fats attributable to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP. METHODS: A spreadsheet model was developed to synthesize data on population, diet, cholesterol levels and mortality rates. A conservative estimate of a reduction in saturated fat consumption of just 2.2 g was chosen, representing 1% of daily energy intake. The fall in serum cholesterol concentration was then calculated, assuming that this 1% reduction in saturated fat consumption was replaced with 0.5% monounsaturated and 0.5% polyunsaturated fats. The resulting reduction in cardiovascular and stroke deaths was then estimated, and a sensitivity analysis conducted. FINDINGS: Reducing saturated fat consumption by 1% and increasing monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat by 0.5% each would lower blood cholesterol levels by approximately 0.06 mmol/l, resulting in approximately 9800 fewer coronary heart disease deaths and 3000 fewer stroke deaths each year. CONCLUSION: The cardiovascular disease burden attributable to CAP appears substantial. Furthermore, these calculations were conservative estimates, and the true mortality burden may be higher. The analysis contributes to the current wider debate concerning the relationship between CAP, health and chronic disease across Europe, together with recent international developments and commitments to reduce chronic diseases. The reported mortality estimates should be considered in relation to the current CAP and any future reforms.

  14. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress expression of EZH2 in breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dimri, Manjari; Bommi, Prashant V; Sahasrabuddhe, Anagh A.; Khandekar, Janardan D; Goberdhan P. Dimri

    2009-01-01

    The polycomb group (PcG) protein, enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2), is overexpressed in several human malignancies including breast cancer. Aberrant expression of EZH2 has been associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in cancer patients. Despite the clear role of EZH2 in oncogenesis and therapy failure, not much is known about chemotherapeutics and chemopreventive agents that can suppress its expression and activity. Here, we show that dietary omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid...

  15. Saturated- and n-6 polyunsaturated-fat diets each induce ceramide accumulation in mouse skeletal muscle: reversal and improvement of glucose tolerance by lipid metabolism inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioudakis, G; Garrard, J; Raddatz, K; Nadler, J L; Mitchell, T W; Schmitz-Peiffer, C

    2010-09-01

    Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with intracellular accumulation of inhibitory intermediates depending on the prevalent fatty acid (FA) species. In cultured myotubes, ceramide and phosphatidic acid (PA) mediate the effects of the saturated FA palmitate and the unsaturated FA linoleate, respectively. We hypothesized that myriocin (MYR), an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, would protect against glucose intolerance in saturated fat-fed mice, while lisofylline (LSF), a functional inhibitor of PA synthesis, would protect unsaturated fat-fed mice. Mice were fed diets enriched in saturated fat, n-6 polyunsaturated fat, or chow for 6 wk. Saline, LSF (25 mg/kg x d), or MYR (0.3 mg/kg x d) were administered by mini-pumps in the final 4 wk. Glucose homeostasis was examined by glucose tolerance test. Muscle ceramide and PA were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Expression of LASS isoforms (ceramide synthases) was evaluated by immunoblotting. Both saturated and polyunsaturated fat diets increased muscle ceramide and induced glucose intolerance. MYR and LSF reduced ceramide levels in saturated and unsaturated fat-fed mice. Both inhibitors also improved glucose tolerance in unsaturated fat-fed mice, but only LSF was effective in saturated fat-fed mice. The discrepancy between ceramide and glucose tolerance suggests these improvements may not be related directly to changes in muscle ceramide and may involve other insulin-responsive tissues. Changes in the expression of LASS1 were, however, inversely correlated with alterations in glucose tolerance. The demonstration that LSF can ameliorate glucose intolerance in vivo independent of the dietary FA type indicates it may be a novel intervention for the treatment of insulin resistance. PMID:20660065

  16. Saturated Fats Versus Polyunsaturated Fats Versus Carbohydrates for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Chiu, Sally; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are modulated by the nutrients that replace them and their food matrices. Replacement of SFAs with polyunsaturated fatty acids has been associated with reduced CVD risk, although there is heterogeneity in both fatty acid categories. In contrast, replacement of SFAs with carbohydrates, particularly sugar, has been associated with no improvement or even a worsening of CVD risk, at least in part through effects on a...

  17. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses. PMID:27033938

  18. Dietary fat intake and quality of life: the SUN project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Burgo Cristina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have related nutritional factors with quality of life in healthy populations. The purpose of the study was to assess whether dietary fat intake is associated to mental and physical quality of life. Methods This analysis included 8,430 participants from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Project. The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA was assessed through a 136-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Quality of life was measured with the SF-36 Health Survey after 4 years of follow-up. Generalized Linear Models were fitted to assess the regression coefficients (b and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the 8 domains of the SF-36 according to successive quintiles of each kind of fatty acids intake. Results The multivariate-adjusted models revealed a significant inverse association for SFA intake (in quintiles and two of the physical domains (physical functioning and general health. E.g. for general health domain: (highest quintile of intake (Q5 vs. lowest quintile (Q1, b = -1.6; 95% CI = -3.1, -0.1. General health also showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend Conclusions A detrimental relationship between TFA intake at baseline and most of the SF-36 mental domains measured 4 years later were found, whereas weak inverse associations were found for SFA intake and some physical domains.

  19. Effects of 2-acetylaminofluorene, dietary fats and antioxidants on nuclear envelope cytochrome P-450

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carubelli, R.; Graham, S.A.; Griffin, M.J.; McCay, P.B.

    1986-05-01

    The authors reported a marked loss of cytochrome P-450 in hepatic nuclear envelope (NE) but not in microsomes of male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a semipurified diet containing 0.05% w/w 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) for 3 weeks. This may reflect loss of NE capacity to detoxify AAF metabolites generated by microsomal P-450. They are now investigating if dietary effects such as progressive decrease in the incidence of AAF-induced tumors in rats fed high polyunsaturated fat diet (HPUF) vs. high saturated fat diet (HSF) vs. low fat diet (LF), and the anticarcinogenic activity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 0.3% w/w) correlate with preservation of NE P-450. Rats fed AAF HSF (25.6% w/w corn oil) showed marked loss of NE P-450 after 3 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Rats fed AAF in HSF (25.6% w/w; 18 parts beef tallow + 2 parts corn oil), on the other hand, experienced a marked drop in NE P-450 after 9 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Comparison of NE P-450 levels in control rats fed HPUF or HSF for 3 weeks with those of rats fed a semipurified diet with 10% fat or Purina chow (ca. 5% fat), support the prediction of an inverse correlation between the levels of dietary fat and the NE P-450 content. Studies on AAF and BHT effects using LF (2% w/w corn oil) are in progress.

  20. Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Risérus, Ulf; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2008-01-01

    Although type 2 diabetes is determined primarily by lifestyle and genes, dietary composition may affect both its development and complications. Dietary fat is of particular interest because fatty acids influence glucose metabolism by altering cell membrane function, enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and gene expression. This paper focuses on the prevention of type 2 diabetes and summarizes the epidemiologic literature on associations between types of dietary fat and diabetes risk. It also s...

  1. Effects of dietary fat on metabolic and structural adpatation of mitotic and postmitotic tissues to calorie restriction in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Khraiwesh, Husam M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work it is analyzed the effect of aging and its possible prevention by calorie restriction (CR) in liver and skeletal muscle from mice. These organs were selected as models of mitotic and post-mitotic tissues, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of dietary fat under CR was also investigated. For this purpose, animals submitted to CR were separated into three CR groups with soybean oil (high in ω−6 polyunsaturated fatty acids), fish oil (with a high content of polyu...

  2. Ruminal Biohydrogenation Pattern of Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acid as Influenced by Dietary Tannin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuraga Jayanegara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids undergo transformation processes in the rumen through microbial biohydrogenation to form fatty acids with higher saturation degree. The respective process explains the high content of saturated fatty acids in products of ruminants and the potential risk of consumers’ health by consuming such products. Various nutritional approaches have been attempted to modulate biohydrogenation process in order to obtain healthier fatty acid profile from consumers’ perspective. The present paper is aimed to review the influence of dietary tannin, a naturally produced plant secondary compound, on the pattern of polyunsaturated fatty acids biohydrogenation occurring in the rumen. The effect of tannin on some key fatty acids involved in biohydrogenation process is presented together with the underlying mechanisms, particularly from up-to-date research results. Accordingly, different form of tannin as well as different level of the application are also discussed.

  3. The impact of dietary fat composition on serum leptin concentrations in healthy nonobese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Mario; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Fobker, Manfred; Buyken, Anette; Posny, Nicole; Schulte, Helmut; Assmann, Gerd; Wahrburg, Ursel

    2002-11-01

    The recently discovered hormone leptin is primarily secreted by adipose tissue and serves as an internal signal indicating the size of body fat stores. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the dietary fatty acid composition on serum leptin concentrations. Therefore, serum leptin levels were measured by RIA in healthy nonobese men (n = 30) and women (n = 25). First, all participants received a baseline high-fat diet, rich in saturated fat, for 2 wk and were then randomly assigned to one of three high-fat dietary treatments, which contained refined olive oil (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, n = 19), rapeseed oil [rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), n = 17], or sunflower oil (rich in n-6-polyunsaturated fatty acids, n = 19) as the principal source of fat for 4 wk. On the rapeseed oil diet, serum leptin concentrations increased slightly in men [+0.25 ng/ml, T(9) = -2.778, P = 0.021], but decreased distinctly in women [-4.70 ng/ml, T(6) = 5.083, P = 0.002]. Both the olive oil and the sunflower oil diet did not affect serum leptin concentrations. Thus, it is proposed that serum leptin levels were affected by the high amount of alpha-linolenic acid in rapeseed oil. However, questions remain as to why this diet differently affected serum leptin in men and women. PMID:12414865

  4. Implications of dietary fat for nutrition and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Caspar

    2004-12-30

    Probably, the majority of the population in modern consumer societies believes that the negative effects of dietary fat far outweigh the beneficial ones. Dietary fat is therefore considered the cause for obesity, and fat from animal origins is usually regarded as unhealthy whereas fat from plants is thought to be healthy and safe for human nutrition. However, public opinion is not compatible with current knowledge. Animal fat does not have a priori a fatty acid composition that is detrimental to good health. And though dietary fat is generally highly digestible and can be efficiently retained in body tissues, it is not the primary cause of obesity. The deposition of absorbed fat in excess of the oxidized amount occurs only under the situation of a positive energy balance. The latter depends not on fat intake alone, but rather on the amounts of all nutrients ingested and on energy expenditure as the second component of energy balance. A recommendation for moderation of dietary fat intake is nonetheless desirable because it is easy to overeat fatty (and sweet) foods. In the end, well-balanced diets help achieve intake of all indispensable nutrients. PMID:15621061

  5. Dietary fat supplementation and the consequences for oocyte and embryo quality: hype or significant benefit for dairy cow reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, J L M R; Sturmey, R G; Van Hoeck, V; De Bie, J; McKeegan, P J; Bols, P E J

    2014-06-01

    In many countries, fat supplementation in the diet has become common in the dairy industry. There are several ideas as to how dietary fat could influence reproductive performance. Saturated fatty acids, such as palm oil, can increase milk yield but may aggravate negative energy balance and thus may impair fertility when fed during the first week post-partum. However, priming the lipid oxidation in the liver by feeding saturated fats during the dry period has recently been shown to be a potentially promising strategy to mitigate fat mobilization and liver accumulation post-partum. Furthermore, polyunsaturated fats (omega-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids) are fed to reduce the 'de novo' fat synthesis in the udder and thus the milk fat content, which may be of modest benefit for overall energy balance. Furthermore, omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are reported to alter follicular growth, steroid synthesis and prostaglandin metabolism in the ovary and endometrium, respectively. Omega-6 fatty acids are believed to have pro-inflammatory and thus PGF2?-stimulating properties rendering them extra value as 'nutraceutical' early post-partum, while omega-3 fatty acids can weaken this inflammatory potency, leading to a higher chance of survival of the embryo when supplemented during the periconceptual period. Unfortunately, research results rarely provide a consensus in this perspective. The consequences of these fat-feeding strategies on oocyte and embryo quality remain an intriguing issue for debate. Fat feeding may alter the microenvironment of the growing and maturing oocyte of the early and older embryo and thus may affect reproductive outcome. We recently reported that dietary-induced hyperlipidaemic conditions can be harmful for embryo development and metabolism. However, to date, research results remain somewhat conflicting most probably due to differences in fat sources used, in diet and duration of supplementation and in experimental set-up in general. PMID:24697981

  6. Insulin secretion after dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in normal and insulin-resistant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Pacini, Giovanni; Ahrén, Bo

    2006-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant rodents. However, the effects of these fatty acids on insulin secretion are not known but are of importance to completely understand their influence on glucose homeostasis. We therefore examined islet function after dietary supplementation consisting of 1% CLAs in combination with 1% n-3 enriched PUFAs for 12 wk to mice on a normal diet and to insulin-resistant mice fed a high-fat diet (58% fat). In the mice fed a normal diet, CLA/PUFA supplementation resulted in insulin resistance associated with low plasma adiponectin levels and low body fat content. Intravenous and oral glucose tolerance tests revealed a marked increase in insulin secretion, which nevertheless was insufficient to counteract the insulin resistance, resulting in glucose intolerance. In freshly isolated islets from mice fed the normal diet, both basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were adaptively augmented by CLA/PUFA, and at a high glucose concentration this was accompanied by elevated glucose oxidation. In contrast, in high-fat-fed mice, CLA/PUFA did not significantly affect insulin secretion, insulin resistance, or glucose tolerance. It is concluded that dietary supplementation of CLA/PUFA in mice fed the normal diet augments insulin secretion, partly because of increased islet glucose oxidation, but that this augmentation is insufficient to counterbalance the induction of insulin resistance, resulting in glucose intolerance. Furthermore, the high-fat diet partly prevents the deleterious effects of CLA/PUFA, but this dietary supplementation was not able to counteract high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance. PMID:16188912

  7. Study of the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids: Molecular mechanisms involved in intestinal inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knoch, Bianca

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of «omic» techniques in combination with model systems and molecular tools allows to understand how foods and food components act on metabolic pathways to regulate transcriptional processes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have distinctive nutritional and metabolic effects because they give rise to lipid mediated products and affect the expression of various genes involved in intestinal inflammation. The present review focuses on the molecular effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on intestinal inflammation.El uso de técnicas «omic» en combinación con sistemas modelo y herramientas moleculares nos permiten entender como los alimentos y sus componentes actúan en las rutas metabólicas que regulan los procesos transcripcionales. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados tienen efectos nutricionales y metabólicos diferenciadores porque producen una elevación de los productos regulados por lípidos y afectan a la expresión de varios genes involucrados en la inflamación intestinal. La presente revisión se enfoca en los efectos moleculares de los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de la dieta en la inflamación intestinal.

  8. Diet-gene interactions between dietary fat intake and common polymorphisms in determining lipid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, D.

    2009-07-01

    Current dietary guidelines for fat intake have not taken into consideration the possible genetic differences underlying the individual variability in responsiveness to dietary components. Genetic variability has been identified in humans for all the known lipid metabolism-related genes resulting in a plethora of candidate genes and genetic variants to examine in diet-gene interaction studies focused on fat consumption. Some examples of fat-gene interaction are reviewed. These include: the interaction between total intake and the 14C/T in the hepatic lipase gene promoter in determining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism; the interaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the 5G/A polymorphism in the APOA1 gene plasma HDL-C concentrations; the interaction between PUFA and the L162V polymorphism in the PPARA gene in determining triglycerides and APOC3 concentrations; and the interaction between PUFA intake and the -1131T>C in the APOA5 gene in determining triglyceride metabolism. Although hundreds of diet-gene interaction studies in lipid metabolism have been published, the level of evidence to make specific nutritional recommendations to the population is still low and more research in nutrigenetics has to be undertaken. (Author) 31 refs.

  9. Pattern recognition of lipase-catalyzed or chemically interesterified fat blends containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Ana Sofia; Osório, Natália M.; Nascimento, Ana Cláudia; Keulen, Frederik; Fonseca, M.Manuela R.; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility to discriminate among samples of different fat blends prior and after inorganic or lipasecatalyzed interesterification, via pattern recognition techniques [principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA)], was investigated. Blends I and II, consisting of mixtures of palm stearin, palm kernel oil and a concentrate of triacylglycerols (TAG) rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPAX 4510TG or EPAX 2050TG) were used. These blends, prior (64 sample...

  10. Effect of body fat distribution on the transcription response to dietary fat interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Radonjic, Marijana; van Erk, Marjan J.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Van Ommen, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Combination of decreased energy expenditure and increased food intake results in fat accumulation either in the abdominal site (upper body obesity, UBO) or on the hips (lower body obesity, LBO). In this study, we used microarray gene expression profiling of adipose tissue biopsies to investigate the effect of body fat distribution on the physiological response to two dietary fat interventions. Mildly obese UBO and LBO male subjects (n=12, waist-to-hip ratio range 0.931.12) were subjected t...

  11. The toxicity of dietary trans fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Riya; Pierce, Grant N

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death today. Trans fatty acids have been identified as an important cause of cardiovascular disease and the resulting clinical end points such as strokes and heart attacks. Although legislative efforts have limited the trans fats in our diet, significant amounts remain. Understanding the impact trans fats have on our body, therefore, remains a critical focus of study. In addition, paradoxically, recent research has now identified an important cardioprotective role for a sub-category of trans fats, the ruminant trans fats. Learning more about the mechanisms responsible for not only the toxic actions of trans fats but also their potential as beneficial compounds within our diet is essential to modulate cardiovascular disease today. PMID:25684416

  12. Dietary Fats and Health: Dietary Recommendations in the Context of Scientific Evidence1

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Glen D.

    2013-01-01

    Although early studies showed that saturated fat diets with very low levels of PUFAs increase serum cholesterol, whereas other studies showed high serum cholesterol increased the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), the evidence of dietary saturated fats increasing CAD or causing premature death was weak. Over the years, data revealed that dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are not associated with CAD and other adverse health effects or at worst are weakly associated in some analyses when...

  13. Individual variation in plasma cholesterol response to dietary saturated fat.

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, C.; Mann, J.; Sutherland, W.; Ball, M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the extent to which plasma lipid concentrations of individuals are consistently sensitive to changes in saturated fats; to examine whether groups that consistently have large or small responses can be defined; and to identify factors which predict response of lipids to dietary change. DESIGN--A double crossover design in which two diets (S, providing 21% energy from saturated fat, and P, providing 10%) were followed for periods of six weeks in the sequence SPSP or PSPS...

  14. Brain and Liver Headspace Aldehyde Concentration Following Dietary Supplementation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian M; Babay, Slim; Malik, Imran

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species react with unsaturated fatty acids to form a variety of metabolites including aldehydes. Many aldehydes are volatile enough to be detected in headspace gases of blood or cultured cells and in exhaled breath, in particular propanal and hexanal which are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Aldehydes are therefore potential non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress and of various diseases in which oxidative stress is thought to play a role including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is unclear, however, how changes in the abundance of the fatty acid precursors, for example by altered dietary intake, affect aldehyde concentrations. We therefore fed male Wistar rats diets supplemented with either palm oil or a combination of palm oil plus an n-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acids) for 4 weeks. Fatty acid analysis revealed large changes in the abundance of both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the liver with smaller changes observed in the brain. Despite the altered fatty acid abundance, headspace concentrations of C1-C8 aldehydes, and tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, did not differ between the 4 dietary groups. Our data suggest that tissue aldehyde concentrations are independent of fatty acid abundance, and further support their use as volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress. PMID:26358696

  15. Invited commentary: dietary polyunsaturated Fatty acids and chronic systemic inflammation--a potentially intriguing link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rajiv; Steur, Marinka

    2015-06-01

    It remains largely unclear whether consumption of total and individual polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is associated with chronic systemic inflammation in healthy, free-living individuals. While available evidence (stemming principally from mechanistic studies) has indicated that greater intake of n-6 PUFAs may lead to increased levels of inflammation-for instance, by their acting as precursors to proinflammatory eicosanoids and increasing levels of oxidized linoleic acid metabolites-n-3 PUFAs are precursors to some antiinflammatory eicosanoids. New human data from a Dutch prospective study, the Rotterdam Study-as presented by Muka et al. ( Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181(11):846-856) in this issue of the Journal-now make an important contribution to the relatively scarce literature on the association of dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFAs with serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a key marker of inflammation, in a general population. The study by Muka et al. benefitted from repeated CRP measurements, comprehensive correction for potential confounding, and wide-ranging sensitivity analyses. The findings show no significant trend regarding n-3 PUFAs but indicate an important inverse association between n-6 PUFAs and chronic systemic inflammation. This study provides support for existing dietary guidelines, which encourage consumption of a combination of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in the diet. PMID:25899093

  16. Intestinal lipid–derived signals that sense dietary fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPatrizio, Nicholas V.; Piomelli, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Fat is a vital macronutrient, and its intake is closely monitored by an array of molecular sensors distributed throughout the alimentary canal. In the mouth, dietary fat constituents such as mono- and diunsaturated fatty acids give rise to taste signals that stimulate food intake, in part by enhancing the production of lipid-derived endocannabinoid messengers in the gut. As fat-containing chyme enters the small intestine, it causes the formation of anorexic lipid mediators, such as oleoylethanolamide, which promote satiety. These anatomically and functionally distinct responses may contribute to the homeostatic control and, possibly, the pathological dysregulation of food intake. PMID:25642767

  17. Intestinal lipid-derived signals that sense dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Piomelli, Daniele

    2015-03-01

    Fat is a vital macronutrient, and its intake is closely monitored by an array of molecular sensors distributed throughout the alimentary canal. In the mouth, dietary fat constituents such as mono- and diunsaturated fatty acids give rise to taste signals that stimulate food intake, in part by enhancing the production of lipid-derived endocannabinoid messengers in the gut. As fat-containing chyme enters the small intestine, it causes the formation of anorexic lipid mediators, such as oleoylethanolamide, which promote satiety. These anatomically and functionally distinct responses may contribute to the homeostatic control and, possibly, the pathological dysregulation of food intake. PMID:25642767

  18. Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Overvad, Kim; Dyerberg, Jørn; Schroll, Marianne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2004-01-01

    , total energy and protein intake were fixed. Differences in intake of energy from fat thus reflected complementary differences in intake of energy from carbohydrates. A 5% higher level of energy from saturated fat intake was associated with a 36% greater risk of coronary heart disease among women (hazard......In a 16-year follow-up study (ending in 1998) of 3,686 Danish men and women aged 30-71 years at recruitment, the association between energy intake from dietary fat and the risk of coronary heart disease was evaluated while assessing the possible modifying role of gender and age. In the models used...... ratio (HR) = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98, 1.88). No overall association between saturated fat and coronary heart disease was found among men. However, age-dependent analyses showed that saturated fat was positively associated with coronary heart disease among the younger men (HR = 1.29, 95...

  19. Hepatic and biochemical repercussions of a polyunsaturated fat-rich hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idália M. B. Burlamaqui

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by lipid deposits in the hepatocytes and has been associated with obesity, dyslipidemia and type-2 diabetes. It is considered a hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, of which the main component is insulin resistance leading to hyperinsulinemia and increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Saturated fat promotes hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia, reduces levels of high-density cholesterol and increases levels of low-density cholesterol, while polyunsaturated fat is associated with hypolipidemic, antiinflammatory and imunoregulating action. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hepatic and biochemical repercussions of a polyunsaturated fat-rich diet in Wistar rats. METHODS: Twenty-two rats were distributed equally in two groups: GI - standard diet (Biobase Bio-tec Ratos e Camundongos® providing 3.000 kcal/kg and GII - hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet providing 4.250 kcal/kg (ω-6:ω-3 = 3:1. The animals were euthanized after 23 weeks of experiment. The weight, biochemical parameters and hepatohistological changes were registered. RESULTS: Findings were submitted to variance analysis with the level of statistical significance at 5%. The average weight did not differ significantly between the groups at baseline (P = 0.711, but was greater in Group II by the end of the experiment (P = 0.000. The levels of triglycerides (P = 0.039, total cholesterol (P = 0.015 and HDL (P = 0.005 were higher in Group I than in Group II. Macrovesicular steatosis was significantly more common in Group II than in Group I (P = 0.03. CONCLUSION: Hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet rich in polyunsaturated fat promotes weight gain and favors the development of hepatic steatosis while reducing serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL.

  20. Dietary saturated fat and docosahexaenoic acid differentially effect cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl composition and Ca2+ uptake, without altering permeability transition or left ventricular function

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Kelly A.; Dabkowski, Erinne R.; de Fatima Galvao, Tatiana; Xu, Wenhong; Daneault, Caroline; de Rosiers, Christine; Stanley, William C.

    2013-01-01

    High saturated fat diets improve cardiac function and survival in rodent models of heart failure, which may be mediated by changes in mitochondrial function. Dietary supplementation with the n3-polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3) is also beneficial in heart failure and can affect mitochondrial function. Saturated fatty acids and DHA likely have opposing effects on mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chain composition and mitochondrial membrane function, though...

  1. Trends in Dietary Fat Intake and High-Fat Foods from 1991-2008 in the Framingham Heart Study participants

    OpenAIRE

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

    2013-01-01

    Few longitudinal studies among US adults have evaluated long-term dietary fat intakes and compared them to national recommendations during the 2-decade period when the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance increased substantively. We examined trends in dietary fat intake and rich dietary sources of fats in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort over a 17-year period. The cohort was established in 1971-75 with follow-up examinations approximately every 4 years. Di...

  2. Associations between dietary intake and body fat independent of genetic and familial environmental background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Heitmann, B L; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Sørensen, T I A

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether habitual dietary intake was associated with body fat mass and body fat distribution, independently of possible confounding by the genetic and shared environmental background.......To determine whether habitual dietary intake was associated with body fat mass and body fat distribution, independently of possible confounding by the genetic and shared environmental background....

  3. Neuroinflammation and aging: influence of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layé Sophie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system of the brain is principally composed of microglial cells and astrocytes, which, once activated, protect neurons against noxious agents or lesions. Activated glial cells produce inflammatory cytokines that act specifically through receptors expressed in the brain, leading to the development of altered emotional and cognitive behavior. These behavioral alterations cease along with the synthesis of brain cytokines. When the level of expression of these cytokines remains high, they become toxic to neurons possibly leading to neuronal death, as observed in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 (n-3 type polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are essential nutrients and fundamental components of neuronal and glial cell membranes. Additionally, they have immunomodulatory properties. They accumulate in the brain during the perinatal period in a dietary supply-dependant fashion. Their brain levels diminish with age, but can be corrected by a diet enriched in n-3 PUFAs. The increasing exposure of the population to diets unbalanced in n-3 PUFAs could contribute to the deleterious effect of inflammatory cytokines in the brain.

  4. The role of dietary fats for preventing cardiovascular disease. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak-Wegierek, Dorota; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina; Szostak, Wiktor B; Cybulska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    At the present, there is a pandemic of chronic non-communicable disease (NCD) affecting most countries of the world. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has identified the main contributing determinants to be cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, malignant cancer and chronic disease of the respiratory system. Unhealthy nutrition, as well as other adverse lifestyle health behaviour are recognised to be part of the prime factors responsible. According to WHO guidelines, a healthy lifestyle should include substituting saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) together with eliminating trans-fatty acids from the diet and limiting the intake of refined carbohydrates in conjunction with increasing the consumption of fruit, vegetables, nuts and wholegrain cereal products. Recent studies on the relations between CVD prevention and dietary fats have been however unclear. The present study thus aims to provide a review of current evidence and opinion on the type of dietary fat most appropriate for preventing arteriosclerosis. The adoption of dated recommendations on the need to increase dietary PUFA in both Northern Europe and America has led to n-6 PUFAs being predominant in diets as compared to n-3 PUFAs. This disproportion may have caused mortality to rise, due to CVD, as a result of arteriosclerosis in these countries. In contrast, a traditional Mediterranean diet yields a PUFA n-6/n-3 ratio of 2:1, which is much lower than for the aforementioned northern countries. Some authors however consider that assessing this ratio is irrelevant and that decreasing n-6 PUFA may be harmful. Such differences of opinion leads to confusion in adopting an effective approach for arteriosclerosis management regarding dietary n-6/n-3 ratios. Moreover, recent studies have added much controversy to the notion that the characteristics of SFAs are responsible for arteriosclerosis. These found that replacing dietary SFAs with carbohydrates did not reduce the risk of ishaemic heart disease (IHD). Furthermore, changing to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) gave equivocal findings, but only changing to PUFAs reduced the risk of IHD. This last statement however requires qualification in that dietary n-6 PUFAs increases the risk of IHD. It is only the n-3 PUFAs that are beneficial. Up till now these controversies remain unsolved. It is however noteworthy that adopting a Mediterranean diet reduces IHD mortality. This is explained by a low consumption of SFAs but high intake of unsaturated fatty acids including n-3 PUFAs, and is linked to choosing the right vegetable fats. Oils that contain alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) are to be preferred in the diets of northern countries. PMID:24693710

  5. Effects of dietary fat and calorie on immunologic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of dietary fat and calories on immunologic function in specific pathogen-free inbred DBA/2 and CBA/J mice was studied. Three diets were modified from control, the AIN-76 purified diet. The high saturated fat diet contained 22.5% coconut oil and 2.5% safflower oil. The high unsaturated fat diet contained 25% safflower oil. Fat was substituted isoclorically for carbohydrate in these two diets. The low calorie diet contained 40% less protein, carbohydrate and fat than control diet; fiber was substituted for these ingredients. Female weanling mice were on the diets for more than 35 days before testing. The natural killer (NK) activity of spleen cells was determined by in vitro cytolysis of 51Cr-labeled YAC-1 cells. The spleen cells response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or allogeneic tumor EL-4 cells was measured after immunizing the mice with SRBC or EL-4 cells for 4 or 11 days, respectively. The results showed no significant effect of the low calorie diet on NK activity, anti-SRBC or anti-EL-4 response compared to normal diet. Anti-SRBC plaque response was significantly enhanced (27% higher), while anti-EL-4 response was significantly suppressed (15% less) with high saturated fat diet. NK activity was normal. Mice on high unsaturated fat diet showed suppressed anti-SRBC response (16% less) and anti-EL-4 response (17% less), while NK activity was significantly enhanced (70% higher)

  6. Dietary fat, cholesterol and colorectal cancer in a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, R.; Knekt, P; Hakulinen, T; Rissanen, H; Heliövaara, M

    2001-01-01

    The relationships between consumption of total fat, major dietary fatty acids, cholesterol, consumption of meat and eggs, and the incidence of colorectal cancers were studied in a cohort based on the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey. Baseline (1967–1972) information on habitual food consumption over the preceding year was collected from 9959 men and women free of diagnosed cancer. A total of 109 new colorectal cancer cases were ascertained late 1999. High cholesterol intake was...

  7. The effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on HDL cholesterol in Chukot residents vs muscovites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, E; Perova, N; Ozerova, I; Polessky, V; Metelskaya, V; Sherbakova, I; Levachev, M; Kulakova, S; Nikitin, Y u; Astakhova, T

    1991-04-01

    Native Chukot Peninsula residents, in contrast to Muscovites, consume a diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. This dietary peculiarity is reflected in differences in plasma lipid and apolipoprotein contents. The Chukot residents have lower contents of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, but higher HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels than do Muscovites. The apolipoprotein A-I levels were identical in both groups. A higher HDL cholesterol to apolipoprotein A-I ratio was determined in the coastline Chukot residents (0.52 +/- 0.01) than in Muscovites (0.43 +/- 0.01; p less than 0.01). In contrast to Muscovites, the coastline Chukot residents also had higher n-3 and lower n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid percentages in plasma and erythrocyte lipids, and lower phosphatidylcholine and higher sphingomyelin or phosphatidylethanolamine levels in HDL2b and HDL3. The higher HDL cholesterol levels in the plasma of the coastline Chukot residents appears to reflect the higher cholesterol-scavenging capacity of their HDL. We conclude from this study that the regular consumption of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by the coastline Chukot residents decreased LDL cholesterol transfer from plasma to peripheral cells, and enhanced cholesterol efflux from cellular membranes toward HDL. PMID:1907706

  8. The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs from Hy-line and Warren hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Munoz, M. J.; Bastida, S.; Jimenez, O.; Lorenzo, C. de; Vergara, G.; Sanchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain. (Author) 37 refs.

  9. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Delay Progression of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma in Fat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Mohammed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs may be beneficial for prevention of pancreatic cancer. Nutritional intervention studies are often complex, and there is no clear evidence, without potential confounding factors, on whether conversion of n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in pancreatic tissues would provide protection. Experiments were designed using n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1 transgenic mice, which can convert n-6 PUFA to n-3 FAs endogenously, to determine the impact of n-3 PUFAs on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs and their progression to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. Six-weekold female p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ andcompoundFat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice were fed (AIN-76A diets containing 10% safflower oil for 35 weeks. Pancreata were evaluated histopathologically for PanINs and PDAC. Results showed a dramatic reduction in incidence of PDAC (84%; P 85%; P < .05–0.01 in pancreas of compound transgenic mice than in those of p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice. Molecular analysis of the pancreas showed a significant down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX, 5-LOX-activating protein, Bcl-2, and cyclin D1 expression levels in Fat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice compared to p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice. These data highlight the promise of dietary n-3 FAs for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer in high-risk individuals.

  10. Permeabilization of enterocytes induced by absorption of dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Absorption of dietary fat in the small intestine involves epithelial exposure to potentially harmful molecules such as bile salts and free fatty acids. We used organ culture of porcine jejunal explants incubated with a pre-digested mixture of fat (plant oil), bile and pancreatin to mimick the...... membranes of immature crypt cells, lacking detergent-resistant lipid raft microdomains, are less resistant to the deleterious effects of bile salts and free fatty acids....... surfactant properties of bile salts are involved in the process. In addition to LY, crypt enterocytes also became permeable for albumin, ovalbumin and insulin. In conclusion, during fat absorption the permeability of the gut epithelium is increased mainly in the crypts. A possible explanation is that cell...

  11. Effect of dietary fat on plasma glutathione peroxidase levels and intestinal absorption of 75Se-labeled sodium selenite in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of dietary fat on the availability of selenium was investigated in chicks fed either 4 or 20% butter, olive oil, rape oil, corn oil or sunflower oil in the diet for 3 weeks after hatching. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was used as an indicator of the body selenium status. In addition, the intestinal absorption of sodium selenite (75Se-labeled) was determined by using both the in vivo ligated loop procedure and oral administration of the isotope. The plasma GSH-Px levels increased with increasing proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Increasing the amount of fat from 4 to 20% significantly enhanced the GSH-Px activity in the groups receiving butter or olive oil, but had no effect in animals fed the unsaturated fats. The absorption of [75Se]selenite from the ligated duodenal loops tended to be reduced in chicks fed corn oil or sunflower oil as compared to the animals receiving butter in their diet. On the other hand, the type of dietary fat did not appear to affect the absorption of the orally administered selenite. The present study demonstrates that the type of dietary fat can affect the plasma GSH-Px levels in chicks without altering the intestinal absorption of selenite. However, the results on the absorption of the intraduodenally injected sodium selenite suggest that dietary fat plays some role in the intestinal transport of selenium

  12. n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.

  13. Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant oils and algae on milk fat yield and composition are associated with mammary lipogenic and SREBF1 gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J; Mahecha, L; Nuernberg, K; Nuernberg, G; Dannenberger, D; Olivera, M; Boutinaud, M; Leroux, C; Albrecht, E; Bernard, L

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine the effects of long-term supplementing diets with saturated or unprotected polyunsaturated fatty acids from two different plant oils rich in either n-3 or n-6 fatty acids (FAs) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae on mammary gene expression and milk fat composition in lactating dairy cows. Gene expression was determined from mammary tissue and milk epithelial cells. Eighteen primiparous German Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were randomly assigned into three dietary treatments that consist of silage-based diets supplemented with rumen-stable fractionated palm fat (SAT; 3.1% of the basal diet dry matter, DM), or a mixture of linseed oil (2.7% of the basal diet DM) plus DHA-rich algae (LINA; 0.4% of the basal diet DM) or a mixture of sunflower oil (2.7% of the basal diet DM) plus DHA-rich algae (SUNA; 0.4% of the basal diet DM), for a period of 10 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the cows were slaughtered and mammary tissues were collected to study the gene expression of lipogenic enzymes. During the last week, the milk yield and composition were determined, and milk was collected for FA measurements and the isolation of milk purified mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Supplementation with plant oils and DHA-rich algae resulted in milk fat depression (MFD; yield and percentage). The secretion of de novo FAs in the milk was reduced, whereas the secretion of trans-10,cis-12-CLA and DHA were increased. These changes in FA secretions were associated in mammary tissue with a joint down-regulation of mammary lipogenic enzyme gene expression (stearoyl-CoA desaturase, SCD1; FA synthase, FASN) and expression of the regulatory element binding transcription factor (SREBF1), whereas no effect was observed on lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1, mitochondrial (GPAM). A positive relationship between mammary SCD1 and SREBF1 mRNA abundances was observed, suggesting a similar regulation for these genes. Such data on mammary gene expression in lactating cows presenting MFD contribute to strengthen the molecular mechanisms that govern milk fat synthesis in the mammary glands. In purified MEC, the dietary treatments had no effect on gene expressions. Differences between mammary tissue and milk purified MEC gene expression were attributed to the effect of lipid supplements on the number of milk purified MEC and its RNA quality, which are determinant factors for the analysis of gene expression using milk cells. PMID:22717104

  14. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of heart disease. Dietary cholesterol also contributes to heart disease. Unsaturated fats, such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated, do not raise ... studied to determine if they offer protection against heart disease. Choose ... and pork (trim visible fat, not fried). Ask Before You Order When Eating ...

  15. Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Leandro P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina and AIN-93M, which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad libitum or in a restricted amount. Methods Thus, 40 Wistar rats (90 days old were separated into 4 groups according to the amount of food offered (ad libitum or dietary restriction and the type of diet (commercial diet, 3,028.0 kcal/g or AIN-93M, 3,802.7 kcal/g: animals fed the commercial Purina diet ad libitum (AP, animals fed restricted amounts of the commercial Purina diet (RP, animals fed the AIN-93M diet ad libitum (AD, and animals fed restricted amounts of the AIN-93M diet (RD. Dietary restriction consisted of pair-feeding the RP and RD groups with 60% of the total food consumed by the corresponding ad libitum groups. Results Because of its higher carbohydrate and calorie content, AIN-93M was found to accelerate weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and increase the amount of fat in the liver when compared to the commercial diet. Conversely, a 40% dietary restriction assisted in weight loss without causing malnutrition, contributing to an improved glucose tolerance and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Therefore, differences in the amount of carbohydrates and calories provided by the diet can lead to important metabolic disorders, such as impaired tolerance and accumulation of hepatic fat, and dietary restriction improves serum and tissue lipid profiles in laboratory animals.

  16. Insulin secretion after dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in normal and insulin-resistant mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Sörhede Winzell, Maria; Pacini, Giovanni; Ahrén, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Insulin secretion after dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in normal and insulin-resistance mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 290: E347-E354, 2006. First published September 27, 2005; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00163.2005.-Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant rodents. However, the effects of these fatty acids on insulin secretion are not known but are of ...

  17. Induction of apoptosis by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in human leukemic cells is not associated with DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, L C; Wan, J M; Ooi, V E

    2000-10-01

    Apoptosis is important in anticancer strategy. In this study, bivariate annexin V/PI flow cytometry showed that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), induced apoptosis in human leukemic HL-60 but not K-562 cells. Results from DNA-PI flow cytometry and TUNEL flow cytometry illustrated that neither AA nor EPA induced DNA fragmentation in the leukemic cells. These findings suggested that the AA- and EPA-induced apoptosis might not associate with endonucleases activation, and DNA fragmentation could not be used as a sole criterion to identify apoptotic cells. PMID:10995893

  18. Missed Opportunities for Providing Low-Fat Dietary Advice to People With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Ingrid E.; Loeb, Danielle F.; Ghushchyan, Vahram; Schauer, Irene E.; Huebschmann, Amy G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Because cardiovascular disease is closely linked to diabetes, national guidelines recommend low-fat dietary advice for patients who have cardiovascular disease or are at risk for diabetes. The prevalence of receiving such advice is not known. We assessed the lifetime prevalence rates of receiving low-fat dietary advice from a health professional and the relationship between having diabetes or risk factors for diabetes and receiving low-fat dietary advice. Methods From 2002 throug...

  19. Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serlie Mireille J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet. Methods Streptozotocin-diabetic pigs (~45 kg were fed for 10 weeks supplemental (40% of dietary energy saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC, unsaturated fat (UF or starch (S in an eucaloric dietary intervention study. Results Fasting plasma total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were 3-5 fold higher (p 2 = 0.95. Retroperitoneal fat depot weight (g was intermediate in SFC (260 72, lowest in S (135 51 and highest (p Conclusion Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol induces inflammation, atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition whereas an equally high dietary unsaturated fat load does not induce these abnormalities and shows beneficial effects on postprandial glycaemia in diabetic pigs.

  20. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds) as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA) sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA) analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary ?-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R = 0.94) and perirenal fat (R = 0.96). PMID:26486776

  1. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary ?-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R2 = 0.94 and perirenal fat (R2 = 0.96.

  2. Timing of dietary fat exposure and mammary tumorigenesis: role of estrogen receptor and protein kinase C activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilakivi-Clarke, L; Clarke, R

    1998-11-01

    The possible association between a high fat diet and increased breast cancer risk has remained controversial. This largely reflects the conflicting data obtained from migrant, case control and animal studies, which generally support this association, and cohort studies which often fail to show a link between fat and breast cancer. The mammary gland is particularly sensitive to estrogens during fetal development, leading us to hypothesize that dietary fat levels during this period may significantly influence breast cancer risk. Using chemically-induced mammary tumors in rats as our experimental model, we have demonstrated the ability of a maternal diet, high in the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid, to alter mammary gland differentiation, accelerate the onset of sexual maturation, and increase breast cancer risk. The mammary glands of female rats exposed to a high-fat diet in utero have more of the undifferentiated structures (terminal end buds) and fewer of the differentiated structures (alveolar buds) than the glands of rats exposed to a low-fat diet in utero. Furthermore, these mammary glands contain lower levels of total estrogen receptors and have reduced total protein kinase C activity. These effects appear to be mediated by an increase in the serum estradiol levels of pregnancy, which are elevated at least 30% in pregnant dams fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, the administration of estradiol to pregnant dams produces effects on mammary gland development, onset of puberty and sensitivity to chemical carcinogenesis comparable to those seen in the offspring of rats fed a high fat diet during pregnancy. Our results, thus, support the hypothesis based on epidemiological data that high maternal estrogen levels increase daughters' breast cancer risk. The results also suggest that a high-fat diet may be an important factor in increasing pregnancy estrogenic activity. PMID:9823005

  3. Dietary prevention of coronary heart disease. Effect of dietary fats on arterial thrombosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hornstra, G.

    1980-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that dietary saturated fats are implicated in coronary heart disease (CHD). Human prospective studies have shown that diets low in long chain saturated fatty acids and enriched in linoleic acid are beneficial in CHD-prevention. Experiments in animals have shown that such diets diminish atherosclerosis and the tendency to arterial thrombosis; they also lower the ability of platelets to aggregate in animals and in man. The mechanisms by which these diets produce...

  4. [Stabilization of omega-3-polyunsaturated acids in fat from Mallotus villosus (Osmeridae) by the nontoxic, sulfur-containing antioxidant CO-3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvukhin, A I; Krysin, A P; Shalaurova, I Iu

    1995-01-01

    The stabilizing effect of the newly produced sulfur-containing antioxidant SO-3 on the fatty acid composition of fat obtained from Mallotus villosus was studied at various temperatures. In the absence of the antioxidant, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in the fish fat during 1 month at -18 degrees storage, although the content of these fatty acids was decreased 2-fold in this case. After addition of the SO-3 stabilizer to the fish fat at final concentration 0.2%, content of the omega-3 fatty acids was unaltered within 1 month at - 18 degrees, 10 degrees and was half decreased only at room temperature. Thus, nontoxic antioxidant SO-3 may be used to preserve preparations containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:8585177

  5. The impact of dietary fat withdrawal on carcass iodine value, belly characteristics, and changes in body fat over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Prusa, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to understand how withdrawal from the diet of unsaturated dietary fat before slaughter impacts the composition of jowl fat during the growth cycle and at market. Fifty individually housed pigs (PIC 337 C22/29; initial BW = 59.3 0.55 kg) were allotted based on sex and initial BW to 10 treatments for an 82-d experiment as follows: 3 dietary fat withdrawal times before slaughter (21, 42, or 63 d) by 3 dietary fat unsaturation loads (DFUL), which includea high intake of unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 5% corn oil (HIGH), a high intake of a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 5% animal-vegetable blend (MED), and a moderate intake of unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 2.5% corn oil (LOW). Pigs were weighed and jowl adipose samples were collected on d 0, 21, 42, and 63 and at harvest on d 82. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED with treatment and sex as fixed effects. At market (d 82), increasing the withdrawal of dietary fat further away from market increased 18:1 (P = 0.045) and tended to increase 14:0 concentrations (P = 0.054). It also significantly decreased 18:2 (P < 0.001) and tended to decrease 18:3 concentrations (P = 0.081). A HIGH DFUL resulted in the greatest 18:2 concentrations in jowl fat followed by LOW; MED resulted in the lowest 18:2 levels (P < 0.001). Dietary fat withdrawal before market significantly reduced carcass iodine value (IV) measured at d 82 (P = 0.006). In conclusion, elevated 18:2 intake makes lowering carcass IV in the depot fat very difficult and may take as long as 61 d. The withdrawal of unsaturated dietary fat apparently altered the fat depot to be more reflective of fat synthesized de novo, resulting in a more saturated depot fat. Importantly, this alteration of deposited fat composition did not translate into improved belly firmness, depth, weight, or fat color. PMID:25568373

  6. Role of cholecystokinin in dietary fat-promoted azaserine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, M. J.; Meijers, M.; Van Garderen-Hoetmer, A.; Lamers, C. B.; Rovati, L. C.; Sprij-Mooij, D.; Jansen, J. B.; Woutersen, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    The role of cholecystokinin in dietary fat-promoted pancreatic carcinogenesis was investigated in azaserine-treated rats, using lorglumide, a highly specific cholecystokinin-receptor antagonist. The animals were killed 8 months after the start of treatment. Cholecystokinin, but not dietary unsaturated fat, increased pancreatic weight. Rats treated with cholecystokinin developed more acidophilic atypical acinar cell nodules, adenomas and adenocarcinomas than control animals. Rats maintained on the high-fat diet developed significantly more adenomas and adenocarcinomas than controls given a diet low in unsaturated fat. Lorglumide largely inhibited the enhancing effect of cholecystokinin, but not of dietary fat, on pancreatic carcinogenesis indicating that it is unlikely that the promoting effect of dietary unsaturated fat on pancreatic carcinogenesis is mediated via cholecystokinin. PMID:1637675

  7. Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuernberg Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor β protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ζ expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

  8. The effect of dietary sulfur on the metabolism of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of methionine-supplemented diet on the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids was studied by comparing results of control and cysteine-supplemented diets in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a period of 17 days one of the following diets: control, cysteine-supplemented, and/or methionine-supplemented. On the last day of the feeding period, the rats were administered either [1-14C] arachidonic acid (AA) or [1-14C] eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by stomach tube five hours before sacrificing. The cyclooxygenase activity in liver microsomes, the apparent Km of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase in liver and brain homogenates, and the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into the phosphatidylinositol fraction of brain, heat, lung, spleen, and kidney tissues were analyzed

  9. Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Marina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10: 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10: 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate. Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNF?, IFN-? and oxidative stress (urinary F2-? isoprostanes were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI: change ?2.13% (?3.74%, ?0.52%, but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-? isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  10. Ruminal Biohydrogenation Pattern of Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acid as Influenced by Dietary Tannin

    OpenAIRE

    Anuraga Jayanegara

    2013-01-01

    Large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids undergo transformation processes in the rumen through microbial biohydrogenation to form fatty acids with higher saturation degree. The respective process explains the high content of saturated fatty acids in products of ruminants and the potential risk of consumers’ health by consuming such products. Various nutritional approaches have been attempted to modulate biohydrogenation process in order to obtain healthier fatty acid profile from consumer...

  11. Dietary ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid DHA: A Potential Adjuvant in the Treatment of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolò Merendino; Lara Costantini; Laura Manzi; Romina Molinari; Donatella D'Eliseo; Francesca Velotti

    2013-01-01

    ω -3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly present in fish oil, are part of the human diet. Among PUFAs, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has received particular attention for its anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, proapoptotic, antiangiogenetic, anti-invasion, and antimetastatic properties. These data suggest that DHA can exert antitumor activity potentially representing an effective adjuvant in cancer chemotherapy. This review is focused on current knowledge supporting the potential use ...

  12. Role of Dietary Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Infant Allergies and Respiratory Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Shek, Lynette P.; Mary Foong-Fong Chong; Jia Yi Lim; Shu-E Soh; Yap-Seng Chong

    2012-01-01

    Maternal nutrition has critical effects on the developing structures and functions of the fetus. Malnutrition during pregnancy can result in low birth weight and small for gestational age babies, increase risk for infection, and impact the immune system. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported to have immunomodulatory effects. Decreased consumption of omega-6 PUFAs, in favor of more anti-inflammatory omega-3 PUFAs in modern diets, has demonstrated the potential prote...

  13. Dietary omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and Alzheimer's disease: interaction with apolipoprotein E genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Samieri, Ccilia; Fart, Catherine; Plourde, Mlanie

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest a protective role of omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) against Alzheimers disease (AD). However, most intervention studies of supplementation with n-3 PUFA have yielded disappointing results. One reason for such discordant results may result from inadequate targeting of individuals who might benefit from the supplementation, in particular because of their genetic susceptibility to AD. The ?4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (ApoE) is a genetic...

  14. Dietary Fat Reduction Behaviors among African American, American Indian, and White Older Adults with Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, Sara A; Bell, Ronny A.; SNIVELY, Beverly M.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Wetmore-Arkader, Lindsay K.; Arcury, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    Dietary self-management of diabetes is often difficult for older adults to practice, particularly in rural communities. We describe patterns and correlates of dietary fat reduction among older rural adults with diabetes of any type. In-home interviews were conducted with a multiethnic random sample of 701 adults ≥65 with diabetes from two North Carolina counties. The Fat and Fiber Behavior Questionnaire was used to measure dietary behaviors. Separate multiple linear regressions assessed effec...

  15. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B. M.; Bjørnsbo, K. B.; Tetens, Inge; Heitmann, B. L.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the diets of Danish children, and to examine the associations between dietary GI, GL and body fatness. Data were collected during 1997-8 as part of the European Youth Heart Study. The study...... population comprised 485 children aged 10 years and 364 children aged 16 years from Odense County, Denmark. Dietary GI and GL were estimated using international food tables, and the associations between energy-adjusted dietary GI, GL and body fatness were analysed by multiple linear regression. The mean...... associations were observed between dietary GI and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 60, SE=0 center dot 21, P=0 center dot 006), and between dietary GL and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 15, SE=0.06, P=0 center dot 009). In conclusion, dietary GI and GL were positively associated with body fatness among Danish boys...

  16. Food Sources, Dietary Behavior, and the Saturated Fat Intake of Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Studies dietary patterns that distinguish children with higher and lower mean daily percentages of calories from saturated fat using data from mothers of 205 Latino children aged 4-7 years in New York City. Substituting low-fat for whole milk appears a key strategy for lowering saturated fat intake. (SLD)

  17. Intestinal Phospholipid Remodeling Is Required for Dietary-Lipid Uptake and Survival on a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Rong, Xin; Duerr, Mark A; Hermanson, Daniel J; Hedde, Per Niklas; Wong, Jinny S; de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas Q; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Gratton, Enrico; Ford, David A; Tontonoz, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipids are important determinants of membrane biophysical properties, but the impact of membrane acyl chain composition on dietary-lipid absorption is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the LXR-responsive phospholipid-remodeling enzyme Lpcat3 modulates intestinal fatty acid and cholesterol absorption and is required for survival on a high-fat diet. Mice lacking Lpcat3 in the intestine thrive on carbohydrate-based chow but lose body weight rapidly and become moribund on a triglyceride-rich diet. Lpcat3-dependent incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into phospholipids is required for the efficient transport of dietary lipids into enterocytes. Furthermore, loss of Lpcat3 amplifies the production of gut hormones, including GLP-1 and oleoylethanolamide, in response to high-fat feeding, contributing to the paradoxical cessation of food intake in the setting of starvation. These results reveal that membrane phospholipid composition is a gating factor in passive lipid absorption and implicate LXR-Lpcat3 signaling in a gut-brain feedback loop that couples absorption to food intake. PMID:26833026

  18. Influence of long-term nutrition with different dietary fats on fatty acid composition of heavy pigs backfat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of long-term fat supplementation on the fatty acid profile of heavy pig adipose tissue. Fifty-four Large White barrows, averaging 25 kg LW, were randomized (matched weights to one of three isoenergetic diets supplemented with either tallow (TA, maize oil (MO, or rapeseed oil (RO. The fats were supplement- ed at 3% as fed from 25 to 110 kg LW, and at 2.5 % from 110 kg to slaughtering. Following slaughter at about 160 kg LW, backfat samples were collected from ten animals per treatment and analyzed. Fatty acid composition of backfat close- ly reflected the fatty acid composition of the supplemented fats. The backfat of pigs fed TA had the highest saturated fatty acid content (SFA (P<0.01; those fed MO had the highest content in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA and the lowest in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA content; those fed RO had the highest content of linolenic acid (C18:3 and cis 11- ecosenoic acid (C20:1. Only MO treatment had an effect on linoleic acid levels and the iodine value (IV of backfat, result- ing in levels higher than those (IV = 70; C18:2 = 15% accepted by the Parma Consortium for dry-cured ham. The IV and unsaturation index in both layers of subcutaneous backfat tissue differed significantly between treatments. These results show that long-term dietary supplementation with different fats changes the fatty acid profile of heavy pig adipose tissue. Supplementation with rapeseed oil increases the proportion of “healthy” fatty acids in pig fat, thereby improving the nutritional quality, however the effects on the technological quality of the fat must be carefully assessed.

  19. Modelling broilers' abdominal fat in response to dietary treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarpour, A; Rahmatnejad, E; Khotanlou, H

    2015-04-01

    Neural networks are capable of modelling any complex function and can be used in poultry production. Dietary crude fibre (CF) and exogenous enzymes (exEn) extensively affected abdominal fat (AF) of broilers. Current methods to study AF and its correlation with dietary CF levels and exEn supplements are costly, laborious and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to develop an artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to model data on the response of broiler chickens (AF) to CF and exEn from 0 to 42 days of age. A data set containing eight treatments was divided to the train, validation, and test data set of the ANN models. The information about feeding eight diets at two periods [starter (0-21 days of age) and grower (22-42 days of age)] were used to estimate AF of broilers by ANN-GA. A multilayer feed-forward neural network with different structures was developed using matlab software, and optimal values for the ANN weights were obtained using the genetic algorithm (GA). Crude fibre, and exEn were used as input variables and AF of broilers was output variable. The best model of ANN-GA was determined based on the train root mean square error (RMSE). The best selected ANN-GA showed desirable results, RMSE, 0.1286% and R(2) coefficient, 0.876 for test data. PMID:25088089

  20. Induction of lipid oxidation by polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin in small intestine of mice fed a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Hooiveld Guido JEJ; Vink Carolien; Molthoff Jos; Bunschoten Annelies; Kuda Ondrej; Franssen-van Hal Nicole LW; Flachs Pavel; van Schothorst Evert M; Kopecky Jan; Keijer Jaap

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in particular the long chain marine fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA), are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Little is known of the molecular response to DHA and EPA of the small intestine, and the potential contribution of this organ to the beneficial effects of these fatty acids. Here, we assessed gene expression changes induced by DHA and EPA in the wildtype C57BL/6J muri...

  1. Induction of lipid oxidation by polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin in small intestine of mice fed a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Schothorst, van, E.M.; Flachs, P.; Franssen-Hal, van, N.L.W.; Kuda, O.; Bunschoten, A.; Molthoff, J.W.; Vink, C; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Kopecky, J; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in particular the long chain marine fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA), are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Little is known of the molecular response to DHA and EPA of the small intestine, and the potential contribution of this organ to the beneficial effects of these fatty acids. Here, we assessed gene expression changes induced by DHA and EPA in the wildtype C57BL/6J murine small...

  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin induce adiponectin in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flachs, Pavel; Mohamed-Ali, V.; Horáková, Olga; Rossmeisl, Martin; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, M. J.; Hensler, Michal; Růžičková, Jana; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2006), s. 394-397. ISSN 0012-186X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB5011410; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2580; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Grant ostatní: Wellcome Trust(GB) 070821/Z/03/Z; GA-(NO) Pronova Biocare; European Commission(XE) LSHM-CT-2004-005272 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : insulin * fat ty acids * adiponektin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.247, year: 2006

  3. Trends in dietary fat and high-fat food intakes from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

    2014-02-01

    Few longitudinal studies carried out in US adults have evaluated long-term dietary fat intakes and compared them with the national recommendations during the two-decade period when the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance increased substantively. In the present study, we examined trends in the intakes of dietary fats and rich dietary sources of fats in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort over a 17-year period. The cohort was established in 1971-75 with follow-up examinations being conducted approximately every 4 years. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ beginning in 1991 (exam 5). We included 2732 adults aged ≥ 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in macronutrient and food intakes using R. Over the 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy derived from total fat and protein increased (27·3-29·8% of energy and 16·8-18·0% of energy, respectively) and that derived from carbohydrate decreased (51·0-46·8% of energy; P-trend women exhibited a greater increase in the percentage of energy derived from saturated fat and less reduction in the percentage of energy derived from trans-fats (P interaction desserts, nuts, butter and sausages/processed meats increased, whereas the intake of milk, margarine, poultry, confectioneries, chips and breads decreased (P-trend < 0·001). In this cohort of predominantly Caucasian older adults, the percentage of energy derived from dietary fats increased over time, but it remained within the national recommendations of less than 35 % of total energy, on average. PMID:24047827

  4. Dietary meat and fat intake and prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyake Yoshihiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fat exerts numerous complex effects on proinflammatory and immunologic pathways. Several epidemiological studies have examined the relationships between intake of fatty acids and/or foods high in fat and allergic rhinitis, but have provided conflicting findings. The current cross-sectional study investigated such relationships in Japan. Methods Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. The definition of rhinoconjunctivitis was based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for age; gestation; region of residence; number of older siblings; number of children; smoking; secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work; family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis; household income; education; and body mass index. Results The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months was 25.9%. Higher meat intake was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis: the adjusted odds ratio between extreme quartiles was 1.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-2.35, P for trend = 0.002. No measurable association was found between fish intake and rhinoconjunctivitis. Intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, ?-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and cholesterol and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake were not evidently related to the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis. Conclusions The current results suggest that meat intake may be positively associated with the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in young adult Japanese women.

  5. Dietary total fat and fatty acids intake, serum fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing

    2016-04-15

    Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and risk of breast cancer. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of serum SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were 1.00 (0.78-1.28), 1.41 (0.99-2.03), 0.59 (0.27-1.30), 0.81 (0.60-1.10) and 0.84 (0.60-1.18), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis suggested that dietary total fat and fatty acids might be not associated with risk of breast cancer. PMID:26595162

  6. Periodontal disease: modulation of the inflammatory cascade by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculley, D V

    2014-06-01

    Periodontal disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is caused by the interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune system. The ensuing oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade result in the destruction of gingival tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This article reviews the underlying mechanisms and host-bacteria interactions responsible for periodontal disease and evidence that nutritional supplementation with fish oil may provide a protective effect. Historical investigations of diet and disease have highlighted an inverse relationship between ingestion of fish oil, which is high in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the incidence of typical inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and coronary heart disease. Ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, results in their incorporation into membrane phospholipids, which can alter eicosanoid production after stimulation during the immune response. These eicosanoids promote a reduction in chronic inflammation, which has led to the proposal that fish oil is a possible modulator of inflammation and may reduce the severity of periodontal diseases. Tentative animal and human studies have provided an indication of this effect. Further human investigation is needed to establish the protective effects of fish oil in relation to periodontal disease. PMID:23889472

  7. Dietary saturated fat and docosahexaenoic acid differentially effect cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl composition and Ca2+ uptake, without altering permeability transition or left ventricular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Kelly A; Dabkowski, Erinne R; de Fatima Galvao, Tatiana; Xu, Wenhong; Daneault, Caroline; de Rosiers, Christine; Stanley, William C

    2013-01-01

    High saturated fat diets improve cardiac function and survival in rodent models of heart failure, which may be mediated by changes in mitochondrial function. Dietary supplementation with the n3-polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3) is also beneficial in heart failure and can affect mitochondrial function. Saturated fatty acids and DHA likely have opposing effects on mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chain composition and mitochondrial membrane function, though a direct comparison has not been previously reported. We fed healthy adult rats a standard low-fat diet (11% of energy intake from fat), a low-fat diet supplemented with DHA (2.3% of energy intake) or a high-fat diet comprised of long chain saturated fatty acids (45% fat) for 6 weeks. There were no differences among the three diets in cardiac mass or function, mitochondrial respiration, or Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. On the other hand, there were dramatic differences in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chains. Dietary supplementation with DHA increased DHA from 7% to ∼25% of total phospholipid fatty acids in mitochondrial membranes, and caused a proportional depletion of arachidonic acid (20:4n6). The saturated fat diet increased saturated fat and DHA in mitochondria and decreased linoleate (18:2n6), which corresponded to a decrease in Ca2+ uptake by isolated mitochondria compared to the other diet groups. In conclusion, despite dramatic changes in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chain composition by both the DHA and high saturated fat diets, there were no effects on mitochondrial respiration, permeability transition, or cardiac function. PMID:24303101

  8. Dietary saturated fat and docosahexaenoic acid differentially effect cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl composition and Ca(2+) uptake, without altering permeability transition or left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Kelly A; Dabkowski, Erinne R; de Fatima Galvao, Tatiana; Xu, Wenhong; Daneault, Caroline; de Rosiers, Christine; Stanley, William C

    2013-06-01

    High saturated fat diets improve cardiac function and survival in rodent models of heart failure, which may be mediated by changes in mitochondrial function. Dietary supplementation with the n3-polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3) is also beneficial in heart failure and can affect mitochondrial function. Saturated fatty acids and DHA likely have opposing effects on mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chain composition and mitochondrial membrane function, though a direct comparison has not been previously reported. We fed healthy adult rats a standard low-fat diet (11% of energy intake from fat), a low-fat diet supplemented with DHA (2.3% of energy intake) or a high-fat diet comprised of long chain saturated fatty acids (45% fat) for 6 weeks. There were no differences among the three diets in cardiac mass or function, mitochondrial respiration, or Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. On the other hand, there were dramatic differences in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chains. Dietary supplementation with DHA increased DHA from 7% to ∼25% of total phospholipid fatty acids in mitochondrial membranes, and caused a proportional depletion of arachidonic acid (20:4n6). The saturated fat diet increased saturated fat and DHA in mitochondria and decreased linoleate (18:2n6), which corresponded to a decrease in Ca(2+) uptake by isolated mitochondria compared to the other diet groups. In conclusion, despite dramatic changes in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chain composition by both the DHA and high saturated fat diets, there were no effects on mitochondrial respiration, permeability transition, or cardiac function. PMID:24303101

  9. Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Guinea Pigs12

    OpenAIRE

    McFarland, Christine T.; Fan, Yang-Yi; Chapkin, Robert S.; Weeks, Bradley R.; David N. McMurray

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that the nutritional status of the host affects resistance to disease. The impact of dietary lipids on experimental pulmonary infection with mycobacteria has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the role of dietary (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids on immunity and resistance to aerosol infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in guinea pigs. Weanling guinea pigs were fed purified, isocaloric diets differing only in lipid sourc...

  10. Beneficial effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on livers of high-fat dietary hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Yang, Deng-Jye; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2013-09-01

    Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9 mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (p<0.05) sizes of liver and visceral fat in high-fat dietary hamsters compared to the control hamsters were ameliorated (p<0.05) by NJ supplementation. NJ also decreased (p<0.05) serum/liver lipids but enhanced (p<0.05) daily faecal lipid/bile acid outputs in the high-fat dietary hamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:23578611

  11. Correlation Between Dietary Fat Intake and Atherogenic Indices in Normal, Overweight and Obese Adults with or Without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaf Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: We investigated the association of dietary intake, particularly fat and its constituent fatty acids, with atherogenic indices in adult patients with overweight, obesity and/or type 2 diabetes (T2D. Material and Methods: Two hundred eighty-five outpatients were selected in two cities located in the Northwestern region of Algeria. Anthropometric measurements for body weight, height, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were performed. Relationships between dietary intakes, estimated by a 3- days food record, and fasting blood atherogenic indices - total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL-c and apolipoprotein (apo B-to-apo A1 ratio, were analysed. Results: Study group included 58.59% overweight/obese T2D patients, 24.91% normal weight T2D patients and 16.49 % overweight/obese patients without diabetes. Higher dietary consumption (p= 0.003 of total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, was recorded in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients. Significant positive correlations were observed between apo B/apo A1 and total fat (p= 0.035, total SFAs (p= 0.042 and palmitic acid (p= 0.042 in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients and with ω6 fatty acid (p= 0.030 in the group of overweight/obese patients without diabetes. In the two groups of T2D patients, whether normal weight, overweight/obese, numerous positive correlations with TC/HDL-c were disclosed for PUFAs, ω6 and fatty acids ratios, namely, ω6/ω3, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFAs and (MUFAs+PUFAs/SFAs. Conclusion: Most adults, whom are either affected by an excess weight or T2D or both together, are prone to cardiovascular risk. Dietary intakes, particularly in fat and its constituent fatty acids, have an important effect on blood lipid atherogenic indices (TC/HDL-c and apo B/apo A1 ratios.

  12. High content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cells of Kenyan Maasai despite low dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiage-Mokua Beatrice N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing land restrictions and a reduced livestock-to-human ratio during the 20th century led the Maasai to lead a more sedentary, market-orientated lifestyle. Although plant-derived food nowadays contributes substantially to their diet, dairy products being high in saturated fatty acids (SFA and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA still are an important energy source. Since reliable data regarding the Maasai diet date back to the 1980s, the study objective was to document current diet practices in a Kenyan Maasai community and to investigate the fatty acid distribution in diet and red blood cells. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 26 Maasai (20 women, 6 men from Loodokilani, Kajiado District, Kenya. Food intake was described by the subjects via 24-h recall, and both food and blood samples were analysed. Results Two main foods - milk and ugali - constituted the Maasai diet in this region. A total of 0.9 L of milk and 0.6 kg of ugali were consumed per person and day to yield an energy intake of 7.6 MJ/d per person. A major proportion of ingested food contributing 58.3% to the total dietary energy (en% was plant-derived, followed by dairy products representing 41.1 en%. Fat consumed (30.5 en% was high in SFA (63.8% and low in PUFA (9.2%. Long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA made up only 0.15% of the ingested fatty acids, but 5.9% of red blood cell fatty acids. Conclusion The study indicates the Maasai diet is rich in SFA and low in PUFA. Nevertheless, red blood cells are composed of comparable proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA to populations consuming higher amounts of this fatty acid group.

  13. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Bouchard-Mercier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208 participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA. Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187 and ACOX1 (rs17583163 genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation.

  14. Dietary saturated and monounsaturated fats protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by altering fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shim Eugene

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fats increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We evaluated the effect of dietary corn oil (CO, olive oil (OO, and beef tallow (BT on fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane and acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 15% (wt/wt CO, OO or BT for 6 weeks. After treatment with acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, samples of plasma and liver were taken for analyses of the fatty acid composition and toxicity. Results Treatment with acetaminophen significantly elevated levels of plasma GOT and GPT as well as hepatic TBARS but reduced hepatic GSH levels in CO compared to OO and BT groups. Acetaminophen significantly induced protein expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the CO group. In comparison with the CO diet, lower levels of linoleic acid, higher levels of oleic acids and therefore much lower ratios of linoleic to oleic acid were detected in rats fed OO and BT diets. Conclusions Dietary OO and BT produces similar liver microsomal fatty acid composition and may account for less severe liver injury after acetaminophen treatment compared to animals fed diets with CO rich in linoleic acid. These findings imply that types of dietary fat may be important in the nutritional management of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  15. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids from flaxseed affect immune responses of dairy sheep around parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Albenzio, Marzia; Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Sevi, Agostino

    2015-11-15

    The objective of the study was to characterize the immune profile of dairy ewes fed flaxseed, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), around parturition. The hypothesis to be verified was that a physiological stressor, such as parturition, could be overcome with a nutritional manipulation in the diet of the animal in order to guarantee welfare of animals and to sustain their immune responses. Twenty Comisana ewes were divided in two groups (10 ewes/group), and fed a supplementation of whole flaxseed in the diet (FS group) or no supplementation (CON group). Blood samples were collected at parturition and then 7, 14, 21, 28, and 42 day post partum. Plasma samples were used to assess the humoral immune response after ovalbumin (OVA) immunization. At parturition, at 14 day, and 42 day post partum the level of plasma cytokines was assessed. The sheep showed a reduced responsiveness to OVA immunization. In FS ewes the IL-6 level remained unchanged until 14 day post partum and then significantly decreased from 14 day to 42 day post partum. IL-10 level was significantly higher in FS ewes than in CON ewes at 14 day. At parturition IL-1β level was significantly lower in FS ewes than in CON ewes and significantly decreased in both groups from parturition to 42 day. In conclusion, PUFA from flaxseed, as supplement in the diet of ewes around parturition can modulate sheep immune reactivity by influencing cytokine production. PMID:26347035

  16. Interplay between exercise and dietary fat modulates myelinogenesis in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyesook; Kleven, Andrew; Paulsen, Alex; Kleppe, Laurel; Wu, Jianmin; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Scarisbrick, Isobel A

    2016-04-01

    Here we show that the interplay between exercise training and dietary fat regulates myelinogenesis in the adult central nervous system. Mice consuming high fat with coordinate voluntary running wheel exercise for 7weeks showed increases in the abundance of the major myelin membrane proteins, proteolipid (PLP) and myelin basic protein (MBP), in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Expression of MBP and PLP RNA, as well that for Myrf1, a transcription factor driving oligodendrocyte differentiation were also differentially increased under each condition. Furthermore, expression of IGF-1 and its receptor IGF-1R, known to promote myelinogenesis, were also increased in the spinal cord in response to high dietary fat or exercise training. Parallel increases in AKT signaling, a pro-myelination signaling intermediate activated by IGF-1, were also observed in the spinal cord of mice consuming high fat alone or in combination with exercise. Despite the pro-myelinogenic effects of high dietary fat in the context of exercise, high fat consumption in the setting of a sedentary lifestyle reduced OPCs and mature oligodendroglia. Whereas 7weeks of exercise training alone did not alter OPC or oligodendrocyte numbers, it did reverse reductions seen with high fat. Evidence is presented suggesting that the interplay between exercise and high dietary fat increase SIRT1, PGC-1α and antioxidant enzymes which may permit oligodendroglia to take advantage of diet and exercise-related increases in mitochondrial activity to yield increases in myelination despite higher levels of reactive oxygen species. PMID:26826016

  17. A Practical Guide for Estimating Dietary Fat and Fiber Using Limited Food Frequency Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is presented for estimating daily intake of dietary fat and fiber based on limited food frequency data. The procedure, which relies on National Food Consumption Survey data and daily consumption rates, can provide baseline estimates of dietary patterns for health promotion policymakers. (SLD)

  18. Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Fahimi, Saman; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G; Engell, Rebecca E; Powles, John; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omeg...

  19. Food, fat, family and friends: studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was developed. Biomarker-based validity (n = 99), relative validity against a dietary history (n = 191), and reproducibility (n = 93) were satisfactory for adults.Up to 40% of the variance in fat intake, expressed as %...

  20. Maternal dietary imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids impairs neocortical development via epoxy metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakayori, Nobuyuki; Kikkawa, Takako; Tokuda, Hisanori; Kiryu, Emiko; Yoshizaki, Kaichi; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Arai, Hiroyuki; Kang, Jing X; Katagiri, Hideki; Shibata, Hiroshi; Innis, Sheila M; Arita, Makoto; Osumi, Noriko

    2016-02-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients. Although several studies have suggested that a balanced dietary n-6:n-3 ratio is essential for brain development, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we found that feeding pregnant mice an n-6 excess/n-3 deficient diet, which reflects modern human diets, impairsed neocortical neurogenesis in the offspring. This impaired neurodevelopment occurs through a precocious fate transition of neural stem cells from the neurogenic to gliogenic lineage. A comprehensive mediator lipidomics screen revealed key mediators, epoxy metabolites, which were confirmed functionally using a neurosphere assay. Importantly, although the offspring were raised on a well-balanced n-6:n-3 diet, they exhibited increased anxiety-related behavior in adulthood. These findings provide compelling evidence that excess maternal consumption of n-6 PUFAs combined with insufficient intake of n-3 PUFAs causes abnormal brain development that can have long-lasting effects on the offspring's mental state. Stem Cells 2016;34:470-482. PMID:26580686

  1. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25989998

  2. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Shahidi, Mariam; Du, Jianling; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%-27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile. PMID:26742059

  3. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%–27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile.

  4. Olive oil, dietary fat and ageing, a mitochondrial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiles, José L.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageing represents a great concern in developed countries because the high number of people included in this group (indeed, a further increase in the rate of old people it is expected in the near future. Another important aspect concerning ageing is the number of pathologies related with this phenomenon like Alzheimer, Parkinson, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. According to the free radical theory of ageing and its further mitochondrial extension, ageing is the result of the oxidative insult to the organism throughout the life. Some of the damages are not entirely repaired and are accumulated, leading to organism malfunction. Such oxidative-stress related events are particularly important in mitochondria and specially at the mitochondrial DNA level (less protected and more prone to oxidation than nuclear DNA and with a not well established repairing system. Such mitochondrial damage directly affects to the cell energy delivery system, being that, at least in part, the explanation for the structural and functional impairments related to age. Oxidative stress is related with the fatty acid composition of membranes. The intake of a type of fat affects in a direct way the fatty acids and antioxidants composition of subcellular membranes (including mitochondrial membranes and in an indirect way the susceptibility of the membrane to oxidation. Thus, if we build specific biological membranes according to particular types of fats, we would be able to positively affect the way and intensity in which different organs would age. This work hypothesis represents a new point of view in the investigation of ageing and might have important consequences. According to the above-mentioned premises, this work reviews the convenience to use virgin olive oil as dietary fat from the point of view of mitochondrial ageing.El envejecimiento preocupa enormemente en los países desarrollados por el alto número de personas incluidas en este grupo de población (se espera un aumento de este colectivo en el futuro. También es importante la incidencia de patologías relacionadas con el envejecimiento tales como Alzheimer, Parkinson, diabetes, enfermedades cardiovasculares y cáncer. Según la teoría de los radicales libres del envejecimiento y su posterior extensión mitocondrial, el envejecimiento proviene del daño oxidativo al organismo a lo largo de la vida. Parte del daño no es reparado y se acumula, dando lugar a un funcionamiento celular incorrecto. Tales eventos oxidativos son muy importantes a nivel mitocondrial, especialmente en su ADN, menos protegido y más susceptible a la oxidación que el nuclear y con un sistema de reparación aun sin elucidar en su totalidad. El daño mitocondrial afecta a la producción de energía celular, lo cual puede explicar las alteraciones estructurales y funcionales asociadas al envejecimiento. El estrés oxidativo se relaciona con la composición en ácidos grasos de las membranas biológicas. La ingesta de un tipo de grasa afecta a la composición en ácidos grasos y antioxidantes de las membranas subcelulares y a la susceptibilidad de las mismas a la oxidación. Por tanto, si construyéramos membranas basadas en determinadas grasas, podríamos condicionar el modo e intensidad del envejecimiento en determinados órganos y tejidos. Esta hipótesis de trabajo representa un novedoso enfoque dentro del estudio del envejecimiento que podría tener importantes consecuencias. Según las premisas anteriores, el presente trabajo revisa la conveniencia del empleo en la dieta de aceite de oliva virgen de forma preferencial desde el punto de vista del envejecimiento mitocondrial.

  5. Dietary fat reduction behaviors among African American, American Indian, and white older adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A; Bell, Ronny A; Snively, Beverly M; Vitolins, Mara Z; Wetmore-Arkader, Lindsay K; Arcury, Thomas A

    2009-04-01

    Dietary self-management of diabetes is often difficult for older adults to practice, particularly in rural communities. We describe patterns and correlates of dietary fat reduction among older rural adults with diabetes of any type. In-home interviews were conducted with a multiethnic random sample of 701 adults ≥ 65 with diabetes from two North Carolina counties. The Fat and Fiber Behavior Questionnaire was used to measure dietary behaviors. Separate multiple linear regressions assessed effects of gender, ethnicity, and diabetes education. In general, scores were more favorable for practices that involved modifying food preparation (e.g., avoiding frying) and less favorable for practices that involved changing foods consumed (e.g., substituting fruits and vegetables as desserts or snacks). American Indians and African Americans had less favorable scores than whites, and diabetes education was associated with greater fat restriction for women than men. Older men and ethnic minorities with diabetes should be targeted for dietary change education. PMID:20396599

  6. Transgenesis of humanized fat1 promotes n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in goat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yixuan; Ren, Caifang; Wang, Zhibo; Jia, Ruoxin; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Guomin; Wan, Yongjie; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-15

    The n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene fat1 codes for the n-3 desaturase enzyme, which can convert n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to n-3 PUFAs. The n-3 PUFAs are essential components required for normal cellular function and have preventive and therapeutic effects on many diseases. Goat is an important domestic animal for human consumption of meat and milk. To elevate the concentrations of n-3 PUFAs and examine the regulatory mechanism of fat1 in PUFA metabolism in goat cells, we successfully constructed a humanized fat1 expression vector and confirmed the efficient expression of fat1 in goat ear skin-derived fibroblast cells (GEFCs) by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Fatty acid analysis showed that fat1 overexpression significantly increased the levels of total n-3 PUFAs and decreased the levels of total n-6 PUFAs in GEFCs. In addition, qRT-PCR results indicate that the FADS1 and FADS2 desaturase genes, ELOV2 and ELOV5 elongase genes, ACO and CPT1 oxidation genes, and PPARa and PPAR? transcription factors are up-regulated, and transcription factors of SREBP-1c gene are down-regulated in the fat1 transgenic goat cells. Overall, fat1-overexpression resulted in an increase in the n-3 fatty acids and altered expression of PUFA synthesis related genes in GEFCs. This work lays a foundation for both the production of fat1 transgenic goats and further study of the mechanism of fat1 function in the PUFAs metabolism. PMID:26474750

  7. Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Growth Performance Responses and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorghasemi, Mohammadreza; Seidavi, Alireza; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows: T, diet containing 4% tallow; CO, diet containing 4% canola oil; SFO, diet containing 4% sunflower oil; TCO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% canola oil; TSFO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% sunflower oil. Dietary fat type affected significantly BW and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed the TCO diets compared with those fed the other diets. Dietary fat type also modified meat yield, resulting in a higher breast and drumstick yields in the birds fed TCO and TSFO diets, respectively. Most of internal organ relative weights and small intestine measurements were not influenced by dietary treatments, except for the abdominal fat pad weight that was lower in birds fed SFO and for small intestinal length that was influenced by fat source. Results from the current study suggested that the supplementation with a combination of vegetable and animal fat sources in broiler diet supported positively growth performance and carcass parameters. PMID:25049842

  8. Diet-gene interactions between dietary fat intake and common polymorphisms in determining lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corella, Dolores

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Current dietary guidelines for fat intake have not taken into consideration the possible genetic differences underlying the individual variability in responsiveness to dietary components. Genetic variability has been identified in humans for all the known lipid metabolim-related genes resulting in a plethora of candidate genes and genetic variants to examine in diet-gene interaction studies focused on fat consumption. Some examples of fat-gene interaction are reviewed. These include: the interaction between total intake and the 514C/T in the hepatic lipase gene promoter in determining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C metabolism; the interaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and the 75G/A polymorphism in the APOA1 gene plasma HDL-C concentrations; the interaction between PUFA and the L162V polymorphism in the PPARA gene in determining triglycerides and APOC3 concentrations; and the interaction between PUFA intake and the 1131TC in the APOA5 gene in determining triglyceride metabolism. Although hundreds of diet-gene interaction studies in lipid metabolism have been published, the level of evidence to make specific nutritional recommendations to the population is still low and more research in nutrigenetics has to be undertaken.Las recomendaciones dietéticas actuales referentes al consumo de grasas en la dieta han sido realizadas sin tener en cuenta las posibles diferencias genéticas de las personas que podrían ser las responsables de las diferentes respuestas interindividuales que frecuentemente se observan ante la misma dieta. La presencia de variabilidad genética ha sido puesta de manifiesto para todos los genes relacionados con el metabolismo lipídico, por lo que existe un ingente número de genes y de variantes genéticas para ser incluidas en los estudios sobre interacciones dieta-genotipo en el ámbito específico del consumo de grasas y aceites. Se revisarán algunos ejemplos sobre interacciones grasa-genotipo. Estas interacciones incluyen: la interacción entre el consumo de grasa total y el polimorfismo 514C/T en el promotor del gen de la lipasa hepática determinando las concentraciones de colesterol ligado a lipoproteínas de alta densidad (c-HDL; la interacción entre el consumo de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados y el polimorfismo 75G/A en el promotor del gen APOA1 en las concentraciones plasmáticas de c-HDL; la interacción entre los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados y el polimorfismo L162V en el gen PPARA determinando las concentraciones plasmáticas de triglicéridos y de apolipoproteína C-III; la interacción entre el polimorfismo 1131TC en el promotor del gen de la APOA5 determinando el metabolismo de los triglicéridos. Aunque se han publicado cientos de estudios dieta-genotipo en el ámbito del metabolismo lipídico, el nivel de evidencia científica todavía es bajo para realizar recomendaciones nutricionales a la población, por lo que se requiere mucha más investigación nutrigenética.

  9. Potential role of dietary lipids in the prophylaxis of some clinical conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagat, Urvashi; Das, Undurti N.

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance of dietary lipids may potentially have a significant role in the pathobiology of some chronic diseases. Public health dietary fat recommendations have emphasized that low saturated fat, high monounsaturated fat, and high polyunsaturated fat with a lower ω-6 to ω-3 fatty acid ratio intake are necessary for normal health. However, such universal recommendations are likely to be hazardous, since the outcome of recommended lipid intake may depend on the consumption of other important...

  10. 21 CFR 101.75 - Health claims: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... include a family history of heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, cigarette smoking, obesity (body..., and the type of dietary pattern. A healthful diet low in saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol,...

  11. The Influence of Different Vegetable Oils on Some ?-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Thigh and Abdominal Fat of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago? Sorin Fota

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy sources, especialy vegetable oils, added to the combined fodder can segnificantly modefy the fatty acids profile of the chicken feed, thus through its control the fatty acids profile of the carcases can be modefied, through enrichment in some fatty acids. In this respect an experiment was coduced on broilers, made up of three experimental groups, fed with a combined base fodder (corn and soybean meal in which 2% of different energy sources were added (sunflower oil, soybean oil, linseed oil. At the end of the 42 days growing period, using gaz cromatography, the fatty acids profile, % of fatty acids in 100 g product (EPA,DPA, DHA, ? SFA, ? MUFA, ? PUFA from the studied cut pieces, were determined. The results obtained after statistc processing and interpretation of the data, showed the fact that regarding the fatty acids profile in chicken thigh and abdominal fat we can observe variations, what denotes that the fatty acids profile can be influenced by dietary factors, the quantity being yet determined by the participation % of the energy sources (vegetable oils, but also by the fatty acids content of the participating raw materials.

  12. The lipid messenger OEA links dietary fat intake to satiety

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Gary J.; Fu, Jin; Astarita, Giuseppe; Li, Xiaosong; Gaetani, Silvana; Campolongo, Patrizia; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Piomelli, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    The association between fat consumption and obesity underscores the need to identify physiological signals that control fat intake. Previous studies have shown that feeding stimulates small-intestinal mucosal cells to produce the lipid messenger oleoylethanolamide (OEA) which, when administered as a drug, decreases meal frequency by engaging peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α (PPAR-α). Here we report that duodenal infusion of fat stimulates OEA mobilization in the proximal small in...

  13. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm; Bartels, E.M.; Melanson, E.L.; Saris, W.H.; Tremblay, A.; Astrup, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal...... fat excretion, we performed a systematic review with meta-analysis. We included randomized, controlled trials of calcium (supplements or dairy) in healthy subjects, where faecal fat excretion was measured. Meta-analyses used random-effects models with changes in faecal fat excreted expressed as...

  14. Effect of synbiotic supplementation and dietary fat sources on broiler performance, serum lipids, muscle fatty acid profile and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, H A; Shivazad, M; Mirzapour Rezaei, S S; Karimi Torshizi, M A

    2016-02-01

    A 42-d trial was conducted to investigate the effect of adding a synbiotic supplement to diets containing two different types of fat on performance, blood lipids and fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidative stability of breast and thigh meat in broilers. A total of 800 one-d-old male broiler chickens were randomly assigned into 1 of 8 treatments with 4 replicates of 25 birds per treatment. The experiment consisted of a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 4 concentrations of synbiotic (0, 0.5, 1 or 1.5 g/kg diet) and 2 types of fat [sunflower oil (SO) or canola oil (CO)] at an inclusion rate of 50 g/kg diet. Dietary fat type did not affect body weight gain (BWG) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) during the overall experimental period (0-42 d). However, fat type modified serum lipid profile and FA composition and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content in breast and thigh meat. The addition of synbiotic to the diet linearly improved overall BWG and FCR and also decreased serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The TBARS value in thigh meat after 30 d of storage at 4°C was linearly decreased as the synbiotic inclusion concentrations in the diets increased. Dietary synbiotic also decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in thigh meat, whereas the FA profile of breast meat was not affected by synbiotic supplementation. Moreover, the PUFA/SFA ratio in the breast meat was linearly increased when synbiotic was included in the CO-containing diets. In conclusion, the addition of synbiotic to broiler diets had a positive effect on growth performance, blood lipid profile and meat quality. The results also support the use of synbiotic to increase the capacity of canola oil for enhancing PUFA/SFA ratio of breast meat in broilers. PMID:26654967

  15. Effects of partial replacement of dietary fat by olestra on dietary cholesterol absorption in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olestra, a nonabsorbable fat substitute comprising long-chain fatty acid esters of sucrose, had been previously shown to reduce cholesterol absorption in humans when ingested at a level of 50 g/d. To determine whether or not a lower level of dietary olestra would also reduce cholesterol absorption, we studied the effect of 7 g of olestra twice a day in 20 normocholesterolemic male inpatients in a double-blind, crossover trial. Two 6-day diet treatment and stool collection periods were separated by a 14-day washout period. Half of the subjects received butter, and half, a butter-olestra blend during each treatment period according to a crossover design. All subjects ingested trace amounts of 3H-cholesterol and 14C-beta-sitosterol with the butter or the butter-olestra blend. Cholesterol absorption was determined from the 3H/14C ratios in the diet and in saponified and extracted stools according to previously validated methodology. Cholesterol absorption during the butter regimen was significantly greater than that during the olestra regimen (56.1% +/- 1.6% v 46.7% +/- 1.1%, P less than .01)

  16. Effects of partial replacement of dietary fat by olestra on dietary cholesterol absorption in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandacek, R.J.; Ramirez, M.M.; Crouse, J.R. III (Procter Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Olestra, a nonabsorbable fat substitute comprising long-chain fatty acid esters of sucrose, had been previously shown to reduce cholesterol absorption in humans when ingested at a level of 50 g/d. To determine whether or not a lower level of dietary olestra would also reduce cholesterol absorption, we studied the effect of 7 g of olestra twice a day in 20 normocholesterolemic male inpatients in a double-blind, crossover trial. Two 6-day diet treatment and stool collection periods were separated by a 14-day washout period. Half of the subjects received butter, and half, a butter-olestra blend during each treatment period according to a crossover design. All subjects ingested trace amounts of 3H-cholesterol and 14C-beta-sitosterol with the butter or the butter-olestra blend. Cholesterol absorption was determined from the 3H/14C ratios in the diet and in saponified and extracted stools according to previously validated methodology. Cholesterol absorption during the butter regimen was significantly greater than that during the olestra regimen (56.1% +/- 1.6% v 46.7% +/- 1.1%, P less than .01).

  17. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E; Vaag, Allan

    2006-01-01

    that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention programme increased incorporation......OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity....... DESIGN Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  18. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik; Vaag, A.

    2006-01-01

    analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R-2 = 0.33, P <0.01). Conclusions A hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention programme increased......Objective Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity....... Design Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  19. Metabolism and secretory function of white adipose tissue: effect of dietary fat

    OpenAIRE

    Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M; Eliane B. Ribeiro; Oyama, Lila M

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 40% of the total energy consumed by western populations is represented by lipids, most of them being ingested as triacylglycerols and phospholipids. The focus of this review is to analyze the effect of the type of dietary fat on white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory function, particularly on haptoglobin, TNF-α, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and adiponectin secretion. Previous studies have demonstrated that the duration of the exposure to the high-fat feeding, am...

  20. Estimating the cardiovascular mortality burden attributable to the European Common Agricultural Policy on dietary saturated fats

    OpenAIRE

    Ffion Lloyd-Williams; Martin O'Flaherty; Modi Mwatsama; Christopher Birt; Robin Ireland; Simon Capewell

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of cardiovascular disease within 15 European Union countries (before the 2004 enlargement) as a result of excess dietary saturated fats attributable to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). METHODS: A spreadsheet model was developed to synthesize data on population, diet, cholesterol levels and mortality rates. A conservative estimate of a reduction in saturated fat consumption of just 2.2 g was chosen, representing 1% of daily energy intake. The fall in seru...

  1. On the binding ratio of ?-cyclodextrin to dietary fat in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jen KLC; Grunberger G; Artiss JD

    2013-01-01

    KL Catherine Jen,1,2 George Grunberger,3 Joseph D Artiss2,4 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2ArtJen Complexus Inc, Windsor, ON, Canada; 3The Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA; 4Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: ?-Cyclodextrin (?-CD), a soluble dietary fiber, has been shown to bind and eliminate nine times of its own weight in dietary fat. Studie...

  2. Dietary fat and reproduction in the post partum sow

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, H.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    Lactating sows are not able to ingest sufficient energy to produce the large amount of milk they are presently capable of. Therefore, sows use a considerable amount of body reserves to maintain their milk production. The high amount of body weight loss is negatively associated with subsequent reproductive performance. Addition of fat to the diet is often used to increase energy intake during lactation. The intent of this review is to examine the effect of fat addition to the diet on subsequen...

  3. Dietary oxidized poultry offal fat: broiler performance and oxidative stability of thigh meat during chilled storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMC Racanicci

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC. Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass characteristics were measured. Skinless and deboned thigh meat was stored chilled during 12 days, and samples were periodically collected to assess their quality and oxidative stability. Dietary oxidized fat did not affect bird performance or carcass characteristics. During chilled storage, meat color (L*, a* and b* was not affected by dietary treatments; however, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances values were higher (P<0.05 in thigh meat from chickens fed the oxidized fat, indicating that oxidative stability was adversely affected.

  4. Ethnic and Gender Differences in the Relationships between Television Viewing and Obesity, Physical Activity, and Dietary Fat Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Thomas N.; Killen, Joel D.

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed ninth graders for evidence of ethnic and gender differences in the relationships between television viewing and adiposity, physical activity, and dietary fat intake. Television viewing related to increased dietary fat intake, and cultural factors influenced the susceptibilities of children to the effects of television viewing.…

  5. Lipid metabolism and the risk factors of cardiovascular disease: implication of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Kayode A

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a complicated and multifarious disease, and is the number one cause of mortality worldwide. The pathogenesis of CVD is attributed to the interaction between genetics and environment. There are numerous data that support the cardioprotective properties of omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); however, there are also controversial reports. Considering the reported sex and age differences in the pathophysiology of CVD and the metabolism of n-3 PUFA, it is imperative to consider these factors in the cardioprotective effects of n-3 PUFA. The current thesis investigated the effects of n-3 PUFA on the risk factors of CVD, such as dyslipidemia and obesity, with a particular focus on how sex, age, and dose of n-3 PUFA affect lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins of C57BL/6 mice offspring at weaning and 16 weeks postweaning were chosen as study outcomes to assess the sex, age, and dose-specific effects of n-3 PUFA on markers of dyslipidemia, a well-known risk factor of CVD. A longer exposure to a postnatal diet high in n-3 PUFA increased plasma concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the offspring in a sex-specific manner; however, the profile of this increase was less atherogenic, as the high n-3 PUFA group had a lower plasma concentration of very small LDL particles in both males and females. There was no effect of high n-3 PUFA diet observed on plasma concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; however, the high n-3 PUFA group had a higher cholesterol efflux in the male offspring but not in female offspring. Lipidomic analyses revealed that high n-3 PUFA diet led to higher hepatic and plasma concentrations of n-3 PUFA-containing bioactive lipids, such a phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine and free fatty acids, which could positively influence pathways involved in cardioprotection. The effects of dietary n-3 PUFA on obesity at the cellular level was also investigated, using adipocyte hypertrophy as the outcome measure of adipose tissue enlargement. A diet high in n-3 PUFA prevented adipocyte hypertrophy in males, with no effect in females. High n-3 PUFA diet also led to the downregulation of the messenger RNA expression of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2, fatty acid binding protein-4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor protein γ, and leptin in males, which are key proteins involved in adipocyte hypertrophy; however, no effect was observed in females. The last study assessed the effects of dose and duration of exposure to dietary n-3 PUFA on docosahexaenoic acid accretion in the brain, and the expression of neurotrophins known to have neuroprotective and cardioprotective benefits. Dietary n-3 PUFA led to an age-dependent increase in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tropomyosin receptor kinase, and phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein. In conclusion, the results from the current thesis demonstrate a sex-, dose-, and age-specific effect of n-3 PUFA on risk factors of CVD, and on novel regulatory pathways by which n-3 PUFA could reduce dyslipidemia and obesity. The results also suggest that n-3 PUFA could be neuroprotective and cardioprotective through a common neurotrophin signalling pathway. PMID:26778139

  6. On the binding ratio of α-cyclodextrin to dietary fat in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen KLC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available KL Catherine Jen,1,2 George Grunberger,3 Joseph D Artiss2,4 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2ArtJen Complexus Inc, Windsor, ON, Canada; 3The Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA; 4Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD, a soluble dietary fiber, has been shown to bind and eliminate nine times of its own weight in dietary fat. Studies with different animal models have reported that α-CD preferentially binds saturated fatty acids, reducing saturated and trans fatty acid levels in blood. A clinical trial demonstrated that α-CD prevented weight gain in obese diabetic patients. The present study was designed to examine whether α-CD also shows a preference in binding saturated fatty acids in humans and to confirm the 1:9 binding ratio in humans. Sixty-six obese diabetic patients were recruited at the beginning of this 3-month, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to the Active or Placebo group. Blood samples and 3-day dietary records were collected at baseline and at the end of months 1, 2, and 3. A bottle of 180 tablets of active or placebo tablets was dispensed to each participant at the beginning of each month. Dietary records were analyzed using The Food Processor software. It was observed that α-CD has a higher affinity towards saturated fats than to unsaturated fats. Participants with higher intakes of total and saturated fat lost more weight than those with lower intakes (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively. These data support the earlier observation in both in vitro and animal studies that α-CD binds with dietary fat in a 1:9 ratio and further demonstrate the efficacy of α-CD in binding to and eliminating dietary fat, especially saturated fats. α-CD may play a significant role in reducing blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as stopping chronic weight gain. Keywords: FBCx®, fat binding capacity, 1:9 binding ratio, reducing blood cholesterol levels, saturated, dietary analysis

  7. Dietary fat intakes in Irish adults in 2011: how much has changed in 10 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaifeng; McNulty, Breige A; Tiernery, Ann M; Devlin, Niamh F C; Joyce, Triona; Leite, Joao C; Flynn, Albert; Walton, Janette; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Michael J; Nugent, Anne P

    2016-05-01

    Imbalances in dietary fat intakes are linked to several chronic diseases. This study describes dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in 1051 Irish adults (aged 18-90 years), using data from the 2011 national food consumption survey, the National Adult Nutrition Survey. It also compares current intakes for 18-64-year-olds with those reported in the last such survey in 2001, the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey. Dietary fat intakes were estimated using data from 4-d semi-weighed (2011) and 7-d estimated (2001) food diaries. In 2011, intakes for 18-64-year-olds were as follows: total fat, 34·1 (sd 6·1) % total energy (%TE); SFA, 13·3 (sd 3·3) %TE; MUFA, 12·5 (sd 2·6) %TE; PUFA, 6·1 (sd 2·2) %TE; and trans-fat, 0·511 (sd 0·282) %TE. Apart from MUFA, intakes decreased (P65 years had the highest intakes of SFA; however, intakes were typically higher than UK-recommended values for all groups. In contrast, intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids were lowest in younger age groups. Intakes of trans-fat were well within UK-recommended levels. Although there have been some improvements in the profile of intakes since 2001, imbalances persist in the quantity and quality of dietary fat consumed by Irish adults, most notably for total and SFA and for younger age groups for long-chain n-3 fatty acids. PMID:26996058

  8. Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: possible effect modification by gender and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dyerberg, Jørn; Schroll, Marianne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2004-01-01

    , total energy and protein intake were fixed. Differences in intake of energy from fat thus reflected complementary differences in intake of energy from carbohydrates. A 5% higher level of energy from saturated fat intake was associated with a 36% greater risk of coronary heart disease among women (hazard......In a 16-year follow-up study (ending in 1998) of 3,686 Danish men and women aged 30–71 years at recruitment, the association between energy intake from dietary fat and the risk of coronary heart disease was evaluated while assessing the possible modifying role of gender and age. In the models used...... ratio (HR) = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98, 1.88). No overall association between saturated fat and coronary heart disease was found among men. However, age-dependent analyses showed that saturated fat was positively associated with coronary heart disease among the younger men (HR = 1.29, 95...

  9. Low-fat dietary pattern and change in body-composition traits in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial123

    OpenAIRE

    Carty, Cara L; Kooperberg, Charles; NEUHOUSER, MARIAN L.; Tinker, Lesley; Howard, Barbara; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Beresford, Shirley AA; Snetselaar, Linda; Vitolins, Mara; Allison, Matthew; Budrys, Nicole; Prentice, Ross; Peters, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) Trial was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of a low-fat (?20% of total energy) or a usual diet in relation to chronic disease risk in postmenopausal women.

  10. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernndez-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:21695545

  11. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Brewer's Spent Grain Dietary Fiber on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Sung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; N Lee, Soo-Yeo; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork back fat with brewer's spent grain (BSG) pre-emulsion for physicochemical, textural properties, and sensory evaluations of reduced-fat chicken sausages are evaluated. Control was prepared with 15% pork back fat, and three reduced-fat chicken sausages were formulated with the replacement of 20, 25, and 30% pork back fat with BSG pre-emulsion. The pH level of reduced-fat sausages formulated with BSG pre-emulsion is lower than that of the control (p0.05). Therefore, our results indicate that BSG is effective dietary fiber source for manufacturing of reduced-fat meat product and suggest that 20-25% of BSG pre-emulsion is suitable for pork back fat in chicken sausages. PMID:26760933

  12. Interesterification of fat blends rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids catalysed by immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase under high pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Osório, N.M.; Ribeiro, M. H.; Fonseca, M.M.R.; Ferreira-Dias, S.

    2008-01-01

    The interesterification of natural fats will improve certain physical and nutraceutical properties by modification of their acylglycerol profile. In this study, the effect of high pressure in the interesterification kinetics of fat blends, in solvent-free medium, catalysed by a commercial immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa was evaluated. Reaction media were ternary blends of palm stearin, palm kernel oil and a concentrate of triacylglycerols (TAG) rich in -3 polyunsatura...

  13. Effect of dietary fat level on carcass traits and flesh quality of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax from mariculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the effect of the reduction of dietary fat on juvenile European sea bass nutritional value and quality traits. Fish were reared in floating cages (Trieste Gulf, Italy from July (11 to October (10. Two isoproteic diets were compared: LF (low fat, EE = 19.4% vs. HF (high fat, EE = 24.6%. No significantly different growth performance was observed. LF diet-fed fish were characterized by the reduction of celomatic fat (not edible fraction and by the increase in dressing percentage. The tested dietary fat level also affected both fillet and epiaxial white muscle proximate composition, resulting in a significantly lower fillet lipid concentration in LF diet-fed fish. Dietary treatment influenced cooked fillet colour and texture probably as a consequence of the different intramuscular fat deposition. Fillet from HF-fed fish, in fact, presented higher lightness (L* value and lower instrumental strengthness.

  14. Effect of dietary fat levels on the susceptibility of colonic cells to nuclear-damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of two levels and types of dietary fats on the susceptibility of colonic cells to the nuclear-damaging effect of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (MeIQ), and gamma-radiation was investigated. Corn oil and beef tallow were added to the semisynthetic diet at 5% and 20% levels (weight/weight). A diet-related effect was not evident until after two weeks of feeding. Animals (C57BL/6J female mice) that were given the 20% corn oil or beef tallow diets had significantly (p less than 0.05) more nuclear aberrations in their colons 24 hours following treatment with DMH (5 mg or 10 mg/kg body wt or MeIQ (100 mg/kg body weight) than did those given low-fat diets (5% corn oil or beef tallow). The nuclear-damaging effect of gamma radiation was unaffected by dietary treatments. A high-fat diet had the most pronounced effect on DMH-treated animals, and maximum nuclear aberrations were observed 24 hours following the treatment. Thus, we concluded that increased levels of dietary fats elevate the toxicity of DMH and MeIQ to colonic epithelial cells

  15. Milk fat depression induced by dietary marine algae in dairy ewes: persistency of milk fatty acid composition and animal performance responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichi, E; Hervs, G; Toral, P G; Loor, J J; Frutos, P

    2013-01-01

    Addition of marine algae (MA) to the diet of dairy ruminants has proven to be an effective strategy to enhance the milk content of some bioactive lipids, but it has also been associated with the syndrome of milk fat depression. Little is known, however, about the persistency of the response to dietary MA in sheep. Based on previous experiments with dairy ewes fed sunflower oil plus MA, it was hypothesized that the response might be mediated by time-dependent adaptations of the rumen microbiota, which could be evaluated indirectly through milk fatty acid (FA) profiles. Animal performance and milk FA composition in response to MA in the diet were studied using 36 Assaf ewes distributed in 6 lots and allocated to 2 treatments (3 lots/treatment) consisting of a total mixed ration (40:60 forage:concentrate ratio) supplemented with 25 g of sunflower oil (SO)/kg of dry matter plus 0 (SO; control diet) or 8 g of MA/kg of dry matter (SOMA diet). Milk production and composition, including FA profile, were analyzed on d 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 34, 44, and 54 of treatment. Diet supplementation with MA did not affect milk yield but did decrease milk fat content. Differences in the latter were detected from d 18 onward and reached -17% at the end of the experiment (i.e., on d 54). Compared with the control diet, the SOMA diet caused a reduction in milk 18:0 and its desaturation product (cis-9 18:1) that lasted for the whole experimental period. This decrease, together with the progressive increase in some putative fat synthesis inhibitors, especially trans-10 18:1, was related to the persistency of milk fat depression in lactating ewes fed MA. Additionally, inclusion of MA in the diet enhanced the milk content of trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, and C20-22 n-3 polyunsaturated FA, mainly 22:6 n-3. Overall, the persistency of the responses observed suggests that the ruminal microbiota did not adapt to the dietary supply of very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23141833

  16. Dietary fat and kinetics of chloesterol metabolism in miniature swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female, Hormel derived miniature swine were fed corn-soy rations containing 40% of energy as beef fat (SFA) or 8% beef fat and 32% safflower oil (PUFA) from a weight of 23 until 44 to 46 kg. At that time, surgery was performed to implant a cannula in the proximal jejunum. Two wk later, a second surgery was performed to implant cannulae in the portal vein and aorta. The pigs were fed sufficient ration to maintain weight in two meals per day. 4-14C-cholesterol was incubated with homologous serum and reinjected. Samples were withdrawn from the portal vein or aorta and the jejunal cannula at intervals. Specific activity of serum and jejunal cholesterol was determined. Bile acids were isolated, quantitated by enzymatic assay and specific activity was calculated. Diet did not affect T1/2 of serum cholesterol, but the fractional turnover rate from pool 2 to pool 1 was greater for SFA than PUFA. Pool 1 was larger for PUFA than SFA and the flow rate was greater between pools; there was greater net loss from PUFA than SFA fed pigs. Jejunal cholesterol kinetics were similar to serum from SFA but not PUFA pigs. Flow rates between pools were lower in jejunal than serum pools. Bile acid specific activity rose within 15 hr to a maximum, then exhibited a plateau for about two wk before beginning disappearance

  17. Increased fat and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in sow gestation diet has no effect on gene expression in progeny during the first 7 days of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, A; Bikker, P; Smit-Heinsbroek, A; Bruininx, E; Zwolschen, H; Fijten, H; Zetteler, P; Vastenhouw, S; Smits, M; Rebel, J

    2016-02-01

    The 'developmental origins of health and disease' hypothesis proposes not only that we are what we eat, but also that we could be what our parents ate. Here, we aimed to improve health and performance of young piglets via maternal diets based on the hypothesis that maternal nutritional interventions change metabolic programming in piglets, reflected by differential gene expression early in life. Therefore, sows were fed either a regular diet, based on barley, wheat and wheat by-products, sugar beet pulp, palm oil and oilseed meal, or a high-fat (HF) diet consisting of the regular diet supplemented with an additional amount of 3.5% soybean oil and 1% fish oil at the expense of palm oil and wheat. Performance results, physiological parameters and gene expression in liver of piglets and blood of piglets and sows at day 7 after farrowing from both diet groups were compared. The HF diet tended to enhance growth rate of the offspring in the first week of life. No significant differences in gene expression in liver tissue and blood could be detected between the two groups, neither with whole-genome microarray analysis, nor with gene specific qPCR analysis. In this study, the feeding of a high-fat diet with increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to gestating sows under practical farm settings did not induce significant changes in gene expression in sows and offspring. PMID:25962343

  18. Dietary monounsaturated fat in early life regulates IGFBP2: implications for fat mass accretion and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Matthew A; Yau, Steven W; Russo, Vincenzo C; Clarke, Iain J; Dunshea, Frank R; Chau, Jillian; Cox, Maree; Werther, George A

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of dietary supplementation with fat or sugar on body composition (BC) and insulin sensitivity (IS) in maturing pigs. Fifty newborn pigs randomized to a control diet or 18% saturated fat (SF), 18% monounsaturated fat (MUF), 18% mixed fat (MF), or 50% sucrose (SUC), from 1 to 16 weeks of age. Outcomes included weight gain, BC (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA), IS (fasting insulin and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps), fasting Non-Esterified Fatty Acid (NEFA) concentrations, and mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and IS in skeletal muscle (SM), subcutaneous (SAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In vitro studies examined direct effects of fatty acids on insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) mRNA in C2C12 myotubes. While SUC-fed pigs gained most weight (due to larger quantities consumed; P < 0.01), those fed fat-enriched diets exhibited more weight gain per unit energy intake (P < 0.001). Total (P = 0.03) and visceral (P = 0.04) adiposity were greatest in MUF-fed pigs. Whole-body IS was decreased in those fed fat (P = 0.04), with fasting insulin increased in MUF-fed pigs (P = 0.03). SM IGFBP2 mRNA was increased in MUF-fed pigs (P = 0.009) and, in all animals, SM IGFBP2 mRNA correlated with total (P = 0.007) and visceral (P = 0.001) fat, fasting insulin (r = 0.321; P = 0.03) and change in NEFA concentrations (r = 0.285; P = 0.047). Furthermore, exposure of in vitro cultured myotubes to MUF, but not SF, reduced IGFBP2 mRNA suggesting a converse direct effect. In conclusion, diets high in fat, but not sugar, promote visceral adiposity and insulin resistance in maturing pigs, with evidence that fatty acids have direct and indirect effects on IGFBP2 mRNA expression in muscle. PMID:21436793

  19. Endogenous synthesis of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Fat-1 mice is associated with increased mammary gland and liver syndecan-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiguo; Hu, Yunping; Gu, Zhennan; Wilson, Martha D; Chen, Yong Q; Rudel, Lawrence L; Willingham, Mark C; Edwards, Iris J

    2011-01-01

    Long chain n-3 PUFA have been shown to have chemopreventive properties against breast cancer through various mechanisms. One pathway, studied in human breast cancer cell lines, involves upregulation of the proteoglycan, syndecan-1 (SDC-1) by n-3 PUFA-enriched LDL. Using Fat-1 mice that are able to convert n-6 to n-3 PUFA, we tested whether SDC-1 level in vivo is elevated in mammary glands due to endogenously synthesized rather than LDL-derived n-3 PUFA. Female Fat-1 and wild type (wt) mice were fed an n-6 PUFA- enriched diet for 7 weeks. Fatty acid analysis of plasma lipoproteins showed that total n-6 PUFA reflected dietary intake similarly in both genotypes (VLDL, 36.2±2.2 and 40.9±3.9; LDL, 49.0±3.3 and 48.1±2.0; HDL, 54.6±1.2 and 58.2±1.3, mean ± SEM percent of total fatty acids for Fat-1 and wt animals respectively). Lipoprotein percent n-3 PUFA was also similar between groups. However, phospholipids and triglycerides extracted from mammary and liver tissues demonstrated significantly higher n-3 PUFA and a corresponding decrease in the ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA in Fat-1 compared to wt mice. This was accompanied by higher SDC-1 in mammary glands and livers of Fat-1 mice, thus demonstrating that endogenously synthesized n-3 PUFA may upregulate SDC-1 in the presence of high dietary n-6 PUFA. PMID:21655218

  20. Dietary fat and corticosterone levels are contributing factors to meal anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namvar, Sara; Gyte, Amy; Denn, Mark; Leighton, Brendan; Piggins, Hugh D

    2016-04-15

    Daily restricted access to food leads to the development of food anticipatory activity and metabolism, which depends upon an as yet unidentified food-entrainable oscillator(s). A premeal anticipatory peak in circulating hormones, including corticosterone is also elicited by daily restricted feeding. High-fat feeding is associated with elevated levels of corticosterone with disrupted circadian rhythms and a failure to develop robust meal anticipation. It is not clear whether the disrupted corticosterone rhythm, resulting from high-fat feeding contributes to attenuated meal anticipation in high-fat fed rats. Our aim was to better characterize meal anticipation in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet, and to better understand the role of corticosterone in this process. To this end, we utilized behavioral observations, hypothalamic c-Fos expression, and indirect calorimetry to assess meal entrainment. We also used the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, to dissect out the role of corticosterone in meal anticipation in rats given daily access to a meal with different fat content. Restricted access to a low-fat diet led to robust meal anticipation, as well as entrainment of hypothalamic c-Fos expression, metabolism, and circulating corticosterone. These measures were significantly attenuated in response to a high-fat diet, and animals on this diet exhibited a postanticipatory rise in corticosterone. Interestingly, antagonism of glucocorticoid activity using RU486 attenuated meal anticipation in low-fat fed rats, but promoted meal anticipation in high-fat-fed rats. These findings suggest an important role for corticosterone in the regulation of meal anticipation in a manner dependent upon dietary fat content. PMID:26818054

  1. A solid dietary fat containing fish oil redistributes lipoprotein subclasses without increasing oxidative stress in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Hellgren, Lars; Petersen, M.; Basu, S.; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Schnohr, P.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2004-01-01

    solid dietary fat containing (n-3) PUFA decreased plasma TAG, VLDL, and IDL cholesterol, and redistributed lipoprotein subclasses in LDL and HDL, with a higher concentration of the larger and less atherogenic subfractions. These changes took place without an increase in oxidative stress as measured by...... F than O fat (P <0.05). There was no difference in the effect on in vivo oxidation measured as the ratio of plasma isoprostanes F-2 to arachidonic acid and urinary isoprostanes, whereas the vitamin E activity/plasma total lipids ratio was higher after intake of F than O (P = 0.008). In conclusion, a...

  2. Cereal Dietary Fibre - Physicochemical Properties and Suitability for Addition to Low-Fat Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Karin

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that dietary fibre is good for the health. Cereals, and in particular the outer parts of the cereal kernels, are rich in dietary fibre. Rye bran, wheat bran, oat bran and barley fibre have been investigated regarding their suitability as additives in low-fat meat products. Two types of meat products, frankfurter-type sausages and meatballs have been evaluated in this thesis. In the sausages the meat protein network governs the texture and water-holding properties, whereas the...

  3. Induction of lipid oxidation gene expression by polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin in small intestine of mice [Mus musculus

    OpenAIRE

    Schothorst, van, E.M.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) act as potent natural hypolipidemics and are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Mice fed long-term a high fat diet, in which medium-chain alpha linoleic acid (ALA) was partially replaced by long-chain docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) fatty acids, showed reduced accumulation of body fat and prevention of insulin resistance, besides increased mitochondrial beta-oxidation in white adipose tissue and decreased ...

  4. Screening for dietary fat intake of grade six children: self-assessment vs. maternal assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenhold, Friede; MacIntyre, Una; Rheeder, Paul

    2014-10-01

    As part of justifiable nutrition promotion, this study aimed to determine internal consistency of a dietary fat screener and to compare self-assessment to maternal assessment of fat intake of grade six (about 12 years old) learners in a South African public primary school. The children completed in school a pictorial, quantitative food frequency-type screener consisting of 10 high-fat food categories; mothers individually completed a text version. Internal consistency was measured with item-total correlations, Cronbach's alpha and the split-half method. Child-mother comparison was based on kappa (?) statistics, McNemar's tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Bland-Altman method. In total, 101 (93.5%) children and 78 (72.2%) mothers responded. The screener was internally consistent, regardless of data source and statistical technique. For portion sizes and frequency of intake, children consistently reported higher intake than mothers. This resulted in systematic error, also evidenced by a significant difference from zero for the difference between child's and mother's final test scores for the whole group, and for boys and girls separately (always P?fat or prudent intake was identical, yet the chance-corrected agreement was poor (??=?0.16) and non-agreement was non-symmetrical (P?=?0.001). Children and mothers reported high fat intakes (93% and 75%, respectively). It was concluded that the dietary fat screener was internally consistent, yet children and mothers did not agree in their assessment. The high fat intakes reported by children and mothers warrant measurement refinement and implementation of primary prevention programmes. PMID:23006413

  5. Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2004-06-01

    Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

  6. Steatohepatitis in laboratory opossums exhibiting a high lipemic response to dietary cholesterol and fat

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Jeannie; Sharkey, Francis E.; Kushwaha, Rampratap S; VandeBerg, Jane F.; VANDEBERG John L.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma VLDL and LDL cholesterol were markedly elevated (>40-fold) in high-responding opossums, but moderately elevated (6-fold) in low-responding opossums after they had consumed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet for 24 wk. In both high- and low-responding opossums, plasma triglycerides were slightly elevated, threefold and twofold, respectively. Dietary challenge also induced fatty livers in high responders, but not in low responders. We studied the lipid composition, histopathological fe...

  7. Demographic and dietary profiles of high and low fat consumers in Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Baghurst, K I; Baghurst, P. A.; Record, S J

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To determine the socio-demographic, attitudinal, and dietary correlates of high and low fat consumption in the community. DESIGN--The study was undertaken using a postal survey format. A questionnaire was sent for self completion to a randomised sample of the adult population of two Australian states. PARTICIPANTS--Adult participants were selected randomly from the Electoral Rolls of the states of Victoria and South Australia. As voting at elections is compulsory in Australia...

  8. Beneficial effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on toxin-induced neuronal degeneration in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, M; Saint-Pierre, M; Julien, C; Salem, N; Cicchetti, F; Calon, F

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we examined whether omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may exert neuroprotective action in Parkinson's disease, as previously shown in Alzheimer's disease. We exposed mice to either a control or a high n-3 PUFA diet from 2 to 12 months of age and then treated them with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP; 140 mg/kg in 5 days). High n-3 PUFA dietary consumption completely prevented the MPTP-induced decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-labeled nigral cells (P<0.01 vs. MPTP mice on control diet), Nurr1 mRNA (P<0.01 vs. MPTP mice on control diet), and dopamine transporter mRNA levels (P<0.05 vs. MPTP mice on control diet) in the substantia nigra. Although n-3 PUFA dietary treatment had no effect on striatal dopaminergic terminals, the high n-3 PUFA diet protected against the MPTP-induced decrease in dopamine (P<0.05 vs. MPTP mice on control diet) and its metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (P<0.05 vs. MPTP mice on control diet) in the striatum. Taken together, these data suggest that a high n-3 PUFA dietary intake exerts neuroprotective actions in an animal model of Parkinsonism. PMID:18032633

  9. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid depletion activates caspases and decreases NMDA receptors in the brain of a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calon, Frdric; Lim, Giselle P; Morihara, Takashi; Yang, Fusheng; Ubeda, Oliver; Salem, Norman; Frautschy, Sally A; Cole, Greg M

    2005-08-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PFA) intake is a readily manipulated dietary risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies in animals confirm the deleterious effect of n-3 PFA depletion on cognition and on dendritic scaffold proteins. Here, we show that in transgenic mice overexpressing the human AD gene APPswe (Tg2576), safflower oil-induced n-3 PFA deficiency caused a decrease in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits, NR2A and NR2B, in the cortex and hippocampus with no loss of the presynaptic markers, synaptophysin and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25). n-3 PFA depletion also decreased the NR1 subunit in the hippocampus and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) in the cortex of Tg2576 mice. These effects of dietary n-3 PFA deficiency were greatly amplified in Tg2576 mice compared to nontransgenic mice. Loss of the NR2B receptor subunit was not explained by changes in mRNA expression, but correlated with p85alpha phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase levels. Most interestingly, n-3 PFA deficiency dramatically increased levels of protein fragments, corresponding to caspase/calpain-cleaved fodrin and gelsolin in Tg2576 mice. This effect was minimal in nontransgenic mice suggesting that n-3 PFA depletion potentiated caspase activation in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22 : 6n-3) partly protected from NMDA receptor subunit loss and accumulation of fodrin and gelsolin fragments but fully prevented CaMKII decrease. The marked effect of dietary n-3 PFA on NMDA receptors and caspase/calpain activation in the cortex of an animal model of AD provide new insights into how dietary essential fatty acids may influence cognition and AD risk. PMID:16101743

  10. Effect of dietary krill oil supplementation on the endocannabinoidome of metabolically relevant tissues from high-fat-fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohn Jeffrey S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFA are known to ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an association between elevated peripheral levels of endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of dietary ω-3-PUFA supplementation, given as krill oil (KO, on metabolic parameters in high fat diet (HFD-fed mice and, in parallel, on the levels, in inguinal and epididymal adipose tissue (AT, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, kidneys and heart, of: 1 the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, 2 two anandamide congeners which activate PPARα but not cannabinoid receptors, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine, and 3 the direct biosynthetic precursors of these compounds. Methods Lipids were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS or high resolution ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-ToF-MS. Results Eight-week HFD increased endocannabinoid levels in all tissues except the liver and epididymal AT, and KO reduced anandamide and/or 2-AG levels in all tissues but not in the liver, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Levels of endocannabinoid precursors were also generally down-regulated, indicating that KO affects levels of endocannabinoids in part by reducing the availability of their biosynthetic precursors. Usually smaller effects were found of KO on OEA and PEA levels. Conclusions Our data suggest that KO may promote therapeutic benefit by reducing endocannabinoid precursor availability and hence endocannabinoid biosynthesis.

  11. Food for Thought: Have We Been Giving the Wrong Dietary Advice?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Davies; Zoë Harcombe; Baker, Julien S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since 1984 UK citizens have been advised to reduce total dietary fat intake to 30% of total energy and saturated fat intake to 10%. The National Institute of Clinical Excellence [NICE] suggests a further benefit for Coronary Heart Disease [CHD] prevention by reducing saturated fat [SFA] intake to 6% - 7% of total energy and that 30,000 lives could be saved by replacing SFAs with Polyunsaturated fats [PUFAs]. Methods: 20 volumes of the Seven Countries Study, the seminal work behin...

  12. [Dietary modification of body composition and fat tissue distribution in obese menopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The study was aimed at determining effects of health-oriented education in nutrition and the resultant changes in diet composition and dietary habits on body weight, values of BMI, WHR, and WHtR, body composition, and location of the lost fat tissue in obese menopausal women. The research was carried out in 2004-2007 and involved 146 women aged 46-60 years, with BMI >30.0 and >40.0, i.e., indicative of second and third degree obesity. The subjects were exposed to a 4-month-long education in nutrition. The classes were held once a week for 90 minutes, for groups of 20-22. The curriculum covered, i.a., information on the physiological role, sources of, and demand for basic nutrients, vitamins, macro- and micro-elements, and water; diet-based prevention of coronary diseases, insulin-independent diabetes, and diet-dependent cancer; and numerous other topics related to physiology and dietetics. The 4 months of health-oriented education in nutrition was found to be important in shaping dietary habits of the subjects, which was manifested as: development of a dietary pattern involving the magnitude and timings of meals, increased consumption of protein, whole-grain cereal products, pulses, fruits, and vegetables, accompanied by reduction in the consumption of sausages, sugar, and sweets. As a result, the women involved experiences a slow, but consistent body weight reduction as well as a decrease in the values of the body mass indices. Significant changes in body composition were found; the changes involved not only a significant reduction in fat per cent and increased percentage of fat-free body mass and water in the total body weight, but also an absolute reduction of body fat content, the absolute contents of fat-free mass and water remaining unchanged. PMID:18540320

  13. Acute liver failure caused by 'fat burners' and dietary supplements: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellapu, Radha K; Mittal, Vivek; Grewal, Priya; Fiel, Mariaisabel; Schiano, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, nonconventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful. PMID:21499580

  14. Socio-cultural perceptions and practices of dietary choices with focus on fat intake in middle aged

    OpenAIRE

    Dawes, Twinkle

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Socio-cultural perceptions and practices of dietary choices with focus on fat intake in middle aged Pakistani women in Oslo – a qualitative study Introduction: The nutritional transition has resulted globally in dietary changes, of which high intake of fats, sugar and refined carbohydrates are some of the main characteristics. This has resulted in increase in lifestyle diseases like type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease. In Norway, a dramatic increase of type 2 Diabetes has been...

  15. Effect of dietary fat on x-ray-induced mammary cancer in Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effect of dietary fat levels on the induction of mammary cancer by 350 rads total-body x-radiation given to noninbred albino Sprague-Dawley rats at 50 days of age. Compared to rats on a low-fat (LF) diet (5% lard), rats on a high-fat (HF) diet (20% lard) from 30 days of age had more tumors, with a higher multiplicity of carcinomas per rat. LF-fed groups exhibited a longer median tumor latency period than did HF-fed groups. A similar trend toward more tumors with an earlier time of death was seen in rats given single iv doses of 50 mg 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea/kg and fed an HF diet as compared to an LF diet

  16. Dietary Saturated Fat Promotes Development of Hepatic Inflammation Through Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Alton G; Palanisamy, Arun P; Lench, Julie H; Esckilsen, Scott; Geng, Tuoyu; Lewin, David N B; Cowart, Lauren A; Chavin, Kenneth D

    2016-07-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is currently the third most common cause of end stage liver disease necessitating transplantation. The question remains how inflammation and NASH develop in the setting of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatosis. Understand the roles of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and dietary fats in the development of hepatic inflammation. Wild-type and TLR4 KO mice were fed a standard high fat diet (LD), a high saturated fat diet (MD), or an isocaloric control diet (CD). Sera and tissue were analyzed for development of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and injury. MD induced features of hepatic steatosis and inflammation in wild-type, but not in TLR4 KO, mice. TLR4 KO prevented MD induced increases in NAFLD activity scores, serum alanine aminotransferase levels, and inflammatory cytokine expression. Inflammatory cell infiltration and cytokine expression were also lower in the TLR4 KO mice livers than wild-type mice fed MD. Hepatic expression of Collagen I transcripts and collagen deposition were also decreased in the TLR4 KO MD animals. Results show that TLR4 plays a critical role in the effects of dietary fat composition on the development of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and injury consistent with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1613-1621, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26600310

  17. Sex differences in motivational responses to dietary fat in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, John L; Grater, Danielle M; York, Daniel; Wellman, Paul J; Morgan, Caurnel

    2015-08-01

    Women are more likely than men to exhibit motivational disorders (e.g., anhedonia and anxiety) with limited treatment options, and to overconsume high-fat "comfort foods" to improve motivational disruptions. Unfortunately, neurobiological underpinnings for sex differences in motivational disruptions and their responses to dietary fat are poorly understood. To help bridge these fundamental knowledge gaps, we assessed behavioral and neurobiological responses to dietary fat in a hamster model of female-biased motivational lability. Relative to social housing, social separation reduced hedonic drive in a new behavioral assay, the reward investigational preference (RIP) test. Fluoxetine or desipramine treatment for 21, but not 7, days improved RIP test performance. Pharmacologic specificity in this test was shown by non-responsiveness to diazepam, tracazolate, propranolol, or naltrexone. In the anxiety-related feeding/exploration conflict (AFEC) test, social separation worsened latency to eat highly palatable food under anxiogenic conditions, but not in home cages. Social separation also reduced weight gain, food intake, and adiposity while elevating energy expenditure, assessed by caloric efficiency and indirect calorimetry. Furthermore, chronic high-fat feeding improved anhedonic and anxious responses to separation, particularly in females. In the motivation-influencing nucleus accumbens, females, but not males, exhibited a separation-induced anxiety-related decrease in Creb1 mRNA levels and an anhedonia-related decrease in ΔFosb mRNA levels. Consistent with its antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects on behavior, high-fat feeding elevated accumbal Creb1 and ΔFosb mRNA levels in females only. Another accumbal reward marker, Tlr4 mRNA, was elevated in females by high-fat feeding. These results show that social separation of hamsters provides a novel model of sex-dependent comorbid anhedonia, anxiety, and anorexia, and implicate accumbal CREB, ΔFosB, and TLR4. Moreover, the results validate a new assay for chronic antidepressant efficacy. PMID:25896879

  18. Dietary prevention at home and abroad.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaper, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    The main dietary recommendations towards the prevention/postponement of coronary heart disease (CHD) made in the U.K. in the last decade are reviewed. There is substantial agreement regarding the need for a reduction in the intake of saturated fats. It is suggested that only moderate changes in dietary polyunsaturated: saturated ratio may be sufficient to achieve changes in the incidence of CHD.

  19. [Effect of fats on cardiovascular disease prevention in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-05-01

    In Denmark death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) has decreased, mainly due to a 72% reduction since 1990 in death from ischaemic heart disease from reduced smoking, elimination of industrial trans fatty acids in the diet, and more effective medical treatment. Replacement of saturated fat by carbohydrate and/or n-6 polyunsaturated fat may increase CVD, but it is reduced by substitution with n-3 fats, monounsaturated fat, or low glycaemic index carbohydrates. Despite a high saturated fat content dark chocolate and cheese may reduce CVD and diabetes risk and eggs may be neutral, and less restrictive dietary recommendations are indicated. PMID:25351669

  20. Dietary fat in relation to fatty acid composition of red cells and adipose tissue in colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Neoptolemos, J P; Clayton, H.; Heagerty, A.M.; Nicholson, M. J.; Johnson, B.; Mason, J.; Manson, K; James, R F; P. R. Bell

    1988-01-01

    Fatty acids were determined in erthrocytes in 49 patients with colorectal cancer and compared with age and sex-matched controls. Marginally increased levels of stearic acid (P = 0.057) and oleic acid (P = 0.064) and decreased arachidonic acid (P = 0.043) occurred in cancer patients. There was no difference in the stearic to oleic acid ratio between the two groups. Dietary intake, assessed by dietary recall and adipose tissue analysis was also not different. In control subjects the polyunsatur...

  1. Genetic variation in the cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) (G1359A polymorphism) and their influence on anthropometric parameters and metabolic parameters under a high monounsaturated vs. high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocio; Gonzalez Sagrado, Manuel; Conde, Rosa; Izaola, Olatz; de la Fuente, Beatriz

    2013-08-01

    An intragenic polymorphism (1359 G/A) of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene was reported as a common polymorphism in Caucasian populations (rs1049353). Intervention studies with this polymorphism have yield contradictories results. We decide to investigate the role of polymorphism (G1359A) of (CNR1) gene on metabolic parameters and weight loss secondary to a high monounsaturated fat and high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets in obese subjects. A population of 258 obese subjects was analyzed in a randomized trial. A nutritional evaluation was performed at the beginning and at the end of a 3-month period in which subjects received 1 of 2 diets (diet M: high monounsaturated fat diet vs diet P: high polyunsaturated fat diet). One hundred and sixty five patients (63.9%) had the genotype G1359G and 93 (36.1%) patients (A allele carriers) had G1359A (78 patients,30.3%) or A1359A (15 patients,5.8%) genotypes. In subjects with both genotypes, body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference and systolic blood pressures decreased with both diets. With the diet-type M and in both genotype groups, biochemical parameters remained unchanged. After the diet type P and in subjects with both genotypes, glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, insulin and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels decreased. In G1359G genotype subjects after both diets, leptin levels decreased. The finding of this study is the association of the A allele with a lack of improvement on leptin levels. Subjects with both genotypes and after a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet showed a significant improvement of LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, HOMA-IR and insulin levels. PMID:23337343

  2. Is dietary intake able to explain differences in body fatness in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gerardo; Moreno, Luis A

    2006-05-01

    Obesity is the result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Controversial information exists about what are the strongest energy balance aspects influencing body fatness. This article is focused on food consumption facts that could be related to the risk of being obese in children and adolescents. It reviews whether energy intake, macronutrient composition of diet, eating patterns or other dietary intake factors are able to explain differences in body composition when obesity has been already developed or even in subjects at risk to become obese. There is not enough evidence to clarify the importance of diet on overweight children and adolescents, and conclusions derived are somewhat controversial. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies do not show clear relationships between energy intake or food composition and body fatness. To find relations between dietary factors and childhood obesity perhaps eating patterns or different types of foods must be considered: meal patterns and meal frequency, snacking and beverage consumption, fast food intake, portion sizes, etc. There is no clear association between different aspects of dietary intake and the development of obesity in children and adolescents. Longitudinal and experimental studies are needed in the future. PMID:16679222

  3. Effects of dietary chromium polynicotinate supplementation on performance, fat deposition and plasma lipids of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Chashnidel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the effect of chromium polynicotinate supplementation on performance, fat deposition and plasma lipids of broiler chickens. A total of 540 male broiler chicks (Cobb 500 were allotted to 6 dietary treatments. The dietary chromium polynicotinate levels were 0 (Control, 250, 500, 750, 1000 or 1250 μg/kg, respectively. At 10-28 days of age (grower phase, the 500 μg/kg concentration of chromium polynicotinate supplementation had a beneficial effect on feed intake and body weight gain of broilers (P<0.05. At 29-42 days of age (finisher phase, feed conversion ratio was decreased (P<0.05 in broilers fed with chromium polynicotinate supplement at levels of 250, 750, 1000 or 1250 μg/kg. Chromium polynicotinate did not affect the abdominal fat pad deposition. The results indicated that the 500 μg/kg level of chromium polynicotinate supplement decreased the plasma cholesterol concentration in the finisher phases. The chromium concentrations of 1000 and 500 μg/kg were more effective at grower and finisher phases, respectively (P<0.05. Plasma triglyceride was not affected by dietary chromium concentration. The results from this study suggest that supplementation of chromium polynicotinate improved growth performance and influenced blood cholesterol concentrations, but in this respect, there was not dose related effects.

  4. Free Sugars and Total Fat Are Important Characteristics of a Dietary Pattern Associated with Adiposity across Childhood and Adolescence123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Gina L; Johns, David J; Emmett, Pauline M

    2016-01-01

    Background: The importance of dietary sugar compared with fat in the development of obesity is currently a topic of debate. Objective: We aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs) characterized by high sugar content, high fat content, or both and their longitudinal associations with adiposity during childhood and adolescence. Methods: Participants were 6722 children from the ALSPAC (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) who were born in 1991–1992. DPs were characterized by percentage of total energy intake (%E) from free sugars, %E from total fat, and dietary energy density (DED) and fiber density by using reduced rank regression at 7, 10, and 13 y of age. Total body fat mass was measured at 11, 13, and 15 y of age. Regression analyses were used to adjust for dietary misreporting, physical activity, and maternal social class. Results: Two major DPs were identified: higher z scores for DP1 were associated with greater DED, greater %E from free sugars and total fat, and lower fiber density; higher z scores for DP2 were associated with greater %E from free sugars but lower %E from total fat and DED. A 1-SD increase in z score for DP1 was associated with a mean increase in the fat mass index z score of 0.04 SD units (95% CI: 0.01, 0.07; P = 0.017) and greater odds of excess adiposity (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.25; P = 0.038). DP2 was not associated with adiposity. Conclusions: An energy-dense DP high in %E from total fat and free sugars is associated with greater adiposity in childhood and adolescence. This appears to confirm the role of both fat and sugar and provides a basis for food-based dietary guidelines to prevent obesity in children. PMID:26962182

  5. Effect of dietary fat level and exercise on growth, feed utilization, nutrient digestibility and fat deposition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Luyen, Giao Quynh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat level and exercise on growth, feed utilization, nutrient digestibility and fat deposition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Atlantic salmon (1409 43.3 g) were reared for 97 days in net pens in sea water with water temperatures ranging from 8.9 to 5.5oC and natural photoperiod. The experiment was designed as a 2x2 factorial design with water current (high and low) and fat level (high and low) as the main fac...

  6. Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation, tissue lipid composition, ex vivo prostaglandin production, and stress tolerance in juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, J A; Howell, B R; Bell, J G; Cossins, A R

    2000-07-01

    Larval Dover sole fed an Artemia diet supplemented with n-3 long-chain (C20 + C22) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to be more resistant to low-temperature injury. Here we explore the relationship between tissue fatty acid composition and tolerance of stressful environmental conditions over the larval and early juvenile periods. Artemia nauplii supplemented with n-3 long-chain PUFA-deficient and PUFA-enriched oil emulsions were fed to two groups of larvae. Whole body tissue samples from the resulting PUFA-deficient and -enriched juveniles possessed 12.1 and 21.9% n-3 long-chain PUFA, respectively. These differences were at the expense of C18 PUFA, while proportions of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and total PUFA were unaffected. Brain and eye tissues from the PUFA-deficient fish contained lower levels of 22:6n-3, known to be important for optimal nervous system function, incorporating instead a range of fatty acids of lower unsaturation. PUFA-deprived juveniles showed substantially greater mortality when exposed to a combination of low temperature and low salinity, as well as to high temperature and to hypoxia. After adaptation to the different diets, both dietary groups were fed a common formulated feed high in n-3 long-chain PUFA. Tissue PUFA in both groups progressively increased to the same high value, with a consequent loss of the differences in cold-susceptibility. These correlated changes support a link between dietary manipulation of n-3 long-chain PUFA and development of a stress-sensitive phenotype. PUFA deprivation had no detectable effect upon static hydrocarbon order of purified brain membranes (as assessed by fluorescence polarization) but was associated with an increase in the whole-body content of prostaglandins. We conclude that susceptibility to environmental stress is responsive to dietary n-3 long-chain PUFA manipulation, possibly due to altered tissue development or the overproduction of eicosanoids. PMID:10941875

  7. Polyunsaturated Lipids Regulate Membrane Domain Stability by Tuning Membrane Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levental, Kandice R; Lorent, Joseph H; Lin, Xubo; Skinkle, Allison D; Surma, Michal A; Stockenbojer, Emily A; Gorfe, Alemayehu A; Levental, Ilya

    2016-04-26

    The plasma membrane (PM) serves as the functional interface between a cell and its environment, hosting extracellular signal transduction and nutrient transport among a variety of other processes. To support this extensive functionality, PMs are organized into lateral domains, including ordered, lipid-driven assemblies termed lipid rafts. Although the general requirements for ordered domain formation are well established, how these domains are regulated by cell-endogenous mechanisms or exogenous perturbations has not been widely addressed. In this context, an intriguing possibility is that dietary fats can incorporate into membrane lipids to regulate the properties and physiology of raft domains. Here, we investigate the effects of polyunsaturated fats on the organization of membrane domains across a spectrum of membrane models, including computer simulations, synthetic lipid membranes, and intact PMs isolated from mammalian cells. We observe that the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid is robustly incorporated into membrane lipids, and this incorporation leads to significant remodeling of the PM lipidome. Across model systems, docosahexaenoic acid-containing lipids enhance the stability of ordered raft domains by increasing the order difference between them and coexisting nonraft domains. The relationship between interdomain order disparity and the stability of phase separation holds for a spectrum of different perturbations, including manipulation of cholesterol levels and high concentrations of exogenous amphiphiles, suggesting it as a general feature of the organization of biological membranes. These results demonstrate that polyunsaturated fats affect the composition and organization of biological membranes, suggesting a potential mechanism for the extensive effects of dietary fat on health and disease. PMID:27119640

  8. Dietary fat source affects metabolism of fatty acids in pigs as evaluated by altered expression of lipogenic genes in liver and adipose tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duran-Montge, P; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2009-01-01

    seven dietary treatments (eight animals per treatment): a semi-synthetic diet containing a very low level of fat (no fat (NF)) and six fat-supplemented diets (ca. 10%) based on barley and soybean meal. The supplemental fat sources were tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO...

  9. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized ( 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while maintaining high milk production. PMID:26233447

  10. Relationship of dietary fat and lysine level with body composition in broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of varying dietary energy to protein/lysine ratio on the body composition of 300, day-old meat-type Tetra-82 hybrid broiler chicks was studied. Body composition was measured by computed tomography (CT) and direct chemical analysis.Ten chickens from each treatment group were euthanized, frozen and subjected to CT, after which carcasses were dissected and ground to obtain homogeneous samples for chemical analysis.Supplementation of the diet with lysine 6 g/kg did not change total body composition but positively influenced final body weight.In the group receiving added fat 40 g/kg and lysine 3 g/kg feed (F-LYS-I) the higher body weight ran parallel with a higher fat content

  11. The intake of saturated fat and dietary fibre: a possible indicator of diet quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Fagt, Sisse; Groth, Margit Velsing; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Wachmann, H.C.; Christensen, Tue

    2008-01-01

    than intermediates and non-compliers, as the diet of compliers contained more whole-grain cereals, fruits, vegetables and fish,and more frequently low-fat dairy products, lean meats and boiled potatoes. The diet of all subgroups, especially non-compliers, had a high content of nutrient-poor, energy......The aim of the present study was to assess if a simple dietary quality index (SDQI) is a useful indicator for nutritional quality in the Danish diet. Data from the Danish National Dietary Survey 2000-2 for adults (n 3151; age 18-75 years) were used to construct an SDQI based on the intake of......-dense foods, for example, salty snacks, confectionery, and beverages, for example, soft drinks and alcohol. The SDQI is a simple and useful tool to characterise the diet quality of Danish adults....

  12. Effects on plasma lipoproteins of monounsaturated, saturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet of African green monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, L L; Haines, J L; Sawyer, J K

    1990-10-01

    Work by other investigators has shown that an increase in dietary content of monounsaturated fatty acids can result in a decreased plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration. This observation, combined with the epidemiologic evidence that monounsaturated fat-rich diets are associated with decreased rates of death from coronary heart disease, suggests that inclusion of increased amounts of mono-unsaturated fat in the diet may be beneficial. The present study was carried out in a primate model, the African green monkey, to evaluate the effects of dietary monounsaturated fat on plasma lipoprotein cholesterol endpoints. Two study periods were carried out in which the fatty acid compositions of the experimental diets were varied. All diets contained 35% of calories as fat. In the first experimental period, a mixture of fats was used to set the dietary fatty acid composition to be approximately 50-60% of the desired fatty acid, either saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated (n-6). In the second experimental period, pure fats were used (palm oil, oleic acid-rich safflower oil, and linoleic acid-rich safflower oil) to maximize the difference in fatty acid composition. The effects of the more exaggerated dietary fatty acid differences of period 2 were similar to those that have been reported in humans. For the group fed the diet enriched in monounsaturated fat compared to saturated fat, whole plasma and LDL cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower while high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were not affected. For the group fed the diet enriched in polyunsaturated fat compared to saturated fat, both LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower than in the group fed saturated fat. LDL cholesterol concentrations were comparable in the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat groups and the percentage of cholesterol in LDL was lowest in the monounsaturated fat fed group. Trends were similar for the mixed fat diets, although no statistically significant differences in plasma lipoprotein endpoints could be attributed to monounsaturated fatty acids in this dietary comparison. Since effects on plasma lipoproteins similar to those seen in humans were identified in this primate model, relevant mechanisms for the effects of dietary fatty acids on lipoprotein endpoints related to coronary artery atherosclerosis, per se, can subsequently be examined. PMID:2079610

  13. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were give...

  14. The relation of saturated fats and dietary cholesterol to childhood cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Hillman, Charles H

    2015-10-01

    Identification of health behaviors and markers of physiological health associated with childhood cognitive function has important implications for public health policy targeted toward cognitive health throughout the life span. Although previous studies have shown that aerobic fitness and obesity exert contrasting effects on cognitive flexibility among prepubertal children, the extent to which diet plays a role in cognitive flexibility has received little attention. Accordingly, this study examined associations between saturated fats and cholesterol intake and cognitive flexibility, assessed using a task switching paradigm, among prepubertal children between 7 and 10 years (N = 150). Following adjustment of confounding variables (age, sex, socioeconomic status, IQ, VO2max, and BMI), children consuming diets higher in saturated fats exhibited longer reaction time during the task condition requiring greater amounts of cognitive flexibility. Further, increasing saturated fat intake and dietary cholesterol were correlated with greater switch costs, reflecting impaired ability to maintain multiple task sets in working memory and poorer efficiency of cognitive control processes involved in task switching. These data are among the first to indicate that children consuming diets higher in saturated fats and cholesterol exhibit compromised ability to flexibly modulate their cognitive operations, particularly when faced with greater cognitive challenge. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to comprehensively characterize the interrelationships between diet, aerobic fitness, obesity, and children's cognitive abilities. PMID:25865659

  15. Dietary Fibers and Cardiometabolic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolantonio D’Orazio; Luca Scotti; Salvatore Cusenza; Eugenio Gemello; Barbara Di Bello; Valeriana Sblendorio; Graziano Riccioni

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely attributable to the contemporary lifestyle that is often sedentary and includes a diet high in saturated fats and sugars and low ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fruit, vegetables, and fiber. Experimental data from both animals and humans suggest an association between increased dietary fiber (DF) intakes and improved plasma lipid profiles, including reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentratio...

  16. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and adaptation to chronic hypoxia alter acyl composition of serum and heart lipids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balková, P.; Ježková, J.; Hlaváčková, M.; Neckář, Jan; Staňková, B.; Kolář, František; Novák, F.; Nováková, O.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 9 (2009), s. 1297-1307. ISSN 0007-1145 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/07/0875 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : chronic hypoxia * dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA * heart Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 3.446, year: 2009

  17. Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Schwab

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW, risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, cardiovascular diseases (CVD, and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT and prospective cohort studies (PCS were included as well as nested casecontrol studies. A few retrospective casecontrol studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA or monounsaturated fat (MUFA lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose concentration in these comparisons. There was probable evidence for a moderate direct association between total fat intake and BW. Furthermore, there was convincing evidence that partial replacement of SFA with PUFA decreases the risk of CVD, especially in men. This finding was supported by an association with biomarkers of PUFA intake; the evidence of a beneficial effect of dietary total PUFA, n-6 PUFA, and linoleic acid (LA on CVD mortality was limited suggestive. Evidence for a direct association between total fat intake and risk of T2DM was inconclusive, whereas there was limited-suggestive evidence from biomarker studies that LA is inversely associated with the risk of T2DM. However, there was limited-suggestive evidence in biomarker studies that odd-chain SFA found in milk fat and fish may be inversely related to T2DM, but these associations have not been supported by controlled studies. The evidence for an association between dietary n-3 PUFA and T2DM was inconclusive. Evidence for effects of fat on major types of cancer was inconclusive regarding both the amount and quality of dietary fat, except for prostate cancer where there was limited-suggestive evidence for an inverse association with intake of ALA and for ovarian cancer for which there was limited-suggestive evidence for a positive association with intake of SFA. This SR reviewed a large number of studies focusing on several different health outcomes. The time period covered by the search may not have allowed obtaining the full picture of the evidence in all areas covered by this SR. However, several SRs and meta-analyses that covered studies published before year 2000 were evaluated, which adds confidence to the results. Many of the investigated questions remain unresolved, mainly because of few studies on certain outcomes, conflicting results from studies, and lack of high qualitycontrolled studies. There is thus an evident need of highly controlled RCT and PCS with sufficient number of subjects and long enough duration, specifically regarding the effects of the amount and quality of dietary f

  18. Monosodium L-glutamate and dietary fat exert opposite effects on the proximal and distal intestinal health in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zemeng; Li, Tiejun; Wu, Chunli; Tao, Lihua; Blachier, Francois; Yin, Yulong

    2015-04-01

    The Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. Furthermore, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a flavour enhancer in China. Previous studies have reported that high-fat diet modifies intestinal metabolism and physiology. However, little information is available on the effects of oral MSG on intestine, and no study focus on the interaction of dietary fat and MSG for intestinal health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of MSG and dietary fat on intestinal health in growing pigs, and to try to identify possible interactions between these 2 nutrients for such effects. A total of 32 growing pigs were used and fed with 4 isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (basal diet, high-fat diet, basal diet with 3% MSG and high fat diet with 3% MSG). Parameters related to reactive oxygen species metabolism, epithelial morphology, pro-inflammation factors and tight junction protein expression and several species of intestinal microbe were measured. Overall, dietary fat and MSG had detrimental effects on several of the physiological and inflammatory parameters measured in the proximal intestine, while exerting beneficial effects on the distal intestine in growing pigs, with generally antagonistic effects. These results may be of particular relevance for nutritional concerns in patients with intestinal diseases. PMID:25781200

  19. A common polymorphism near the interleukin-6 gene modifies the association between dietary fat intake and insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuda C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Cuda1, Bibiana Garcia-Bailo1,2, Mohamed Karmali1,2, Ahmed El-Sohemy1, Alaa Badawi21Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, 2Office of Biotechnology, Genomics and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Increasing evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the development of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, have been associated with insulin resistance, and dietary lipids can increase cytokine production. The objective of this study was to determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism near the IL6 gene (rs7801406 modifies the relationship between dietary fat and markers of insulin sensitivity.Methods: Subjects were healthy men and women aged 20–29 years from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Dietary intake was estimated using a one-month semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken for genotyping and biomarker measurement.Results: The single nucleotide polymorphism was not associated with any of the measures of insulin sensitivity. However, it modified the relationship between total dietary fat and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.053 for interaction. Total fat intake was positively related to HOMA-IR in individuals homozygous for the G allele (ß = 0.005 ± 0.002, P = 0.03, but not among heterozygotes. There was an inverse relationship between total fat intake and HOMA-IR in individuals who were homozygous for the A allele (β= –0.012 ± 0.006, P = 0.047.Conclusion: These findings suggest that dietary fat influences insulin sensitivity differently depending on genotype.Keywords: interleukin-6, insulin sensitivity, nutrigenomics, dietary fat

  20. Mapping the diverse functions of dietary fatty acids via target gene regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiadi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary fat is a strong predictor of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. A great number of epidemiological and observational studies clearly show that in addition to the amount of fat consumed in a diet, fat composition is an equally important factor in the development of chronic diseases. Evidence abounds indicating that adherence to a diet with high content of polyunsaturated (PUFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA...

  1. Dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doak Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y, attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E from total fat, saturated fat (SFA and monounsaturated fat (MUFA reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002 and SFA (p 97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA. This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting nutrients.

  2. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rader Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and is dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(s for these responses, hamsters were fed diets containing supplemental fish oil (VLC n-3 PUFA or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA (both 10% [w/w] and either cholesterol-supplemented (0.1% cholesterol [w/w] or cholesterol-depleted (0.01% cholesterol [w/w] and 10 days prior to killing fed 0.15% lovastatin+2% cholestyramine [w/w]. Results Cholesterol-supplemented hamsters fed fish oil, relative to safflower oil, had higher non-high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P Conclusion These data suggest disturbing cholesterol homeostasis in F1B hamsters alters their response to dietary fatty acids, which is reflected in altered plasma lipoprotein patterns and regulation of genes associated with their metabolism.

  3. Dietary structured lipids for post-weaning piglets: fat digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Danielsen, V.; Høy, Carl-Erik; Jakobsen, K.

    In four groups of post-weaning piglets the effects of triacylglycerol structure and fatty acid profiles of four dietary fats on apparent faecal nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of platelet and erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were...... third week in the groups R1 and R2. Fatty acid profiles in platelet and erythrocyte membranes and in tissues reflected the fatty acid profile of the dietary fat, except for medium-chain fatty acids, which were only found in low proportions, indicating that 10:0 was mainly used as an energy source....

  4. Effects of Unsaturated Fat Dietary Supplements on Blood Lipids, and on Markers of Malnutrition and Inflammation in Hemodialysis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Riserus, Ulf; Marckmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of commercially available unsaturated fat dietary supplements on blood lipids, and on markers of malnutrition and inflammation, in an adult population of hemodialysis (HD) patients. DESIGN: This was a restricted, randomized (equal blocks), investigator-blinded 2x6...... inflammation as assessed according to C-reactive protein serum concentrations. Adding unsaturated fat to the diet seems to be a safe and effective way to prevent and treat malnutrition in hemodialysis patients....

  5. Acute liver failure caused by ‘fat burners’ and dietary supplements: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Radha Krishna, Y; Mittal, V; Grewal, P.; Fiel, MI; Schiano, T

    2011-01-01

    Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, non-conventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepati...

  6. Dietary fats and 16-year coronary heart disease mortality in a cohort of men and women in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Boniface, D. R.; Tefft, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The paper aims to investigate the relationships of dietary fats to subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in men and women while taking account of other CHD-related behaviours. Design: A cohort of randomly selected men and women were interviewed in 1984-85 and monitored subsequently for 16 y for deaths. The interview covered health, health-related behaviours, physical measurements, socio-demographic details and a dietary questionnaire. Appropriate exclusions left 122...

  7. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with changes in the concentrations of multiple FA in milk. Even though a direct cause and effect could not be established, a decrease in 18:0 supply in combination with increased mammary uptake of cis-11 18:1, trans-10 18:1, and trans 20- and 22-carbon FA may contribute. In conclusion, dietary FO supplements enrich 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in milk, but also elevate mono- and polyenoic trans FA concentrations, and in high amounts alter the distribution of individual trans FA isomers. PMID:26094222

  8. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group were fed a control diet (CD or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day. The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL sintetizados principalmente por el hígado, cumplen funciones relevantes en el organismo. Una dieta alta en grasa (DAG genera un incremento en los niveles de grasa y estrés oxidativo (lipoperoxidación en hígado y una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos. El aceite de oliva extra virgen (AOEV es rico en antioxidantes (polifenoles y tocoferoles que ayudan a prevenir el desarrollo del estrés oxidativo. Este trabajo evaluó el rol del AOEV en la prevención del depósito de grasa, estrés oxidativo hepático y reducción de los AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos generado por una DAG en ratones C57BL/6J. Cuatro grupos experimentales (n=10/grupo fueron alimentados (12 semanas con dieta control (DC o DAG y suplementados con AOEV (100 mg/día. El grupo alimentado con DAG presentó un incremento (p < 0,05 en la acumulación de grasa y estrés oxidativo hepático, acompañado de una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en hígado, eritrocitos y cerebro. La suplementación con AOEV logró atenuar el incremento de la grasa y estrés oxidativo hepático, junto con una normalización en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en los tejidos estudiados. Se propone que la suplementación con AOEV puede atenuar la acumulación de grasa y el estrés oxidativo hepático, además de normalizar los niveles de AGPICL, en ratones alimentados con DAG.

  9. Influence of post hatch dietary supplementation of fat on performance, carcass cuts and biochemical profile in Ven Cobb broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Prasad Rai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of post hatch dietary fat supplementation on performance of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 day-old Ven Cobb broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups of 30 chicks in each (three replicates of 10 birds/treatment. The trial lasted for 35 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Four types of diet were formulated for 1st week: T1, T2, T3 and T4 contained control diet with no added fat, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% fat, respectively. After 1st week post-hatch period chicks were fed ad libitum with the normal basal diet as per Bureau of Indian Standard recommendations till completion of the experiment (8-35 days. Results: Significantly higher (p<0.05 body weight and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR was recorded in birds fed 5% dietary fat at the end of the experiment whereas, feed intake was not significantly affected. Significantly (p<0.05 higher dressed weight was observed due to 5% fat supplementation than other groups whereas, it was not significant for other carcass cuts. No significant differences were observed in moisture, protein and lipid content of breast and thigh muscle of broiler due to supplemented fat whereas, 2.5% dietary fat significantly (p<0.05 increase the serum HI titer on day 28th. In biochemical profile, higher serum albumin (g/dl was recorded due to 5% fat supplementation whereas other biochemical components did not show any significance difference among treatments. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of fat in broilers diet improves the overall FCR, dressing percentage and gain more body weight.

  10. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress NHE-1 upregulation in a rabbit model of volume- and pressure-overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RubenCoronel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3-PUFAs from fish oil may have cardioprotective effects during ischemia/reperfusion, hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF. The cardiac Na+/H+-exchanger (NHE-1 is a key mediator for these detrimental cardiac conditions. Consequently, chronic NHE-1 inhibition appears to be a promising pharmacological tool for prevention and treatment. Acute application of the fish oil ?3-PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA inhibit the NHE-1 in isolated cardiomyocytes. We studied the effects of a diet enriched with ?3-PUFAs on the NHE-1 activity in healthy rabbits and in a rabbit model of HF induced by volume- and pressure-overload. Methods: Rabbits were allocated to four groups. The first two groups consisted of healthy rabbits, which were fed either a diet containing 1.25% (w/w fish oil (?3-PUFAs, or 1.25% high-oleic sunflower oil (?9-MUFAs as control. The second two groups were also allocated to either a diet containing ?3-PUFAs or ?9-MUFAs, but underwent volume- and pressure-overload to induce HF. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and used for intracellular pH (pHi and patch clamp measurements. NHE-1 activity was measured in HEPES-buffered conditions as recovery rate from acidosis due to ammonium prepulses. Results: In healthy rabbits, NHE-1 activity in ?9-MUFAs and ?3-PUFAs myocytes was not significantly different. Volume- and pressure-overload in rabbits increased the NHE-1 activity in ?9-MUFAs myocytes, but not in ?3-PUFAs myocytes, resulting in a significantly lower NHE-1 activity in myocytes of ?3-PUFA fed HF rabbits. The susceptibility to induced delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs, a cellular mechanism of arrhythmias, was lower in myocytes of HF animals fed ?3- PUFAs compared to myocytes of HF animals? fed??9-MUFAs. In our rabbit HF model, the degree of hypertrophy was similar in the ?3-PUFAs group compared to the ?9-MUFAs group. Concl

  11. The effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on attention and impulsivity in an animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Makulska-Gertruda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The main symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. Both etiology and neurobiological basis of ADHD are unknown. In this context, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs, especially omega-3 (n-3 PUFAs, have become a focus of interest. The symptoms of ADHD have been suggested to be associated with a deficiency of n-3 PUFAs. In addition, the impact of a supply of dietary n-3 PUFAs in the treatment of ADHD has frequently been discussed. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of n-3 PUFA supplementation on attention and impulsivity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR which has been proposed to be a valid genetic animal model of ADHD. Methods: Seven-week-old male SHRs were randomly divided into two groups of 15 rats and fed one of two experimental diets (n-3 PUFA-enriched or n-3 PUFA-deficient prior to and during behavioral testing. Attention and impulsivity were assessed using a three-choiceserial-reaction-time-task (3CSRTT which is based on the five-choice-serial-reaction-timetask. The experiment was performed with three-month-old rats. Results: Our findings demonstrate a marked difference between groups regarding impulsivity but not attention. The n-3 PUFA-enriched diet significantly reduced impulsivity in SHRs compared with rats fed with the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet. Conclusion: The present data show a decrease in impulsivity following a dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation, but no changes in attention. A possible explanation for these results is that the attention displayed by SHR may not be linked to n-3 PUFA supply. It is important to note that inattention and impulsiveness are two of the main symptoms of ADHD. Our results regarding dietary n-3 PUFA supply may support the positive findings in human studies demonstrating that n-3 PUFA administration can improve the cognitive or behavioral symptoms in children with ADHD

  12. The impact of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone and cartilage in gilts and sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor-Robison, C I; Spencer, J D; Orth, M W

    2014-10-01

    Dietary long-chain PFO including arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are precursors for several inflammatory mediators. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of dietary PFO supplementation on bone, cartilage, and synovial fluid in 2 ages of pigs. Sows and gilts were fed either control corn/soybean meal based diets or the control diet supplemented with PFO from Gromega (PFO; JBS United, Sheridan, IN). Sows were fed their diets for 24.5 mo and slaughtered at 43 mo while gilts were fed their diets from weaning until slaughter at 111 kg. Cartilage was harvested from both humeroulnar joints of 14 sows (7/treatment) and 16 gilts (8/treatment) within 30 h of slaughter for fatty acid analysis and explant cultures. Synovial fluid was collected from the carpal joints of each pig postmortem. The right fused radius/ulna was collected for computed tomography (CT) analysis. Cortical width and density were determined and trabecular density was measured at the distal radius. Cartilage explants were allocated to 24-well culture plates with 2 discs per well and cultured over 72 h at 37°C in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium: nutrient mixture F-12 (Ham) medium. Six wells/pig were treated with 10 ng/mL of recombinant porcine interleukin-1 (rpIL-1). At 24, 48, and 72 h of culture, media were removed and reserved for analysis of proteoglycans, nitric oxide (NO), and PGE2 concentrations. The CT scans of the radius/ulna from gilts revealed no differences for cortical width and bone density. Sows fed PFO had greater cortical width of the proximal ulna (P < 0.05) and decreased cortical width of the distal radius (P < 0.05). Sows fed PFO had increased DHA (P < 0.01) and a decrease in the omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (P < 0.05) in cartilage. Gilts fed PFO had increased DHA (P < 0.01), C22:1 (P < 0.01), and docosapentaenoic acid (P < 0.01) and a tendency for increased EPA (P = 0.093) concentrations in cartilage. Changes in dietary fatty acids in the gilts and sows had no effect on the variables tested in vitro. Although the PFO diet increased omega-3 incorporation into chondrocytes, the biological significance is unclear since concentrations of ARA were at least 9-fold higher than EPA or DHA. Therefore, if omega-3 fatty acids can mitigate inflammation in joints, the benefit would likely either be the result of systemic changes in inflammatory mediators or higher concentrations in the diet. PMID:25184850

  13. Fatty alcohols in capelin, herring and mackerel oils and muscle lipids: I. Fatty alcohol details linking dietary copepod fat with certain fish depot fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, W N; Ackman, R G

    1979-09-01

    It is shown that the shorter chain (C14-C18) minor fatty alcohols in copepods, fish body lipids, and commercial fish oils are all qualitatively present, and quantitatively similar in proportions to acids found in the depot fats of capelin and mackerel, and in some herring. Although these fatty acids can be formed de novo in fish, copepod alcohols offer an alternative dietary source. Monoethylenic fatty alcohol details, especially for the 22:1 isomers, are reviewed, and the latter are discussed as precursors of the 22:1 fatty acids of fish depot fats, specifically of the dominant 22:1 omega 11 isomer. PMID:491864

  14. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  15. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  16. Both Dietary Supplementation with Monosodium L-Glutamate and Fat Modify Circulating and Tissue Amino Acid Pools in Growing Pigs, but with Little Interactive Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Zemeng; ZHOU Xiaoli; Wu, Fei; Yao, Kang; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Tiejun; Blachier, Francois; Yin, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Background The Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. Furthermore, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a daily food additive in China. Little information is available on the effects of oral MSG and dietary fat supplementation on the amino acid balance in tissues. The present study aimed to determine the effects of both dietary fat and MSG on amino acid metabolism in growing pigs, and to assess any possible interactions between these two nutrients. Met...

  17. Examining the minimal required elements of a computer-tailored intervention aimed at dietary fat reduction: Results of a randomized controlled dismantling study

    OpenAIRE

    Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Dagnelie, Pieter; Brug, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the minimally required feedback elements of a computer-tailored dietary fat reduction intervention to be effective in improving fat intake. In all 588 Healthy Dutch adults were randomly allocated to one of four conditions in an randomized controlled trial: (i) feedback on dietary fat intake [personal feedback (P feedback)], (ii) P feedback and feedback on one's own behavior relative to that of peers [personal-normative feedback (PN feedback)], (iii) PN feedback and pra...

  18. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L; Thomson, Lynn M; Williams, Patricia A; Ross, Alexander W

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  19. Dietary fat-dependent transcriptional architecture and copy number alterations associated with modifiers of mammary cancer metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Ryan A; Merrill, Michele La; Hunter, Kent W; Srensen, Peter; Threadgill, David W; Pomp, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease resulting from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among environmental factors, body composition and intake of specific dietary components like total fat are associated with increased incidence of breast cancer and metastasis. We previously showe...

  20. Dietary Fat Intake and Exercise among Two- and Four-Year College Students: Differences in Behavior and Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J.; An, Lawrence C.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the demographic differences among two-year colleges and four-year universities and the relatively limited access to health education and campus-based health resources, this study compares the frequency of limiting dietary fat intake and exercising among two- and four-year college students. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18-25…

  1. Association between dietary fat and skin cancer in an Australian population using case-control and cohort study designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryer Jayne L

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human studies of dietary fat as a possible risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC principally basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC have produced inconsistent results. We had the opportunity to examine the association concurrently for all three types of skin cancer in a population-based study in Tasmania, Australia, involving 652 cases of CMM, BCC and SCC and a common set of 471 controls. Methods Histopathologically-confirmed cases of CMM, BCC and SCC were ascertained from the Tasmanian Cancer Registry (TCR, and controls were selected at random from the state's electoral roll. We compared subjects categorised by thirds of dietary fat intake score measured by the 'Dobson short fat questionnaire', with logistic regression models that adjusted for age, sex, skin type and usual sun exposure. We then followed all subjects for 5680 months until 31 August, 2004 for a new NMSC using record linkage with both the TCR and the Births, Deaths, and Marriages registry. Incidence rates were calculated and ratios of rates were estimated using Poisson models. Results Relative to subjects in the lowest fat intake category, the odds ratios (OR comparing cases and controls were OR = 0.76 (95% CI: 0.561.03 for medium fat intake, and OR = 0.62 (95% CI: 0.450.85 for high fat intake, with a significant (p p = 0.30. Conclusion Using the same dietary instrument with two study designs in the same Caucasian population, we found no evidence that high fat intake increases the risk of developing melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancers. Instead, our results suggest a risk reduction for high fat intake.

  2. CALORIC INTAKE AND DIETARY FAT TO CARBOHYDRATE RATIO INFLUENCE BODY WEIGHT ACCRETION AND ADIPOSITY IN RATS FED BY TOTAL ENTERAL NUTRITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of high energy high-fat diets leads to weight gain and adiposity in rodents. However the relative roles of higher caloric intake vs. increased dietary fat remain unclear. Low carbohydrate high fat diets, like the Atkins diet, claim to promote weight loss. We employed a total enteral nutr...

  3. Dietary fat intake and its association with risk of selected components of the metabolic syndrome among rural South Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Sowmya; Nagarajan, Lakshmipriya; Vaidya, Ruchi; Gunasekaran, Geetha; Rajagopal, Gayathri; Parthasarathy, Vijayalakshmi; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Sudha, Vasudevan

    2016-01-01

    Context: There is limited literature on the dietary fat intake of rural Indian populations, particularly in relation to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS). Aim: This study aims to assess the dietary fat intake and analyze its association with the risk of selected components of the MS among rural population in the state of Tamil Nadu. Settings and Design: Adults (n = 27012) ?20 years of age were recruited from the rural component of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 42 villages in Kanchipuram District of Tamil Nadu. Subjects and Methods: Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, data were obtained on the fat intake among 6907 adults. Anthropometric and clinical measures were collected using standard methods. The components of the MS assessed were abdominal obesity, hypertension, and impaired fasting glucose. All analyses were performed using SPSS software (version 20). Results: Prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension, and impaired fasting glucose were significantly higher in the highest quintile of fat intake (33%, P fasting glucose (P = 0.01). Sunflower oil as the main cooking oil was significantly associated with a higher risk of these components of the MS (P for trend <0.001) compared to traditional oils and palmolein. Conclusions: Higher dietary fat was significantly associated with risk of components of the MS and use of sunflower oil as main cooking oil increased metabolic risk in rural South Indians.

  4. Effect of Dietary n − 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Macrosomic Offspring of Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guermouche, B.; Soulimane-Mokhtari, N. A.; Bouanane, S.; Merzouk, H.; Merzouk, S.; Narce, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of dietary n − 3 PUFA on oxidant/antioxidant status, in vitro very low and low density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL), and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition in macrosomic pups of diabetic mothers. We hypothesized that n − 3 PUFA would improve oxidative stress in macrosomia. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats fed with the ISIO diet (control) or with the EPAX diet (enriched in n − 3 PUFAs), by streptozotocin. The macrosomic pups were killed at birth (day 0) and at adulthood (day 90). Lipid parameters and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition were investigated. The oxidant/antioxidant status was determined by measuring plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), hydroperoxides, carbonyl proteins, and VLDL-LDL oxidation. Macrosomic rats of ISIO fed diabetic mothers showed an increase in plasma and VLDL-LDL-triglycerides and VLDL-LDL-cholesterol levels and altered VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition. Plasma ORAC was low with high hydroperoxide and carbonyl protein levels. The in vitro oxidizability of VLDL-LDL was enhanced in these macrosomic rats. The EPAX diet corrected lipid parameters and improved oxidant/antioxidant status but increased VLDL-LDL susceptibility to oxidation. Macrosomia is associated with lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress. n − 3 PUFA exerts favorable effects on lipid metabolism and on the oxidant/antioxidant status of macrosomic rats. However, there are no evident effects on VLDL-LDL oxidation. PMID:24987679

  5. Fat source and dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio influences milk fatty-acid composition in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirigohar, M; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Rezayazdi, K; Krizsan, S J; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Shingfield, K J

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the potential benefits to human health there is an increased interest in producing milk containing lower-saturated fatty acid (SFA) and higher unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations, including cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were used in two experiments according to a completely randomized block design, with 21-day periods to examine the effects of incremental replacement of prilled palm fat (PALM) with sunflower oil (SFO) in high-concentrate diets containing 30 g/kg dry matter (DM) of supplemental fat (Experiment 1) or increases in the forage-to-concentrate (F : C) ratio from 39 : 61 to 48 : 52 of diets containing 30 g/kg DM of SFO (Experiment 2) on milk production, digestibility and milk FA composition. Replacing PALM with SFO had no effect on DM intake, but tended to increase organic matter digestibility, yields of milk, protein and lactose, and decreased linearly milk fat content. Substituting SFO for PALM decreased linearly milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and cis-9 16:1, and increased linearly 18:0, cis-9 18:1, trans-18:1 (??4 to 16), 18:2 and CLA concentrations. Increases in the F : C ratio of diets containing SFO had no effect on intake, yields of milk, milk protein or milk lactose, lowered milk protein content in a quadratic manner, and increased linearly NDF digestion and milk fat secretion. Replacing concentrates with forages in diets containing SFO increased milk fat 4:0 to 10:0 concentrations in a linear or quadratic manner, decreased linearly cis-9 16:1, trans-6 to -10 18:1, 18:2n-6, trans-7, cis-9 CLA, trans-9, cis-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA, without altering milk fat 14:0 to 16:0, trans-11 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 CLA or 18:3n-3 concentrations. In conclusion, replacing prilled palm fat on with SFO in high-concentrate diets had no adverse effects on intake or milk production, other than decreasing milk fat content, but lowered milk fat medium-chain SFA and increased trans FA and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Increases in the proportion of forage in diets containing SFO increased milk fat synthesis, elevated short-chain SFA and lowered trans FA concentrations, without altering milk polyunsaturated FA content. Changes in fat yield on high-concentrate diets containing SFO varied between experiments and individual animals, with decreases in milk fat secretion being associated with increases in milk fat trans-10 18:1, trans-10, cis-12 CLA and trans-9, cis-11 CLA concentrations. PMID:24176091

  6. Dietary fat modulation of mammary tumor growth and metabolism demonstrated by 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship of dietary fat concentration and saturation on the growth and metabolic activity of line 168 was studied using syngeneic mice fed 6 experimental diets before and during tumor growth. Tumor latency was significantly greater for mice fed a diet containing the minimum of essential fatty acids (EFA, 0.5% corn oil) or 8% coconut oil (SF) than for mice fed 8 or 20% safflower oil (PUF) or 20% SF. Changes in dietary fat resulted in alterations of tumor cell and serum fatty acid composition but not the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor. 31P-surface coil NMR was used to measure possible changes in tumor metabolism in vivo. Although pH decreased from 7.2 to 6.6 as the tumor volume increased, there was no difference in pH among dietary groups. There was an inverse relationship between both sugar phosphate (SP)/Pi and ATP/Pi ratios and tumor volume; those ratios for mice fed an EFA deficient or minimal EFA diet decreased at a different rate than ratios for mice fed diets with additional fat. Tumors of mice fed diets containing no or a low level (0.3%) of 18:2 had higher SP/ATP ratios than mice fed diets containing a moderate level (? 4%) of 18:2. Thus, high levels of dietary fat had a significant effect on promotion of mammary tumors during early stages of tumor growth. Differences in tumor volume associated with dietary fat may be related to changes in the levels of high energy phosphate metabolites

  7. Dietary fat interacts with PCBs to induce changes in lipid metabolism in LDL receptor deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, B.; Reiterer, G.; Toborek, M.; Matveev, S.V.; Daugherty, A.; Smart, E. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States); Robertson, L.W. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)

    2004-09-15

    From epidemiological studies, there is substantial evidence that cardiovascular diseases are linked to environmental pollution and that exposure to polycyclic and/or polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons can lead to human cardiovascular toxicity. A major route of exposure to PCBs in humans is via oral ingestion of contaminated food products. Therefore, circulating environmental contaminants derived from diets, such as PCBs, are in intimate contact with the vascular endothelium. Endothelial activation and dysfunction is an important factor in the overall regulation of vascular lesion pathology. In addition to endothelial barrier dysfunction, another functional change in atherosclerosis is the activation of the endothelium that is manifested as an increase in the expression of specific cytokines and adhesion molecules. These cytokines and adhesion molecules are proposed to mediate the inflammatory aspects of the disease by regulating the vascular entry of leukocytes. Alterations in lipid profile and lipid metabolism as a result of exposure to PCBs may be important components of endothelial cell dysfunction. Little is known about the interaction of dietary fats and PCBs in the pathology of atherosclerosis. We have reported a significant disruption in endothelial barrier function when cells were exposed to linoleic acid. In the current study we aimed to demonstrate the PCB-fatty acid interaction in vivo and hypothesized that PCB toxicity can be modulated by the type of fat consumed.

  8. Influence of dietary fat on intestinal microbes, inflammation, barrier function and metabolic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wan; Gaskins, H Rex; McIntosh, Michael K

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies using germ-free, gnotobiotic microbial transplantation/conventionalization or antibiotic treatment in rodent models have highlighted the critical role of intestinal microbes on gut health and metabolic functions of the host. Genetic and environmental factors influence the abundance and type of mutualistic vs. pathogenic bacteria, each of which has preferred substrates for growth and unique products of fermentation. Whereas some fermentation products or metabolites promote gut function and health, others impair gut function, leading to compromised nutrient digestion and barrier function that adversely impact the host. Such products may also influence food intake, energy harvest and expenditure, and insulin action, thereby influencing adiposity and related metabolic outcomes. Diet composition influences gut microbiota and subsequent fermentation products that impact the host, as demonstrated by prebiotic studies using oligosaccharides or other types of indigestible fiber. Recent studies also show that dietary lipids affect specific populations of gut microbes and their metabolic end products. This review will focus on studies examining the influence of dietary fat amount and type on the gut microbiome, intestinal health and positive and negative metabolic consequences. The protective role of omega-3-rich fatty acids on intestinal inflammation will also be examined. PMID:24355793

  9. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as dietary fat type significantly affects microbiota activity in the broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24674938

  10. Metabolism and secretory function of white adipose tissue: effect of dietary fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia M. Oller do Nascimento

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 40% of the total energy consumed by western populations is represented by lipids, most of them being ingested as triacylglycerols and phospholipids. The focus of this review is to analyze the effect of the type of dietary fat on white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory function, particularly on haptoglobin, TNF-α, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and adiponectin secretion. Previous studies have demonstrated that the duration of the exposure to the high-fat feeding, amount of fatty acid present in the diet and the type of fatty acid may or may not have a significant effect on adipose tissue metabolism. However, the long-term or short-term high fat diets, especially rich in saturated fatty acids, probably by activation of toll-like receptors, stimulated the expression of proinflammatory adipokines and inhibited adiponectin expression. Further studies are needed to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids affect white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory functions.Aproximadamente 40% do total de energia consumida pela população ocidental é representada pelos lipídios, a maioria dela sendo ingerida na forma de triglicerídeos e fosfolipídios. O foco desta revisão foi analisar o efeito dos tipos de gordura da dieta sobre o metabolismo e função secretora do tecido adiposo branco, principalmente, sobre a secreção de haptoglobina, TNF-α, inibidor do ativador de plasminogênio-1 e adiponectina. Estudos prévios demonstraram que durante a exposição de dietas hiperlipídicas, a quantidade e o tipo de ácidos graxos presentes na dieta podem ou não ter um efeito significante sobre o metabolismo do tecido adiposo. Entretanto, o tratamento a curto ou longo prazo com dieta hiperlipídica, especialmente rica em ácidos graxos saturados, provavelmente por ativar receptores toll-like, estimula a expressão de adipocinas pró-inflamatórias e inibe a expressão de adiponectina. Estudos adicionais são necessários para investigar os mecanismos celulares pelos quais os ácidos graxos da dieta afetam a função secretória e metabólica do tecido adiposo branco.

  11. Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) Decrease Obesity-Associated Th17 Cell-Mediated Inflammation during Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M.; Hou, Tim Y.; Turk, Harmony F.; Weeks, Brad; Wu, Chaodong; McMurray, David N.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that obesity-associated inflammation increases disease activity during colitis, attributed in part to the effects of Th17 cells. Using a model of concurrent obesity and colitis, we monitored changes in critical immune cell subsets and inflammatory biomarker expression in three key tissues: visceral adipose tissue, colon (local inflammatory site) and spleen (systemic inflammatory site), and we hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would reduce the percentage of inflammatory immune cell subsets and suppress inflammatory gene expression, thereby improving the disease phenotype. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6 mice by feeding a high fat (HF) diet (59.2% kcal) alone or an isocaloric HF diet supplemented with fish oil (HF-FO) for 12 weeks. Colitis was induced via a 2.5% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema. The HF-FO diet improved the obese phenotype by reducing i) serum hormone concentrations (leptin and resistin), ii) adipose tissue mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IFN?, IL-6, IL17F and IL-21) and iii) total (F4/80+ CD11b+) and inflammatory adipose tissue M1 (F4/80+ CD11c+) macrophage content compared to HF (P<0.05). In addition, the HF-FO diet reduced both colitis-associated disease severity and colonic mRNA expression of the Th17 cell master transcription factor (ROR??) and critical cytokines (IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and IFN?) versus HF (P<0.05). Compared to HF, the percentage of both splenic Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by the HF-FO group (P<0.05). Under ex vivo polarizing conditions, the percentage of HF-FO derived CD4+ T cells that reached Th17 cell effector status was suppressed (P?=?0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that n-3 PUFA suppress Th1/Th17 cells and inflammatory macrophage subsets and reconfigure the inflammatory gene expression profile in diverse tissue sites in obese mice following the induction of colitis. PMID:23166761

  12. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D; Kieronczyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, Ricarda M; Hjberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C...... were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork...... animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v...

  13. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D; Kieronczyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, Ricarda M; Højberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork...... fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C...... animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v...

  14. Additive effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin and mild caloric restriction on high-fat diet-associated phenotypes in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flachs, Pavel; Hensler, Michal; Jílková, Zuzana; Rossmeisl, Martin; Ogston, N. C.; Mohamed-Ali, V.; Kopecký, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 31, Supp.1 (2007), S26-S26. ISSN 0307-0565. [European congress on obesity /15./. 22.04.2007-25.04.2007, Budapest] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : polyunsaturated fatty acid Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  15. Effect of dietary fat on hepatic liver X receptor expression in P-glycoprotein deficient mice: implications for cholesterol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Stephen D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pgp (P-glycoprotein, MDR1, ABCB1 is an energy-dependent drug efflux pump that is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC family of proteins. Preliminary studies have reported that nonspecific inhibitors of Pgp affect synthesis and esterification of cholesterol, putatively by blocking trafficking of cholesterol from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum, and that relative increases in Pgp within a given cell type are associated with increased accumulation of cholesterol. Several key efflux proteins involved in the cholesterol metabolic pathway are transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear hormone liver X receptor (LXR. Therefore, to examine the interplay between P-glycoprotein and the cholesterol metabolic pathway, we utilized a high fat, normal cholesterol diet to upregulate LXRα without affecting dietary cholesterol. Our research has demonstrated that mice lacking in P-glycoprotein do not exhibit alterations in hepatic total cholesterol storage, circulating plasma total cholesterol levels, or total cholesterol concentration in the bile when compared to control animals on either a normal (25% calories from dietary fat or high fat (45% calories from dietary fat diet. However, p-glycoprotein deficient mice (Mdr1a-/-/1b-/- exhibit increased hepatic LXRα protein expression and an elevation in fecal cholesterol concentration when compared to controls.

  16. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Mette

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control, a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day (Flax drink, and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day (Flax bread. Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004

  17. Effect of sex, dietary glycerol or dietary fat during late fattening, on fatty acid composition and positional distribution of fatty acids within the triglyceride in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, J; Cambero, M I; Cmara, L; Loriente, C; Mateos, G G; Lpez-Bote, C J

    2015-11-01

    The effect of sex, source of saturated fat (lard v. palm oil) and glycerol inclusion in the fattening diet on composition and fatty acid positional distribution in the triglyceride molecule was studied in pigs from 78 to 110 kg BW. Average daily gain and carcass characteristics, including ham and loin weight, were not affected by dietary treatment but sex affected backfat depth (P palm oil. Dietary glycerol increased total MUFA and C18:1n-9 concentration in the IMF and increased total MUFA and decreased C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and total PUFA concentrations in the SF. The data indicate that altering the fatty acid composition of the triglyceride molecule at the 2-position, by dietary intervention during the fattening phase, is very limited. PMID:26272512

  18. Effect of Dietary Supplemented Canola Oil and Poultry Fat on the Performance and Carcass Characterizes of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Aghdam Shahryar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This investigating was performed to examine the effect of different dietary fat source (canola oil and poultry fat on broiler performance. 252 day-old broilers chicks (Ross 308 were randomly distributed in seven groups include 12 in each with 3 replicates and were fed with experimental diets for 3 weeks (21-42 d-old. The diets were as follow: 1 basal diet (control, basal diet with 3 or 6% canola oil, basal diet with 3 or 6% poultry fat, basal diet with mixed 1.5% canola oil +1.5% poultry fat and basal diet with mixed 3% canola oil +3% poultry fat. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio, daily weight gain and carcass characterizes were evaluated during rearing period. Significant different were observed for feed intake (p<0.05. Adding 3 % canola oil and poultry fat resulted in significant improvement in body weight (p<0.05 and better feed conversion ratio in fed groups 3 % canola oil and poultry fat than other groups observed (p<0.01. No significant different were found in liver, breast, thigh weights in between groups fed lipid in comparison with the control group. Addition of 6% poultry fat caused significant increasing on abdominal fat (p<0.05. Gizzard weight was significantly higher in control group in comparison with supplemented groups (p<0.05. These findings suggest that adding 3% canola oil or 3% poultry fat to the broiler diet based on corn and soybean meal can improve broiler performance and carcass quality in fed 6% canola oil than other groups was better, may be because of adequate mixture of fatty acids in supplemented canola oil.

  19. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  20. High Dietary Fat Exacerbates Weight Gain and Obesity in Female Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene-Ablated Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Atshaves, Barbara P.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Storey, Stephen M; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    Since liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) facilitates uptake/oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in cultured transfected cells and primary hepatocytes, loss of L-FABP was expected to exacerbate weight gain and/or obesity in response to high dietary fat. Male and female wild-type (WT) and L-FABP gene-ablated mice, pair-fed a defined isocaloric control or high fat diet for 12 weeks, consumed equal amounts of food by weight and kcal. Male WT mice gained weight faster than their female WT c...

  1. Effect of long term low-fat dietary intervention on change in hemostatic factors: Results from the Women's Health Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Rajpathak, Swapnil N.; Xue, Xioanan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Van Horn, Linda; Snetselaar, Linda; Martin, Lisa W.; Rohan, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Low-fat diet may play a role in prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by altering the levels of hemostatic factors. There are yet limited data on the effects of low-fat diet on the circulating levels of these factors and existing studies are limited by small sample size and short duration of follow-up. We conducted an analysis in a subset of women (active arm = 723; control arm = 1,036) within the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial to investigate the long-term effect of...

  2. Effect of Dietary Supplements of Apple Pectin, Wheat Bran or Fat on The Enzyme Activity of the Human Faecal Flora

    OpenAIRE

    Mallett, A. K.; Rowland, I. R.; Bearne, C A; Flynn, J. C.; Fehilly, B. J.; Udeen, S.; Farthing, M J G

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dietary manipulation on faecal enzyme activities was studied in six healthy volunteers who consumed a mixed, free choice diet (control) or that diet with additional apple pectin (18 g/day), wheat bran (30 g/day) or fat (total greater than 150 g/day) for periods of up to 3 weeks. Control and test diets were alternated over a continuous period of 5 months. Food consumption was recorded and showed that in control periods each subject maintained a high fat (approximately 40 per cent...

  3. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ozório Rodrigo; Van Ginneken Vincent; van den Thillart Guido; Verstegen Martin; Verreth Johan

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1). Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam v...

  4. Dietary Carnitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ozorio, R.; Ginneken, van, CJJM Kees; Thillart, van den, G.; M.W.A. Verstegen; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1). Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam v...

  5. Comparison of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy on fat to authenticate dietary history of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Andueza, D; de Oliveira, L; Zawadzki, F; Prache, S

    2015-11-01

    Since consumers are showing increased interest in the origin and method of production of their food, it is important to be able to authenticate dietary history of animals by rapid and robust methods used in the ruminant products. Promising breakthroughs have been made in the use of spectroscopic methods on fat to discriminate pasture-fed and concentrate-fed lambs. However, questions remained on their discriminatory ability in more complex feeding conditions, such as concentrate-finishing after pasture-feeding. We compared the ability of visible reflectance spectroscopy (Vis RS, wavelength range: 400 to 700 nm) with that of visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis-NIR RS, wavelength range: 400 to 2500 nm) to differentiate between carcasses of lambs reared with three feeding regimes, using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) as a classification method. The sample set comprised perirenal fat of Romane male lambs fattened at pasture (P, n = 69), stall-fattened indoors on commercial concentrate and straw (S, n = 55) and finished indoors with concentrate and straw for 28 days after pasture-feeding (PS, n = 65). The overall correct classification rate was better for Vis-NIR RS than for Vis RS (99.0% v. 95.1%, P < 0.05). Vis-NIR RS allowed a correct classification rate of 98.6%, 100.0% and 98.5% for P, S and PS lambs, respectively, whereas Vis RS allowed a correct classification rate of 98.6%, 94.5% and 92.3% for P, S and PS lambs, respectively. This study suggests the likely implication of molecules absorbing light in the non-visible part of the Vis-NIR spectra (possibly fatty acids), together with carotenoid and haem pigments, in the discrimination of the three feeding regimes. PMID:26165321

  6. Endogenous conversion of ω-6 to ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fat-1 mice attenuated intestinal polyposis by either inhibiting COX-2/β-catenin signaling or activating 15-PGDH/IL-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Cha, Ji-Young; Jeong, Migyeong; Go, Eun-Jin; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-05-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs) have inhibitory effects in various preclinical cancer models, but their effects in intestinal polyposis have never been examined. As attempts have been made to use nutritional intervention to counteract colon cancer development, in this study we evaluated the effects of ω-3 PUFAs on intestinal polyposis in the Apc(Min/) (+) mouse model. The experimental groups included wild-type C56BL/6 mice, Apc(Min/) (+) mice, fat-1 transgenic mice expressing an n-3 desaturase to enable ω-3 PUFA synthesis, and Apc(Min/) (+) × fat-1 double-transgenic mice; all mice were 20 weeks of age. Small intestines were collected for gross and pathologic evaluation, including assessment of polyp number and size, followed by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. After administration of various concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs, PUFA levels were measured in small intestine tissue by GC/MS/MS analysis to compare with PUFA synthesis of between C57BL6 and fat-1mice. As a result, ω-3 PUFAs significantly attenuated Apc mutation-induced intestinal polyposis accompanied with significant inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, COX-2 and PGE2, but induced significant levels of 15-PGDH. In addition, significant induction of the inflammasome-related substrates as IL-1β and IL-18 and activation of caspase-1 was observed in Apc(Min/) (+) × fat-1 mice. Administration of at least 3 g/60 kg ω-3 PUFAs was equivalent to ω-3 PUFAs produced in fat-1 mice and resulted in significant increase in the expression of IL-1β, caspase-3 and IL-18, as seen in Apc(Min/) (+) × fat-1 mice. We conclude that ω-3PUFAs can prevent intestinal polyp formation by inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, but increased levels of 15-PGDH and IL-18. PMID:26650508

  7. Influence of dietary fat and selenium fed during initiation or promotion on the development of preneoplastic lesions in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci in rat liver were assessed in animals fed different levels of fat and selenium (Se) during either initiation (IN) or promotion (PR). Male Sprague Dawley rats (50g) were divided into 12 groups. One of six modified AIN-76 experimental diets were fed to groups 1-6 during weeks 1-4.5 (IN) and to groups 7-12 during weeks 4.5-15 (PR). During weeks 3-4, 13 rats/group received 10 daily doses of AFB1 (.4 mg/kg bwt/dose, i.g.). Two levels of corn oil (2% and 20%) were fed, each containing 3 levels of Se: < 0.02; 0.15; 2.5 (IN) or 1.9 (PR) ppm. When not fed the experimental diets rats were fed a standard AIN-76 diet. In groups 1-6, 0.03% phenobarbital was added to the standard diet. At week 15 rats were sacrificed. Compared to all low-fat groups, the high-fat diets with either < 0.02 or 0.15 ppm Se fed during IN resulted in a marked increase in mean diameter of GGT-positive foci and % liver section occupied by foci. In rats fed high-fat 2.5 ppm Se, preneoplastic development was decreased below all low-fat groups. During PR, Se status but not dietary fat level influenced foci formation. Rats fed < 0.02 ppm Se had greater mean diameter of foci and % section occupied by foci than either 0.15 or 1.9 ppm Se. Thus, an interaction was observed between dietary fat and selenium during IN, but not during PR

  8. Effect of dietary fat type on the fatty acids composition of irradiated and frozen storage japanese quails meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of substitution of dietary cotton seed oil (CSO) by used restaurant oil (URO) with different percentages 25% group 2 (G2), 50% group 3 (G3) and 100% group 4 (G4) in Japanese quail diets on the fatty acids composition of their meat especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The effect of gamma irradiation doses (1.5, 3 and 5 kGy) at frozen storage -18 C (degree) for 2 and 4 months in comparison with unirradiated and un storage were studied. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in quail meat fed G4 diet (100% URO) increased significantly in comparison with SFA in G2 (25% URO) and G3 (50% URO) but there is no significant effect with G2 and G3 in comparison with G1 (100% CSO).The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were not affected by G2 and G3 diet. Also, linoleic acid (C 18:2, n-6) had the same trend in those groups with range (32.75% to 33.35%). It is concluded that feeding a diet with URO 25% and 50% conserve the content of linoleic acid and the content of PUFA in quail meat. The irradiation doses and storage periods had no significant effect on the linoleic acid, MUFA and PUFA content.

  9. Indicators of success in the dietary management of overweight and obesity: weight, body fat loss and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Reig García-Galbis, Manuel Felipe; Rizo Baeza, María Mercedes; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Concepts: %WL: Percentage of weight loss; %FL: Percentage of fat loss. Objective: evaluate which unit of measurement for weight loss could determine the success or failure of dietary treatment for overweight and obesity. Method: 4,625 consultations carried out on 616 patients in the southeast of Spain from 2006 to 2012. All of the patients were over 25 years of age and suffered from overweight or obesity. The consultations were carried out every fortnight, using the Mediterranean or low-calor...

  10. Hypolipidemic effect of fruit fibers in rats fed with high dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmael, O A; Sonbul, S N; Kumosani, T A; Moselhy, S S

    2015-03-01

    The hypolipidemic effect of 10% fruit fibers in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD) was evaluated. This study was conducted on a total of 50 male Albino rats divided into 10 equal groups fed with different types of dietary fruits. The feeding period lasted for 24 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected and sera separated and subjected to lipid profile assay and atherogenic index. In addition, total antioxidant activity of different fruits was determined. The results obtained showed that pomegranate had higher content of antioxidants followed by apple, strawberry and guava compared with other fruits. Rats fed with 20% coconut oil showed a highly significant elevation in the levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic factor while the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly decreased when compared with control rats. Histological examination revealed that there was a large lipid and cholesterol deposition in the livers of rats fed with HFD. The potential in lowering the levels of plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride is in the following order: pomegranate > apple > strawberry > guava > papaya > mandarin and orange. Accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets was diminished when compared with the HFD group. Also, antiatherogenic is better than the untreated groups. Accordingly these hypolipidemic effects may be due to high-fiber content and antioxidant activity of these fruits. PMID:23315090

  11. Acute liver failure caused by ‘fat burners’ and dietary supplements: A case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Krishna, Y; Mittal, V; Grewal, P; Fiel, MI; Schiano, T

    2011-01-01

    Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, non-conventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful. PMID:21499580

  12. Is dramatic dietary fat reduction feasible for breast cancer patients in the UK? The results of the WINS(UK) ? Stage 1 study

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Barbara M; Milne, Jillian M; Yadegarfar, Ghasem; Rainsbury, Richard M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The influence of dietary fat on breast tumour growth [1] and, more recently, on treatment outcomes in the large US study [2][3], suggests an important role for dietary advice in the future health of breast cancer patients. The Women's Intervention Nutrition Study (UK) ? Stage 1 assessed the feasibility of achieving and maintaining a ? 50% reduction in reported fat intake in postmenopausal, early-stage breast cancer patients in the UK. Met...

  13. Cholesterol kinetic effects of dietary fat in CBA/J and C57BR/cdJ mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small differences in dietary fats cause marked differences in cholesterol metabolism in different strains of mice. CBA/J mice adjust HMGCOA reductase activity and C57BR/cdJ mice change fecal excretion of cholesterol. Phenomenological compartmental modeling of movement of 414C-cholesterol in the two strains of mice fed 40 en % fat, P/S = 0.24 (SFA) or 30 en % fat, P/S = 1 (PUFA) was used to analyze rates of movement between serum, liver, heart, and carcass. The C57 mice had slower movement between all compartments than CBA. Residence times in tissues were longer in mice fed SFA than those fed PUFA diet. The kinetic results are in agreement with the organ concentrations and enzyme activities measured

  14. Effect of dietary fat on uptake of lysine, phenylalanine, leucine and methionine by bovine mammary tissue slices in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four mature Holstein cows in late lactation were blocked in two groups based on milk production, in a 2x2 reversal with 21-day periods, and fed: (A) control diet; (B) A plus 1 kg/day tallow. Cows were fed sorghum silage ad libitum. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on day 15, 17, and 19 of each period. Fat did not effect DM intake or milk yield, however milk CP yield was 20% lower. Plasma lipids increased 33.6%, glucose decreased 9% and insulin/glucagon ratio decreased 21.2% in cow fed fat. After period two, cows were slaughtered and mammary tissue sampled for incubation in Krebs Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 22 AA at arterial concentration and .225 μCi/ml of 14C-labelled L-Leu, L-Phe, L-Lys or D/L Met. Dietary fat decreased tissue AA uptake rate by 21.2%. Uptake was 4.8, 10.3, 17.8 and 2.4 x 10-3 μM/min/gm of tissue DM for Phe, Lys, Leu and Met, respectively. Results suggest that dietary fat may decrease milk protein synthesis by lowering the rate of AA uptake

  15. Process monitoring and quality control for dietary fats and bio fuels. Necessary for the consumer protection; Prozessueberwachung und Qualitaetskontrolle fuer Nahrungsfette und Biokraftstoffe. Unerlaesslich fuer den Verbraucherschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heise, Michael; Fritzsche, Joerg; Tkatsch, Helena [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, Iserlohn (Germany); Kuepper, Lukas [Infrared Fiber Sensors, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    The quality control of food-grade oils, fats and fatty acid containing products is expensive, but essential for the manufacturers of such products and for the consumer protection. The analysis has the task not only to analyze the purity of fats and oils, but also to analyze the content and composition of fats. Dietary fats contain long chain, often multi-unsaturated fatty acids. An insufficient supply of so-called essential fatty acids may result in deficiency symptoms by the human species. A similar composition of fatty acids also is observed in biodiesel which is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats.

  16. Dietary interesterified fat enriched with palmitic acid induces atherosclerosis by impairing macrophage cholesterol efflux and eliciting inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Milessa Silva; Lavrador, Maria Silvia Ferrari; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Cintra, Dennys Esper; Ferreira, Fabiana Dias; Nunes, Valeria Sutti; Castilho, Gabriela; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Paula Bombo, Renata; Catanozi, Sergio; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Passarelli, Marisa; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Lottenberg, Ana Maria

    2016-06-01

    Interesterified fats are currently being used to replace trans fatty acids. However, their impact on biological pathways involved in the atherosclerosis development was not investigated. Weaning male LDLr-KO mice were fed for 16weeks on a high-fat diet (40% energy as fat) containing polyunsaturated (PUFA), TRANS, palmitic (PALM), palmitic interesterified (PALM INTER), stearic (STEAR) or stearic interesterified (STEAR INTER). Plasma lipids, lipoprotein profile, arterial lesion area, macrophage infiltration, collagen content and inflammatory response modulation were determined. Macrophage cholesterol efflux and the arterial expression of cholesterol uptake and efflux receptors were also performed. The interesterification process did not alter plasma lipid concentrations. Although PALM INTER did not increase plasma cholesterol concentration as much as TRANS, the cholesterol enrichment in the LDL particle was similar in both groups. Moreover, PALM INTER induced the highest IL-1β, MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion from peritoneal macrophages as compared to others. This inflammatory response elicited by PALM INTER was confirmed in arterial wall, as compared to PALM. These deleterious effects of PALM INTER culminate in higher atherosclerotic lesion, macrophage infiltration and collagen content than PALM, STEAR, STEAR INTER and PUFA. These events can partially be attributed to a macrophage cholesterol accumulation, promoted by apoAI and HDL2-mediated cholesterol efflux impairment and increased Olr-1 and decreased Abca1 and Nr1h3 expressions in the arterial wall. Interesterified fats containing palmitic acid induce atherosclerosis development by promoting cholesterol accumulation in LDL particles and macrophagic cells, activating the inflammatory process in LDLr-KO mice. PMID:27142741

  17. The effects of dietary verbascoside on blood and liver oxidative stress status induced by a high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids diet in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giancamillo, A; Rossi, R; Pastorelli, G; Deponti, D; Carollo, V; Casamassima, D; Domeneghini, C; Corino, C

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-four weaned female Hypor piglets (10.9 ± 0.1 kg mean BW) were used to evaluate the antioxidant effect of a natural extract, titrated in verbascoside, on blood and liver oxidative status in relation to a high intake of n-6 PUFA, inducing oxidative stress. Piglets were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental groups; the first group was fed a diet with 9% sunflower oil (T1) and the second received the sunflower oil diet supplemented with 5 mg of verbascoside/kg feed from Verbenaceae extract (Lippia spp.; T2). The third group was fed a control diet (CTR), in which an isoenergetic replacement of oil by starch was done. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and the end of the trial (30 d). At the end of the trial, the animals were slaughtered and the liver specimens were collected. Oxidative stress markers, including total antiradical activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) activities, were determined in blood samples. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) plasma levels were also evaluated. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses were performed in liver to evaluate heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, Hsp90, and Kupffer and Ito cell activation. Liver activities of SOD, GPX, and CAT were also determined. Total antiradical activity in blood and red blood cells were affected (P < 0.01) by dietary treatments. The n-6 PUFA supplementation at a high dosage for 30 d induced oxidative stress, decreasing total antiradical activity in blood and red blood cells (CTR vs. T1 + T2; P < 0.01) and plasma CAT activity (CTR vs. T1 + T2; P = 0.088) and increasing ALT value (CTR vs. T1 + T2; P < 0.01). Also, in liver, the CAT and GPX activities tended to be lower in pigs fed n-6 PUFA diets than pigs fed a control diet (CTR vs. T1 + T2; = 0.090 and = 0.085, respectively). The liver samples presented a normal architecture and no Ito and Kupffer cell activations were observed. In liver, the SOD activity tended to be lower in the T1 group (P = 0.064) than in the CTR and T2 groups. Moreover, the level of Hsp70 was higher (P < 0.01) in the T1 group than the CTR and T2 groups. These data suggest that the dose of dietary verbascoside partially restores the antioxidant status of the liver without affecting the systemic responses to oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. PMID:26115272

  18. Effect of dietary antioxidant and increasing corn oil inclusion on milk fat yield and fatty acid composition in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Preseault, C L; Lock, A L

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a dietary synthetic antioxidant on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components and milk fatty acids (FA), in combination with increasing concentrations of dietary corn oil to provide increasing rumen unsaturated fatty acid load (RUFAL) challenges. Twenty-six Holstein cows (177 ± 57 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were assigned to treatment in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were a control diet (CON; n=13 cows) or the same diet supplemented with a synthetic antioxidant (AOX; 6.1g/d; dry blend of ethoxyquin and propyl gallate, Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO; n=13 cows). In period 1 (21 d), no supplemental corn oil was fed; in periods 2, 3, and 4 (14 d each), corn oil was supplemented at 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8% of the diet [dry matter (DM) basis] to incrementally increase RUFAL. For all variables measured, no significant interactions were detected between treatment and period, indicating no differences between the CON and AOX treatments at all levels of oil inclusion. Intake of DM was lower for AOX compared with CON but AOX had no effect on milk yield or milk fat concentration and yield. Milk protein yield and feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/DM intake) tended to be greater for AOX compared with CON. Increasing dietary corn oil concentration (RUFAL) decreased DM intake, milk yield, milk fat concentration and yield, and feed efficiency. The AOX treatment increased the concentration and yield of 16-carbon milk FA, with no effect on de novo (16 carbon) milk FA. Milk FA concentration of trans-10 C18:1, trans-10,cis-12 C18:2, and trans-9,cis-11 C18:2 were unaffected by AOX but increased with increasing RUFAL. In conclusion, supplementation with AOX did not overcome the dietary-induced milk fat depression caused by increased RUFAL. PMID:25306271

  19. The Effects of Dietary Changes in the Ratio of Omega-3 to Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Lung Carcinogenesis in A/J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites are known to be involved in inflammation, and fatty acid precursors and metabolites may also exert genomic control over the expression of genes involved in proliferation and differentiation. Some researchers suggest that a higher ratio of omega-3/omega-6 fatty ...

  20. Dietary hydroxypropyl methylcellulose increases excretion of saturated and trans fats by hamsters fed fast food diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic nonfermentable soluble dietary fiber, are well established. However, effects of HPMC on dietary saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids are largely unknown. This study investigated the eff...

  1. The Effect of Dietary Fat Level on the Response of Broiler Chicks to Betaine and Choline Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jahanian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary betaine (Betafine supplementation as a replacement for choline on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. Three betaine replacement levels (0, 50 and 100% in substitution for choline were used in two various basal diets (without or containing 30 g kg-1 oil in a 2x3 factorial arrangement with four replicates of 10 birds. Two hundred-forty day-old broiler chicks were fed with the experimental diets from 1 to 49 days of age and at 49 days of age, two birds from each replicate were selected randomly for blood sampling and comparison of carcass characteristics. Dietary betaine inclusion had no effect on feed intake, but the significant differences in body weight (BW gain (at 1-3 and 3-5 weeks of age and feed conversion ratio (at 3-5 weeks of age were observed among the experimental diets. Replacing choline with betaine increased (p<0.05 dressing and breast meat percentages and reduced (p<0.01 abdominal fat percent, but had no significant effect on thigh and liver weight percentages. Plasma levels of cholesterol and low density lipoproteins (LDL were not affected by dietary substitution of betaine for choline. Dietary betaine replacement caused a significant decrease in plasma triglycerides (p<0.05 and very low density lipoproteins (p<0.01 and significant increase in (p<0.05 high density lipoproteins (HDL. These findings indicate that although dietary betaine inclusion instead of choline had little benefit in terms of performance parameters, but resulted favourable changes in abdominal fat and breast meat percentages.

  2. Role of anorectic N-acylethanolamines in intestinal physiology and satiety control with respect to dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Harald S

    2014-08-01

    Anandamide is a well-known agonist for the cannabinoid receptors. Along with endogenous anandamide other non-endocannabinoid N-acylethanolamines are also formed, apparently in higher amounts. These include mainly oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoyelethanolamide (PEA) and linoleoylethanolamide (LEA), and they have biological activity by themselves being anorectic and anti-inflammatory. It appears that the major effect of dietary fat on the level of these molecules is in the gastrointestinal system, where OEA, PEA and LEA in the enterocytes may function as homeostatic signals, which are decreased by prolonged consumption of a high-fat diet. These lipid amides appear to mediate their signaling activity via activation of PPARα in the enterocyte followed by activation of afferent vagal fibers leading to the brain. Through this mechanism OEA, PEA and LEA may both reduce the consumption of a meal as well as increase the reward value of the food. Thus, they may function as homeostatic intestinal signals involving hedonic aspects that contribute to the regulation of the amounts of dietary fat to be ingested. PMID:24681513

  3. Effect of excessive intake of dietary carbohydrates and fats on incidence of apoptosis and proliferation in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was planned to investigate the programmed cell death and cellular aging by estimating the relation between cell proliferation and cell death in tissue of pancreas and testis. All the biochemical parameters in this study were carried out on two aged groups (adult and senile) of male albino rats. Moreover, the study extended to emphasize the possible effect of certain dietary elements such as carbohydrate and fat on the rate of apoptosis and proliferation in some tissues and their physiological functions. Two aged groups of rats (adult and senile) were included in this study. According to the data obtained, it could be concluded that excess dietary carbohydrate could be considered as a high risk factor when given to the adult and senile age, since it produced some significant changes in the blood chemistry with non-significant changes on the proliferative and apoptotic balance of the tested tissues. Moreover, excess dietary fat could be considered as high risk factor when given to adult and senile age groups

  4. Comparison of Dietary Control and Atorvastatin on High Fat Diet Induced Hepatic Steatosis and Hyperlipidemia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Peiyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment with atorvastatin (ATO or dietary control has been demonstrated to benefit patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and hyperlipidemia. However, little is known on whether combination of dietary control and ATO treatment could enhance the therapeutic effect. Methods We employed a rat model of NAFLD to examine the therapeutic efficacy of dietary control and/or ATO treatment. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with normal chow diet as normal controls or with high fat diet (HFD for 12 weeks to establish NAFLD. The NAFLD rats were randomized and continually fed with HFD, with normal chow diet, with HFD and treated with 30 mg/kg of ATO or with normal chow diet and treated with the same dose of ATO for 8 weeks. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed and the serum lipids, aminotranferase, hepatic lipids, and liver pathology were characterized. The relative levels of fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation gene expression in hepatic tissues were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Hepatic expression of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase was determined by Western blot assay. Results While continual feeding with HFD deteriorated NAFLD and hyperlipidemia, treatment with dietary control, ATO or ATO with dietary control effectively improved serum and liver lipid metabolism and liver function. In comparison with ATO treatment, dietary control or combined with ATO treatment significantly reduced the liver weight and attenuated the HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and liver steatosis in rats. Compared to ATO treatment or dietary control, combination of ATO and dietary control significantly reduced the levels of serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. However, the combination therapy did not significantly improve triglyceride and free fatty acid metabolism, hepatic steatosis, and liver function, as compared with dietary control alone. Conclusions ATO treatment effectively improved NAFLD-related hyperlipidemia and inhibited liver steatosis, accompanied by modulating the expression of genes for regulating lipid metabolism. ATO enhanced the effect of dietary control on reducing the levels of serum total cholesterol and LDL-C, but not triglyceride, free fatty acid and hepatic steatosis in HFD-induced fatty liver and hyperlipidemia in rats.

  5. Omega-3 fats: Good for your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fat . We need these fats to build brain cells and for other important ... several ways. They reduce triglycerides , a type of fat in your blood. They reduce the risk of ...

  6. Saturated and Unsaturated Dietary Fats Differentially Modulate Ethanol-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiome and Metabolome in a Mouse Model of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpich, Irina A; Petrosino, Joseph; Ajami, Nadim; Feng, Wenke; Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Beier, Juliane I; Barve, Shirish S; Yin, Xinmin; Wei, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiang; McClain, Craig J

    2016-04-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) ranks among major causes of morbidity and mortality. Diet and crosstalk between the gut and liver are important determinants of ALD. We evaluated the effects of different types of dietary fat and ethanol on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity and the effect of these changes on liver injury in ALD. Compared with ethanol and a saturated fat diet (medium chain triglycerides enriched), an unsaturated fat diet (corn oil enriched) exacerbated ethanol-induced endotoxemia, liver steatosis, and injury. Major alterations in gut microbiota, including a reduction in Bacteroidetes and an increase in Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, were seen in animals fed an unsaturated fat diet and ethanol but not a saturated fat diet and ethanol. Compared with a saturated fat diet and ethanol, an unsaturated fat diet and ethanol caused major fecal metabolomic changes. Moreover, a decrease in certain fecal amino acids was noted in both alcohol-fed groups. These data support an important role of dietary lipids in ALD pathogenesis and provide insight into mechanisms of ALD development. A diet enriched in unsaturated fats enhanced alcohol-induced liver injury and caused major fecal metagenomic and metabolomic changes that may play an etiologic role in observed liver injury. Dietary lipids can potentially serve as inexpensive interventions for the prevention and treatment of ALD. PMID:27012191

  7. Dietary Fibers and Cardiometabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolantonio D’Orazio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely attributable to the contemporary lifestyle that is often sedentary and includes a diet high in saturated fats and sugars and low ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, fruit, vegetables, and fiber. Experimental data from both animals and humans suggest an association between increased dietary fiber (DF intakes and improved plasma lipid profiles, including reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentrations. These observations underline that the intake of DF may protect against heart disease and stroke.

  8. The effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on attention and impulsivity in an animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Ewelina Makulska-Gertruda; Joachim Hauser; Thomas-A. Sontag; Lange, Klaus W

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The main symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. Both etiology and neurobiological basis of ADHD are unknown. In this context, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), especially omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs, have become a focus of interest. The symptoms of ADHD have been suggested to be associated with a deficienc...

  9. Dietary omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and Alzheimer's disease: interaction with apolipoprotein E genotype. : Fatty acids and ApoE genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Samieri, Cécilia; Féart, Catherine; Plourde, Mélanie

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest a protective role of omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) against Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, most intervention studies of supplementation with n-3 PUFA have yielded disappointing results. One reason for such discordant results may result from inadequate targeting of individuals who might benefit from the supplementation, in particular because of their genetic susceptibility to AD. The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (ApoE) is a genetic...

  10. High content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cells of Kenyan Maasai despite low dietary intake

    OpenAIRE

    Kiage-Mokua Beatrice N; Kyallo Florence M; Kuhnt Katrin; Knoll Nadja; Jahreis Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Increasing land restrictions and a reduced livestock-to-human ratio during the 20th century led the Maasai to lead a more sedentary, market-orientated lifestyle. Although plant-derived food nowadays contributes substantially to their diet, dairy products being high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) still are an important energy source. Since reliable data regarding the Maasai diet date back to the 1980s, the study objective was to...

  11. Role of anorectic N-acylethanolamines in intestinal physiology and satiety control with respect to dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.

    2014-01-01

    Anandamide is a well-known agonist for the cannabinoid receptors. Along with endogenous anandamide other non-endocannabinoid N-acylethanolamines are also formed, apparently in higher amounts. These include mainly oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoyelethanolamide (PEA) and linoleoylethanolamide (LEA......), and they have biological activity by themselves being anorectic and anti-inflammatory. It appears that the major effect of dietary fat on the level of these molecules is in the gastrointestinal system, where OEA, PEA and LEA in the enterocytes may function as homeostatic signals, which are decreased...... by prolonged consumption of a high-fat diet. These lipid amides appear to mediate their signaling activity via activation of PPARα in the enterocyte followed by activation of afferent vagal fibers leading to the brain. Through this mechanism OEA, PEA and LEA may both reduce the consumption of a meal...

  12. Higher Dietary Protein Intake is Associated with Lower Body Fat in the Newfoundland Population

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Kristian K.; Jennifer L Shea; Vasdev, Sudesh; Randell, Edward; Gulliver, Wayne; Sun, Guang

    2010-01-01

    Background: Increased protein proportions in the diet combined with energy restriction has been shown to enhance weight loss during dietary intervention. It is not known if the beneficial effect of dietary protein exists in the general population under normal living conditions without a negative energy balance. Methods: A total of 1834 participants (n = 443 men, n = 1391 women) were recruited from the CODING study. Participants’ dietary macronutrient compositions were determined through a Wil...

  13. Endogenous Synthesis of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Fat-1 Mice Is Associated with Increased Mammary Gland and Liver Syndecan-1

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Haiguo; Hu, Yunping; Gu, Zhennan; Wilson, Martha D.; Chen, Yong Q.; Rudel, Lawrence L; Willingham, Mark C; Iris J. Edwards

    2011-01-01

    Long chain n-3 PUFA have been shown to have chemopreventive properties against breast cancer through various mechanisms. One pathway, studied in human breast cancer cell lines, involves upregulation of the proteoglycan, syndecan-1 (SDC-1) by n-3 PUFA-enriched LDL. Using Fat-1 mice that are able to convert n-6 to n-3 PUFA, we tested whether SDC-1 level in vivo is elevated in mammary glands due to endogenously synthesized rather than LDL-derived n-3 PUFA. Female Fat-1 and wild type (wt) mice we...

  14. Diet digestibility in growing rabbits: effect of origin and oxidation level of dietary fat and vitamin e supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    CASADO, C.; Moya, V.J.; Fernndez, C.; Pascual Amors, Juan Jos; Blas, E. de; Cervera, C.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the dietary inclusion of fats with different origin (lard or vegetal oil), fatty acid profile (linseed or sunflower), oxidation level (fresh, peroxidised: 11 d at 55C or oxidised: 31 h at 140C) and vitamin E supplementation (0 or 100 ppm) on the rabbit diet apparent digestibility were studied. Digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and gross energy were determined in eight diets using 58 rabbits aged 49 d. Contrast analysis betw...

  15. Effect of Dietary Fats on Oxidative-Antioxidative Status of Blood in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Walczewska, Anna; Dziedzic, Barbara; Stepien, Tomasz; Swiatek, Elzbieta; Nowak, Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the effect of different fat sources, lard, sunflower oil (SO), and fish oil (FO) in high-fat and low-fat diet on reactive oxygen species generation by blood phagocytes, glutathione redox status in erythrocytes, and total plasma antioxidant ability in rats. Whole blood chemiluminescence (CL) did not differ between three low-fat fed groups. However, baseline and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated CL in blood of high-lard fed rats were lower than in lo...

  16. Maldigestion and colonic fermentation of wheat bread in humans and the influence of dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, M; Gudmand-Hyer, E

    1997-07-01

    A fraction of wheat bread is malabsorbed in healthy humans. The malabsorbed fraction is bigger than what can be accounted for by in vitro measurements of dietary fibers and resistant starch. To determine whether it is a specific fraction defined by the structure of the starch molecule or a variable amount--which depends on the individual, the amount ingested, and other components of the meal--we performed a dose-response study on wheat bread in healthy human volunteers. Malabsorption was evaluated by using the breath-hydrogen test. Test meals were as follows: 20 g wheat bran mixed in 100 mL water; bread made from 25, 75, 100, 150, and 200 g white wheat flour (WWF); bread made from 0 g WWF and 20 g wheat bran; and bread made from 100 g WWF served with 11 or 26 g butter, corresponding to 20% or 35% of energy from fat in the meals. Three of seven volunteers malabsorbed a fraction of the bread made from 25 g WWF and five of seven a fraction of the bread made from 75 g WWF. All volunteers malabsorbed a fraction of the 100-g WWF bread, Bread made from 180 g WWF and 20 g wheat bran resulted in a breath-hydrogen response of the same magnitude as that from bread made from 200 g WWF alone. The 100-g WWF bread + 11 g butter resulted in a significantly higher breath-hydrogen response than did the bread alone, whereas the 100-g WWF bread + 26 g butter resulted in an average response of the same magnitude as that from bread alone. We conclude that the malabsorbed fraction of wheat bread was dependent on the amount ingested, the composition of the meal, and individual gastrointestinal handling. Fermentation of wheat bran resulted in a very low breath-hydrogen response compared with lactulose or wheat bread. Addition of 11 g butter to the bread seemed to increase the malabsorbed fraction of the starch, an effect that was abolished when the amount of butter was increased to 26 g. PMID:9209170

  17. Dietary Soluble Celluloses Prevent Obesity-Related Metabolic Diseases in Fat Fed Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluble, and to some extent, natural, unmodified cellulose demonstrate physiological activities, including plasma cholesterol-lowering. Male Syrian hamsters, ten per dietary treatment, were fed diets containing 5% total dietary fiber, 8% butterfat, 10% corn oil, 2% menhaden oil, and 0.1% cholestero...

  18. Impacts of dietary fat level and saturation when feeding distillers grains to high producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, J M; Robinson, P H; Karges, K

    2015-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether increasing the net energy (NEL ) of a total mixed ration (TMR) with mainly unsaturated fat from corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) vs. rumen inert (RI)-saturated fat has similar impacts on animal performance. The experiment was an incomplete Youden square with three treatments and four 28-days periods, completed on a large commercial dairy using three early lactation pens each with approximately 380 multiparity cows. The TMR for all treatments was the same, except for 150 g/kg dry matter (DM) of each TMR which contained 90 g/kg high-protein DDGS (HPDDGS) and 60 g/kg beet pulp (i.e. low-fat control diet; LFC); 150 g/kg DDGS (i.e. high-fat diet with unsaturated fat; HFU); or 111 g/kg HPDDGS, 20 g/kg beet pulp and 19 g/kg RI fat (i.e. high-fat diet with saturated fat; HFS). The DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for HFU-fed cows. Milk, fat and true protein yields, as well as milk energy output, were higher (p < 0.01) when cows were fed HFS vs. HFU and LFC diets. Milk true protein concentration was lowest (p < 0.01) for HFS-fed cows, but milk fat % was lowest (p < 0.01) for HFU and highest (p < 0.01) for HFS-fed cows. There were numerous differences (p < 0.01) in milk fatty acid levels amongst diets. The increase in body condition score was lowest (p < 0.01) for LFC. Whole tract digestibility of acid detergent fibre was lower (p < 0.01) for LFC vs. HFS cows, and fat digestion was lowest (p < 0.01) for LFC-fed cows. This DDGS, high in unsaturated fatty acids, was fed at high levels (i.e. 152 g/kg DM) with little impact on animal performance vs. a lower fat control diet, although addition of an RI-saturated fat to create a diet with a similarly higher fat level resulted in higher animal productivity. PMID:25040565

  19. The 2-monoacylglycerol moiety of dietary fat appears to be responsible for the fat-induced release of GLP-1 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandøe, Mette J.; Hansen, Katrine B.; Hartmann, Bolette; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Holst, Jens J.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2015-01-01

    acids do not stimulate the release of intestinal hormones. Objective: To dissect the mechanism of fat-induced glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) release in humans, we compared the effects of tributyrin (contg. short-chain fatty acids; i.e., butyric...... white men [mean age: 24 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 22] were given the following 4 meals on 4 different days: 200 g carrots + 6.53 g tributyrin, 200 g carrots + 13.15 g C8-dietary oil, 200 g carrots + 19 g olive oil, or 200 g carrots. All of the lipids totaled 0.0216 mol. Main outcome measures were incremental...... fully explain the olive oil-induced secretion of GLP-1, PYY, and neurotensin. In contrast, both oleic acid and 2-OG contributed to the GIP response. Dietary butyrate did not stimulate gut hormone secretion. Olive oil-derived oleic acid seems to be fully responsible for olive oil-induced CCK secretion...

  20. Intake of Total and Subgroups of Fat Minimally Affect the Associations between Selected Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the PPARγ Pathway and Changes in Anthropometry among European Adults from Cohorts of the DiOGenes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Østergaard, Jane N; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Roswall, Nina; Mortensen, Lotte M; Nielsen, Birgit M; Tjønneland, Anne; Wareham, Nicholas J; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Saris, WH; van der A, Daphne L; Boer, Jolanda Ma; Feskens, Edith Jm; Boeing, Heiner; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Loos, Ruth J; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Overvad, Kim

    2016-01-01

    nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 4 genes in the PPARγ pathway are associated with the OR of being a BW gainer or with annual changes in anthropometry and whether intake of total fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, or saturated fat has a modifying effect on these associations. METHODS: A case......), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2, PPARγ gene (PPARG), and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1] according to evidence about biologic plausibility for interactions with dietary fat in weight regulation. Diet was assessed at baseline, and anthropometry was followed for 7 y. RESULTS: The ORs for......4253449 minor allele per 100 kcal higher total fat intake was 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.12; P = 0.008), and similar associations were found for subgroups of fat. CONCLUSIONS: Among European men and women, the influence of dietary fat on associations between SNPs in the PPARγ pathway and anthropometry is...

  1. Saturated- and n-6 Polyunsaturated-Fat Diets Each Induce Ceramide Accumulation in Mouse Skeletal Muscle: Reversal and Improvement of Glucose Tolerance by Lipid Metabolism Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Frangioudakis, G.; Garrard, J.; Raddatz, K.; Nadler, J. L.; Mitchell, T. W.; Schmitz-Peiffer, C.

    2010-01-01

    Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with intracellular accumulation of inhibitory intermediates depending on the prevalent fatty acid (FA) species. In cultured myotubes, ceramide and phosphatidic acid (PA) mediate the effects of the saturated FA palmitate and the unsaturated FA linoleate, respectively. We hypothesized that myriocin (MYR), an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, would protect against glucose intolerance in saturated fat-fed mice, while lisofylline (LSF), a funct...

  2. Dietary Cocoa Reduces Metabolic Endotoxemia and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High-Fat Fed Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan; Park, Jong Yung; Harvatine, Kevin; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    In diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue (AT) is in a chronic state of inflammation predisposing the development of metabolic syndrome. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a polyphenol-rich food with putative anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of cocoa on AT inflammation in high fat-fed mice. In the present study, male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat diet (HF), a HF diet with 8% (w/w) unsweetened cocoa powder (HFC), or a low-fat diet (LF) fo...

  3. Dietary fat source affects metabolism of fatty acids in pigs as evaluated by altered expression of lipogenic genes in liver and adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Montg, P; Theil, P K; Lauridsen, C; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2009-04-01

    Little is known about pig gene expressions related to dietary fatty acids (FAs) and most work have been conducted in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary fats regulate fat metabolism of pigs in different tissues. Fifty-six crossbred gilts (62 5.2 kg BW) were fed one of seven dietary treatments (eight animals per treatment): a semi-synthetic diet containing a very low level of fat (no fat (NF)) and six fat-supplemented diets (ca. 10%) based on barley and soybean meal. The supplemental fat sources were tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), blend (FB) (55% T, 35% SFO and 10% LO) and fish oil (FO) blend (40% FO and 60% LO). Pigs were slaughtered at 100 kg BW and autopsies from liver, adipose tissue and muscle semimembranousus were collected for qPCR. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) abundances of genes related to lipogenesis were modified due to dietary treatments in both liver (sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACACA) and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD)) and adipose tissue (fatty acid synthase (FASN), ACACA and SCD), but were not affected in semimembranousus muscle. In the liver, the mRNA abundances of genes encoding lipogenic enzymes were highest in pigs fed HOSF and lowest in pigs fed FO. In adipose tissue, the mRNA abundances were highest in pigs fed the NF diet and lowest in pigs fed T. The study demonstrated that dietary FAs stimulate lipogenic enzyme gene expression differently in liver, fat and muscles tissues. PMID:22444377

  4. Potential role of dietary lipids in the prophylaxis of some clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Urvashi; Das, Undurti N

    2015-08-12

    An imbalance of dietary lipids may potentially have a significant role in the pathobiology of some chronic diseases. Public health dietary fat recommendations have emphasized that low saturated fat, high monounsaturated fat, and high polyunsaturated fat with a lower ω-6 to ω-3 fatty acid ratio intake are necessary for normal health. However, such universal recommendations are likely to be hazardous, since the outcome of recommended lipid intake may depend on the consumption of other important dietary constituents that have an important role in the metabolism of lipids. In addition, consumption of fatty acids as per the individually tailored specific requirements in the context of other nutritional factors may have the potential to stabilize hormones, mood and sleep, and minimize adverse events. In support of this proposal, we review various factors that influence fatty acid metabolism, which need to be taken into consideration for appropriate utilization and consequently prevention of various diseases. PMID:26322094

  5. Dietary Intakes in Asthmatic and Non-Asthmatic Female Pupils of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Nazemi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "nDietary factors are suggested to be involved in recent increases in the prevalence of asthma. The differences in dietary intake of 23 asthmatic and 317 non-asthmatic students were investigated, who were chosen by multistage stratified cluster sampling. The dietary data were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and a 24-h recall form. Total calorie and fat intake were similar. Daily intake of Saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and calcium and sodium were significantly higher in asthmatics. There was no significant difference between dietary antioxidant intake of asthmatic and non asthmatics. It seems that in this age, the type of consumed fat may be more important than the amount of fat intake in inducing asthma. For accurate results, n-6 and n-3 fatty acid intake must be assessed. Higher sodium and calcium intake may also be associated with asthma. Randomized controlled trials with restricting diets can help to elucidate the results.

  6. Effects of Pullet Nutrition and Dietary Energy and Fat of Layer Rations on the performance of Hy-line Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nassiri Moghaddam

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment with 720 pullets was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary energy levels of pullet and dietary energy and fat of laying ration on subsequent performance parameters during 14-20 and 22-44 weeks of age. In the first period, white leghorn pullets were fed with two diets of low and high density energy (2600 and 3200 Kcal ME/kg. In the lating period (second period, birds, in each treatment of pullet period, were fed with six diets containing three levels of low, medium and high energy (2600, 2750 and 2900 kcal/kg at two levels of supplemental fat (zero and 2%. All diets were formulated to meet minimum NRC (1994 requirements of amino acids and protein. This experiment was done in randomized complete block designs with 5 replicates. The levels of energy in the growing period did not affect egg production, egg weight, daily feed intake, feed conversion rate and age of pubertal maturity in laying period, but pullets fed with high energy diet had significantly higher weights as compared to low energy diet in the beginning of laying period. In the laying period, the use of supplemental fat (2% improved egg production and egg weight, but feed intake and feed conversion rate were not affected. Means of feed conversion rate, feed intake and egg production during laying period in low energy diet were greater than those as compared to high energy diet, but egg weight was not affected by energy level of diets. Low energy intake to protein intake ratio in low energy diet versus high energy diet may be a reason for greater egg production in lower energy than in higher energy diets.

  7. Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA, gut microbiota and fat mass in early postnatal piglet development—exploring a potential interplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A.D.; Mølbak, Lars; Thymann, T.; Michaelsen, K.F.; Lauritzen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary n-3PUFA and gut bacteria, particularly Bacteroidetes, have been suggested to be related to adiposity. We investigated if n-3PUFA affected fat storage and cecal bacteria in piglets. Twenty-four 4-day-old piglets were allocated to formula rich in n-3PUFA (∼3E%) from fish oil (FO) or n-6PUFA...... from sunflower oil (SO) for 14 days. We assessed body weight, fat accumulation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and microbial molecular fingerprints. Dietary PUFA-composition was reflected in higher erythrocyte n-3PUFA in the FO- than the SO-group (P...

  8. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina; Harder, Marie Neergaard; Taylor, Moira A; Hager, Jörg; Arner, Peter; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Martinez, J Alfredo; Polak, Jan; Rousseau, Francis; Langin, Dominique; Rössner, Stephan; Holst, Claus; Macdonald, Ian A; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Kunesova, Marie; Saris, Wim H M; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  9. Dietary constituents reduce lipid accumulation in murine C3H10 T1/2 adipocytes: A novel fluorescent method to quantify fat droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhrer Erna; Goralczyk Regina; Warnke Ines; Schwager Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Adipocyte volume (fat accumulation) and cell number (adipogenesis) is increased in obese individuals. Our objective was the identification of dietary constituents with inhibitory effects on triglyceride formation during adipogenesis. Therefore an in vitro adipose cell assay in murine C3H10 T1/2 cells was developed, which enabled rapid quantification of intracellular fat droplet accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. Results were corroborated by expression levels of...

  10. A genome-wide systems analysis reveals strong link between colorectal cancer and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbial metabolite of dietary meat and fat

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary intakes of red meat and fat are established risk factors for both colorectal cancer (CRC) and cardiovascular disease (CVDs). Recent studies have shown a mechanistic link between TMAO, an intestinal microbial metabolite of red meat and fat, and risk of CVDs. Data linking TMAO directly to CRC is, however, lacking. Here, we present an unbiased data-driven network-based systems approach to uncover a potential genetic relationship between TMAO and CRC. Materials and methods We c...

  11. Fat mass- and obesity-associated genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometric measures in European adults: the Food4Me study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Forster, Hannah; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Kolossa, Silvia; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne C; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C

    2016-02-01

    The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AA v. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (P trend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (P trend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings. PMID:26620191

  12. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yongbo Wang; Xiang Gao; Pardis Pedram; Mariam Shahidi; Jianling Du; Yanqing Yi; Wayne Gulliver; Hongwei Zhang; Guang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects particip...

  13. Intestinal absorption of dietary fat from a liquid diet perfused in rats at a submaximum level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The small intestine of rats was perfused in vivo for 2 h with a nutritionally complete liquid diet (68% calories from fat as corn oil). As the perfusion increased from 106 mg/2 h, the intestinal disappearance of the 14C-triolein marker remained proportional to the load up to 2359 mg fat/2 h. Despite a decrease in absorption from 70 to 17%, this represents a very large fat intake. Fat absorption improved when medium-chain triglycerides or octanoic acid replaced corn oil (both p less than 0.01). Linoleic acid was absorbed from the diet less than corn oil (p less than 0.01). Dry ox bile reduced fat absorption (p less than 0.05); lipase and an antacid had no effect. Corn oil perfused alone was absorbed better than from the diet (p less than 0.01). Data with 14C-triolein was confirmed by dry-weight disappearance of the diet and by net intestinal water balance. Usual feeding underutilizes a large reserve for fat absorption. This reserve should be considered in therapeutic nutrition

  14. Low eficiency of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the reversal of insulin resistance induced by a high-fat in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jílková, Zuzana; Rossmeisl, Martin; Flachs, Pavel; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 49, Suppl. 1 (2006), s. 345-346. ISSN 0012-186X. [Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes /42./. 14.09.2006-17.09.2006, Copenhagen-Malmoe] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : insulin resistance * n-3 PUFA * high fat diet Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  15. The interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and aai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp in modulating lifespan and reproduction in a Tephritid fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedo, Pablo; Carey, James R; Ingram, Donald K; Zou, Sige

    2012-07-01

    Macronutrient balance is a critical contributor in modulating lifespan and health. Consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables provides numerous health benefits. The interactions among macronutrients and botanicals and how they influence aging and health remain elusive. Here we employed a nutritional geometry approach to investigate the interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and antioxidant- and polyphenolic-rich freeze-dried aai pulp in modulating lifespan and reproductive output in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew). Individual flies were cultured on one of the 24 diets made from a combination of 1) sugar and yeast extract (SY) at four ratios, 2) palmitic acid, a saturated fat, at two concentrations and 3) freeze-dried aai pulp at three concentrations. Fat addition decreased lifespan in females on the sugar only diet and the diet with a low SY ratio, while decreasing lifetime reproductive output in flies on the diet with the low SY ratio when compared to SY ratio-matched low fat controls. Aai supplementation promoted survival, while decreasing lifetime reproductive output, in flies on diets with high fat and high sugar but not other diets when compared to diet-matched non-supplemented controls. These findings reveal that the impact of fat and aai on lifespan and reproductive output depends on the dietary content of other macronutrients. Our results reveal the intricate interplay among macronutrients and nutraceuticals, and underscore the importance of taking macronutrient balance into consideration in designing dietary interventions for aging and health. PMID:22580089

  16. Responses of dietary ileal amino acid digestibility to consumption of different cultivars of potatoes and conventional fibers in grower pigs fed a high-fat basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Yang, X; Leonard, S; Archbold, T; Sullivan, J A; Duncan, A M; Ma, W D L; Bizimungu, B; Murphy, A; Htoo, J K; Fan, M Z

    2012-12-01

    Whereas dietary fibers are well recognized for nutritional management of human health issues, fiber is also known to be one of the dietary factors potentially affecting digestive use of dietary proteins. As a staple food, potato (Solanum tuberosum) may be a significant dietary fiber source. The objective of this study was to examine effects of dietary supplementation of six potato cultivar-genotype samples that differ in soluble fiber content and two conventional fiber components (i.e., cellulose and guar gum) on the apparent ileal AA digestibility in pigs fed a high-fat basal diet. The basal diet was formulated as a zero-fiber negative control (NC) to contain 41.5% poultry meal, 4% casein, 15% animal fat-oil blend, 2.8% sucrose, 31% corn (Zea mays) starch, 0.50% salt, and 0.40% trace mineral-vitamin supplement with fat contributing to 47% of the dietary GE. The two fiber diets were formulated by respectively diluting the basal diet with 10% guar gum and 10% cellulose at the expense of corn starch. Six other test diets were formulated by including 8.5% guar gum and further diluting the basal diet with 25.1% one of the six cultivar-genotype samples of dehydrated potato tuber powder to contain about 10% total dietary fiber at the expense of corn starch. Eighty-one 25-kg barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed the diets according to a completely randomized block design with each block lasting 28 d. Compared with the NC, the ileal digestibility of Ala, Gly, and Pro were decreased (P potatoes plus 8.5% guar gum compared with the NC. Our results suggest that dietary inclusion of fiber at 10% from guar gum and cellulose and contributed by potatoes may adversely affect digestive use of dietary protein. PMID:23365378

  17. GDF-3 is an adipogenic cytokine under high fat dietary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF-3) is structurally a bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor subfamily member of the TGF-β superfamily. GDF-3 exhibits highest level of expression in white fat tissue in mice and is greatly induced by high fat diet if fat metabolic pathway is blocked. To identify its biological function, GDF-3 was overexpressed in mice by adenovirus mediated gene transfer. Mice transduced with GDF-3 displayed profound weight gain when fed with high fat diet. The phenotypes included greatly expanded adipose tissue mass, increased body adiposity, highly hypertrophic adipocytes, hepatic steatosis, and elevated plasma leptin. GDF-3 stimulated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression in adipocytes, a master nuclear receptor that controls adipogenesis. However, GDF-3 was not involved in blood glucose homeostasis or insulin resistance, a condition associated with obesity. In contrast, similar phenotypes were not observed in GDF-3 mice fed with normal chow, indicating that GDF-3 is only active under high lipid load. Thus, GDF-3 is a new non-diabetic adipogenic factor tightly coupled with fat metabolism

  18. Dietary fat induces sustained reward response in the human brain without primary taste cortex discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Rytz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To disentangle taste from reward responses in the human gustatory cortex, we combined high density electro-encephalography with a gustometer delivering tastant puffs to the tip of the tongue. Stimuli were pure tastants (salt solutions at two concentrations, caloric emulsions of identical taste (two milk preparations differing in fat content and a mixture of high fat milk with the lowest salt concentration. Early event-related potentials showed a dose-response effect for increased taste intensity, with higher amplitude and shorter latency for high compared to low salt concentration, but not for increased fat content. However, the amplitude and distribution of late potentials were modulated by fat content independently of reported intensity and discrimination. Neural source estimation revealed a sustained activation of reward areas to the two high-fat stimuli. The results suggest calorie detection through specific sensors on the tongue independent of perceived taste. Finally, amplitude variation of the first peak in the event-related potential to the different stimuli correlated with papilla density, suggesting a higher discrimination power for subjects with more fungiform papillae.

  19. Effects of dietary fat on fertility of dairy cattle: A meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, R M; Celi, P; Scott, W; Breinhild, K; Lean, I J

    2015-08-01

    Evidence is increasing of positive effects of feeding fats during transition on fertility and the adaptation to lactation. This study used meta-analytic methods to explore the effects of including fats in the transition diet on the risk of pregnancy to service (proportion pregnant) and calving to pregnancy interval. Meta-analysis was used to integrate smaller studies and increase the statistical power over that of any single study and explore new hypotheses. We explored the effect of fats and diet composition on fertility using meta-regression methods. Relatively few highly controlled studies are available providing detailed descriptions of the diets used that examined interactions between fat nutrition and reproductive outcomes. Only 17 studies containing 26 comparisons were suitable for inclusion in statistical evaluations. Reproductive variables evaluated were risk of pregnancy (proportion pregnant), primarily to first service, and calving to pregnancy interval. Production variables examined were milk yield, milk composition, and body weight. The sources of heterogeneity in these studies were also explored. A 27% overall increase in pregnancy to service was observed (relative risk=1.27; 95% confidence interval Knapp Hartung 1.09 to 1.45), and results were relatively consistent (I(2)=19.9%). A strong indication of a reduction in calving to pregnancy interval was also identified, which was consistent across studies (I(2)=0.0%), supporting a conclusion that, overall, the inclusion of fats does improve fertility. Further exploration of the factors contributing to proportion pregnant using bivariate meta-regression identified variables that reflected changes in diet composition or animal response resulting from inclusion of the fat interventions in the experimental diets fed. Increased fermentable neutral detergent fiber and soluble fiber intakes increased the proportion pregnant, whereas increased milk yield of the treatment group decreased this measure. Unexpectedly, the estimated energy costs of urea production also had a positive association with proportion pregnant. The limited number of suitable studies for the analysis highlights the need for more work to improve understanding of the critical nutritional factors affecting fertility. These factors include specific fatty acids in dietary interventions that contribute to increasing fertility of cows in dairy production systems. PMID:26094218

  20. The effect of a controlled manipulation of maternal dietary fat intake on medium and long chain fatty acids in human breast milk in Saskatoon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Alison M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies in recent years have demonstrated the effect of maternal diet on fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods Fourteen free-living lactating women participated in a cross-over dietary intervention study, consuming a low fat diet (17.6% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 68.0% of energy as carbohydrate and a high fat diet (40.3% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 45.3% of energy as carbohydrate each for periods of 4 days, in randomised order. Each mother was her own control. Mature milk samples were collected during each period and analysed for medium and long chain fatty acids. Results The concentration of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, was 13.6% in breast milk for the low fat diet compared to 11.4% for the high fat (p Conclusions Changing maternal dietary fat intake has a rapid response in terms of changes to fatty acids in breast milk.

  1. Development of the SoFAS (solid fats and added sugars) concept: the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E

    2015-05-01

    The diets of most US children and adults are poor, as reflected by low diet quality scores, when compared with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). Contributing to these low scores is that most Americans overconsume solid fats, which may contain saturated fatty acids and added sugars; although alcohol consumption was generally modest, it provided few nutrients. Thus, the 2005 DGAs generated a new recommendation: to reduce intakes of solid fats, alcohol, and added sugars (SoFAAS). What precipitated the emergence of the new SoFAAS terminology was the concept of discretionary calories (a "calorie" is defined as the amount of energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C), which were defined as calories consumed after an individual had met his or her recommended nutrient intakes while consuming fewer calories than the daily recommendation. A limitation with this concept was that additional amounts of nutrient-dense foods consumed beyond the recommended amount were also considered discretionary calories. The rationale for this was that if nutrient-dense foods were consumed beyond recommended amounts, after total energy intake was met then this constituted excess energy intake. In the 2010 DGAs, the terminology was changed to solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS); thus, alcohol was excluded because it made a minor contribution to overall intake and did not apply to children. The SoFAS terminology also negated nutrient-dense foods that were consumed in amounts above the recommendations for the specific food groups in the food patterns. The ambiguous SoFAS terminology was later changed to "empty calories" to reflect only those calories from solid fats and added sugars (and alcohol if consumed beyond moderate amounts). The purpose of this review is to provide an historical perspective on how the dietary recommendations went from SoFAAS to SoFAS and how discretionary calories went to empty calories between the 2005 and 2010 DGAs. This information will provide practitioners, as well as the public, with valuable information to better understand the evolution of SoFAS over time. PMID:25979510

  2. Effects of the sugarcane dietary fiber and pre-emulsified sesame oil on low-fat meat batter physicochemical property, texture, and microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xinbo; Han, Minyi; Kang, Zhuang-Li; Wang, Kai; Bai, Yun; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane dietary fiber (SDF) and pre-emulsified sesame oil for pork fat replacement on batter characteristics. Replacing pork fat with SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil significantly affected color, water- and fat-binding properties, texture, dynamic rheology, microstructure and sensory analysis. With SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil, the batters had improved textures and gave good sensory scores. These batters containing SDF had reduced the cholesterol and fat contents. With increasing levels of SDF, the batters had higher water- and fat-binding properties, improved texture (hardness, gumminess and chewiness), dynamic rheology and a more balanced nutritional composition. However, when the level of SDF reached 3%, the pores formed by SDF in batter were too large to hinder aggregation and the hardness of batter was unacceptable, which result the allover acceptability to be unsatisfactory. The sample 2% SDF had comparable overall acceptability to the control batter. PMID:26641280

  3. Influence of Supplemental Dietary Poultry Fat on the Yolk Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation and 1.5 % supplemental dietary poultry fat (PF) on the egg yolk characteristics of commercial layers between 24 and 58 wk of age were investigated. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (early in lay)...

  4. Effect of dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids on urinary eicosanoids and sex hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled feeding trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substantial evidence relates increased sex hormone concentrations with increased breast cancer risk. Varying omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) intake may lead to alterations in eicosanoid balance and subsequent changes in circulating sex hormones that reduce risk. To clarify effects of dietary fat and n-3 i...

  5. Effects of Dietary Fats on Blood Cholesterol and Other Measures Related to Chd Risk in Male and Female Laboratory Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahia A. Maimanee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile and adult male and female Swiss mice were fed one of four specially-formulated, pelleted diets containing respectively 8 per cent saturated vegetable fat, 8 per cent soya oil, 8 per cent olive oil and 2 per cent soya oil (with identities hidden from the experimenter or a local commercial rodent food. It was intended to assess their impact on some blood indices linked to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. Subjects were individually housed and their blood concentrations of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC and triglycerides were assessed. Clearly, these non-isocaloric diets differed in palatability, producing complex effects on growth as well as physiological measures. Many indices were influenced by age, sex, and the duration of dietary exposure. Interactions between factors were common but it appeared that males showed the greater increase in risk factors in response to some diets.

  6. The role of the small intestine in the development of dietary fat-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bromhaar Mechteld

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and insulin resistance are two major risk factors underlying the metabolic syndrome. The development of these metabolic disorders is frequently studied, but mainly in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. To gain more insight in the role of the small intestine in development of obesity and insulin resistance, dietary fat-induced differential gene expression was determined along the longitudinal axis of small intestines of C57BL/6J mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet that mimicked the fatty acid composition of a Western-style human diet. After 2, 4 and 8 weeks of diet intervention small intestines were isolated and divided in three equal parts. Differential gene expression was determined in mucosal scrapings using Mouse genome 430 2.0 arrays. Results The high-fat diet significantly increased body weight and decreased oral glucose tolerance, indicating insulin resistance. Microarray analysis showed that dietary fat had the most pronounced effect on differential gene expression in the middle part of the small intestine. By overrepresentation analysis we found that the most modulated biological processes on a high-fat diet were related to lipid metabolism, cell cycle and inflammation. Our results further indicated that the nuclear receptors Ppars, Lxrs and Fxr play an important regulatory role in the response of the small intestine to the high-fat diet. Next to these more local dietary fat effects, a secretome analysis revealed differential gene expression of secreted proteins, such as Il18, Fgf15, Mif, Igfbp3 and Angptl4. Finally, we linked the fat-induced molecular changes in the small intestine to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Conclusion During dietary fat-induced development of obesity and insulin resistance, we found substantial changes in gene expression in the small intestine, indicating modulations of biological processes, especially related to lipid metabolism. Moreover, we found differential expression of potential signaling molecules that can provoke systemic effects in peripheral organs by influencing their metabolic homeostasis. Many of these fat-modulated genes could be linked to obesity and/or insulin resistance. Together, our data provided various leads for a causal role of the small intestine in the etiology of obesity and/or insulin resistance.

  7. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A; Rennie, Michael J; Kiens, Bente

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet would lead to decreased glucose uptake and impaired muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise compared with ingestion of a carbohydrate diet all along. We studied 13 untrained men; 7 consumed a high...

  8. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tous, Nuria; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Lizardo, R; Vilà, B; Esteve-Garcia, E

    The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA...

  9. Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Knudsen, K. E. B.; Jørgensen, H.; Oomah, D.; Buegel, S.; Toubro, S.; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, A.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit...

  10. The role of dietary fatty acids in predicting myocardial structure in fat-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Melissa L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity increases the risk for development of cardiomyopathy in the absence of hypertension, diabetes or myocardial ischemia. Not all obese individuals, however, progress to heart failure. Indeed, obesity may provide protection from cardiovascular mortality in some populations. The fatty acid milieu, modulated by diet, may modify obesity-induced myocardial structure and function, lending partial explanation for the array of cardiomyopathic phenotypy in obese individuals. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 1 of the following 4 diets for 32 weeks: control (CON; 50% saturated fat (SAT; 40% saturated fat + 10% linoleic acid (SAT+LA; 40% saturated fat + 10% α-linolenic acid (SAT+ALA. Serum leptin, insulin, glucose, free fatty acids and triglycerides were quantitated. In vivo cardiovascular outcomes included blood pressure, heart rate and echocardiographic measurements of structure and function. The rats were sacrificed and myocardium was processed for fatty acid analysis (TLC-GC, and evaluation of potential modifiers of myocardial structure including collagen (Masson's trichrome, hydroxyproline quantitation, lipid (Oil Red O, triglyceride quantitation and myocyte cross sectional area. Results Rats fed SAT+LA and SAT+ALA diets had greater cranial LV wall thickness compared to rats fed CON and SAT diets, in the absence of hypertension or apparent insulin resistance. Treatment was not associated with changes in myocardial function. Myocardial collagen and triglycerides were similar among treatment groups; however, rats fed the high-fat diets, regardless of composition, demonstrated increased myocyte cross sectional area. Conclusions Under conditions of high-fat feeding, replacement of 10% saturated fat with either LA or ALA is associated with thickening of the cranial LV wall, but without concomitant functional changes. Increased myocyte size appears to be a more likely contributor to early LV thickening in response to high-fat feeding. These findings suggest that myocyte hypertrophy may be an early change leading to gross LV hypertrophy in the hearts of "healthy" obese rats, in the absence of hypertension, diabetes and myocardial ischemia.

  11. Dietary fat and antioxidant vitamin intake in patients of neurodegenerative disease in a rural region of Jalisco, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Meza, Mónica; Gabriel-Ortiz, Genaro; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Cruz-Ramos, José A.; López-Espinoza, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the intake of lipids and (A, E, and C) vitamins in patients with and without possible neurodegenerative diseases. Methods Twenty adults with possible Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease and 41 control subjects (50–89 years old) from a rural region were studied. Dietary intake was evaluated with the analysis of macronutrients and micronutrients conducted by a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hours dietary record. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and energy intake. Through interrogation and use of medical record form of health secretary we obtained information about the sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analysis of variance to allow for covariated adjustment was used. Results Patients had a lower energy intake, vitamin C (P = 0.016), fruits (P < 0.001), vegetables (P = 0.037), and oils and fat (P = 0.002), than the controls. Interestingly, the C vitamin intake in patients was still higher than the recommended. Patients had a higher consumption of cereals (P = 0.017), high-animal fat diet (P = 0.024), and whole milk (P < 0.001); 2.4% of the controls smoke and 5% are alcohol consumers. Eighty-five percent of patients and 78% of the controls do not have physical activity. Family history of subjects in this study indicated chronic diseases. Conclusion The subjects included in this study had a high intake of C vitamin, this is due to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, patients with possible Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease had a lower intake of fruits and vegetables, which could be due to type of food to which they have access. PMID:24257159

  12. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Ludvig, Stine E; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Pulkkinen, Pasi; Finnilä, Mikko; Mu, Huiling; Thymann, Thomas; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mølgaard, Christian; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCPUFA) and palmitate (16:0) positioning in the triacylglycerol (TAG) of infant formula may affect calcium-uptake which could affect bone health. We investigated if a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) with a modified TAG structure holding 16:0 predominantly in the sn-2-positio...

  13. Methane emission and community composition patterns of rumen bacteria and methanogens in Holstein dairy cows as affected by silage type and dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria; Brask, Maike; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter; Jensen, Bent Borg; Engberg, Ricarda M

    Silage type and dietary fat supplementation can affect enteric methane (CH4) emissions from dairy cows. However, the impact of dietary interventions on the rumen microbiota is still not fully understood. The present study used six rumen cannulated Holstein cows (6x4 incomplete Latin Square) to...... rRNA and methyl co-enzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes, respectively. Methanogen abundances were evaluated by qPCR using two mcrA-targeting primer sets. Silage type significantly affected CH4 emissions and rumen acetate:propionate ratios, being highest for late grass and lowest for maize. Dietary fat...... significantly reduced the gross energy lost as CH4 regardless of silage type. Silage type significantly affected the bacterial community composition pattern; the grass silages favored potential hemicellulose- and cellulose-degrading bacteria, while the maize silage mainly favored potentially starch...

  14. Changes in Dietary Fat Content Rapidly Alters the Mouse Plasma Coagulation Profile without Affecting Relative Transcript Levels of Coagulation Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Janna A.; Verhoef, Daniël; Voshol, Peter J.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; van Vlijmen, Bart J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with a hypercoagulable state and increased risk for thrombotic cardiovascular events. Objective Establish the onset and reversibility of the hypercoagulable state during the development and regression of nutritionally-induced obesity in mice, and its relation to transcriptional changes and clearance rates of coagulation factors as well as its relation to changes in metabolic and inflammatory parameters. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat (10% kcal as fat; LFD) or high fat diet (45% kcal as fat; HFD) for 2, 4, 8 or 16 weeks. To study the effects of weight loss, mice were fed the HFD for 16 weeks and switched to the LFD for 1, 2 or 4 weeks. For each time point analyses of plasma and hepatic mRNA levels of coagulation factors were performed after overnight fasting, as well as measurements of circulating metabolic and inflammatory parameters. Furthermore, in vivo clearance rates of human factor (F) VII, FVIII and FIX proteins were determined after 2 weeks of HFD-feeding. Results HFD feeding gradually increased the body and liver weight, which was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma glucose levels from 8 weeks onwards, while insulin levels were affected after 16 weeks. Besides a transient rise in cytokine levels at 2 weeks after starting the HFD, no significant effect on inflammation markers was present. Increased plasma levels of fibrinogen, FII, FVII, FVIII, FIX, FXI and FXII were observed in mice on a HFD for 2 weeks, which in general persisted throughout the 16 weeks of HFD-feeding. Interestingly, with the exception of FXI the effects on plasma coagulation levels were not paralleled by changes in relative transcript levels in the liver, nor by decreased clearance rates. Switching from HFD to LFD reversed the HFD-induced procoagulant shift in plasma, again not coinciding with transcriptional modulation. Conclusions Changes in dietary fat content rapidly alter the mouse plasma coagulation profile, thereby preceding plasma metabolic changes, which cannot be explained by changes in relative expression of coagulation factors or decreased clearance rates. PMID:26176620

  15. Dietary cholesterol induces hepatic inflammation and blunts mitochondrial function in the liver of high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songpei; Zeng, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Xiu; Wang, Hao; Jo, Eunjung; Robinson, Stephen R; Xu, Aimin; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of dietary cholesterol and fat in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a common liver disease in metabolic disorders. Mice were fed a diet of regular chow (CH), chow supplemented with 0.2% w/w cholesterol (CHC), high fat (HF, 45kcal%) or HF with cholesterol (HFC) for 17weeks. While both HF and HFC groups displayed hepatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome, only HFC group developed the phenotype of liver injury, as indicated by an increase in plasma level of alanine transaminase (ALT, by 50-80%). There were ~2-fold increases in mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 1? and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in the liver of HFC-fed mice (vs. HF) but no endoplasmic reticulum stress or oxidative stress was observed. Furthermore, cholesterol suppressed HF-induced increase of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? and mitochondrial transcription factor A expression and blunted fatty acid oxidation. Interestingly, after switching HFC to HF diet for 5weeks, the increases in plasma ALT and liver inflammatory markers were abolished but the blunted of mitochondrial function remained. These findings suggest that cholesterol plays a critical role in the conversion of a simple fatty liver toward nonalcoholic steatohepatitis possibly by activation of inflammatory pathways together with retarded mitochondrial function. PMID:26391864

  16. Dietary Polyphenols Promote Growth of the Gut Bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila and Attenuate High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopchand, Diana E; Carmody, Rachel N; Kuhn, Peter; Moskal, Kristin; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-08-01

    Dietary polyphenols protect against metabolic syndrome, despite limited absorption and digestion, raising questions about their mechanism of action. We hypothesized that one mechanism may involve the gut microbiota. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 1% Concord grape polyphenols (GP). Relative to vehicle controls, GP attenuated several effects of HFD feeding, including weight gain, adiposity, serum inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]?, interleukin [IL]-6, and lipopolysaccharide), and glucose intolerance. GP lowered intestinal expression of inflammatory markers (TNF?, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase) and a gene for glucose absorption (Glut2). GP increased intestinal expression of genes involved in barrier function (occludin) and limiting triglyceride storage (fasting-induced adipocyte factor). GP also increased intestinal gene expression of proglucagon, a precursor of proteins that promote insulin production and gut barrier integrity. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR of cecal and fecal samples demonstrated that GP dramatically increased the growth of Akkermansia muciniphila and decreased the proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, consistent with prior reports that similar changes in microbial community structure can protect from diet-induced obesity and metabolic disease. These data suggest that GP act in the intestine to modify gut microbial community structure, resulting in lower intestinal and systemic inflammation and improved metabolic outcomes. The gut microbiota may thus provide the missing link in the mechanism of action of poorly absorbed dietary polyphenols. PMID:25845659

  17. High dietary fat intake influences the activation of specific hindbrain and hypothalamic nuclei by the satiety factor oleoylethanolamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Karimian Azari, E; Tempesta, B; Mansouri, A; Micioni Di Bonaventura, M V; Ramachandran, D; Lutz, T A; Bedse, G; Langhans, W; Gaetani, S

    2014-09-01

    Chronic exposure to a diet rich in fats changes the gastrointestinal milieu and alters responses to several signals involved in the control of food intake. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a gut-derived satiety signal released from enterocytes upon the ingestion of dietary fats. The anorexigenic effect of OEA, which requires intestinal PPAR-alpha receptors and is supposedly mediated by vagal afferents, is associated with the induction of c-fos in several brain areas involved in the control of food intake, such as the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON). In the present study we investigated whether the exposure to a high fat diet (HFD) alters the hindbrain and hypothalamic responses to OEA. To this purpose we evaluated the effects of OEA at a dose that reliably inhibits eating (10mg/kg i.p.) on the induction of c-fos in the NST, area postrema (AP), PVN and SON in rats maintained either on standard chow or a HFD. We performed a detailed analysis of the different NST subnuclei activated by i.p. OEA and found that peripheral OEA strongly activates c-fos expression in the AP, NST and in the hypothalamus of both chow and HFD fed rats. The extent of c-fos expression was, however, markedly different between the two groups of rats, with a weaker activation of selected NST subnuclei and stronger activation of the PVN in HFD-fed than in chow-fed rats. HFD-fed rats were also more sensitive to the immediate hypophagic action of OEA than chow-fed rats. These effects may be due to a decreased sensitivity of vagal afferent fibers that might mediate OEA's actions on the brain and/or an altered sensitivity of brain structures to OEA. PMID:24802360

  18. Green Tea Lowers Hepatic COX-2 and Prostaglandin E2 in Rats with Dietary Fat-Induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min-Yu; Mah, Eunice; Masterjohn, Christopher; Noh, Sang K; Park, Hea Jin; Clark, Richard M; Park, Young-Ki; Lee, Ji-Young; Bruno, Richard S

    2015-06-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) protects against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by decreasing hepatic steatosis and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation. We hypothesized that hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory activities of GTE would protect against NASH by reducing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an NFκB-dependent enzyme, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in a dietary fat-induced obese model. Male Wistar rats were fed a low-fat diet containing no GTE or a high-fat (HF) diet containing GTE at 0%, 1%, or 2% for 8 weeks. Insulin resistance and total hepatic fatty acids increased following HF feeding (P<.05) and these were normalized by GTE at 1-2%. GTE (1-2%) normalized hepatic malondialdehyde without affecting cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA expression, which was otherwise increased by HF feeding. HF-mediated increases in hepatic COX-2 protein and activity as well as PGE2 concentrations were normalized by GTE (1-2%). COX-2 activity and PGE2 were correlated to each other, and to serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and hepatic NFκB-binding activity (P<.05; r=0.28-0.49). GTE attenuated HF-mediated increases in total hepatic n-6 and n-3, without affecting the n-6/n-3 ratio. GTE did not affect HF-mediated increases in n-6 in nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and phospholipid pools, whereas n-3 and n-6/n-3 in both pools were unaffected by GTE and HF feeding. GTE decreased total hepatic arachidonic acid without affecting HF-mediated increases in arachidonic acid in NEFA or phospholipid pools. Thus, GTE attenuates lipid peroxidation and PGE2 accumulation by decreasing COX-2 activity independent of arachidonic acid availability and supports an additional mechanism by which GTE protects against liver injury during NASH in an HF-feeding model. PMID:25453513

  19. Gastrointestinal responses of rats fed on white and wholemeal breads: complex carbohydrate digestibility and the influence of dietary fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, F B; Mathers, J C

    1993-03-01

    To obtain quantitative information on the digestibility of the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) fraction of white and wholemeal breads, rats were fed on diets in which freeze-dried bread (white, wholemeal or mixtures of the two) provided all the complex carbohydrates. In a second experiment the possibility that dietary fat concentration might influence NSP digestibility was tested by feeding diets containing 30 or 170 g maize oil/kg and either white or wholemeal bread. Multiple linear regression analysis provided little evidence of associative effects of dietary components on NSP digestibility and in the two experiments digestibilities of NSP for white and wholemeal breads were 0.77-0.82 and 0.47-0.52 respectively. Xylose- and arabinose-containing polymers were better digested than was cellulose for both breads. Replacing white by wholemeal bread markedly increased the molar proportion of butyrate in caecal volatile fatty acids at the expense of acetate. This was associated with greater flows of organic matter to the large bowel (LB) and a reduction in caecal transit time (Expt 2). There was little detectable effect of dietary maize oil concentration on NSP digestibility or on LB fermentation. All breads contained some starch resistant to pancreatic alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) without previous treatment with dimethyl sulphoxide. The digestibility of this starch fraction was not significantly different from 1.0 for all diets except that containing wholemeal bread and the higher maize oil concentration where the apparent digestibility was 0.89. PMID:8490002

  20. Effect of various dietary fats on antibody production and lymphocyte proliferation n chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassity, N.A.; Fritsche, K.L.; Huang, S.C. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (United States))

    1990-02-26

    One-day old Babcock-300 female chicks (n = 80) were fed one of four corn-soybean meal based diets which differed only in fat source. Diets contained 7% by weight: corn oil (CO), canola oil (CA), lard (LA), or fish oil (FO). Chicks (n = 12/trt) were injected with sheep red blood cells (sRBC) at day 21 and antibody titers were measured by haemagglutination at d 28. On d 22 (n = 4/trt) and 26 (n = 4/trt) concanavalin A (Con A), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated proliferation of splenocytes was assessed by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation. The results show that feeding young chicks a diet containing fish oil (rich in n-3 fatty acids) significantly increased weight gain, antibody production, and had a tendency to decrease splenocyte proliferation in response to mitogens compared to other fat sources.

  1. The effects of a controlled worksite environmental intervention on determinants of dietary behavior and self-reported fruit, vegetable and fat intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin A Paw Marijke

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating patterns in Western industrialized countries are characterized by a high energy intake and an overconsumption of (saturated fat, cholesterol, sugar and salt. Many chronic diseases are associated with unhealthy eating patterns. On the other hand, a healthy diet (low saturated fat intake and high fruit and vegetable intake has been found important in the prevention of health problems, such as cancer and cardio-vascular disease (CVD. The worksite seems an ideal intervention setting to influence dietary behavior. The purpose of this study is to present the effects of a worksite environmental intervention on fruit, vegetable and fat intake and determinants of behavior. Methods A controlled trial that included two different governmental companies (n = 515: one intervention and one control company. Outcome measurements (short-fat list and fruit and vegetable questionnaire took place at baseline and 3 and 12 months after baseline. The relatively modest environmental intervention consisted of product information to facilitate healthier food choices (i.e., the caloric (kcal value of foods in groups of products was translated into the number of minutes to perform a certain (occupational activity to burn these calories. Results Significant changes in psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior were found; subjects at the intervention worksite perceived more social support from their colleagues in eating less fat. But also counter intuitive effects were found: at 12 months the attitude and self-efficacy towards eating less fat became less positive in the intervention group. No effects were found on self-reported fat, fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusion This environmental intervention was modestly effective in changing behavioral determinant towards eating less fat (social support, self-efficacy and attitude, but ineffective in positively changing actual fat, fruit and vegetable intake of office workers.

  2. Effects of dietary fat on virus-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in guinea fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirev, T; Woutersen, R A; Kril, A

    2002-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the effects of diets supplemented with low (5%) and high (20%) corn oil on a Pts 56 retrovirus-induced model of pancreatic carcinogenesis in guinea fowl. The early microscopic lesions appear after 3 mo after virus treatment and progress over time. Eight to 10 mo after initiation, up to 100% of virus-inoculated birds develop multiple hyperplastic and neoplastic pancreatic lesions of duct/ductular phenotype. Short-term (1-4 mo) feeding of low- or high-fat diets, beginning at Month 3, had no significant effects on body and pancreatic weight. However, the incidence, multiplicity, and areas of the pancreatic tissue occupied by intra- and interlobular aggregates of hyperplastic ducts with mucinous metaplasia of the lining cells were significantly increased compared with the birds fed the common diet. At the same time, development of ductular neoplasms, particularly carcinomas, was retarded compared with the common diet-fed controls. Long-term (5-7 mo) fat intake resulted in an increase in body weight gain, while absolute pancreatic weights remained relatively constant. Furthermore, the high- and low-fat diets caused a significant increase in areas of retrovirus-induced pancreatic lesions, as well as an increase in multiplicity of ductular neoplasms compared with short-term fat feeding. It is concluded that short-term feeding of diets supplemented with 5% or 20% corn oil delayed the development of the common virus-induced ductular neoplasms, particularly carcinomas, and had an enhancing effect on development of hyperplastic inter- and intralobular aggregates of ducts. This finding was not observed, however, during the long-term feeding period of the study. PMID:12235656

  3. Dietary Prebiotics, Milk Fat Globule Membrane, and Lactoferrin Affects Structural Neurodevelopment in the Young Piglet

    OpenAIRE

    Mudd, Austin T.; Alexander, Lindsey S.; Berding, Kirsten; Waworuntu, Rosaline V.; Berg, Brian M.; Sharon M. Donovan; Dilger, Ryan N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and lactoferrin have been identified as two components that have potential to affect neurodevelopment. While concentrations of some MFGM constituents in infant formulas are within human milk range, they may not be present at optimal or clinically effective levels. However, lactoferrin levels of infant formulas are consistently reported to be lower than human milk. This study sought to provide a novel combination of prebiotics, bovine-derived MF...

  4. Dietary Prebiotics, Milk Fat Globule Membrane, and Lactoferrin Affects Structural Neurodevelopment in the Young Piglet

    OpenAIRE

    Mudd, Austin T.; Lindsey S. Alexander; Berding, Kirsten; Waworuntu, Rosaline V.; Berg, Brian M.; Sharon M. Donovan; Dilger, Ryan N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and lactoferrin have been identified as two components that have potential to affect neurodevelopment. While concentrations of some MFGM constituents in infant formulas are within human milk range, they may not be present at optimal or clinically effective levels. However, lactoferrin levels of infant formulas are consistently reported to be lower than human milk. This study sought to provide a novel combination of prebiotics, bovine-derived MFGM,...

  5. Effects of dietary fish oil and trans fat on rat aorta histopathology and cardiovascular risk markers

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seonhye; Park, Yongsoon

    2009-01-01

    Fish oil and shortening have been suggested to have opposite effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the effect of shortening and fish oil on CVD risk factors and aorta histopathology, and the association between risk factors and aorta histopathology. Male Wister rats (n=30) were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 20% fat in the form of fish oil, shortening, or soybean oil for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), triacylglyceride (TG), and C-reactive protein levels were signi...

  6. The inhibition of fat cell proliferation by fatty acids in dietary obese mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hensler, Michal; Bardová, Kristina; Macek Jílková, Zuzana; Wahli, W.; Meztger, D.; Chambon, P.; Kopecký, Jan; Flachs, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, - (2011), s. 128. ISSN 1476-511X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/0226; GA ČR(CZ) GD305/08/H037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : DHA and EPA * fish oil * fat cell turnover Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.170, year: 2011

  7. Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Depression: The SUN Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Villegas, A. (Almudena); Verberne, L.; Irala, J. (Jokin) de; Ruiz-Canela, M. (Miguel); Toledo, E.; Serra-Majem, L; Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence relates some nutritional factors to depression risk. However, there is a scarcity of longitudinal assessments on this relationship. Objective: To evaluate the association between fatty acid intake or the use of culinary fats and depression incidence in a Mediterranean population. Material and Methods: Prospective cohort study (1999–2010) of 12,059 Spanish university graduates (mean age: 37.5 years) initially free of depression with permanently open enrolment. ...

  8. Fat Maintenance Is a Predictor of the Murine Lifespan Response to Dietary Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Chen-Yu; Rikke, Brad A.; Johnson, Thomas E; Gelfond, Jonathan A.L.; Diaz, Vivian; Nelson, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR), one of the most robust life-extending manipulations, is usually associated with reduced adiposity. This reduction is hypothesized to be important in the life-extending effect of DR, because excess adiposity is associated with metabolic and age-related disease. Previously, we described remarkable variation in the lifespan response of 41 recombinant inbred strains of mice to DR, ranging from life extension to life shortening. Here, we used this variation to determine t...

  9. Quantifying the Socio-Economic Benefits of Reducing Industrial Dietary Trans Fats: Modelling Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; O’Flaherty, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) remains a leading cause of UK mortality, generating a large and unequal burden of disease. Dietary trans fatty acids (TFA) represent a powerful CHD risk factor, yet to be addressed in the UK (approximately 1% daily energy) as successfully as in other nations. Potential outcomes of such measures, including effects upon health inequalities, have not been well quantified. We modelled the potential effects of specific reductions in TFA intake on CHD mortali...

  10. Fasted Exercise and Increased Dietary Protein Reduces Body Fat and Improves Strength in Jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G; Pritchard, P P; Papageorgiou, C; Phillips, S; Kumar, P; Langan-Evans, C; Routledge, H; Owens, D J; Morton, J P; Close, G L

    2015-11-01

    The present study assessed the effects of a diet and exercise intervention in jockeys on body composition, metabolism, bone and mental health. 10 jockeys followed an individually prescribed 6-wk diet (Carbohydrate=2.5-3.5?g/kg, Protein=2.5?g/kg, Fat=1.0?g/kg). Body mass (59.24.6 vs. 57.64.5?kg), fat mass (7.53.5 vs. 6.22.6) and body fat (13.15.9 vs. 11.54.9%) all decreased (PRMR (1703329 vs. 1975313?kcal.d(-1)), VO2max (3.80.8 vs. 4.10.7?L/min(-?1)) chest strength (6511 vs. 7113?kg), leg strength (16028 vs. 17529?kg) and jumping height (406 vs. 485?cm) significantly increased (P0.05) at hip (-1.041.29 vs. -?0.760.71) or lumbar sites (-1.320.76 vs. -?1.310.77). Psychometrics (GHQ-12 and EAT-26) remained unchanged (10.34.3 vs. 8.93.8 and 14.89.6 vs. 11.05.6, P>0.05, respectively). This approach represents a marked difference from jockeys' habitual weight-making that largely involves dehydration and food deprivation. PMID:26212241

  11. The effectiveness of policies for reducing dietary trans fat: a systematic review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna M Downs

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of policies, including self-regulation, aimed at reducing industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs in food. METHODS: The Medline, Embase and Cinahl databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles examining the effect of TFA policies. In addition, the first 20 pages of Google searches were examined for articles from the grey literature. A study was included if: (i it was empirical and conducted in a "real-world" setting (i.e. modelling studies were excluded; (ii it examined a TFA policy involving, for example, labelling, voluntary limits or bans; and (iii it examined a policy's effect on TFA levels in food, people's diets, blood or breast milk. FINDINGS: Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria: 5 involved voluntary self-regulation; 8, labelling alone; 4, labelling and voluntary limits; 5, local bans and 4, national bans. Overall, the TFA content of food decreased with all types of policy intervention. In general, saturated fat levels increased or decreased, depending on the product type, and total fat content remained stable. National and local bans were most effective at eliminating TFAs from the food supply, whereas mandatory TFA labelling and voluntary TFA limits had a varying degree of success, which largely depended on food category. CONCLUSION: Policies aimed at restricting the TFA content of food were associated with significant reductions in TFA levels, without increasing total fat content. Such policies are feasible, achievable and likely to have an effect on public health.

  12. The association between different kinds of fat intake and breast cancer risk in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Khodarahmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available So far several animal and case-control studies have confirmed this hypothesis that dietary fat increases the risk of breast cancer. However, cohort studies have not shown this relationship. The aim of this study was to review the studies on the relationship between dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk among women. Electronic database PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the key words: Breast cancer, dietary fat, serum estrogen, saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. The evidence of the studies regarding to the association of total and subtypes of fat intake with breast cancer risk are inconsistent. Several studies have shown that, among several types of fat, SFAs and w-3 PUFA intake are associated with an increased and reduced risk of breast cancer, respectively. The relationship between MUFAs intake and breast cancer risk is conflicting. Narrow ranges of fat intake among populations, measurement errors, high correlation between specific types of dietary fat, the confounding variables like body fatness and high-energy intake and other dietary components such as fiber and antioxidants might be probable explanations for these inconsistent results. Although we are not at a stage where we can justifiably advise women to reduce their fat intake to decrease the risk of developing breast cancer, it seems the current guidelines to lower total fat consumption and recommendation to consumption of unsaturated fats such as MUFAs and w-3 fatty acids and also reduction of SFAs (meat and dairy products intake to avoid heart disease is also useful for breast cancer risk.

  13. Trans fatty acids may impair biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturates and growth in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, B

    1992-04-01

    Human diet contains large amounts of trans fatty acids originating primarily from hydrogenated fats. Consumption of trans fatty acids is considered safe for man, but side effects, including impaired biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with 20 and 22 carbon atoms and reduced growth have been observed in animals. We studied whether or not there are indications of untoward effects of trans fatty acids in 29 premature infants (birth weight 1700 +/- 127 g, gestational age 33.6 +/- 1.4 weeks, mean +/- SD). Plasma samples obtained on day 4 of life were analysed for fatty acid composition. Trans octadecenoic acid and total trans fatty acids in plasma lipid fractions (% wt/wt) were not related to the precursor essential fatty acids linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids but correlated inversely to n - 3 and n - 6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and to the product/substrate ratios of long-chain polyunsaturate biosynthesis. Trans fatty acids were also inversely correlated to birth weight but not to gestational age. These data indicate a potential impairment of essential fatty acid metabolism and early growth by trans isomers in man, and question the safety of high dietary trans isomer intakes during pregnancy and the perinatal period. PMID:1606388

  14. THE EGG FUNCTIONAL FOOD.COMPARATIVE STUDY ON VARIOUS NUTRITIONAL SOLUTIONS TO ENRICH THE EGG POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS. II YOLK FATTY ACIDS PROFILE RESULTING FROM THE DIETARY USE OF SAFFLOWER OIL AND FLAX SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTE RODICA. D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in a study on the comparative evaluation of the effect of a diet with safflower oil and flax seeds compared to a control soybean oil diet given to layers on the bioproductive effects, egg characteristics and yolk fatty acids profile. The trial involved 32 Lowman Brown layers during the age period 23- 28 weeks (1 week of accommodation and 4 experimental weeks. The layers, assigned to 2 groups (16 layers/group, 4 layers/cage received diets based on corn, wheat and soybean meal. The diets differed by the source of fatty acids: soybean oil for the control group (SO; safflower oil and flax seeds for SSO+FS. The diets were supplemented with 250 ppm vitamin E. Twelve eggs per group were collected randomly 10 and 30 days, respectively, after the beginning of the experiment. The paper presents comparative data on the: average egg weight, egg component (egg shell, yolk, egg white weight, intensity of yolk colour (Hoffman La Roche colour range, yolk protein, fat yolk pH (measured one week after collection, the eggs being kept at 50C and yolk fatty acids. All data show that the profile of yolk unsaturated fatty acids can be handled quite easily by the nature of the dietary fats, their level of inclusion and their dietary ratio.

  15. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Brewer's Spent Grain Dietary Fiber on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Min-Sung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; n Lee, Soo-Yeo; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork back fat with brewer's spent grain (BSG) pre-emulsion for physicochemical, textural properties, and sensory evaluations of reduced-fat chicken sausages are evaluated. Control was prepared with 15% pork back fat, and three reduced-fat chicken sausages were formulated with the replacement of 20, 25, and 30% pork back fat with BSG pre-emulsion. The pH level of reduced-fat sausages formulated with BSG pre-emulsion is lower than that of the control (p

  16. A Protective Lipidomic Biosignature Associated with a Balanced Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio in fat-1 Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Astarita, Giuseppe; McKenzie, Jennifer H.; wang, Bin; Strassburg, Katrin; Doneanu, Angela; Johnson, Jay; Baker, Andrew; Hankemeier, Thomas; Murphy, James; Vreeken, Rob J.; Langridge, James; Kang, Jing X.

    2014-01-01

    A balanced omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio has been linked to health benefits and the prevention of many chronic diseases. Current dietary intervention studies with different sources of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) lack appropriate control diets and carry many other confounding factors derived from genetic and environmental variability. In our study, we used the fat-1 transgenic mouse model as a proxy for long-term omega-3 supplementation to determine, in a well-contr...

  17. Dietary cocoa reduces metabolic endotoxemia and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan; Park, Jong Yung; Harvatine, Kevin; Lambert, Joshua D

    2014-04-01

    In diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue (AT) is in a chronic state of inflammation predisposing the development of metabolic syndrome. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a polyphenol-rich food with putative anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of cocoa on AT inflammation in high fat-fed mice. In the present study, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high fat diet (HF), a HF diet with 8% (w/w) unsweetened cocoa powder (HFC), or a low-fat diet (LF) for 18 weeks. Cocoa supplementation decreased AT mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 by 40-60% compared to HF group, and this was accompanied by decreased nuclear protein levels of nuclear factor-κB. Cocoa treatment reduced the levels of arachidonic acid in the AT by 33% compared to HF controls. Moreover, cocoa treatment also reduced protein levels of the eicosanoid-generating enzymes, adipose-specific phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 by 53% and 55%, respectively, compared to HF-fed mice. Finally, cocoa treatment ameliorated metabolic endotoxemia (40% reduction in plasma endotoxin) and improved gut barrier function (as measured by increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-2). In conclusion, the present study has shown for the first time that long-term cocoa supplementation can reduce AT inflammation in part by modulating eicosanoid metabolism and metabolic endotoxemia. PMID:24561154

  18. Dietary fat saturation produces lipid modifications in peritoneal macrophages of mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Liliana B; Videla, Andrea M; Ramirez, Darío C; Gimenez, María S

    2003-07-01

    We investigated the effects of a saturated fat diet on mice lipid metabolism in resident peritoneal macrophages. Male C57BL/6 mice were weaned at 21 days of age and assigned to either the experimental diet, containing coconut oil (COCO diet), or the control diet, containing soybean oil as fat source. Fat content of each diet was 15% (w/w). Mice were fed for 6 weeks until sacrifice. In plasma of mice fed the COCO diet, the concentration of triglyceride, total cholesterol, HLD- and (LDL+VLDL)-cholesterol, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) increased, without changes in phospholipid concentration, compared with the controls. In macrophages of COCO-fed mice, the concentration of total (TC), free and esterified cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid (P) and TBARS increased, while the TC/P ratio did not change. The phospholipid compositions showed an increase of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine + phosphadytilinositol, a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine, and no change in phosphatidylglycerol. (3)H(2)O incorporation into triglyceride and phospholipid fractions of macrophages increased, while its incorporation into free cholesterol decreased. Incorporation of [(3)H]cholesterol into macrophages of COCO-fed mice and the fraction of [(3)H]cholesterol ester increased. COCO diet produced an increase in myrystic, palmitic and palmitoleic acids proportion, a decrease in linoleic and arachidonic acids and no changes in stearic and oleic acids, compared with the control. Also, a higher relative percentage of saturated fatty acid and a decrease in unsaturation index (p COCO-fed mice. These results indicate that the COCO-diet, high in saturated fatty acids, alters the lipid metabolism and fatty acid composition of macrophages and produces a significant degree of oxidative stress. PMID:12915217

  19. The intake of saturated fat and dietary fibre: a possible indicator of diet quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Fagt, Sisse; Groth, Margit Velsing; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Wachmann, H.C.; Christensen, Tue

    2008-01-01

    than intermediates and non-compliers, as the diet of compliers contained more whole-grain cereals, fruits, vegetables and fish, and more frequently low-fat dairy products, lean meats and boiled potatoes. The diet of all subgroups, especially non-compliers, had a high content of nutrient-poor, energy......-dense foods, for example, salty snacks, confectionery, and beverages, for example, soft drinks and alcohol. The SDQI is a simple and useful tool to characterise the diet quality of Danish adults....

  20. A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, E E; Garfield, S; Hoffman, D R; Uauy, R; Birch, D G

    2000-03-01

    The effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supply during infancy on later cognitive development of healthy term infants were evaluated in a randomized clinical trial of infant formula milk supplemented with 0.35% DHA or with 0.36% DHA and 0.72% arachidonic acid (AA), or control formula which provided no DHA or AA. Fifty-six 18-month-old children (26 male, 30 female) who were enrolled in the trial within the first 5 days of life and fed the assigned diet to 17 weeks of age were tested using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) (Bayley 1993) at the Retina Foundation of the Southwest, Dallas, TX. These children had also been assessed at 4 months and 12 months of age for blood fatty-acid composition, sweep visual evoked potential (VEP) acuity, and forced-choice preferential looking (FPL) acuity (Birch et al. 1998). Supplementation of infant formula with DHA+AA was associated with a mean increase of 7 points on the Mental Development Index (MDI) of the BSID-II. Both the cognitive and motor subscales of the MDI showed a significant developmental age advantage for DHA- and DHA+AA-supplemented groups over the control group. While a similar trend was found for the language subscale, it did not reach statistical significance. Neither the Psychomotor Development Index nor the Behavior Rating Scale of the BSID-II showed significant differences among diet groups, consistent with a specific advantage of DHA supplementation on mental development. Significant correlations between plasma and RBC-DHA at 4 months of age but not at 12 months of age and MDI at 18 months of age suggest that early dietary supply of DHA was a major dietary determinant of improved performance on the MDI. PMID:10755457

  1. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase variants associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease interact with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids to modulate plasma homocysteine in puerto rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Tucker, Katherine L; Lee, Yu-Chi; Crott, Jimmy W; Parnell, Laurence D; Shen, Jian; Smith, Caren E; Ordovas, Jose M; Li, Duo; Lai, Chao-Qiang

    2011-04-01

    Although methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genetic variants are associated with plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), little is known whether dietary fatty acid intake modulates these associations. The goal was to examine the interaction of MTHFR variants with dietary fatty acids influencing plasma Hcy in 995 Boston Puerto Rican adults. We found that plasma Hcy concentration was negatively correlated with (n-3) PUFA intake (r = -0.117; P = 0.022), and the ratio of (n-3):(n-6) PUFA in the diet (r = -0.122; P = 0.009). Further, 2 functional MTHFR variants, 1298A>C and 677C>T, which are not in linkage disequilibrium in this population, were significantly associated with hypertension (OR = 1.72, P = 0.024, and OR = 1.60, P = 0.002, respectively). In addition, the 1298A>C variant was significantly associated with CVD (OR = 3.32; P = 0.030). Importantly, this variant exhibited significant interactions with intakes of total and (n-6) PUFA and the (n-3):(n-6) PUFA ratio of the diet. The plasma Hcy concentration of carriers of risk allele 1298C was greater than that of noncarriers only when participants had consumed a high-PUFA diet (>7.8% energy) but was not greater when they had low intake of PUFA (?7.8% energy). In addition, participants with combined genotypes of both SNP (677 TT with 1298 AC or CC) who consumed high levels of (n-3) PUFA (>0.66% energy) had lower plasma Hcy compared with those who had the same genotype and consumed low levels of (n-3) PUFA (?0.66% energy). Our study suggests that dietary PUFA intake modulates the effect of 2 MTHFR variants on plasma Hcy in Boston Puerto Rican adults. PMID:21270364

  2. [Nutritive physiological effect of dietary fats in growing swine rations. 3. Effect of sunflower and coconut kernels on protein and fat retention, backfat fatty acid pattern and various blood parameters in piglets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berschauer, F; Ehrensvrd, U; Menke, K H

    1983-12-01

    Two groups, each of 9 castrated male piglets of the German Landrace breed, body weight 13-29 kg, were fed ad libitum for a 5 week period in order to determine the influence of the fatty acid composition of the dietary fat on protein and fat retention. The concentrations of urea, insulin, glucose, free glycerol and triglycerides were also determined. That fat in ration I (derived from 27% sunflower seed) contained 50% linoleic acid while that of ration II (derived from 12,5% coconut kernels) had a maximum lauric acid content of 41,8%. The relationship between digestible crude protein and ME-content was calculated to be similar in both rations. In addition protein quality was calculated to be similar in both rations. Protein deposition was determined from both nitrogen and comparative slaughter procedures. The results can be summarized as follows: The animals fed ration I had a higher daily ME-intake and growth rate than those fed ration II, although no great difference was observed in ME required per kg body weight gain. The efficiency of protein utilization was significantly better in group I and this was associated with a lower blood urea concentration. The concentrations of insulin and glucose in the blood, measured before as well as 20, 45, 60 and 120 minutes following feeding, showed little differences between the groups. The triglyceride concentration measured before and 1 and 5 hours following feeding was significantly higher (p less than 0,01) in group II. There was no significant difference in the protein and fat content of the body as well as in the daily protein and fat deposition. The fatty acid composition of the back fat was significantly influenced by the fatty acid pattern of the dietary fat. In group I the linoleic acid content was 3,6 times higher and the lauric- and myristic acid content 11,7 times lower compared to that of group II. PMID:6370196

  3. The questionable role of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnskov, U

    1998-06-01

    A fat diet, rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), is said to be an important cause of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The evidence for this hypothesis was sought by reviewing studies of the direct link between dietary fats and atherosclerotic vascular disease in human beings. The review included ecological, dynamic population, cross-sectional, cohort, and case-control studies, as well as controlled, randomized trials of the effect of fat reduction alone. The positive ecological correlations between national intakes of total fat (TF) and SFA and cardiovascular mortality found in earlier studies were absent or negative in the larger, more recent studies. Secular trends of national fat consumption and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) in 18-35 countries (four studies) during different time periods diverged from each other as often as they coincided. In cross-sectional studies of CHD and atherosclerosis, one group of studies (Bantu people vs. Caucasians) were supportive; six groups of studies (West Indians vs. Americans, Japanese, and Japanese migrants vs. Americans, Yemenite Jews vs. Yemenite migrants; Seminole and Pima Indians vs. Americans, Seven Countries) gave partly supportive, partly contradictive results; in seven groups of studies (Navajo Indians vs. Americans; pure vegetarians vs. lacto-ovo-vegetarians and non-vegetarians, Masai people vs. Americans, Asiatic Indians vs. non-Indians, north vs. south Indians, Indian migrants vs. British residents, Geographic Study of Atherosclerosis) the findings were contradictory. Among 21 cohort studies of CHD including 28 cohorts, CHD patients had eaten significantly more SFA in three cohorts and significantly less in one cohort than had CHD-free individuals; in 22 cohorts no significant difference was noted. In three cohorts, CHD patients had eaten significantly more PUFA, in 24 cohorts no significant difference was noted. In three of four cohort studies of atherosclerosis, the vascular changes were unassociated with SFA or PUFA; in one study they were inversely related to TF. No significant differences in fat intake were noted in six case-control studies of CVD patients and CVD-free controls; and neither total or CHD mortality were lowered in a meta-analysis of nine controlled, randomized dietary trials with substantial reductions of dietary fats, in six trials combined with addition of PUFA. The harmful effect of dietary SFA and the protective effect of dietary PUFA on atherosclerosis and CVD are questioned. PMID:9635993

  4. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium could improve performance, antibody response, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed on diets containing oxidized fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laika, M; Jahanian, R

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of organic selenium (Se) on performance, egg quality indices, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed diets with different fat sources. A total of 270 Hy-line W-36 Leghorn hens of 47 weeks of age were randomly distributed into the 5 replicate cages of 9 dietary treatments. Experimental diets consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three different fat sources (soybean oil, SO; yellow grease, YG; and palm fat powder, PFP) and three different levels of supplemental Se (0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg of diet) as supplied by zinc-L-selenomethionine (ZnSeMet) complex, which fed during a 77-day feeding trial including 7 days for adaptation and 70 days as the main recording period. Results showed that the highest (P hens fed on SO-supplemented diets. Hen-day egg production was affected by both dietary fat source (P hens fed on YG-diets. The highest concentration of yolk malondialdehyde was observed in YG-fed groups, and ZnSeMet supplementation of diets decreased (P hens fed on diets supplemented by YG, followed by those on SO-diets. Although different fat sources had no effect on antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus, supplemental ZnSeMet improved (P performance parameters and egg oxidative stability in laying hens, with the highest impact in diets containing oxidized (high peroxide values) fat sources. PMID:25653003

  5. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders D; Ludvig, Stine E; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Pulkkinen, Pasi; Finnil, Mikko; Mu, Huiling; Thymann, Thomas; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mlgaard, Christian; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-09-01

    Long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCPUFA) and palmitate (16:0) positioning in the triacylglycerol (TAG) of infant formula may affect calcium-uptake which could affect bone health. We investigated if a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) with a modified TAG structure holding 16:0 predominantly in the sn-2-position compared with a control (CONT) and if increasing n-3LCPUFA intake giving fish oil (FO) compared with sunflower oil (SO) would affect bone parameters in piglets in two sets of controlled 14d-interventions (n=12/group). We assessed this by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical strength. Bone mineral content (BMC) was higher in the FO compared to the SO-group (p=0.03). Despite similar weight gain in HMFS- and CONT-groups, body fat accumulation was higher with HMFS (p<0.001), and BMC, bone area (BA) and cortical BA in femur were lower (p=0.002, p=0.005, and p=0.02, respectively), indicating importance of both n-3LCPUFA and 16:0 TAG-positioning in infant formulas. PMID:23867727

  6. Diet heart controversies--Quality of fat matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, U; Uusitupa, M

    2015-07-01

    There has been a lot a debate recently regarding the effect of the quality of dietary fat on the risk of atherosclerotic vascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease (CHD). Long term randomized controlled interventions are almost lacking and the body of evidence is based on epidemiological data which allows conclusions only regarding associations, instead of effects. However, a recent systematic review, which included prospective cohort studies with high or moderate quality, showed convincing evidence on the favorable effect of partially replacing saturated fatty acids by polyunsaturated fatty acids on the risk of CHD. For some reason it seems tempting even in the scientific discussion to question the evidence of the quality of dietary fat on the risk of CHD every time when a controversial scientific article is published. PMID:25921848

  7. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb Turcz on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengkai Zhai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild rice (WR is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

  8. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 66 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and C16:0 yield. Dietary linoleic acid content also had a positive coefficient for milk trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid yield. These results demonstrate that even when total dietary FA are below 3%, free oils rich in linoleic acid can reduce milk fat yield by reducing secretion of milk FA with fewer than 18 carbons. Fatty acid composition of fat supplements is important even at this low level of total dietary fat. PMID:25468700

  9. Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Katalin Fekete; Tams Decsi

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of children with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) is mainly based on restricted dietary intake of protein-containing foods. However, dietary protein restriction may not only reduce amino acid intake, but may be associated with low intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well. This review focuses on the consequences of dietary restriction in IEM on the bioavailability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and on the attempts to ameliorate these consequences. We we...

  10. The Danish fat tax - effects on consumption patterns and risk of ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Malene; Pisinger, Charlotta; Toft, Ulla; Jørgensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects on consumption and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) of the Danish fat tax, effective from October 2011 to January 2013. Methods: We used comprehensive retail outlet data on the sale of twelve foodstuff categories targeted by the fat tax. Data covered January...... 2010 to July 2013. IHD risk was assessed by modelling first the effect of changes in intake of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fat and dietary cholesterol on serum cholesterol and subsequently modelling the resulting changes in risk of IHD using two different methods. Results: The total...... sale of the included foodstuffs decreased by 0.9%. The fat tax was associated with marginal changes in population risk of IHD. One estimate suggests an increased population risk of IHD by 0.2% and the other estimate suggests that the risk of IHD decreased by 0.3%. Conclusions: The Danish fat tax had a...

  11. High dietary intake of saturated fat is associated with reduced semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Heitmann, Berit L; Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Lauritsen, Mette Petri; Christiansen, Peter; Dalgård, Christine; Lassen, Tina H; Jørgensen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    dietary fat intake and semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, men were recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service from 2008 to 2010. They delivered a semen sample, underwent a physical examination...... did men in the lowest quartile. No association between semen quality and intake of other types of fat was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are of potentially great public interest, because changes in diet over the past decades may be part of the explanation for the recently reported high frequency of...

  12. Effects of Dietary Plant Sterols and Stanol Esters with Low- and High-Fat Diets in Chronic and Acute Models for Experimental Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Te Velde, Anje A.; Florence Brüll; Heinsbroek, Sigrid E M; Sybren L Meijer; Dieter Lütjohann; Anita Vreugdenhil; Jogchum Plat

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary plant sterols and stanols as their fatty acid esters on the development of experimental colitis. The effects were studied both in high- and low-fat diet conditions in two models, one acute and another chronic model of experimental colitis that resembles gene expression in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the first experiments in the high fat diet (HFD), we did not observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols and stan...

  13. Importncia da gordura alimentar na preveno e no controle de distrbios metablicos e da doena cardiovascular / Importance of the dietary fat on the prevention and control of metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Maria Pita, Lottenberg.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A Organizao Mundial da Sade (OMS) reiterou recentemente que o consumo de dietas inadequadas e a inatividade fsica esto entre os dez principais fatores de mortalidade. Diversos ensaios aleatorizados demonstram que intervenes alimentares adequadas podem diminuir ou prevenir significativamente o [...] aparecimento de vrias doenas crnicas no transmissveis. Neste contexto, o papel da dieta vem sendo exaustivamente avaliado em estudos clnicos e epidemiolgicos. Assim, j foi bem estabelecido na literatura que a quantidade e o tipo de gordura alimentar exercem influncia direta sobre fatores de risco cardiovascular, tais como a concentrao de lpides e de lipoprotenas plasmticas, bem como sua associao a processos inflamatrios. Os cidos graxos participam de complexos sistemas de sinalizao intracelular, funo que vem sendo bastante explorada. Os cidos graxos poli-insaturados no somente influenciam a composio das membranas, metabolismo celular e sinais de traduo, mas tambm modulam a expresso de genes, regulando a atividade e a produo de diversos fatores de transcrio. A proposta deste artigo rever tpicos relevantes referentes ao metabolismo de lpides e os relacionar a terapias nutricionais que possam contribuir para a preveno e o tratamento de doenas associadas. Abstract in english The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently reinforced the fact that inadequate diets, along with physical inactivity, are among the ten main determinant factors of mortality. Several randomized trials demonstrated that dietary interventions may lower or even prevent the occurrence of several n [...] on-communicable diseases. In this context, the role of diet has been exhaustively evaluated in several clinical and epidemiological studies. Thus, it is well established in literature that the amount and type of dietary fat have a direct influence on cardiovascular risk factors, such as lipids and plasma lipoprotein concentration, as well as their association with inflammatory processes. Fatty acids also participate in complex intracellular signaling systems, a function which has been currently investigated. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) act not only by altering membrane lipid composition, cellular metabolism and signal transduction, but also modulating gene expression by regulating the activity and/or production of different nuclear transcription factors. The aim of this article is to review important topics regarding the lipids metabolism and correlate them with nutritional therapies that may contribute to the prevention and treatment of related diseases.

  14. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Bascuñán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

  15. Dietary fats rich in saturated fatty acids (12:0, 14:0, and 16:0) enhance gallstone formation relative to monounsaturated fat (18:1) in cholesterol-fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, S S; Trautwein, E A; Hayes, K C

    1995-05-01

    To test the possibility that dietary palmitic acid (16:0) may be lithogenic, different fats were blended to exchange 18:1 in olive oil with either 16:0 in palm stearin, 12:0 + 14:0 in coconut oil, or 14:0 + 16:0 in butterfat. Dietary 18:2 was held constant at 1.2% energy (en) (with extra safflower oil as needed) in these four purified diets containing low fat (11% of total energy) and 0.4% cholesterol. A fifth, high-fat diet provided 40% of the total energy as the 16:0-rich blend. All hamsters fed the low-fat 16:0-rich blend for six weeks developed cholesterol gallstones (8/8). Although the gallstone incidence was lower for the 12:0 + 14:0-rich diet (5/8), the severity of stone formation in affected hamsters was equal to that in the low-fat, 16:0-rich group. Mucin accumulation in gallbladder bile was often associated with cholesterol gallstones in diets containing 16:0, but was minimal in 18:1-rich and 12:0 + 14:0-rich groups. Neither the lithogenic index (all > 1.0), plasma lipids, nor liver cholesterol was a selective predictor of stone formation. The high-fat, 16:0-rich diet actually decreased cholesterol stone incidence (3/8) and severity, but yielded a high incidence of pigment stones (5/8). Thus, saturated fat and 16:0 per se were not responsible for the exaggerated lithogenesis. Because the antilithogenic 18:1-rich diet also normalized the 18:2 intake (1.2% en) relative to previous butter diets (0.3% en), the potential importance of essential fatty acids (EFA) deficiency in the model was tested in a second study by feeding graded amounts of 18:2 (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2% en) as safflower oil in four low-fat, butter-rich diets (11% en as fat) without alleviating gallstone incidence or severity. These studies indicate that substitution of 18:1 for saturated fatty acids in low-fat diets reduces gallstone formation without affecting the lithogenic index. Furthermore, intake of 18:2 at or below the EFA requirement does not appear to be a major factor in this model. PMID:7637561

  16. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeninck Elizabeth A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Methods/Design Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2 will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-?, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF, IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. Discussion While clinical data indicate that excess weight for height is associated with poor prognosis for long term survival, little attention is paid to weight control in the clinical management of breast cancer. This study will provide information that can be used to answer important patient questions about the effects of dietary pattern and magnitude of weight loss on long term survival following breast cancer treatment. Clinical Trial Registration CA125243

  17. Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine; Haldorssoni, Thorhallur; Riserus, Ulf; Uusitupa, Matti; Becker, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for...... these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering...... of cancer was inconclusive regarding both the amount and quality of dietary fat, except for prostate cancer where there was limited-suggestive evidence for an inverse association with intake of ALA and for ovarian cancer for which there was limited-suggestive evidence for a positive association with...

  18. Twenty-Four Hour Total and Dietary Fat Oxidation in Lean, Obese and Reduced-Obese Adults with and without a Bout of Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Kealey, Elizabeth H.; Schmidt, Stacy L.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Bessesen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept. Objective To determine (1) whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2) whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations. Design We measured 24-hr total (w...

  19. The interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp in modulating lifespan and reproduction in a Tephritid fruit fly

    OpenAIRE

    Liedo, Pablo; Carey, James R.; Ingram, Donald K.; Zou, Sige

    2012-01-01

    Macronutrient balance is a critical contributor in modulating lifespan and health. Consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables provides numerous health benefits. The interactions among macronutrients and botanicals and how they influence aging and health remain elusive. Here we employed a nutritional geometry approach to investigate the interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and antioxidant- and polyphenolic-rich freeze-dried açai pulp in modulating lifespan and reproductive outpu...

  20. The effect of a moderate zinc deficiency and dietary fat source on the activity and expression of the ?(3)? (2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase in the liver of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, Jennifer; Weigand, Edgar

    2014-06-01

    Auxiliary enzymes participate in ?-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of a moderate zinc deficiency and a high intake of polyunsaturated fat on ?(3)?(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase (ECI) in the liver and other tissues. Five groups of eight weanling rats each were fed moderately zinc-deficient (ZD) or zinc-adequate (ZA) semisynthetic diets (7 or 50mg Zn/kg) enriched with 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SO) for 4weeks: (1) ZD-CB, fed free choice; (2) ZA-CBR, ZA-CB diet fed in equivalent amounts consumed by the ZD-CB group; (3) ZD-SO, fed free choice; (4) ZA-SOR, ZA-SO diet fed in equivalent amounts consumed by the ZD-SO group; and (5) ZA-SO, fed free choice. Growth and Zn status markers were markedly reduced in the ZD groups. ECI activity in the liver of the animals fed the ZD- and ZA-SO diets were significantly higher (approximately 2- and 3-fold, respectively) as compared with the CB-fed animals, whereas activities in extrahepatic tissues (kidneys, heart, skeletal muscle, testes, adipose tissue) were not altered by dietary treatments. Transcript levels of the mitochondrial Eci gene in the liver did not significantly differ between ZD and ZA rats, but were 1.6-fold higher in the ZA-SO- than in the ZD-CB-fed animals (P?safflower oil as a source high in linoleic acid induce markedly increased hepatic ECI activities and that a moderate Zn deficiency does not affect transcription of the mitochondrial Eci gene in the liver. PMID:24682920

  1. An Investigation into the Association between DNA Damage and Dietary Fatty Acid in Men with Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Bishop

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a growing problem in New Zealand and worldwide, as populations adopt a Western style dietary pattern. In particular, dietary fat is believed to be associated with oxidative stress, which in turn may be associated with cancer risk and development. In addition, DNA damage is associated with the risk of various cancers, and is regarded as an ideal biomarker for the assessment of the influence of foods on cancer. In the study presented here, 20 men with prostate cancer adhered to a modified Mediterranean style diet for three months. Dietary records, blood fatty acid levels, prostate specific antigen, C-reactive protein and DNA damage were assessed pre- and post-intervention. DNA damage was inversely correlated with dietary adherence (p = 0.013 and whole blood monounsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.009 and oleic acid (p = 0.020. DNA damage was positively correlated with the intake of dairy products (p = 0.043, red meat (p = 0.007 and whole blood omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.015. Both the source and type of dietary fat changed significantly over the course of the dietary intervention. Levels of DNA damage were correlated with various dietary fat sources and types of dietary fat.

  2. Fat deposition and flesh quality in seawater reared, triploid brown trout (Salmo trutta) as affected by dietary fat levels and starvation

    OpenAIRE

    Regost, Christelle; Arzel, Jacqueline; Cardinal, Mireille; Laroche, M; Kaushik, Sadasivam

    2001-01-01

    Three isoproteic (crude protein content: 56%) diets with different fat levels (11%, 20%, and 26%) were fed to triplicate groups of triploid brown trout (initial average body weight of 1.5 kg), reared in seawater. At the end of 3 months of feeding, fish fed the high-fat (HF) diet were split into two groups: a triplicate group of fish received the low-fat diet and another triplicate group was kept unfed for a further 2-month period. Fish initially fed the low-fat diet during the first period we...

  3. The Association of the Dietary Fat and Functional Ovarian Cysts in Women of Reproductive Age Referring to Three Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazoli, Mahin; Fazeli, Elham; Dadgar, Salameh; Nematy, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Functional ovarian cysts (FOC) are one of the most common gynecological problems among women of reproductive age. Some studies have shown that diet may affect the function of the ovaries, so this study was performed to determine the association between the amount of dietary fat and functional ovarian cysts. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 264 female patients (132 with cyst in the case group and 132 in the control group) aged 13 to 49. The case group had ovarian cyst with a size of less than 8 cm and the control group didn’t have any ovarian cyst. Data were collected by questionnaires including a demographic questionnaire, and medical and midwifery characteristics questionnaire; the amount of fat in the diet was measured using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Data were analyzed using SPSS software. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean of fat consumption in the case group was 119.84±103.09g and in the control group it was 109.90±54.66g. The result of data analysis showed that there was no statistically significant relationship between the amount of fat in the diet and FOC in confidence level of 95% (P=0.056). Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, the amount of fat consumption was higher in women with ovarian cysts; however, this difference was not statistically significant. In this regard, it is recommended that women of reproductive age should reduce their fat intake.

  4. Effect of Dietary Supplementation by Irradiated Full-Fat Rapeseed on Biochemical Changes in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplementation of 230 gk1 of raw and irradiated full-fat rapeseed at 20 kGy in the food of male albino rats for ten weeks of age, caused significantly lower total plasma protein concentration as compared with those fed control diet, heated seeds and seeds irradiated at 50 and 70 kGy diets. On the other hand, the highest total plasma protein value was obtained from the control group flowed in descending order by heated and seeds irradiated at 70 kGy, and 50 kGy. Plasma albumin decreased significantly in rats fed either raw or rapeseed irradiated at 20 and 50 kGy as compared with rats fed control diet, heated or irradiated rapeseed at 70 kGy diets. The same result was observed with plasma globulin and A/G ratio. Supplementing the diet of rats with raw and irradiated rapeseed at 20 and 50 kGy caused significantly higher plasma transaminases activities (GOT and GPT) as compared with those fed control diet, heated or rapeseed irradiated at 70 kGy. However, rats fed raw and rapeseed irradiated at 20 kGy caused a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase as compared with those fed control diet, heated or irradiated seeds at 50 or 70 kGy diets. Moreover, there was no significant discrepancy between groups fed heated seed and seeds irradiated at 50 or 70 kGy as compared with those fed control diets. Level of plasma creatinine was significantly higher in groups of rats fed row and irradiated seeds at 20 kGy as compared with those fed heat processed and irradiated seeds at 50 kGy and 70 kGy and control diets. The results confirm that the applied radiation doses are insufficient enough to bring a complete detoxification of processed seeds. Increasing the applied radiation doses might be be beneficial in this respect

  5. Effects of Dietary Plant Sterols and Stanol Esters with Low- and High-Fat Diets in Chronic and Acute Models for Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Velde, Anje A; Brüll, Florence; Heinsbroek, Sigrid E M; Meijer, Sybren L; Lütjohann, Dieter; Vreugdenhil, Anita; Plat, Jogchum

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary plant sterols and stanols as their fatty acid esters on the development of experimental colitis. The effects were studied both in high- and low-fat diet conditions in two models, one acute and another chronic model of experimental colitis that resembles gene expression in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the first experiments in the high fat diet (HFD), we did not observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols and stanols on the development of acute dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) colitis. In the chronic CD4CD45RB T cell transfer colitis model, we mainly observed an effect of the presence of high fat on the development of colitis. In this HFD condition, the presence of plant sterol or stanol did not result in any additional effect. In the second experiments with low fat, we could clearly observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols on colitis parameters in the T cell transfer model, but not in the DSS model. This positive effect was related to the gender of the mice and on Treg presence in the colon. This suggests that especially dietary plant sterol esters may improve intestinal inflammation in a T cell dependent manner. PMID:26501315

  6. Effects of Dietary Plant Sterols and Stanol Esters with Low- and High-Fat Diets in Chronic and Acute Models for Experimental Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anje A. te Velde

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary plant sterols and stanols as their fatty acid esters on the development of experimental colitis. The effects were studied both in high- and low-fat diet conditions in two models, one acute and another chronic model of experimental colitis that resembles gene expression in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. In the first experiments in the high fat diet (HFD, we did not observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols and stanols on the development of acute dextran sulphate sodium (DSS colitis. In the chronic CD4CD45RB T cell transfer colitis model, we mainly observed an effect of the presence of high fat on the development of colitis. In this HFD condition, the presence of plant sterol or stanol did not result in any additional effect. In the second experiments with low fat, we could clearly observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols on colitis parameters in the T cell transfer model, but not in the DSS model. This positive effect was related to the gender of the mice and on Treg presence in the colon. This suggests that especially dietary plant sterol esters may improve intestinal inflammation in a T cell dependent manner.

  7. A variant in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and variants near the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) do not influence dietary intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann L; Angquist, Lars; Christiansen, Lene; Heitmann, Berit L; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2010-01-01

    associations with intake of energy from whole grains (P >or= 0.04). These associations did not remain significant after controlling for multiple testing. The outcome of this study indicates that polymorphisms in the FTO gene and near the MC4R gene do not have a role in regulating food intake and preference for......We investigated the role of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) and variants near the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) in modulating habitual intake of total energy and macronutrients, glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary energy density, and energy from 20 food groups in adults. In...... a population-based sample of 756 healthy adult twin pairs, we studied associations between FTO rs9939609, near-MC4R rs12970134, rs17700633, and rs17782313 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and habitual dietary intake. Habitual dietary intake was assessed by a 247-question FFQ. Nontransformed...

  8. Effectiveness and tolerability of dietary supplementation with a combination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants in the treatment of dry eye symptoms: results of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleñik A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrea OleñikOn behalf of the Dry Eye Clinical Study Group (DECSGOphthalmology Department, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, SpainBackground: We assessed the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement based on the combination of omega-3 essential fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye-related symptoms.Methods: A total of 905 patients (72% women, median age 60 years with dry eye syndrome and using artificial tears to relieve symptoms participated in an open-label prospective intervention study. They were recruited during a routine ophthalmological appointment. Patients were instructed to take three capsules/day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudysec® 1.5 g for 12 weeks. Dry eye symptoms (categorized as 0, none; 1, mild; 2, moderate; and 3, severe included scratchy and stinging sensation in the eyes, eye redness, grittiness, painful eyes, tired eyes, grating sensation, and blurry vision.Results: The mean intensity of dry eye symptoms varied from 1.1 (± standard deviation [SD] 0.9 for painful eyes to 2.0 (0.9 for grittiness, with a mean value of 11.9 (4.8 for all symptoms together. At week 12, all individual symptoms improved significantly (P<0.001. The mean value for all symptoms together decreased from a mean value of 11.9 (± SD 4.8 at baseline to 6.8 (± SD 4.5 after 12 weeks of treatment (P<0.001. There was a decrease in the percentage of patients in which dry eye symptoms predominated nearly all the time (53.5% versus 34.1%. A total of 68.1% of patients reported better tolerance to contact lenses after treatment. The mean number of daily instillations of artificial tears also decreased significantly (3.8 [± SD 1.6] versus 3.3 [± SD 1.6], P<0.001. A total of 634 patients (70.1% did not report any adverse events. In the remaining patients with adverse events, the most frequent was fish-tasting regurgitation in 13.5% of cases, followed by nausea in 4.9%, diarrhea in 1.3%, and vomiting in 0.3%.Conclusion: Dietary supplementation with a combination of omega-3 essential fatty acids and antioxidants was an effective treatment for dry eye.Keywords: antioxidants, Brudysec 1.5 g, dry eye symptoms, nutraceutics, omega-3, polyunsaturated fatty acids

  9. Reducing dietary fat from a meal increases the bioavailability of exogenous carbohydrate without altering plasma glucose concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Knuth, Nicolas D.; Shrivastava, Cara R.; Horowitz, Jeffrey F.

    2008-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine the acute glycemic and endocrine responses to the reduction of fat content from a meal. On three separate occasions, nine overweight subjects (body mass index = 30 1 kg/m2; 5 men, 4 women) consumed 1) a control meal (?800 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 31 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), 2) a low-fat meal (?530 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 1 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), or 3) a low-fat meal plus lipid infusion [same meal as low-fat meal, but t...

  10. Breed and dietary linseed affect gene expression of enzymes and transcription factors involved in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesis in longissimus thoracis muscle of bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruffat, D; Cherfaoui, M; Bonnet, M; Thomas, A; Bauchart, D; Durand, D

    2013-07-01

    N-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA are known to be beneficial for human development and health. These properties explain the increasing interest in promoting n-3 LC PUFA deposition in bovine muscles, leading to healthier meats. In this context, this study aimed to identify possible limiting steps in the bioconversion of 18:3n-3 into n-3 LC PUFA in the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of 36 Aberdeen Angus, Limousin, and Blond d'Aquitaine bulls (n = 12 per breed) that were fed, for the 105-d finishing period, either a concentrate-based diet (25% molasses straw to 75% concentrate, on a raw basis; CON) or the same CON diet supplemented with extruded linseed (44.5 g lipid/kg diet DM) mixed into the concentrate (LINS). The fatty acid (FA) composition of the LT muscle was determined by GLC, and the mRNA abundances for enzymes and transcription factors involved in n-3 LC PUFA synthesis were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The total lipid concentration in the LT muscle was approximately 2.4-fold greater (P Angus bulls than in the other breeds and composed of the greatest n-3 PUFA content (P Angus bulls compared with gene expression in Limousin bulls. Moreover, the mRNA of elongase 5 was only present in trace amounts in the LT muscle of the 3 breeds. The addition of linseed to the diet resulted in greater deposition of 18:3n-3 (P 0.34) in the n-3 LC PUFA content. Dietary linseed stimulated (P 0.19), the expression of which remained weak and was not inducible. These results reveal a limited capacity for n-3 LC PUFA synthesis from 18:4n-3 (substrate of elongase 5) in the LT muscles of Blond d'Aquitaine, Limousin, and Angus bulls. Therefore, further investigations on the cellular regulation of elongase gene expression are needed to identify the physiological or nutritional factors that efficiently stimulate elongase expression in beef cattle. PMID:23798513

  11. Associations of Bone Mineral Density with Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Dietary Patterns in Postmenopausal Chinese Women: A 2-Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongjie; Xiang, Jing; Wang, Zhiqiang; Xiao, Yaming; Zhang, Dongmei; Chen, Xia; Li, Huiting

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in a longitudinal study, and to examine the relative contribution of lean mass, fat mass, dietary patterns, and years since menopause to BMD. Methods Two hundred and eighty-two postmenopausal women were randomly selected from Hongqi Community Health Center, in Harbin City, China. All participants were followed up from 2009 to 2011. Dietary data were collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMD of the left hip, the lumbar spine, and the total body, and the body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up. Results Lean mass and fat mass were positively associated with BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body at both baseline and follow-up. The association between fat mass and BMD at the spine at baseline (P = 0.210) and at the spine (P = 0.116) and hip (P = 0.073) in the second year was not statistically significant when height was adjusted. Six dietary patterns were identified but only cereal grains-fruits pattern (P = 0.001 in the spine, P = 0.037 in hip) and milk-root vegetables pattern (P = 0.010 in hip) were associated with BMD of the spine and hip. The linear mixed model of follow-up data showed that lean mass, years since menopause, and age of menophania were the significant determinants of BMD of all sites. Moreover, lean mass was the best determinant of BMD (VIP = 1.936). Conclusion Lean mass, years since menopause, age of menophania and dietary patterns are the important determinants of BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body. Lean mass is the best determinant of BMD. PMID:26335921

  12. Effect of high-fat diets on body composition, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and the role of exercise on these parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Coelho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fat composition can interfere in the development of obesity due to the specific roles of some fatty acids that have different metabolic activities, which can alter both fat oxidation and deposition rates, resulting in changes in body weight and/or composition. High-fat diets in general are associated with hyperphagia, but the type of dietary fat seems to be more important since saturated fats are linked to a positive fat balance and omental adipose tissue accumulation when compared to other types of fat, while polyunsaturated fats, omega-3 and omega-6, seem to increase energy expenditure and decrease energy intake by specific mechanisms involving hormone-sensitive lipase, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα and others. Saturated fat intake can also impair insulin sensitivity compared to omega-3 fat, which has the opposite effect due to alterations in cell membranes. Obesity is also associated with impaired mitochondrial function. Fat excess favors the production of malonyl-CoA, which reduces GLUT4 efficiency. The tricarboxylic acid cycle and beta-oxidation are temporarily uncoupled, forming metabolite byproducts that augment reactive oxygen species production. Exercise can restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity, which may be crucial for a better prognosis in treating or preventing obesity.

  13. High-Fat Diet Reduces the Formation of Butyrate, but Increases Succinate, Inflammation, Liver Fat and Cholesterol in Rats, while Dietary Fibre Counteracts These Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Xu, Jie; Molin, Göran; Ahrné, Siv; Nyman, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation...

  14. Extrinsic and intrinsic regulation of DOR/TP53INP2 expression in mice: effects of dietary fat content, tissue type and sex in adipose and muscle tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fromm-Dornieden Carolin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DOR/TP53INP2 acts both at the chromosomal level as a nuclear co-factor e.g. for the thyroid hormone receptor and at the extrachromosomal level as an organizing factor of the autophagosome. In a previous study, DOR was shown to be down-regulated in skeletal muscle of obese diabetic Zucker fa/fa rats. Methods To identify sites of differential DOR expression in metabolically active tissues, we measured differences in DOR expression in white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT, skeletal muscle (SM and heart muscle (HM by qPCR. To assess whether DOR expression is influenced in the short term by nutritional factors, NMRI mice were fed different fat rich diets (fat diet, FD: 18% or high fat diet, HFD: 80% fat for one week and DOR expression was compared to NMRI mice fed a control diet (normal diet, ND: 3.3% fat. Additionally, DOR expression was measured in young (45 days old and adult (100 days old genetically obese (DU6/DU6i mice and compared to control (DUKs/DUKsi animals. Results ANOVA results demonstrate a significant influence of diet, tissue type and sex on DOR expression in adipose and muscle tissues of FD and HFD mice. In SM, DOR expression was higher in HFD than in FD male mice. In WAT, DOR expression was increased compared to BAT in male FD and HFD mice. In contrast, expression levels in female mice were higher in BAT for both dietary conditions. DOR expression levels in all tissues of 100 days old genetically obese animals were mainly influenced by sex. In HM, DOR expression was higher in male than female animals. Conclusions DOR expression varies under the influence of dietary fat content, tissue type and sex. We identified target tissues for further studies to analyze the specific function of DOR in obesity. DOR might be part of a defense mechanism against fat storage in high fat diets or obesity.

  15. Delivery of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from a Glycerol Polyester Matrix with Anti-oxidant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awareness of the health benefits associated with the polyunsaturated acids such as alpha linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has generated interest in formulating foods and dietary supplements with these compounds. However, the highly unsaturated structure o...

  16. Effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on LXRα and CYP7α1 gene expression, liver enzyme activities and fat metabolism in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z; Mu, C; Chen, Y; Zhu, Z; Chen, C; Lan, L; Xu, Q; Zhao, W; Chen, G

    2015-04-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7α1) mRNA levels, protein enzymatic activities and fat metabolism in Cherry Valley Pekin ducks. 2. A total of 750 one-day-old Cherry Valley Pekin ducks were randomly divided into 5 groups with three replicates of 50 ducks each in a completely randomised experiment. Each group was fed on a basal diet supplemented with 0, 500, 1000, 1500 or 2000 mg probiotics/kg. 3. Body rate and feed conversion ratio were highest and abdominal subcutaneous fat % was lowest at 1000 mg probiotic/kg. 4. The mRNA levels of LXRα and CYP7α1 in liver tissue was estimated by RT-PCR; serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations were measured by ELISA. 5. The expression levels and enzyme activity of LXRα and CYP7α1 increased in conjunction with decreases in TG and TC concentrations following probiotic supplementation to a maximum at 1000 mg probiotics/kg and decreased thereafter. 6. It is concluded that dietary probiotics can enhance LXRα and CYP7α1 enzyme activities in the liver and reduce lipid concentrations and fat deposition in ducks. PMID:25559164

  17. The effect of dietary curcumin and capsaicin on hepatic fetuin-A expression and fat accumulation in rats fed on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyithanoğlu, Muhammed; Öner-İyidoğan, Yıldız; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Tanrıkulu-Küçük, Sevda; Koçak, Hikmet; Beyhan-Özdaş, Şule; Koçak-Toker, Necla

    2016-05-01

    Effects of curcumin (turmeric) and capsaicin (red pepper) on hepatic fat accumulation and fetuin-A expression in rats fed high-fat diet (HFD) is aimed to be investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received HFD (60% of total calories from fat) and 0.15 g capsaicin/kg HFD and/or 1.5 g curcumin/kg HFD for 16 weeks. Hepatic AMPK, p-AMPK and fetuin-A expressions were determined by western blotting, liver lipid levels were measured with colorimetric methods and serum fetuin-A, insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels were detected using commercial ELISA kits. HFD increased hepatic lipid levels, fetuin-A expression and serum leptin, insülin and fetuin-A levels. Curcumin and capsaicin treatments significantly reduced hepatic fat accumulation and leptin levels; liver fetuin-A expression was decreased significantly by the curcumin treatment. Curcumin and capsaicin treatments attenuated hepatic fat accumulation and increased leptin levels related to inflammation. The suppression of hepatic fetuin-A expression is observed to be especially sensitive to curcumin. PMID:26706937

  18. Effect of saponified high fat sunflower oilcake and lipoic acid on fat quality of lambs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.K., Siebrits; A., Makgekgenene; A., Hugo.

    Full Text Available Sheep fat contains relatively high levels of saturated fatty acids while poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are toxic to cellulolytic bacteria and are also saturated in the rumen. Stabilization of residual oil in sunflower oilcake by conversion into calcium salts would be advantageous. Alpha lipoic [...] acid acts as an anti-oxidant to ameliorate the effects of oxidative stress caused by high dietary levels of PUFA. Residual oil (14%) in mechanically extracted (expeller) sunflower oilcake (SFOC) was saponified in situ and compared in a complete feedlot diet (100 g crude protein and 31 g extractable fat/kg feed) with commercially extracted oilcake containing 2.4% residual oil (control diet with 29 g fat and 123 g crude protein kg feed) fed to four groups of 10 SA Mutton Merino weaner lambs (ca. 23 kg) for nine weeks. Both diets were fed either with, or without a weekly oral dosing of 500 mg ?-lipoic acid. Fatty acid composition was determined on back fat samples while thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were determined on samples of m. longissimus dorsi stored for zero and six months and displayed for six days. The back fat of the lambs on the saponified expeller SFOC diets contained significantly higher levels of saturated fatty acids and lower levels of mono-unsaturated fatty acids. PUFA were unaffected. High TBARS levels (>1.0) were found after six months storage. Non significant increases in TBARS were observed in the groups that received lipoic acid.

  19. Effects of dietary fats rich in lauric and myristic acid on performance, intestinal morphology, gut microbes, and meat quality in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, J O; Fennhoff, J; Kluge, H; Stangl, G I; Eder, K

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that dietary fats rich in lauric (C12) and myristic acid (C14) increase broiler performance and that the underlying mechanism involves antimicrobial effects on gut bacteria and changes in gut morphology. One hundred eighty 1-day-old Cobb-500 broilers were allotted to 3 groups. All groups received a basal diet consisting of maize, wheat, soybean meal, and a fat source (4.5, 7.0, 7.6, and 8.0% of fat product in the diet during d 1 to 9, 10 to 17, 18 to 27, and 28 to 35, respectively) until 35 d of age. The diet of the control group contained a fat with 67% of oleic and linoleic acid and 1.4% of C12 and C14 of total fatty acids, that of the esterified lauric and myristic acid (ELA) group a fat with 33% of esterified C12 and C14 and that of the free lauric and myristic acid (FLA) group a fat with 31% of both esterified and free (1:1) C12 and C14 (6 replicates/treatment, 10 birds/replicate). Gain and feed consumption did not differ between groups, but feed:gain was lower in FLA group as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Carcass weight, liver weight, triglyceride content of liver and muscle, and muscle cholesterol were similar between groups; however, breast muscle weight was higher in the FLA than in the control group (P < 0.05). The villus height:crypt depth ratio of the duodenal wall did not differ between groups, but in the jejunum, it was lower in the FLA group as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). DNA copy numbers of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Enterobacteria, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in jejunal digesta were similar among groups. The study shows that dietary fats rich in free C12 and C14 improved feed:gain and breast muscle yield, but the observed effects could not be conclusively explained based on the parameters measured. The decreased jejunal villi:crypt ratio may point to changes in gut protein or cell turnover. PMID:26240391

  20. Evaluation of the effect of increasing dietary vitamin E in combination with different fat sources on performance, humoral immune responses and antioxidant status of weaned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    involved a total of 180 pigs of 20 litters. Nine pigs of each litter were allotted to 9 dietary treatments in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design, which was conducted in 20 replicates. The 9 experimental groups were fed 50 g/kg diet of tallow, sunflower oil, or...... mucosal samples. When compared to tallow, pigs fed sunflower oil had higher antibody response to sheep red blood cells at days 49 (P<0.05) and 56 (P<0.05) of age, and the serum concentration of IgG was higher (P=0.01). The mucosal fatty acid composition reflected the fatty acid composition of dietary fat...

  1. Effect of increased intake of dietary animal fat and fat energy on oxidative damage, mutation frequency, DNA adduct level and DNA repair in rat colon and liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla; Daneshvar, Bahram; Autrup, Herman; Risom, Lotte; Weimann, Allan; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Wallin, Håkan; Dragsted, Lars O.

    2003-01-01

    DNA-adduct level measured by 32P-postlabelling decreased in both liver and colon with increased fat intake. In liver, this was accompanied by a 2-fold increase of the mRNA level of nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene ERCC1. In colon, a non-statistically significant increase in the ERCC1 mRNA levels...... was observed. Intake of lard fat resulted in increased ascorbate synthesis and affected markers of oxidative damage to proteins in liver cytosol, but not in plasma. The effect was observed at all lard doses and was not dose-dependent. However, no evidence of increased oxidative DNA damage was found in...

  2. Effect of increased intake of dietary animal fat and fat energy on oxidative damage, mutation frequency, DNA adduct level and DNA repair in rat colon and liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Danesvar, B.; Autrup, H.; Risom, L.; Weimann, A.; Poulsen, H.E.; Møller, P.; Loft, S.; Wallin, H.; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2003-01-01

    DNA-adduct level measured by P-32-postlabelling decreased in both liver and colon with increased fat intake. In liver, this was accompanied by a 2-fold increase of the mRNA level of nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene ERCC1. In colon, a non-statistically significant increase in the ERCC1 mRNA levels...... was observed. Intake of lard fat resulted in increased ascorbate synthesis and affected markers of oxidative damage to proteins in liver cytosol, but not in plasma. The effect was observed at all lard doses and was not dose-dependent. However, no evidence of increased oxidative DNA damage was found in...

  3. Behavioral, normative and control beliefs underlying low-fat dietary and regular physical activity behaviors for adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Terry, Deborah J; Troup, Carolyn; Rempel, Lynn A

    2007-08-01

    Promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors is an important aspect of interventions designed to improve the management of chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The present study used Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior as a framework to examine beliefs amongst adults diagnosed with these conditions who do and do not engage in low-fat dietary and regular physical activity behaviors. Participants (N = 192) completed a questionnaire assessing their behavioral, normative and control beliefs in relation to regular, moderate physical activity and eating foods low in saturated fats. Measures of self-reported behavior were also examined. The findings revealed that, in general, it is the underlying behavioral beliefs that are important determinants for both physical activity and low-fat food consumption with some evidence to suggest that pressure from significant others is an important consideration for low-fat food consumption. Laziness, as a barrier to engaging in physical activity, also emerged as an important factor. To encourage a healthy lifestyle amongst this population, interventions should address the perceived costs associated with behavioral performance and encourage people to maintain healthy behaviors in light of these costs. PMID:17620212

  4. The effects of a high fibre, low fat and low sodium dietary regime on diabetic hypertensive patients of different ethnic groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, P. M.; Pacy, P. J.; Beevers, M; Bal, P.; Fletcher, R. F.; Taylor, K. G.

    1983-01-01

    Fifty-three diabetic patients with mild hypertension were allocated to a treatment diet with a high fibre, low fat and low sodium dietary regime or a control diet. After a 1-month treatment period, the modified-diet treated group (n = 35) showed a highly significant reduction in mean diastolic blood pressure (P less than 0.001) accompanied by significant reduction in urinary sodium excretion (P less than 0.01). The mean values of diastolic pressure (P less than 0.05) and urinary sodium/potass...

  5. Dietary linoleic acid elevates the endocannabinoids 2-AG and anandamide and promotes weight gain in mice fed a low fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Alvheim, Anita Ryneberg; Torstensen, Bente Elisabeth; Lin, Yu Hong; Lillefosse, Haldis Hauks; Lock, Erik-Jan; Madsen, Lise; Fryland, Livar; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Malde, Marian Kjellevold

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intake of linoleic acid (LNA, 18:2n-6) has increased dramatically during the 20th century and is associated with greater prevalence of obesity. The endocannabinoid system is involved in regulation of energy balance and a sustained hyperactivity of the endocannabinoid system may contribute to obesity. Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) is the precursor for 2-AG and anandamide (AEA), and we sought to determine if low fat diets (LFD) could be made obesogenic by increasing the endocannabinoi...

  6. Composition of α-tocopherol and fatty acids in porcine tissues after dietary supplementation with vitamin E and different fat sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Theil, Peter Kappel; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    fatty acid composition was highly influenced by dietary fat sources. Dietary fatty acid composition (P<0.001) and vitamin E supplementation (P<0.001) influenced the α-tocopherol stereoisomer composition in liver, i.e. less proportion of the RRR-α-tocopherol was observed in pigs provided fish oil and the...... highest dose of vitamin E in comparison with other dietary treatments. In addition, the stereoisomer composition of α-tocopherol in heart, and adipose tissue was influenced by dietary treatments. Expression of genes in liver involved in the regulation of FA conversion, SCD (P=0.002) and D6D (P=0.04) were...... lower in pigs fed fish oil compared to other treatments, whereas the fatty acid oxidation, as indicated by the expression of PPAR-α, was higher when sunflower and fish oil was provided (P=0.03). Expression of α-TTP in liver was higher in pigs fed fish oil (P=0.01). Vitamin E supplementation did not...

  7. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  8. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  9. Dietary Lipids and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rgia A Othman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, epidemiological studies continued to suggest that high fat diets are linked to an increased incidence of certain cancers. However, whether the oncogenic properties of fat are associated with their quantity rather than the quality has become debatable. Epidemiological studies have been suggesting that n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA and saturated fats are more likely to increase the incidence of cancer, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are more likely to prevent or decrease the chance of carcinogenesis. A firm conclusion cannot be drawn yet because of insufficient research. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the effects of saturated fats, different types of unsaturated fats, and fat-soluble vitamins on the etiology of cancer.

  10. Dietary Lipid Type, Rather Than Total Number of Calories, Alters Outcomes of Enteric Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoffe, Daniella; Quin, Candice; Gill, Sandeep K; Tasnim, Nishat; Brown, Kirsty; Godovannyi, Artem; Dai, Chuanbin; Abulizi, Nijiati; Chan, Yee Kwan; Ghosh, Sanjoy; Gibson, Deanna L

    2016-06-01

    Dietary lipids modulate immunity, yet the means by which specific fatty acids affect infectious disease susceptibility remains unclear. Deciphering lipid-induced immunity is critical to understanding the balance required for protecting against pathogens while avoiding chronic inflammatory diseases. To understand how specific lipids alter susceptibility to enteric infection, we fed mice isocaloric, high-fat diets composed of corn oil (rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids [n-6 PUFAs]), olive oil (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids), or milk fat (rich in saturated fatty acids) with or without fish oil (rich in n-3 PUFAs). After 5 weeks of dietary intervention, mice were challenged with Citrobacter rodentium, and pathological responses were assessed. Olive oil diets resulted in little colonic pathology associated with intestinal alkaline phosphatase, a mucosal defense factor that detoxifies lipopolysaccharide. In contrast, while both corn oil and milk fat diets resulted in inflammation-induced colonic damage, only milk fat induced compensatory protective responses, including short chain fatty acid production. Fish oil combined with milk fat, unlike unsaturated lipid diets, had a protective effect associated with intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity. Overall, these results reveal that dietary lipid type, independent of the total number of calories associated with the dietary lipid, influences the susceptibility to enteric damage and the benefits of fish oil during infection. PMID:27067195

  11. Total dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids have modest effects on urinary sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total fat and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet may affect breast cancer risk by altering estrogen metabolism. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of differing total fat and omega-3 fatty acid content of diets on a panel of urinary estrogens and metabolites. A controlled, cross-ove...

  12. Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rat is more impaired in a steatotic liver induced by dietary fructose compared to dietary fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Hepatic steatosis in rats fed a high fructose diet was less severe than that in rats fed a high fat diet. → Liver regeneration was more impaired in rats fed a high fructose diet than in rats fed a high fat diet. → Dysregulation of genes associated with metabolism may contribute to impairment of liver regeneration. → Regulation of the TGF-β1 level after partial hepatectomy may be impaired in rats fed a high fructose diet. -- Abstract: Hepatic steatosis (HS) has a negative effect on liver regeneration, but different pathophysiologies of HS may lead to different outcomes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fructose (66% fructose; H-fruc), high fat (54% fat; H-fat), or control chow diet for 4 weeks. Based on hepatic triglyceride content and oil red O staining, HS developed in the H-fruc group, but was less severe compared to the H-fat group. Hepatic mRNA expression levels of fatty acid synthase and fructokinase were increased and those of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α were decreased in the H-fruc group compared to the H-fat group. Liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx) was evaluated by measuring the increase in postoperative liver mass and PCNA-positive hepatocytes, and was impaired in the H-fruc group compared to the H-fat and control groups on days 3 and 7. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and hepatocyte growth factor did not change significantly after PHx. In contrast, serum TGF-β1 levels were slightly but significantly lower in the control group on day 1 and in the H-fat group on day 3 compared to the level in each group on day 0, and then gradually increased. However, the serum TGF-β1 level did not change after PHx in the H-fruc group. These results indicate that impairment of liver regeneration after PHx in HS is related to the cause, rather than the degree, of steatosis. This difference may result from altered metabolic gene expression profiles and potential dysregulation of TGF-β1 expression.

  13. Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rat is more impaired in a steatotic liver induced by dietary fructose compared to dietary fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanoue, Shirou [Department of Digestive and Lifestyle-Related Diseases, Kagoshima University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Uto, Hirofumi, E-mail: hirouto@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Digestive and Lifestyle-Related Diseases, Kagoshima University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Kumamoto, Ryo; Arima, Shiho; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Nasu, Yuichiro; Takami, Yoichiro; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Sakiyama, Toshio; Oketani, Makoto; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito [Department of Digestive and Lifestyle-Related Diseases, Kagoshima University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Highlights: {yields} Hepatic steatosis in rats fed a high fructose diet was less severe than that in rats fed a high fat diet. {yields} Liver regeneration was more impaired in rats fed a high fructose diet than in rats fed a high fat diet. {yields} Dysregulation of genes associated with metabolism may contribute to impairment of liver regeneration. {yields} Regulation of the TGF-{beta}1 level after partial hepatectomy may be impaired in rats fed a high fructose diet. -- Abstract: Hepatic steatosis (HS) has a negative effect on liver regeneration, but different pathophysiologies of HS may lead to different outcomes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fructose (66% fructose; H-fruc), high fat (54% fat; H-fat), or control chow diet for 4 weeks. Based on hepatic triglyceride content and oil red O staining, HS developed in the H-fruc group, but was less severe compared to the H-fat group. Hepatic mRNA expression levels of fatty acid synthase and fructokinase were increased and those of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} were decreased in the H-fruc group compared to the H-fat group. Liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx) was evaluated by measuring the increase in postoperative liver mass and PCNA-positive hepatocytes, and was impaired in the H-fruc group compared to the H-fat and control groups on days 3 and 7. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, interleukin-6 and hepatocyte growth factor did not change significantly after PHx. In contrast, serum TGF-{beta}1 levels were slightly but significantly lower in the control group on day 1 and in the H-fat group on day 3 compared to the level in each group on day 0, and then gradually increased. However, the serum TGF-{beta}1 level did not change after PHx in the H-fruc group. These results indicate that impairment of liver regeneration after PHx in HS is related to the cause, rather than the degree, of steatosis. This difference may result from altered metabolic gene expression profiles and potential dysregulation of TGF-{beta}1 expression.

  14. Fasting substrate oxidation in relation to habitual dietary fat intake and insulin resistance in non-diabetic women: a case for metabolic flexibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carstens Madelaine T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic flexibility described as “the capacity of the body to match fuel oxidation to fuel availability” has been implicated in insulin resistance. We examined fasting substrate oxidation in relation to dietary macronutrient intake, and markers of insulin resistance in otherwise healthy women, with and without a family history of diabetes mellitus (FH DM. Methods We measured body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (VAT, SAT, using Computerised Tomography, fasting [glucose], [insulin], [free fatty acids], [blood lipids], insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, resting energy expenditure (REE, respiratory exchange ratio(RER and self-reported physical activity in a convenience sample of 180 women (18-45 yrs. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess energy intake (EI and calculate the RER: Food Quotient (FQ ratio. Only those with EI:REE (1.05 -2.28 were included (N=140. Insulin resistance was defined HOMA-IR (>1.95. Results The Insulin Resistant (IR group had higher energy, carbohydrate and protein intakes (p 2 = 0.50, p  Conclusion In these apparently healthy, weight-stable women, insulin resistance and FH DM were associated with lower fat oxidation in relation to dietary fat intake, suggesting lower metabolic flexibility.

  15. Effects of rearing density and dietary fat content on burst-swim performance and oxygen transport capacity in juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammenstig, D; Sandblom, E; Axelsson, M; Johnsson, J I

    2014-10-01

    The effects of hatchery rearing density (conventional or one third of conventional density) and feeding regime (high or reduced dietary fat levels) on burst-swim performance and oxygen transport capacity were studied in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, using wild fish as a reference group. There was no effect of rearing density or food regime on swimming performance in parr and smolts. The maximum swimming speed of wild parr was significantly higher than that of hatchery-reared conspecifics, while no such difference remained at the smolt stage. In smolts, relative ventricle mass was higher in wild S. salar compared with hatchery-reared fish. Moreover, wild S. salar had lower maximum oxygen consumption following a burst-swim challenge than hatchery fish. There were no effects of hatchery treatment on maximum oxygen consumption or relative ventricle mass. Haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, however, were lower in low-density fish than in fish reared at conventional density. Furthermore, dorsal-fin damage, an indicator of aggression, was similar in low-density reared and wild fish and lower than in S. salar reared at conventional density. Together, these results suggest that reduced rearing density is more important than reduced dietary fat levels in producing an S. salar smolt suitable for supplementary release. PMID:25200031

  16. Effect of dietary fat saturation on lipid metabolism, arachidonic acid turnover and peritoneal macrophage oxidative stress in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros L.B.; Videla A.M.; Giménez M.S.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a saturated fat diet on lipid metabolism and arachidonic acid (AA) turnover in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. The pro-oxidative effect of this diet was also studied. Female C57BL/6 mice were weaned at 21 days of age and assigned to either the experimental diet containing coconut oil (COCO diet), or the control diet containing soybean oil as fat source (10 mice per group). The fat content of each diet was 15% (w/w). Mice were fed for 6 weeks and then sacr...

  17. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  18. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemel Michael B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61 were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1 placebo; 2 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P P Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.

  19. Interactions between barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat on nitrogen metabolism and urea-nitrogen recycling in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozho, G N; Hobin, M R; Mutsvangwa, T

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of methods of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on urea-N transfer to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the utilization of this recycled urea-N in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (656.3 +/- 27.7 kg of BW; 79.8 +/- 12.3 d in milk) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods and a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Experimental diets contained dry-rolled barley or pelleted barley in combination with whole canola or whole flaxseed as supplemental fat sources. Nitrogen balance was measured from d 15 to 19, with concurrent measurements of urea-N kinetics using continuous intrajugular infusions of [15N 15N]-urea. Dry matter intake and N intake were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Nitrogen retention was not affected by diet, but fecal N excretion was higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in those fed pelleted barley. Actual and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by diet. Milk fat content and milk fat yield were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Source of supplemental fat did not affect urea-N kinetics. Urea-N production was higher (442.2 vs. 334.3 g of N/d), and urea-N entering the GIT tended to be higher (272.9 vs. 202.0 g of N/d), in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. The amount of urea-N entry into the GIT that was returned to the ornithine cycle was higher (204.1 vs. 159.5 g of N/d) in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in pelleted barley-fed cows. The amount of urea-N recycled to the GIT and used for anabolic purposes, and the amounts lost in the urine or feces were not affected by dietary treatment. Microbial nonammonia N supply, estimated using total urinary excretion of purine derivatives, was not affected by diet. These results show that even though barley grain processing altered urea-N entry into the GIT, the utilization of this recycled urea-N for microbial production was unaffected as the additional urea-N, which entered the GIT was returned to ureagenesis. PMID:18096947

  20. Screening and identification of dietary oils and unsaturated fatty acids in inhibiting inflammatory prostaglandin E2 signaling in fat stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Diana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of dietary oils (such as fish oil and unsaturated fatty acids, which are widely used by the public for anti-inflammation and vascular protection, have not been settled yet. In this study, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2-mediated calcium signaling was used to screen dietary oils and eight unsaturated fatty acids for identification of their anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Isolated fat/stromal cells expressing endogenous PGE2 receptors and an HEK293 cell line specifically expressing the recombinant human PGE2 receptor subtype-1 (EP1 were cultured and used in live cell calcium signaling assays. The different dietary oils and unsaturated fatty acids were used to affect cell signaling under the specific stimulation of a pathological amount of inflammatory PGE2. Results It was identified that fish oil best inhibited the PGE2 signaling in the primary cultured stromal cells. Second, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, found in abundance in fish oil, was identified as a key factor of inhibition of PGE2 signaling. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, another major fatty acid found in fish oil and tested in this study was found to have small effect on EP1 signaling. The study suggested one of the four PGE2 subtype receptors, EP1 as the key target for the fish oil and DHA target. These findings were further confirmed by using the recombinant EP1 expressed in HEK293 cells as a target. Conclusion This study demonstrated the new mechanism behind the positive effects of dietary fish oils in inhibiting inflammation originates from the rich concentration of DHA, which can directly inhibit the inflammatory EP1-mediated PGE2 receptor signaling, and that the inflammatory response stimulated by PGE2 in the fat stromal cells, which directly related to metabolic diseases, could be down regulated by fish oil and DHA. These findings also provided direct evidence to support the use of dietary oils and unsaturated fatty acids for protection against heart disease, pain, and cancer resulted from inflammatory PGE2.

  1. Exposure to elevated levels of dietary fat attenuates psychostimulant reward and mesolimbic dopamine turnover in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jon F.; Tracy, Andrea L; Schurdak, Jennifer D.; Tschp, Matthias H; Lipton, Jack W; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit., Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that decreased central dopamine is associated with diet-induced obesity in humans and in animal models. In the current study, we assessed the hypothesis that diet-induced obesity reduces mesolimbic dopamine function. Specifically, we compared dopamine turnover in this region between rats fed a high-fat diet and those consuming a standard low-fat diet. We also assessed behavioral consequences of diet-induced obesity by testing the response of these animals in a conditio...

  2. Disequilibrium of polyunsaturated fatty acids status and its dual effect in modulating adipose tissue development and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisani Didier F.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available White adipocytes are storing energy under the form of triglycerides whereas brown adipocytes dissipate energy from triglycerides by producing heat. In rodents and possibly in humans both types of fat cells participate in the total energy balance. From a quantitative view point, a positive energy balance (energy intake > energy expenditure is commonly regarded as a major factor contributing to obesity. Recent studies demonstrate that by altering rates of adipocyte differentiation and proliferation, differences in fatty acid composition of dietary fats may also contribute to adipose tissue development, in particular with respect to the relative intake of ω6 to ω3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. The ω6/ω3 ratio determines the availability of ω6-arachidonic acid (ARA within adipose tissue and thus the level of various prostaglandins derived from the cyclooxygenase-mediated pathway. We had shown earlier that prostacyclin (Prostaglandin I2 stimulates fat cell differentiation and this effect could be reversed by ω3-PUFA supplementation. Moreover, we had assessed that under conditions of genome stability a Western-like fat diet rich in ω6-PUFA was sufficient to induce a gradual fat mass enhancement across generations. Recently, we have characterized a second effect of some ARA metabolites (prostaglandins E2 and F2α which appear to inhibit the formation of brown adipocytes within white adipose tissue. Altogether, our results demonstrate that, in addition to favoring white adipose tissue formation, dietary excess of ω6-PUFA prevents the “browning” process to take place in white adipose tissue depots, and strongly suggest a favorable role of ω3-PUFA supplementation in preventing both processes.

  3. Effects of dietary fat on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs reared in a commercial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Llata, M; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Loughin, T M

    2001-10-01

    We conducted two experiments to evaluate the effects of added choice white grease on performance and carcass merit of barrows and gilts reared under commercial conditions. Pigs were housed either 20 (Exp. 1) or 25 (Exp. 2) per pen and were provided 0.67 m2 of pen space per pig. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and fed in a meal form. The proportion of soybean meal was increased in diets with added fat to maintain the same calorie:lysine ratio in all diets within a weight phase. In Exp. 1, 480 pigs were fed diets with 0, 2, 4, or 6% fat. Total lysine contents of the control diets were 1.21, 0.88, and 0.66% during the weight phases 36 to 59, 59 to 93, and 93 to 120 kg, respectively. Gain:feed was increased linearly (P experiment. The effect of added fat on ADG was not consistent among the weight phases; a linear (P improvement was found from 36 to 59 kg, but no effect was found during the heavier weight phases. Over the total experiment, however, ADG was improved (P Experiment 2 used 900 pigs to evaluate possible carryover effects on performance and carcass merit from feeding 6% fat. The experiment was divided into four phases: 25 to 45, 45 to 70, 70 to 90, and 90 to 115 kg; lysine contents of the control diets fed in each phase were 1.23, 1.05, 0.81, and 0.63%, respectively. The six treatments consisted of no added fat throughout the experiment or 6% added fat fed from 25 to 45 kg, 25 to 70 kg, 25 to 90 kg, 25 to 115 kg, or 45 to 70 and 90 to 115 kg. Carryover effects for ADG and G:F (P improved and ADFI and ME intake were decreased in the subsequent weight interval. Pigs fed fat from 25 to 115 kg had more (P < 0.05) backfat and lower (P < 0.05) carcass leanness than pigs on the other treatments. These data suggest that fat can be added or removed from diets of growing-finishing pigs without any detrimental carryover effects. In fact, the positive carryover effect on ADG and G:F from 95 to 115 kg suggests that feeding fat from 25 to 95 kg will maximize performance over the total growing-finishing period but minimize any detrimental effects of added fat on carcass leanness. PMID:11721844

  4. Estimating the cardiovascular mortality burden attributable to the European Common Agricultural Policy on dietary saturated fats / Estimation de la charge de mortalit cardiovasculaire imputable la Politique agricole commune de l'UE concernant les graisses satures dans l'alimentation / Estimacin de la carga de mortalidad cardiovascular atribuible a la Poltica Agrcola Comn europea en relacin con las grasas saturadas alimentarias

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ffion, Lloyd-Williams; Martin, O' Flaherty; Modi, Mwatsama; Christopher, Birt; Robin, Ireland; Simon, Capewell.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar en 15 pases de la Unin Europea (antes de la ampliacin de 2004) la carga de enfermedades cardiovasculares debida al exceso de grasas saturadas alimentarias atribuible a la Poltica Agrcola Comn (PAC). MTODOS: Mediante una hoja de clculo se desarroll un modelo para sintetizar [...] los datos sobre la poblacin, la dieta, los niveles de colesterol y las tasas de mortalidad. Se estableci como estimacin prudente una reduccin del consumo de grasas saturadas de slo 2,2 g, lo que equivale al 1% del aporte calrico diario. Partiendo de ese dato se calcul la cada de la concentracin de colesterol srico, suponiendo que esa reduccin del 1% del consumo de grasas saturadas se compensara con un 0,5% de grasas monoinsaturadas y un 0,5% de grasas poliinsaturadas. Por ltimo, se estim la reduccin resultante de las defunciones por causas cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares y se realiz un anlisis de sensibilidad. RESULTADOS: Reduciendo el consumo de grasas saturadas en un 1% y aumentando un 0,5% el de las monoinsaturadas y otro tanto el de las poliinsaturadas se lograra reducir los niveles sanguneos de colesterol en 0,06 mmol/l aproximadamente, lo que se traducira en unas 9800 muertes menos por cardiopata coronaria y unas 3000 muertes menos por accidente cerebrovascular cada ao. CONCLUSIN: La carga de enfermedades cardiovasculares atribuible a la PAC parece considerable. Adems, las cifras se han calculado por lo bajo, de modo que la verdadera carga de mortalidad podra ser mayor. Este anlisis viene a alimentar el amplio debate en curso sobre la PAC, la salud y las enfermedades crnicas en Europa, en el marco de las ltimas iniciativas y compromisos tendentes a combatir ese tipo de enfermedades. Las estimaciones de la mortalidad aportadas deberan tenerse en cuenta en relacin tanto con la PAC actual como con cualquier reforma de la misma que se haga en el futuro. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of cardiovascular disease within 15 European Union countries (before the 2004 enlargement) as a result of excess dietary saturated fats attributable to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). METHODS: A spreadsheet model was developed to synthesize data on population, [...] diet, cholesterol levels and mortality rates. A conservative estimate of a reduction in saturated fat consumption of just 2.2 g was chosen, representing 1% of daily energy intake. The fall in serum cholesterol concentration was then calculated, assuming that this 1% reduction in saturated fat consumption was replaced with 0.5% monounsaturated and 0.5% polyunsaturated fats. The resulting reduction in cardiovascular and stroke deaths was then estimated, and a sensitivity analysis conducted. FINDINGS: Reducing saturated fat consumption by 1% and increasing monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat by 0.5% each would lower blood cholesterol levels by approximately 0.06 mmol/l, resulting in approximately 9800 fewer coronary heart disease deaths and 3000 fewer stroke deaths each year. CONCLUSION: The cardiovascular disease burden attributable to CAP appears substantial. Furthermore, these calculations were conservative estimates, and the true mortality burden may be higher. The analysis contributes to the current wider debate concerning the relationship between CAP, health and chronic disease across Europe, together with recent international developments and commitments to reduce chronic diseases. The reported mortality estimates should be considered in relation to the current CAP and any future reforms.

  5. The influence of increasing dietary fat or protein on the efficiency of broiler chickens exposed to low levels of gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 400 one-day-old chicks, from hubbard line of meat production type, were used in this study. The chicks were divided into three nutritional groups. The second group was fed on a high protein feed containing 3% protein higher than that of the normal diet (group one). The fat level was increased by 4% in the feed of the third group over the value of the normal diet. Each group was divided again into four subgroup treatments (To, T1, T2, and T3) according to the exposure to gamma rays in a single or multi doses. The aim of this study was to compare between the nutritional types and its combinations with the applied doses of gamma rays on broiler performance. The results can be summarized as follows: The broiler chicks fed on the high fat ration and exposed to 0.25 Gy of gamma-rays four times (group 111, T3) recorded the highest body weight gain along the duration of the experiment. in general, the stimulation effect of the gamma-ray doses applied herein was obvious during the period of rapid growth (0-4 weeks of age) then it was followed by retardation in growth rate. The group of chicks fed on a diet containing high fat (group 111), achieved the crude fiber and nitrogen extract digestibility's. Increase of dietary protein was accompanied by a significant increase in carcass protein, water and ash content. Carcass fat was increased while carcass water was decreased with low level of gamma rays

  6. The Physico-Chemical Properties of Dietary Fibre Determine Metabolic Responses, Short-Chain Fatty Acid Profiles and Gut Microbiota Composition in Rats Fed Low- and High-Fat Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Fåk, Frida; Jakobsdottir, Greta; Kulcinskaja, Evelina; Marungruang, Nittaya; Matziouridou, Chrysoula; Nilsson, Ulf; Stålbrand, Henrik; Nyman, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how physico-chemical properties of two dietary fibres, guar gum and pectin, affected weight gain, adiposity, lipid metabolism, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and the gut microbiota in male Wistar rats fed either low- or high-fat diets for three weeks. Both pectin and guar gum reduced weight gain, adiposity, liver fat and blood glucose levels in rats fed a high-fat diet. Methoxylation degree of pectin (low, LM and high (HM)) and viscosity of gua...

  7. Effect of dietary fats rich in lauric, myristic, palmitic, oleic or linoleic acid on plasma, hepatic and biliary lipids in cholesterol-fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, E A; Kunath-Rau, A; Dietrich, J; Drusch, S; Erbersdobler, H F

    1997-04-01

    Effects of different dietary fats on plasma, hepatic and biliary lipids were determined in male golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) fed on purified diets for 7 weeks. Diets were made by blending different fats containing characteristic fatty acids: butter (14:0 + 16:0), palm stearin (16:0), coconut oil (12:0 + 14:0), rapeseed oil (18:1), olive oil (18:1) and sunflowerseed oil (18:2). In all diets except the sunflowerseed oil diet dietary 18:2 was held constant at 2% energy. Total fat supplied 12% of energy and cholesterol was added at 4 g/kg diet. Plasma cholesterol and triacyglycerol concentrations were increased by dietary cholesterol. After 7 weeks, plasma cholesterol concentrations were highest with the palm stearin, coconut oil and olive oil diets (8.9, 8.9 and 9.2 mmol/l) and lowest with the rapeseed oil and sunflowerseed oil diets (6.7 and 5.5 mmol/l) while the butter diet was intermediate (8.5 mmol/l). Hepatic cholesterol concentration was highest in hamsters fed on the olive oil diet and lowest with the palm stearin diet (228 v. 144 mumol/g liver). Biliary lipids, lithogenic index and bile acid profile of the gall-bladder bile did not differ significantly among the six diets. Although the gallstone incidence was generally low in this study, three out of 10 hamsters fed on the palm stearin diet developed cholesterol gallstones. In contrast, no cholesterol gallstones were found with the other diets. Rapeseed and sunflowerseed oils caused the lowest plasma cholesterol and triacyglycerol concentrations whereas olive oil failed to demonstrate a cholesterol-lowering effect compared with diets rich in saturated fatty acids. Since 18:2 was kept constant at 2% of energy in all diets, the different responses to rapeseed and olive oils could possibly be attributed to their different contents of 16:0 (5.6% v. 12.8% respectively). Other possible explanations are discussed. PMID:9155509

  8. Dietary constituents reduce lipid accumulation in murine C3H10 T1/2 adipocytes: A novel fluorescent method to quantify fat droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhrer Erna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipocyte volume (fat accumulation and cell number (adipogenesis is increased in obese individuals. Our objective was the identification of dietary constituents with inhibitory effects on triglyceride formation during adipogenesis. Therefore an in vitro adipose cell assay in murine C3H10 T1/2 cells was developed, which enabled rapid quantification of intracellular fat droplet accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. Results were corroborated by expression levels of several specific adipogenic and lipogenic genes which are known to regulate triglyceride accumulation. Methods C3H10 T1/2 adipocyte differentiation was conducted with rosiglitazone in the presence of test compounds for 7 days. Accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets was measured using the Cellomics® ArrayScan® VTI HCS reader and SpotDetector® BioApplication from ThermoFisher. Fluorescent images were automatically acquired and analysed employing the fluorescent dyes BODIPY® 493/503 and Hoechst 33342, for staining neutral lipids and localisation of nuclei, respectively. The expression levels of adipogenic and lipogenic genes, such as PPARα and PPARγ, C/EBPα, aP2, adiponectin, LPL and HSL, CPT-1β, ACC1, Glut4 and FAS, were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Dietary ingredients including PUFAs, carotenoids, polyphenols and catechins were tested for their effect on lipid accumulation. Results The ω-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, the carotenoid β-carotene and hydroxytyrosol exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects on the rosiglitazone-stimulated lipid formation. (all-E-lycopene and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG showed a moderate inhibition, whereas resveratrol did not reduce fat droplet formation. Additionally, it was demonstrated that adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression was attenuated. DHA, β-carotene and hydroxytyrosol inhibited the gene expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, aP2 and CPT-1β. Conclusion This in vitro assay in differentiating adipocytes enables automated detection and quantification of changes in lipid droplet number, size and intensity. The observed inhibitory effects of identified dietary constituents such as ω-3 PUFAs and β-carotene correlate with the modulation of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation.

  9. High-fat diet aggravates amyloid-beta and tau pathologies in the 3xTg-AD mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Carl; Tremblay, Cyntia; Phivilay, Alix; Berthiaume, Line; Emond, Vincent; Julien, Pierre; Calon, Frdric

    2010-09-01

    To investigate potential dietary risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD), triple transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice were exposed from 4 to 13 months of age to diets with a low n-3:n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio incorporated in either low-fat (5% w/w) or high-fat (35% w/w) formulas and compared with a control diet. The n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio was decreased independently of the dietary treatments in the frontal cortex of 3xTg-AD mice compared to non-transgenic littermates. Consumption of a high-fat diet with a low n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio increased amyloid-beta (Abeta) 40 and 42 concentrations in detergent-insoluble extracts of parieto-temporal cortex homogenates from 3xTg-AD mice. Low n-3:n-6 PUFA intake ratio increased insoluble tau regardless of total fat consumption, whereas high-fat diet incorporating a low n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio also increased soluble tau compared to controls. Moreover, the high-fat diet decreased cortical levels of the postsynaptic marker drebrin, while leaving presynaptic proteins synaptophysin, SNAP-25 and syntaxin 3 unchanged. Overall, these results suggest that high-fat consumption combined with low n-3 PUFA intake promote AD-like neuropathology. PMID:18926603

  10. Dietary fat-dependent transcriptional architecture and copy number alterations associated with modifiers of mammary cancer metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Ryan A; Merrill, Michele La; Hunter, Kent W; Sørensen, Peter; Threadgill, David W; Pomp, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    that mice fed a high-fat diet have shorter mammary cancer latency, increased tumor growth and more pulmonary metastases than mice fed a standard diet. Subsequent genetic analysis identified several modifiers of metastatic mammary cancer along with widespread interactions between cancer modifiers and...

  11. Effect of dietary fructans and chromium(III supplementation on apparent fat digestibility and blood lipid indices in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Krejpcio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fructans and chromium(III are believed to influence lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in animal and human organisms, that can be applied in regulation or improvement of lipid indices, however the importance of their effect is still unclear. This study aimed at evaluation of the effect of inulin-type fructans and chromium(III supplementation on fat digestibility and blood lipid indices in rats. Material and methods. In a three-factorial design 56 male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum semipurified diets (AIN-93 supplemented with two types and levels of fructans (inulin or oligofructose, 5% or 10% of diet and two levels of chromium(III (0.5 or 5 mg/kg of diet; as Cr(III propionate complex for 10 weeks. Apparent fat digestibility and blood lipid profile were determined. Results. It was found that experimental factors did not influence apparent fat digestibility, serum total cholesterol, HDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations, however serum TAG level was significantly lower in animals fed oligofructose vs. inulin diets, high-fructan vs. low-fructan diet. Conclusions. Inulin type fructans and supplementary Cr(III do not affect apparent fat digestibility, fructans however influence lipid metabolism, lowering serum TAG levels in rat.

  12. Dietary fat intake and subsequent weight change in adults: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sharp, Stephen J; Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Halkjaer, Jytte; Schulze, Matthias B; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Feskens, Edith J M; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    weight divided by duration of follow-up). DESIGN: We analyzed data from 89,432 men and women from 6 cohorts of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Using country-specific food-frequency questionnaires, we examined the association between baseline fat intake...

  13. Dietary protein content affects evolution for body size, body fat and viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker; Mayntz, David

    2011-01-01

    The ability to use different food sources is likely to be under strong selection if organisms are faced with natural variation in macro-nutrient (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) availabilities. Here, we use experimental evolution to study how variable dietary protein content affects adult body...

  14. The Dietary Composition and Source of Macronutrients Determine Obesity Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrmel, Lene Secher

    elevation in energy intake, these alterations include increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and a relative decrease in protein consumption. The relative intake of dietary fat has not increased during the last decades, but the proportion of vegetable oils has increased at the expense of saturated...... fat and marine oils. To further investigate the importance of the macronutrient composition on obesity development, we have performed a series of mice experiments. Our results demonstrate that both the amount and source of macronutrients influence obesity development and related disorders. The anti......-obesity and insulin-sensitizing effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are well described in rodents. In line with this, we show that replacing marine oil with soybean oil in salmon feed, translates into a lower content of n-3 PUFAs in salmon fillets leading to aggravated insulin resistance...

  15. Measurement of hepatic sterol synthesis in the Mongolian gerbil in vivo using [3H]water: diurnal variation and effect of type of dietary fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hepatic synthesis of sterol was measured in the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) in vivo following the administration of [3H]water by monitoring the incorporation of radioactivity into digitonin-precipitable sterol. A diurnal rhythm in cholesterol synthesis was exhibited under conditions of ad libitum feeding with alternating 12-hour periods of light (0200 to 1400 hr) and dark (1400 to 0200 hr). The zenith was reached between 1500 and 2100 hr and the nadir approximately 10-12 hours later between 0200 and 0400 hr, which provided a zenith/nadir ratio of 9.6 to 1.0. The in vivo rates of hepatic sterol synthesis and plasma cholesterol levels were measured in gerbils fed semi-purified diets containing either 19.5% beef tallow + 0.5% safflower, 20% lard, or 20% safflower oil and widely differing ratios of polyunsaturated: saturated fatty acids. All diets were equalized to contain 0.01% cholesterol and 0.05% plant sterol. After 3 days on the experimental diets, the mean rates of cholesterol synthesis (nmol/g liver per hr) were 41.5, 26.6, and 13.8 for animals fed the diets containing beef tallow, lard, and safflower oil, respectively. After 7 and 14 days, synthetic rates were lowest in the gerbils fed safflower oil as were also the plasma cholesterol levels. These results indicate that the type of dietary lipid can significantly influence the in vivo rate of sterol biosynthesis in gerbil liver. This response may contribute, at least in part, to the observed differences in plasma cholesterol levels

  16. Measurement of hepatic sterol synthesis in the Mongolian gerbil in vivo using (/sup 3/H)water: diurnal variation and effect of type of dietary fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, N.J.; Holub, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    The hepatic synthesis of sterol was measured in the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) in vivo following the administration of (/sup 3/H)water by monitoring the incorporation of radioactivity into digitonin-precipitable sterol. A diurnal rhythm in cholesterol synthesis was exhibited under conditions of ad libitum feeding with alternating 12-hour periods of light (0200 to 1400 hr) and dark (1400 to 0200 hr). The zenith was reached between 1500 and 2100 hr and the nadir approximately 10-12 hours later between 0200 and 0400 hr, which provided a zenith/nadir ratio of 9.6 to 1.0. The in vivo rates of hepatic sterol synthesis and plasma cholesterol levels were measured in gerbils fed semi-purified diets containing either 19.5% beef tallow + 0.5% safflower, 20% lard, or 20% safflower oil and widely differing ratios of polyunsaturated: saturated fatty acids. All diets were equalized to contain 0.01% cholesterol and 0.05% plant sterol. After 3 days on the experimental diets, the mean rates of cholesterol synthesis (nmol/g liver per hr) were 41.5, 26.6, and 13.8 for animals fed the diets containing beef tallow, lard, and safflower oil, respectively. After 7 and 14 days, synthetic rates were lowest in the gerbils fed safflower oil as were also the plasma cholesterol levels. These results indicate that the type of dietary lipid can significantly influence the in vivo rate of sterol biosynthesis in gerbil liver. This response may contribute, at least in part, to the observed differences in plasma cholesterol levels.

  17. Neonatal dietary supplementation of arachidonic acid increases prostaglandin levels in adipose tissue but does not promote fat mass development in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprikian, Olivier; Reynaud, Denis; Pace-Asciak, Cecil; Leone, Patricia; Blancher, Florence; Monnard, Irina; Darimont, Christian; Macé, Katherine

    2007-11-01

    The role of arachidonic acid (AA) on the development of adipose tissue is still controversial since its metabolites, i.e., prostaglandins, can either stimulate or inhibit preadipocyte differentiation in vitro. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of early postnatal supplementation of AA on body weight and adipose tissue development in guinea pigs. Male newborn guinea pigs were fed for 21 days (day 21) with diets (milk and pellet) supplemented (+AA) or not (-AA) with 1.2% (total fatty acids) AA. From day 21 to day 105 both groups were fed a chow diet. The 21-days-old +AA pups showed a twofold higher AA accretion in phospholipids associated with a two- to sixfold increase in several prostaglandins, such as 6-keto PGF(1alpha) (the stable hydrolysis product of PGI(2)), PGF(2alpha), PGE(2), and PGD(2) in adipose tissue, compared with the -AA group. No difference in fat pad and body weight, aP2, and leptin gene expression in adipose tissue, fasting plasma glucose, free-fatty acids, and triglyceride concentration was observed between groups at day 21 or day 105. These results show that dietary supplementation of AA during the suckling/weaning period increases prostaglandin levels in adipose tissue but does not influence early fat mass development in the guinea pig. PMID:17761509

  18. In vivo determination of triglyceride (TG) secretion in rats fed different dietary saturated fats using [2-3H]-glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (154±1 g) were fed diets containing 2% corn oil (CO) + 14% butterfat (BF), beef tallow (BT), olive oil (OO) or coconut oil (CN) vs a 16% CO control diet for 5 weeks. Changes in plasma TG specific activity (dpm/mg TG) were determined in individual unanesthetized rats after injection of 100 μCi [2-3H]-glycerol via a carotid cannula. Fractional rate constants were obtained using a 2-compartment model and nonlinear regression analysis. Results demonstrated no difference in the fractional rate constants among dietary groups; but, differences in the rates of hepatic TG secretion were noted. Rats fed BT showed a higher rate of hepatic TG secretion than rats fed CO. Rats fed BF, OO or CN showed somewhat higher rates of hepatic TG secretion than CO. VLDL TG, phospholipid, and apolipoprotein B and E levels were higher with saturated fats vs CO. The data suggest that the higher plasma TG levels noted in response to feeding saturated fats vs corn oil can be explained, in part, by an increased flux of hepatic TG secretion

  19. The efficacy of the appetite suppressant, diethylpropion, is dependent on both when it is given (day vs. night) and under conditions of high fat dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanasundar, B; Solorio, Jessica; Perez, Claudia I; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Simon, Sidney A; Gutierrez, Ranier

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a public health problem caused by excessive consumption of high caloric diets and/or lack of physical activity. Although treatments for obesity include low caloric diets and exercise programs, these activities frequently are supplemented with appetite suppressants. For the short-term treatment of weight loss, diethylpropion (DEP) is a commonly used appetite suppressant. However, little is known with regard to how to improve its weight loss efficacy. We therefore evaluated, in rats, two administration protocols where the animals received daily injections of DEP. First, when these nocturnal animals were normally active (at night) and when they were normally inactive (daytime), and second, with or without high fat dietary restriction (HFDR). We observed that DEP induced a greater weight-loss administered when the animals were in their active phase than in their inactive phase. Moreover, DEP's administration during the inactive phase (and to a lesser degree in the active phase) promotes the consumption of food during normal sleeping time. In addition, we found that DEP-induced weight loss under ad libitum access to a HF diet, but its efficacy significantly improved under conditions of HFDR. In summary, the efficacy of DEP, and presumably other like appetite suppressants, is enhanced by carefully controlling the time it is administered and under dietary restriction of HF diets. PMID:26867698

  20. Plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein B are modulated by a gene--diet interaction effect between the LFABP T94A polymorphism and dietary fat intake in French-Canadian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, J; Brouillette, C; Lemieux, S; Prusse, L; Gaudet, D; Vohl, M C

    2004-08-01

    Hyperapobetalipoproteinemia is a common feature of the metabolic syndrome and could result from the interaction between genetic and dietary factors. The objective of this study was to verify whether dietary fat intake interacts with the T94A polymorphism of the liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) gene to modulate plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B levels. Dietary fat and saturated fat intakes were obtained by a dietitian-administered food frequency questionnaire and the LFABP T94A genotype was determined by a PCR-RFLP based method in 623 French-Canadian men recruited through the Chicoutimi Lipid Clinic (279 T94/T94, 285 T94/A94, and 59 A94/A94). The LFABP T94A polymorphism was not associated with plasma apo B levels when fat intake was not taken into consideration. However, in a model including the polymorphism, fat intake expressed as a percentage of total energy intake, the interaction term and covariates, the variance in apo B concentrations was partly explained by the LFABP T94A polymorphism (5.24%, p = 0.01) and by the LFABP T94A*fat interaction (6.25%, p = 0.005). Results were similar when saturated fat replaced fat intake in the model (4.49%, p = 0.02 for LFABP T94A and 6.43%, p = 0.004 for the interaction). Moreover, in men consuming more than 30% of energy from fat, the odds ratio for having plasma apo B levels above 1.04 g/L for A94 carriers was of 0.40 (p = 0.02) compared to T94/T94 homozygotes. Results were similar for carriers of the A94 allele consuming more than 10% of energy from saturated fat (OR: 0.32, p = 0.005). In conclusion, T94/T94 exhibit higher apo B levels whereas carriers of the A94 allele seem to be protected against high apo B levels when consuming a high fat and saturated fat diet. These findings reinforce the importance to take into account gene-diet interactions in the prevention and management of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:15308127

  1. Dietary blueberry attenuates whole-body insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice by reducing adipocyte death and its inflammatory sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFuria, Jason; Bennett, Grace; Strissel, Katherine J; Perfield, James W; Milbury, Paul E; Greenberg, Andrew S; Obin, Martin S

    2009-08-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation promotes insulin resistance (IR) and other obesity complications. AT inflammation and IR are associated with oxidative stress, adipocyte death, and the scavenging of dead adipocytes by proinflammatory CD11c+ AT macrophages (ATMPhi). We tested the hypothesis that supplementation of an obesitogenic (high-fat) diet with whole blueberry (BB) powder protects against AT inflammation and IR. Male C57Bl/6j mice were maintained for 8 wk on 1 of 3 diets: low-fat (10% of energy) diet (LFD), high-fat (60% of energy) diet (HFD) or the HFD containing 4% (wt:wt) whole BB powder (1:1 Vaccinium ashei and V. corymbosum) (HFD+B). BB supplementation (2.7% of total energy) did not affect HFD-associated alterations in energy intake, metabolic rate, body weight, or adiposity. We observed an emerging pattern of gene expression in AT of HFD mice indicating a shift toward global upregulation of inflammatory genes (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, inducible nitric oxide synthase), increased M1-polarized ATMPhi (CD11c+), and increased oxidative stress (reduced glutathione peroxidase 3). This shift was attenuated or nonexistent in HFD+B-fed mice. Furthermore, mice fed the HFD+B were protected from IR and hyperglycemia coincident with reductions in adipocyte death. Salutary effects of BB on adipocyte physiology and ATMPhi gene expression may reflect the ability of BB anthocyanins to alter mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB stress signaling pathways, which regulate cell fate and inflammatory genes. These results suggest that cytoprotective and antiinflammatory actions of dietary BB can provide metabolic benefits to combat obesity-associated pathology. PMID:19515743

  2. Effects of Dietary Fats on Blood Cholesterol and Other Measures Related to Chd Risk in Male and Female Laboratory Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tahia A. Maimanee; Paul F. Brain; Maria Andrade

    1999-01-01

    Juvenile and adult male and female Swiss mice were fed one of four specially-formulated, pelleted diets containing respectively 8 per cent saturated vegetable fat, 8 per cent soya oil, 8 per cent olive oil and 2 per cent soya oil (with identities hidden from the experimenter) or a local commercial rodent food. It was intended to assess their impact on some blood indices linked to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Subjects were individually housed and their blood concentrations of choleste...

  3. Structure and mechanism of the Propionibacterium acnes polyunsaturated fatty acid isomerase

    OpenAIRE

    Liavonchanka, Alena; Hornung, Ellen; Feussner, Ivo; Rudolph, Markus Georg

    2006-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) affect body fat gain, carcinogenesis, insulin resistance, and lipid peroxidation in mammals. Several isomers of CLA exist, of which the (9Z, 11E) and (10E, 12Z) isomers have beneficial effects on human metabolism but are scarce in foods. Bacterial polyunsaturated fatty acid isomerases are promising biotechnological catalysts for CLA production. We describe six crystal structures of the Propionibacterium acnes polyunsaturated fatty acid isomerase PAI in apo- an...

  4. TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leshukov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

  5. Effects of birth weight and maternal dietary fat source on the fatty acid profile of piglet tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; Missotten, J; Vlaeminck, B; De Smet, S

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects and possible interactions of birth weight and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation of the maternal diet on the fatty acid status of different tissues of newborn piglets. These effects are of interest as both parameters have been associated with pre-weaning mortality. Sows were fed a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed, echium or fish oil from day 73 of gestation. As fish oil becomes a scarce resource, linseed and echium oil were supplemented as sustainable alternatives, adding precursor fatty acids for DHA to the diet. At birth, the lightest and heaviest male piglet per litter were killed and samples from liver, brain and muscle were taken for fatty acid analysis. Piglets that died pre-weaning had lower birth weights than piglets surviving lactation (1.270.04 v. 1.550.02 kg; Pmortality was found. Lower DHA concentrations were observed in the brain of the lighter piglets compared with their heavier littermates (9.460.05 v. 9.630.04 g DHA/100 g fatty acids; P=0.008), suggesting that the higher incidence of pre-weaning mortality in low birth weight piglets may be related to their lower brain DHA status. Adding n-3 PUFA to the sow diet could not significantly reduce this difference in DHA status, although numerically the difference in the brain DHA concentration between the piglet weight groups was smaller when fish oil was included in the sow diet. Independent of birth weight, echium or linseed oil in the sow diet increased the DHA concentration of the piglet tissues to the same extent, but the concentrations were not as high as when fish oil was fed. PMID:25322791

  6. Effect of dietary fat saturation on lipid metabolism, arachidonic acid turnover and peritoneal macrophage oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, L B; Videla, A M; Giménez, M S

    2004-03-01

    We investigated the effects of a saturated fat diet on lipid metabolism and arachidonic acid (AA) turnover in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. The pro-oxidative effect of this diet was also studied. Female C57BL/6 mice were weaned at 21 days of age and assigned to either the experimental diet containing coconut oil (COCO diet), or the control diet containing soybean oil as fat source (10 mice per group). The fat content of each diet was 15% (w/w). Mice were fed for 6 weeks and then sacrificed. The concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, (LDL+VLDL)-cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione were increased in the plasma of mice fed the COCO diet, without changes in phospholipid or total cholesterol concentrations compared to control. The concentrations of total cholesterol, free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, and TBARS were increased in the macrophages of COCO-fed mice, while the content of total phospholipids did not change. The phospholipid composition showed an increase of phosphatidylcholine and a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine. The [3H]-AA distribution in the phospholipid classes showed an increase in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Incorporation of [3H]-cholesterol into the macrophages of COCO-fed mice and into the cholesterol ester fraction was increased. The COCO diet did not affect [3H]-AA uptake but induced an increase in [3H]-AA release. The COCO diet also enhanced AA mobilization induced by lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that the COCO diet, high in saturated fatty acids, alters the lipid metabolism and AA turnover of peritoneal macrophages in female mice and also produces a significant degree of oxidative stress. PMID:15060696

  7. Effect of dietary fat saturation on lipid metabolism, arachidonic acid turnover and peritoneal macrophage oxidative stress in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Oliveros

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a saturated fat diet on lipid metabolism and arachidonic acid (AA turnover in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. The pro-oxidative effect of this diet was also studied. Female C57BL/6 mice were weaned at 21 days of age and assigned to either the experimental diet containing coconut oil (COCO diet, or the control diet containing soybean oil as fat source (10 mice per group. The fat content of each diet was 15% (w/w. Mice were fed for 6 weeks and then sacrificed. The concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, (LDL + VLDL-cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and reduced glutathione were increased in the plasma of mice fed the COCO diet, without changes in phospholipid or total cholesterol concentrations compared to control. The concentrations of total cholesterol, free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, and TBARS were increased in the macrophages of COCO-fed mice, while the content of total phospholipids did not change. The phospholipid composition showed an increase of phosphatidylcholine and a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine. The [³H]-AA distribution in the phospholipid classes showed an increase in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Incorporation of [³H]-cholesterol into the macrophages of COCO-fed mice and into the cholesterol ester fraction was increased. The COCO diet did not affect [³H]-AA uptake but induced an increase in [³H]-AA release. The COCO diet also enhanced AA mobilization induced by lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that the COCO diet, high in saturated fatty acids, alters the lipid metabolism and AA turnover of peritoneal macrophages in female mice and also produces a significant degree of oxidative stress.

  8. Early Diet and Later Cancer Risk: Prospective Associations of Dietary Patterns During Critical Periods of Childhood with the GH-IGF Axis, Insulin Resistance and Body Fatness in Younger Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Anke L B; Schulze, Matthias B; Kroke, Anja; Diethelm, Katharina; Joslowski, Gesa; Krupp, Danika; Wudy, Stefan; Buyken, Anette E

    2015-01-01

    Early life, adiposity rebound, and puberty represent critical growth periods when food choices could have long-term relevance for cancer risk. We aimed to relate dietary patterns during these periods to the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor (GH-IGF) axis, insulin resistance, and body fatness in adulthood. Data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study participants with outcome data at 18-37 years, and ≥2 dietary records during early life (1-2 yr; n = 128), adiposity rebound (4-6 years, n = 179), or puberty (girls 9-14, boys 10-15 yr; n = 213) were used. Dietary patterns at these ages were derived by 1) reduced rank regression (RRR) to explain variation in adult IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fat-mass index; 2) principal component analysis (PCA). Regarding RRR, the patterns "cake/canned fruit/cheese & eggs" (early life), "sweets & dairy" (adiposity rebound) and "high-fat foods" (pubertal boys) were independently associated with higher adult HOMA-IR. Furthermore, the patterns "favorable carbohydrate sources" (early life), "snack & convenience foods" (adiposity rebound), and "traditional & convenience carbohydrates" (pubertal boys) were related to adult IGFBP-3 (P trend healthy" patterns for all periods, but none was associated with the outcomes (P trend > 0.1). In conclusion, dietary patterns during sensitive growth periods may be of long-term relevance for adult insulin resistance and IGFBP-3. PMID:26226486

  9. Dietary Whey Protein Lowers the Risk for Metabolic Disease in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet12

    OpenAIRE

    Shertzer, Howard G.; Woods, Sally E.; Krishan, Mansi; Genter, Mary Beth; Pearson, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Consuming a high-fat (HF) diet produces excessive weight gain, adiposity, and metabolic complications associated with risk for developing type 2 diabetes and fatty liver disease. This study evaluated the influence of whey protein isolate (WPI) on systemic energy balance and metabolic changes in mice fed a HF diet. Female C57BL/6J mice received for 11 wk a HF diet, with or without 100 g WPI/L drinking water. Energy consumption and glucose and lipid metabolism were examined. WPI mice had lower ...

  10. Inhibition of serum cholesterol oxidation by dietary vitamin C and selenium intake in high fat fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Menendez-Carreño, M. (María); Ansorena, D.; F. I. Milagro; Campion, J. (Javier); Martinez, J.A.; Astiasaran, I. (Iciar)

    2008-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have been considered as specific in vivo markers of oxidative stress. In this study, an increased oxidative status was induced in Wistar rats by feeding them a high-fat diet (cafeteria diet). Another group of animals received the same diet supplemented with a combination of two different antioxidants, ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg rat/day) and sodium selenite (200 microg/kg rat/day) and a third group fed on a control diet. Total and individual COPs analysis of...

  11. Population Growth of the Generalist Mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridida) Following Adaptation to High- or Low-Fat and High- or Low-Protein Diets and the Effect of Dietary Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erban, Tomas; Rybanska, Dagmar; Hubert, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) is a cosmopolitan generalist feeder that prefers foodstuffs of high-fat and high-protein content. Our aim was to investigate the population growth of T. putrescentiae after long-term nutritional adaptation to two distinct diets that are commonly infested in the synanthropic environment. Crushed dry dog food kernels provided a high-fat, high-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet, whereas wholemeal spelt flour provided a low-protein, low-fat, and high-carbohydrate diet. After >6 mo of nutritional adaptation, each of the two populations were used in two 28-d population growth tests: one that mites remained on their adaptation diet (homogenous diet treatment) and one that mites underwent a dietary switch (dietary switch treatment). Dietary treatment, nutritional adaptation, and their interaction all significantly influenced population growth. The homogenous diet treatment showed 7.5 times higher growth on the dog food diet than on flour. In the dietary switch, flour-adapted mites switching to dog food experienced five times greater population growth than the flour-adapted mites remained on flour, whereas the dog food-adapted population showed a 2.8-fold decrease in population growth when transferred to the flour. A comparison of means between the two dietary switch treatments showed a 1.9-fold higher population growth after flour-adapted mites were shifted to dog food than when the dog food-adapted mites were shifted to flour. We demonstrated that T. putrescentiae is able survive and reproduce for many generations on dry dog food and flour with different levels of success. High-fat and -protein food accelerated T. putrescentiae population growth compared with the high-carbohydrate diet. PMID:26314031

  12. Biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lower eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttaro, Antonio D

    2006-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids have important structural roles in cell membranes. They are also intermediates in the synthesis of biologically active molecules such as eicosanoids, which mediate fever, inflammation, blood pressure and neurotransmission. Arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids are essential components of brain tissues and, through their involvement in the development of neural and retinal functions, important dietary nutrients for neonatal babies. Lower eukaryotes are particularly rich in C20-22 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fungi and marine microalgae are currently used to produce nutraceutic oils. Other protists and algae are being studied because of the variability in their enzymes involved in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Such enzymes could be used as source for the production of transgenic organisms able to synthesize designed oils for human diet or, in the case of parasitic protozoa, they might be identified as putative chemotherapeutic targets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids can be synthesized by two different pathways: an anaerobic one, by using polyketide synthase related enzymes, and an aerobic one, which involves the action of elongases and oxygen dependent desaturases. Desaturases can be classified into three main types, depending on which of the consecutive steps of polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis they are involved with. The enzymes may be specialized to act on: saturated substrates (type I); mono- and di-unsaturated fatty acids by introducing additional double bonds at the methyl-end site of the existing double bonds (type II); or the carboxy half ('front-end') of polyunsaturated ones (type III). Type III desaturases require the alternating action of elongases. A description of the enzymes that have been isolated and functionally characterized is provided, in order to highlight the different pathways found in lower eukaryotes. PMID:17028087

  13. Relationship of the Chemokine, CXCL12, to Effects of Dietary Fat on Feeding-Related Behaviors and Hypothalamic Neuropeptide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kinning; Barson, Jessica R.; Ho, Hui T.; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

    2016-01-01

    The intake of a high fat diet (HFD), in addition to stimulating orexigenic neuropeptides in the hypothalamus while promoting overeating and reducing locomotor behavior, is known to increase inflammatory mediators that modulate neuronal systems in the brain. To understand the involvement of chemokines in the effects of a HFD, we examined in rats whether HFD intake affects a specific chemokine, CXCL12, and its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, in the hypothalamus together with the neuropeptides and whether CXCL12 itself acts similarly to a HFD in stimulating the neuropeptides and altering ingestion and locomotor behavior. Compared to low-fat chow, a HFD for 5 days significantly increased the expression of CXCL12 and its receptors, in both the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) where the neuropeptides enkephalin (ENK) and galanin were also stimulated and the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PFLH) where orexin (OX) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were increased. In contrast, the HFD had no impact on expression of CXCL12 or its receptors in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) where the carbohydrate-related peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), was suppressed. Analysis of protein levels revealed a similar stimulatory effect of a HFD on CXCL12 levels in the PVN and PFLH, as well as in blood, and an increase in the number of CXCR4-positive cells in the PVN. In the ARC, in contrast, levels of CXCL12 and number of CXCR4-positive cells were too low to measure. When centrally administered, CXCL12 was found to have similar effects to a HFD. Injection of CXCL12 into the third cerebral ventricle immediately anterior to the hypothalamus significantly stimulated the ingestion of a HFD, reduced novelty-induced locomotor activity, and increased expression of ENK in the PVN where the CXCR4 receptors were dense. It had no impact, however, on NPY in the ARC or on OX and MCH in the PFLH where the CXCR4 receptors were not detected. These results, showing CXCL12 in the hypothalamus to be stimulated by a HFD and to mimic the effects of the HFD where its receptors are located, suggest that this chemokine system may have a role in mediating both the neuronal and behavioral effects induced by a fat-rich diet. PMID:27047354

  14. Molecular Mechanisms for the Modulation of Selected Inflammatory Markers by Dietary Rice Bran Oil in Rats Fed Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Kumar, P Pavan; Lokesh, B R

    2016-04-01

    Industrially produced partially hydrogenated vegetable fat (PHVF) contains trans fatty acids (TFA) mostly comprising elaidic acid (EA, 18:1∆9t). Though, the harmful effects of TFA on health have been repeatedly publicized, the fat containing TFA have been continued to be used as a cooking medium in many regions of the world. The adverse effects of PHVF on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and the possible ameliorative action of rice bran oil (RBO) on these markers were evaluated. Weaning rats were fed a AIN-93 purified diet supplemented with the following lipids: groundnut oil (GNO, 10 wt%), PHVF (10 wt%), RBO (10 wt%), PHVF blended with RBO at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt% levels. The final concentration of the lipids in the diet was maintained at 10 wt%. Rats were fed these diets for 60 days. They were sacrificed and analyzed for oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. The rats fed PHVF showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation and hepatic antioxidant enzymes. The rats fed PHVF-containing diets showed enhanced levels of interleukin-1β, C-reactive proteins and also showed enhanced levels of paw inflammation when injected with carrageenan as compared to rats given GNO, RBO or PHVF blended with incremental amounts of RBO. The macrophages from rats fed diet containing PHVF showed up-regulation in the expressions of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), nuclear factor-κB p65, toll like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4 and down-regulation in the expressions of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR)γ, adiponectin receptor (AdipoR)-1 and AdipoR-2 when compared to rats fed diet containing GNO, RBO and PHVF blended with RBO. It was concluded that dietary PHVF enhance pro-inflammatory markers which can be reduced by judiciously blending PHVF with RBO. PMID:26939679

  15. A high oleic sunflower oil fatty acid esters of plant sterols mixed with dietary diacylglycerol reduces plasma insulin and body fat accumulation in Psammomys obesus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelled Dori

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome is associated with subsequent development of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. It is characterized by reduced response to insulin, central obesity, and dyslipidemia. Intake of plant sterols (PS has been shown to confer a healthier lipid profile and ameliorate cardiovascular disease risk factors in experimental animals and humans. In this study we used an animal model of type 2 diabetes to assess the effects of a preparation of PS esterified to high oleic sunflower oil fatty acids mixed with dietary diacylglycerol (PS-HOSO on diabetic related metabolic parameters. Psammomys obesus (P. obesus were fed high energy (HE diet supplemented by either PS-HOSO or control oil. Following 4.5 weeks of intervention, animals were divided into fasting and non-fasting modes prior to outcome measurements. Glucose and insulin levels as well as blood lipid profile, body weight, and fat accumulation were evaluated in fasting and non-fasting modes. Results P. obesus fed with a HE diet displayed a characteristic heterogeneity in their blood glucose and insulin levels with a subset group displaying type 2 diabetes symptoms. PS-HOSO treatment significantly reduced total cholesterol (24%, P P P P Conclusion PS-HOSO supplementation to diabetes-prone gerbils counteracts the increase in body weight and epididymal fat accumulation, and also results in a drop in circulating insulin levels. These effects are pointing out that PS-HOSO may serve as a functional ingredient for metabolic syndrome or diabetic sufferers, which not only influences body weight, but also prevents or reverses insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia.

  16. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Pumpkin oil (Cucurbita pepo on Performance and Blood Fat of Broiler Chickens during Finisher Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Using most of antibiotic growth promoters as feed additives has been banned by the European Union due to cross-resistance against pathogens and residues in tissues; and scientists search for alternatives to antibiotics, two days. In this view, medicinal plants and essential oils extracted are becoming more important due to their antimicrobial and stimulating effects on animal digestive systems. Approach: This study was conducted to evaluate the use of Pumpkin oil in broiler nutrition as a natural growth promoting substance and its effect on abdominal and blood fat. A total of 144 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308 were used in a completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 3 replicates. The experiment was conducted from 29-49 d of age. The main ingredients of diets included corn, soybean meal and wheat. The pumpkin oil levels added to the diets were 0.00 (control, 5.00 and 10.00 g kg?1 DM. Results: Pumpkin oil supplementation up to 5.00 g kg?1 DM diet had not significant effect on broilers performance, but supplementation in higher level (10.00 g kg?1 DM significantly decreased broilers performance. Pumpkin oil supplementation decreased bird?s mortality. Adding pumpkin oil had not any significant effect on abdominal fat pad and carcass composition, however cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in plasma decreased at 49 days of age (PConclusion: Results of this study indicated that supplementation of diets with 5.00 g kg?1 DM pumpkin oil in corn-soybean meal-wheat based diet can be profitable because it reduced broiler chicken?s mortality and it did not have any adverse effect on bird?s performance.

  17. Advising patients about low-fat diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosser, W. W.

    1993-01-01

    Flooded with dietary information, Canadians often ask their family physicians for dietary advice. A literature review reveals evidence that low-fat diets will lower serum cholesterol by a maximum of 17%, but no study has demonstrated a concurrent decrease in mortality. Because the benefits of low-fat diets are not proven, family physicians should be cautious about giving dietary advice.

  18. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE'): study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2) will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF), IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. While clinical data indicate that excess weight for height is associated with poor prognosis for long term survival, little attention is paid to weight control in the clinical management of breast cancer. This study will provide information that can be used to answer important patient questions about the effects of dietary pattern and magnitude of weight loss on long term survival following breast cancer treatment. CA125243

  19. The effect of ripening, heat processing and frozen storage on the in vitro bioaccessibility of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from Jalapeño peppers in absence and presence of two dietary fat types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; Ramos-Aguilar, Olivia P; Failla, Mark L; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime D

    2015-08-15

    To date, there is no information in the literature regarding the bioaccessibility of capsaicinoids from natural sources. The effect of ripening and heat-processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin was studied in the absence and presence of two dietary fat types. The capsaicinoid bioaccessibility was also studied during the frozen storage of peppers for 6 months. Fresh green peppers showed the highest capsaicinoid bioaccessibility, as compared with that of other experimental groups. The bioaccessibility of capsaicinoids from green peppers decreased as the intensity of heat treatment increased. The dietary fat increased the bioaccessibility of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in digestions with red peppers, especially that of dihydrocapsaicin. The bioaccessibility of capsaicinoids was altered by frozen storage. The Caco-2 cells incorporated capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin (8.4% and 10.9%, respectively) but they were probably metabolized by cells. PMID:25794757

  20. Associations of body fat and its distribution with dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking in blacks and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, M L; McDonald, A; Bild, D E; Caan, B J; Hilner, J E; Jacobs, D R; Liu, K

    1992-05-01

    Cross-sectional associations between body fat and its distribution and environmental factors influencing energy balance were examined in 5115 young adults. Protein was directly associated with body mass index (BMI) in all race and sex groups (P less than 0.01) after age, education, cigarette-smoking status, alcohol intake, and physical activity were adjusted for. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with BMI in males (P = 0.02). Total physical activity was inversely associated with BMI in white women and with skinfold-thickness measures (P less than 0.01) in all groups. Waist-to-hip-circumference ratio (WHCR) was positively associated with total kilojoules (kilocalories) in women, inversely associated with percent of kilojoules (kilocalories) from carbohydrates in whites, grams of crude fiber/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) (except in black men), and physical activity (except in white women). WHCR was directly associated with cigarette smoking except in black men, and with total alcohol intake in men. Beer was consistently associated with WHCR in all race and sex groups. PMID:1570801

  1. Energy and macronutrient intake and dietary pattern among school children in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Parveen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is increasing in Bahrain and there is lack of information on the energy and macronutrient intake of children. The objective of this research was to study the energy and macronutrient intake as well as food frequency pattern of Bahraini school children. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on Bahraini school boys and girls aged 6-18 years from all the 11 populated regions of the country. Data on food intake consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall and was obtained by interviewing a sub-sample of the study population. Information was also obtained through a self-administered questionnaire for the entire sample on the weekly frequency of food items that were grouped into 7 categories based on similarity of nutrient profiles. Dietary analysis was performed using the Nutritionist 5 (First Data Bank Version 1.6 1998. Results While the average energy intake of students was close to the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK Reference standards, protein intake substantially exceeded the Reference Nutrient Intake values as did daily sugar consumption. Dietary fiber fell short of the Dietary Recommended Values (UK and 36%-50% students exceeded the Energy % limits for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The Polyunsaturated: Saturated fat ratio remained at an unacceptable level of 0.6 for girls and boys. While sweets, snacks and regular soda drinks were popular, milk, fruits and vegetables were not commonly consumed. Conclusions High sugar consumption, low intake of dietary fiber and high energy % of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol by many Bahraini children, is likely to increase their risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Nutrition education programs in schools should emphasize the importance of healthy balanced diets for growth and health maintenance of children as well as dietary prevention of diseases.

  2. Saturated fat supplementation interacts with dietary forage neutral detergent fiber content during the immediate postpartum and carryover periods in Holstein cows: Production responses and digestibility of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-05-01

    Forty-eight multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the interaction between a highly saturated free FA supplement (SFFA) and dietary forage neutral detergent fiber (fNDF) content on production responses and nutrient digestibility of dairy cows in the postpartum period. Treatment diets were offered from 1 to 29d postpartum (postpartum period; PP) and contained 20 or 26% fNDF (50:50 corn silage:alfalfa silage and hay, dry matter basis) and 0 or 2% SFFA [Energy Booster 100 (Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN); 96.1% FA: 46.2% C18:0 and 37.0% C16:0]. From 30 to 71d postpartum (carryover period), a common diet (~23% fNDF, 0% SFFA) was offered to all cows to evaluate carryover effects of the treatment diets early in lactation. During the PP, higher fNDF decreased dry matter intake (DMI) by 2.0 kg/d, whereas SFFA supplementation increased it by 1.4kg/d. In addition, high fNDF with 0% SFFA decreased DMI compared with the other diets and this difference increased throughout the PP. Treatments did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield during the PP but did during the carryover period when SFFA supplementation decreased 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield for the low-fNDF diet (51.1 vs. 58.7kg/d), but not for the high-fNDF diet (58.5 vs. 58.0kg/d). During the PP, lower fNDF and SFFA supplementation decreased body condition score loss. A tendency for an interaction between fNDF and SFFA indicated that low fNDF with 2% SFFA decreased body condition score loss compared with the other diets (-0.49 vs. -0.89). During the PP, lower fNDF and 2% SFFA supplementation decreased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DMI) by 0.30 and 0.23 units, respectively. The low-fNDF diet with 2% SFFA decreased feed efficiency compared with other diets early in the PP, but this difference decreased over time. Supplementation of SFFA in the PP favored energy partitioning to body reserves and limited DMI depression for the high-fNDF diet, which might allow higher-fNDF diets to be fed to cows in the PP. However, SFFA supplemented in the low-fNDF diet during the PP affected production negatively in the carryover period. Dietary fNDF and SFFA interacted, affecting performance in the PP with carryover effects when cows were fed a common diet in early lactation. PMID:25726102

  3. Low Adherence to Dietary Recommendations for Saturated Fat, Fiber, and Sodium Found Among American Indians and Other U.S. Adults with Diabetes*

    OpenAIRE

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Xu, Jiaqiong; Zephier, Ellie; O’Leary, Veronica; Barbara V. Howard; Resnick, Helaine E.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article was to evaluate how well American Indians with diabetes met dietary recommendations and to compare adherence to dietary recommendations with those of U.S. adults with diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Dietary intake in both studies was assessed using a 24-h recall questionnaire. Dietary intakes were evaluated against American Diabetes Association (ADA) dietary recommendations. The analysis sample consisted of 1,008 partici...

  4. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate Diet Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance, Modulating Mitochondrial Respiratory Uncoupling in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, Paolo; De Filippo, Chiara; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Gifuni, Giorgio; Putti, Rosalba; Moni, Bottu Heleena; Canani, Roberto Berni; Meli, Rosaria; Mollica, Maria Pina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are dietary compounds able to attenuate insulin resistance. Anyway, the precise actions of ω-3PUFAs in skeletal muscle are overlooked. We hypothesized that PUFAs, modulating mitochondrial function and efficiency, would ameliorate pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant signs of nutritionally induced obesity. Study Design To this aim, rats were fed a control diet (CD) or isocaloric high fat diets containing either ω-3 PUFA (FD) or lard (LD) for 6 weeks. Results FD rats showed lower weight, lipid gain and energy efficiency compared to LD-fed animals, showing higher energy expenditure and O2 consumption/CO2 production. Serum lipid profile and pro-inflammatory parameters in FD-fed animals were reduced compared to LD. Accordingly, FD rats exhibited a higher glucose tolerance revealed by an improved glucose and insulin tolerance tests compared to LD, accompanied by a restoration of insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. PUFAs increased lipid oxidation and reduced energy efficiency in subsarcolemmal mitochondria, and increase AMPK activation, reducing both endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress. Increased mitochondrial respiration was related to an increased mitochondriogenesis in FD skeletal muscle, as shown by the increase in PGC1-α and -β. Conclusions our data strengthened the association of high dietary ω3-PUFA intake with reduced mitochondrial energy efficiency in the skeletal muscle. PMID:26901315

  5. Time Trend Investigation of PCBs, PBDEs, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Selected n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Rich Dietary Fish Oil and Vegetable Oil Supplements; Nutritional Relevance for Human Essential n-3 Fatty Acid Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, M.N.; Covaci, A.; Gheorghe, A; Schepens, P.

    2004-01-01

    In addition to being used in the food and animal feed industry, fish oils have also been used traditionallyas dietary supplements. Due to the presence of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, fish oils have therapeuticbenefits in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, immunological, and arthritic diseases, aswell as childhood deficiency diseases such as rickets, because of a high content of vitamin D. However,fish oils are also susceptible to contamination with lipophilic organic chemicals tha...

  6. Trans fats: What physicians should know

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, V

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogenation of fat products is used in the food industry to extend their shelf life. Trans fats are the result of partial hydrogenation of unsaturated fat. Trans fats increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decrease high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Canadians have one of the highest dietary intake of trans fat in the world. Health Canada has made recommendations to decrease the trans fat intake of Canadians. Physicians should ...

  7. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaella Crescenzo; Francesca Bianco; Arianna Mazzoli; Antonia Giacco; Rosa Cancelliere; Giovanni di Fabio; Armando Zarrelli; Giovanna Liverini; Susanna Iossa

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease i...

  8. Replacement of dietary fish oil for Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar L.) with a stearidonic acid containing oil has no effect on omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2007-02-01

    The worldwide increase in aquaculture production and the concurrent decrease of wild fish stocks has made the replacement of fish oil in aquafeeds an industry priority. Oil from a plant source Echium plantagineum L., Boraginaceae, has high levels of stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4omega3, 14%) a biosynthetic precursor of omega-3 long-chain (> or =C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3 LC-PUFA). Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr were fed a control fish oil diet (FO) or one of 3 experimental diets with 100% canola oil (CO) 100% SDA oil (SO), and a 1:1 mix of CO and SDA oil (MX) for 42 days. There were no differences in the growth or feed efficiency between the four diets. However, there were significant differences in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of the red and white muscle tissues. Significantly higher amounts of SDA, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3, EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3, DHA) and total omega3 FA occurred in both red and white muscle tissues of fish fed SO and FO compared with those fed CO. Feeding SO diet resulted in omega3 LC-PUFA amounts in the white and red muscle being comparable to the FO diet. This study shows that absolute concentration (mug/g) of EPA, DHA and total omega3 have been maintained over 6 weeks for Atlantic salmon fed 14% SDA oil. The balance between increased biosynthesis and retention of omega3 LC-PUFA to maintain the concentrations observed in the SO fed fish remains to be conclusively determined, and further studies are needed to ascertain this. PMID:17134928

  9. Whole Berries Vs. Berry Anthocyanins: Interactions with Dietary Fat Levels in the C57BL/6J Mouse Model of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male C57BL/6J mice received diets with either 10% of calories from fat (LF) or a high fat diet [45% (HF45) or 60% (HF60) cal. from fat] for 92 days (Expt. 1) or 70 days (Expt. 2). These were given with or without freeze dried powders from whole blueberries (BB) or strawberries (SB) (Expt. 1), or pur...

  10. Effectiveness and tolerability of dietary supplementation with a combination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants in the treatment of dry eye symptoms: results of a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Oleñik A

    2014-01-01

    Andrea OleñikOn behalf of the Dry Eye Clinical Study Group (DECSG)Ophthalmology Department, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, SpainBackground: We assessed the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement based on the combination of omega-3 essential fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye-related symptoms.Methods: A total of 905 patients (72% women, median age 60 years) with dry eye syndrome and using artificial tears to relieve symptoms participated in an ...

  11. Replacing saturated fat with PUFA-rich (sunflower oil) or MUFA-rich (rapeseed, olive and high-oleic sunflower oil) fats resulted in comparable hypocholesterolemic effects in cholesterol-fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, E A; Rieckhoff, D; Kunath-Rau, A; Erbersdobler, H F

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich dietary fats do not have the same plasma cholesterol-lowering effects whereby rapeseed oil was more effective than olive oil. This phenomenon could be explicable by the content of other fatty acids or plant sterols. To further evaluate the effects of different MUFA-rich oils (18:1-rich sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, olive oil) in comparison to polyunsaturated (PUFA)-rich oils (18:2-rich sunflower oil) and saturated fat (palm stearin) on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, male Syrian golden hamsters were fed semipurified diets containing 5% fat and 0.2% cholesterol for 5 weeks. To test whether oil refining would have an impact on the cholesterol-lowering potential, unrefined and refined varieties of rapeseed and olive oil were included. After 5 weeks, plasma total cholesterol (TC) was highest with palm stearin (10.0 +/- 2.6 mmol/l) while the MUFA- or PUFA-rich fats significantly lowered TC. The lowest TC concentrations were found with refined rapeseed, cold pressed rapeseed and 18:2-rich sunflower oil (6.7 +/- 1.2; 7.1 +/- 0.7 and 7.1 +/- 0.7 mmol/l, respectively), whereas TC was 10-15% higher (not significant) with 18:1-rich sunflower, virgin and refined olive oil. Liver cholesterol concentrations were lowest in hamsters fed palm stearin or 18:2-rich sunflower oil while MUFA-rich fats increased hepatic cholesteryl ester accumulation, especially of cholesteryl oleate. There were no significant differences in the fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion. These data demonstrate that MUFA-rich dietary fats, e.g. rapeseed, olive and 18:1-rich sunflower oil, are comparable in their hypocholesterolemic potential and cause similar effects on plasma cholesterol as 18:2-rich sunflower oil in hamsters when the dietary cholesterol intake is moderate. PMID:10545672

  12. The importance of the quality or type of fat in the diet: a food–based dietary guideline for South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Smuts, C.M.; Wolmarans, P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the latest total fat intake data for South Africa, as well as scientific evidence on the effect of the total amount and quality or type of fat in the diet. The total fat intake of South Africans is within the goal of ≤ 30% of total energy, but the quality or type of fat in the diet requires attention. Fats are key nutrients required for early growth and development, and influence the body’s response to nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases late...

  13. Efeito da suplementação de linhaça, óleo de canola e vitamina E na dieta sobre as concentrações de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados em ovos de galinha Effect of dietary supplementation of flaxseed, canola oil and vitamin E upon polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.G. Pita

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de diferentes fontes de ácidos graxos insaturados (óleo de canola e semente de linhaça, acrescidas de diferentes teores de alfa-tocoferol nas dietas de poedeiras, sobre a composição de ácidos graxos da gema do ovo foi estudado. Foram utilizadas 288 galinhas da linhagem Babcock que receberam dietas com 6% de óleo de canola, 20% de semente de linhaça moída ou 3% de óleo de canola e 10% de linhaça moída com teores de 0, 100 e 200UI/kg de alfa-tocoferol. As dietas com 20% de semente de linhaça proporcionaram teores mais elevados de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados no ovo com aumento, em particular, dos teores de ácido alfa-linolênico e EPA (ácido eicosapentaenóico e diminuição de ácido araquidônico na gema. Os teores de vitamina E contidos nas rações experimentais não determinaram alteração significativa na deposição dos diferentes ácidos graxos na gema dos ovos, exceto com relação aos ácidos graxos saturados.The effect of dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids - canola oil and flaxseed - with different vitamin E supplementation on the fatty acid deposition into the eggs of 288 Babcock laying hens was investigated. Birds were fed diets containing 6% of canola oil, 20% of flaxseed or a combination of 3% of canola oil and 10% of flaxseed, enriched with 0, 100 or 200Ul of dl-alpha-tocopheril acetate. The inclusion of flaxseed in the diets increased the yolk polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly alpha-linolenic acid and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid. The concentration of alpha-tocopherol in the diet did not change the egg yolk, fatty acids deposition but changed the saturated fatty acids deposition.

  14. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of changes in dietary fatty acid composition on macronutrient oxidation were studied on controls and 6 obese women, 30-45 years old. Anthropometry, body composition, physical activity, continuous indirect calorimetry (200 min), plasma fatty acids, serum insulin and glucose were measured. The study was performed using a crossover design: baseline and three-period 2wk each: canola oil supplementation, washout and sunflower oil supplementation. Subjects were provided with commercially available oil (1 L/wk) either canola or sunflower during the corresponding period. Oil treatment produced significant modifications of plasma fatty acid profile, according to the type of oil consumed. In both groups, most of the fat provided was oxidised (ratio oxidised/intake: 79-102%) in the two dietary regimes, no differences were found between groups. Controls however, had a higher fat oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) with sunflower compared to canola treatment. Changes in plasma polyunsaturated/saturated ratio (P/S) from canola to sunflower treatment were not associated to fat oxidation. Changes in plasma n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment showed a positive association with fat oxidation in controls (r=0. 72) and a negative association in obese (r=-0.79). Carbohydrate oxidation was on average 20-29% of CHO intake. Glucose oxidation was not associated to n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment, but it was inversely correlated to PIS ratio changes in both groups. With sunflower treatment obese showed a higher CHO oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) associated to a greater insulin response compared to controls. This study showed that the type of oil can induce differences in substrate oxidation. Canola oil intake could be stimulated based on its smaller insulin response in subjects predisposed to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. (author)

  15. Diet fat alters synaptosomal phosphatidylethanolaminemethyl-transferase activity and phosphatidylcholine synthesis in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) can be synthesized via three routes, each having potentially different metabolic fates. One route for PC synthesis is methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). To examine if dietary fat affects membrane PE composition and phosphatidylethanolaminemethyltransferase (PEMT) activity, male weanling rats were fed semi-purified diets containing 20% (w/w) fat of differing fatty acid composition for 24 days. Microsomal and synaptic plasma membranes were isolated and phospholipid composition analyzed. PEMT activity was measured by incorporation of the methyl group from 3H-S-adenosylmethionine into PE. Polyunsaturated diets high in omega 6 fatty acids produce a high ratio of omega 6/omega 3 fatty acids in synaptic plasma membranes. Dietary omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acid levels are reflected in membrane phospholipid content of 22:6(3), 20:4(6), 22:4(6) and 22:5(6). Diet-induced increase in these longer chain homologues of omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids and a high ratio of omega 6/omega 3 fatty acids in PE are both associated with increased PEMT activity. These results suggest that diet-fat induced change in fatty acid composition of membrane PE results in transition in PEMT activity and synthesis of PC in brain, by providing preferred species of PE for methylation

  16. The physico-chemical properties of dietary fibre determine metabolic responses, short-chain Fatty Acid profiles and gut microbiota composition in rats fed low- and high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fåk, Frida; Jakobsdottir, Greta; Kulcinskaja, Evelina; Marungruang, Nittaya; Matziouridou, Chrysoula; Nilsson, Ulf; Stålbrand, Henrik; Nyman, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how physico-chemical properties of two dietary fibres, guar gum and pectin, affected weight gain, adiposity, lipid metabolism, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and the gut microbiota in male Wistar rats fed either low- or high-fat diets for three weeks. Both pectin and guar gum reduced weight gain, adiposity, liver fat and blood glucose levels in rats fed a high-fat diet. Methoxylation degree of pectin (low, LM and high (HM)) and viscosity of guar gum (low, medium or high) resulted in different effects in the rats, where total blood and caecal amounts of SCFA were increased with guar gum (all viscosities) and with high methoxylated (HM) pectin. However, only guar gum with medium and high viscosity increased the levels of butyric acid in caecum and blood. Both pectin and guar gum reduced cholesterol, liver steatosis and blood glucose levels, but to varying extent depending on the degree of methoxylation and viscosity of the fibres. The medium viscosity guar gum was the most effective preparation for prevention of diet-induced hyperlipidaemia and liver steatosis. Caecal abundance of Akkermansia was increased with high-fat feeding and with HM pectin and guar gum of all viscosities tested. Moreover, guar gum had distinct bifidogenic effects independent of viscosity, increasing the caecal abundance of Bifidobacterium ten-fold. In conclusion, by tailoring the viscosity and possibly also the degree of methoxylation of dietary fibre, metabolic effects may be optimized, through a targeted modulation of the gut microbiota and its metabolites. PMID:25973610

  17. Children's very low food security is associated with increased dietary intakes in energy, fat, and added sugar among Mexican-origin children (6-11 y in Texas border Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity among Mexican-origin and Hispanic households is a critical nutritional health issue of national importance. At the same time, nutrition-related health conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are increasing in Mexican-origin youth. Risk factors for obesity and type 2 diabetes are more common in Mexican-origin children and include increased intakes of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. This study assessed the relationship between children's experience of food insecurity and nutrient intake from food and beverages among Mexican-origin children (age 6-11 y who resided in Texas border colonias. Methods Baseline data from 50 Mexican-origin children were collected in the home by trained promotora-researchers. All survey (demographics and nine-item child food security measure and 24-hour dietary recall data were collected in Spanish. Dietary data were collected in person on three occasions using a multiple-pass approach; nutrient intakes were calculated with NDS-R software. Separate multiple regression models were individually fitted for total energy, protein, dietary fiber, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, sodium, Vitamin C, and percentage of calories from fat and added sugars. Results Thirty-two children (64% reported low or very low food security. Few children met the recommendations for calcium, dietary fiber, and sodium; and none for potassium or vitamin D. Weekend intake was lower than weekday for calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and vitamin C; and higher for percent of calories from fat. Three-day average dietary intakes of total calories, protein, and percent of calories from added sugars increased with declining food security status. Very low food security was associated with greater intakes of total energy, calcium, and percentage of calories from fat and added sugar. Conclusions This paper not only emphasizes the alarming rates of food insecurity for this Hispanic subgroup, but describes the associations for food insecurity and diet among this sample of Mexican-origin children. Child-reported food insecurity situations could serve as a screen for nutrition problems in children. Further, the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs, which play a major beneficial role in children's weekday intakes, may not be enough to keep pace with the nutritional needs of low and very low food secure Mexican-origin children.

  18. Dietary determinants of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarized the mechanisms and influences of several major dietary determinants of weight change, with a focus on their potential in the prevention of weight gain or regain. We discussed the intake of fat, p...

  19. The major European dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martnez-Gonzlez, Miguel ngel; Martn-Calvo, Nerea

    2013-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors that significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. The lack of universally accepted diagnosis criteria makes it difficult to know the real prevalence of MetS in both adult and pediatric population. Lifestyle, especially nutritional habits and physical activity, have been suggested to be independent risk factors for the development of MetS. Recent studies highlight the need to prioritize overall dietary patterns, rather than isolated nutrients, to better appraise the associations between nutritional habits and MetS. In this review we summarize recently published intervention trials and systematic reviews that evaluated the association between overall dietary patterns and the risk of MetS. Westernized dietary patterns, characterized by a high consumption of meat or meat products, snacks, baked desserts and sugar-sweetened beverages, which provide high amounts of saturated fatty acids and simple carbohydrates as added sugars, have been associated with higher risk of MetS. In contrast, more traditional dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP), characterized by a high consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole cereals and fish are associated with a reduced risk of MetS. The main characteristics of the MDP include a high consumption of nuts and olive oil, resulting in a relatively fat-rich pattern that provides high amounts of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, bioactive polyphenols and dietary fiber. Strong evidence is accumulating to support that a closer conformity with the MDP is inversely associated with the incidence of MetS, cardiovascular risk factors, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23979531

  20. Relationship between Serum Leptin, Ghrelin and Dietary Macronutrients in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Pourghassem Gargari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrinopathy in women. It may involve an impairment in physiologic regulation of leptin and ghrelin. There is limited, controversial data on the relation of dietary components with leptin and ghrelin in PCOS, so the current study has been conducted to explore the effects of different macronutrients on serum levels of leptin and ghrelin in PCOS and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, we randomly choose 30 PCOS patients and 30 healthy age and body mass index (BMI matched controls. Intake of macronutrients [protein, total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, carbohydrate, dietary fiber] and energy were assessed using 3-day, 24-hour food recall and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ. Fasting hormonal status was measured for each participant. Results: PCOS women had higher levels of serum leptin, insulin, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone (LH, whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG was lower compared to healthy women. There was no significant difference in mean ghrelin concentrations between the groups. Among PCOS women, independent of BMI and total energy intake, we observed an inverse association between leptin concentration and total dietary fat (β=-0.16, P<0.05 and saturated fatty acid (SFA intake (β=-0.58, P<0.05. This relationship was not seen in the healthy subjects. There was no significant association between ghrelin and macronutrients in PCOS and healthy participants. Conclusion: Certain habitual dietary components such as fat and SFA may decrease serum leptin, whereas ghrelin is not influenced by these in PCOS women. More studies are needed to better clarify the effects of dietary macronutrients on serum leptin and ghrelin.

  1. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals. PMID:22685607

  2. Sibutramine reduces feeding, body fat and improves insulin resistance in dietary-obese male Wistar rats independently of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Michael; Bing, Chen; King, Peter; Pickavance, Lucy; Heal, David; Wilding, John

    2001-01-01

    We studied the effects of the novel noradrenaline and serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor sibutramine on feeding and body weight in a rat model of dietary obesity, and whether it interacts with hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurones.Chow-fed and dietary-obese (DIO) male Wistar rats were given sibutramine (3 mg kg−1 day−1 p.o.) or deionized water for 21 days.Sibutramine decreased food intake throughout the treatment period in both dietary-obese rats (P

  3. Macronutrient Distribution and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; Del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to analyze dietary macronutrient intake and its main sources according to sex and age. Results were derived from the ANIBES ("Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain") cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9-75 years old). Mean dietary protein intake was 74.5 ± 22.4 g/day, with meat and meat products as the main sources (33.0%). Mean carbohydrate intake was 185.4 ± 60.9 g/day and was higher in children and adolescents; grains (49%), mainly bread, were the main contributor. Milk and dairy products (23%) ranked first for sugar intake. Mean lipid intake was 78.1 ± 26.1 g/day and was higher in younger age groups; contributions were mainly from oils and fats (32.5%; olive oil 25.6%) and meat and meat products (22.0%). Lipid profiles showed relatively high monounsaturated fatty acid intake, of which olive oil contributed 38.8%. Saturated fatty acids were mainly (>70%) combined from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products and oils and fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly from oils and fats (31.5%). The macronutrient intake and distribution in the Spanish population is far from population reference intakes and nutritional goals, especially for children and adolescents. PMID:27011202

  4. Macronutrient Distribution and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to analyze dietary macronutrient intake and its main sources according to sex and age. Results were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain”) cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old). Mean dietary protein intake was 74.5 ± 22.4 g/day, with meat and meat products as the main sources (33.0%). Mean carbohydrate intake was 185.4 ± 60.9 g/day and was higher in children and adolescents; grains (49%), mainly bread, were the main contributor. Milk and dairy products (23%) ranked first for sugar intake. Mean lipid intake was 78.1 ± 26.1 g/day and was higher in younger age groups; contributions were mainly from oils and fats (32.5%; olive oil 25.6%) and meat and meat products (22.0%). Lipid profiles showed relatively high monounsaturated fatty acid intake, of which olive oil contributed 38.8%. Saturated fatty acids were mainly (>70%) combined from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products and oils and fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly from oils and fats (31.5%). The macronutrient intake and distribution in the Spanish population is far from population reference intakes and nutritional goals, especially for children and adolescents. PMID:27011202

  5. Macronutrient Distribution and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ruiz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to analyze dietary macronutrient intake and its main sources according to sex and age. Results were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain” cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old. Mean dietary protein intake was 74.5 ± 22.4 g/day, with meat and meat products as the main sources (33.0%. Mean carbohydrate intake was 185.4 ± 60.9 g/day and was higher in children and adolescents; grains (49%, mainly bread, were the main contributor. Milk and dairy products (23% ranked first for sugar intake. Mean lipid intake was 78.1 ± 26.1 g/day and was higher in younger age groups; contributions were mainly from oils and fats (32.5%; olive oil 25.6% and meat and meat products (22.0%. Lipid profiles showed relatively high monounsaturated fatty acid intake, of which olive oil contributed 38.8%. Saturated fatty acids were mainly (>70% combined from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products and oils and fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly from oils and fats (31.5%. The macronutrient intake and distribution in the Spanish population is far from population reference intakes and nutritional goals, especially for children and adolescents.

  6. Palm oil: a healthful and cost-effective dietary component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, A S H; Goh, S H

    2002-03-01

    Palm oil is an excellent choice for food manufacturers because of its nutritional benefits and versatility. The oil is highly structured to contain predominantly oleic acid at the sn2-position in the major triacylglycerols to account for the beneficial effects described in numerous nutritional studies. Oil quality and nutritional benefits have been assured for the variety of foods that can be manufactured from the oil directly or from blends with other oils while remaining trans-free. The oxidative stability coupled with the cost-effectiveness is unparalleled among cholesterol-free oils, and these values can be extended to blends of polyunsaturated oils to provide long shelf-life. Presently the supply of genetic-modification-free palm oil is assured at economic prices, since the oil palm is a perennial crop with unparalleled productivity. Numerous studies have confirmed the nutritional value of palm oil as a result of the high monounsaturation at the crucial 2-position of the oil's triacylglycerols, making the oil as healthful as olive oil. It is now recognized that the contribution of dietary fats to blood lipids and cholesterol modulation is a consequence of the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of the fats. Lipolytic hydrolysis of palm oil glycerides containing predominantly oleic acid at the 2 position and palmitic and stearic acids at the 1 and 3 positions allows for the ready absorption of the 2-monoacrylglycerols while the saturated free fatty acids remain poorly absorbed. Dietary palm oil in balanced diets generally reduced blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides while raising the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Improved lipoprotein(a) and apo-A1 levels were also demonstrated from palm oil diets; an important benefits also comes from the lowering of blood triglycerides (or reduced fat storage) as compared with those from polyunsaturated fat diets. Virgin palm oil also provides carotenes apart from tocotrienols and tocopherols that have been shown to be powerful antioxidants and potential mediators of cellular functions. These compounds can be antithrombotic, cause an increase of the prostacyclin/thromboxane ratio, reduce restenosis, and inhibit HMG-CoA-reductase (thus reducing) cholesterol biosynthesis). Red palm oil is a rich source of beta-carotene as well as of alpha-tocopherol and tocotrienols. PMID:11975364

  7. The Failure of the Fat Avoidance Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Platts-Mills, Tim

    2000-01-01

    The dominant dietary advice at present in the US of fat avoidance arose from a need to decrease serum cholesterol levels in order to decrease coronary heart disease. During the past 40 years, this dietary approach has been adopted by the US population with a resultant decrease in both cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease mortality. However, the decrease in dietary fat has failed to prevent the increase in the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases. Given the impact of obe...

  8. Importância da gordura alimentar na prevenção e no controle de distúrbios metabólicos e da doença cardiovascular Importance of the dietary fat on the prevention and control of metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS reiterou recentemente que o consumo de dietas inadequadas e a inatividade física estão entre os dez principais fatores de mortalidade. Diversos ensaios aleatorizados demonstram que intervenções alimentares adequadas podem diminuir ou prevenir significativamente o aparecimento de várias doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. Neste contexto, o papel da dieta vem sendo exaustivamente avaliado em estudos clínicos e epidemiológicos. Assim, já foi bem estabelecido na literatura que a quantidade e o tipo de gordura alimentar exercem influência direta sobre fatores de risco cardiovascular, tais como a concentração de lípides e de lipoproteínas plasmáticas, bem como sua associação a processos inflamatórios. Os ácidos graxos participam de complexos sistemas de sinalização intracelular, função que vem sendo bastante explorada. Os ácidos graxos poli-insaturados não somente influenciam a composição das membranas, metabolismo celular e sinais de tradução, mas também modulam a expressão de genes, regulando a atividade e a produção de diversos fatores de transcrição. A proposta deste artigo é rever tópicos relevantes referentes ao metabolismo de lípides e os relacionar a terapias nutricionais que possam contribuir para a prevenção e o tratamento de doenças associadas.The World Health Organization (WHO has recently reinforced the fact that inadequate diets, along with physical inactivity, are among the ten main determinant factors of mortality. Several randomized trials demonstrated that dietary interventions may lower or even prevent the occurrence of several non-communicable diseases. In this context, the role of diet has been exhaustively evaluated in several clinical and epidemiological studies. Thus, it is well established in literature that the amount and type of dietary fat have a direct influence on cardiovascular risk factors, such as lipids and plasma lipoprotein concentration, as well as their association with inflammatory processes. Fatty acids also participate in complex intracellular signaling systems, a function which has been currently investigated. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA act not only by altering membrane lipid composition, cellular metabolism and signal transduction, but also modulating gene expression by regulating the activity and/or production of different nuclear transcription factors. The aim of this article is to review important topics regarding the lipids metabolism and correlate them with nutritional therapies that may contribute to the prevention and treatment of related diseases.

  9. The effects of a controlled worksite environmental intervention on determinants of dietary behavior and self-reported fruit, vegetable and fat intake

    OpenAIRE

    Chin A Paw Marijke; van Poppel Mireille NM; Engbers Luuk H; Van Mechelen Willem

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Eating patterns in Western industrialized countries are characterized by a high energy intake and an overconsumption of (saturated) fat, cholesterol, sugar and salt. Many chronic diseases are associated with unhealthy eating patterns. On the other hand, a healthy diet (low saturated fat intake and high fruit and vegetable intake) has been found important in the prevention of health problems, such as cancer and cardio-vascular disease (CVD). The worksite seems an ideal inte...

  10. A controlled trial of a low sodium, low fat, high fibre diet in treated hypertensive patients: the efficacy of multiple dietary intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Little, P.; Girling, G.; Hasler, A; Trafford, A; Craven, A.

    1990-01-01

    An 8-week combination low sodium, low fat, high fibre diet was compared to the individual components of this diet in a controlled trial using 193 patients already on treatment for essential hypertension. No significant changes were observed in the high fibre group. The low sodium group showed a decrease in systolic blood pressure which was close to significance. The low fat group showed a small but significant decrease in seated diastolic blood pressure and weight. The combination group showe...

  11. Fat intake and composition of fatty acids in serum phospholipids in a randomized, controlled, Mediterranean dietary intervention study on patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sköldstam Lars; Nilsson Ingela; Hagfors Linda; Johansson Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background We have previously reported that rheumatoid arthritis patients, who adopted a modified Cretan Mediterranean diet, obtained a reduction in disease activity and an improvement in physical function and vitality. This shift in diet is likely to result in an altered intake of fatty acids. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the dietary intake of fatty acids, as well as the fatty acid profile in serum phospholipids, during the dietary intervention study ...

  12. Application of dietary fish oil in dairy cow reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    ZWYRZYKOWSKA, Anna; KUPCZYNSKI, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Feed fats are commonly used as a component of high-yielding cow diet rations. Many studies have been conducted on the effects of fat supplementation on metabolism, milk composition, and improvements in dairy cow reproduction. The positive effects on fat (vegetable oil) and energy supplementation on improvements in reproduction are well documented. Consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including n-3 acids, in appropriate feed doses improves fertility of dairy cows. A fat source w...

  13. The Effect of Substrat Ratio Fish Oil and Milk Fat on Synthesis of Structured Lipid by Enzimatic Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Subroto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Structured lipid with saturated fatty acid (SFA at outer position and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA at sn-2 position has good dietary and stabilized characteristics. In this research structured lipids was synthesized by enzymatic transesterification between fish oil and milk fat. The reaction was catalyzed by lipase from Candida antartica that has randomized specificity to inter esterification. The factor substrat ratio of fish oil and milk fat were studied. Reaction operated at 40 oC for 4 hours, and the enzim concentration was 10 % by substrat. Composition of fatty acid, regiospecificity position of fatty acid, and glyceride profile were determinate. The results showed that the substrat ratio of fish oil: milk fat affect the composition of structured lipid. The more of milk fat added showed that composition saturated fatty acids on structured lipid was increased but the unsaturated fatty acids wasdecreased. The regiospecificity of structured lipid showed that saturated fatty acid has tendency at outer position and unsaturatedfatty acid at sn-2 position and optimum at ratio fish oil: milk fat was 1 : 3 (w/w. In the ratio fish-oil: milk fat 1:3 produced structured lipids in which the sn-2 incorporated by unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic, EPA, and DHA was 22.9; 3.3, and 2.2% respectively. While in position sn-1, 3 incorporated mostly medium chain and saturated fatty acids such as capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acid 5.0; 7.0; 16.6; 31.7, and 9.9 % respectively. The ratio substrate did not affect the profil of glyceride on structured lipid. Triglyceride tend to decreased, and the diglyceride and monogliceride was increased with an increase of milk fat on substrate but not significantly. Structured lipid showed the characteristic like milk fat but high nutrition because rich of PUFA at sn-2 position, so this product may can applied on milk fortification.

  14. Assessment of the fatty acid patterns in vegetable oils, fats and fat-rich foods commonly consumed in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantellops, Dennis

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one individual food samples were analyzed for their fatty acid contents by gas-liquid chromatography using capillary tubes. The samples belonged to 5 different food groups and included vegetable oils, butter & ghee, animal fats, dairy products, fishes, chicken & meats and other popular dishes. The results show that maize oil was lowest in its total saturated fatty acid content (11% and richest in linolenic acid. On the other hand, total saturated fatty acids made up 42-62 % of the total fatty acid patterns of the lamb and camel fat tallow, respectively. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (C20-C22 with two to six double bonds were present only in fishes. Estimate of fat intake amounted to 36 grams per subject per day and the % contribution of the analyzed fats was presented. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids amounted to 0.96; which falls within the optimum dietary goals.Cuarenta y una muestras de alimentos individuales fueron analizadas por su contenido en ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía gas-líquido usando columnas capilares. Las muestras pertenecieron a 5 grupos diferentes, incluyendo aceites vegetales, mantequilla y «ghee», grasas animales, productos lácteos, pescados, pollo y carnes, y otros platos populares. Los resultados mostraron que el aceite de maíz fue el que tuvo el más bajo contenido en ácidos grasos saturados totales (11% y el más rico en ácido linolénico. Por otro lado, los ácidos grasos saturados totales alcanzaron el 42-62% de los ácidos grasos totales del sebo de cordero y camello respectivamente. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (C20-C22 con dos a seis dobles enlaces estuvieron presentes solo en pescados. La estimación de la ingesta ascendió a 36 g por sujeto y día, y se presenta el porcentaje de contribución de las grasas analizadas. La relación de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados a saturados ascendió a 0.96; estando dentro del óptimo alimenticio.

  15. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L.; Arbuckle, Matthew D.; Tidwell, Jaime M.; Richards, Todd L.; Craft, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23% fat/7% saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high...

  16. Dietary Blueberry Attenuates Whole-Body Insulin Resistance in High Fat-Fed Mice by Reducing Adipocyte Death and Its Inflammatory Sequelae13

    OpenAIRE

    DeFuria, Jason; Bennett, Grace; Strissel, Katherine J; Perfield, James W.; Milbury, Paul E.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Obin, Martin S.

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation promotes insulin resistance (IR) and other obesity complications. AT inflammation and IR are associated with oxidative stress, adipocyte death, and the scavenging of dead adipocytes by proinflammatory CD11c+ AT macrophages (ATM?). We tested the hypothesis that supplementation of an obesitogenic (high-fat) diet with whole blueberry (BB) powder protects against AT inflammation and IR. Male C57Bl/6j mice were maintained for 8 wk on 1 of 3 diets: low-fat (10% of e...

  17. Seasonal changes in the accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in zooplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwich, Melanie; Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik; Wacker, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In aquatic food webs, consumers, such as daphnids and copepods, differ regarding their accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). We tested if the accumulation of PUFAs in a seston size fraction containing different consumers and in Daphnia as a separate consumer is subject to seasonal changes in a large deep lake due to changes in the dietary PUFA supply and specific demands of different consumers. We found that the accumulation of arachidonic acid (ARA) in Daphnia increased from e...

  18. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Klaus W; Joachim Hauser; Shigehiko Kanaya; Ivo Kaunzinger; Lange, Katharina M.; Ewelina Makulska-Gertruda; Yukiko Nakamura; Sontag, Thomas A.; Lara Tucha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. Insufficient dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) has been suggested to have an impact on the development of symptoms of ADHD in children. Individuals with ADHD have been demonstrated to have significantly reduced blood concentrations of PUFAs and, in particular, reduced levels of omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs. These findings suggest ...

  19. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in peripheral artery disease: the OMEGA-PAD trial

    OpenAIRE

    Grenon, S Marlene; Owens, Christopher D.; Alley, Hugh; Chong, Karen; Yen, Priscilla K; Harris, William; Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Conte, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite current consensus guidelines recommending intensive cardiovascular risk factor management for peripheral artery disease (PAD), patients suffering from PAD continue to experience significant morbidity and mortality. This excess morbid burden is at least partially related to impaired vascular function and systemic inflammation. Interventions bridging this gap are critical. Dietary supplementation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been shown to improve endothelial functio...

  20. Relación del polimorfismo -55CT del gen UCP3 con la pérdida de peso y los cambios metabólicos tras una dieta hipocalórica rica en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados en pacientes obesos Relation of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene with weight loss and metabolic changes after a high polyunsaturated fat diet in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. de Luis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y objetivos: La alteración en la expresión de las proteinas UCP3 podrían reducir el gasto energético y aumentar el almacenamiento de energía en forma de grasa. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue investigar la influencia del polimorfismo -55CT del gen UCP3 en la respuesta metabólica, pérdida de peso y los niveles séricos de adipocitoquinas tras una dieta hipocalórica rica en grasas poliinsaturadas en pacientes obesos. Diseño: Se estudió una muestra de 133 pacientes obesos de forma prospectiva durante 3 meses. La dieta hipocalórica tenía 1.459 kcal, un 45,7% de hidratos de carbono, un 34,4% de los lípidos y un 19,9% de las proteínas. La distribución de las grasas era; un 21,8% de grasas saturadas, un 55,5% de grasas monoinsaturadas y un 22,7% de las grasas poliinsaturadas (7 g por día de ácidos graso w6, 2 g por díia de w-3 y una ratio w6/w3 de 3,5. Resultados: Un total de 100 pacientes (28 varones/72 mujeres (75,2% tenían el genotipo -55CC (grupo con genotipo salvaje y 33 pacientes (8 varones/25 mujeres (24,8% el genotipo -55CT (grupo con genotipo mutante. En el grupo con genotipo salvaje disminuyeron el índice de masa corporal (-2,5 ± 5,3 kg/m², peso (-4,2 ± 3,7 kg, masa grasa (-3,7 ± 3,3 kg, circunferencia de la cintura (-4,1 ± 2,9 cm, tensión arterial sistólica (-4,9 ± 10,1 mmHg, niveles de colesterol total (-16,1 ± 23,6 mg/dl, colesterol LDL (-11,1 ± 26,8 mg/dl, triglicéridos (-12,0 ± 46,8 mg/dl, insulina (-1,8 ± 4,5 UI/L, HOMA-R (-0,6 ± 1,5 y leptina (-6,2 ± 8,4 ng/ml. En el grupo con genotipo mutante disminuyeron significativamente los parámetros antropométricos sin modificaciones significativas de parámetros bioquímicos. Conclusión: Los pacientes portadores del alelo T del polimorfismo -55CT del gen UCP3, presentan una ausencia respuesta metabólica ante la perdida de peso inducida por una dieta hipocalórica rica en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados.Background and objectives: The alteration in the protein expression of UCP3 could reduce energy consumption and increase energy storage as fat. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene in the metabolic response, weight loss and serum levels of adipokines following a hypocaloric diet rich in polyunsaturated fat in obese patients. Design: A sample of 133 obese patients were analyzed prospectively for 3 months. The hypocaloric diet was 1459 kcal, 45.7% carbohydrate, 34.4% from 19.9% lipids and proteins. The fat distribution was, a 21.8% saturated fat, 55.5% monounsaturated and 22.7% of polyunsaturated fat (7 g per day of fatty acids w6, 2 g per day of w -3 and a ratio w6/w3 of 3.5. Results: A total of 100 patients (28 males/72 females (75.2% had genotype - 55CC (wild genotype group and 33 patients (8 males/25 females (24.8% -55CT genotype (group mutant genotype. In the wild genotype, body mass index (-2.5 ± 5.3 kg/m², weight (-4.2 ± 3.7 kg, fat mass (-3,7 ± 3.3 kg, waist circumference (-4.1 ± 2.9 cm, systolic blood pressure (-4.9 ± 10.1 mmHg, total cholesterol levels (- 16.1 ± 23.6 mg / dl, LDL cholesterol (-11.1 ± 26.8 mg/dl, triglycerides (-12.0 ± 46.8 mg/dl, insulin (-1.8 ± 4.5 IU/L, HOMA-R (-0.6 ± 1.5 and leptin (-6.2 ± 8.4 ng/ml decreased. In the mutant genotype anthropome-tric parameters were significantly decreased without significant changes in biochemical parameters. Conclusion: The T allele carriers of -55CT UCP3 polymorphism exhibit no metabolic response to weight loss induced by a hypocaloric diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  1. Impact of feeding polyunsaturated fatty acids on cholesterol metabolism of dyslipidemic obese rats of WNIN/GR-Ob strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheril, Alex; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M; Jayashree, Thiyyari; Giridharan, Nappan V; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula

    2009-05-01

    Dietary fatty acids are known to play an important role in the development as well as prevention of dyslipidemia. In this study, we evaluated the impact of feeding polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for a period of 4 months on various aspects of cholesterol metabolism in genetically obese mutant rats of WNIN/GR-Ob strain. Based on their phenotype, lean and obese rats were divided into two groups, A and B respectively, and further subdivided depending on the type of dietary fat. Control groups of rats (AI and BI), were fed on 4% groundnut oil, which was replaced by safflower oil; n-6 PUFA diet (AII and BII) or oil blend of safflower and soybean oil, n-6 and n-3 PUFA diet (AIII and BIII) in the experimental groups. It was observed that feeding of diets with n-6 PUFA or a combination of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs resulted in marked elevation of plasma levels of total as well as HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in obese rats (BII and BIII), as compared to the control group (BI). Further, plasma HDL fraction of obese rats had elevated apolipoprotein E (apo E), while apo A1 levels remained unaltered. Increased lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and cholesteryl ester (CE) levels in the plasma and enhanced expression of hepatic scavenger receptor class B type1 (SR-B1) were also observed in PUFA-fed obese rats (BII and BIII). However, there was no change in hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter protein A1 (ABCA1) levels in the obese rats fed on PUFA rich diets. Intriguingly, though these changes favor efficient removal of cholesterol from peripheral tissues, its esterification and enhanced clearance through reverse cholesterol transport (RCT); plasma HDL-C remained higher in these genetically dyslipidemic obese rats, thereby pointing at yet unknown mechanisms, involved in cholesterol homeostasis, which need to be studied. PMID:18848326

  2. Effect of P/S ratio (0.5 vs 0.9) on hepatic LDL transport at three levels of dietary cholesterol in cynomolgus macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction between dietary polyunsaturated to saturated (P/S) fatty acid ratio and cholesterol (C) was studied in 6 groups of male cynomolgus macaques fed diets (oleic acid constant) for 72 weeks as follows (C mg/Cal-P/S): (1), 0.06 - 0.5; (2), 0.06-0.9, (3), 0.28-0.5; (4), 0.28-0.9; (5), 2,35-0.5; (6), 2,35-0.9. Plasma C was proportional to dietary C and was affected significantly by P/S in 1 and 2 only. Mean plasma C (mg/dl) at 72 weeks was: (1) 158; (2) 117; (3) 320; (4) 284; (5) 602; (6) 601. LDL-C was significantly higher in (1) than in (2) (90 vs 65 mg/dl). In vivo LDL turnover studies showed that LDL clearance was suppressed by excess dietary C and by saturated fats in low C diets. Receptor-independent clearance was relatively constant. Hepatic LDL transport was determined after injection of 125I-cellobiose-LDL. Hepatic LDL-C uptake was greater in (2) than in (1). LDL-C synthesis was reduced in (4) and (6) compared to (3) and (5), respectively. The authors conclude that (i) hepatic LDL receptor activity is altered by degree of saturation in dietary triglycerides when dietary C is minimal and (ii) saturated triglycerides enhance LDL-C synthesis when dietary C is ample in this model

  3. Relationship between dietary macronutrient intake and the risk of age-related cataract in middle-aged and elderly patients in northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Quan Lu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To examine the association between dietary macronutrient intake and the risk of age-related cataract (ARC in middle-aged and elderly men.METHODS:A hospital-based case-control study was conducted from December 2009 to November 2011. Cases (n=360 were patients with cataract aged 45-85 years old, and controls (n=360 were patients who had been admitted to the same hospital for diseases not related with cataract. All subjects were interviewed using a structured interviewer-administrated questionnaire that included information on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits and detailed medical history, simultaneously, the dietary intakes of nutrients were collected via a valid semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI of three types of ARC were estimated using multiple logistic regression models.RESULTS: After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, total dietary intake of carbohydrate was positively associated with cortical cataract, compared to controls in the lowest quartile, and the OR for cases in the highest quartile of intake was 2.471 (95%CI:1.348-6.043, P=0.027. Higher dietary intakes of protein were protective for posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC (OR=0.528, 95%CI:0.148-0.869, P=0.023. Dietary fat intake was not associated with any type of cataract, however, participants in the highest quartile of polyunsaturated fatty acids intake had 2.7 times the risk of nuclear cataract as did those in the lowest quartile (OR=2.742, 95%CI:1.790-4.200, P=0.033.CONCLUSION: A high intake of carbohydrate and polyunsaturated fatty acid may increase the odds of cortical and nuclear cataract, respectively, whereas high intake of protein, especially animal protein, may protect against PSC cataract. It is possible that dietary changes of target population may reduce the risk of ARC.

  4. Dietary fat source alters hepatic gene expression profile and determines the type of liver pathology in rats overfed via total enteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if the fatty acid composition of the diet affects the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5-6/group) were overfed low (5%) or high (70%) fat diets with different fatty acid sources: olive oil (OO,...

  5. The use of rabbits in atherosclerosis research. Diet and drug intervention in different rabbit models exposed to selected dietary fats and the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja

    used for dietary or drug intervention: 1) the cholesterol-fed normolipidemic rabbit, 2) the 1% cholesterol- fed heterozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit and 3) the homozygous WHHL rabbit. The reproductive performance and physiological blood lipid levels in growing and adult...

  6. Efficacy of dietary behavior modification for preserving cardiovascular health and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Moira McAllister; Kannel, William Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The preventive benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle exceed those reported for using medication and procedures. Among the modifiable preventive measures, diet is of paramount importance, and recent data suggest some misconceptions and uncertainties that require reconsideration. These include commonly accepted recommendations about polyunsaturated fat intake, processed meat consumption, fish choices and preparation, transfatty acids, low carbohydrate diets, egg consumption, coffee, added sugar, soft drink beverages, glycemic load, chocolate, orange juice, nut consumption, vitamin D supplements, food portion size, and alcohol. PMID:21253499

  7. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  8. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed high fat diets / Carnitina diettica mantem reservas energticas e evita a fatiga de bagre-africano durante exerccio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, Ozrio; Vincent, Van Ginneken; Guido, van den Thillart; Martin, Verstegen; Johan, Verreth.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipdios e protenas so tradicionalmente considerados combustveis primrios durante natao aerbica. Nesse ensaio foi investigado o efeito da suplementao de vrios nveis de gordura e carnitina no metabolismo de 100 bagres africanos juvenis (Clarias gariepinus). Os peixes foram arraoados com q [...] uatro dietas isoproticas, cada uma contendo 100 ou 190 g gordura kg-1 dieta, e um dos dois nveis de carnitina (15 e 1000 mg kg-1). Os peixes cresceram de 61 a 162 g em 10 semanas. No final do ensaio de alimentao, grupos de seis peixes por tratamento foram induzidos a nadar vigorosamente por 3 h e em seguida vrios parmetros foram determinados no tecido muscular e plasma, e os resultados observados nos grupos exercitados foram comparados com grupos controles (no exercitados). Os peixes arraoados com 1,000 mg carnitina acumularam de duas a trs vezes mais carnitina que os peixes arraoados com 15 mg carnitina. O nvel de acyl-carnitina no plasma foi influenciado pela interao entre os tratamentos dietticos e exerccio fsico (P Abstract in english Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitr [...] ogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1). Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam vigorously for 3 h and the results were compared with unexercised groups. Fish receiving 1,000 mg carnitine accumulated 2- to 3-fold more carnitine than fish receiving 15 mg carnitine. Plasma acyl-carnitine level was affected by an interaction between dietary treatment and exercise (P

  9. Bioavailability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has caused greater attention about dietary intake of these fatty acids. Fatty fish is the major dietary source of these fatty acids. Because of the low intake of fish at many places, foods...... enriched with omega-3 LCPUFA can be good alternatives to improve the intake of these fatty acids. Effects of lipid structures and food matrices on bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA have been investigated. Short term studies showed that both lipid structure and food matrix affect the bioavailability of...

  10. Dietary Supplementation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Deline, Marshall L.; VRABLIK, TRACY L.; WATTS, JENNIFER L.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways...

  11. Inter-individual variation of dietary fat-induced mesoderm specific transcript in adipose tissue within inbred mice is not caused by altered promoter methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Koza, Robert A.; Rogers, Pamela; Kozak, Leslie P.

    2009-01-01

    Mesoderm specific transcript (Mest), an imprinted gene associated with fat mass expansion under conditions of positive energy balance, shows highly variable expression (~80-fold) in white adipose tissue (WAT) of C57BL/6J (B6) mice fed an obesogenic diet. Since B6 mice are essentially genetically invariant and Mest is known to be regulated by CpG methylation within its immediate proximal promoter, the large variability in its expression in adipose tissue has the hallmarks of being controlled v...

  12. Safety and Health Benefits of Novel Dietary Supplements Consisting Multiple Phytochemicals, Vitamins, Minerals and Essential Fatty Acids in High Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-07-01

    The objective was to determine safety and efficacy of health supplements "Beyond Tangy Tangerine," a multivitamin/mineral complex and combination of multivitamin/mineral complex, "Osteofx," a bone healthy supplement and "Ultimate Essential Fatty Acids" in Sprague Dawley rats consuming high-fat diets. Initially a pilot study was conducted which confirmed palatability and acceptability of supplements. In a second study, rats (n = 15/group) were randomized to Control; Multivitamin/mineral complex (2 g/kg BW) or Combination (2 g Multivitamin/mineral complex, 1.5 g Bone healthy supplement and 0.34 g Essential fatty acids/kg BW). No differences were observed in BW change, feed intake, organ weights or bone mineral composition with supplementations compared to control. Multivitamin/mineral complex supplementation decreased abdominal white adipose tissue weights (WAT) (p = .005), total (p = .033) and fat mass (p = .040), plasma IL-6 (p = .016) and ALKP (p = .038) and elevated plasma calcium (p < .001), phosphorus (p = .038), total protein (p = .002), albumin (p = .014) and globulin (p = .018), compared to control. Similarly, combination supplementation reduced WAT (p < .001), total (p = .023) and fat mass (p = .045), plasma triglycerides (p = .018), IL-6 (p = .002) and ALKP (p < .001) with increases in plasma calcium (p = .031), phosphorus (p < .001) compared to control. Results indicate that consuming either supplement can be considered safe and improves overall health by reducing inflammation, abdominal fat mass and plasma triglycerides, as well as promote bone health. PMID:26317447

  13. Fat intake and composition of fatty acids in serum phospholipids in a randomized, controlled, Mediterranean dietary intervention study on patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sköldstam Lars

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that rheumatoid arthritis patients, who adopted a modified Cretan Mediterranean diet, obtained a reduction in disease activity and an improvement in physical function and vitality. This shift in diet is likely to result in an altered intake of fatty acids. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the dietary intake of fatty acids, as well as the fatty acid profile in serum phospholipids, during the dietary intervention study presented earlier. Results From baseline to the end of the study, changes in the reported consumption of various food groups were observed in the Mediterranean diet group. The change in diet resulted in a number of differences between the Mediterranean diet group and the control diet group regarding the fatty acid intake. For instance, a lower ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids was observed in the Mediterranean diet group, both assessed by diet history interviews (dietary intake and measured in serum phospholipids. Moreover, the patients in the Mediterranean diet group that showed a moderate or better clinical improvement during the study (diet responders, had a higher reported intake of n-3 fatty acids and a lower ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids compared to the patients with minor or no improvement. Also the fatty acid profile in serum phospholipids differed in part between the diet responders and the diet non-responders. Conclusion The changes in the fatty acid profile, indicated both by dietary assessments and through fatty acids in s-phospholipids may, at least in part, explain the beneficial effects of the Cretan Mediterranean diet that we have presented earlier.

  14. Differences in Maternal Circulating Fatty Acid Composition and Dietary Fat Intake in Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus or Mild Gestational Hyperglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinhua; Scholl, Theresa O.; Leskiw, Maria; Savaille, Juanito; Stein, T Peter

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We investigated the relationship between maternal circulating fatty acids (FAs) and dietary FA intake in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; n = 49), women with hyperglycemia less severe than GDM (impaired glucose challenge test [GCT] non-GDM; n = 80), and normal control subjects (n = 98). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A case-control design was nested within a prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women. Fasting concentrations of serum total FAs (enzymatic assay) ...

  15. Fasting substrate oxidation in relation to habitual dietary fat intake and insulin resistance in non-diabetic women: a case for metabolic flexibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Carstens Madelaine T; Goedecke Julia H; Dugas Lara; Evans Juliet; Kroff Jacolene; Levitt Naomi S; Lambert Estelle V.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Metabolic flexibility described as the capacity of the body to match fuel oxidation to fuel availability has been implicated in insulin resistance. We examined fasting substrate oxidation in relation to dietary macronutrient intake, and markers of insulin resistance in otherwise healthy women, with and without a family history of diabetes mellitus (FH DM). Methods We measured body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry), visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (VAT...

  16. Identification of a dietary pattern prospectively associated with increased adiposity during childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, G L; Emmett, P M; Northstone, K; Howe, L. D.; Tilling, K.; Jebb, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Specific dietary risk factors for excess adiposity in young people are poorly understood. However, studies in adults suggest dietary energy density, fat and fibre are critical dietary factors. Objective: To examine longitudinal relationships between a dietary pattern (DP) characterised by dietary energy density, % total energy from fat and fibre density and fat mass (FM) in children from 7 to 15 years of age. Design: Subjects were 6772 children from the UK Avon Longitudinal Study ...

  17. Dietary Fatty Acids Differentially Associate with Fasting Versus 2-Hour Glucose Homeostasis: Implications for The Management of Subtypes of Prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Nicola; Perreault, Leigh; Kerege, Anna; Strauss, Allison; Bergman, Bryan C

    2016-01-01

    Over-nutrition has fuelled the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes, but the role of individual macronutrients to the diabetogenic process is not well delineated. We aimed to examine the impact of dietary fatty acid intake on fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose concentrations, as well as tissue-specific insulin action governing each. Normoglycemic controls (n = 15), athletes (n = 14), and obese (n = 23), as well as people with prediabetes (n = 10) and type 2 diabetes (n = 11), were queried about their habitual diet using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. All subjects were screened by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and studied using the hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp with infusion of 6,62H2-glucose. Multiple regression was performed to examine relationships between dietary fat intake and 1) fasting plasma glucose, 2) % suppression of endogenous glucose production, 3) 2-hour post-OGTT plasma glucose, and 4) skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity (glucose rate of disappearance (Rd) and non-oxidative glucose disposal (NOGD)). The %kcal from saturated fat (SFA) was positively associated with fasting (β = 0.303, P = 0.018) and 2-hour plasma glucose (β = 0.415, P<0.001), and negatively related to % suppression of hepatic glucose production (β = -0.245, P = 0.049), clamp Rd (β = -0.256, P = 0.001) and NOGD (β = -0.257, P = 0.001). The %kcal from trans fat was also negatively related to clamp Rd (β = -0.209, P = 0.008) and NOGD (β = -0.210, P = 0.008). In contrast, the %kcal from polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) was negatively associated with 2-hour glucose levels (β = -0.383, P = 0.001), and positively related to Rd (β = 0.253, P = 0.007) and NOGD (β = 0.246, P = 0.008). Dietary advice to prevent diabetes should consider the underlying pathophysiology of the prediabetic state. PMID:26999667

  18. Dietary Fatty Acids Differentially Associate with Fasting Versus 2-Hour Glucose Homeostasis: Implications for The Management of Subtypes of Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Nicola; Perreault, Leigh; Kerege, Anna; Strauss, Allison; Bergman, Bryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Over-nutrition has fuelled the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes, but the role of individual macronutrients to the diabetogenic process is not well delineated. We aimed to examine the impact of dietary fatty acid intake on fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose concentrations, as well as tissue-specific insulin action governing each. Normoglycemic controls (n = 15), athletes (n = 14), and obese (n = 23), as well as people with prediabetes (n = 10) and type 2 diabetes (n = 11), were queried about their habitual diet using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. All subjects were screened by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and studied using the hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp with infusion of 6,62H2-glucose. Multiple regression was performed to examine relationships between dietary fat intake and 1) fasting plasma glucose, 2) % suppression of endogenous glucose production, 3) 2-hour post-OGTT plasma glucose, and 4) skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity (glucose rate of disappearance (Rd) and non-oxidative glucose disposal (NOGD)). The %kcal from saturated fat (SFA) was positively associated with fasting (β = 0.303, P = 0.018) and 2-hour plasma glucose (β = 0.415, P<0.001), and negatively related to % suppression of hepatic glucose production (β = -0.245, P = 0.049), clamp Rd (β = -0.256, P = 0.001) and NOGD (β = -0.257, P = 0.001). The %kcal from trans fat was also negatively related to clamp Rd (β = -0.209, P = 0.008) and NOGD (β = -0.210, P = 0.008). In contrast, the %kcal from polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) was negatively associated with 2-hour glucose levels (β = -0.383, P = 0.001), and positively related to Rd (β = 0.253, P = 0.007) and NOGD (β = 0.246, P = 0.008). Dietary advice to prevent diabetes should consider the underlying pathophysiology of the prediabetic state. PMID:26999667

  19. Effects of method of barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat on duodenal nutrient flows, milk fatty acid profiles, and microbial protein synthesis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa, T; Hobin, M R; Gozho, G N

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the interactive effects of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on ruminal nutrient digestion, duodenal nutrient flow, microbial protein synthesis, and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles in dairy cows. Four Holstein cows (656 ± 28 kg of BW; 80 ± 12 d in milk) fitted with permanent ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of experimental treatments, in which barley was either dry-rolled (DRB) or pelleted (PB) and supplemented with full-fat canola seed (canola) or full-fat flaxseed (flaxseed). Cows fed DRB consumed 1.8 to 3.5 kg/d more dry matter compared with those fed PB. Mean ruminal pH was lower and the duration (min/d) and area (pH × min) of total ruminal acidosis (RA; ruminal pH ruminal pH >5.5), and severe RA (5.5 >ruminal pH >5.2), and the duration of acute RA (ruminal pH flaxseed compared with those fed canola. Milk concentrations of C18:3n3 and total CLA tended to be greater in cows fed PB compared with those fed DRB. When compared with cows fed canola, milk concentrations of C18:2 trans-11,cis-15, C18:2 cis-9,trans-11, C18:2 trans-11,trans-13, total CLA, and C18:3n3 were greater in cows fed flaxseed. Ruminal digestion of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber was greater in cows fed DRB compared with those fed PB. Duodenal flow of ammonia-N tended to be greater in cows fed PB compared with those fed DRB. Duodenal flow of nonammonia nonmicrobial N was greater in cows fed flaxseed compared with those fed canola; however, barley grain processing did not affect duodenal nonammonia nonmicrobial N flow. Duodenal flow of microbial nonammonia N and microbial efficiency were not affected by diet. In summary, barley grain processing and source of fat altered ruminal FA biohydrogenation, and this was reflected in changes in duodenal FA flow and milk FA profiles; however, ruminal microbial protein synthesis was unaltered. PMID:22863103

  20. Dietary carnosic acid suppresses hepatic steatosis formation via regulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Mi-young; Mun, Seong Taek

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined the hepatic anti-steatosis activity of carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic compound of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves, as well as its possible mechanism of action, in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice model. Mice were fed a HFD, or a HFD supplemented with 0.01% (w/w) CA or 0.02% (w/w) CA, for a period of 12 weeks, after which changes in body weight, blood lipid profiles, and fatty acid mechanism markers were evaluated. The 0.02% (w/w) CA diet resulted in a marked ...