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Dietary Fat  

Science.gov (United States)

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Dietary Fat What counts as fat? Are some fats better ... polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. How much total dietary fat do I need? The Dietary Guidelines for Americans ...

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Polyunsaturated Fats and Monounsaturated Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fat Sources Nuts Vegetable oils Canola oil Olive oil High oleic safflower oil Sunflower oil ... Soybean oil Corn oil Safflower oil Soybean oil Canola oil Walnuts Flaxseed Fish: trout, herring, and salmon Polyunsaturated ...

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Vascular dysfunction induced in offspring by maternal dietary fat involves altered arterial polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutrition during development affects risk of future cardiovascular disease. Relatively little is known about whether the amount and type of fat in the maternal diet affect vascular function in the offspring. To investigate this, pregnant and lactating rats were fed either 7%(w/w) or 21%(w/w) fat enriched in either 18:2n-6, trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, or fish oil. Their offspring were fed 4%(w/w) soybean oil from weaning until day 77. Type and amount of maternal dietary fat altered acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated vaso-relaxation in offspring aortae and mesenteric arteries, contingent on sex. Amount, but not type, of maternal dietary fat altered phenylephrine (Pe)-induced vasoconstriction in these arteries. Maternal 21% fat diet decreased 20:4n-6 concentration in offspring aortae. We investigated the role of ?6 and ?5 desaturases, showing that their inhibition in aortae and mesenteric arteries reduced vasoconstriction, but not vaso-relaxation, and the synthesis of specific pro-constriction eicosanoids. Removal of the aortic endothelium did not alter the effect of inhibition of ?6 and ?5 desaturases on Pe-mediated vasoconstriction. Thus arterial smooth muscle 20:4n-6 biosynthesis de novo appears to be important for Pe-mediated vasoconstriction. Next we studied genes encoding these desaturases, finding that maternal 21% fat reduced Fads2 mRNA expression and increased Fads1 in offspring aortae, indicating dysregulation of 20:4n-6 biosynthesis. Methylation at CpG -394 bp 5' to the Fads2 transcription start site predicted its expression. This locus was hypermethylated in offspring of dams fed 21% fat. Pe treatment of aortae for 10 minutes increased Fads2, but not Fads1, mRNA expression (76%; P<0.05). This suggests that Fads2 may be an immediate early gene in the response of aortae to Pe. Thus both amount and type of maternal dietary fat induce altered regulation of vascular tone in offspring though differential effects on vaso-relaxation, and persistent changes in vasoconstriction via epigenetic processes controlling arterial polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. PMID:22509311

Kelsall, Christopher J; Hoile, Samuel P; Irvine, Nicola A; Masoodi, Mojgan; Torrens, Christopher; Lillycrop, Karen A; Calder, Philip C; Clough, Geraldine F; Hanson, Mark A; Burdge, Graham C

2012-01-01

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Dietary Fats and Your Heart  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... dietary fats. The presumption has been that polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally friendlier to the heart than saturated ... amounts of polyunsaturated fats such as omega-3 fatty acids, whether through food or daily supplements, significantly reduces ...

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Vascular Dysfunction Induced in Offspring by Maternal Dietary Fat Involves Altered Arterial Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis  

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Nutrition during development affects risk of future cardiovascular disease. Relatively little is known about whether the amount and type of fat in the maternal diet affect vascular function in the offspring. To investigate this, pregnant and lactating rats were fed either 7%(w/w) or 21%(w/w) fat enriched in either18:2n-6, trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, or fish oil. Their offspring were fed 4%(w/w) soybean oil from weaning until day 77. Type and amount of maternal dietary fat altere...

Kelsall, Christopher J.; Hoile, Samuel P.; Irvine, Nicola A.; Masoodi, Mojgan; Torrens, Christopher; Lillycrop, Karen A.; Calder, Philip C.; Clough, Geraldine F.; Hanson, Mark A.; Burdge, Graham C.

2012-01-01

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Dietary supplements for lactating goats by polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich protected fat. Effects after supplement withdrawal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate the persistence of the effects of supplements after they were withdrawn. Two groups of 12 goats were maintained under semiextensive breeding conditions; they were fed indoors with a concentrate with alfalfa hay and olivetree leaves. Goats were in their sixth month of lactation at initiation of the study. During the first month of the trials, the concentrate supplied to the goats was either nonsupplemented (group 1) or supplemented with 9% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich protected fat (group 2). After this period, the 2 groups were given the nonsupplemented until the average daily production of milk per animal within each group had decreased to 300 g or less. The fat supplementation supplied increased milk production and also improved fat and protein yield. These effects persisted after the supplement was withdrawn. The supplement, moreover, produced noticeable changes in the fatty acids profile of the milk fat, namely a reduction in the concentration of saturated fatty acids and an increase in that of PUFA. In contrast to the effects on milk production and on the yield of its main constituents, the effects on fat composition disappeared when the supplement was withdrawn. PMID:15453494

Sanz Sampelayo, M R; Martín, Alonso J J; Pérez, L; Gil Extremera, F; Boza, J

2004-06-01

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Dietary Fats and Your Heart  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... fats. The presumption has been that polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally friendlier to the heart than saturated ... of polyunsaturated fats such as omega-3 fatty acids, whether through food or daily supplements, significantly reduces ...

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N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity-related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures. No significant interactions with the dietary macronutrient composition were observed. Pro-inflammatory cytokineswere not associated with absolute PUFA intake, but the macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) was associated with the n-3/n-6 ratio. CONCLUSION: In humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs, in particular ALA, is beneficially associated with body fatness. The favourable association is, however, not reflected in systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nor is it influenced by macronutrients in the diet.

Lund, Anne-Sofie Q; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

2013-01-01

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Dietary Fats and Your Heart  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Dietary Fats and Your Heart HealthDay March 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dietary Fats Heart Diseases--Prevention Transcript In recent years, nutritional ...

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Dietary Fats and Your Heart  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... lower right-hand corner of the player. Dietary Fats and Your Heart HealthDay March 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dietary Fats Heart Diseases--Prevention Transcript In recent years, nutritional ...

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Nutritional and Health Effects of Dietary Fats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the 80`s and early 90`s, nutrition recommendations for the prevention of developing coronary heart disease called for a reduction of total fat in the diet through the substitution of carbohydrate for fat. However, the current scientific evidence does not support a position that a reduction in total fat has a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease, or risk factors for coronary heart disease. The cumulative evidence from recent scientific literature suggests that unless there is a concomitant reduction in saturated fat and trans fatty acids, a reduction in total fat will not lower the risk of developing coronary heart disease. It was also established during the last decade that increased intakes of dietary monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, in particular those fats containing moderate amounts of n-3 fatty acids, might play a role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. The fatty acid composition of canola oil is consistent with current nutrition recommendations aimed at reducing the dietary amount of saturated fat and increasing the amounts of monounsaturated and n-3 fats. Canola is characterized by a low level of saturated fatty acids. It is also characterized by high level of monounsaturated fatty acids (viz. oleic acid and moderate level of n-3 fatty acids, in the form of alpha-linolenic acid. Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that canola oil is one of the most desirable source of dietary fat in terms of human health.

W.M. Nimal Ratnayake

2004-01-01

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EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children

Tetens, Inge

2010-01-01

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Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and Vitamin E on serum oxidative status in horses performing very light exercise  

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In sporting horses the use of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could enhance performance because these fatty acids are very important in membrane permeability, and in particular they seem to increase the possibility of long chain fatty acids entering mythochondria to be burnt. The composition of cellular membranes and lipoprotein fatty acids com- position is strictly related to dietary fat quality; percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids and amount of antioxidants also affect ti...

Domenico Bergero; Nicoletta Miraglia; Achille Schiavone; Mimmo Polidori; Liviana Prola

2010-01-01

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Dietary fat consumption and health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary Guidelines have emerged over the past 30 years recommending that Americans limit their consumption of total fat and saturated fat as one way to reduce the risk of a range of chronic diseases. However, a low-fat diet is not a no-fat diet. Dietary fat clearly serves a number of essential functions. For example, maternal energy deficiency, possible exacerbated by very low-fat intakes (balance energy consumption with energy needs. In each of the age/gender groups reporting consumption of < or = 30% of energy from fat and less than 10% of energy from saturated fatty acids, fat-modified foods play a more important role in their diets than for people who are consuming higher levels of fat and saturated fat. The data are clear than fat-modified foods make a more significant contribution to diets of consumers with low-fat intakes. While one cannot argue cause and effect from the results presented, the patterns of fat-modified foods/low-fat intakes are consistent. The focus on overall diet quality is often lost in the national obsession with lowering fat inta PMID:9624878

Lichtenstein, A H; Kennedy, E; Barrier, P; Danford, D; Ernst, N D; Grundy, S M; Leveille, G A; Van Horn, L; Williams, C L; Booth, S L

1998-05-01

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Dietary Fat and Cholesterol  

Science.gov (United States)

... of fat. There are two essential fatty acids (linolenic and linoleic) that your body uses to make ... pressure, blood clotting, and your immune system response. Linolenic fatty acids are a special type of fat ...

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Dietary fat and breast cancer risk in the Swedish women's lifestyle and health cohort  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated whether dietary intakes of total fat, monounsaturated fat (MUFA), polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) and saturated fat (SFA) were associated with breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of 49?261 Swedish women (30–49 years at enrolment), which yielded 974 breast cancer cases by December 2005. Further, we evaluated if associations differed by oestrogen and/or progesterone receptor tumour status. Total fat, MUFA, PUFA or SFA were not associated with risk overall. However, women i...

2007-01-01

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What Are the Types of Fat?  

Science.gov (United States)

... move.va.gov What Are the Types of Fat? Most foods contain several different kinds of fat. ... harmful dietary fats. The four major types of fats are: • Monounsaturated fatsPolyunsaturated fats • Saturated fats • Trans ...

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Dietary fat intake and quality of life: the SUN project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Few studies have related nutritional factors with quality of life in healthy populations. The purpose of the study was to assess whether dietary fat intake is associated to mental and physical quality of life. Methods This analysis included 8,430 participants from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project. The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA), and monouns...

Ruano Cristina; Henriquez Patricia; Bes-Rastrollo Maira; Ruiz-Canela Miguel; del Burgo Cristina; Sánchez-Villegas Almudena

2011-01-01

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Dietary Fats and Your Heart  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... March 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dietary Fats Heart Diseases--Prevention Transcript In recent years, nutritional guidelines have ... to 23 years. After comparing nutrition records with heart disease histories, the study team found sparse backup for ...

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Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids  

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Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed “eicosanoids,” which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show...

Patterson, E.; Wall, R.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Ross, R. P.; Stanton, C.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Heterogeneity of cholesterol homeostasis in man. Response to changes in dietary fat quality and cholesterol quantity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were carried out to examine the effects of dietary fat and cholesterol on cholesterol homeostasis in man. 75 12-wk studies were carried out during intake of 35% of calories as either saturated or polyunsaturated fat, first low and then high in dietary cholesterol. Dietary fat and cholesterol intakes, plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, cholesterol absorption and sterol synthesis in isolated blood mononuclear leukocytes were measured during each diet period. In 69% of the studies the subjects compensated for the increased cholesterol intake by decreasing cholesterol fractional absorption and/or endogenous cholesterol synthesis. When an increase in plasma cholesterol levels was observed there was a failure to suppress endogenous cholesterol synthesis. Plasma cholesterol levels were more sensitive to dietary fat quality than to cholesterol quantity. The results demonstrate that the responses to dietary cholesterol and fat are highly individualized and that most individuals have effective feedback control mechanisms.

McNamara, D J; Kolb, R; Parker, T S; Batwin, H; Samuel, P; Brown, C D; Ahrens, E H

1987-01-01

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Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... with polyunsaturated fats. Sources of polyunsaturated fats are: Corn oil Cottonseed oil Safflower oil Soybean oil Sunflower ... Choices Diabetes Superfoods Fats Alcohol Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Protein Foods What Can I ...

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Proceedings from the 2013 canadian nutrition society conference on advances in dietary fats and nutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The science of lipid research continues to rapidly evolve and change. New knowledge enhances our understanding and perspectives on the role of lipids in health and nutrition. However, new knowledge also challenges currently held opinions. The following are the proceedings of the 2013 Canadian Nutrition Society Conference on the Advances in Dietary Fats and Nutrition. Content experts presented state-of-the-art information regarding our understanding of fish oil and plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, nutrigenomics, pediatrics, regulatory affairs, and trans fats. These important contributions aim to provide clarity on the latest advances and opinions regarding the role of different types of fats in health. PMID:24749841

Holub, Bruce; Mutch, David M; Pierce, Grant N; Rodriguez-Leyva, Delfin; Aliani, Michel; Innis, Sheila; Yan, William; Lamarche, Benoit; Couture, Patrick; Ma, David W L

2014-07-01

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Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search fo...

2005-01-01

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Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

Mathew Aleyamma

2005-07-01

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Dietary Fats and Your Heart  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... than saturated fats. But now a broad new review of past research published in the Annals of ... significantly reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease. The review similarly failed to unearth proof for the other ...

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Regulation of Rat Brain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) Metabolism during Graded Dietary n-3 PUFA Deprivation  

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Knowing threshold changes in brain lipids and lipid enzymes during dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation may elucidate dietary regulation of brain lipid metabolism. To determine thresholds, rats were fed for 15 weeks DHA-free diets having graded reductions of ?-linolenic acid (?-LNA). Compared with control diet (4.6% ?-LNA), plasma DHA fell significantly at 1.7% dietary ?-LNA while brain DHA remained unchanged down to 0.8% ?-LNA, when plasma and brain docosapentaenoic acid (...

Kim, Hyung-wook; Rao, Jagadeesh S.; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Igarashi, Miki

2011-01-01

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Study of the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids: Molecular mechanisms involved intestinal inflammation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of omics techniques in combination with model systems and molecular tools allows to understand how foods and food components act on metabolic pathways to regulate transcriptional processes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have distinctive nutritional and metabolic effects because they give rise to lipid mediated products and affect the expression of various genes involved in intestinal inflammation. The present review focuses on the molecular effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on intestinal inflammation. (Author) 74 refs.

Knoch, B.; Barnett, M. P. G.; Roy, N. C.; McNabb, W. C.

2009-07-01

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Study of the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids: Molecular mechanisms involved in intestinal inflammation  

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The use of «omic» techniques in combination with model systems and molecular tools allows to understand how foods and food components act on metabolic pathways to regulate transcriptional processes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have distinctive nutritional and metabolic effects because they give rise to lipid mediated products and affect the expression of various genes involved in intestinal inflammation. The present review focuses on the molecular effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty ac...

Mcnabb, Warren C.; Roy, Nicole C.; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Knoch, Bianca

2009-01-01

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Effects of Increasing Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Within the Guidelines of the AHA Step 1 Diet on Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Levels in Normal Males  

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We attempted to ascertain the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids by conducting two studies in normal young men, in which monounsaturated fats were replaced by polyunsaturated fats within the guidelines of the American Heart Association step 1 diet. Study A employed a randomized parallel design in which subjects first consumed an average American diet (AAD) containing 37% of calories as fat (saturated fat, 16% calories; monounsaturated fat, 14% calories; and polyunsaturated fat, 7% calorie...

1994-01-01

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Reduction in Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids:Eicosapentaenoic Acid plus Docosahexaenoic Acid Ratio Minimizes Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation and Inflammatory Response in the LDL Receptor Null Mouse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dietary very long chain omega (?)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been associated with reduced CVD risk, the mechanisms of which have yet to be fully elucidated. LDL receptor null mice (LDLr-/-) were used to assess the effect of different ratios of dietary ?-6 PUFA to eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (?-6:EPA+DHA) on atherogenesis and inflammatory response. Mice were fed high saturated fat diets without EPA and DHA (HSF ?-6), or with ?-6:EPA+DHA at ratios of 20:1...

Wang, Shu; Wu, Dayong; Matthan, Nirupa R.; Lamon-fava, Stefania; Lecker, Jaime L.; Lichtenstein, Alice H.

2009-01-01

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Dietary intakes and food sources of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are recognized as essential nutrients in the human diet, yet reliable data on population intakes are limited. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the dietary intakes and food sources of individual n-6 and n-3 PUFA in the Australian population. An existing database with fatty acid composition data on 1690 foods was updated with newly validated data on 150 foods to estimate the fatty acid content of foods recorded as eaten by 10,851 adults in the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey. Average daily intakes of linoleic (LA), arachidonic (AA), alpha-linolenic (LNA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids were 10.8, 0.052, 1.17, 0.056, 0.026, and 0.106 g, respectively, with long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (addition of EPA, DPA, and DHA) totaling 0.189 g; median intakes were considerably lower (9.0 g LA, 0.024 g AA, 0.95 g LNA, 0.008 g EPA, 0.006 g DPA, 0.015 g DHA, and 0.029 g LC n-3 PUFA). Fats and oils, meat and poultry, cereal-based products and cereals, vegetables, and nuts and seeds were important sources of n-6 PUFA, while cereal-based products, fats and oils, meat and poultry, cereals, milk products, and vegetable products were sources of LNA. As expected, seafood was the main source of LC n-3 PUFA, contributing 71%, while meat and eggs contributed 20 and 6%, respectively. The results indicate that the majority of Australians are failing to meet intake recommendations for LC n-3 PUFA (> 0.2 g per day) and emphasize the need for strategies to increase the availability and consumption of n-3-containing foods. PMID:12848284

Meyer, Barbara J; Mann, Neil J; Lewis, Janine L; Milligan, Greg C; Sinclair, Andrew J; Howe, Peter R C

2003-04-01

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Dietary Soybean Oil, but Not Krabok Oil, Diminishes Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In broiler chickens we tested the hypothesis that dietary fats rich in medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT would diminish abdominal fat deposition as do fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Broiler chickens were fed on diets containing either tallow, which is rich in Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA, soybean oil, which is rich in PUFA, or krabok oil, which is rich in MCT. Krabok oil was isolated from the seeds of a tree (Irvingia malayana grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas. Growth performance was not significantly affected by the type of dietary fat. Possibly, the production of krabok oil for use in broiler rations may become economically relevant. The diets containing either soybean oil or krabok oil showed a significantly higher apparent fat digestibility than did the diet containing tallow. In keeping with earlier investigations, dietary soybean oil versus tallow significantly lowered abdominal fat deposition, the lowering being 21%. The feeding of krabok oil instead of tallow did not affect the weight of abdominal fat, which would lead to rejection of our hypothesis.

Sasiphan Wongsuthavas

2007-01-01

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OXIDATIVE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT DIETARY FATS ON MOUSE DNA DETECTED BY COMET ASSAY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Here we report on the introduction of the Comet assay for the in vivo testing of oxidative effects of different polyunsaturated dietary fats on mouse nuclear DNA. Five groups of mice were fed with the diet of the same composition but with different fat supplementation: 1st group - oleic acid rich sunflower oil, 2nd group - sunflower oil, 3rd gruop - rape oil, 4th group - lard, 5thgroup - control group. Fats with different degrees of unsaturation have caused different degrees of mice DNA damage. The highest degree of DNA damage (2.72 was found in the group fed with oleic acid rich sunflower oil. The lowest degree of DNA damage was found in the control group. The results obtained indicate that Comet assay is sensitive enough to differentiate the quality of nutritional fats from the view of free radicals formation.

Romana Marinšek Logar

2000-06-01

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Effects of different dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of three different lipid sources (soybean oil, chicken oil or bovine fat on the abdominal fat fatty acid composition in 50 day-old broiler chickens was evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments, 8 repetitions and 40 Arbor Acres broiler chicks of each sex. The four treatments were isocaloric and isoproteic with the following characteristics: T1 Control (Soybean-corn; T2 Control + 3% soybean oil; T3 Control + 3% chicken oil; and T4 Control + 3% bovine fat. The lipids from the diets had significantly statistical effects (p<0,05 on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat. Multivariate techniques also showed differences in fatty acid composition within treatments due to sex. The studied dietary lipids affected the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S but had only small effects on the n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio.

SG Rondelli

2004-09-01

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Visual evoked potentials and dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in preterm infants.  

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The influence of dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) supply, and especially of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on evoked potential maturation, was studied in 58 healthy preterm infants using flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs), flash electroretinography (ERG), and brainstem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEPs) at 52 weeks of postconceptional age. At the same time, the fatty acid composition of red blood cell membranes was examined. The infants were fed on breast milk (n = 12), a p...

Faldella, G.; Govoni, M.; Alessandroni, R.; Marchiani, E.; Salvioli, G. P.; Biagi, P. L.; Spano, C.

1996-01-01

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Dietary fat intake and quality of life: the SUN project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have related nutritional factors with quality of life in healthy populations. The purpose of the study was to assess whether dietary fat intake is associated to mental and physical quality of life. Methods This analysis included 8,430 participants from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Project. The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA was assessed through a 136-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Quality of life was measured with the SF-36 Health Survey after 4 years of follow-up. Generalized Linear Models were fitted to assess the regression coefficients (b and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the 8 domains of the SF-36 according to successive quintiles of each kind of fatty acids intake. Results The multivariate-adjusted models revealed a significant inverse association for SFA intake (in quintiles and two of the physical domains (physical functioning and general health. E.g. for general health domain: (highest quintile of intake (Q5 vs. lowest quintile (Q1, b = -1.6; 95% CI = -3.1, -0.1. General health also showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend Conclusions A detrimental relationship between TFA intake at baseline and most of the SF-36 mental domains measured 4 years later were found, whereas weak inverse associations were found for SFA intake and some physical domains.

del Burgo Cristina

2011-11-01

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Different quantities and quality of fat in milk products given to young children: effects on long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids in plasma.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we compared plasma contents of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and trans fatty acids in triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL) and cholesterolesters (CE) in young children fed milk diets containing different amounts of linoleic (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Because the diets differed in vitamin A and E content, plasma concentrations of vitamin A and E were also studied. Thirty-seven 1-y-old children were randomly assigned to one of four feeding groups: (1) low-fat milk (LF) (1.0 g cow's milk fat/dL); (2) standard-fat milk (SF) (3.5 g cow's milk fat/dL); (3) partially vegetable fat milk (PVF) (3.5 g fat/dL; 50% vegetable fat from rapeseed oil, 50% milk fat); and (4) full vegetable fat milk (FVF) (3.5 g fat/dL; 100% vegetable fat from palm-, coconut- and soybean oil). We found higher amounts of plasma LA in the FVF group than in the LF and SF groups (p FVF groups than in the SF group (p FVF). Plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol were higher in the FVF group than in the other groups (p FVF vs SF, p FVF vs SF and PVF). Conclusion: Children consuming milk diets containing high amounts of vegetable fat present with higher plasma LA and ALA without any effects on amounts of plasma LC-PUFA. The plasma LC-PUFA status is not adversely affected by a low-fat milk diet. AHA and DHA in plasma are not affected by the diets studied, presumably because 15-mo-old children may be able to compensate for dietary influences through endogenous LC-PUFA metabolism. PMID:11885548

Svahn, J C E; Feldl, F; Räihä, N C R; Koletzko, B; Axelsson, I E M

2002-01-01

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Effect of dietary krill oil supplementation on the endocannabinoidome of metabolically relevant tissues from high-fat-fed mice  

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Abstract Background Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3-PUFA) are known to ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an association between elevated peripheral levels of endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids) and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of dietary ?-3-PUFA supplementation, given as krill oil (KO), on metabolic parameters in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice a...

Piscitelli Fabiana; Carta Gianfranca; Bisogno Tiziana; Murru Elisabetta; Cordeddu Lina; Berge Kjetil; Tandy Sally; Cohn Jeffrey S; Griinari Mikko; Banni Sebastiano; Di Marzo Vincenzo

2011-01-01

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The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs  

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The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fa...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Study of the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids: Molecular mechanisms involved in intestinal inflammation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of «omic» techniques in combination with model systems and molecular tools allows to understand how foods and food components act on metabolic pathways to regulate transcriptional processes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have distinctive nutritional and metabolic effects because they give rise to lipid mediated products and affect the expression of various genes involved in intestinal inflammation. The present review focuses on the molecular effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on intestinal inflammation.El uso de técnicas «omic» en combinación con sistemas modelo y herramientas moleculares nos permiten entender como los alimentos y sus componentes actúan en las rutas metabólicas que regulan los procesos transcripcionales. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados tienen efectos nutricionales y metabólicos diferenciadores porque producen una elevación de los productos regulados por lípidos y afectan a la expresión de varios genes involucrados en la inflamación intestinal. La presente revisión se enfoca en los efectos moleculares de los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de la dieta en la inflamación intestinal.

Knoch, Bianca

2009-03-01

42

Dietary alpha-linolenic acid enhances omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in chicken tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of enriching broiler chicken diets with a vegetable source of n-3 fat in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) on the accumulation of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in chicken meat were investigated. Sixty unsexed one-day-old broiler chickens (Cobb 500) were randomly allocated to one of six diets (n=10 birds/diet) for 4 weeks. The ALA levels varied from 1 to 8% energy (%en) while the level of the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) was held to less than 5%en in all diets. At harvest (day 28) the levels of n-3 LCPUFA including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in breast and thigh meat increased in a curvilinear manner as dietary ALA increased, reaching 4- to 9-fold above the levels seen in control birds. In contrast, arachidonic acid (AA) was reduced in response to increasing dietary ALA. PMID:22925778

Kartikasari, L R; Hughes, R J; Geier, M S; Makrides, M; Gibson, R A

2012-01-01

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Dietary saturated and monounsaturated fats protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by altering fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane in rats  

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Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fats increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We evaluated the effect of dietary corn oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and beef tallow (BT) on fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane and acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 15% (wt/wt) CO, OO or BT for 6 weeks. After treatment with acetaminophen (600 mg/kg), samples of plasma and liver were taken for analyses o...

2011-01-01

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Dietary Fat Intake among Urban, African American Adolescents  

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This study examined commonly consumed high-fat food sources to estimate dietary fat intake among 314 urban, African American adolescents (mean age (SD) = 12.57 (.98) years; 66% female; 91% African American non-Hispanic; and 9% African American Hispanic). Youths’ fat intake was measured using the Block Fat Screener. Most (77%) participants had diets very high in fat (i.e., 40% to 50% of energy). Mean frequencies of consumption revealed youths’ preferences for the following high-fat food it...

Di Noia, Jennifer; Schinke, Steven P.; Contento, Isobel R.

2008-01-01

45

Dietary fat supplementation and the consequences for oocyte and embryo quality: hype or significant benefit for dairy cow reproduction?  

Science.gov (United States)

In many countries, fat supplementation in the diet has become common in the dairy industry. There are several ideas as to how dietary fat could influence reproductive performance. Saturated fatty acids, such as palm oil, can increase milk yield but may aggravate negative energy balance and thus may impair fertility when fed during the first week post-partum. However, priming the lipid oxidation in the liver by feeding saturated fats during the dry period has recently been shown to be a potentially promising strategy to mitigate fat mobilization and liver accumulation post-partum. Furthermore, polyunsaturated fats (omega-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids) are fed to reduce the 'de novo' fat synthesis in the udder and thus the milk fat content, which may be of modest benefit for overall energy balance. Furthermore, omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are reported to alter follicular growth, steroid synthesis and prostaglandin metabolism in the ovary and endometrium, respectively. Omega-6 fatty acids are believed to have pro-inflammatory and thus PGF2?-stimulating properties rendering them extra value as 'nutraceutical' early post-partum, while omega-3 fatty acids can weaken this inflammatory potency, leading to a higher chance of survival of the embryo when supplemented during the periconceptual period. Unfortunately, research results rarely provide a consensus in this perspective. The consequences of these fat-feeding strategies on oocyte and embryo quality remain an intriguing issue for debate. Fat feeding may alter the microenvironment of the growing and maturing oocyte of the early and older embryo and thus may affect reproductive outcome. We recently reported that dietary-induced hyperlipidaemic conditions can be harmful for embryo development and metabolism. However, to date, research results remain somewhat conflicting most probably due to differences in fat sources used, in diet and duration of supplementation and in experimental set-up in general. PMID:24697981

Leroy, J L M R; Sturmey, R G; Van Hoeck, V; De Bie, J; McKeegan, P J; Bols, P E J

2014-06-01

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Dietary supply with polyunsaturated fatty acids and resulting maternal effects influence host - parasite interactions  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Interactions between hosts and parasites can be substantially modulated by host nutrition. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential dietary nutrients; they are indispensable as structural components of cell membranes and as precursors for eicosanoids, signalling molecules which act on reproduction and immunity. Here, we explored the potential of dietary PUFAs to affect the course of parasitic infections using a well-established invertebrate host – parasite system, the freshwater herbivore Daphnia magna and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. Results Using natural food sources differing in their PUFA composition and by experimentally modifying the availability of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) we examined PUFA-mediated effects resulting from direct consumption as well as maternal effects on offspring of treated mothers. We found that both host and parasite were affected by food quality. Feeding on C20 PUFA-containing food sources resulted in higher offspring production of hosts and these effects were conveyed to a great extent to the next generation. While feeding on a diet containing high PUFA concentrations significantly reduced the likelihood of becoming infected, the infection success in the next generation increased whenever the maternal diet contained PUFAs. We suggest that this opposing effect was caused by a trade-off between reproduction and immunity in the second generation. Conclusions Considering the direct and maternal effects of dietary PUFAs on host and parasite we propose that host – parasite interactions and thus disease dynamics under natural conditions are subject to the availability of dietary PUFAs.

2013-01-01

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Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on in vivo splenic cytokine mRNA expression in layer chicks immunized with Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on immune responses in poultry have been reported. However, effects on the underlying mechanisms, such as the role of cytokines, have not been documented because the necessary tools were lacking. Recently, primer sets for chicken interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), myelomonocytic growth factor (MGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta2 have become available. Therefore, in the present study we first examined the in vivo effects of an inflammatory challenge with Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on cytokine profiles in growing laying-type chicks. Second, we examined whether dietary fat sources affected the observed cytokine profiles. Two hundred forty chicks were assigned in a 2 x 4 factorial design of treatments, with injection with LPS or saline and dietary fat source as factors. Factors were i.v. injection with S. typhimurium LPS or saline (control) and four dietary fat sources: corn oil, linseed oil, menhaden oil, and tallow. Two hours after injection, birds were killed, and their spleens were removed for RNA extraction. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions with primer sets for chicken IL-1beta, IL-2, IFN-gamma, MGF, TGF-beta2, and beta-actin were performed with RNA samples pooled by pen. The expression of cytokine mRNA was expressed relative to the level of beta-actin mRNA. Interleukin-1 (P oil-enriched diet was enhanced (P = 0.05). The present study indicates that in vivo effects of immune challenge on cytokine mRNA expression can be measured in poultry. The observation that mRNA level of IL-2, but not the mRNA levels of IFN-gamma or MGF, is enhanced by dietary fish oil at 2 h suggests that dietary PUFA at this moment initially affected naïve T lymphocytes. PMID:11495469

Sijben, J W; Schrama, J W; Parmentier, H K; van der Poel, J J; Klasing, K C

2001-08-01

48

Dietary fat level and alcohol-induced pancreatic injury  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects of dietary fat levels on alcohol-induced pancreatic injury were studied in a rat model which achieves sustained blood alcohol levels and maximal nutritional control. A diet containing 5, 25, or 35% of fat (corn oil; % total calories) and either ethanol or isocaloric dextrose were intragastrically infused in male Wistar rats for 30-120 days. Following intoxication, the pancreatic pathology was examined light-microscopically. None of pair-fed controls showed abnormal pancreas histology. These results indicate potentiation of alcohol-induced pancreatic injury. Particularly higher incidence of chronic interstitial pancreatitis with increased dietary fat.

Towner, S.J.; Inomata, T.; Largman, C.; French, S.W.

1986-03-01

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Incorporation of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in pork tissues and its implications for the quality of the end products.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and ten fattening pigs of a Piétrain × Hybrid cross-barrows and gilts in equal numbers-were distributed over five feeding formulas, containing increasing amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in the form of rapeseed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the maximum admissible amount of PUFA in the pig diet before problems-in terms of backfat consistency and storage stability-occur and to investigate the incorporation of dietary PUFA in intramuscular fat as well. A tendency towards reduced feed (energy) intake was obvious from the 7% rapeseed inclusion level, apparently resulting in a somewhat thinner backfat layer. None of the backfat samples showed a visible yellow discolouration instead thin backfat layers appeared as pink. Backfat consistency was lower for gilts and decreased with increasing dietary PUFA levels. PUFAs in the feed and in backfat were very well correlated (0.8-0.9) as expected; correction for de novo fat synthesis (by means of backfat thickness) did not alter the correlations within one sex group. Thresholds for PUFA in feed-15 g PUFA/kg feed-and for PUFA in back-fat-iodine value of 70 or 15% PUFA-were all surpassed in this experiment: 18 g PUFA/ kg feed resulted in maximally 22% PUFA in the outer backfat layer. The backfat PUFA limit was reached at relatively low feed PUFA levels. This might be explained by thin and hence more unsaturated backfat layers in lean or underweight pigs. Oxidative stability of the backfat after storage for 1 year in the freezer was satisfactory. The total intramuscular fat (IMF) content showed no obvious relationship with diet, in contrast with sex: barrows had more IMF than gilts. IMF consisted in 80% apolar phase and 20% polar fraction. The apolar fraction showed similar feed and sex tendencies as backfat, although correlations between feed and apolar fraction PUFAs were higher for gilts than for barrows. The amount of phospholipid was invariable throughout all treatments. Only linoleic acid-the major fatty acid-showed some feed and sex influence. In view ofthf results obtained the threshold for feed and backfat PUFA can be as high as, respectively, 18 g PUFA/kg feed and 22% PUFA in backfat, without deterioration of fresh and frozen backfat. However, for meat processing, demands could be more severe. PMID:22060762

Warnants, N; Van Oeckel, M J; Boucqué, C V

1996-09-01

50

Composition of dietary fat source shapes gut microbiota architecture and alters host inflammatory mediators in mouse adipose tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Growing evidence shows that dietary factors can dramatically alter the gut microbiome in ways that contribute to metabolic disturbance and progression of obesity. In this regard, mesenteric adipose tissue has been implicated in mediating these processes through the elaboration of proinflammatory adipokines. In this study, we examined the relationship of these events by determining the effects of dietary fat content and source on gut microbiota, as well as the effects on adipokine profiles of mesenteric and peripheral adipocytes. Methods: Adult male C57Bl/6 mice were fed milk fat-based, lard-based (saturated fatty acid sources), or safflower oil (polyunsaturated fatty acid)-based high-fat diets for 4 weeks. Body mass and food consumption were measured. Stool 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was isolated and analyzed via terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism as well as variable V3-4 sequence tags via next-generation sequencing. Mesenteric and gonadal adipose samples were analyzed for both lipogenic and inflammatory mediators via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: High-fat feedings caused more weight gain with concomitant increases in caloric consumption relative to low-fat diets. In addition, each of the high-fat diets induced dramatic and specific 16S rRNA phylogenic profiles that were associated with different inflammatory and lipogenic mediator profiles of mesenteric and gonadal fat depots. Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that dietary fat composition can both reshape the gut microbiota and alter host adipose tissue inflammatory/lipogenic profiles. They also demonstrate the interdependency of dietary fat source, commensal gut microbiota, and inflammatory profile of mesenteric fat that can collectively affect the host metabolic state. PMID:23639897

Huang, Edmond Y; Leone, Vanessa A; Devkota, Suzanne; Wang, Yunwei; Brady, Matthew J; Chang, Eugene B

2013-11-01

51

Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA, and slaughtered at an average BW of 117 ± 4.9 kg. Transcription of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), delta-6-desaturase (D6D), and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) were determined by real-time PCR in longissimus thoracis (LT) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles, LT subcutaneous and SM intermuscular fat, and in the liver. Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed using gas chromatography in these tissues, except for SM intermuscular fat. Dietary CLA increased PPARγ in LT muscle (P < 0.05), whereas CLA reduced PPARα transcription in all tissues studied (P < 0.05) with the exception of intermuscular fat. Transcription of genes related to FA synthesis was reduced by CLA in SM muscle and liver (SREBP1, both P < 0.1; ACC, P < 0.01 in SM; and FAS, P < 0.01 in liver), whereas CLA reduced (P < 0.05) LPL and D6D transcriptions in SM muscle and reduced (P < 0.05) SCD in liver but increased (P < 0.05) SCD in LT muscle and intermuscular fat. Saturated FA were increased in all studied tissues (P < 0.01), while monosaturated and polyunsaturated FA were reduced in a tissue-specific way by CLA. It was concluded that dietary CLA affected transcription of genes and fat metabolism in a tissue-specific manner.

Tous, Nuria; Theil, Peter Kappel

2012-01-01

52

Diet-gene interactions between dietary fat intake and common polymorphisms in determining lipid metabolism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current dietary guidelines for fat intake have not taken into consideration the possible genetic differences underlying the individual variability in responsiveness to dietary components. Genetic variability has been identified in humans for all the known lipid metabolism-related genes resulting in a plethora of candidate genes and genetic variants to examine in diet-gene interaction studies focused on fat consumption. Some examples of fat-gene interaction are reviewed. These include: the interaction between total intake and the 14C/T in the hepatic lipase gene promoter in determining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism; the interaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the 5G/A polymorphism in the APOA1 gene plasma HDL-C concentrations; the interaction between PUFA and the L162V polymorphism in the PPARA gene in determining triglycerides and APOC3 concentrations; and the interaction between PUFA intake and the -1131T>C in the APOA5 gene in determining triglyceride metabolism. Although hundreds of diet-gene interaction studies in lipid metabolism have been published, the level of evidence to make specific nutritional recommendations to the population is still low and more research in nutrigenetics has to be undertaken. (Author) 31 refs.

Corella, D.

2009-07-01

53

Nutritional and Health Effects of Dietary Fats  

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In the 80`s and early 90`s, nutrition recommendations for the prevention of developing coronary heart disease called for a reduction of total fat in the diet through the substitution of carbohydrate for fat. However, the current scientific evidence does not support a position that a reduction in total fat has a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease, or risk factors for coronary heart disease. The cumulative evidence from recent scientific literature suggests that unless there is a conco...

Nimal Ratnayake, W. M.; Sarwar Gilani, G.

2004-01-01

54

Influence of dietary fats on serum phospholipid fatty acid composition and its relation to obesity in animals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dietary fat and its relation to obesity has been a controversial issue for many years. Experimental data shows that most, though not all animals, which consume a high fat diet, will become obese. However, the effect of fatty acids on animal obesity has not been studied in detail. In order to evaluate the effects of low versus high fat diet on serum phospholipids fatty acids composition a 4-wk study was conducted on male Wister rats. The rats were fed low-fat (10% energy and high-fat (46% energy foods containing constant proportions of fatty acids. Control group C was fed a standard laboratory diet (polyunsaturated/ saturated (P/S fatty ratio 1.3, group M was fed a standard laboratory diet supplemented with margarine (P/S ratio 0.95, and the diet of the SL group was additionally supplemented with a sunflower oil-lard (1:1 mixture (P/S ratio 1.3. All lipid supplemented hyperenergetic diets caused an increase in the average daily energy intake. Both the final and the daily body weight gain were significantly higher in M and SL groups than in group C. Additionally, serum triglyceride levels, LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol were also significantly higher in M and SL groups when compared to the control group. Serum phospholipids fatty acids varied in response to total dietary fat. A significant decrease in saturated fatty acids (SFA content (16:0 and 18:0 and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA content (18:1, n-9 was found in the M group when compared to both C and SL groups. In the SL group, SFA content (18:0 was higher and MUFA content (18:1, n-9 was lower than in group C. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content showed an increase in both experimental groups. The PUFA/SFA ratio was higher in the M group than in the C and SL groups. Our study suggests that the amount of dietary fat has a greater influence on obesity than the effects of the type of fat consumed. However, depending on the type of fat present in the diet the differences were observed in the composition of serum PL fatty acid suggesting that both total fat and individual fatty acids have to be considered when reaching conclusions about the effect of dietary fat and obesity in animals.

Tepši? Vesna

2008-01-01

55

Antioxidant system response is modified by dietary fat in adipose tissue of metabolic syndrome patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with high oxidative stress, which is caused by an increased expression of NADPH-oxidase and a decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes in the adipose tissue. Our aim was to evaluate whether the quality and quantity of dietary fat can modify that process. A randomized, controlled trial conducted within the LIPGENE study assigned MetS patients to one of four diets for 12 wk each: (i) high-saturated fatty acid (HSFA), (ii) high-monounsaturated fatty acid (HMUFA), (iii) and (iv) two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LFHCC n3), or placebo (LFHCC). A fat challenge reflecting the same fatty acid composition as the original diets was conducted post-intervention. The intake of an HSFA meal induced a higher postprandial increase in gp91phox and p67phox mRNA levels than after the intake of HMUFA, LFHCC and LFHCC n-3 meals (all p-values<0.05). The postprandial decrease in CAT, GPXs and TXNRD1 mRNA levels after the HSFA meal intake was higher than after the intake of HMUFA, LFHCC and LFHCC n-3 meals (all p-values<0.05). The intake of an HSFA meal induced a higher postprandial increase in KEAP1 mRNA levels than after the consumption of the HMUFA (P=.007) and LFHCC n-3 (P=.001) meals. Our study demonstrated that monounsaturated fat consumption reduces oxidative stress as compared to saturated fat by inducing higher postprandial antioxidant response in adipose tissue, and thus, replacing SFA for MUFA may be an effective dietary strategy to reduce the oxidative stress in MetS patients and its pathophysiological consequences. PMID:23647888

Peña-Orihuela, Patricia; Camargo, Antonio; Rangel-Zuñiga, Oriol Alberto; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Cruz-Teno, Cristina; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Paniagua, Juan A; Tinahones, Francisco J; Malagon, Maria M; Roche, Helen M; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

2013-10-01

56

Dietary preparation and per cent fat measurement by hydrostatic weighing.  

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To examine if the dietary preparation for hydrostatic weighing (HW) alters the % fat measurement, seven men and three women (age 29 +/- 6, Males 11.7 +/- 7.3% fat and Females 24.1 +/- 5.4% fat, mean +/- SD) were assessed before and after three meals. On separate days and in random order, each subject (1) ate a salad with toppings (600 g) with small beverage, (2) ate two bean burritos and one bean tostada (900 g) with small beverage, and (3) drank 800 ml of carbonated beverage. The subject was...

Thomas, T. R.; Crough, L. D.; Araujo, J.

1988-01-01

57

CD36 may determine our desire for dietary fats  

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There is a strong link between high fat intake and obesity. In addition to its high caloric density, dietary fat has a hyperphagic effect, in part as a result of its high palatability. The recent identification by Laugerette et al. of CD36 as a taste receptor for fatty acids provides insight into the molecular basis of our preference for fat. As we gain more information regarding the function of this receptor, we may be able to devise better strategies to address the addictive potential of di...

Abumrad, Nada A.

2005-01-01

58

Relationship between Dietary Beef, Fat, and Pork and Alcoholic Cirrhosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nanji and French [1] investigated the relationship between per-caput consumption of total fat, beef, and pork and for alcohol consumption and rates of mortality for cirrhosis for 16 countries for 1965. The present study reports significant and positive associations for 1996 and 2003 between the following: alcohol consumption and cirrhosis mortality, pork consumption and cirrhosis mortality, the product of alcohol and pork consumption and the product of alcohol and fat consumption. These supportive associations may represent a relationship between the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis and some heretofore unknown dietary or environmental factor related to conditions of pork or fat consumption. Limitations of the study design are discussed.

Francis Stephen Bridges

2009-09-01

59

Dietary Fat Influences the Expression of Contractile and Metabolic Genes in Rat Skeletal Muscle  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases. To determine whether the intake of different types of dietary fats affect the muscle fiber types that govern the metabolic and contractile properties of the skeletal muscle, we fed male Wistar rats with a 15% fat diet derived from different fat sources. Diets composed of soybean oil (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich), fish oil (n-3 PUFA-rich), or lard (low in PUFAs) were administered to the rats for 4 weeks. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were used as biomarkers to delineate the skeletal muscle fiber types. Compared with soybean oil intake, fish oil intake showed significantly lower levels of the fast-type MyHC2B and higher levels of the intermediate-type MyHC2X composition in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle, which is a fast-type dominant muscle. Concomitantly, MyHC2X mRNA levels in fish oil-fed rats were significantly higher than those observed in the soybean oil-fed rats. The MyHC isoform composition in the lard-fed rats was an intermediate between that of the fish oil and soybean oil-fed rats. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, and porin mRNA showed significantly upregulated levels in the EDL of fish oil-fed rats compared to those observed in soybean oil-fed and lard-fed rats, implying an activation of oxidative metabolism. In contrast, no changes in the composition of MyHC isoforms was observed in the soleus muscle, which is a slow-type dominant muscle. Fatty acid composition in the serum and the muscle was significantly influenced by the type of dietary fat consumed. In conclusion, dietary fat affects the expression of genes related to the contractile and metabolic properties in the fast-type dominant skeletal muscle, where the activation of oxidative metabolism is more pronounced after fish oil intake than that after soybean oil intake.

Mizunoya, Wataru; Iwamoto, Yohei; Shirouchi, Bungo; Sato, Masao; Komiya, Yusuke; Razin, Farzaneh Rahimi; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Sato, Yusuke; Nakamura, Mako; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide

2013-01-01

60

Dietary fat influences the expression of contractile and metabolic genes in rat skeletal muscle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases. To determine whether the intake of different types of dietary fats affect the muscle fiber types that govern the metabolic and contractile properties of the skeletal muscle, we fed male Wistar rats with a 15% fat diet derived from different fat sources. Diets composed of soybean oil (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich), fish oil (n-3 PUFA-rich), or lard (low in PUFAs) were administered to the rats for 4 weeks. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were used as biomarkers to delineate the skeletal muscle fiber types. Compared with soybean oil intake, fish oil intake showed significantly lower levels of the fast-type MyHC2B and higher levels of the intermediate-type MyHC2X composition in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle, which is a fast-type dominant muscle. Concomitantly, MyHC2X mRNA levels in fish oil-fed rats were significantly higher than those observed in the soybean oil-fed rats. The MyHC isoform composition in the lard-fed rats was an intermediate between that of the fish oil and soybean oil-fed rats. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, and porin mRNA showed significantly upregulated levels in the EDL of fish oil-fed rats compared to those observed in soybean oil-fed and lard-fed rats, implying an activation of oxidative metabolism. In contrast, no changes in the composition of MyHC isoforms was observed in the soleus muscle, which is a slow-type dominant muscle. Fatty acid composition in the serum and the muscle was significantly influenced by the type of dietary fat consumed. In conclusion, dietary fat affects the expression of genes related to the contractile and metabolic properties in the fast-type dominant skeletal muscle, where the activation of oxidative metabolism is more pronounced after fish oil intake than that after soybean oil intake. PMID:24244634

Mizunoya, Wataru; Iwamoto, Yohei; Shirouchi, Bungo; Sato, Masao; Komiya, Yusuke; Razin, Farzaneh Rahimi; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Sato, Yusuke; Nakamura, Mako; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Crosstalk among dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, urolithiasis, chronic inflammation, and urinary tract tumor risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on a consistent bulk of experimental and epidemiologic works, we proposed that abnormal metabolism and/or dietary deprivation of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids by inducing a chronic and subclinical essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) in urothelial cell membranes may enhance the risk for urinary tract tumor (UTT) development. This threat may be enhanced by the unusual fact that the fatty-acid profile of the normal urothelium is similar to that reported in EFAD. The risk for UTT may be worsened when coexisting with a low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) state induced by urolithiasis or disbalance management of peroxides, free radical molecules, and their quenchers. There is cumulative evidence linking the LGCI of the urinary tract mucosa, calculi, and UTT, due to the long-standing release of promitotic, promutagen, and pro-inflammatory antiapoptotic cytokines in these conditions. The dual role played by pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids and bioactive lipids, cytokines, and the disbalance of lipid peroxidation is discussed, concluding that the moderate, long-standing consumption or dietary supplementation of ?-3 PUFAs may improve the chances of avoiding UTT development. PMID:23594581

Eynard, Aldo R; Navarro, Alicia

2013-01-01

62

The postingestive consequences of fat condition preferences for flavors associated with high dietary fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate whether children acquire conditioned preferences for flavors associated with high dietary fat content, 27 3- and 4-year-old children participated in a series of 12 conditioning or mere exposure sessions. Following an overnight fast, children who participated in conditioning trials consumed fixed quantities of a flavored yogurt drink that on half the days was high in fat and energy (954 kJ, 18 g fat/150 g serving) or contained no fat (277 kJ, 0 g fat/150 g serving). Children in the conditioning group consumed 150 g servings, children in the mere exposure group tasted 16 g or less of these same stimuli. Preferences were assessed before and after conditioning when the children were hungry and also postconditioning when the children were satiated. Results provided evidence for conditioned preferences based on the postingestive consequences of dietary fat. Children in the conditioning group learned to prefer the high-density paired flavor over the low-density paired flavor, and increased their preference for the high-density paired flavor from pre- to postconditioning. Children in the mere exposure group showed positive shifts in preference for both the fat-free and the high-fat paired flavors. In the conditioning group, preferences for the high-fat flavor was depressed by satiety, whereas the preference of the mere exposure group did not vary with hunger state. Conditioned flavor preferences, based on the postingestive consequences of fat intake, may contribute to children's preferences for foods high in dietary fat. PMID:8327611

Kern, D L; McPhee, L; Fisher, J; Johnson, S; Birch, L L

1993-07-01

63

Effect of Dietary Fats on Glucose Tolerance, Insulin Sensitivity and Membrane Free Fatty Acids in Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work was designed to assess the possible effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA as fish oil, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA as olive oil (OO, saturated fatty acid (SFA as butter oil (BO and their combinations on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and membrane free fatty acid levels. Relatively high fat (20% w/w, 40% energy content diets were prepared and supplemented to adult male Wistar rats for 5-weeks. Body growth, intravenous glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and membrane free fatty acid levels in hepatic cells and erythrocytes were measured. Mean body weights and total body fats were significantly increased in both SFA and MUFA diets fed rats as compared to control and n-3 PUFA dietary groups respectively. Significant impaired glucose tolerance and insulin insensitivity was observed in rats supplemented with SFA diet as compared to all other dietary groups. However, MUFA diet has not shown any significant effect on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, although it significantly induced obesity in rats. The presence of (10% fish oil in the diet corrected the adiposity affect of SFA and significantly reduced the impairment in glucose tolerance and insulin insensitivity. In conclusion, the results provide evidence that replacing SFA with MUFA is most beneficial even though MUFA promotes the obesity. Fish oil proven the protective effect against the impairment of glucose tolerance, insulin insensitivity and obesity which induced by butter oil.

Mohammed Abdullah Alsaif

2004-01-01

64

Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity. DESIGN Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). RESULTS The mean weight loss was 5.1 kg (range -15.3 to +1.3 kg). BMI decreased from 36.5 to 34.9 kg/m(2) (P=0.003). Saturated FA (SFA) decreased 11% (P=0.0001). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)n-6 increased 4% (P =0.003). Long-chain PUFAn-3 increased 51% (P= 0.0001), mainly due to a 75% increase (P<0.0001) in docosahexaenoic acid. Changes in HOMA-IRcorrelated significantly with changes in long-chain PUFAn-3 (R=-0.57, P< 0.01), SFA (R=0.58, P<0.01) and waist circumference (R=0.46, P<0.05). A multivariate linear regression analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention programme increased incorporation of long-chain PUFAn-3 and reduced SFA in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects, a setting that may impact on insulin action.

Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten

2006-01-01

65

Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity. Design Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results The mean weight loss was 5.1 kg (range -15.3 to +1.3 kg). BMI decreased from 36.5 to 34.9 kg/m(2) (P = 0.003). Saturated FA (SFA) decreased 11% (P = 0.0001). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)n-6 increased 4% (P = 0.003). Long-chain PUFAn-3 increased 51% (P = 0.0001), mainly due to a 75% increase (P <0.0001) in docosahexaenoic acid. Changes in HOMA-IR correlated significantly with changes in long-chain PUFAn-3 (R = -0.57, P <0.01), SFA (R = 0.58, P <0.01) and waist circumference (R = 0.46, P <0.05). A multivariate linear regression analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R-2 = 0.33, P <0.01). Conclusions A hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention programme increased incorporation of long-chain PUFAn-3 and reduced SFA in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects, a setting that may impact on insulin action.

Høy, Carl-Erik

2006-01-01

66

A prospective study of dietary fat consumption and endometriosis risk  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND Endometriosis is a prevalent but enigmatic gynecologic disorder for which few modifiable risk factors have been identified. Fish oil consumption has been associated with symptom improvement in studies of women with primary dysmenorrhea and with decreased endometriosis risk in autotransplantation animal studies. METHODS To investigate the relation between dietary fat intake and the risk of endometriosis, we analyzed 12 years of prospective data from the Nurses' Health Study II that began in 1989. Dietary fat was assessed via food frequency questionnaire in 1991, 1995 and 1999. We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for total energy intake, parity, race and body mass index at age 18, and assessed cumulatively averaged fat intake across the three diet questionnaires. RESULTS During the 586 153 person-years of follow-up, 1199 cases of laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis were reported. Although total fat consumption was not associated with endometriosis risk, those women in the highest fifth of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid consumption were 22% less likely to be diagnosed with endometriosis compared with those with the lowest fifth of intake [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.62–0.99; P-value, test for linear trend (Pt) = 0.03]. In addition, those in the highest quintile of trans-unsaturated fat intake were 48% more likely to be diagnosed with endometriosis (95% CI = 1.17–1.88; Pt = 0.001). CONCLUSION These data suggest that specific types of dietary fat are associated with the incidence of laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis, and that these relations may indicate modifiable risk. This evidence additionally provides another disease association that supports efforts to remove trans fat from hydrogenated oils from the food supply.

Missmer, Stacey A.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Malspeis, Susan; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Hornstein, Mark D.; Spiegelman, Donna; Barbieri, Robert L.; Willett, Walter C.; Hankinson, Susan E.

2010-01-01

67

Dietary Interventions for Metabolic Syndrome: Role of Modifying Dietary Fats  

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In humans, insulin sensitivity is relatively impaired by diets that are low in oleic acid (OA), a cis monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), or rich in trans MUFA or palmitic acid (PA), a saturated fatty acid (FA). Emerging evidence exists that PA, in contrast to OA, causes insulin resistance via stimulation of inflammatory signaling and production of cytosolic lipid compounds (diacylglycerol and ceramide), leading one to presume that dietary or pharmacologic maneuvers that facilitate transport o...

2009-01-01

68

Dietary intakes of fat and total mortality among Japanese populations with a low fat intake: the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background It may be useful to examine associations of fat intakes with total mortality as a basis for dietary recommendations. We aimed to elucidate associations between dietary fat and total mortality among Japanese populations with low fat intake. Methods We conducted a prospective study consisting of 58,672 men and women aged 40 to 79 years. Fat intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality by sex were computed according to quintiles of energy-adjusted fat intakes. Results During the follow-up period (median duration, 19.3 years), 11,656 deaths were recorded. In men, we found no clear association between total fat and total mortality. HRs across quintiles of total fat intake were 1.00, 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95–1.12), 1.02 (0.94–1.10), 0.98 (0.90–1.07), and 1.07 (0.98–1.17). No significant association was detected in regard to types of fat. In women, HR was lowest in the fourth quintile of total fat intake followed by the top quintile; HRs across quintiles were 1.00, 1.03 (0.94–1.11), 1.00 (0.92–1.09), 0.88 (0.81–0.96), and 0.94 (0.86–1.03). Regarding types of fat in women, total mortality was inversely associated with intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); the lowest HR was in the top quintile of intake for SFA, MUFA, and PUFA: 0.91 (95% CI, 0.83–1.00), 0.91 (0.83–0.99) and 0.88 (0.80?-?0.97), respectively (trend P across quintiles, 0.020, 0.012, and 0.029, respectively). Causes of death other than cancer and cardiovascular disease contributed most to decreases in HRs for total and types of fat. In women, analysis with finer categories revealed that the lowest risk for total mortality appeared at total fat intake of 28% of energy. Conclusions Our findings from a large cohort study among populations with relatively low fat intake provide evidence regarding optimal levels of fat intakes.

2014-01-01

69

Baseline transtheoretical and dietary behavioral predictors of dietary fat moderation over 12 and 24 months.  

Science.gov (United States)

Longitudinal predictors of dietary behavior change are important and in need of study. This secondary data analysis combined primary data across three randomized trials to examine transtheoretical model (TTM) and specific dietary predictors of successful dietary change at 12 and 24 months separately in treatment and control groups (N = 4178). The treatment group received three TTM-tailored print interventions over 12 months between 1995 and 2000. Chi-square and MANOVA analyses were used to examine baseline predictors of dietary outcome at 12 and 24 months. Last, a multivariable logistic regression was conducted with all baseline variables included. Across all analyses in both treatment and control groups, the most robust predictors of successful change were for TTM-tailored treatment group, preparation stage of change, and increased use of dietary behavior variables such as moderating fat intake, substitution of lower fat foods, and increasing intake of healthful foods. These results provide strong evidence for treatment, stage and behavioral dietary severity effects predicting dietary behavior change over time, and for targeting these variables with the strongest relationships to outcome in interventions, such as TTM-tailored dietary interventions. PMID:23910762

Greene, Geoffrey W; Redding, Colleen A; Prochaska, James O; Paiva, Andrea L; Rossi, Joseph S; Velicer, Wayne F; Blissmer, Bryan; Robbins, Mark L

2013-08-01

70

Association of dietary fat intakes with risk of esophageal and gastric cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of our study was to investigate whether intakes of total fat and fat subtypes were associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cardia or gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma. From 1995-1996, dietary intake data was reported by 494,978 participants of the NIH-AARP cohort. The 630 EAC, 215 ESCC, 454 gastric cardia and 501 gastric noncardia adenocarcinomas accrued to the cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between the dietary fat intakes, whilst adjusting for potential confounders. Although apparent associations were observed in energy-adjusted models, multivariate adjustment attenuated results to null [e.g., EAC energy adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.66 (1.27-2.18) p for trend <0.01; EAC multivariate adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.17 (0.84-1.64) p for trend = 0.58]. Similar patterns were also observed for fat subtypes [e.g., EAC saturated fat, energy adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.79 (1.37-2.33) p for trend <0.01; EAC saturated fat, multivariate adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.27 (0.91-1.78) p for trend = 0.28]. However, in multivariate models an inverse association for polyunsaturated fat (continuous) was seen for EAC in subjects with a body mass index (BMI) in the normal range (18.5-<25 kg/m(2)) [HR (95% CI) 0.76 (0.63-0.92)], that was not present in overweight subjects [HR (95% CI) 1.04 (0.96-1.14)], or in unstratified analysis [HR (95% CI) 0.97 (0.90-1.05)]. p for interaction = 0.02. Overall, we found null associations between the dietary fat intakes with esophageal or gastric cancer risk; although a protective effect of polyunsaturated fat intake was seen for EAC in subjects with a normal BMI. PMID:22116732

O'Doherty, Mark G; Freedman, Neal D; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Murray, Liam J; Cantwell, Marie M; Abnet, Christian C

2012-09-15

71

Effects of dietary fat and calorie on immunologic function  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of dietary fat and calories on immunologic function in specific pathogen-free inbred DBA/2 and CBA/J mice was studied. Three diets were modified from control, the AIN-76 purified diet. The high saturated fat diet contained 22.5% coconut oil and 2.5% safflower oil. The high unsaturated fat diet contained 25% safflower oil. Fat was substituted isoclorically for carbohydrate in these two diets. The low calorie diet contained 40% less protein, carbohydrate and fat than control diet; fiber was substituted for these ingredients. Female weanling mice were on the diets for more than 35 days before testing. The natural killer (NK) activity of spleen cells was determined by in vitro cytolysis of /sup 51/Cr-labeled YAC-1 cells. The spleen cells response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or allogeneic tumor EL-4 cells was measured after immunizing the mice with SRBC or EL-4 cells for 4 or 11 days, respectively. The results showed no significant effect of the low calorie diet on NK activity, anti-SRBC or anti-EL-4 response compared to normal diet. Anti-SRBC plaque response was significantly enhanced (27% higher), while anti-EL-4 response was significantly suppressed (15% less) with high saturated fat diet. NK activity was normal. Mice on high unsaturated fat diet showed suppressed anti-SRBC response (16% less) and anti-EL-4 response (17% less), while NK activity was significantly enhanced (70% higher).

Barness, L.A.; Carver, J.D.; Friedman, H.; Hsu, K.H.L.

1986-03-05

72

Effects of dietary fat and calorie on immunologic function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of dietary fat and calories on immunologic function in specific pathogen-free inbred DBA/2 and CBA/J mice was studied. Three diets were modified from control, the AIN-76 purified diet. The high saturated fat diet contained 22.5% coconut oil and 2.5% safflower oil. The high unsaturated fat diet contained 25% safflower oil. Fat was substituted isoclorically for carbohydrate in these two diets. The low calorie diet contained 40% less protein, carbohydrate and fat than control diet; fiber was substituted for these ingredients. Female weanling mice were on the diets for more than 35 days before testing. The natural killer (NK) activity of spleen cells was determined by in vitro cytolysis of "5"1Cr-labeled YAC-1 cells. The spleen cells response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or allogeneic tumor EL-4 cells was measured after immunizing the mice with SRBC or EL-4 cells for 4 or 11 days, respectively. The results showed no significant effect of the low calorie diet on NK activity, anti-SRBC or anti-EL-4 response compared to normal diet. Anti-SRBC plaque response was significantly enhanced (27% higher), while anti-EL-4 response was significantly suppressed (15% less) with high saturated fat diet. NK activity was normal. Mice on high unsaturated fat diet showed suppressed anti-SRBC response (16% less) and anti-EL-4 response (17% less), while NK activity was significantly enhanced (70% higher)

1986-03-05

73

Visual evoked potentials and dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in preterm infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) supply, and especially of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on evoked potential maturation, was studied in 58 healthy preterm infants using flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs), flash electroretinography (ERG), and brainstem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEPs) at 52 weeks of postconceptional age. At the same time, the fatty acid composition of red blood cell membranes was examined. The infants were fed on breast milk (n = 12), a preterm formula supplemented with LCP (PF-LCP) (n = 21), or a traditional preterm formula (PF) (n = 25). In the breast milk and PF-LCP groups the morphology and latencies of the waves that reflect the visual projecting system were similar; in the PF group the morphology was quite different and the wave latencies were significantly longer. This could mean that the maturation pattern of VEPs in preterm infants who did not receive LCP was slower. Moreover, a higher level of erythrocyte LCP, especially DHA, was found in breast milk and PF-LCP groups compared with the PF group. ERG and BAEP recordings were the same in all three groups. These results suggest that a well balanced LCP supplement in preterm formulas can positively influence the maturation of visual evoked potentials in preterm infants when breast milk is not available.

Faldella, G; Govoni, M; Alessandroni, R; Marchiani, E; Salvioli, G P; Biagi, P L; Spano, C

1996-01-01

74

The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs from Hy-line and Warren hens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain. (Author) 37 refs.

Gonzalez-Munoz, M. J.; Bastida, S.; Jimenez, O.; Lorenzo, C. de; Vergara, G.; Sanchez-Muniz, F. J.

2009-07-01

75

Interleukin-6 Gene Polymorphisms, Dietary Fat Intake, Obesity and Serum Lipid Concentrations in Black and White South African Women  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 ?174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat intake adiposity increased in the IVS3 +281 GT+GG and IVS4 +869 AA or AG genotypes. In white women, with increasing omega-3 (n-3) intake and decreasing n-6:n-3 ratio, body mass index (BMI) decreased in those with the ?174 C allele, IVS3 +281 T allele and IVS4 +869 AG genotype. In the white women, those with the IVS3 +281 T allele had lower triglycerides. Further, with increasing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA); triglyceride and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (T-C:HDL-C) ratio decreased in those with the ?174 C allele. In black women, with increasing total fat intake, triglycerides and T-C:HDL-C ratio increased in those with the IVS4 +869 G allele. This study is the first to show that dietary fat intake modulates the relationship between the IL-6 ?174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white SA women.

Joffe, Yael T.; van der Merwe, Lize; Evans, Juliet; Collins, Malcolm; Lambert, Estelle V.; September, Alison; Goedecke, Julia H.

2014-01-01

76

Interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms, dietary fat intake, obesity and serum lipid concentrations in black and white South african women.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat intake adiposity increased in the IVS3 +281 GT+GG and IVS4 +869 AA or AG genotypes. In white women, with increasing omega-3 (n-3) intake and decreasing n-6:n-3 ratio, body mass index (BMI) decreased in those with the -174 C allele, IVS3 +281 T allele and IVS4 +869 AG genotype. In the white women, those with the IVS3 +281 T allele had lower triglycerides. Further, with increasing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA); triglyceride and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (T-C:HDL-C) ratio decreased in those with the -174 C allele. In black women, with increasing total fat intake, triglycerides and T-C:HDL-C ratio increased in those with the IVS4 +869 G allele. This study is the first to show that dietary fat intake modulates the relationship between the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white SA women. PMID:24962479

Joffe, Yael T; van der Merwe, Lize; Evans, Juliet; Collins, Malcolm; Lambert, Estelle V; September, Alison V; Goedecke, Julia H

2014-01-01

77

Effect of dietary fat on plasma glutathione peroxidase levels and intestinal absorption of /sup 75/Se-labeled sodium selenite in chicks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of dietary fat on the availability of selenium was investigated in chicks fed either 4 or 20% butter, olive oil, rape oil, corn oil or sunflower oil in the diet for 3 weeks after hatching. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was used as an indicator of the body selenium status. In addition, the intestinal absorption of sodium selenite (/sup 75/Se-labeled) was determined by using both the in vivo ligated loop procedure and oral administration of the isotope. The plasma GSH-Px levels increased with increasing proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Increasing the amount of fat from 4 to 20% significantly enhanced the GSH-Px activity in the groups receiving butter or olive oil, but had no effect in animals fed the unsaturated fats. The absorption of (/sup 75/Se)selenite from the ligated duodenal loops tended to be reduced in chicks fed corn oil or sunflower oil as compared to the animals receiving butter in their diet. On the other hand, the type of dietary fat did not appear to affect the absorption of the orally administered selenite. The present study demonstrates that the type of dietary fat can affect the plasma GSH-Px levels in chicks without altering the intestinal absorption of selenite. However, the results on the absorption of the intraduodenally injected sodium selenite suggest that dietary fat plays some role in the intestinal transport of selenium.

Mutanen, M.L.; Mykkaenen, H.M.

1984-05-01

78

Effect of dietary fat on plasma glutathione peroxidase levels and intestinal absorption of 75Se-labeled sodium selenite in chicks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of dietary fat on the availability of selenium was investigated in chicks fed either 4 or 20% butter, olive oil, rape oil, corn oil or sunflower oil in the diet for 3 weeks after hatching. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was used as an indicator of the body selenium status. In addition, the intestinal absorption of sodium selenite (75Se-labeled) was determined by using both the in vivo ligated loop procedure and oral administration of the isotope. The plasma GSH-Px levels increased with increasing proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Increasing the amount of fat from 4 to 20% significantly enhanced the GSH-Px activity in the groups receiving butter or olive oil, but had no effect in animals fed the unsaturated fats. The absorption of [75Se]selenite from the ligated duodenal loops tended to be reduced in chicks fed corn oil or sunflower oil as compared to the animals receiving butter in their diet. On the other hand, the type of dietary fat did not appear to affect the absorption of the orally administered selenite. The present study demonstrates that the type of dietary fat can affect the plasma GSH-Px levels in chicks without altering the intestinal absorption of selenite. However, the results on the absorption of the intraduodenally injected sodium selenite suggest that dietary fat plays some role in the intestinal transport of selenium

1984-01-01

79

How selected tissues of lactating holstein cows respond to dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of a 10-week supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids [via sunflower oil/DHA-rich algae (SUNA) or linseed oil/DHA-rich algae (LINA) enriched diets] versus saturated fatty acids (SAT) of lactating German Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation on expression patterns of lipid metabolism-associated genes and gene products in hepatic, longissimus muscle and subcutaneous/perirenal/omental adipose tissue was assessed. Most pronounced transcriptomic responses to dietary PUFA were obtained in hepatic [down-regulated ACACA (FC = 0.83, SUNA; FC = 0.86, LINA), FADS1 (FC = 0.60, SUNA; FC = 0.72, LINA), FADS2 (FC = 0.64, SUNA; FC = 0.79, LINA), FASN (FC = 0.64, SUNA; FC = 0.72, LINA), SCD (FC = 0.37, SUNA; FC = 0.47, LINA) and SREBF1 (FC = 0.79, SUNA, LINA) expression] and omental adipose [up-regulated ACACA (FC = 1.58, SUNA; FC = 1.22, LINA), ADFP (FC = 1.33, SUNA; FC = 1.32, LINA), CEBPA (FC = 1.75, SUNA; FC = 1.40, LINA), FASN (FC = 1.57, SUNA; FC = 1.21, LINA), LPL (FC = 1.50, SUNA; FC = 1.20, LINA), PPARG (FC = 1.36, SUNA; FC = 1.12, LINA), SCD (FC = 1.41, SUNA; FC = 1.17, LINA) and SREBF1 (FC = 1.56, SUNA; FC = 1.18, LINA) expression] tissue. Interestingly, gene/gene product associations were comparatively low in hepatic and omental adipose tissue compared with longissimus muscle, perirenal adipose and subcutaneous adipose tissue, indicating matches only in regard to minor concentrations of SCD product 18:1c9, FADS1 product 20:4n-6 and FADS2 product 18:3n-6 in hepatic tissue, and higher concentrations of ACACA and FASN gene products 12:0 and 14:0 and SCD product 18:2c9,t11 in omental adipose tissue. Whereas all analyzed tissues accumulated dietary PUFA and their ruminally generated biohydrogenation products, tissue-divergent preferences for certain fatty acids were identified. This descriptive study reports tissue-divergent effects of dietary PUFA and outlines the significance of a PUFA intervention with regard to dairy cows' nutritional management. PMID:23129256

Hiller, Beate; Angulo, Joaquin; Olivera, Martha; Nuernberg, Gerd; Nuernberg, Karin

2013-04-01

80

A maternal diet high in n ? 6 polyunsaturated fats alters mammary gland development, puberty onset, and breast cancer risk among female rat?offspring  

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We hypothesized that feeding pregnant rats with a high-fat diet would increase both circulating 17?-estradiol (E2) levels in the dams and the risk of developing carcinogen-induced mammary tumors among their female offspring. Pregnant rats were fed isocaloric diets containing 12% or 16% (low fat) or 43% or 46% (high fat) of calories from corn oil, which primarily contains the n ? 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid, throughout pregnancy. The plasma concentrations of E2 were si...

Hilakivi-clarke, Leena; Clarke, Robert; Onojafe, Ighovie; Raygada, Margarita; Cho, Elizabeth; Lippman, Marc

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Dietary fat modifies lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue of metabolic syndrome patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adipose tissue (AT) is a key organ in the regulation of total body lipid homeostasis, which is responsible for the storage and release of fatty acids according to metabolic needs. We aimed to investigate the effect of the quantity and quality of dietary fat on the lipogenesis and lipolysis processes in the AT of metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, controlled trial conducted within the LIPGENE study assigned MetS patients to one of four diets: (a) high-saturated fatty acid (HSFA) (b) high-monounsaturated fatty acid, and (c, d) two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets supplemented with long chain (LC) n-3 (LFHCC n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or placebo (LFHCC), for 12 weeks each. A fat challenge reflecting the same fatty acid composition as the original diets was conducted post-intervention. Long-term consumption of the LFHCC diet induced an increase in the fasting expression levels of the sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase D9-desaturase genes, whereas the supplementation of this diet with n-3 PUFA reversed this effect (p = 0.007). In contrast, long-term consumption of the HSFA diet increased the expression of the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) gene, at both fasting and postprandial states (both, p effect exerted by LC n-3 PUFA when administered together with a LFHCC diet. Conversely, a diet high in saturated fat increased the expression of the lipolytic gene ATGL relative to the other diets. PMID:24895107

Camargo, Antonio; Meneses, María E; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A; Marín, Carmen; Almadén, Yolanda; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; González-Guardia, Lorena; Fuentes, Francisco; Tinahones, Francisco J; Roche, Helen M; Malagón, María M; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, José

2014-07-01

82

Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina® and AIN-93M, which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad libitum or in a restricted amount. Methods Thus, 40 Wistar rats (90 days old were separated into 4 groups according to the amount of food offered (ad libitum or dietary restriction and the type of diet (commercial diet, 3,028.0 kcal/g or AIN-93M, 3,802.7 kcal/g: animals fed the commercial Purina® diet ad libitum (AP, animals fed restricted amounts of the commercial Purina® diet (RP, animals fed the AIN-93M diet ad libitum (AD, and animals fed restricted amounts of the AIN-93M diet (RD. Dietary restriction consisted of pair-feeding the RP and RD groups with 60% of the total food consumed by the corresponding ad libitum groups. Results Because of its higher carbohydrate and calorie content, AIN-93M was found to accelerate weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and increase the amount of fat in the liver when compared to the commercial diet. Conversely, a 40% dietary restriction assisted in weight loss without causing malnutrition, contributing to an improved glucose tolerance and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Therefore, differences in the amount of carbohydrates and calories provided by the diet can lead to important metabolic disorders, such as impaired tolerance and accumulation of hepatic fat, and dietary restriction improves serum and tissue lipid profiles in laboratory animals.

Moura Leandro P

2012-01-01

83

The inhibition of fat cell proliferation by n-3 fatty acids in dietary obese mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA of marine origin exert multiple beneficial effects on health. Our previous study in mice showed that reduction of adiposity by LC n-3 PUFA was associated with both, a shift in adipose tissue metabolism and a decrease in tissue cellularity. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effects of LC n-3 PUFA on fat cell proliferation and differentiation in obese mice. Methods A model of inducible and reversible lipoatrophy (aP2-Cre-ERT2 PPAR?L2/L2 mice was used, in which the death of mature adipocytes could be achieved by a selective ablation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? in response to i.p. injection of tamoxifen. Before the injection, obesity was induced in male mice by 8-week-feeding a corn oil-based high-fat diet (cHF and, subsequently, mice were randomly assigned (day 0 to one of the following groups: (i mice injected by corn-oil-vehicle only, i.e."control" mice, and fed cHF; (ii mice injected by tamoxifen in corn oil, i.e. "mutant" mice, fed cHF; (iii control mice fed cHF diet with15% of dietary lipids replaced by LC n-3 PUFA concentrate (cHF+F; and (iv mutant mice fed cHF+F. Blood and tissue samples were collected at days 14 and 42. Results Mutant mice achieved a maximum weight loss within 10 days post-injection, followed by a compensatory body weight gain, which was significantly faster in the cHF as compared with the cHF+F mutant mice. Also in control mice, body weight gain was depressed in response to dietary LC n-3 PUFA. At day 42, body weights in all groups stabilized, with no significant differences in adipocyte size between the groups, although body weight and adiposity was lower in the cHF+F as compared with the cHF mice, with a stronger effect in the mutant than in control mice. Gene expression analysis documented depression of adipocyte maturation during the reconstitution of adipose tissue in the cHF+F mutant mice. Conclusion Dietary LC n-3 PUFA could reduce both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of fat cells in vivo. Results are in agreement with the involvement of fat cell turnover in control of adiposity.

Kopecky Jan

2011-08-01

84

Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids upregulate expression of FADS3 transcripts.  

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The fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family at 11q12-13.1 includes FADS1 and FADS2, both known to mediate biosynthesis of omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). FADS3 is a putative desaturase due to its sequence similarity with FADS1 and FADS2, but its function is unknown. We have previously described 7 FADS3 alternative transcripts (AT) and 1 FADS2 AT conserved across multiple species. This study examined the effect of dietary LCPUFA levels on liver FADS gene expression in vivo and in vitro, evaluated by qRT-PCR. Fourteen baboon neonates were randomized to three diet groups for their first 12 weeks of life, C: Control, no LCPUFA, L: 0.33% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/0.67% arachidonic acid (ARA) (w/w); and L3: 1.00% DHA/0.67% ARA (w/w). Liver FADS1 and both FADS2 transcripts were downregulated by at least 50% in the L3 group compared to controls. In contrast, FADS3 AT were upregulated (L3 > C), with four transcripts significantly upregulated by 40% or more. However, there was no evidence for a shift in liver fatty acids to coincide with increased FADS3 expression. Significant upregulation of FADS3 AT was also observed in human liver-derived HepG2 cells after DHA or ARA treatment. The PPAR? antagonist GW9662 prevented FADS3 upregulation, while downregulation of FADS1 and FADS2 was unaffected. Thus, FADS3 AT were directly upregulated by LCPUFA by a PPAR?-dependent mechanism unrelated to regulation of other desaturases. This opposing pattern and mechanism of regulation suggests a dissimilar function for FADS3 AT compared to other FADS gene products. PMID:22398025

Reardon, Holly T; Hsieh, Andrea T; Park, Woo Jung; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Anthony, Joshua C; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Brenna, J Thomas

2013-01-01

85

Dietary fat status influencing radiosensitivity of aortic histological structure  

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Effect of lipid dietary status and cummulative doses of whole body gamma irrdiation up to 15 Gy, on histological pattern of the dorsal aorta of male albino rats was studied. Rats fed fat-free diet showed enlarged spaces filled with amorphous fibrous material lying in-between smooth muscle cells, whereas animals fed fat-rich diet showed none of these changes. Rats fed normal fat diet and subjected to the fractionated dose levels showed structural changes in all the 3 layers of the dorsal aorta. Thickening of both tunica media and adventitia, degenerative endothelia cells and granulomatous inflammation of the adventitia were observed. Irradiated rats fed fat-free diet showed more intensive structural changes. These included degeneration of endothelial lining, disorganization of smooth muscle cells and vacuolation in tunica media and degenerated muscle cells. Condensed elastic and collagen fibers could be observed in-between smooth muscles and tunica aventitia looked degenerated with less numbers of fibroblasts. Irradiated rats fed rich-fat diet showed rapid structural changes. These included degeneration of endothelium of tunica intima, reduced numbers of smooth muscle cells, hyaline degeneration of tunica adventitia with signs of necrosis and fragmentation, decreased thickness of the dorsal aorta cells and ill-defined separation between the tunica media and adventitia. (orig.)

1991-01-01

86

Endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids delay progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice.  

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Preclinical studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may be beneficial for prevention of pancreatic cancer. Nutritional intervention studies are often complex, and there is no clear evidence, without potential confounding factors, on whether conversion of n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in pancreatic tissues would provide protection. Experiments were designed using n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1) transgenic mice, which can convert n-6 PUFA to n-3 FAs endogenously, to determine the impact of n-3 PUFAs on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs) and their progression to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Six-week-old female p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) and compound Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice were fed (AIN-76A) diets containing 10% safflower oil for 35 weeks. Pancreata were evaluated histopathologically for PanINs and PDAC. Results showed a dramatic reduction in incidence of PDAC (84%; P LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice compared to p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. Importantly, significant reductions of pancreatic ducts with carcinoma (90%; P 85%; P LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. Molecular analysis of the pancreas showed a significant down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5-LOX-activating protein, Bcl-2, and cyclin D1 expression levels in Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice compared to p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. These data highlight the promise of dietary n-3 FAs for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer in high-risk individuals. PMID:23308056

Mohammed, Altaf; Janakiram, Naveena B; Brewer, Misty; Duff, Ashley; Lightfoot, Stan; Brush, Richard S; Anderson, Robert E; Rao, Chinthalapally V

2012-12-01

87

Impact of Dietary Fat Type and Amount on Growth Performance and Serum Cholesterol in Rabbits  

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Problem statement: Literature data on the effect of dietary fat on growth performance in rabbits are inconclusive. For commercial rabbit production it is relevant to know to what extent dietary fat level and type can be manipulated. In the present study serum cholesterol was also analyzed because its relation to the amount and type of dietary fat was not known for rabbits. Approach: Young growing rabbits were fed diets containing one of four different levels (5.2-41.8 energy %) ...

2010-01-01

88

Interaction between dietary fat and exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption.  

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The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased physical activity on subsequent sleeping energy expenditure (SEE) measured in a whole room calorimeter under differing levels of dietary fat. We hypothesized that increased physical activity would increase SEE. Six healthy young men participated in a randomized, single-blind, crossover study. Subjects repeated an 8-day protocol under four conditions separated by at least 7 days. During each condition, subjects consumed an isoenergetic diet consisting of 37% fat, 15% protein, and 48% carbohydrate for the first 4 days, and for the following 4 days SEE and energy balance were measured in a respiration chamber. The first chamber day served as a baseline measurement, and for the remaining 3 days diet and activity were randomly assigned as high-fat/exercise, high-fat/sedentary, low-fat/exercise, or low-fat/sedentary. Energy balance was not different between conditions. When the dietary fat was increased to 50%, SEE increased by 7.4% during exercise (P < 0.05) relative to being sedentary (baseline day), but SEE did not increase with exercise when fat was lowered to 20%. SEE did not change when dietary fat was manipulated under sedentary conditions. Physical activity causes an increase in SEE when dietary fat is high (50%) but not when dietary fat is low (20%). Dietary fat content influences the impact of postexercise-induced increases in SEE. This finding may help explain the conflicting data regarding the effect of exercise on energy expenditure. PMID:24644241

Frost, Elizabeth A; Redman, Leanne M; de Jonge, Lilian; Rood, Jennifer; Zachwieja, Jeffrey J; Volaufova, Julia; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R

2014-05-01

89

Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary ?-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R2 = 0.94 and perirenal fat (R2 = 0.96.

Pier Giorgio Peiretti

2012-02-01

90

Indices of fatty acid desaturase activity in healthy human subjects: effects of different types of dietary fat.  

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?9-Desaturase (stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, SCD-1) regulates the desaturation of SFA, mainly stearic and palmitic, to MUFA. ?6-Desaturase (D6D) and ?5-desaturase (D5D) are involved in the metabolism of linoleic and ?-linolenic acid to polyunsaturated metabolites. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of different types of dietary fat on indices of fatty acid desaturase (FADS) activity (evaluated as product:precursor ratios) in plasma and skeletal muscle in human subjects. A high SCD-1 index has been related to obesity and metabolic disorders, while the D5D index is associated with insulin sensitivity. Fatty acid composition of serum and skeletal muscle lipids was analysed by GLC during a randomised, controlled, 3-month dietary intervention in healthy subjects. A comparison of the effects of a diet containing butter fat (SFA, n 17) with a diet containing monounsaturated fat (MUFA, n 17), keeping all other dietary components constant, showed a reduced SCD-1 activity index by 20% on the MUFA diet compared with the SFA diet assessed in serum cholesteryl esters. The D6D and D5D indices remained unaffected. Supplementation with long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduced the SCD-1 index by a similar magnitude while the D6D index decreased and the D5D index increased. It is concluded that changes in the type of fat in the diet affect the indices of FADS activity in serum and skeletal muscle in human subjects. The desaturase activity indices estimated from the serum lipid ester composition are significantly related to corresponding indices studied in skeletal muscle phospholipids. PMID:23414551

Vessby, Bengt; Gustafsson, Inga-Britt; Tengblad, Siv; Berglund, Lars

2013-09-14

91

Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy predicts the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and biohydrogenation products in the subcutaneous fat of beef cows fed flaxseed  

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This study examined the ability of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to estimate the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their biohydrogenation products in the subcutaneous fat of beef cows fed flaxseed. Subcutaneous fat samples at the 12th rib of 62 cows were stored at 80 degrees C, thawed, scanned over a NIR spectral range from 400 to 2498 nm at 31 degrees C and 2 degrees C, and subsequently analysed for fatty acid composition. Best NIRS calibrations were with sampl...

Prieto, Nuria; Dugan, Mer; Lo?pez Campos, Oscar; Mcallister, T. A.; Aalhus, J. L.; Uttaro, B.

2012-01-01

92

Dietary fats and cardiovascular disease: putting together the pieces of a complicated puzzle.  

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Dietary fatty acids play significant roles in the cause and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Trans fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils have well-established adverse effects and should be eliminated from the human diet. CVD risk can be modestly reduced by decreasing saturated fatty acids (SFA) and replacing it by a combination of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Although the ideal type of unsaturated fat for this replacement is unclear, the benefits of PUFA appear strongest. Both n-6 and n-3 PUFA are essential and reduce CVD risk. However, additional research is needed to better define the optimal amounts of both and to discern the patients and/or general population that would benefit from supplemental n-3 fatty acid intake. Furthermore, consumption of animal products, per se, is not necessarily associated with increased CVD risk, whereas nut and olive oil intake is associated with reduced CVD risk. In conclusion, the total matrix of a food is more important than just its fatty acid content in predicting the effect of a food on CVD risk, and a healthy diet should be the cornerstone of CVD prevention. PMID:24727233

Michas, George; Micha, Renata; Zampelas, Antonis

2014-06-01

93

Dietary fat type, meat quality and fatty acid metabolism in swine  

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This thesis focuses on the replacement of animal fat by vegetable oil in the diet for growing-finishing pigs. Generally, but not exclusively, fats of animal origin contain higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) than vegetable oils that are commonly rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). There is concern among the consumers of pork meat as to the use of fats of animal origin in the diet of pigs. High intake of animal fats by pigs leads to pork meat rich in SFA, which in turn in...

Mitchaothai, J.

2007-01-01

94

Psychosocial correlates of dietary fat intake in African-American adults: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Current dietary guidelines recommend that dietary fat should comprise 20–35% percent of total energy intake, with less than 10% of energy from saturated fat. However, many Americans exceed these goals and data suggest that African Americans tend to consume a higher percentage of energy from dietary fat than Whites. Because diets low in dietary fat, particularly saturated fat, are associated with lower risk for many chronic illnesses, it is important to identify strategies to reduce high fat intakes. This study examined associations of psychosocial factors with dietary fat intake in African American adults 18 to 70 years. Methods Data are self-reported from a cross-sectional survey of African Americans (n = 658 using an 11-page questionnaire, collected from June to October 2003. Associations of psychosocial (predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors based on the PRECEDE framework, dietary fat-related behaviors, and participant characteristics (e.g., age, sex, education, BMI with total and saturated fat consumption are described using linear regression and analysis of variance. Results The mean age of participants was 43.9 years, 57% were female, 37% were college graduates, and 76% were overweight/obese. Respondents with lower fat intakes were female, older, had high education and very good/excellent perceived health. Among the psychosocial factors, the strongest (inverse associations with fat intake were with two predisposing factors: belief in the importance of a low-fat diet (both genders and high self-efficacy (women only. Fat intake was also significantly lower among participants who could count on those close for encouragement to eat healthy foods (a reinforcing factor and among men who needed more information about preparing healthy foods (an enabling factor. Conclusion Dietary interventions to decrease fat intake in African American adults may benefit from incorporating predisposing factors, such as personal beliefs and self-efficacy, in their design and implementation.

Watters Joanne L

2009-03-01

95

Dietary Fat Reduction Behaviors among African American, American Indian, and White Older Adults with Diabetes  

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Dietary self-management of diabetes is often difficult for older adults to practice, particularly in rural communities. We describe patterns and correlates of dietary fat reduction among older rural adults with diabetes of any type. In-home interviews were conducted with a multiethnic random sample of 701 adults ?65 with diabetes from two North Carolina counties. The Fat and Fiber Behavior Questionnaire was used to measure dietary behaviors. Separate multiple linear regressions assessed eff...

Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Wetmore-arkader, Lindsay K.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2009-01-01

96

Dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio reduce adverse effects of infectious bursal disease in broilers.  

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This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio on immune response and performance of infectious bursal disease (IBD)-challenged broiler chickens. In total, 350 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 1 of the 6 dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were 3 n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (45, 5.5, and 1.5) and 2 levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that birds fed with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 had higher BW, lower feed intake, and superior FCR than other groups. However, the highest antibody response was observed in birds with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 1.5. Lowering n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio reduced bursa lesion score equally in birds fed with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 and 1.5. Supplementation of methionine by twice the recommendation also improved FCR and reduced feed intake and bursa lesion score. However, in this study, the optimum performance (as measured by BW, feed intake, and FCR) did not coincide with the optimum immune response (as measured by antibody titer). It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent but nonlinear manner. Therefore, it can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (5.5) and methionine level (twice recommendation) might enhance immune response together with performance in IBD-challenged broiler chickens. PMID:22912451

Maroufyan, E; Kasim, A; Ebrahimi, M; Loh, T C; Hair-Bejo, M; Soleimani, A F

2012-09-01

97

Dietary fat-induced taurocholic acid production promotes pathobiont and colitis in IL-10?/? mice  

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The composite human microbiome of Western populations has likely changed over the past century, brought on by new environmental triggers that often have a negative impact on human health1. Here we show that consumption of a diet high in saturated (milk derived)-fat (MF), but not polyunsaturated (safflower oil)-fat (PUFA), changes the conditions for microbial assemblage and promotes expansion of a low abundance, sulfite-reducing pathobiont, Bilophila wadsworthia2. This was associated with a pr...

Devkota, Suzanne; Wang, Yunwei; Musch, Mark; Leone, Vanessa; Fehlner-peach, Hannah; Nadimpalli, Anuradha; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Jabri, Bana; Chang, Eugene B.

2012-01-01

98

The role of Odontella aurita, a marine diatom rich in EPA, as a dietary supplement in dyslipidemia, platelet function and oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats  

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Abstract Background Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on the risk factors for high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Methods...

2012-01-01

99

Dietary fat intake and gestational weight gain in relation to estradiol and progesterone plasma levels during pregnancy: a longitudinal study in Swedish women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated pregnancy hormone levels, such as oestrogen and progesterone, may increase the risk of developing breast cancer both in mothers and offspring. However, the reasons for large inter-individual variations in estrogen and progesterone levels during pregnancy remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether a intakes of total dietary fat, types of fat (monounsaturated: MUFA, polyunsaturated: n-3 and n-6 PUFA, and saturated and b gestational weight gain are associated with estradiol and progesterone levels in plasma during pregnancy. Methods We measured body weight as well as estradiol and progesterone in plasma among 226 healthy pregnant Swedish women on gestation weeks 12, 25 and 33. At the same time points, dietary intake of total fat and types of fat (MUFA, PUFA, SFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were estimated using 3-day food diaries. Results A large variation in estradiol and progesterone levels was evident. Nulliparous women had 37%, 12% and 30% higher mean estradiol levels on gestation weeks 12, 25 and 33 compared to parous women (P = 0.008. No associations were found between dietary intake of total fat or fat subtypes (including n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA and plasma estradiol or progesterone levels. Gestational weight gain was associated with progesterone levels (P = 0.03 but the effect was very small (20% increase in progesterone levels between gestational weeks 12 and 33 per kg body weight/week. Conclusion No associations among gestational weight gain, maternal dietary fat intake (total or subtypes including n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA and plasma estradiol levels were found. However, pregnancy progesterone levels correlated with weight gain during pregnancy. Identification of other possible determinants of pregnancy estradiol and progesterone levels, important for the development of breast cancer in both mothers and offspring, are needed.

Yu Wei

2009-04-01

100

The effect of dietary omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on ovine ovarian function and the pre-implantation embryo  

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There is considerable interest in the beneficial role of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on reproduction in ruminants. Detailed information regarding the mechanisms behind this beneficial effect is limited. The main objective of this thesis was to test the effects of dietary supplementation with omega-3 (n-3) or -6 (n-6) PUFA on gene expression, fatty acid (FA) composition and steroidogenesis in granulosa and theca cells and pre-implantation embryo development.

Hughes, Jaime

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Dietary n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and energy balance in overweight or moderately obese men and women: a randomized controlled trial  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFA have been shown to reduce body weight and fat mass in rodents as well as in humans in one small short-term study. We conducted this controlled randomized dietary trial to test the hypothesis that n-3-PUFA lower body weight and fat mass by reducing appetite and ad libitum food intake and/or by increasing energy expenditure. Methods Twenty-six overweight or moderately obese (body mass index 28–33 kg/m2 men and women were included, and received either a diet rich in n-3-PUFA from both plant and marine sources or a control diet. Diets were administered in an isocaloric fashion for 2 weeks followed by 12 weeks of ad libitum intake. The n-3-PUFA and control diets were identical in all regards except for the fatty acid composition. All foods were provided to subjects, and leftovers were weighed back to assess actual food intake accurately for each day of the study. This design gave us 80% power to detect a difference in weight change between the n-3-PUFA and control diet groups of 2.25 kg at an ?-error level of 5%. Results Both groups lost similar amounts of weight when these diets were consumed ad libitum for 12 weeks [mean (SD: -3.5 (3.7 kg in the control group vs. -2.8 (3.7 kg in the n-3-PUFA group, F(1,24 = 13.425, p = 0.001 for time effect; F(1,24 = 0.385, p = 0.541 for time × group interaction]. Consistent with this finding, we also found no differences between the n-3-PUFA and control groups with regard to appetite as measured by visual analogue scale, ad libitum food intake, resting energy expenditure as measured by indirect calorimetry, diurnal plasma leptin concentrations, or fasting ghrelin concentrations. Conclusion Our results suggest that dietary n-3-PUFA do not play an important role in the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure, or body weight in humans.

Matthys Colleen C

2009-05-01

102

Comparison of the effects of dietary fish oils with different n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid compositions on plasma and liver lipids in rats.  

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The effects of dietary fish oils with different n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid compositions on plasma lipid profiles in rats have been studied. Forty-eight male rats, previously maintained on a cholesterol-free diet for 15 days, were fed for 60 days with diets supplemented with 10% fat of either marine hilsa fish (Hilsa ilisa, family clupeidae) or fresh-water chital fish (Notopterus chitala, family notopteridae). The diets had similar levels of total saturated (35-41%), monounsaturated (43-47%) and n-3 polyunsaturated (9-10%) fatty acids. Cholesterol contents of the diets were adjusted to 0.85%; gamma-linolenic acid (3.3%) in chital oil and eicosapentaenoic acid (4.9%) in hilsa oil diets were the major n-3 contributors. The percentage of eicosapentaenoic acid in the chital oil diet was 0.57 times that of the hilsa oil diet, but the eicosapentaenoic (EPA) to arachidonic acid (AA) ratio in the latter (4.08) was 3.2 times that of the former (1.27). Sixty days of hilsa oil diet feeding decreased the levels of cholesterol (53.3 +/- 2.9 to 50.0 +/- 1.1 mg/dL), triacylglycerol (75.7 +/- 3.8 to 64.3 +/- 2.6 mg/dL) and phospholipid (55.8 +/- 1.5 to 51.7 +/- 3.1 mg/dL) in rat plasma. Similar treatment with chital oil diet elevated the plasma cholesterol level (53.3 +/- 2.9 to 62.3 +/- 7.6 mg/dL) while triacylglycerol and phospholipid contents remained unaltered. Both the dietary treatments decreased the levels of linoleic and arachidonic acids in liver but only under the hilsa oil diet did the eicosapentaenoic acid percentage increase markedly (0.8 +/- 0.06% to 5.5 +/- 0.06%) at the expense of arachidonic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1630277

Banerjee, I; Saha, S; Dutta, J

1992-06-01

103

Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended MEDFICTS cutpoints are too high, leading to overestimation of dietary quality. A cutpoint of 38 appears to be providing optimal identification of patients who do not meet AHA dietary guidelines for fat intake.

Bindeman Jody

2003-06-01

104

Influence of long-term nutrition with different dietary fats on fatty acid composition of heavy pigs backfat  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of long-term fat supplementation on the fatty acid profile of heavy pig adipose tissue. Fifty-four Large White barrows, averaging 25 kg LW, were randomized (matched weights to one of three isoenergetic diets supplemented with either tallow (TA, maize oil (MO, or rapeseed oil (RO. The fats were supplement- ed at 3% as fed from 25 to 110 kg LW, and at 2.5 % from 110 kg to slaughtering. Following slaughter at about 160 kg LW, backfat samples were collected from ten animals per treatment and analyzed. Fatty acid composition of backfat close- ly reflected the fatty acid composition of the supplemented fats. The backfat of pigs fed TA had the highest saturated fatty acid content (SFA (P<0.01; those fed MO had the highest content in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA and the lowest in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA content; those fed RO had the highest content of linolenic acid (C18:3 and cis 11- ecosenoic acid (C20:1. Only MO treatment had an effect on linoleic acid levels and the iodine value (IV of backfat, result- ing in levels higher than those (IV = 70; C18:2 = 15% accepted by the Parma Consortium for dry-cured ham. The IV and unsaturation index in both layers of subcutaneous backfat tissue differed significantly between treatments. These results show that long-term dietary supplementation with different fats changes the fatty acid profile of heavy pig adipose tissue. Supplementation with rapeseed oil increases the proportion of “healthy” fatty acids in pig fat, thereby improving the nutritional quality, however the effects on the technological quality of the fat must be carefully assessed.

Carlo Corino

2010-01-01

105

Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor ? protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ? expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

Nuernberg Karin

2011-08-01

106

Influence of dietary fatty acid composition and exercise on changes in fat oxidation from a high-fat diet.  

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Acute high-fat (HF) diets can lead to short-term positive fat balances until the body increases fat oxidation to match intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a HF diet, rich in either mono-unsaturated or saturated fatty acids (FAs) and exercise, on the rate at which the body adapts to a HF diet.(13)C-labeled oleate and (2)H-labeled palmitate were also given to determine the contribution of exogenous vs. global fat oxidation. Eight healthy men (age of 18-45 yr; body mass index of 22 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were randomized in a 2 × 2 crossover design. The four treatments were a high saturated fat diet with exercise (SE) or sedentary (SS) conditions and a high monounsaturated fat diet with exercise (UE) or sedentary (US) conditions. Subjects stayed for 5 days in a metabolic chamber. All meals were provided. On day 1, 30% of energy intake was from fat, whereas days 2-5 had 50% of energy as fat. Subjects exercised on a stationary cycle at 45% of maximal oxygen uptake for 2 h each day. Respiratory gases and urinary nitrogen were collected to calculate fat oxidation. Change from day 1 to day 5 showed both exercise treatments increased fat oxidation (SE: 76 ± 30 g, P = 0.001; UE: 118 ± 31 g, P < 0.001), whereas neither sedentary condition changed fat oxidation (SS: -10 ± 33 g, P = not significant; US: 41 ± 14 g, P = 0.07). No differences for dietary FA composition were found. Exercise led to a faster adaptation to a HF diet by increasing fat oxidation and achieving fat balance by day 5. Dietary FA composition did not differentially affect 24-h fat oxidation. PMID:20651220

Cooper, J A; Watras, A C; Shriver, T; Adams, A K; Schoeller, D A

2010-10-01

107

Milk Fat Intake and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Supplementation : Dietary Markers and Associations to Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics  

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In the present thesis dietary markers for intake of milk fat, associations between intake of milk fat and risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD), and the effects of supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) to healthy humans are investigated. The dietary fat quality is one of the main lifestyle factors affecting risk for CHD. When studying the associations between diet and health it is important to have accurate dietary information. Objective dietary markers increase the poss...

2005-01-01

108

Influence of sow dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid source on the immunoglobulin profile of piglets  

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To examine the effect of different n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) sources in sow diets on piglets’ immunoglobulin (Ig) profile, two groups of twelve sows each were fed different diets from day 45 of pregnancy and during lactation on two commercial farms. On farm I, a palm oil diet (25 g/kg; PALM) and a linseed oil containing diet (20 g/kg; LIN) were fed. On farm II, the same PALM diet and a fish oil containing diet (20 g/kg; FISH) were fed. All diets contained equal amounts of C18:2n...

2010-01-01

109

Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Delay Progression of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma in Fat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ Mice12  

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Preclinical studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may be beneficial for prevention of pancreatic cancer. Nutritional intervention studies are often complex, and there is no clear evidence, without potential confounding factors, on whether conversion of n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in pancreatic tissues would provide protection. Experiments were designed using n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1) transgenic mice, which can convert n-6 PUFA to n-3 FAs endogen...

Mohammed, Altaf; Janakiram, Naveena B.; Brewer, Misty; Duff, Ashley; Lightfoot, Stan; Brush, Richard S.; Anderson, Robert E.; Rao, Chinthalapally V.

2012-01-01

110

Impact of Dietary Fat Type and Amount on Growth Performance and Serum Cholesterol in Rabbits  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Literature data on the effect of dietary fat on growth performance in rabbits are inconclusive. For commercial rabbit production it is relevant to know to what extent dietary fat level and type can be manipulated. In the present study serum cholesterol was also analyzed because its relation to the amount and type of dietary fat was not known for rabbits. Approach: Young growing rabbits were fed diets containing one of four different levels (5.2-41.8 energy % of either coconut fat or corn oil. Fat was added to the diets at the expense of an isoenergetic amount of corn starch and dextrose in a 1:1 ratio. The diets were in pelleted form and supplied ad libitum. Results: Increasing fat intakes in the form of either coconut fat or corn oil enhanced weight gain and improved feed efficiency. The effect of coconut fat was maximal at 20.9 energy % (9.9%, w/w and the greatest effect of corn oil was seen at an inclusion level of 41.8 energy % (20.2%, w/w. As would be expected, replacement of dietary corn oil by coconut fat significantly decreased serum cholesterol concentrations. The cholesterol-lowering effect of corn oil versus coconut fat increased markedly with higher dietary inclusion levels of fat. Conclusion: The addition of fat to the diet improved growth performance. It is suggested to find out whether the present observations can be applied in the formulation of diets for fryer rabbits. The new observation for rabbits is that the hypocholesterolemic response to corn oil increased with higher intake levels.

A. Alhaidary

2010-01-01

111

Periodontal disease: modulation of the inflammatory cascade by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

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Periodontal disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is caused by the interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune system. The ensuing oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade result in the destruction of gingival tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This article reviews the underlying mechanisms and host-bacteria interactions responsible for periodontal disease and evidence that nutritional supplementation with fish oil may provide a protective effect. Historical investigations of diet and disease have highlighted an inverse relationship between ingestion of fish oil, which is high in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the incidence of typical inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and coronary heart disease. Ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, results in their incorporation into membrane phospholipids, which can alter eicosanoid production after stimulation during the immune response. These eicosanoids promote a reduction in chronic inflammation, which has led to the proposal that fish oil is a possible modulator of inflammation and may reduce the severity of periodontal diseases. Tentative animal and human studies have provided an indication of this effect. Further human investigation is needed to establish the protective effects of fish oil in relation to periodontal disease. PMID:23889472

Sculley, D V

2014-06-01

112

Dietary oxidized poultry offal fat: broiler performance and oxidative stability of thigh meat during chilled storage  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to [...] 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC). Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass characteristics were measured. Skinless and deboned thigh meat was stored chilled during 12 days, and samples were periodically collected to assess their quality and oxidative stability. Dietary oxidized fat did not affect bird performance or carcass characteristics. During chilled storage, meat color (L*, a* and b*) was not affected by dietary treatments; however, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances) values were higher (P

AMC, Racanicci; JFM, Menten; MAB, Regitano-d' Arce; EAFS, Torres; LM, Pino; AA, Pedroso.

113

Postprandial changes in the proteome are modulated by dietary fat in patients with metabolic syndrome.  

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Metabolic syndrome is a multicomponent disorder whose etiology is the result of a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic and environmental factors including dietary habits. Our aim was to identify proteome-diet interactions during the postprandial state after the acute intake of four meals with different qualities of fat in the proteome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A randomized controlled trial conducted within the LIPGENE study assigned 39 metabolic syndrome patients to one of four meals: a high-saturated-fatty-acid (HSFA) meal, a high-monounsaturated-fatty-acid (HMUFA) meal and two high-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid (from walnut) (HPUFA) meals supplemented with n-3 PUFA or placebo. We analyzed the postprandial changes in the whole proteome of both nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by two-dimensional proteomics. Twenty-three proteins were differentially expressed. HSFA intake caused the postprandial increase of proteins responding to oxidative stress (HSPA1A, PDIA3 and PSME1) and DNA damage (SMC6), whereas HMUFA intake led to the up-regulation of HSPA1A and PDIA3. HPUFA meal supplementation with n-3 PUFA produced peroxisomal beta-oxidation inhibition by down-regulation of ECH1, a process related to insulin signaling improvement. In conclusion, HSFA meal intake causes deleterious postprandial changes in the proteome in terms of DNA damage and procoagulant state, which reflect a higher postprandial oxidative stress after HSFA meal intake as compared to intake of HMUFA and HPUFA meals. Moreover, the addition of long-chain n-3 PUFA to an HPUFA meal may improve insulin signaling and exerts an anti-inflammatory effect when compared to an HPUFA meal. PMID:22959058

Camargo, Antonio; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol Alberto; Peña-Orihuela, Patricia; Marín, Carmen; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Gutierrez-Mariscal, Francisco Miguel; Malagón, María M; Roche, Helen M; Tinahones, Francisco José; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, José

2013-01-01

114

Lipoprotein lipase links dietary fat to solid tumor cell proliferation.  

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Many types of cancer cells require a supply of fatty acids (FA) for growth and survival, and interrupting de novo FA synthesis in model systems causes potent anticancer effects. We hypothesized that, in addition to synthesis, cancer cells may obtain preformed, diet-derived FA by uptake from the bloodstream. This would require hydrolytic release of FA from triglyceride in circulating lipoprotein particles by the secreted enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and the expression of CD36, the channel for cellular FA uptake. We find that selected breast cancer and sarcoma cells express and secrete active LPL, and all express CD36. We further show that LPL, in the presence of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, accelerates the growth of these cells. Providing LPL to prostate cancer cells, which express low levels of the enzyme, did not augment growth, but did prevent the cytotoxic effect of FA synthesis inhibition. Moreover, LPL knockdown inhibited HeLa cell growth. In contrast to the cell lines, immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the presence of LPL and CD36 in the majority of breast, liposarcoma, and prostate tumor tissues examined (n = 181). These findings suggest that, in addition to de novo lipogenesis, cancer cells can use LPL and CD36 to acquire FA from the circulation by lipolysis, and this can fuel their growth. Interfering with dietary fat intake, lipolysis, and/or FA uptake will be necessary to target the requirement of cancer cells for FA. PMID:21282354

Kuemmerle, Nancy B; Rysman, Evelien; Lombardo, Portia S; Flanagan, Alison J; Lipe, Brea C; Wells, Wendy A; Pettus, Jason R; Froehlich, Heather M; Memoli, Vincent A; Morganelli, Peter M; Swinnen, Johannes V; Timmerman, Luika A; Chaychi, Leila; Fricano, Catherine J; Eisenberg, Burton L; Coleman, William B; Kinlaw, William B

2011-03-01

115

Dietary saturated and monounsaturated fats protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by altering fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane in rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fats increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We evaluated the effect of dietary corn oil (CO, olive oil (OO, and beef tallow (BT on fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane and acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 15% (wt/wt CO, OO or BT for 6 weeks. After treatment with acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, samples of plasma and liver were taken for analyses of the fatty acid composition and toxicity. Results Treatment with acetaminophen significantly elevated levels of plasma GOT and GPT as well as hepatic TBARS but reduced hepatic GSH levels in CO compared to OO and BT groups. Acetaminophen significantly induced protein expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the CO group. In comparison with the CO diet, lower levels of linoleic acid, higher levels of oleic acids and therefore much lower ratios of linoleic to oleic acid were detected in rats fed OO and BT diets. Conclusions Dietary OO and BT produces similar liver microsomal fatty acid composition and may account for less severe liver injury after acetaminophen treatment compared to animals fed diets with CO rich in linoleic acid. These findings imply that types of dietary fat may be important in the nutritional management of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

Shim Eugene

2011-10-01

116

Effect of Dietary Fats on Glucose Tolerance, Insulin Sensitivity and Membrane Free Fatty Acids in Rats  

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The present work was designed to assess the possible effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) as fish oil, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) as olive oil (OO), saturated fatty acid (SFA) as butter oil (BO) and their combinations on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and membrane free fatty acid levels. Relatively high fat (20% w/w, 40% energy) content diets were prepared and supplemented to adult male Wistar rats for 5-weeks. Body growth, intravenous glucose tolerance, insulin...

2004-01-01

117

Effect of dietary fat sources on fatty acid deposition and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens  

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The hypothesis tested was that dietary vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids, when compared with a vegetable oil rich in linoleic acid, increase fat deposition in broiler chickens and affect synthesis or oxidation, or both, of individual fatty acids. Diets with native sunflower oil (SO), a 50:50 mix of hydrogenated and native SO, palm oil, and randomized palm oil were fed to broiler chickens. Intake of digestible fat and fatty acids, whole body fatty acid deposition, hepatic fatty acid...

2010-01-01

118

Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on in vivo splenic cytokine mRNA expression in layer chicks immunized with salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide  

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Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on immune responses in poultry have been reported. However, effects on the underlying mechanisms, such as the role of cytokines, have not been documented because the necessary tools were lacking. Recently, primer sets for chicken interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-2, interferon-? (IFN-?), myelomonocytic growth factor (MGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?2 have become available. Therefore, in the present study we first examined the in vivo...

2001-01-01

119

Effect of dietary energy and protein levels on fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls.  

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Seventy six Belgian Blue (BB) bulls, with double-muscled conformation, were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial experiment. The treatments included low (N(L)=127 g CP/kg DM), medium (N(M)=153 g CP/kg DM) and high (N(H)=172 g CP/kg DM) levels of dietary protein in combination with low (E(L)=7.38 MJ ME/kg DM) and high (E(H)=8.03 MJ ME/kg DM) levels of dietary energy. Fatty acid composition was determined on total lipid samples of the M. longissimus thoracis of all animals and on the separated triacylglycerol and polar lipid fatty acid fractions of the medium-protein group. Dietary energy and protein levels influenced the carcass characteristics of BB bulls but the effects were small. Carcass fat cover score, carcass fat content and intramuscular fat content were slightly but significantly higher in the animals on the high versus the low energy diets. The overall intramuscular fat content was very low (<1%) and the overall polyunsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratio (0.39) high compared to normal figures for beef. The high versus the low dietary energy level increased the monounsaturated (P<0.001) and decreased the polyunsaturated (P<0.001) fatty acid proportion with no change in the saturated fatty acid proportion. This may have been due in part to the addition of beef tallow to increase the energy level of the diet. Concomitant shifts in the individual fatty acids included increased proportions of C14:0 (P<0.001), C16:0 (P<0.03), C16:1 (P<0.01), C18:1 (P<0.001) and decreased proportions of C18:2 (P<0.001) and C20:4 (P<0.001). Increasing dietary protein levels had inconsistent effects on the fatty acid profiles. The proportion of polar lipid fatty acids in the total fatty acids was 0.34 and 0.25 for the E(L) and E(H) group, respectively, in the Nm treatment group. Changes in fatty acid proportions of the triacylglycerol fatty acid fraction were similar to those seen in the total lipid fatty acids when related to dietary energy level, but no significant changes in the polar lipid fatty acid proportions were observed. Significant linear relationships were found between measures of carcass and muscle fatness and fatty acid proportions. With increasing muscle total fatty acid content, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid proportions increased (r=0.38 and r=0.55, respectively, P<0.01) and the polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion decreased (r=-0.73, P<0.01). The diet had some effects but the relatively unsaturated intramuscular fatty acid composition was mainly related to the low total fat content of the BB animals. PMID:22061774

Smet, S D; Webb, E C; Claeys, E; Uytterhaegen, L; Demeyer, D I

2000-09-01

120

Energy metabolism and lactation performance of primiparous sows as affected by dietary fat and vitamin E.  

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In this thesis different levels of dietary fat (37, 43, 75 and 125 g/kg DM, respectively) and vitamin E (from 14 to 151 mg ?-tocopherol/kg diet) in the lactation diet, were studied for their effect on the energy metabolism, and lactation performance of primiparous sows. The effects of different levels of vitamin E (13, 48 and 136 mg ?-tocopherol/kg diet, respectively) and types of dietary fat (50 g/kg sunflower oil or animal fat) in gestation and lactation diets, on some immunological par...

Babinszky, L.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Defective dietary fat processing in transgenic mice lacking aquaporin-1 water channels  

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Immunocytochemistry showed expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channels at sites involved in dietary fat processing, including intrahepatic cholangiocytes, gallbladder, pancreatic microvascular endothelium, and intestinal lacteals. To determine whether AQP1 has a role in dietary fat digestion and/or absorption, mice were placed on a diet that contained 50% fat. Whereas wild-type mice (3–3.5 wk of age, 10–12 g) gained 49 ± 5% (SE, n = 50) body weight in 8 days, and heterozygous mice ga...

Ma, Tonghui; Jayaraman, Sujatha; Wang, Kasper S.; Song, Yuanlin; Yang, Baoxue; Li, Jiang; Bastidas, J. Augusto; Verkman, A. S.

2001-01-01

122

Lipid oxidation in fresh and spray-dried eggs enriched with omega3 and omega6 polyunsaturated fatty acids during storage as affected by dietary vitamin E and canthaxanthin supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment was planned to study the influence of dietary fat source (linseed oil or sunflower oil) and dietary doses of alpha-tocopheryl acetate (alpha-TA) (0 or 200 mg/kg of feed) and canthaxanthin (CX) (0 or 5 mg/kg of feed) on fatty acid (FA) composition and lipid oxidation of fresh and spray-dried eggs. Dietary supplementation with alpha-TA and CX modified the levels of certain long-chain polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). Lipid oxidation in fresh eggs and spray-dried eggs at 0, 6, and 12 mo of storage was measured by the lipid hydroperoxide (LHP) and TBA values. The LHP and TBA values were up to 10 times higher in spray-dried eggs than in fresh eggs. The evolution of LHP and TBA values in spray-dried eggs showed that omega3 FA-enriched eggs were more susceptible to lipid oxidation than those enriched with omega6 FA. The omega-TA supplementation increased the lipid stability of enriched eggs and was very effective throughout the storage of spray-dried eggs. On the other hand, CX supplementation did not prevent lipid oxidation in PUFA-enriched eggs. Moreover, no synergistic effect between both compounds was detected. PMID:11261564

Galobart, J; Barroeta, A C; Baucells, M D; Guardiola, F

2001-03-01

123

Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dietary Milk Fat  

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Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted on the utilization of milk fat as lipid energy source by Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (0.85±0.03 g. The fishes were fed with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20% milk fat based diets respectively for 8 weeks. The results obtained showed significant differences (p<0.05 for diets containing graded levels of milk fat in terms of weight gain, feed efficiency ratio and specific growth rate when compared with the control diet (0% milk fat. Among the milk fat based diets, containing that had 20% inclusion level of milk fat gave the highest specific growth rate and lowest feed conversion ratio. Carcass analysis showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05 between the control diet and milk fat based diets. Therefore, the results indicated efficient utilization of milk fat as protein sparing which would promote sustainable aquaculture in view of the high cost fish oil.

S.O. Fawole

2012-01-01

124

Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs  

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Background Diabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet. Methods Streptozotocin-diabetic pigs (~45 kg) were fed for 10 weeks supplemental (40% of dietary energy) saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC), unsaturated fat (UF) or starch (S) in an e...

2011-01-01

125

Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs  

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Background: Diabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet. Methods: Streptozotocin-diabetic pigs (similar to 45 kg) were fed for 10 weeks supplemental (40% of dietary energy) saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC), unsaturated fat (UF) or starch (S) i...

2011-01-01

126

Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs  

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Background: Diabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet.Methods: Streptozotocin-diabetic pigs (~45 kg) were fed for 10 weeks supplemental (40% of dietary energy) saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC), unsaturated fat (UF) or starch (S) in an eucalo...

2011-01-01

127

Olive oil, dietary fat and ageing, a mitochondrial approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ageing represents a great concern in developed countries because the high number of people included in this group (indeed, a further increase in the rate of old people it is expected in the near future. Another important aspect concerning ageing is the number of pathologies related with this phenomenon like Alzheimer, Parkinson, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. According to the free radical theory of ageing and its further mitochondrial extension, ageing is the result of the oxidative insult to the organism throughout the life. Some of the damages are not entirely repaired and are accumulated, leading to organism malfunction. Such oxidative-stress related events are particularly important in mitochondria and specially at the mitochondrial DNA level (less protected and more prone to oxidation than nuclear DNA and with a not well established repairing system. Such mitochondrial damage directly affects to the cell energy delivery system, being that, at least in part, the explanation for the structural and functional impairments related to age. Oxidative stress is related with the fatty acid composition of membranes. The intake of a type of fat affects in a direct way the fatty acids and antioxidants composition of subcellular membranes (including mitochondrial membranes and in an indirect way the susceptibility of the membrane to oxidation. Thus, if we build specific biological membranes according to particular types of fats, we would be able to positively affect the way and intensity in which different organs would age. This work hypothesis represents a new point of view in the investigation of ageing and might have important consequences. According to the above-mentioned premises, this work reviews the convenience to use virgin olive oil as dietary fat from the point of view of mitochondrial ageing.El envejecimiento preocupa enormemente en los países desarrollados por el alto número de personas incluidas en este grupo de población (se espera un aumento de este colectivo en el futuro. También es importante la incidencia de patologías relacionadas con el envejecimiento tales como Alzheimer, Parkinson, diabetes, enfermedades cardiovasculares y cáncer. Según la teoría de los radicales libres del envejecimiento y su posterior extensión mitocondrial, el envejecimiento proviene del daño oxidativo al organismo a lo largo de la vida. Parte del daño no es reparado y se acumula, dando lugar a un funcionamiento celular incorrecto. Tales eventos oxidativos son muy importantes a nivel mitocondrial, especialmente en su ADN, menos protegido y más susceptible a la oxidación que el nuclear y con un sistema de reparación aun sin elucidar en su totalidad. El daño mitocondrial afecta a la producción de energía celular, lo cual puede explicar las alteraciones estructurales y funcionales asociadas al envejecimiento. El estrés oxidativo se relaciona con la composición en ácidos grasos de las membranas biológicas. La ingesta de un tipo de grasa afecta a la composición en ácidos grasos y antioxidantes de las membranas subcelulares y a la susceptibilidad de las mismas a la oxidación. Por tanto, si construyéramos membranas basadas en determinadas grasas, podríamos condicionar el modo e intensidad del envejecimiento en determinados órganos y tejidos. Esta hipótesis de trabajo representa un novedoso enfoque dentro del estudio del envejecimiento que podría tener importantes consecuencias. Según las premisas anteriores, el presente trabajo revisa la conveniencia del empleo en la dieta de aceite de oliva virgen de forma preferencial desde el punto de vista del envejecimiento mitocondrial.

Quiles, José L.

2004-03-01

128

Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the diets of Danish children, and to examine the associations between dietary GI, GL and body fatness. Data were collected during 1997-8 as part of the European Youth Heart Study. The study population comprised 485 children aged 10 years and 364 children aged 16 years from Odense County, Denmark. Dietary GI and GL were estimated using international food tables, and the associations between energy-adjusted dietary GI, GL and body fatness were analysed by multiple linear regression. The mean daily dietary GI value was 85 (SD 6 center dot 9) with a range of 62-111. No significant differences were found between age groups and gender. The daily dietary GL was higher among boys aged 16, with a GL of 330 (sd 95) (P < 0 center dot 05), compared with girls or younger boys. Dietary GL was higher among 10-year-old boys than girls (250 (sd 81) v. 230 (sd 66) P < 0 center dot 05), whereas dietary GL among 16-year-old girlswas 230 (sd 56). Neither dietary GI nor GL was associated with the sum of four skinfolds (Sigma SF) among girls or among 10-year-old boys. Among 16-year-old boys, significant associations were observed between dietary GI and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 60, SE=0 center dot 21, P=0 center dot 006), and between dietary GL and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 15, SE=0.06, P=0 center dot 009). In conclusion, dietary GI and GL were positively associated with body fatness among Danish boys aged 16 years, whereas no associations were found among girls or younger boys

Tetens, Inge

2005-01-01

129

Cardiac physiology and clinical efficacy of dietary fish oil clarified through cellular mechanisms of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduced cardiac mortality and morbidity have long been observed in association with omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish consumption, without clear physiological explanation. This review seeks to identify mechanisms of action based on evidence: of physiological effects, active components and effective intakes. Fish oil pleiotropic effects reveal actions that are either intrinsic: effects on cardiac function dependent upon membrane incorporation; or extrinsic: indirect cardiac effects through vascular disease. Extrinsic actions require EPA + DHA doses >3 g/day. Intrinsic effects derive from usual dietary intakes, hydroxy PUFA derivatives requires investigation. Omega-3 DHA predominates over EPA in population intake, is preferentially incorporated into myocardium and is selectively active in heart rate and arrhythmia modulation, but EPA predominates in clinical trials. Myocardial selectivity for DHA and independent intrinsic and extrinsic physiological mechanisms underpinning diverse clinical endpoints can explain some contradictory outcomes of clinical trials. Intrinsic modulation of intracellular Ca(2+) handling provides a unifying physiologically plausible basis for intrinsic fish oil actions and insight to nutritional optimisation of cardiac function. PMID:24699892

McLennan, Peter L

2014-07-01

130

Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on Stearoyl CoA-Desaturase gene expression in intramuscular lipids of lamb  

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Full Text Available The effect of replacement of dietary sunflower oil (SO with linseed oil (LO on Stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression was investigated. Thirty-six lambs were randomly assigned to four groups and fed with one of the experimental diets, consisting of lucerne pellets with oil (60 g/Kg. The diets varied in the percentage of the oil supplemented and were: 100% SO; 66.6% SO plus 33.3% LO; 33.3% SO plus 66.6% LO and 100% LO. The trial period was of 7 weeks. Longissimus dorsi was removed from each carcass and stored at - 80°C until the analysis. Total fatty acids composition was determined by gas-chromatograph, while SCD gene expression was assessed by Real-Time Reverse-Transcription PCR. Replacement of SO with LO decreases significantly the SCD mRNA content with a concomitant increment of polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA n-3. These results are related to the higher level of PUFA n-3 present in linseed than sunflower. Although, there were differences on mRNA level, there was not a simultaneously changes on SCD activity. In conclusion, PUFA n-3 act on the regulation of mRNA SCD level without affecting the activity of the relative enzyme.

Marcello Mele

2012-10-01

131

Dietary oxidized poultry offal fat: broiler performance and oxidative stability of thigh meat during chilled storage  

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Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC). Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass ch...

Amc, Racanicci; Jfm, Menten; Mab, Regitano-d Arce; Eafs, Torres; Lm, Pino; Aa, Pedroso

2008-01-01

132

Dietary fat type, body composition and fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens  

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An increased intake of PUFA in the form of soybean oil at the expense of SFA in the form of tallow reduced abdominal deposition by broiler chickens in a does-dependent fashion, the relationship being essentially independent of the fat level of the diet. Dietary fats rich in MCT would diminish abdominal fat deposition as do fats rich in PUFA. Broiler chickens were fed on diets containing either tallow, which is rich in SFA, soybean oil, which is rich in PUFA, or krabok oil, which is rich in MC...

Wongsuthavas, S.

2007-01-01

133

Effects of partial replacement of dietary fat by olestra on dietary cholesterol absorption in man  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Olestra, a nonabsorbable fat substitute comprising long-chain fatty acid esters of sucrose, had been previously shown to reduce cholesterol absorption in humans when ingested at a level of 50 g/d. To determine whether or not a lower level of dietary olestra would also reduce cholesterol absorption, we studied the effect of 7 g of olestra twice a day in 20 normocholesterolemic male inpatients in a double-blind, crossover trial. Two 6-day diet treatment and stool collection periods were separated by a 14-day washout period. Half of the subjects received butter, and half, a butter-olestra blend during each treatment period according to a crossover design. All subjects ingested trace amounts of 3H-cholesterol and 14C-beta-sitosterol with the butter or the butter-olestra blend. Cholesterol absorption was determined from the 3H/14C ratios in the diet and in saponified and extracted stools according to previously validated methodology. Cholesterol absorption during the butter regimen was significantly greater than that during the olestra regimen (56.1% +/- 1.6% v 46.7% +/- 1.1%, P less than .01)

1990-01-01

134

Gene signaling pathways mediating the opposite effects of prepubertal low and high fat n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diets on mammary cancer risk  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In rats, prepubertal exposure to low fat diet containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduces mammary cell proliferation, increases apoptosis, and lowers risk of mammary tumors in adulthood, while prepubertal high fat n-3 PUFA exposure has opposite effects. To identify signaling pathways mediating these effects, we performed gene microarray analyses and determined protein levels of genes related to mammary epithelial cell proliferation. Methods Nursing female rats and rat pups were fed low (16% energy from fat) or high fat (39% energy from fat) n-3 or n-6 PUFA diets between postnatal days 5 and 24. cDNA gene expression microarrays were used to identify global changes in the mammary glands of 50-day-old rats. Differences in gene expression were confirmed using real time quantitative PCR, and immunohistochemistry was used to assess changes in the PPAR? and cyclin D1 levels. DNA damage was determined using 8-hydroxy-2? deoxyguanosine assay. Results Expression of the antioxidant genes thioredoxin, heme oxygenase, NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase and metallothionein III as well as PPAR? protein were increased in the mammary glands of 50-day-old rats prepubertally fed the low fat n-3 PUFA diet. Prepubertal exposure to the high fat n-3 PUFA diet increased DNA damage and cyclin D1 protein, and reduced expression of BRCA1 and cardiotrophin-1. Conclusions Reduction in mammary tumorigenesis among rats prepubertally fed a low fat n-3 PUFA diet was associated with an up-regulation of antioxidant genes, whilst the increase in mammary tumorigenesis in the high fat n-3 PUFA fed rats was linked to up-regulation of genes which induce cell proliferation and down-regulation of genes which repair DNA damage and induce apoptosis.

Olivo-Marston, Susan E.; Zhu, Yuelin; Lee, Richard Y.; Cabanes, Anna; Khan, Galam; Zwart, Alan; Wang, Yue; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

2009-01-01

135

Effect of dietary fat type on anxiety-like and depression-like behavior in mice  

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Dietary fat plays an important role in higher brain functions. We aimed to assess the short and long term intake of three different types of dietary fat (soybean oil, lard, and fish oil) on anxiety-like and depression-like behavior in mice. For the short term intake assessment, a behavioral test battery for anxiety and depression was carried out for a 3-day feeding period. For the long term intake assessment, a behavioral test battery began after the 4-week feeding period. During the short te...

2013-01-01

136

Effect of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol concentration in subjects following reduced fat, high fibre diet.  

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One hundred and sixty eight subjects participated in a randomised crossover study to determine whether halving or doubling the present dietary cholesterol intake from eggs had any influence on blood cholesterol concentration in people following current dietary recommendations. During the first eight weeks all participants were advised to follow a reduced fat diet (26% total energy for hyperlipidaemic patients, 35% total energy for normolipidaemic volunteers) with an increased ratio of polyuns...

Edington, J.; Geekie, M.; Carter, R.; Benfield, L.; Fisher, K.; Ball, M.; Mann, J.

1987-01-01

137

Acute liver failure caused by ‘fat burners’ and dietary supplements: A case report and literature review  

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Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, non-conventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepati...

Radha Krishna, Y.; Mittal, V.; Grewal, P.; Fiel, Mi; Schiano, T.

2011-01-01

138

Women with high scores for cognitive dietary restraint choose foods lower in fat and energy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women with high dietary restraint typically report restricting energy intake and using reduced-kilocalorie foods in an effort to achieve or maintain a certain body weight. However, previous studies of food choices associated with dietary restraint have been limited by the self-report of participants' food selections. We provided all foods consumed during a free-living 24-hour period to 62 normal-weight women with high (n=33) or low (n=29) dietary restraint, and observed choices from among similar foods varying in fat, fiber, and energy content. Women with high dietary restraint consumed less energy and chose reduced-kilocalorie and reduced-fat foods more frequently than unrestrained eaters. Group differences in choices of milk, cream cheese, mayonnaise, salad dressing, and soda were noted. Dietitians may consider frequent use of reduced-kilocalorie and reduced-fat foods a potential indicator of high dietary restraint, which may have health consequences. Accordingly, further exploration of clients' tendency to restrict dietary intake may be warranted. PMID:15215776

Rideout, Candice A; McLean, Judy A; Barr, Susan I

2004-07-01

139

Effect of dietary oil supplementation on fatty acid profile of backfat and intramuscular fat in finishing pigs  

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Full Text Available Two groups of finishing gilts were fed, for 4 weeks, a commercial feed enriched (2% with either rapeseed oil or sunflower oil. Pig growth was monitored bi-weekly and the fatty acid composition of backfat and Longissimus muscle was determined after slaughtering. Type of dietary oil affected significantly the fatty acid profile of pork fat, especially the C18:3n-3 concentration which was higher in pigs fed rapeseed oil than in those fed sunflower oil. The content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA of Longissimus muscle was significantly higher than that of backfat, due to the its higher concentration of C18:1cis9 and C16:1. Differently, the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content was higher in backfat than in Longissimus muscle. These results confirm that it is possible to manipulate the fatty acid composition of the diet, in order to improve the health properties of the adipose tissues of pork meat.

Giuseppe Pulina

2010-01-01

140

The Influence of Different Vegetable Oils on Some ?-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Thigh and Abdominal Fat of Broilers  

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Full Text Available Energy sources, especialy vegetable oils, added to the combined fodder can segnificantly modefy the fatty acids profile of the chicken feed, thus through its control the fatty acids profile of the carcases can be modefied, through enrichment in some fatty acids. In this respect an experiment was coduced on broilers, made up of three experimental groups, fed with a combined base fodder (corn and soybean meal in which 2% of different energy sources were added (sunflower oil, soybean oil, linseed oil. At the end of the 42 days growing period, using gaz cromatography, the fatty acids profile, % of fatty acids in 100 g product (EPA,DPA, DHA, ? SFA, ? MUFA, ? PUFA from the studied cut pieces, were determined. The results obtained after statistc processing and interpretation of the data, showed the fact that regarding the fatty acids profile in chicken thigh and abdominal fat we can observe variations, what denotes that the fatty acids profile can be influenced by dietary factors, the quantity being yet determined by the participation % of the energy sources (vegetable oils, but also by the fatty acids content of the participating raw materials.

Drago? Sorin Fota

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

Dietary oxidized poultry offal fat: broiler performance and oxidative stability of thigh meat during chilled storage  

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Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC. Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass characteristics were measured. Skinless and deboned thigh meat was stored chilled during 12 days, and samples were periodically collected to assess their quality and oxidative stability. Dietary oxidized fat did not affect bird performance or carcass characteristics. During chilled storage, meat color (L*, a* and b* was not affected by dietary treatments; however, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances values were higher (P<0.05 in thigh meat from chickens fed the oxidized fat, indicating that oxidative stability was adversely affected.

AMC Racanicci

2008-03-01

142

Dietary fat and reproduction in the post partum sow  

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Lactating sows are not able to ingest sufficient energy to produce the large amount of milk they are presently capable of. Therefore, sows use a considerable amount of body reserves to maintain their milk production. The high amount of body weight loss is negatively associated with subsequent reproductive performance. Addition of fat to the diet is often used to increase energy intake during lactation. The intent of this review is to examine the effect of fat addition to the diet on subsequen...

Brand, H.; Kemp, B.

2006-01-01

143

Relationship between Dietary Beef, Fat, and Pork and Alcoholic Cirrhosis  

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Nanji and French [1] investigated the relationship between per-caput consumption of total fat, beef, and pork and for alcohol consumption and rates of mortality for cirrhosis for 16 countries for 1965. The present study reports significant and positive associations for 1996 and 2003 between the following: alcohol consumption and cirrhosis mortality, pork consumption and cirrhosis mortality, the product of alcohol and pork consumption and the product of alcohol and fat consumption. These suppo...

Francis Stephen Bridges

2009-01-01

144

On the binding ratio of ?-cyclodextrin to dietary fat in humans  

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Full Text Available KL Catherine Jen,1,2 George Grunberger,3 Joseph D Artiss2,4 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2ArtJen Complexus Inc, Windsor, ON, Canada; 3The Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA; 4Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: ?-Cyclodextrin (?-CD, a soluble dietary fiber, has been shown to bind and eliminate nine times of its own weight in dietary fat. Studies with different animal models have reported that ?-CD preferentially binds saturated fatty acids, reducing saturated and trans fatty acid levels in blood. A clinical trial demonstrated that ?-CD prevented weight gain in obese diabetic patients. The present study was designed to examine whether ?-CD also shows a preference in binding saturated fatty acids in humans and to confirm the 1:9 binding ratio in humans. Sixty-six obese diabetic patients were recruited at the beginning of this 3-month, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to the Active or Placebo group. Blood samples and 3-day dietary records were collected at baseline and at the end of months 1, 2, and 3. A bottle of 180 tablets of active or placebo tablets was dispensed to each participant at the beginning of each month. Dietary records were analyzed using The Food Processor software. It was observed that ?-CD has a higher affinity towards saturated fats than to unsaturated fats. Participants with higher intakes of total and saturated fat lost more weight than those with lower intakes (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively. These data support the earlier observation in both in vitro and animal studies that ?-CD binds with dietary fat in a 1:9 ratio and further demonstrate the efficacy of ?-CD in binding to and eliminating dietary fat, especially saturated fats. ?-CD may play a significant role in reducing blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as stopping chronic weight gain. Keywords: FBCx®, fat binding capacity, 1:9 binding ratio, reducing blood cholesterol levels, saturated, dietary analysis

Jen KLC

2013-07-01

145

The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain.El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar los efectos de la grasa de la dieta de dos estirpes de ponedoras (Hy-line y Warren sobre el contenido de ácidos grasos y colesterol del huevo durante un periodo del ciclo de puesta de 20 meses. Ambas estirpes recibieron 3 dietas consecutivas que contenían 7% de lípidos de los cuales 3% provenía de los componentes basales de la dieta y 4% fue adicionado en forma de grasa, aceites u oleínas con objeto de aumentar progresivamente el contenido de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados y disminuir el contenido de los ácidos grasos saturados y monoinsaturados. El cambio de grasa en la dieta afectó al perfil de la mayoría de los ácidos grasos del huevo, sugiriéndose la existencia de un mínimo de ácido elaídico en la grasa añadida para su aparición en el huevo. El contenido de AGP se incrementó mientras que el de AGM disminuyó en el huevo a lo largo del estudio. El contenido de colesterol fue mas elevado con la mezcla de grasa animal/aceite de soja que con la grasa animal o con la mezcla oleica/aceite de soja. La grasa añadida a la dieta más que la estirpe de ponedora influyó sobre la composición de ácidos grasos el cociente AGS/AGP contenido de colesterol e índices aterogénicos y trombogénicos.

Vergara, G.

2009-09-01

146

Hepatic origin of cholesteryl oleate in coronary artery atherosclerosis in African green monkeys. Enrichment by dietary monounsaturated fat.  

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Relationships among plasma lipoprotein cholesterol, cholesterol secretion by the isolated, perfused liver, and coronary artery atherosclerosis were examined in African green monkeys fed diets containing cholesterol and 35% of calories as fat enriched in polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, or saturated fatty acids. The livers of animals fed monounsaturated fat had significantly higher cholesteryl ester concentrations (8.5 mg/g wet wt) than the livers of the other diet groups (3.65 and 3.37 mg/g ...

Rudel, L. L.; Haines, J.; Sawyer, J. K.; Shah, R.; Wilson, M. S.; Carr, T. P.

1997-01-01

147

Palm Oil and Animal Fats for Increasing Dietary Energy in Rearing Pullets  

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Full Text Available A total of 300 Nera chicks at 8 weeks of age were randomized into five experimental rearing diets containing 170g/kg crude protein and 2800Kcal/kg of metabolizable energy to determine the comparative advantage of palm oil and animal fat as sources of increasing dietary energy in pullets. Five diets were supplemented with 2.5% and 5.0% palm oil or broiler offal fat at the expense of maize. Birds on diets with palm oil tended to retard attainment of sexual maturity, but egg production was significantly (P< 0.05 increased at 5% broiler offal fat or palm oil, and the latter additionally resulted in higher egg mass. It is concluded that 5% broiler offal fat or palm oil comparably promoted higher egg production; the latter also supported heavier egg mass of the domestic fowl. Broiler offal fat holds great potential as energy source in pullets rearing.

M.A. Isika

2006-01-01

148

Florfenicol Concentration in Serum of Beef Cattle Fed 0, 3 or 6% Added Dietary Fat in a 70% Concentrate Diet  

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Eighteen beef steers (British x Continental; average bW at sampling 329kg) were used to evalute effects of added dietary fat (yello grease) concentration on serum and lung lavage sample concentrations of florfenciol. Steers were assigned randomly to dietary fat concentrations and were housed in individual pens. Treatments were a 70% concentrate diet with 0% added fat (6 steers), 3% added fat (6 steers), and 6% added fat (6 steers). Steers were fed at approximately 2.25% (as-fed absis...

Duff, C.; Hunsaker, B. D.; Anderson, A. C.; Roder, J. D.; Walker, D. W.

2003-01-01

149

Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin stimulate adiponectin relase and induce a metabolic switch in white fat.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Ystads Saltsjöbad, 2006. s. 79-79.[NAFA 2006. 14.06.2006-16.06.2006, Ystads Saltsjöbad]Grant CEP: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z50110509Klí?ová slova: polyunsaturated fatty acidKód oboru RIV: FB - Endokrinologie, diabetologie, metabolizmus, výživa

Flachs, Pavel; Horáková, Olga; Pecina, Petr; Franssen-van Hal, N.; Rossmeisl, Martin; Keijer, J.; Mohamed-Ali, V.; Houšt?k, Josef; Kopecký, Jan

150

Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs  

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Abstract Background Diabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet. Methods Streptozotocin-diabetic pigs (~45 kg) were fed for 10 weeks supplemental (40% of dietary energy) saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC), unsatura...

Koopmans Sietse J; Dekker Ruud; Ackermans Mariette T; Sauerwein Hans P; Serlie Mireille J; Mm, Beusekom Heleen; van den Heuvel Mieke; van der Giessen Wim J

2011-01-01

151

Coassimilation of dietary fat and benzo(a)pyrene in the small intestine: an absorption model using the killifish  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) was dissolved in dietary fat and fed in a single dose to killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Fluorescence microscopic examinations of small intestinal content and frozen sections of whole small intestine revealed that during fat digestion BP was codispersed in liquid crystalline product phases produced during lipolysis and then coabsorbed with dietary lipid followed by its reappearance in intracellular fat droplets. During the time that the absorbed fat remained in the enterocytes, BP fluorescence was initially concentrated in the intracellular fat droplets and then spread throughout the cytosol of the enterocytes. Tissue analyses showed that BP was rapidly metabolized in the intestine and transported to the gallbladder. These studies show that separation of a dissolved hydrophobic carcinogen from dietary fat occurs primarily after the fat has been digested, dispersed, absorbed, and reassembled in the enterocyte. The inability of the enterocyte to discriminate between dietary fat and dissolved carcinogenic compounds may be a partial explanation of the observed link between high fat diets and the incidence of some cancers. In vertebrates, the intestine and not the liver, appears to be the major site of metabolism of dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

Vetter, R.D.; Carey, M.C.; Patton, J.S.

1985-04-01

152

TFAP2B Influences the Effect of Dietary Fat on Weight Loss under Energy Restriction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. Methods and Findings: Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. (Registration: ISRCTN25867281.) One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat%) in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6) greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1) greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p=0.00007). The replication study showed a similar (non-significant) interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i) the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii) the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii) the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i) the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii) the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii) some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. Conclusions: Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction.

Hansen, T.

2012-01-01

153

Dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study  

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Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y), attendin...

2010-01-01

154

Effects of Skip a Day Feeding and Dietary Fat Type on Abdominal Fat Pad and Blood Lipids in Broiler Chickens  

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Full Text Available This experiment carried out to study the effects of skip a day feeding and different dietary unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and carcass traits. A total of 720 10-days-old male Ross chicks were fed diets with Unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (U/S of 2, 3.5, 5 or 6.5 as ad lib or skip a day feeding program during 18-28 days of age. Generally at 28 day of age, chicks body, liver and abdominal fat pad weights and serum triglyceride concentration were significantly (p<0.05 lower and serum cholesterol level were significantly higher in the restricted compared with ad libitum birds. Re-feeding moved out these differences at 42 days of age except for body weight. The serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were decreased (p<0.05 by increased dietary U/S.

M. Nosrati

2006-01-01

155

Effect of dietary fat level on carcass traits and flesh quality of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax from mariculture  

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Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the effect of the reduction of dietary fat on juvenile European sea bass nutritional value and quality traits. Fish were reared in floating cages (Trieste Gulf, Italy from July (11 to October (10. Two isoproteic diets were compared: LF (low fat, EE = 19.4% vs. HF (high fat, EE = 24.6%. No significantly different growth performance was observed. LF diet-fed fish were characterized by the reduction of celomatic fat (not edible fraction and by the increase in dressing percentage. The tested dietary fat level also affected both fillet and epiaxial white muscle proximate composition, resulting in a significantly lower fillet lipid concentration in LF diet-fed fish. Dietary treatment influenced cooked fillet colour and texture probably as a consequence of the different intramuscular fat deposition. Fillet from HF-fed fish, in fact, presented higher lightness (L* value and lower instrumental strengthness.

Severino Segato

2010-01-01

156

The role of Odontella aurita, a marine diatom rich in EPA, as a dietary supplement in dyslipidemia, platelet function and oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on the risk factors for high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and were fed with a standard diet (control; with the standard diet supplemented with 3% freeze-dried O. aurita (COA; with a high-fat diet (HF; or with the high-fat diet supplemented with 3% of freeze-dried O. aurita (HFOA for 7 weeks. In this study we evaluated the impact of these different diets on the risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 production, and oxidative stress. Results After 7 weeks of treatment, high fat feeding had increased final body weight, glycemia, triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol levels in plasma and liver compared to the control diet. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and basal platelet thromboxane B2 were also higher in the high-fat fed rats than in those in the control group. In the liver, oxidative stress was greater in the HF group than in the control group. O. aurita intake in HFOA-fed rats resulted in lower glycemia and lipid levels in the plasma and liver relative than in the HF group. Thus, in the HFOA group, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the tissues studied (plasma, liver, and platelets were higher than in the HF group. Platelet hyper-aggregability tended to decrease in HFOA-fed rats as basal platelet thromboxane B2 production decreased. Finally, O. aurita reduced oxidative stress in the liver, with lower malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusions O. aurita is a marine diatom rich in EPA as well as in other bioactive molecules, such as pigments. The synergistic effect of these microalgal compounds, displayed a beneficial effect in reducing the risk factors for high-fat induced metabolic syndrome: hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and oxidative stress.

Haimeur Adil

2012-10-01

157

Effects of Skip a Day Feeding and Dietary Fat Type on Abdominal Fat Pad and Blood Lipids in Broiler Chickens  

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This experiment carried out to study the effects of skip a day feeding and different dietary unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and carcass traits. A total of 720 10-days-old male Ross chicks were fed diets with Unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (U/S) of 2, 3.5, 5 or 6.5 as ad lib or skip a day feeding program during 18-28 days of age. Generally at 28 day of age, chicks body, liver and abdominal fat pad weights and serum triglyceride c...

Nosrati, M.; Qutbi, A.; Navidshad, B.; Mirhoseini, Z.; Jafari Sayadi, A.; Royan, M.

2006-01-01

158

Effect of dietary fat levels on the susceptibility of colonic cells to nuclear-damaging agents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of two levels and types of dietary fats on the susceptibility of colonic cells to the nuclear-damaging effect of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (MeIQ), and gamma-radiation was investigated. Corn oil and beef tallow were added to the semisynthetic diet at 5% and 20% levels (weight/weight). A diet-related effect was not evident until after two weeks of feeding. Animals (C57BL/6J female mice) that were given the 20% corn oil or beef tallow diets had significantly (p less than 0.05) more nuclear aberrations in their colons 24 hours following treatment with DMH (5 mg or 10 mg/kg body wt or MeIQ (100 mg/kg body weight) than did those given low-fat diets (5% corn oil or beef tallow). The nuclear-damaging effect of gamma radiation was unaffected by dietary treatments. A high-fat diet had the most pronounced effect on DMH-treated animals, and maximum nuclear aberrations were observed 24 hours following the treatment. Thus, we concluded that increased levels of dietary fats elevate the toxicity of DMH and MeIQ to colonic epithelial cells

1986-01-01

159

The type of dietary fat affects the severity of autoimmune disease in NZB/NZW mice.  

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The type of dietary fat dramatically affects the onset of autoimmune disease in lupus-prone female New Zealand Black/New Zealand White F1 (B/W) mice. Disease development was strikingly slowed in mice fed a diet containing quantities of omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil, FO). By 10 months of age, 94% of the FO mice were still living, whereas all the mice fed a saturated fat diet (lard,L) were dead. Those mice fed a corn oil (CO) diet were intermediate with 35% alive at the 10-month time evaluation...

Alexander, N. J.; Smythe, N. L.; Jokinen, M. P.

1987-01-01

160

Effect of bile diversion on satiety and fat absorption from liquid and solid dietary sources  

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In previous studies, liquid fat has been used to determine the effect of bile diversion on fat absorption. Since protein digests, in addition to bile salts, are capable of solubilizing lipids, we hypothesized that fat incorporated in the protein-rich matrix of solid food would be less sensitive to bile diversion than fat ingested as an oil or liquid. Using [3H]glycerol triether as a nonabsorbable fat recovery marker, we determined how much [14C]triolein was absorbed from solid (chicken liver) and liquid (margarine) dietary sources. After a standard liquid/solid meal with either the chicken liver or margarine labeled, midintestinal chyme was collected for 6 hr, extracted, and counted for 14C and 3H activity. Zero, eighty, or one hundred percent of endogenous bile was diverted. Fat absorption from both chicken liver and margarine was nearly complete by midintestine with 0% diversion and was little affected by diversion of 80% of bile. Complete biliary diversion significantly decreased fat absorption from margarine (87.9 +/- 4.4 to 37.2 +/- 9.2%, P less than 0.05) but reduced [14C]triolein absorption from chicken liver less consistently and insignificantly (78.8 +/- 6.9 to 43.9 +/- 10.6%). These data indicate that fat absorption is not solely dependent on bile and support the hypothesis that fat ingested in a cellular matrix is less dependent on bile than liquid fat. Using these same animals but with the midintestinal cannulas plugged to expose the distal intestine to unabsorbed luminal nutrients, we also demonstrated that bile diversion of an initial meal reduced food consumption at a meal offered 3 hr later

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Effect of bile diversion on satiety and fat absorption from liquid and solid dietary sources  

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In previous studies, liquid fat has been used to determine the effect of bile diversion on fat absorption. Since protein digests, in addition to bile salts, are capable of solubilizing lipids, we hypothesized that fat incorporated in the protein-rich matrix of solid food would be less sensitive to bile diversion than fat ingested as an oil or liquid. Using (3H)glycerol triether as a nonabsorbable fat recovery marker, we determined how much (14C)triolein was absorbed from solid (chicken liver) and liquid (margarine) dietary sources. After a standard liquid/solid meal with either the chicken liver or margarine labeled, midintestinal chyme was collected for 6 hr, extracted, and counted for 14C and 3H activity. Zero, eighty, or one hundred percent of endogenous bile was diverted. Fat absorption from both chicken liver and margarine was nearly complete by midintestine with 0% diversion and was little affected by diversion of 80% of bile. Complete biliary diversion significantly decreased fat absorption from margarine (87.9 +/- 4.4 to 37.2 +/- 9.2%, P less than 0.05) but reduced (14C)triolein absorption from chicken liver less consistently and insignificantly (78.8 +/- 6.9 to 43.9 +/- 10.6%). These data indicate that fat absorption is not solely dependent on bile and support the hypothesis that fat ingested in a cellular matrix is less dependent on bile than liquid fat. Using these same animals but with the midintestinal cannulas plugged to expose the distal intestine to unabsorbed luminal nutrients, we also demonstrated that bile diversion of an initial meal reduced food consumption at a meal offered 3 hr later.

Doty, J.E.; Gu, Y.G.; Meyer, J.H.

1988-12-01

162

Dietary fat and kinetics of chloesterol metabolism in miniature swine  

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Female, Hormel derived miniature swine were fed corn-soy rations containing 40% of energy as beef fat (SFA) or 8% beef fat and 32% safflower oil (PUFA) from a weight of 23 until 44 to 46 kg. At that time, surgery was performed to implant a cannula in the proximal jejunum. Two wk later, a second surgery was performed to implant cannulae in the portal vein and aorta. The pigs were fed sufficient ration to maintain weight in two meals per day. 4-"1"4C-cholesterol was incubated with homologous serum and reinjected. Samples were withdrawn from the portal vein or aorta and the jejunal cannula at intervals. Specific activity of serum and jejunal cholesterol was determined. Bile acids were isolated, quantitated by enzymatic assay and specific activity was calculated. Diet did not affect T1/2 of serum cholesterol, but the fractional turnover rate from pool 2 to pool 1 was greater for SFA than PUFA. Pool 1 was larger for PUFA than SFA and the flow rate was greater between pools; there was greater net loss from PUFA than SFA fed pigs. Jejunal cholesterol kinetics were similar to serum from SFA but not PUFA pigs. Flow rates between pools were lower in jejunal than serum pools. Bile acid specific activity rose within 15 hr to a maximum, then exhibited a plateau for about two wk before beginning disappearance

1986-01-01

163

Associations of Dietary Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Fish with Biomarkers of Inflammation and Endothelial Activation (From the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA])  

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Cardioprotective effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) and fish consumption have been observed. However, data on the specific associations of these dietary factors with inflammation and endothelial activation are sparse. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5,677 men and women from the MESA cohort including African Americans, Caucasians, Chinese and Hispanics, aged 45-84 years, and free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected by s...

He, Ka; Liu, Kiang; Daviglus, Martha L.; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Mayer-davis, Elizabeth; Jiang, Rui; Steffen, Lyn; Siscovick, David; Tsai, Michael; Herrington, David

2009-01-01

164

IMPACTS OF HIGH DIETARY FAT ON SERUM CHOLESTEROL AND DEVELOPMENT OF FATTY LIVER IN RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the impacts of high dietary fat on serum Total cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in rats. Rats are fed on diets containing cholesterol; they develop fatty livers which are characterized by the presence in the liver of excessive amounts of cholesteryl esters, and glyceride. Increasement of glyceride content depend on a number of factors, such as the dietary contents of choline, While the nature of the "cholesterol" fatty liver and the effects on its composition of a number of dietary and other factors. In the present paper, we investigated the quantitative changes which occur in the "cholesterol" fatty liver, as a result of variations in the fat content of the diet, with particular reference to the deposition of cholesterol and of glyceride on diets of constant cholesterol content. Investigation was conducted on 90 day old Wister rats. It was observed that the serum TC values in rats of groups B and C were higher than control group. Furthermore, the serum TC and TG value was higher in rats of group C than group B. Grossly, the livers of rats of groups B and C were enlarged, pale in colour, soft in consistency and were having petechial haemorrhages with fat and fibrin deposits. Histopathologically, livers of groups B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. The results suggested that addition of dietary fat from animal and vegetable sources in the diet of rats not only resulted in increase in serum TC and TG but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in vital organ liver.

Rajesh Pandey et al

2012-09-01

165

Influence of different dietary fats on triacylglycerol deposition in rat adipose tissue  

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It has been demonstrated that triacylglycerol (TAG) mobilization from adipose tissue is selective and depends on fatty acid (FA) chain length, unsaturation and positional isomerism. The present study was performed to determine the influence of dietary fat on the composition of TAG stored in rat perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissues. These results may provide information on the susceptibility of stored TAG to hydrolysis and further mobilization, and may help to establish an interrelations...

Perona, Javier S.; Portillo, Mari?a P.; Macarulla, M. Teresa; Tueros, Ana I.; Ruiz-gutie?rrez, Valentina

2000-01-01

166

Effect of dietary monosodium glutamate on trans fat-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

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The effects of dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG) on trans-fatty acid (TFA)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are addressed in an animal model. We used Affymetrix microarray analysis to investigate hepatic gene expression and the contribution of visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) to diet-induced NAFLD. Trans-fat feeding increased serum leptin, FFA, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and total cholesterol (T-CHOL) levels, while robustly elevating the expression of genes involved in hepat...

2009-01-01

167

Demographic and dietary profiles of high and low fat consumers in Australia.  

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STUDY OBJECTIVE--To determine the socio-demographic, attitudinal, and dietary correlates of high and low fat consumption in the community. DESIGN--The study was undertaken using a postal survey format. A questionnaire was sent for self completion to a randomised sample of the adult population of two Australian states. PARTICIPANTS--Adult participants were selected randomly from the Electoral Rolls of the states of Victoria and South Australia. As voting at elections is compulsory in Australia...

Baghurst, K. I.; Baghurst, P. A.; Record, S. J.

1994-01-01

168

Is dietary fat, vitamin D, or folate associated with pancreatic cancer?  

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Although potentially modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking, obesity, and diabetes, less is known about the extent to which diet affects cancer risk. Recent studies have demonstrated some consistency for dietary fat being associated with elevated pancreatic cancer risk, particularly from animal sources. However, less is known about which fatty acids pose the greatest risk. Vitamin D, due to its endogenous production following UV-B exposure, is a unique risk factor in th...

Sanchez, Gv; Weinstein, Sj; Stolzenberg-solomon, Rz

2012-01-01

169

Dietary fat intake and subsequent weight change in adults: results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohorts  

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Background: It is unclear from the inconsistent epidemiologic evidence whether dietary fat intake is associated with future weight change. Objective: The objective was to assess the association between the amount and type of dietary fat and subsequent weight change (follow-up weight minus baseline weight divided by duration of follow-up). Design: We analyzed data from 89,432 men and women from 6 cohorts of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Using ...

Forouchi, N. G.; Sharp, S.; Du, H.; A, A. D.; Halkjaer, J.; Schulze, M. B.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Jakobsen, M. U.; Boeing, H.; Buijsse, B.; Palli, D.; Masala, G.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Sorensen, T.

2009-01-01

170

Dietary Carbohydrate Modifies the Inverse Association Between Saturated Fat Intake and Cholesterol on Very Low-Density Lipoproteins  

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We aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary saturated fat on fasting triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels, and any mediation of this relationship by dietary carbohydrate intake. Men and women in the NHLBI Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study (n = 1036, mean age ± SD = 49 ± 16 y) were included. Mixed linear models were run with saturated fat as a predictor variable and fasting TG, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), low density chole...

Wood, A. C.; Kabagambe, E. K.; Borecki, I. B.; Tiwari, H. K.; Ordovas, J. M.; Arnett, D. K.

2011-01-01

171

Socio-cultural perceptions and practices of dietary choices with focus on fat intake in middle aged  

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ABSTRACT Socio-cultural perceptions and practices of dietary choices with focus on fat intake in middle aged Pakistani women in Oslo ? a qualitative study Introduction: The nutritional transition has resulted globally in dietary changes, of which high intake of fats, sugar and refined carbohydrates are some of the main characteristics. This has resulted in increase in lifestyle diseases like type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease. In Norway, a dramatic increase of type 2 Diabetes has...

2006-01-01

172

Dietary protein and urinary nitrogen in relation to 6-year changes in fat mass and fat free mass  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background:In contrast to the physiological expectation, observational studies show that greater protein intake is associated with subsequent body weight (BW) gain. An increase in fat-free mass (FFM) due to anabolic effects of protein could explain this.Objective:To examine associations between protein intake and subsequent changes in fat mass (FM) and FFM in longitudinal, observational data.Design:A health examination, including measures of FM and FFM by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and follow-up six years later, was conducted. Diet history interviews (DHI) were performed, and 24-hour urinary nitrogen collection at baseline was done. In total, 330 participants with DHI, of whom 227 had validated and complete 24-hour urine collection, were analyzed. Macronutrient energy substitution models were used.Results:Mean estimated protein intake was 14.6 E% from DHI and 11.3 E% from urinary nitrogen. Estimated from DHI, FM increased 46 gram/year with every 1 E% protein substituted for fat (95%CI: 13, 79; P=0.006) and FFM increased 15 gram/year (1, 30; P=0.046). Results were similar in other substitution models. Estimated from urinary nitrogen, FM increased 53 gram/year with 1 E% protein substituted for other macronutrients (24, 81; p<0.0005), and FFM increased 18 gram/year (6, 31; P=0.004).Conclusion:Within a habitual range, a greater protein intake was associated with BW gain, mostly in FM. This is in contrast to the expectations based on physiological and clinical trials, and calls for a better understanding of how habitual dietary protein influences long-term energy balance, versus how greater changes in dietary proteins may influence short-term energy balance.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 20 May 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.80.

Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Gottliebsen, K

2014-01-01

173

Effect of dietary krill oil supplementation on the endocannabinoidome of metabolically relevant tissues from high-fat-fed mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3-PUFA are known to ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an association between elevated peripheral levels of endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of dietary ?-3-PUFA supplementation, given as krill oil (KO, on metabolic parameters in high fat diet (HFD-fed mice and, in parallel, on the levels, in inguinal and epididymal adipose tissue (AT, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, kidneys and heart, of: 1 the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, 2 two anandamide congeners which activate PPAR? but not cannabinoid receptors, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine, and 3 the direct biosynthetic precursors of these compounds. Methods Lipids were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS or high resolution ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-ToF-MS. Results Eight-week HFD increased endocannabinoid levels in all tissues except the liver and epididymal AT, and KO reduced anandamide and/or 2-AG levels in all tissues but not in the liver, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Levels of endocannabinoid precursors were also generally down-regulated, indicating that KO affects levels of endocannabinoids in part by reducing the availability of their biosynthetic precursors. Usually smaller effects were found of KO on OEA and PEA levels. Conclusions Our data suggest that KO may promote therapeutic benefit by reducing endocannabinoid precursor availability and hence endocannabinoid biosynthesis.

Cohn Jeffrey S

2011-07-01

174

Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels  

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Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

2004-06-01

175

Dietary l-Arginine Supplementation Reduces White Fat Gain and Enhances Skeletal Muscle and Brown Fat Masses in Diet-Induced Obese Rats1–3  

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Previous studies showed that dietary l-arginine supplementation decreased white fat mass in genetically obese rats. This study tested the effectiveness of l-arginine in diet-induced obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 15 wk a high-fat (HF) (40% energy) or low-fat (LF) (10% energy) diet beginning at 4 wk of age, resulting in 18% higher body weight gains and 74% higher weights of major white fat pads (retroperitoneal, epididymal, subcutaneous, and mesenteric adipose tissues) in HF th...

Jobgen, Wenjuan; Meininger, Cynthia J.; Jobgen, Scott C.; Li, Peng; Lee, Mi-jeong; Smith, Stephen B.; Spencer, Thomas E.; Fried, Susan K.; Wu, Guoyao

2009-01-01

176

Dietary fat intake of Japanese male children and its associated factors: Results of the 1995 National Nutrition Survey in Japan  

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Full Text Available Aim: To clarify the factors associated with reported dietary fat intake by Japanese male children. Methods: This study is based on the data of a nationally representative cross-sectional study in Japan. Three hundred and seventy-seven male children (age, 6 - 11 years whose households were sampled in the 1995 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions of the People on Health and Welfare, and the 1995 National Nutrition Survey and whose parents were identified through record linkage between the 2 survey data sets were enrolled. Results: The final dataset in this study consisted of 377 boys with 329 of their parents. Fifty-two boys were found to be overweight (13.8%. The reported dietary fat intake was higher among the overweight boys than among the non-overweight boys. Maternal obesity was significantly associated with obesity in male children. Boys who frequently consumed foods from the “fats and lipids” group and the “meat” groups, and children from nuclear families rather than 3- generation families reported high dietary fat intake. In addition, parental fat intake was also significantly associated with fat intake of male children. Conclusions: Child and parental dietary habits along with the household status should be considered when implementing nutritional education programmes to control dietary fat intake and reduce the obesity risks of male children.

2012-12-01

177

Effect of dietary fat on x-ray-induced mammary cancer in Sprague-Dawley rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied the effect of dietary fat levels on the induction of mammary cancer by 350 rads total-body x-radiation given to noninbred albino Sprague-Dawley rats at 50 days of age. Compared to rats on a low-fat (LF) diet (5% lard), rats on a high-fat (HF) diet (20% lard) from 30 days of age had more tumors, with a higher multiplicity of carcinomas per rat. LF-fed groups exhibited a longer median tumor latency period than did HF-fed groups. A similar trend toward more tumors with an earlier time of death was seen in rats given single iv doses of 50 mg 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea/kg and fed an HF diet as compared to an LF diet

1980-01-01

178

Influence of dietary fats on serum phospholipid fatty acid composition and its relation to obesity in animals  

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Dietary fat and its relation to obesity has been a controversial issue for many years. Experimental data shows that most, though not all animals, which consume a high fat diet, will become obese. However, the effect of fatty acids on animal obesity has not been studied in detail. In order to evaluate the effects of low versus high fat diet on serum phospholipids fatty acids composition a 4-wk study was conducted on male Wister rats. The rats were fed low-fat (10% energy) and high-fat (46% ene...

Tepši? Vesna; Pavlovi? Mirjana; Risti?-Medi? Danijela; Risti? Vanja; Leki? N.; Tepši? Jasna; Debeljak-Marta?i? Jasmina; Mili?evi? M.; Glibeti? Marija

2008-01-01

179

Dietary cholesterol, female gender and n-3 fatty acid deficiency are more important factors in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than the saturation index of the fat  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The central feature of NAFLD is a disturbed fatty-acid metabolism with hepatic lipid accumulation. However, the factors that determine the severity of NAFLD, including the role of nutrition, gender, and plasma lipid levels, remain to be determined. Methods High-fat diets (42 en% fat, containing 0.2% cholesterol, were fed to male and female wild-type and hyperlipidemic APOE2ki C57BL/6J mice for three weeks. The fats were, in order of decreasing saturation, fractionated palm fat (fPF; ~95%, cocoa butter (CB; ~60%, olive oil (OO; ~15%, sunflower oil (SO; ~12%, and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (hoSO; ~7%. Plasma and liver triglycerides (concentration and composition, liver inflammation (Ccl2, Cd68, Tnf-? mRNA, and infiltration of macrophages (Cd68, Cd11b immunohistochemistry and neutrophils (Mpo were quantified. Results Addition of cholesterol to a low-fat diet decreased plasma HDL and increased (VLDL levels in APOE2ki mice. Plasma cholesterol levels in female, but not male APOE2ki mice correlated significantly with inflammation. Kupffer cells of inflamed livers were swollen. Wild-type mice refused the highly saturated fPF diet. The high-fat CB, OO, and SO diets induced hyperglycemia and a 2-fold increase in hepatic fat content in male, but not female wild-type mice (in females, hepatic fat content was similar to that in males fed a high-fat diet. All high-fat diets induced macrovesicular setatosis. APOE2ki mice were protected against high-fat diet-induced steatosis and hyperglycemia, except when fed a hoSO diet. This diet caused a 5-fold increase in liver triglyceride and mead-acid content, and an increased expression of lipogenic genes, suggesting a deficiency in poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Irrespective of the composition of the high-fat diet, oleic acid was the main triglyceride component of liver fat in wild-type and APOE2ki mouse livers. Liver inflammation was dependent on genotype (APOE2ki > wild type, gender (female > male, and cholesterol content (high > low of the diet, but not on dietary fat composition. Conclusions Dietary cholesterol plays a determining, independent role in inflammation, especially in female mice. The fatty-acid saturation of the diet hardly affected hepatic steatosis or inflammation.

Garcia Caraballo Sonia C

2011-01-01

180

Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds) as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA) sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA) analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among t...

Pier Giorgio Peiretti

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Dietary fat in relation to fatty acid composition of red cells and adipose tissue in colorectal cancer.  

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Fatty acids were determined in erthrocytes in 49 patients with colorectal cancer and compared with age and sex-matched controls. Marginally increased levels of stearic acid (P = 0.057) and oleic acid (P = 0.064) and decreased arachidonic acid (P = 0.043) occurred in cancer patients. There was no difference in the stearic to oleic acid ratio between the two groups. Dietary intake, assessed by dietary recall and adipose tissue analysis was also not different. In control subjects the polyunsatur...

Neoptolemos, J. P.; Clayton, H.; Heagerty, A. M.; Nicholson, M. J.; Johnson, B.; Mason, J.; Manson, K.; James, R. F.; Bell, P. R.

1988-01-01

182

Biophysical and Biochemical Mechanisms by Which Dietary N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Fish Oil Disrupt Membrane Lipid Rafts  

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N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids(PUFA) from fish oil exert their functional effects by targeting multiple mechanisms. One mechanism to emerge in the past decade is the ability of n-3 PUFA acyl chains to perturb the molecular organization of plasma membrane sphingolipid/cholesterol enriched lipid raft domains. These domains are nanometer scale assemblies that coalesce to compartmentalize select proteins for optimal function. Here we review recent evidence on how n-3 PUFAs modify lipid rafts fro...

Shaikh, Saame Raza

2012-01-01

183

Dietary manipulation reveals an unexpected inverse relationship between fat mass and adipose 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1  

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Increased dietary fat intake is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic disease. In transgenic mice, adipose tissue-specific overexpression of the glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) exacerbates high-fat (HF) diet-induced visceral obesity and diabetes, whereas 11?-HSD1 gene knockout ameliorates this, favoring accumulation of fat in nonvisceral depots. Paradoxically, in normal mice HF diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated...

Man, Tak Yung; Michailidou, Zoi; Gokcel, Adnan; Ramage, Lynne; Chapman, Karen E.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Morton, Nicholas M.

2011-01-01

184

Adolescent dietary fiber, vegetable fat, vegetable protein, and nut intakes and breast cancer risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of early-life exposures in breast cancer development is increasingly recognized. However, limited research has evaluated the relationship between adolescent diet and subsequent risk of breast cancer and reported inconsistent results. This population-based case-control study investigated the associations of dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts consumed during adolescence with adult breast cancer risk. Women, ages 25-74 years, who were diagnosed with first primary breast cancer between 2002 and 2003, were identified using the Ontario Cancer Registry. Controls were identified through random-digit dialing and age-frequency matched to cases. Diet at ages 10-15 was assessed with a 55-item food frequency questionnaire among 2,865 cases and 3,299 controls. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Inverse associations were found between intakes of dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts during adolescence and breast cancer risk, which persisted after controlling for adult intakes. The ORs (95 % CI) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake were 0.66 (0.55-0.78; P trend vegetable protein, 0.74 (0.63-0.87; P trend = 0.002) for vegetable fat, and 0.76 (0.61-0.95 for ?1 serving/day vs. vegetable protein, and nuts was largely limited to postmenopausal women (P interaction ? 0.05). Dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts consumed during adolescence were associated with reduced breast cancer risk. PMID:24737167

Liu, Ying; Colditz, Graham A; Cotterchio, Michelle; Boucher, Beatrice A; Kreiger, Nancy

2014-06-01

185

Effects of Dietary Fibers on Weight Gain, Carbohydrate Metabolism and Gastric Ghrelin Gene Expression in High Fat Diet Fed Mice  

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Diets that are high in dietary fiber are reported to have substantial health benefits. We sought to compare the metabolic effects for three types of dietary fibers, i.e. sugar cane fiber (SCF), psyllium (PSY) and cellulose (CEL) on body weight, carbohydrate metabolism and stomach ghrelin gene expression in a high-fat diet fed mouse model. Thirty-six male mice (C57BL/6) were randomly divided into four groups that consumed high fat-diets or high fat diet containing 10% SCF, PSY, and CEL respect...

2007-01-01

186

Are the Dietary Guidelines for Meat, Fat, Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Appropriate for Environmental Sustainability? A Review of the Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the current literature around the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations. The focus of the review is on collating evidence relating to environmental impacts of the dietary advice found in the World Health Organisation guidelines, and environmental impact literature: reducing the consumption of fat, reducing the consumption of meat-based protein and animal-based foods, and increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables. The environmental impact of reducing dietary fat intake is unclear, although reducing consumption of the food category of edible fats and oils appears to have little impact. However most, but not all, studies support environmental benefits of a reduced consumption of animal-based foods and increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. In general, it appears that adhering to dietary guidelines reduces impact on the environment, but further study is required to examine the environmental impacts of animal-based foods, and fruit and vegetable intake in depth.

Christian John Reynolds

2014-06-01

187

Dietary Approaches to Epilepsy Treatment: Old and New Options on the Menu  

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Dietary therapies represent a potentially valuable adjunct to other epilepsy treatments, such as anticonvulsant medications, epilepsy surgery, and vagus nerve stimulation. Although the ketogenic diet (high fat, adequate protein, low carbohydrate) is the most well-established dietary therapy for epilepsy, other possible approaches include the Atkins diet (high fat, high protein, low carbohydrate), a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids, or overall restriction of calorie intake. This re...

Stafstrom, Carl E.

2004-01-01

188

Circulating visfatin levels in healthy preterm infants are independently associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adipokine visfatin has been proposed to exert insulin-mimicking effects and to play a role in the development of metabolic syndrome. Preterm infants are at risk for the later development of insulin resistance and, possibly, for other components of metabolic syndrome. Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) during the perinatal period may reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. The authors' objective was to study the circulating concentrations of visfatin in preterm infants and to examine associations of visfatin with anthropometric measurements, metabolic indices, and dietary LCPUFAs. Serum visfatin concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at mean (SD) 33.8 (11.7) days of life in 60 healthy preterm infants (gestational age, 32.7 [1.9] weeks) randomly assigned to be fed since birth either a formula containing LCPUFA (arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid) (+LCPUFA group) or the same formula without LCPUFA (-LCPUFA group). Associations of visfatin with anthropometric parameters, serum glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance, blood lipids, and adiponectin levels were examined. Serum visfatin levels were significantly higher in the +LCPUFA than in the -LCPUFA group (P < .001) and correlated positively with body weight z score (? = 0.31, P = .02), total cholesterol (? = 0.34, P = .01), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (? = 0.47, P < .001), and adiponectin levels (? = 0.29, P = .03), but not with indices of insulin sensitivity. In multiple regression analysis, HDL-C and dietary LCPUFAs correlated independently with serum visfatin levels. Circulating visfatin levels in preterm infants are independently associated with HDL-C levels and dietary LCPUFAs. Whether the higher visfatin levels in the +LCPUFA preterm infant group are beneficial for the later health of these infants remains to be determined. PMID:20359723

Siahanidou, Tania; Margeli, Alexandra; Kappis, Athanasios; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Mandyla, Helen

2011-03-01

189

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... or less saturated fat per serving are considered low in saturated fat. Trans Fat Like saturated fat, trans fat increases blood cholesterol levels. It is actually worse for you than saturated ...

190

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Fats Unhealthy fats Healthy fats No doubt about it, ... your heart health with that single change! Unhealthy Fats Saturated Fat Why should you eat less saturated ...

191

Reduced triglyceride secretion in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in obese compared to lean mice.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity results in abnormally high levels of triglyceride (TG storage in tissues such as liver, heart and muscle, which disrupts their normal functions. Recently, we found that lean mice challenged with high levels of dietary fat store TGs in cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the absorptive cells of the intestine, enterocytes, and that this storage increases and then decreases over time after an acute dietary fat challenge. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity on intestinal TG metabolism. More specifically we asked whether TG storage in and secretion from the intestine are altered in obesity. We investigated these questions in diet-induced obese (DIO and leptin-deficient (ob/ob mice. We found greater levels of TG storage in the intestine of DIO mice compared to lean mice in the fed state, but similar levels of TG storage after fasting. In addition, we found similar TG storage in the intestine of lean and DIO mice at multiple time points after an acute dietary fat challenge. Surprisingly, we found remarkably lower TG secretion from both DIO and ob/ob mice compared to lean controls in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Furthermore, we found altered mRNA levels for genes involved in regulation of intestinal TG metabolism in lean and DIO mice at fasting and in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. More specifically, we found that many of the genes related to TG synthesis, chylomicron synthesis, TG storage and lipolysis were induced in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in lean mice, but this induction was not observed in DIO mice. In fact, we found a significant decrease in intestinal mRNA levels of genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in DIO mice in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Our findings demonstrate altered TG handling by the small intestine of obese compared to lean mice.

KimberlyK.Buhman

2012-02-01

192

The influence of dietary nucleotides and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the incorporation of [³H] arachidonic acid on experimental liver cirrhosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Influência dos nucleotídeos dietéticos e ácidos graxos poliinsaturados na incorporação de ácido araquidônico na cirrose hepática experimental. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar: a) a incorporação de [...] fbpe/alan/v50n3/art07for1.6.gif" WIDTH=36 HEIGHT=21>ácido araquidônico na mucosa intestinal, fígado e plasma, após 1, 3 e 5 horas de administração da emulsão radioativa, b) a incorporação preferencial em diferentes tecidos e c) os efeitos do tratamento dietético, por quatro semanas, com nucleotídeos e ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, em ratos com cirrose hepática induzida por tioacetamida. 209 ratas da raça Wistar, foram divididas em dois grupos (controle e TAA). O grupo TAA recebeu a tioacetamida na concentração de 300 mg/L, dissolvido na água de bebida, por quatro meses. Após este período, uma amostra de 6 animais de cada grupo foram sacrificados para confirmação das mudanças bioquímicas e histológicas, características do modelo experimental e trinta e seis animais foram utilizados para determinar a incorporação do radioisótopo. O restante dos animais foram divididos emquatro subgrupos. Cada grupo recebeu uma dieta suplementada com ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e nucleotídeos, isoladamente ou combinados. Após quatro meses de tioacetamida, a incorporação do ácido araquidônico resultou em: a) aumentada retenção na mucosa intestinal após 3 h, b) reduzida retenção no fígado após 3 e 5 horas, c) uma importante redução no plasma após 3 e 5 horas. O tratamento dietético com ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e nucleotídeos combinados promoveu uma redução do ácido araquidônico acumulado na mucosa intestinal e num aumento da incorporação no fígado e plasma. A suplementação simultânea de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e nucleotídeos dietéticos foi benéfica para reverter anormalidades do metabolismo lipídico existentes, neste modelo experimental de cirrose hepática. Abstract in english The purposes of this study were to determine: a) the incorporation of labeled arachidonic acid on the intestinal mucosa, the liver and plasma, after 1, 3 and 5 hours of administration, b)preferential incorporation by different t [...] issues, c) and the effects on experimental rats with thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis, after four weeks of a dietary supplementation with nucleotides and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. 209 female Wistar rats were divided into two groups (control and TAA group). The TAA group was given 300 mg of thioacetamide/L, in their drinking water for four months. After this period, a sample of 6 rats were taken from each group and examined, to evaluate the biochemical and histological changes of the experimental model, and 36 rats were taken to determine the incorporation of radioactivity by the groups. The rest of the animals were divided into four subgroups. Each group, receiving a supplementary diet with only long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and/or nucleotides or neither, for 4 weeks. After four months of thioacetamide, the incorporation of the arachidonic acid showed: a) an increased within 3 h in the intestinal mucosa, b) a decreased in the liver after 3 lo 5 h c) and a drastic decrease in the plasma after 3 to 5 h. With a dietary supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and nucleotides combined, there was a decrease of accumulate arachidonic acid in the intestine and a increase in the liver and plasma. The simultaneous supply of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and nucleotides was beneficial in the reversal of abnormalities of the lipid metabolism, in this experimental model of liver cirrhosis.

Luísa R.M., Leite; Eliane, Moreira- Vaz; Glorimar, Rosa; Andréa C., Pereira; Christianne R., Monteiro; Femanda J., Medeiros; Vera L.A., Chagas.

193

Effects of dietary chromium polynicotinate supplementation on performance, fat deposition and plasma lipids of broiler chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the effect of chromium polynicotinate supplementation on performance, fat deposition and plasma lipids of broiler chickens. A total of 540 male broiler chicks (Cobb 500 were allotted to 6 dietary treatments. The dietary chromium polynicotinate levels were 0 (Control, 250, 500, 750, 1000 or 1250 ?g/kg, respectively. At 10-28 days of age (grower phase, the 500 ?g/kg concentration of chromium polynicotinate supplementation had a beneficial effect on feed intake and body weight gain of broilers (P<0.05. At 29-42 days of age (finisher phase, feed conversion ratio was decreased (P<0.05 in broilers fed with chromium polynicotinate supplement at levels of 250, 750, 1000 or 1250 ?g/kg. Chromium polynicotinate did not affect the abdominal fat pad deposition. The results indicated that the 500 ?g/kg level of chromium polynicotinate supplement decreased the plasma cholesterol concentration in the finisher phases. The chromium concentrations of 1000 and 500 ?g/kg were more effective at grower and finisher phases, respectively (P<0.05. Plasma triglyceride was not affected by dietary chromium concentration. The results from this study suggest that supplementation of chromium polynicotinate improved growth performance and influenced blood cholesterol concentrations, but in this respect, there was not dose related effects.

Yadollah Chashnidel

2010-02-01

194

Effect of Some Dietary Oils and Fats on Serum Lipid Profile, Calcium Absorption and Bone Mineralization in Mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Amount and type of fats in the diet have an important effect on bone health and lipid profile. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different types of dietary oils and fats on lipid profile, calcium absorption and bone mineralization in male mice. Mice weighing 25±5 g were divided into nine groups and fed on diets without oils or fats (control group and containing soybean oil, corn oil, olive oil, palm oil, sunflower oil, butter, animal fat or margarine. Mice fed on diet containing soybean oil or olive oil had the lowest levels of TG, TC, LDL-c and HDL-c as compared to the other groups. Diets with palm oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, butter, animal fat or margarine caused significant decreases in the serum level of calcium as compared to the effect of diet without oils or fats. Mice fed diet containing olive oil, butter or animal fat had significant increase in bone density, while those fed diet containing soybean oil, corn oil, sunflower oil or margarine had significant decreases in femur bone density, compared to the control group. The apparent calcium absorption was significantly increased by feeding diets containing soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, butter or animal fat. Dietary intake of vegetable oils improved lipid profile while butter, animal fat and margarine had the opposite effect. Butter and animal fats increased calcium and phosphorus deposition in femur bone more than vegetable oils.

Abd Elrahman M. Attia

2010-01-01

195

Effect of dietary fat level and exercise on growth, feed utilization, nutrient digestibility and fat deposition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)  

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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat level and exercise on growth, feed utilization, nutrient digestibility and fat deposition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Atlantic salmon (1409 ± 43.3 g) were reared for 97 days in net pens in sea water with water temperatures ranging from 8.9 to 5.5oC and natural photoperiod. The experiment was designed as a 2x2 factorial design with water current (high and low) and fat level (high and low) as the main fa...

2013-01-01

196

Effect of dietary fat level on carcass traits and flesh quality of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from mariculture  

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The study aimed at evaluating the effect of the reduction of dietary fat on juvenile European sea bass nutritional value and quality traits. Fish were reared in floating cages (Trieste Gulf, Italy) from July (11) to October (10). Two isoproteic diets were compared: LF (low fat, EE = 19.4%) vs. HF (high fat, EE = 24.6%). No significantly different growth performance was observed. LF diet-fed fish were characterized by the reduction of celomatic fat (not edible fraction) and by the increase in ...

Luca Fasolato; Carla Elia; Anna Liguori; Adolfo Corato; Severino Segato

2010-01-01

197

Evaluation of Dietary Calcium Level and Fat Source on Growth Performance and Mineral Utilization of Heat-distressed Broilers  

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Male broilers (commercial strain) were used to evaluate the effects of diets differing in fat source on performance of heat-distressed broilers. Dietary treatments included corn oil (CO), animal fat (AF), fish oil (FO) and a dry blended (animal and vegetable) fat product (DB) at either 0.9 or 1.5 % calcium. Diets were isocaloric with each containing an equal number of calories from fats. Birds were reared in floor brooder pens and fed experimental diets from Day 1 to 21 and then assigne...

2003-01-01

198

Oral and gastrointestinal sensing of dietary fat and appetite regulation in humans: modification by diet and obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dietary fat interacts with receptors in both the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal (GI tract to regulate fat and energy intake. This review discusses recent developments in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of fat, through its digestive products, fatty acids (FA, on GI function and energy intake, the role of oral and intestinal FA receptors, and the implications that changes in oral and small intestinal sensitivity in response to ingested fat may have for the development of obesity.

TanyaJLittle

2010-10-01

199

A common polymorphism near the interleukin-6 gene modifies the association between dietary fat intake and insulin sensitivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Increasing evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the development of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, have been associated with insulin resistance, and dietary lipids can increase cytokine production. The objective of this study was to determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism near the IL6 gene (rs7801406) modifies the relationship between dietary fat and markers of insulin sensitivity. Methods Subjects were healthy men and women aged 20–29 years from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Dietary intake was estimated using a one-month semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken for genotyping and biomarker measurement. Results The single nucleotide polymorphism was not associated with any of the measures of insulin sensitivity. However, it modified the relationship between total dietary fat and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.053 for interaction). Total fat intake was positively related to HOMA-IR in individuals homozygous for the G allele (? = 0.005 ± 0.002, P = 0.03), but not among heterozygotes. There was an inverse relationship between total fat intake and HOMA-IR in individuals who were homozygous for the A allele (? = ?0.012 ± 0.006, P = 0.047). Conclusion These findings suggest that dietary fat influences insulin sensitivity differently depending on genotype.

Cuda, Cristina; Garcia-Bailo, Bibiana; Karmali, Mohamed; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Badawi, Alaa

2012-01-01

200

?3-Polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent lipoperoxidation, modulate antioxidant enzymes, and reduce lipid content but do not alter glycogen metabolism in the livers of diabetic rats fed on a high fat thermolyzed diet.  

Science.gov (United States)

?3-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3-PUFAs) are known to act as hypolipidaemics, but the literature is unclear about the effects that ?3-PUFAs have on oxidative stress in obese and diabetic patients. In this study, our aim was to investigate the effects of ?3-PUFAs on oxidative stress, including antioxidant enzyme activity and hepatic lipid and glycogen metabolism in the livers of diabetic and non-diabetic rats fed on a high fat thermolyzed diet. Rats were divided into six groups: (1) the control group (C), (2) the control diabetic group (D), (3) the high fat thermolyzed diet group (HFTD), which were fed a diet that was enriched in fat that was heated for 60 min at 180°C, (4) the high fat thermolyzed diet diabetic group (D + HFTD), (5) the high fat thermolyzed diet + ?3 polyunsaturated fatty acid group (HFTD + ?3), and (6) the high fat thermolyzed diet + ?3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diabetic group (D + HFTD + ?3). The most important finding of this study was that ?3-PUFAs are able to reduce triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acid, lipoperoxidation levels, advanced glycation end products, SOD/CAT enzymatic ratio, and CAT immunocontent and increase SOD2 levels in the livers of diabetic rats fed with a HFTD. However, ?3-PUFAs did not alter the observed levels of protein damage, blood glucose, or glycogen metabolism in the liver. These findings suggest that ?3-PUFAs may represent an important auxiliary adjuvant in combating some diseases like diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:21989716

de Assis, Adriano M; Rech, Anderson; Longoni, Aline; Rotta, Liane N; Denardin, Cristiane C; Pasquali, Matheus A; Souza, Diogo O; Perry, Marcos L S; Moreira, José C

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
201

Assessment of erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid composition as a biomarker for dietary MUFA, PUFA or saturated fatty acid intake in a controlled cross-over intervention trial  

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Abstract Background Dietary intervention trials rely on self-reported measures of intake for assessment of energy and macronutrient composition. Dietary fat intake is of particular interest due to strong associations with pathophysiology. In epidemiological trials phospholipid fatty acid composition may reflect composition of habitual diet, although strong correlations have been identified only for essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Preliminary evidence shows that...

2005-01-01

202

Induction of lipid oxidation by polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin in small intestine of mice fed a high-fat diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, in particular the long chain marine fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA and eicosapentaenoic (EPA, are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Little is known of the molecular response to DHA and EPA of the small intestine, and the potential contribution of this organ to the beneficial effects of these fatty acids. Here, we assessed gene expression changes induced by DHA and EPA in the wildtype C57BL/6J murine small intestine using whole genome microarrays and functionally characterized the most prominent biological process. Results The main biological process affected based on gene expression analysis was lipid metabolism. Fatty acid uptake, peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation, and omega-oxidation of fatty acids were all increased. Quantitative real time PCR, and -in a second animal experiment- intestinal fatty acid oxidation measurements confirmed significant gene expression differences and showed in a dose-dependent manner significant changes at biological functional level. Furthermore, no major changes in the expression of lipid metabolism genes were observed in the colon. Conclusion We show that marine n-3 fatty acids regulate small intestinal gene expression and increase fatty acid oxidation. Since this organ contributes significantly to whole organism energy use, this effect on the small intestine may well contribute to the beneficial physiological effects of marine PUFAs under conditions that will normally lead to development of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes.

Hooiveld Guido JEJ

2009-03-01

203

Dietary Intakes in Asthmatic and Non-Asthmatic Female Pupils of Tehran  

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"nDietary factors are suggested to be involved in recent increases in the prevalence of asthma. The differences in dietary intake of 23 asthmatic and 317 non-asthmatic students were investigated, who were chosen by multistage stratified cluster sampling. The dietary data were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and a 24-h recall form. Total calorie and fat intake were similar. Daily intake of Saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and calcium and sodium were significantly highe...

2011-01-01

204

Does dietary fat intake influence oocyte competence and embryo quality by inducing oxidative stress in follicular fluid?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Fat-rich diet may alter oocyte development and maturation and embryonic development by inducing oxidative stress (OS) in follicular environment. Objective: To investigate the relationship between fat intake and oxidative stress with oocyte competence and embryo quality. Materials and Methods: In observational study follicular fluid was collected from 236 women undergoing assisted reproduction program. Malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of follicular fluid were assessed as oxidative stress biomarkers. In assisted reproduction treatment cycle fat consumption and its component were assessed. A percentage of metaphase ?? stage oocytes, fertilization rate were considered as markers of oocyte competence and non-fragmented embryo rate, mean of blastomer and good cleavage (embryos with more than 5 cells on 3 days post insemination) rate were considered as markers of embryo quality. Results: The MDA level in follicular fluid was positively related to polyunsaturated fatty acids intake level (p=0.02) and negatively associated with good cleavage rate (p=0.045). Also good cleavage rate (p=0.005) and mean of blastomer (p=0.006) was negatively associated with polyunsaturated fatty acids intake levels. The percentage of metaphase ?? stage oocyte was positively related to the TAC levels in follicular fluid (p=0.046). The relationship between the OS biomarkers in FF and the fertilization rate was not significant. Conclusion: These findings revealed that fat rich diet may induce the OS in oocyte environment and negatively influence embryonic development. This effect can partially be accounted by polyunsaturated fatty acids uptake while oocyte maturation is related to TAC and oocytes with low total antioxidant capacity have lower chance for fertilization and further development. PMID:24639727

Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein; Saboor Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Ahmadi, Mehdi

2013-12-01

205

Dietary structured lipids for post-weaning piglets: fat digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of tissues  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In four groups of post-weaning piglets the effects of triacylglycerol structure and fatty acid profiles of four dietary fats on apparent faecal nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of platelet and erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were examined. Dietary fats included as 10% (w/w) of the diets were two structured fats of rapeseed oil interesterified with tridecanoin (R1) or coconut oil (R2), respectively, one mixture of rapeseed oil and coconut oil (R3) and rapeseed oil as control (R4). Faeces and urine from piglets weaned at 28 days of age were collected quantitatively during three periods each of 5 days, in which the piglets were kept in metabolism cages for measurement of apparent faecal nutrient and energy digestibility and nitrogen retention. Apparent faecal fat digestibilities were significantly improved in groups fed interesterified fats or the physical mixtures (R1, R2 and R3) compared with rapeseed oil (R4). Apparent faecal nitrogen digestibility and retention were similar in all four groups in the three periods, but increased with time. Apparent faecal fat digestibilities were significantly improved from the first to the third week in the groups R1 and R2. Fatty acid profiles in platelet and erythrocyte membranes and in tissues reflected the fatty acid profile of the dietary fat, except for medium-chain fatty acids, which were only found in low proportions, indicating that 10:0 was mainly used as an energy source.

Straarup, Ellen Marie; Danielsen, V.

2006-01-01

206

Influence of Dietary Energy and Poultry Fat on the Response of Broiler Chicks to Heat Therm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heat stress and the associated production losses and mortality are a challenge to commercial broiler production. A total number of 1000 one day old unsexed Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used in this study. Birds were offered with water and grower diet containing 23% crude protein and 3100 kcal ME/ kg of the diet from 1 to 4 weeks of age. At 29 day of age, 900 birds of nearly similar live body weight (about 850 g were chosen to study the effect of different levels of metabolizable energy (ME and poultry fat (PF on broiler performance, nutrients digestibility and carcass characteristics during the hot summer season (29 - 36 °C and 50 - 60% H. The birds were randomly distributed into 9 treatments, each contained 100 birds in 4 replicates of 25 birds each. Three levels of ME and three levels of PF were tested in 3 X 3 factorial designs to alleviate the side effects of heat stress on broiler chick performance. The tested ME levels (kcal/ kg were 3100 (low level, ME1, 3200 (recommended level, ME2 and 3300 (high level, ME3. The tested three levels of PF were 0 % (PF1, 2.5% (PF2 and 5% (PF3 for each level of ME. Chicks were allocated in a littered floor poultry house in an open system under the same management conditions. Water and feed were offered ad-libitum and artificial lighting was provided 24 hours daily for the either experimental period, which lasted for 7 weeks.The overall results showed that the average body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and performance index were improved significantly with high levels of either metabolizable energy or poultry fat. Data showed that the digestion coefficient of both crude protein and ether extract were improved significantly when broiler chicks were fed diets containing high level of either metabolizable energy or poultry fat. Results indicated that the average values of abdominal fat increased significantly with high levels of either metabolizable energy or poultry fat. While, there were no significant differences for either dressing percentage or giblets due to dietary treatments. Therefore, it is suggested to increase dietary metabolizable energy more than recommended level and adding fat up to 5 % of the diet to alleviate the side effects of heat stress on the performance of broiler chicks.

A.A. Ghazalah

2008-01-01

207

Postprandial oxidative stress is modulated by dietary fat in adipose tissue from elderly people.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated whether dietary fat modifies the postprandial oxidative stress in adipose tissue of elderly people. Twenty participants received three diets for 4 weeks each: SFA-rich diet, Mediterranean (Med) diet enriched in MUFA with virgin olive oil, and a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet enriched in n-3 PUFA (?-linolenic acid from plant origin) (CHO-PUFA diet). After 12 h of fasting, volunteers received a breakfast reflecting the fatty acid composition of the diet ingested in the preceding dietary period. Med diet induced higher postprandial SOD2 and TrxR mRNA levels, and CHO-PUFA diet induced higher GPx1 and TrxR mRNA levels compared with SFA-rich diet. Med and CHO-PUFA breakfasts induced a postprandial increase in plasma reduced glutathione (GSH), and a greater postprandial GSH/oxidized glutathione ratio compared to the SFA-rich diet. Our study suggests that the consumption of Med and CHO-PUFA diets may reduce postprandial oxidative stress compared to an SFA-rich diet, which may be due to higher antioxidant enzymes gene expression in adipose tissue. PMID:23963800

Meza-Miranda, Eliana Romina; Camargo, Antonio; Rangel-Zuñiga, Oriol Alberto; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Tasset-Cuevas, Inma; Tunez, Isaac; Tinahones, Francisco J; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, José

2014-04-01

208

Baseline Serum C-Reactive Protein Is Associated with Lipid Responses to Low-Fat and High-Polyunsaturated Fat Diets12  

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Baseline serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations play a role in the lipid response to diet. This study was a randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding study with 3 phases of 25 d each aimed at determining whether baseline CRP concentrations modulate the serum lipid response to diets differing in fat type and quantity. Participants were adult men and women, age 19–65 y, with LDL-cholesterol concentrations of 3.37–4.66 mmol/L. All participants consumed 3 diets differing in the type o...

St-onge, Marie-pierre; Zhang, Sijian; Darnell, Betty; Allison, David B.

2009-01-01

209

Dietary intake of fish, omega-3, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D and the prevalence of psychotic-like symptoms in a cohort of 33 000 women from the general population  

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Abstract Background Low intake of fish, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to play a role in the development of schizophrenia. Our aim was to evaluate the association between the intake of different fish species, PUFA and vitamin D and the prevalence of psychotic-like symptoms in a population-based study among Swedish women. Methods Dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among 33 623 women ag...

Hedelin Maria; Löf Marie; Olsson Marita; Lewander Tommy; Nilsson Björn; Hultman Christina M; Weiderpass Elisabete

2010-01-01

210

APOE genotype influences triglyceride and C-reactive protein responses to altered dietary fat intake in UK adults  

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Background: The response of plasma lipids to dietary fat manipulation is highly heterogeneous, with sonic indications that APOE genotype may be important. Objective: The objective was to use a prospective recruitment approach to determine the effect of dietary fat quantity and composition on both lipid and nonlipid cardiovascular disease biomarkers according to APOE genotype. Design: Participants had a mean (+/- SD) age of 51 +/- 9 y and a BMI (in kg/m(2)) of 26.0 +/- 3.8 (n = 44 E3/E3, n = 4...

Carvalho-wells, Andrew L.; Jackson, Kim G.; Lockyer, Stacey; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Minihane, Anne M.

2012-01-01

211

Dietary fat and meat intakes and risk of reflux esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma  

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The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary fat and meat intakes are associated with reflux esophagitis (RE), Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). In this all-Ireland case-control study, dietary intake data was collected using a food frequency questionnaire in 219 RE patients, 220 BE patients, 224 EAC patients, and 256 frequency-matched controls between 2002 and 2005. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associatio...

O’doherty, Mark G.; Cantwell, Marie M.; Murray, Liam J.; Anderson, Lesley A.; Abnet, Christian C.

2011-01-01

212

Dietary fat and hepatic lipogenesis: mitochondrial citrate carrier as a sensor of metabolic changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrate carrier (CIC) is an integral protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane that has a fundamental role in hepatic intermediary metabolism. Its primary function is to catalyze the transport of citrate from mitochondria, where this molecule is formed, to cytosol, where this molecule is used for fatty acid (FA) and cholesterol synthesis. Therefore, mitochondrial CIC acts upstream of cytosolic lipogenic reactions, and its regulation is particularly important in view of the modulation of hepatic lipogenesis. Although a great deal of data are currently available on the dietary modulation of cytosolic lipogenic enzymes, little is known about the nutritional regulation of CIC transport activity. In this review, we describe the differential effects of distinct FAs present in the diet on the activity of mitochondrial CIC. In particular, polyunsaturated FAs were powerful modulators of the activity of mitochondrial CIC by influencing its expression through transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. On the contrary, saturated and monounsaturated FAs did not influence mitochondrial CIC activity. Moreover, variations in CIC activity were connected to similar alterations in the metabolic pathways to which the transported citrate is channeled. Therefore, CIC may be considered as a sensor for changes occurring inside the hepatocyte and may represent an important target for the regulation of hepatic lipogenesis. The crucial role of this protein is reinforced by the recent discovery of its involvement in other cellular processes, such as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, inflammation, tumorigenesis, genome stability, and sperm metabolism. PMID:24829468

Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

2014-05-01

213

Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer: a systematic review  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and prospective cohort studies (PCS) were included as well as nested case–control studies. A few retrospective case–control studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) or monounsaturated fat (MUFA) lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose concentration in these comparisons. There was probable evidence for a moderate direct association between total fat intake and BW. Furthermore, there was convincing evidence that partial replacement of SFA with PUFA decreases the risk of CVD, especially in men. This finding was supported by an association with biomarkers of PUFA intake; the evidence of a beneficial effect of dietary total PUFA, n-6 PUFA, and linoleic acid (LA) on CVD mortality was limited suggestive. Evidence for a direct association between total fat intake and risk of T2DM was inconclusive, whereas there was limited-suggestive evidence from biomarker studies that LA is inversely associated with the risk of T2DM. However, there was limited-suggestive evidence in biomarker studies that odd-chain SFA found in milk fat and fish may be inversely related to T2DM, but these associations have not been supported by controlled studies. The evidence for an association between dietary n-3 PUFA and T2DM was inconclusive. Evidence for effects of fat on major types of cancer was inconclusive regarding both the amount and quality of dietary fat, except for prostate cancer where there was limited-suggestive evidence for an inverse association with intake of ALA and for ovarian cancer for which there was limited-suggestive evidence for a positive association with intake of SFA. This SR reviewed a large number of studies focusing on several different health outcomes. The time period covered by the search may not have allowed obtaining the full picture of the evidence in all areas covered by this SR. However, several SRs and meta-analyses that covered studies published before year 2000 were evaluated, which adds confidence to the results. Many of the investigated questions remain unresolved, mainly because of few studies on certain outcomes, conflicting results from studies, and lack of high quality–controlled studies. There is thus an evident need of highly controlled RCT and PCS with sufficient number of subjects and long enough duration, specifically regarding the effects of the amount and quality of diet

Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine; Haldorssoni, Thorhallur; Riserus, Ulf; Uusitupa, Matti; Becker, Wulf

2014-01-01

214

Effect of dietary fat on the utilization of fatty acids by myocardial tissue in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Weanling rats were fed high fat diets containing 40% of energy as fat for 23 d. Diets were formulated to contain equivalent content of essential nutrients per calorie for the nonfat components. Four oil mixtures provided high dietary levels of either oleic, linoleic, linolenic or erucic acid. Effect of dietary fatty acid composition on the fatty acid composition of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin isolated from cardiac mitochondria was examined in conjunction with the effect of diet on the oxidative activity of cardiac mitochondria. Dietary treatments that reduced the content of C16:0 in the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of phosphatidylcholine were associated with increased content of C20:1 and C22:1 fatty acids into the sn-2 position and resulted in decreased oxidative activity of cardiac mitochondria utilizing palmitylcarnitine as a substrate for oxidation. Diets high in linoleic acid did not increase membrane phospholipid content of omega 3 fatty acids, but resulted in decreased level of C20:4 omega 6. In a subsequent perfusion experiment, hearts were removed from animals fed either high erucic or high linoleic acid diets and were perfused to examine rates of fatty acid oxidation and simultaneous synthesis of high energy phosphate compounds in cardiac muscle. Diet did not affect the levels of creatine phosphate or adenine nucleotides present in the tissue on a per-gram-wet-weight basis, but production of 14CO2 from beta-oxidation of palmitic acid was lower for animals fed the high erucic acid diet than for those fed the high linoleic acid diet. Since this diet did not alter oxidation of palmitylcarnitine in vitro and as beta-oxidation of lauric acid was not decreased in the perfused heart, we conclude that mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acid was not altered by diet and that low rates observed for palmitate oxidation are attributable to reduced palmitylcarnitine synthesis. PMID:3794820

Lee, S H; Clandinin, M T

1986-11-01

215

BCG-modulated mammary carcinogenesis is dependent on the schedule of immunization but is not affected by dietary fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was designed to study the effect of dietary fat intake on the modulation of dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats injected with the methanol extract residue of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (MER-BCG). Rats were maintained on either a 5% or a 20% corn oil diet for the entire duration of the experiment. When MER-BCG was administered 2 and 3 weeks before DMBA, mammary tumorigenesis was suppressed in the 2 dietary groups with different levels of fat intake. This was in contrast to when MER-BCG was administered 3 and 5 weeks after DMBA; in this case the development of mammary tumors was noticeably enhanced regardless of the fat intake of the host. The magnitude of inhibition or increase by MER-BCG was similar in animals fed either fat level, although a high fat diet consistently stimulated mammary tumorigenesis in the 2 experiments. In vitro assays on T cell mitogen-induced blastogenesis and natural killer cell activity in splenocytes isolated from the untreated rats showed that dietary fat failed to elicit any differential response in these immune functions. PMID:3084063

Ip, C; White, G

1986-04-01

216

[The influence of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on functional parameters of myocardial mitochondria during isoproterenol-induced heart injury].  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied the functional parameters of mitochondria from hearts after isopreterenol-induced injury (two subcutaneous injections of isopreterenol at the dose 60 mg/kg/day). We investigated the influence of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) administered to rats (Epadol, 0.1 mg/100 gr of weight for 4 weeks) on these parameters. Isoproterenol-induced heart injury leads to a decreased parameters of respiration of isolated mitochondria in the presence of succinate. Administration of omega-3 PUFAs significantly restored the respiration rate of mitochondria: the state 3 respiration was increased by 70.12%, the state 4 by 39.87% and the respiratory control ratio by 45.19% compared to the corresponding parameters of experimental group. Also, it was shown the ability of omega-3 PUFAs to decrease mitochondria swelling (by 60%) in nominally free calcium solution. The results of the study indicate that omega-3 PUFAs improve the altered functions of the heart mitochondria evoked by isoproterenol-induced injury. PMID:24809170

Panasiuk, O S; Shysh, A M; Mo?benko, O O

2014-01-01

217

Effect of dietary enrichment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or n-9 PUFA on arachidonate metabolism in vivo and experimentally induced inflammation in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mice were fed a diet supplemented with palm oil (control diet), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-, or n-9 PUFA-rich oil for 3 weeks. The n-3 PUFA-rich diet suppressed the generation of both leukotrienes (LT) and prostaglandins (PG), but the n-9 PUFA-rich diet did LT but not PG generation during acute inflammation. Leukocyte accumulation during acute inflammation was not different in the n-3 or n-9 PUFA-rich diet group as compared with the control group. The n-3 PUFA-rich diet but not the n-9 PUFA-rich diet suppressed Freund's adjuvant-induced granuloma formation. The n-9 PUFA-rich diet significantly attenuated galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury more effectively than the n-3 PUFA-rich diet as compared with the control diet. The present study revealed the differential modification of experimentally induced inflammation in mice by dietary n-3 PUFA and n-9 PUFA, which may be due to their different effects on 5-lipoxygenease and cyclooxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid during inflammatory processes. PMID:14993795

Doshi, Masaru; Watanabe, Shiro; Niimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Ishikura, Yoshiyuki; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Hamazaki, Tomohito

2004-03-01

218

Fats  

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Full Text Available ... per serving are considered low in saturated fat. Trans Fat Like saturated fat, trans fat increases blood cholesterol levels. It is actually ... healthy diet, you want to eat as little trans fat as possible by avoiding all foods that ...

219

Diets Rich in Saturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Induce Morphological Alterations in the Rat Ventral Prostate  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim To evaluate the influence of dietary lipid quality on the body mass, carbohydrate metabolism and morphology of the rat ventral prostate. Materials and Methods Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow), HF-S (high-fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids), HF-P (high-fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids) and HF-SP (high-fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids). We analyzed body mass, fat mass deposits, plasma blood, insulin resistance and the ventral prostate structure. Results Groups that received high-fat diets were heavier and presented larger fat deposits than SC group. The HF-S and HF-SP groups had higher glucose, insulin and total cholesterol serum levels and insulin resistance compared with the SC. The acinar area, epithelium height and area density of the lumen were higher in the HF-SP than in the other groups. The epithelium area density and epithelial cell proliferation were greater in the HF-P and HF-SP than in the SC group. All of the groups that received high-fat diets had greater area density of the stroma, area density of smooth muscle cells and stromal cell proliferation compared with the SC group. Conclusion Diets rich in saturated and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids induced overweight. Independently of insulin resistance, polyunsaturated fatty acids increased prostate stromal and epithelial cell proliferation. Saturated fatty acids influenced only stromal cellular proliferation. These structural and morphometric alterations may be considered risk factors for the development of adverse remodeling process in the rat ventral prostate.

Furriel, Angelica; Campos-Silva, Pamella; Silva, Paola Cariello Guedes Picarote; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Sampaio, Francisco Jose Barcellos; Gregorio, Bianca Martins

2014-01-01

220

SATgen epsilon dietary model to implement diets of differing fat composition in prospectively genotyped groups (apoE) using commercially available foods  

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Response to dietary fat manipulation is highly heterogeneous, yet generic population-based recommendations aimed at reducing the burden of CVD are given. The APOE epsilon genotype has been proposed to be an important determinant of this response. The present study reports on the dietary strategy employed in the SATgen epsilon (SATurated fat and gene APOE) study, to assess the impact of altered fat content and composition on the blood lipid profile according to the APOE genotype. A flexible di...

Lockyer, Stacey; Tzanetou, Maria; Carvalho-wells, Andrew L.; Jackson, Kim G.; Minihane, Anne M.; Lovegrove, Julie A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Fats  

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Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Fats Unhealthy fats Healthy fats No doubt about ...

222

Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on Stearoyl CoA-Desaturase gene expression in intramuscular lipids of lamb  

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The effect of replacement of dietary sunflower oil (SO) with linseed oil (LO) on Stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression was investigated. Thirty-six lambs were randomly assigned to four groups and fed with one of the experimental diets, consisting of lucerne pellets with oil (60 g/Kg). The diets varied in the percentage of the oil supplemented and were: 100% SO; 66.6% SO plus 33.3% LO; 33.3% SO plus 66.6% LO and 100% LO. The trial period was of 7 weeks. Longissimus dorsi

2012-01-01

223

Dietary Fat Intake and Exercise among Two- and Four-Year College Students: Differences in Behavior and Psychosocial Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the demographic differences among two-year colleges and four-year universities and the relatively limited access to health education and campus-based health resources, this study compares the frequency of limiting dietary fat intake and exercising among two- and four-year college students. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18-25…

Berg, Carla J.; An, Lawrence C.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2013-01-01

224

Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus fed high fat diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1. Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam vigorously for 3 h and the results were compared with unexercised groups. Fish receiving 1,000 mg carnitine accumulated 2- to 3-fold more carnitine than fish receiving 15 mg carnitine. Plasma acyl-carnitine level was affected by an interaction between dietary treatment and exercise (P < 0.05. Adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine concentrations were higher in the white muscle (WM of exercised fish fed the high-carnitine supplements, compared with the low-carnitine fed fish (P < 0.05. Adenilate energy charge indexes were higher and ammonia concentrations were lower in WM of fish fed high-carnitine and high-fat diets. Dietary carnitine supplements may be needed in growing fish when dietary lipid level is high. In that case extra dietary carnitine can maintain the body energy reserves at adequate level when fish is exposed to a short-term, exhaustive exercise, a physiologic stress common both in nature and in intensive aquaculture systems.

Ozório Rodrigo

2005-01-01

225

Quality of Raw, Frozen and Cooked Duck Meat as Affected by Dietary Fat and ?-Tocopheryl Acetate Supplementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poultry meat, particularly that of duck, has relatively high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and low levels of antioxidants. Ducks consume twice as much feed as broilers during growth, therefore, duck meat is more likely to be influenced by diet than chicken meat. The effects of dietary fat differing in unsaturation level (2.5% tallow or olive, sunflower or linseed oils together with ?-tocopheryl acetate ( ?-TA at either a control (20 mg ?-TA/kg feed or a supplemented level (400 mg ?-TA/kg feed on ?-tocopherol content, fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation of duck muscle in 7 week old birds were investigated. Fat source influenced fatty acid composition of duck meat. Ducks fed tallow had a higher percentage saturated fats, while ducks fed olive oil had a higher percentage monounsaturated fats than other dietary groups. In the absence of supplemental ?-TA, duck muscle stability to lipid oxidation was greatest for those receiving diets containing sunflower oil and lowest for those receiving tallow. ?-Tocopherol content and oxidative stability of duck muscle were increased (p < 0.05 by ?-TA supplementation irrespective of fat source. Interestingly oxidative changes were much more extensive in duck breast meat than corresponding thigh meat for all treatment groups. This finding is in contrast when compared with similar dietary trials for chicken and turkey. Therefore, oxidative stability of duck meat differs from that of other poultry meats.

E.A. Russell

2003-01-01

226

Dietary fat modulation of mammary tumor growth and metabolism demonstrated by "3"1P-nuclear magnetic resonance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship of dietary fat concentration and saturation on the growth and metabolic activity of line 168 was studied using syngeneic mice fed 6 experimental diets before and during tumor growth. Tumor latency was significantly greater for mice fed a diet containing the minimum of essential fatty acids (EFA, 0.5% corn oil) or 8% coconut oil (SF) than for mice fed 8 or 20% safflower oil (PUF) or 20% SF. Changes in dietary fat resulted in alterations of tumor cell and serum fatty acid composition but not the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor. "3"1P-surface coil NMR was used to measure possible changes in tumor metabolism in vivo. Although pH decreased from 7.2 to 6.6 as the tumor volume increased, there was no difference in pH among dietary groups. There was an inverse relationship between both sugar phosphate (SP)/Pi and ATP/Pi ratios and tumor volume; those ratios for mice fed an EFA deficient or minimal EFA diet decreased at a different rate than ratios for mice fed diets with additional fat. Tumors of mice fed diets containing no or a low level (0.3%) of 18:2 had higher SP/ATP ratios than mice fed diets containing a moderate level (? 4%) of 18:2. Thus, high levels of dietary fat had a significant effect on promotion of mammary tumors during early stages of tumor growth. Differences in tumor volume associated with dietary fat may be related to changes in the levels of high energy phosphate metabolites

1986-03-05

227

Dietary fat interacts with PCBs to induce changes in lipid metabolism in LDL receptor deficient mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From epidemiological studies, there is substantial evidence that cardiovascular diseases are linked to environmental pollution and that exposure to polycyclic and/or polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons can lead to human cardiovascular toxicity. A major route of exposure to PCBs in humans is via oral ingestion of contaminated food products. Therefore, circulating environmental contaminants derived from diets, such as PCBs, are in intimate contact with the vascular endothelium. Endothelial activation and dysfunction is an important factor in the overall regulation of vascular lesion pathology. In addition to endothelial barrier dysfunction, another functional change in atherosclerosis is the activation of the endothelium that is manifested as an increase in the expression of specific cytokines and adhesion molecules. These cytokines and adhesion molecules are proposed to mediate the inflammatory aspects of the disease by regulating the vascular entry of leukocytes. Alterations in lipid profile and lipid metabolism as a result of exposure to PCBs may be important components of endothelial cell dysfunction. Little is known about the interaction of dietary fats and PCBs in the pathology of atherosclerosis. We have reported a significant disruption in endothelial barrier function when cells were exposed to linoleic acid. In the current study we aimed to demonstrate the PCB-fatty acid interaction in vivo and hypothesized that PCB toxicity can be modulated by the type of fat consumed.

Hennig, B.; Reiterer, G.; Toborek, M.; Matveev, S.V.; Daugherty, A.; Smart, E. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States); Robertson, L.W. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)

2004-09-15

228

Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG wasaffected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as dietary fat type significantly affects microbiota activity in the broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract.

Engberg, Ricarda M; Højberg, Ole

2014-01-01

229

Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as dietary fat type significantly affects microbiota activity in the broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24674938

Józefiak, D; Kiero?czyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

2014-06-01

230

Fat source and dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio influences milk fatty-acid composition in lactating cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of the potential benefits to human health there is an increased interest in producing milk containing lower-saturated fatty acid (SFA) and higher unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations, including cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were used in two experiments according to a completely randomized block design, with 21-day periods to examine the effects of incremental replacement of prilled palm fat (PALM) with sunflower oil (SFO) in high-concentrate diets containing 30 g/kg dry matter (DM) of supplemental fat (Experiment 1) or increases in the forage-to-concentrate (F : C) ratio from 39 : 61 to 48 : 52 of diets containing 30 g/kg DM of SFO (Experiment 2) on milk production, digestibility and milk FA composition. Replacing PALM with SFO had no effect on DM intake, but tended to increase organic matter digestibility, yields of milk, protein and lactose, and decreased linearly milk fat content. Substituting SFO for PALM decreased linearly milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and cis-9 16:1, and increased linearly 18:0, cis-9 18:1, trans-18:1 (??4 to 16), 18:2 and CLA concentrations. Increases in the F : C ratio of diets containing SFO had no effect on intake, yields of milk, milk protein or milk lactose, lowered milk protein content in a quadratic manner, and increased linearly NDF digestion and milk fat secretion. Replacing concentrates with forages in diets containing SFO increased milk fat 4:0 to 10:0 concentrations in a linear or quadratic manner, decreased linearly cis-9 16:1, trans-6 to -10 18:1, 18:2n-6, trans-7, cis-9 CLA, trans-9, cis-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA, without altering milk fat 14:0 to 16:0, trans-11 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 CLA or 18:3n-3 concentrations. In conclusion, replacing prilled palm fat on with SFO in high-concentrate diets had no adverse effects on intake or milk production, other than decreasing milk fat content, but lowered milk fat medium-chain SFA and increased trans FA and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Increases in the proportion of forage in diets containing SFO increased milk fat synthesis, elevated short-chain SFA and lowered trans FA concentrations, without altering milk polyunsaturated FA content. Changes in fat yield on high-concentrate diets containing SFO varied between experiments and individual animals, with decreases in milk fat secretion being associated with increases in milk fat trans-10 18:1, trans-10, cis-12 CLA and trans-9, cis-11 CLA concentrations. PMID:24176091

Vazirigohar, M; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Rezayazdi, K; Krizsan, S J; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Shingfield, K J

2014-01-01

231

Effects of feeding a dietary antioxidant in diets with oxidized fat on lactation performance and antioxidant status of the cow.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of feeding the dietary antioxidant Agrado Plus (AOX; Novus International, St. Louis, MO) in diets that contained 2% fresh fat (FF) or oxidized fat (OF) on milk production and composition and antioxidant status of cows during mid to late lactation. Forty-four mid to late lactating primiparous cows housed in a tie-stall barn were fed a diet that contained 2% FF for 15 d as adaptation period and then randomly allocated to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments (FF, FF+AOX, OF, OF +AOX) for 6 wk. Feeding AOX increased dry matter intake, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and milk fat yield, and decreased milk protein content but not yield. Feeding OF increased milk fat yield, but decreased dry matter intake and body weight gain. Milk fat composition changed with treatments: AOX increased cis 18:1 and decreased trans-11 18:1, whereas OF decreased trans-9 and trans-11 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 18:2 in milk. Plasma antioxidant enzymes and status were affected by treatments. Feeding OF increased superoxidase dismutase activity but decreased plasma antioxidant status, whereas AOX supplementation increased glutathione peroxidase activity across fat types and increased the antioxidant status and superoxidase dismutase activity when feeding OF diets. It can be concluded that feeding AOX improved lactation performance and the antioxidant status of the cow across fat types, and feeding OF increased milk fat yield but decreased dry matter intake, body weight gain, and antioxidant status. The negative effects of feeding OF were partially alleviated by AOX. PMID:18650293

Vázquez-Añón, M; Nocek, J; Bowman, G; Hampton, T; Atwell, C; Vázquez, P; Jenkins, T

2008-08-01

232

Involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in the behavioral effects of dietary fat consumption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical reports suggest a positive association between fat consumption and the incidence of hyperactivity, impulsivity and cognitive abnormalities. To investigate possible mechanisms underlying these disturbances under short-term conditions, we examined in Sprague-Dawley rats the influence of 7-day consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) compared to chow on anxiety, novelty-seeking and exploratory behaviors and also on acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmission that may mediate these behaviors. The HFD consumption, which elevated circulating fatty acids but produced no change in caloric intake or body weight, stimulated novelty-seeking and exploration in an open field, while reducing anxiety in an elevated plus maze. Using the Ellman assay to measure ACh esterase (AChE) activity that breaks down ACh, the second experiment showed HFD consumption to significantly reduce AChE activity in the frontal cortex, hypothalamus and midbrain. With measurements of [¹²?I]-epibatidine or [¹²?I]-bungarotoxin binding to nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) containing ?2 or ?7 subunits, respectively, the results also showed HFD consumption to increase both ?2-nAChR binding in the medial prefrontal cortex and substantia nigra and ?7-nAChR binding in the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus. When treated with an acute dose of the nicotinic antagonist, mecamylamine (0.5 mg/kg, sc), the HFD animals responded with significantly reduced exploratory and novelty-seeking behaviors, whereas the chow-consuming rats exhibited no response. These findings suggest that the exploratory and novelty-seeking behaviors induced by dietary fat may be mediated by enhanced nicotinic cholinergic activity, which is accompanied by increased density of ?2-nAChRs in cortical and midbrain regions associated with impulsivity and locomotor activity and of ?7-nAChRs in hypothalamic regions associated with arousal and energy balance. PMID:22765913

Morganstern, Irene; Ye, Zhiy; Liang, Sherry; Fagan, Shawn; Leibowitz, Sarah F

2012-08-27

233

Evaluation of Dietary Calcium Level and Fat Source on Growth Performance and Mineral Utilization of Heat-distressed Broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Male broilers (commercial strain were used to evaluate the effects of diets differing in fat source on performance of heat-distressed broilers. Dietary treatments included corn oil (CO, animal fat (AF, fish oil (FO and a dry blended (animal and vegetable fat product (DB at either 0.9 or 1.5 % calcium. Diets were isocaloric with each containing an equal number of calories from fats. Birds were reared in floor brooder pens and fed experimental diets from Day 1 to 21 and then assigned the same dietary treatments in one of two environmentally controlled chambers. One chamber was maintained at 23.9 °C, whereas birds in the second chamber were exposed to 8 hours of 23.9 °C, 4 hours of 23.9 to 35 °C, 4 hours of 35 °C and 8 hours of 35 to 23.9 °C. At 42 days of age, plasma concentration of calcium and magnesium were higher (p > 0.01 in heat distressed (HD birds than in their thermoneutral (TN counterparts. Dietary calcium level, but not fat source, affected plasma calcium concentration. Temperature significantly (p < 0.05 affected the relative mineral retention (feed minus fecal mineral content of magnesium while relative mineral retention of copper was affected by fat source. There was no effect of calcium level on performance but HD birds gained 31 % less weight than TN. Birds fed AF gained 10 % more than FO and 14 % more than DB. Data suggest that both fat source and environmental temperature influence mineral utilization and body weight gain.

M. O. Smith

2003-01-01

234

Effect of Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Animals Susceptible or Resistant to Ventricular Fibrillation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs has been reported to reduce cardiac mortality following myocardial infarction as well as to decrease resting heart rate (HR and increase heart rate variability (HRV. However, it has not been established whether n-3 PUFAs exhibit the same actions on HR and HRV in individuals known to be either susceptible or resistant to ventricular fibrillation (VF. Therefore, HR and HRV (high frequency and total R-R interval variability were evaluated before and 3 months after n-3 PUFA treatment in dogs with healed myocardial infarction that were either susceptible (VF+, n = 31 or resistant (VF-, n = 31 to ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a 2 min coronary artery occlusion during the last minute of a submaximal exercise test. HR and HRV were evaluated at rest, during submaximal exercise and in response to acute myocardial ischemia at rest before and after either placebo (1 g/day, corn oil, VF+, n = 9; VF- n = 8 or n-3 PUFA (docosahexaenoic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters, 1-4g/day, VF+, n = 22; VF-, n = 23 treatment for 3 months. The n-3 PUFA treatment elicited similar increases in red blood cell membrane, right atrial, and left ventricular n-3 PUFA levels in both the VF+ and VF- dogs. The n-3 PUFA treatment also provoked similar reductions in baseline HR and increases in baseline HRV in both groups that resulted in parallel shifts in the response to either exercise or acute myocardial ischemia (that is, the change in these variables induced by physiological challenges was not altered after n-3 PUFA treatment. These data demonstrate that dietary n-3 PUFA decreased HR and increased HRV to a similar extent in animals known to be prone to or resistant to malignant cardiac tachyarrhythmias.

GeorgeEBillman

2012-03-01

235

4-Hydroxy hexenal derived from dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induces anti-oxidative enzyme heme oxygenase-1 in multiple organs.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has recently been reported that expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role against many diseases. Furthermore, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were shown to induce HO-1 expression in several cells in vitro, and in a few cases also in vivo. However, very few reports have demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs induce HO-1 in vivo. In this study, we examined the effect of fish-oil dietary supplementation on the distribution of fatty acids and their peroxidative metabolites and on the expression of HO-1 in multiple tissues (liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, intestine, skeletal muscle, white adipose, brown adipose, brain, aorta, and plasma) of C57BL/6 mice. Mice were divided into 4 groups, and fed a control, safflower-oil, and fish-oil diet for 3 weeks. One group was fed a fish-oil diet for just 1 week. The concentration of fatty acids, 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE), and 4-hydroxy nonenal (4-HNE), and the expression of HO-1 mRNA were measured in the same tissues. We found that the concentration of 4-HHE (a product of n-3 PUFAs peroxidation) and expression of HO-1 mRNA were significantly increased after fish-oil treatment in most tissues. In addition, these increases were paralleled by an increase in the level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in each tissue. These results are consistent with our previous results showing that DHA induces HO-1 expression through 4-HHE in vascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the HO-1-mediated protective effect of the fish oil diet may be through production of 4-HHE from DHA but not EPA in various tissues. PMID:24361890

Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Morino, Katsutaro; Ugi, Satoshi; Ishikado, Atsushi; Kondo, Keiko; Sato, Daisuke; Konno, Shiho; Nemoto, Ken-ichi; Kusunoki, Chisato; Sekine, Osamu; Sunagawa, Akihiro; Kawamura, Masanori; Inoue, Noriko; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Maegawa, Hiroshi

2014-01-17

236

Early in vivo cytokine genes expression in chickens after challenge with Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide and modulation by dietary n--3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the effects of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on in vivo cytokine mRNA levels in chickens, and investigated whether these levels could be altered by different nutrients. Two hundred and forty chicks were assigned in a 2 x 4 factorial design of treatments. Factors were intravenous injection with S. typhimurium LPS, or saline (control), and four dietary fat sources: corn oil (CO), linseed oil (LO), menhaden oil and beef tallow (BT). Two hours after injection birds were killed and their spleens removed for RNA extraction. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays for mRNA of chicken IFN-gamma, IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, IL-18 and 28S rRNA were used to obtain the in vivo splenic cytokine profiles. Expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-18 and IFN-gamma mRNA increased, but IL-15 mRNA decreased 2h after challenge with LPS compared with saline controls. In saline-injected control chickens, the dietary oil source did not affect the splenic mRNA level of any cytokine. In LPS challenged chickens IFN-gamma mRNA was significantly higher in the chickens fed the fish oil enriched diet compared with the LO, CO and BT enriched diets. The present data imply that avian IL-15 has, at least partially, a different function compared to its mammalian counterpart, and in addition, chicken innate immune responses might be affected differently by n-3 PUFA compared to mammals. PMID:12697317

Sijben, John W C; Klasing, Kirk C; Schrama, Johan W; Parmentier, Henk K; van der Poel, Jan J; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Kaiser, Pete

2003-01-01

237

Dietary fat-dependent transcriptional architecture and copy number alterations associated with modifiers of mammary cancer metastasis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Breast cancer is a complex disease resulting from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among environmental factors, body composition and intake of specific dietary components like total fat are associated with increased incidence of breast cancer and metastasis. We previously showed that mice fed a high-fat diet have shorter mammary cancer latency, increased tumor growth and more pulmonary metastases than mice fed a standard diet. Subsequent genetic analysis identified several modifiers of metastatic mammary cancer along with widespread interactions between cancer modifiers and dietary fat. To elucidate diet-dependent genetic modifiers of mammary cancer and metastasis risk, global gene expression profiles and copy number alterations from mammary cancers were measured and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) identified. Functional candidate genes that colocalized with previously detected metastasis modifiers were identified. Additional analyses, such as eQTL by dietary fat interaction analysis, causality and database evaluations, helped to further refine the candidate loci to produce an enriched list of genes potentially involved in the pathogenesis of metastatic mammary cancer Udgivelsesdato: May 2010

Gordon, Ryan A; Merrill, Michele La

2010-01-01

238

Dietary Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes) Prevents Fat Deposition and Lowers Triglyceride in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet  

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High-fat diet (HFD) induces obesity. This study examined the effects of Shiitake mushroom on the prevention of alterations of plasma lipid profiles, fat deposition, energy efficiency, and body fat index induced by HFD. Rats were given a low, medium, and high (7, 20, 60?g/kg = LD-M, MD-M, HD-M) Shiitake mushroom powder in their high-fat (50% in kcal) diets for 6 weeks. The results showed that the rats on the HD-M diet had the lowest body weight gain compared to MD-M and LD-M groups (P < 0.05...

Handayani, D.; Chen, J.; Meyer, B. J.; Huang, X. F.

2011-01-01

239

Fats  

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Full Text Available ... Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips ... Eat Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Fats Alcohol Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Protein ...

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Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... produced when liquid oil is made into a solid fat. This process is called hydrogenation. Trans fats ... affected and what you can do. Learn More: Drive to Stop Diabetes - 2014-mar-drive-to-stop- ...

 
 
 
 
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Fats  

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Full Text Available ... Home Take Action Take Action at the State Level Advocacy Priorities State Priorities Federal Priorities Advocacy Accomplishments ... saturated fat? Because saturated fat raises blood cholesterol levels. High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for ...

242

Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... LDL) cholesterol. Sources of monounsaturated fat include: Avocado Canola oil Nuts like almonds, cashews, pecans, and peanuts Olive ... more monounsaturated fats, try to substitute olive or canola oil instead of butter, margarine or shortening when cooking. ...

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Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... LDL) cholesterol. Sources of monounsaturated fat include: Avocado Canola oil Nuts like almonds, cashews, pecans, and peanuts Olive ... more monounsaturated fats, try to substitute olive or canola oil instead of butter, margarine or shortening when cooking. ...

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Fats  

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Full Text Available ... grams are listed on the Nutrition Facts food label under total fat. As a general rule, compare ... cholesterol level. Trans fats are listed on the label, making it easier to identify these foods. However, ...

245

Fats  

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Full Text Available ... fat as possible, you must read the ingredient list on food labels. Look for words like hydrogenated ... liquid oil is listed first in the ingredient list. Sources of trans fat include: Processed foods like ...

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Fats  

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Full Text Available ... For most people, eating this is about 20 grams of saturated fat per day. That is not ... just one ounce of cheese can have 8 grams of saturated fat. Many adults, especially women or ...

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Fats  

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Full Text Available ... provider. Saturated fat grams are listed on the Nutrition Facts food label under total fat. As a ... Edited: December 19, 2013 From Diabetes Forecast®: wcie-nutrition, In this section Food What Can I Eat ...

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Fats  

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Full Text Available ... and "unhealthy fats." To lower you risk of heart disease, try to eat less saturated and trans fat — ... High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease. People with diabetes are at high risk for ...

249

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... bad (LDL) cholesterol. Sources of monounsaturated fat include: Avocado Canola oil Nuts like almonds, cashews, pecans, and peanuts Olive oil and olives Peanut butter and peanut oil Sesame seeds The Association recommends eating more monounsaturated fats than ...

250

Fats  

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Full Text Available ... calories the same by cutting back on the sources of saturated and trans fats, while substituting the ... oil is listed first in the ingredient list. Sources of trans fat include: Processed foods like snacks ( ...

251

High Dietary Fat Exacerbates Weight Gain and Obesity in Female Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene-Ablated Mice  

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Since liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) facilitates uptake/oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in cultured transfected cells and primary hepatocytes, loss of L-FABP was expected to exacerbate weight gain and/or obesity in response to high dietary fat. Male and female wild-type (WT) and L-FABP gene-ablated mice, pair-fed a defined isocaloric control or high fat diet for 12 weeks, consumed equal amounts of food by weight and kcal. Male WT mice gained weight faster than their female WT c...

Atshaves, Barbara P.; Mcintosh, Avery L.; Storey, Stephen M.; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

2010-01-01

252

Dietary Intervention with Vitamin D, Calcium and Whey Protein Reduced Fat Mass and Increased Lean Mass in Rats  

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The aim of the current study is to determine the effects and the mechanisms of inclusion of dietary whey protein, high calcium and high vitamin D intake with either a high sucrose or high fat base diets on body composition of rodents. Male Wistar rats were assigned to either no whey protein, suboptimal calcium (0.25%) and vitamin D (400 IU/kg) diet (LD) or a diet containing whey protein, high calcium (1.5%) and vitamin D (10,000 IU/kg) diet (HD) and either high fat (40% of energy) or high suc...

Siddiqui, S. M. K.; Chang, E.; Li, J.; Burlage, C.; Zou, M.; Buhman, K. K.; Koser, S.; Donkin, S. S.; Teegarden, D.

2008-01-01

253

Adiponectin Gene Variants Are Associated with Insulin Sensitivity in Response to Dietary Fat Consumption in Caucasian Men2  

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Adiponectin (adipoQ) gene variants have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Our aim was to examine whether the presence of several polymorphisms at the adipoQ gene locus (-11391 G > A, 11377 C > G, 45 T > G, and 276 G > T) influences the insulin sensitivity to dietary fat. Healthy volunteers (30 men and 29 women) consumed 3 diets for 4 wk each: an initial period during which all subjects consumed a SFA-rich diet (38% total fat, 20% SFA), followed by a carbohy...

2008-01-01

254

Effect of Dietary Supplemented Canola Oil and Poultry Fat on the Performance and Carcass Characterizes of Broiler Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This investigating was performed to examine the effect of different dietary fat source (canola oil and poultry fat on broiler performance. 252 day-old broilers chicks (Ross 308 were randomly distributed in seven groups include 12 in each with 3 replicates and were fed with experimental diets for 3 weeks (21-42 d-old. The diets were as follow: 1 basal diet (control, basal diet with 3 or 6% canola oil, basal diet with 3 or 6% poultry fat, basal diet with mixed 1.5% canola oil +1.5% poultry fat and basal diet with mixed 3% canola oil +3% poultry fat. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio, daily weight gain and carcass characterizes were evaluated during rearing period. Significant different were observed for feed intake (p<0.05. Adding 3 % canola oil and poultry fat resulted in significant improvement in body weight (p<0.05 and better feed conversion ratio in fed groups 3 % canola oil and poultry fat than other groups observed (p<0.01. No significant different were found in liver, breast, thigh weights in between groups fed lipid in comparison with the control group. Addition of 6% poultry fat caused significant increasing on abdominal fat (p<0.05. Gizzard weight was significantly higher in control group in comparison with supplemented groups (p<0.05. These findings suggest that adding 3% canola oil or 3% poultry fat to the broiler diet based on corn and soybean meal can improve broiler performance and carcass quality in fed 6% canola oil than other groups was better, may be because of adequate mixture of fatty acids in supplemented canola oil.

Habib Aghdam Shahryar

2011-07-01

255

A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate  

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Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

Adam Jurgo?ski

2014-02-01

256

Fats  

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Full Text Available ... as full-fat cheese, cream, ice cream, whole milk, 2% milk and sour cream. Butter Cream sauces Gravy made ... include: High-fat dairy products (whole or 2% milk, cream, ice cream, full-fat cheese) Egg yolks ...

257

Influence of dietary fat and selenium fed during initiation or promotion on the development of preneoplastic lesions in rat liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aflatoxin B_1 (AFB1)-induced ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci in rat liver were assessed in animals fed different levels of fat and selenium (Se) during either initiation (IN) or promotion (PR). Male Sprague Dawley rats (50g) were divided into 12 groups. One of six modified AIN-76 experimental diets were fed to groups 1-6 during weeks 1-4.5 (IN) and to groups 7-12 during weeks 4.5-15 (PR). During weeks 3-4, 13 rats/group received 10 daily doses of AFB1 (.4 mg/kg bwt/dose, i.g.). Two levels of corn oil (2% and 20%) were fed, each containing 3 levels of Se: < 0.02; 0.15; 2.5 (IN) or 1.9 (PR) ppm. When not fed the experimental diets rats were fed a standard AIN-76 diet. In groups 1-6, 0.03% phenobarbital was added to the standard diet. At week 15 rats were sacrificed. Compared to all low-fat groups, the high-fat diets with either < 0.02 or 0.15 ppm Se fed during IN resulted in a marked increase in mean diameter of GGT-positive foci and % liver section occupied by foci. In rats fed high-fat 2.5 ppm Se, preneoplastic development was decreased below all low-fat groups. During PR, Se status but not dietary fat level influenced foci formation. Rats fed < 0.02 ppm Se had greater mean diameter of foci and % section occupied by foci than either 0.15 or 1.9 ppm Se. Thus, an interaction was observed between dietary fat and selenium during IN, but not during PR

1986-03-05

258

Modulating absorption and postprandial handling of dietary fatty acids by structuring fat in the meal: a randomized crossover clinical trial.  

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BACKGROUND: Prolonged postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In the context of obesity, this is associated with a chronic imbalance of lipid partitioning oriented toward storage and not toward ?-oxidation. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that the physical structure of fat in a meal can modify the absorption, chylomicron transport, and further metabolic handling of dietary fatty acids. DESIGN: Nine normal-weight and 9 obese subjects were ...

2013-01-01

259

Association between dietary fat and skin cancer in an Australian population using case-control and cohort study designs  

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Abstract Background Human studies of dietary fat as a possible risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) – principally basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) – have produced inconsistent results. We had the opportunity to examine the association concurrently for all three types of skin cancer in a population-based study in Tasmania, Australia, involving 652 cases of CMM, BCC and SCC and a common set of 471...

2006-01-01

260

High Dietary Fat Promotes Visceral Obesity and Impaired Endothelial Function in Female Mice with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

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Inflammation contributes to metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder that predominantly affects young women. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality in patients with SLE. We recently reported that a model of SLE (female NZBWF1 mice) develops characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that high dietary fat during SLE accelerates the development of cardiovasc...

Gilbert, Emily L.; Ryan, Michael J.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Dietary alpha-cyclodextrin lowers LDL-C and alters plasma fatty acid profile in LDLr-KO mice on a high-fat diet  

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High dietary intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, and elevated low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are some of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Alpha-cyclodextrin (?-CD) when given orally has been shown in rats to increase fecal saturated fat excretion, and to reduce blood total cholesterol levels in obese hypertriglyceridemic subjects with type 2 diabetes. In this study, the effects of dietary ?-CD on lipid metabolism in LDL receptor knock-out ...

Wagner, Elke M.; Catherine Jen, K-l; Artiss, Joseph D.; Remaley, Alan T.

2008-01-01

262

Mitochondrial ultrastructure and markers of dynamics in hepatocytes from aged, calorie restricted mice fed with different dietary fats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we analyzed changes in hepatocyte mitochondrial mass and ultrastructure as well as in mitochondrial markers of fission/fusion and biogenesis in mice subjected to 40% calorie restriction (CR) for 18months versus ad libitum-fed controls. Animals subjected to CR were separated into three groups with different dietary fats: soybean oil (also in controls), fish oil and lard. Therefore, the effect of the dietary fat under CR was studied as well. Our results show that CR induced changes in hepatocyte and mitochondrial size, in the volume fraction occupied by mitochondria, and in the number of mitochondria per hepatocyte. Also, mean number of mitochondrial cristae and lengths were significantly higher in all CR groups compared with controls. Finally, CR had no remarkable effects on the expression levels of fission and fusion protein markers. However, considerable differences in many of these parameters were found when comparing the CR groups, supporting the idea that dietary fat plays a relevant role in the modulation of CR effects in aged mice. PMID:24704714

Khraiwesh, Husam; López-Domínguez, José A; Fernández Del Río, Lucía; Gutierrez-Casado, Elena; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; de Cabo, Rafael; Ramsey, Jon J; Burón, María I; Villalba, José M; González-Reyes, José A

2014-08-01

263

Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010 : a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1,630,069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. SETTING AND POPULATION: Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. RESULTS: In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world's adult population, the mean intake was <10%E. Country-specific omega 6 consumption ranged from 1.2 to 12.5%E (global mean=5.9%E); corresponding range was 0.2 to 6.5%E (1.4%E) for trans fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and <100 to 5,542 mg/day (1,371 mg/day) for plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat â?¥ 5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (â?¤ 0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (<300 mg/day); 18.9% for seafood omega 3 fat (â?¥ 250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (â?¥ 1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased. CONCLUSIONS: These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic diversity across nations and inform policies and priorities for improving global health.

Bjerregaard, Peter

2014-01-01

264

Mechanics behind breast cancer prevention - focus on obesity, exercise and dietary fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer prevention is rapidly emerging as a major strategy to reduce cancer mortality. In the field of breast cancer, significant strides have recently been made in the understanding of underlying preventive mechanisms. Currently, three major strategies have been linked to an increase in breast cancer risk: obesity, lack of physical exercise, and high levels of saturated dietary fat. As a result, prevention strategies for breast cancer are usually centered on these lifestyle factors. Unfortunately, there remains controversy regarding epidemiological studies that seek to determine the benefit of these lifestyle changes. We have identified crucial mechanisms that may help clarify these conflicting studies. For example, recent reports with olive oil have demonstrated that it may influence crucial transcription factors and reduce breast tumor aggressiveness by targeting HER2. Similarly, physical exercise reduces sex hormone levels, which may help protect against breast cancer. Obesity promotes tumor cell growth and cell survival through upregulation of leptin and insulin-like growth factors. This review seeks to discuss these underlying mechanisms, and more behind the three major prevention strategies, as a means of understanding how breast cancer can be prevented. PMID:23725113

Alegre, Melissa Marie; Knowles, McKay Hovis; Robison, Richard A; O'Neill, Kim Leslie

2013-01-01

265

Effect of increased intake of dietary animal fat and fat energy on oxidative damage, mutation frequency, DNA adduct level and DNA repair in rat colon and liver  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of high dietary intake of animal fat and an increased fat energy intake on colon and liver genotoxicity and on markers of oxidative damage and antioxidative defence in colon, liver and plasma was investigated in Big Blue rats. The rats were fed ad libitum with semi-synthetic feed supplemented with 0, 3, 10 or 30% w/w lard. After 3 weeks, the mutation frequency, DNA repair gene expression, DNA damage and oxidative markers were determined in liver, colon and plasma. The mutation frequency of the lambda gene cII did not increase with increased fat or energy intake in colon or liver. The DNA-adduct level measured by P-32-postlabelling decreased in both liver and colon with increased fat intake. In liver, this was accompanied by a 2-fold increase of the mRNA level of nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene ERCC1. In colon, a non-statistically significant increase in the ERCC1 mRNA levels was observed. Intake of lard fat resulted in increased ascorbate synthesis and affected markers of oxidative damage to proteins in liver cytosol, but not in plasma. The effect was observed at all lard doses and was not dose-dependent. However, no evidence of increased oxidative DNA damage was found in liver, colon, or urine. Thus, lard intake at the expense of other nutrients and a large increase in the fat energy consumption affects the redox state locally in the liver cytosol, but does not induce DNA-damage, systemic oxidative stress or a dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency in rat colon or liver.

Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Danesvar, B.

2003-01-01

266

Additive effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin and mild caloric restriction on high-fat diet-associated phenotypes in mice.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Ro?. 31, Supp.1 (2007), S26-S26. ISSN 0307-0565.[European congress on obesity /15./. 22.04.2007-25.04.2007, Budapest]Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z50110509Klí?ová slova: polyunsaturated fatty acidKód oboru RIV: FB - Endokrinologie, diabetologie, metabolizmus, výživa

Flachs, Pavel; Hensler, Michal; Jílková, Zuzana; Rossmeisl, Martin; Ogston, N. C.; Mohamed-Ali, V.; Kopecký, Jan

267

Process monitoring and quality control for dietary fats and bio fuels. Necessary for the consumer protection; Prozessueberwachung und Qualitaetskontrolle fuer Nahrungsfette und Biokraftstoffe. Unerlaesslich fuer den Verbraucherschutz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quality control of food-grade oils, fats and fatty acid containing products is expensive, but essential for the manufacturers of such products and for the consumer protection. The analysis has the task not only to analyze the purity of fats and oils, but also to analyze the content and composition of fats. Dietary fats contain long chain, often multi-unsaturated fatty acids. An insufficient supply of so-called essential fatty acids may result in deficiency symptoms by the human species. A similar composition of fatty acids also is observed in biodiesel which is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats.

Heise, Michael; Fritzsche, Joerg; Tkatsch, Helena [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, Iserlohn (Germany); Kuepper, Lukas [Infrared Fiber Sensors, Aachen (Germany)

2011-02-15

268

Interactions between dietary docosahexaenoic acid and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on performance and fatty acid retention in post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  

Science.gov (United States)

A study with varying dietary inclusion levels (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g kg(-1)) of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) was conducted with post-smolt (111 ± 2.6 g; mean ± S.) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) over a 9-week period. In addition to the series of DHA inclusion levels, the study included further diets that had DHA at 10 g kg(-1) in combination with either eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) or arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n-6), both also included at 10 g kg(-1). An additional treatment with both EPA and DHA included at 5 g kg(-1) (total of 10 g kg(-1) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, LC-PUFA) was also included. After a 9-week feeding period, fish were weighed, and carcass, blood and tissue samples collected. A minor improvement in growth was seen with increasing inclusion of DHA. However, the addition of EPA further improved growth response while addition of ARA had no effect on growth. As with most lipid studies, the fatty acid composition of the whole body lipids generally reflected that of the diets. However, there were notable exceptions to this, and these implicate some interactions among the different LC-PUFA in terms of the fatty acid biochemistry in this species. At very low inclusion levels, DHA retention was substantially higher (~250 %) than that at all other inclusion levels (31-58 %). The inclusion of EPA in the diet also had a positive effect on the retention efficiency of DHA. However, EPA retention was highly variable and at low DHA inclusion levels there was a net loss of EPA as this fatty acid was most likely elongated to produce DHA, consistent with increased DHA retention with additional EPA in the diet. Retention of DPA (22:5n-3) was high at low levels of DHA, but diminished with increasing DHA inclusion, similar to that seen with DHA retention. The addition of EPA to the diet resulted in a substantial increase in the efficiency of DPA retention; the inclusion of ARA had the opposite effect. Retention of ARA was unaffected by DHA inclusion, but the addition of either EPA or ARA to the diet resulted in a substantial reduction in the efficiency of ARA retention. No effects of dietary treatment were noted on the retention of either linolenic (18:3n-3) or linoleic (18:2n-6) acids. When the total n-3 LC-PUFA content of the diet was the same but consisted of either DHA alone or as a combination of EPA plus DHA, the performance effects were similar. PMID:24515629

Glencross, Brett D; Tocher, Douglas R; Matthew, Chessor; Gordon Bell, J

2014-08-01

269

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Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... provider. Saturated fat grams are listed on the Nutrition Facts food label under total fat. As a ...

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Full Text Available ... sauces Gravy made with meat drippings Chocolate Palm oil and palm kernel oil Coconut and coconut oil Poultry (chicken and turkey) skin The goal for ... contain it. Trans fats are produced when liquid oil is made into a solid fat. This process ...

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Full Text Available ... your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Foods containing saturated fat include: Lard Fatback and ... can have 8 grams of saturated fat. Many adults, especially women or sedentary ... nursing mothers; and young children. Your fish and shellfish consumption should be ...

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Full Text Available ... Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy ... Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Fats Alcohol Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Protein Foods What Can ...

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Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know ... fats. It is true that all fat is high in calories so it is important to watch ...

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The Effect of Dietary Fat Level on the Response of Broiler Chicks to Betaine and Choline Supplements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary betaine (Betafine supplementation as a replacement for choline on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. Three betaine replacement levels (0, 50 and 100% in substitution for choline were used in two various basal diets (without or containing 30 g kg-1 oil in a 2x3 factorial arrangement with four replicates of 10 birds. Two hundred-forty day-old broiler chicks were fed with the experimental diets from 1 to 49 days of age and at 49 days of age, two birds from each replicate were selected randomly for blood sampling and comparison of carcass characteristics. Dietary betaine inclusion had no effect on feed intake, but the significant differences in body weight (BW gain (at 1-3 and 3-5 weeks of age and feed conversion ratio (at 3-5 weeks of age were observed among the experimental diets. Replacing choline with betaine increased (p<0.05 dressing and breast meat percentages and reduced (p<0.01 abdominal fat percent, but had no significant effect on thigh and liver weight percentages. Plasma levels of cholesterol and low density lipoproteins (LDL were not affected by dietary substitution of betaine for choline. Dietary betaine replacement caused a significant decrease in plasma triglycerides (p<0.05 and very low density lipoproteins (p<0.01 and significant increase in (p<0.05 high density lipoproteins (HDL. These findings indicate that although dietary betaine inclusion instead of choline had little benefit in terms of performance parameters, but resulted favourable changes in abdominal fat and breast meat percentages.

R. Jahanian

2008-01-01

275

Steatohepatitis in laboratory opossums exhibiting a high lipemic response to dietary cholesterol and fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma VLDL and LDL cholesterol were markedly elevated (>40-fold) in high-responding opossums, but moderately elevated (6-fold) in low-responding opossums after they had consumed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet for 24 wk. In both high- and low-responding opossums, plasma triglycerides were slightly elevated, threefold and twofold, respectively. Dietary challenge also induced fatty livers in high responders, but not in low responders. We studied the lipid composition, histopathological features, and gene expression patterns of the fatty livers. Free cholesterol (2-fold), esterified cholesterol (11-fold), and triglycerides (2-fold) were higher in the livers of high responders than those in low responders, whereas free fatty acid levels were similar. The fatty livers of high responders showed extensive lobular disarray by histology. Inflammatory cells and ballooned hepatocytes were also present, as were perisinusoidal fibrosis and ductular proliferation. In contrast, liver histology was normal in low responders. Hepatic gene expression revealed differences associated with the development of steatohepatitis in high responders. The accumulation of hepatic cholesterol was concomitant with upregulation of the HMGCR gene and downregulation of the CYP27A1, ABCG8, and ABCB4 genes. Genes involved in inflammation (TNF, NFKB1, and COX2) and in oxidative stress (CYBA and NCF1) were upregulated. Upregulation of the growth factor genes (PDGF and TGFB1) and collagen genes (Col1A1, Col3A1, and Col4A1) was consistent with fibrosis. Some of the histological characteristics of the fatty livers of high-responding opossums imitate those in the livers of humans with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:22556142

Chan, Jeannie; Sharkey, Francis E; Kushwaha, Rampratap S; VandeBerg, Jane F; VandeBerg, John L

2012-07-01

276

Effect of excessive intake of dietary carbohydrates and fats on incidence of apoptosis and proliferation in male rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was planned to investigate the programmed cell death and cellular aging by estimating the relation between cell proliferation and cell death in tissue of pancreas and testis. All the biochemical parameters in this study were carried out on two aged groups (adult and senile) of male albino rats. Moreover, the study extended to emphasize the possible effect of certain dietary elements such as carbohydrate and fat on the rate of apoptosis and proliferation in some tissues and their physiological functions. Two aged groups of rats (adult and senile) were included in this study. According to the data obtained, it could be concluded that excess dietary carbohydrate could be considered as a high risk factor when given to the adult and senile age, since it produced some significant changes in the blood chemistry with non-significant changes on the proliferative and apoptotic balance of the tested tissues. Moreover, excess dietary fat could be considered as high risk factor when given to adult and senile age groups

2006-01-01

277

Comparison of Dietary Control and Atorvastatin on High Fat Diet Induced Hepatic Steatosis and Hyperlipidemia in Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment with atorvastatin (ATO or dietary control has been demonstrated to benefit patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and hyperlipidemia. However, little is known on whether combination of dietary control and ATO treatment could enhance the therapeutic effect. Methods We employed a rat model of NAFLD to examine the therapeutic efficacy of dietary control and/or ATO treatment. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with normal chow diet as normal controls or with high fat diet (HFD for 12 weeks to establish NAFLD. The NAFLD rats were randomized and continually fed with HFD, with normal chow diet, with HFD and treated with 30 mg/kg of ATO or with normal chow diet and treated with the same dose of ATO for 8 weeks. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed and the serum lipids, aminotranferase, hepatic lipids, and liver pathology were characterized. The relative levels of fatty acid synthesis and ?-oxidation gene expression in hepatic tissues were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Hepatic expression of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase was determined by Western blot assay. Results While continual feeding with HFD deteriorated NAFLD and hyperlipidemia, treatment with dietary control, ATO or ATO with dietary control effectively improved serum and liver lipid metabolism and liver function. In comparison with ATO treatment, dietary control or combined with ATO treatment significantly reduced the liver weight and attenuated the HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and liver steatosis in rats. Compared to ATO treatment or dietary control, combination of ATO and dietary control significantly reduced the levels of serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. However, the combination therapy did not significantly improve triglyceride and free fatty acid metabolism, hepatic steatosis, and liver function, as compared with dietary control alone. Conclusions ATO treatment effectively improved NAFLD-related hyperlipidemia and inhibited liver steatosis, accompanied by modulating the expression of genes for regulating lipid metabolism. ATO enhanced the effect of dietary control on reducing the levels of serum total cholesterol and LDL-C, but not triglyceride, free fatty acid and hepatic steatosis in HFD-induced fatty liver and hyperlipidemia in rats.

Liu Peiyi

2011-01-01

278

Effects of dietary Angelica keiskei on serum and liver lipid profiles, and body fat accumulations in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Angelica keiskei (Ashitaba) is a perennial plant belonging to the Umbelliferae family. Recently, much attention has been focused on Ashitaba products as a so-called health food for the breakdown of cellulite among various physiological benefits of Ashitaba. The current study was carried out to investigate the physiological efficacy of dietary Ashitaba on serum and liver lipid profiles and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were fed a high-fat diet with various amounts of Ashitaba for 28 d. Perirenal adipose tissue weights of rats fed the x 10 (170 mg/100 g BW) Ashitaba diet were significantly higher (p Ashitaba diet were significantly higher (p Ashitaba diet were significantly higher (p Ashitaba had no significant pathological impact on the liver or kidney. These results indicate that the large intake of Ashitaba products may supply dietary fiber and thus improve gastrointestinal condition through the increased excretion of feces containing high level of bile acids, although even excessive intake of Ashitaba for a short period of 28 d did not show any impact on the decrease in body fat or modification of lipid profiles in this study. PMID:17616000

Nagata, Junichi; Morino, Tomoko; Saito, Morio

2007-04-01

279

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Full Text Available ... Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral ... for you, talk with your dietitian or health care provider. Saturated fat grams are listed on the ...

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Full Text Available ... Your Local Office Calendar of Events Awareness Programs African American Programs Latino Programs Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians ... 8 grams of saturated fat. Many adults, especially women or sedentary men, may need less. To find ...

 
 
 
 
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Full Text Available ... and olives Peanut butter and peanut oil Sesame seeds The Association recommends eating more monounsaturated fats than ... when cooking. Sprinkling a few nuts or sunflower seeds on a salad, yogurt, or cereal is an ...

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Full Text Available ... fats are: Corn oil Cottonseed oil Safflower oil Soybean oil Sunflower oil Walnuts Pumpkin or sunflower seeds ... 3 fatty acids. Sources include: Tofu and other soybean products Walnuts Flaxseed and flaxseed oil Canola oil ...

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Full Text Available ... an Employer Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP Health Insurance Options for Military Health Insurance in ... fat include: Processed foods like snacks (crackers and chips) and baked goods (muffins, cookies and cakes) with ...

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Full Text Available ... oil Nuts like almonds, cashews, pecans, and peanuts Olive oil and olives Peanut butter and peanut oil Sesame seeds The ... To include more monounsaturated fats, try to substitute olive or canola oil instead of butter, margarine or ...

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Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... carbohydrate gets all of the attention in diabetes management. More important than total fat is the type ...

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Full Text Available ... goal for you, talk with your dietitian or health care provider. Saturated fat grams are listed on the ... Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We ...

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Diet digestibility in growing rabbits: effect of origin and oxidation level of dietary fat and vitamin e supplementation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of the dietary inclusion of fats with different origin (lard or vegetal oil), fatty acid profile (linseed or sunflower), oxidation level (fresh, peroxidised: 11 d at 55ºC or oxidised: 31 h at 140ºC) and vitamin E supplementation (0 or 100 ppm) on the rabbit diet apparent digestibility were studied. Digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and gross energy were determined in eight diets using 58 rabbits aged 49 d. Contrast analysis be...

2010-01-01

288

Effects of Feed Restriction and Dietary Fat Saturation on Performance and Serum Thyroid Hormones of Broiler Chickens  

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This experiment carried out to study the effects of dietary fat saturation on performance and serum thyroid hormones of broilers under free or skip a day nutrition at 18-28 days of age. We used 720 male Ross 308 broiler chickens in a completely randomized design with a 2*4 factorial arrangement with 3 replicate and 30 chicks for each replicate. Experiment factors were: 1- skip a day or free feeding at days 10-28 of age and, 2- diets with different unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ra...

Navidshad, B.; Shivazad, M.; Zare Shahneh, A.; Rahimi, G.

2006-01-01

289

The combined effects of feeding time and dietary fat levels on feed intake, growth and body composition in rainbow trout  

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The combined effects of feeding time (morning and evening) and dietary fat concentration on feed intake, growth, body composition and lipid tissue distribution were examined in rainbow trout fed on demand. To that purpose, diets with low (LE, 6% lipid) or high energy concentrations (HE, 24% lipid) were used in four treatments that combined provision of the same (HE-HE or LE-LE) or different (HE-LE, LE-HE) diets at morning and evening meals. Digestible energy intakes of the LE-HE (229 U kg(-1)...

Gelineau, Anne; Bolliet, Vale?rie; Corrraze, Genevie?ve; Boujard, Thierry

2002-01-01

290

Ergogenic effect of dietary L-carnitine and fat supplementation against exercise induced physical fatigue in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

L-carnitine (LC) plays a central role in fatty acid metabolism and in skeletal muscle bioenergetics. LC supplementation is known to improve physical performance and has become widespread in recent years without any unequivocal support to this practice. A scientific-based knowledge is needed, to understand the implications of LC supplementation on physical fatigue. In current study, we have explored synergistic effects of dietary LC and fat content against physical fatigue in rats. Ninety male Wistar rats were supplemented with different concentrations of LC (0.15, 0.3, and 0.5 %) and fat content (5, 10, and 15 %) through diet in different combinations. Our results elucidated that LC (0.5 %) along with 10 and 15 % fat diet supplemented rats showed significant ergogenic effect. The swimming time until exhaustion was increased by ~2- and ~1.5-fold in rats fed with 10 and 15 % fat diet containing LC (0.5 %). LC supplementation improved the energy charge by increasing the levels of ATP, tissue glycogen, reduced GSH, plasma triglyceride, plasma glucose levels, and enzymatic antioxidant status, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. LC supplementation also significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, lactic acid, plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatinekinase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels in various tissues compared to its respective control group. Thus the present study indicates that LC ameliorates the various impairments associated with physical endurance in rats. PMID:23661316

Pandareesh, M D; Anand, T

2013-12-01

291

Effects of isoprothiolane and phytosterol on lipogenesis and lipolysis in adipocytes from rats of dietary fat necrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study effects of isoprothiolane and phytosterol on dietary fat necrosis, 3 groups of rats were fed hardened-tallow (HT) diet. Two groups of rats received either isoprothiolane (50 mg/kg) or phytosterol (20 mg/kg) orally once a day consecutively for 10 weeks. One group of rats received standard diet (CE-2) as a control. Fat necrotic lesions were observed in epididymal and perirenal adipose tissues from all rats in the 3 groups fed HT diet. Rats with fat necrosis were characterized by visceral type obesity and saturation in fatty acid composition of triglyceride in adipose tissue. The highest glucose conversion to total lipids was seen in adipocytes from the rats given phytosterol. There was no lipolytic response to epinephrine stimulation (1-100 microM) in adipocytes from the rats given only HT diet, while similar response of adipocytes from the 2 groups treated with either drug to those from the rats fed standard diet was observed. The levels of total saturated fatty acids of phospholipid in adipose tissue from the rats given either drug were lower than that of the rats given only HT diet. These data suggest that either drug alters fatty acid composition of phospholipid in fat cell membrane and enhances lipolysis of the cells. PMID:2287126

Katamoto, H; Kurihara, S; Shimada, Y

1990-12-01

292

Maternal supplementation with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during perinatal period alleviates the metabolic syndrome disturbances in adult hamster pups fed a high-fat diet after weaning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perinatal nutrition is thought to affect the long-term risk of the adult to develop metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy and lactation would protect offspring fed a high-fat diet from developing metabolic disturbances. Thus, two groups of female hamsters were fed a low-fat control diet, either alone (LC) or enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) (LO), through the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, male pups were randomized to separate groups that received either a control low-fat diet (LC) or a high-fat diet (HC) for 16 weeks. Four groups of pups were defined (LC-LC, LC-HC, LO-LC and LO-HC), based on the combinations of maternal and weaned diets. Maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation was associated with reduced levels of basal plasma glucose, hepatic triglycerides secretion and postprandial lipemia in the LO-HC group compared to the LC-HC group. Respiratory parameters were not affected by maternal supplementation. In contrast, n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced the activities of citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase compared to the offspring of unsupplemented mothers. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and tumor necrosis factor ? expression levels were not affected by n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation. These results provide evidence for a beneficial effect of n-3 LC-PUFA maternal supplementation in hamsters on the subsequent risk of metabolic syndrome. Underlying mechanisms may include improved lipid metabolism and activation of the mitochondrial oxidative pathway. PMID:24767307

Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Simard, Gilles; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Leray, Véronique; Meynier, Anne; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Champ, Martine; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

2014-07-01

293

Strong influence of dietary intake and physical activity on body fatness in elderly Japanese men: age-associated loss of polygenic resistance against obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged populations; however, it is unclear whether these SNPs are associated with body fatness in elderly people. We examined the association between genetic risk score (GRS) from BMI-associated SNPs and body fatness in elderly Japanese men. We also examined the contribution of GRS, dietary macronutrient intake, and physical activity to body fatness by different age groups. GRS was calculated from 10 BMI-associated SNPs in 84 middle-aged (30-64 years) and 97 elderly (65-79 years) Japanese men; subjects were divided into low, middle, and high GRS groups. Dietary macronutrient intake was assessed using a questionnaire, and physical activity was evaluated using both a questionnaire and an accelerometer. The middle-aged individuals with a high GRS had greater BMI; waist circumference; and total abdominal fat, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat areas than the middle-aged individuals with low GRS, whereas the indicators were not different between the GRS groups in elderly individuals. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that GRS was the strongest predictor of BMI, total abdominal fat, and visceral fat in the middle-aged group, whereas fat, alcohol, and protein intakes or vigorous-intensity physical activity were more strongly associated with these indicators than was GRS in the elderly group. These results suggest that GRS from BMI-associated SNPs is not predictive of body fatness in elderly Japanese men. The stronger contribution of dietary macronutrient intake and physical activity to body fatness may attenuate the genetic predisposition in elderly men. PMID:25030601

Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Sun, Xiaomin; Ise, Ryuken; Oshima, Satomi; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Tanaka, Masashi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

2014-09-01

294

Effect of Dietary Fats on Oxidative-Antioxidative Status of Blood in Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was performed to examine the effect of different fat sources, lard, sunflower oil (SO), and fish oil (FO) in high-fat and low-fat diet on reactive oxygen species generation by blood phagocytes, glutathione redox status in erythrocytes, and total plasma antioxidant ability in rats. Whole blood chemiluminescence (CL) did not differ between three low-fat fed groups. However, baseline and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated CL in blood of high-lard fed rats were lower than in lo...

Walczewska, Anna; Dziedzic, Barbara; Stepien, Tomasz; Swiatek, Elzbieta; Nowak, Dariusz

2010-01-01

295

Dietary intakes in asthmatic and non-asthmatic female pupils of Tehran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary factors are suggested to be involved in recent increases in the prevalence of asthma. The differences in dietary intake of 23 asthmatic and 317 non-asthmatic students were investigated, who were chosen by multistage stratified cluster sampling. The dietary data were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and a 24-h recall form. Total calorie and fat intake were similar. Daily intake of Saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and calcium and sodium were significantly higher in asthmatics. There was no significant difference between dietary antioxidant intake of asthmatic and non asthmatics. It seems that in this age, the type of consumed fat may be more important than the amount of fat intake in inducing asthma. For accurate results, n-6 and n-3 fatty acid intake must be assessed. Higher sodium and calcium intake may also be associated with asthma. Randomized controlled trials with restricting diets can help to elucidate the results. PMID:21960081

Bidad, Katayoon; Anari, Shahab; Tavasoli, Sanaz; Nazemi, Leili; Moayeri, Heshmat

2011-01-01

296

Dietary Intakes in Asthmatic and Non-Asthmatic Female Pupils of Tehran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nDietary factors are suggested to be involved in recent increases in the prevalence of asthma. The differences in dietary intake of 23 asthmatic and 317 non-asthmatic students were investigated, who were chosen by multistage stratified cluster sampling. The dietary data were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and a 24-h recall form. Total calorie and fat intake were similar. Daily intake of Saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and calcium and sodium were significantly higher in asthmatics. There was no significant difference between dietary antioxidant intake of asthmatic and non asthmatics. It seems that in this age, the type of consumed fat may be more important than the amount of fat intake in inducing asthma. For accurate results, n-6 and n-3 fatty acid intake must be assessed. Higher sodium and calcium intake may also be associated with asthma. Randomized controlled trials with restricting diets can help to elucidate the results.

Leili Nazemi

2011-07-01

297

Effect of high versus low doses of fat and vitamin A dietary supplementation on fatty acid composition of phospholipids in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fat and vitamin A provide important precursors for potent bioactive ligands of nuclear hormone receptors, which regulate various enzymes involved in lipid homeostasis, metabolism and inflammation. We determined the effects of dietary fat and dietary vitamin A on hepatic expression of two fatty acid metabolizing enzymes, elongase 6 (ELOVL6) and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) and the concentration of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) of phospholipids in serum and liver. Mice (n = 6) were fed 4 weeks with diets containing 2, 5 and 25 % of fat or vitamin A (0, 2,500 and 326,500 RE/kg as retinyl palmitate). MUFAs and SAFAs were measured using GC and ESI-MS/MS. Hepatic expression of metabolizing enzymes was determined using QRT-PCR. ELOVL6 was significantly down-regulated in response to a high-fat diet (p MUFAs bound to phospholipids significantly decreased in response to a high-fat diet and increased after a low-fat diet. This tendency was also observed in the liver for various phospholipids sub-classes. In summary, this study shows that fat content in the diet has a stronger impact than the content of vitamin A on hepatic gene expression of SCD1 and ELOVL6 and thereby on MUFA and SAFA concentrations in liver and plasma. PMID:24306959

Weiss, Kathrin; Mihály, Johanna; Liebisch, Gerhard; Marosvölgyi, Tamás; Garcia, Ada L; Schmitz, Gerd; Decsi, Tamás; Rühl, Ralph

2014-01-01

298

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Full Text Available ... Some fast food items such as french fries Cholesterol Your body makes some of the cholesterol in your blood. The rest comes from foods ... eat. Foods from animals are sources of dietary cholesterol. Cholesterol from the food you eat may increase ...

299

Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We tested the hypothesis that a shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet would lead to decreased glucose uptake and impaired muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise compared with ingestion of a carbohydrate diet all along. We studied 13 untrained men; 7 consumed a high-fat (Fat-CHO; 62% fat, 21% carbohydrate) and 6 a high-carbohydrate diet (CHO; 20% fat, 65% carbohydrate) for 7 wk, and thereafter both groups consumed the carbohydrate diet for an eighth week. Training was performed throughout. After 8 wk, during 60 min of exercise (71 +/- 1% pretraining maximal oxygen uptake) average leg glucose uptake (1.00 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.55 +/- 0.21 mmol/min) was lower (P <0.05) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. The rate of muscle glycogen breakdown was similar (4.4 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.2 +/- 0.7 mmol. min(-1). kg dry wt(-1)) despite a significantly higher preexercise glycogen concentration (872 +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels, compared with when the carbohydrate diet is consumed throughout training.

Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W

2002-01-01

300

Hepatic and biochemical repercussions of a polyunsaturated fat-rich hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet in Wistar rats / Repercussões hepáticas e bioquímicas da dieta hipercalórica e hiperlipídica rica em gordura poliinsaturada em ratos Wistar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica caracteriza-se por depósito de lipídios nos hepatócitos. Desperta grande interesse por sua associação com obesidade, dislipidemias e diabetes mellitus tipo 2. É considerada a manifestação hepática da síndrome metabólica, cujo principal componente é [...] a resistência à insulina, com consequente hiperinsulinemia e produção aumentada de citocinas inflamatórias. Dietas ricas em gorduras saturadas promovem hipertrigliceridemia, diminuição do colesterol de alta densidade, aumento do colesterol de baixa densidade e hiperinsulinemia, enquanto dietas ricas em gordura poliinsaturada podem apresentar efeitos hipolipidêmicos, antiinflamatórios e imunorreguladores. OBJETIVO: Investigar as repercussões hepáticas e bioquímicas da dieta rica em gordura poliinsaturada em ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Os animais (22) foram distribuidos nos grupos GI-dieta padrao (Biobase Bio-tec Ratos e Camundongos®) com 3000 kcal/kg e GII-dieta hipercalorica e hiperlipidica, com 4250 kcal/kg, relação ?-6: ?-3 = 3:1. Foram mortos apos 23 semanas de administração das dietas. Avaliaram-se peso, exames bioquimicos e alteracoes histológicas do fígado. RESULTADOS: Foram utilizados testes de análise de variância com nível de significância de 5% (P Abstract in english CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by lipid deposits in the hepatocytes and has been associated with obesity, dyslipidemia and type-2 diabetes. It is considered a hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, of which the main component is insulin resistance leading to hy [...] perinsulinemia and increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Saturated fat promotes hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia, reduces levels of high-density cholesterol and increases levels of low-density cholesterol, while polyunsaturated fat is associated with hypolipidemic, antiinflammatory and imunoregulating action. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hepatic and biochemical repercussions of a polyunsaturated fat-rich diet in Wistar rats. METHODS: Twenty-two rats were distributed equally in two groups: GI - standard diet (Biobase Bio-tec Ratos e Camundongos®) providing 3.000 kcal/kg and GII - hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet providing 4.250 kcal/kg (?-6:?-3 = 3:1). The animals were euthanized after 23 weeks of experiment. The weight, biochemical parameters and hepatohistological changes were registered. RESULTS: Findings were submitted to variance analysis with the level of statistical significance at 5%. The average weight did not differ significantly between the groups at baseline (P = 0.711), but was greater in Group II by the end of the experiment (P = 0.000). The levels of triglycerides (P = 0.039), total cholesterol (P = 0.015) and HDL (P = 0.005) were higher in Group I than in Group II. Macrovesicular steatosis was significantly more common in Group II than in Group I (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet rich in polyunsaturated fat promotes weight gain and favors the development of hepatic steatosis while reducing serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL.

Burlamaqui, Idália M. B.; Dornelas, Conceição A.; Valença Jr, José Telmo; Mesquita, Francisco J. C.; Veras, Lara B.; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras.

 
 
 
 
301

Effects of supplementary dietary L-carnitine on performance and egg quality of laying hens fed diets different in fat level  

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The present study aimed to examine the effects of dietary L-carnitine supplementation on performance parameters and egg quality measurements of white Leghorn hens at two dietary fat levels. Two hundred 22-weeks old white Leghorn hens were randomly distributed into 40 cages of five birds each. Two basal diets different in added fat level (0 or 3%) were formulated and supplemented with incremental levels of L-carnitine (0, 50, 100, 150 mg/kg diet). The experiment lasted 98 d (two weeks for adap...

Behrouz Ghods-Alavi; Hossein Samie; Rahman Jahanian

2010-01-01

302

Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA, gut microbiota and fat mass in early postnatal piglet developmentâ??exploring a potential interplay  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dietary n-3PUFA and gut bacteria, particularly Bacteroidetes, have been suggested to be related to adiposity. We investigated if n-3PUFA affected fat storage and cecal bacteria in piglets. Twenty-four 4-day-old piglets were allocated to formula rich in n-3PUFA (â?¼3E%) from fish oil (FO) or n-6PUFA from sunflower oil (SO) for 14 days. We assessed body weight, fat accumulation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and microbial molecular fingerprints. Dietary PUFA-composition was reflected in higher erythrocyte n-3PUFA in the FO- than the SO-group (P

Andersen, A.D.; Mølbak, Lars

2011-01-01

303

The increase of fatty acid-binding protein aP2 in overweight and obese children: interactions with dietary fat and impact on measures of subclinical inflammation  

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BACKGROUND: In adults, circulating aP2 may link obesity, inflammation and the metabolic syndrome, but there are few data in children. Experimental models support that dietary factors, particularly dietary fat, may be major determinants of phenotype. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate, in normal, overweight and obese children, the relationships among aP2, the metabolic syndrome, inflammation and diet. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Northern Switzerland. ...

Aeberli, I.; Beljean, N.; Lehmann, R.; I Allemand, D.; Spinas, G. A.; Zimmermann, M. B.

2008-01-01

304

Screening and identification of dietary oils and unsaturated fatty acids in inhibiting inflammatory prostaglandin E2 signaling in fat stromal cells  

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Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of dietary oils (such as fish oil) and unsaturated fatty acids, which are widely used by the public for anti-inflammation and vascular protection, have not been settled yet. In this study, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-mediated calcium signaling was used to screen dietary oils and eight unsaturated fatty acids for identification of their anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Isolated fat/stromal cells expressing endogenous ...

Ruan Diana; So Shui-Ping

2012-01-01

305

Dietary fat types differently modulate the activity and expression of mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase in rat liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

The carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT), an integral protein of the mitochondrial inner membrane, belongs to the carnitine-dependent system of fatty acid transport into mitochondria, where beta-oxidation occurs. CACT exchanges cytosolic acylcarnitine or free carnitine for carnitine in the mitochondrial matrix. The object of this study was to investigate in rat liver the effect, if any, of diets enriched with saturated fatty acids (beef tallow, BT, the control), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (fish oil, FO), n-6 PUFA (safflower oil, SO), and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (olive oil, OO) on the activity and expression of CACT. Translocase exchange rates increased, in parallel with CACT mRNA abundance, upon FO-feeding, whereas OO-dietary treatment induced a decrease in both CACT activity and expression. No changes were observed upon SO-feeding. Nuclear run-on assay revealed that FO-treatment increased the transcriptional rate of CACT mRNA. On the other hand, only in the nuclei of hepatocytes from OO-fed rats splicing of the last intron of CACT pre-mRNA and the rate of formation of the 3'-end were affected. Overall, these findings suggest that compared to the BT-enriched diet, the SO-enriched diet did not influence CACT activity and expression, whereas FO- and OO-feeding alters CACT activity in an opposite fashion, i.e. modulating its expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, respectively. PMID:22819991

Priore, Paola; Stanca, Eleonora; Gnoni, Gabriele Vincenzo; Siculella, Luisa

2012-10-01

306

Dietary fat modifies mitochondrial and plasma membrane apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle of calorie-restricted mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calorie restriction decreases skeletal muscle apoptosis, and this phenomenon has been mechanistically linked to its protective action against sarcopenia of aging. Alterations in lipid composition of membranes have been related with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction. However, no study has been designed to date to elucidate if different dietary fat sources with calorie restriction modify apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle. We show that a 6-month calorie restriction decreased the activity of the plasma membrane neutral sphingomyelinase, although caspase-8/10 activity was not altered, in young adult mice. Lipid hydroperoxides, Bax levels, and cytochrome c and AIF release/accumulation into the cytosol were also decreased, although caspase-9 activity was unchanged. No alterations in caspase-3 and apoptotic index (DNA fragmentation) were observed, but calorie restriction improved structural features of gastrocnemius fibers by increasing cross-sectional area and decreasing circularity of fibers in cross sections. Changing dietary fat with calorie restriction produced substantial alterations of apoptotic signaling. Fish oil augmented the protective effect of calorie restriction decreasing plasma membrane neutral sphingomyelinase, Bax levels, caspase-8/10, and -9 activities, while increasing levels of the antioxidant coenzyme Q at the plasma membrane, and potentiating the increase of cross-sectional area and the decrease of fiber circularity in cross sections. Many of these changes were not found when we used lard. Our data support that dietary fish oil with calorie restriction produces a cellular anti-apoptotic environment in skeletal muscle with a downregulation of components involved in the initial stages of apoptosis engagement, both at the plasma membrane and the mitochondria. PMID:23179253

López-Domínguez, José Alberto; Khraiwesh, Husam; González-Reyes, José Antonio; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; Ramsey, Jon Jay; de Cabo, Rafael; Burón, María Isabel; Villalba, José M

2013-12-01

307

Dietary meat and fat intake and prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study  

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Abstract Background Dietary fat exerts numerous complex effects on proinflammatory and immunologic pathways. Several epidemiological studies have examined the relationships between intake of fatty acids and/or foods high in fat and allergic rhinitis, but have provided conflicting findings. The current cross-sectional study investigated such relationships in Japan. Methods Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. The definition of rhinoconjunctivitis was based on...

2012-01-01

308

Effects of dietary digestible lysine levels on protein and fat deposition in the carcass of broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of different levels of digestible lysine in the diets of male and female broilers on protein and fat deposition. A total of 2160 Avian Farms broilers. A completely randomized experimental design was applied, and treatments consisted of the effects of three digestible lysine levels nested within each sex, with 12 replicates and 30 birds per experimental unit. The adopted digestible lysine levels corresponded to 92.5, 100.0, and 107.5% of the nutritional requirements of phases 1 to 21 days, 22 to 42 days, and 43 to 56 days of age, respectively. In each phase, the experimental diets contained similar calorie and protein levels within each sex. No significant effects of lysine levels were found on dry matter and fat percentages in the carcass of birds during the evaluated periods. Also, there were no significant effects of lysine levels on protein and fat deposition in males or females. However, males presented higher protein deposition and lower fat deposition than females during the total experimental period. Gompertz equations showed that females deposit more fat and less protein than males, and that this affected the fall in the curve of protein deposition, when the curve of fat deposition was still rising. Therefore, it was concluded that the older the broilers at slaughter, the higher their body fat content and the lower their body protein content, particularly in females.

F de C Tavernari

2009-06-01

309

Effects of Dietary Fat Source and Subtherapeutic Levels of Antibiotic on the Bacterial Community in the Ileum of Broiler Chickens at Various Ages  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of dietary fat source (soy oil or a mixture of lard and tallow) and dietary supplementation with antibiotics (a combination of avilamycin at 10 mg kg of feed?1 and salinomycin at 40 mg kg of feed?1) on the bacterial community in the ileum of broiler chickens at different ages (7, 14, 21, and 35 days) was studied using PCR with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and bacteriological culture. The bacterial origin of fragments in DGGE profiles was identified by sequencing. Bacterial enumeration results, together with PCR-DGGE profiles, showed that the composition of the microflora was age dependent and influenced by dietary fat source and antibiotic supplementation. An increased incidence of streptococci, enterobacteria, and Clostridium perfringens with age of the chickens was demonstrated. Lactobacilli and C. perfringens were the bacterial groups most strongly affected by the dietary treatments. Moreover, different strains (clonal variants of the alpha-toxin gene) of C. perfringens type A were detected in response to age, dietary fat source, and dietary supplementation with antibiotics.

Knarreborg, Ane; Simon, Mary Alice; Engberg, Ricarda M.; Jensen, Bent Borg; Tannock, Gerald W.

2002-01-01

310

Chronic Aerobic Exercise Associated to Dietary Modification Improve Endothelial Function and eNOS Expression in High Fat Fed Hamsters  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is epidemic in the western world and central adipose tissue deposition points to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of any association between obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Physical exercise has been used as non-pharmacological treatment to significantly reverse/attenuate obesity comorbidities. In this study we have investigated effects of exercise and/or dietary modification on microcirculatory function, body composition, serum glucose, iNOS and eNOS expression on 120 male hamsters treated for 12 weeks with high fat chow (HF, n?=?30) starting on the 21st day of birth. From week 12 to 20, animals were randomly separated in HF (no treatment change), return to standard chow (HFSC, n?=?30), high fat chow associated to an aerobic exercise training program (AET) (HFEX, n?=?30) and return to standard chow+AET (HFSCEX, n?=?30). Microvascular reactivity in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside and macromolecular permeability increase induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion were assessed on the cheek pouch preparation. Total body fat and aorta eNOS and iNOS expression by immunoblotting assay were evaluated on the experimental day. Compared to HFSC and HFSCEX groups, HF and HFEX ones presented increased visceral fat [(mean±SEM) (HF)4.9±1.5 g and (HFEX)4.7±0.9 g vs. (HFSC)*3.0±0.7 g and (HFSCEX)*1.9±0.4 g/100 g BW]; impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation [Ach 10?8 M (HF)87.9±2.7%; (HFSC)*116.7±5.9%; (HFEX)*109.1±4.6%; (HFSCEX)*105±2.8%; Ach10?6 M (HF)95.3±3.1%; (HFSC)*126±6.2%; (HFEX)*122.5±2.8%; (HFSCEX)*118.1±4.3% and Ach10?4 M (HF)109.5±4.8%; (HFSC)*149.6±6.6%; (HFEX)*143.5±5.4% and (HFSCEX)*139.4±5.2%], macromolecular permeability increase after ischemia/reperfusion [(HF)40.5±4.2; (HFSC)*19.0±1.6; (HFEX)*18.6±2.1 and (HFSCEX)* 21.5±3.7 leaks/cm2), decreased eNOS expression, increased leptin and glycaemic levels. Endothelial-independent microvascular reactivity was similar between groups, suggesting that only endothelial damage had occurred. Our results indicate that an aerobic routine and/or dietary modification may cause significant improvements to high fat fed animals, diminishing visceral depots, increasing eNOS expression and reducing microcirculatory dysfunction.

Boa, Beatriz C. S.; Souza, Maria das Gracas C.; Leite, Richard D.; da Silva, Simone V.; Barja-Fidalgo, Thereza Christina; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme; Bouskela, Eliete

2014-01-01

311

A Krill Oil Supplemented Diet Suppresses Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Fed Rats  

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Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular me...

Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

312

TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.

Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars

2012-01-01

313

Time trends in dietary fat intake in a sample of German children and adolescents between 2000 and 2010: not quantity, but quality is the issue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fat intake in childhood may influence the risk for developing chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to examine secular trends in the parameters of fat intake between 2000 and 2010 in a sample of German children and adolescents (n 808) participating in the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study. Dietary data from 4380 3 d weighed dietary records were analysed using repeated-measures regression to determine time trends in fat quantity, i.e. the intake of total fat, and in fat quality, i.e. the ratios of SFA, MUFA and PUFA. In young children (2-3 years) and in adolescents (13-18 years), total fat intake remained stable over time, but decreased by 0·08 % of total energy (%E) per year in 4-12-year-old children. In 2010, median fat intake was at the upper end of the recommendations. SFA intake decreased slightly in 2-3- and 4-12-year-old children by 0·09 and 0·05 %E per year, respectively. MUFA and PUFA intakes remained stable in all the age groups except in adolescents. Here, PUFA intake decreased initially, but increased between 2005 and 2010. In 2010, only between 3 and 18 % of the respective age groups had an intake of SFA or PUFA within the recommendations. In conclusion, fat quantity and quality did not change substantially between 2000 and 2010. Fat quality, in particular, needs to be improved, since a large percentage of our sample did not meet the recommended intakes for SFA and PUFA. PMID:23830595

Libuda, Lars; Alexy, Ute; Kersting, Mathilde

2014-01-14

314

Intestinal absorption of dietary fat from a liquid diet perfused in rats at a submaximum level  

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The small intestine of rats was perfused in vivo for 2 h with a nutritionally complete liquid diet (68% calories from fat as corn oil). As the perfusion increased from 106 mg/2 h, the intestinal disappearance of the /sup 14/C-triolein marker remained proportional to the load up to 2359 mg fat/2 h. Despite a decrease in absorption from 70 to 17%, this represents a very large fat intake. Fat absorption improved when medium-chain triglycerides or octanoic acid replaced corn oil (both p less than 0.01). Linoleic acid was absorbed from the diet less than corn oil (p less than 0.01). Dry ox bile reduced fat absorption (p less than 0.05); lipase and an antacid had no effect. Corn oil perfused alone was absorbed better than from the diet (p less than 0.01). Data with /sup 14/C-triolein was confirmed by dry-weight disappearance of the diet and by net intestinal water balance. Usual feeding underutilizes a large reserve for fat absorption. This reserve should be considered in therapeutic nutrition.

Simko, V.; Kelley, R.E.

1988-02-01

315

Intestinal absorption of dietary fat from a liquid diet perfused in rats at a submaximum level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The small intestine of rats was perfused in vivo for 2 h with a nutritionally complete liquid diet (68% calories from fat as corn oil). As the perfusion increased from 106 mg/2 h, the intestinal disappearance of the 14C-triolein marker remained proportional to the load up to 2359 mg fat/2 h. Despite a decrease in absorption from 70 to 17%, this represents a very large fat intake. Fat absorption improved when medium-chain triglycerides or octanoic acid replaced corn oil (both p less than 0.01). Linoleic acid was absorbed from the diet less than corn oil (p less than 0.01). Dry ox bile reduced fat absorption (p less than 0.05); lipase and an antacid had no effect. Corn oil perfused alone was absorbed better than from the diet (p less than 0.01). Data with 14C-triolein was confirmed by dry-weight disappearance of the diet and by net intestinal water balance. Usual feeding underutilizes a large reserve for fat absorption. This reserve should be considered in therapeutic nutrition

1988-01-01

316

Insulin-tumour interrelationships in EL4-lymphoma or thymoma-bearing mice. II. Effects of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

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Male C57BL/65 mice received a basal diet supplemented with 4% soya-bean oil, linseed oil or fish oil, in which the major polyunsaturated fatty acids were linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid and long chain omega-3 fatty acids, respectively. Groups of animals were injected into the right flank with EL4-lymphoma cells, others with thymoma cells. Tumour implantation caused a gradual decrease in food consumption with both types of tumour, while body weight increased, especially in the EL4-bearing ...

1990-01-01

317

The role of dietary fatty acids in predicting myocardial structure in fat-fed rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity increases the risk for development of cardiomyopathy in the absence of hypertension, diabetes or myocardial ischemia. Not all obese individuals, however, progress to heart failure. Indeed, obesity may provide protection from cardiovascular mortality in some populations. The fatty acid milieu, modulated by diet, may modify obesity-induced myocardial structure and function, lending partial explanation for the array of cardiomyopathic phenotypy in obese individuals. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 1 of the following 4 diets for 32 weeks: control (CON; 50% saturated fat (SAT; 40% saturated fat + 10% linoleic acid (SAT+LA; 40% saturated fat + 10% ?-linolenic acid (SAT+ALA. Serum leptin, insulin, glucose, free fatty acids and triglycerides were quantitated. In vivo cardiovascular outcomes included blood pressure, heart rate and echocardiographic measurements of structure and function. The rats were sacrificed and myocardium was processed for fatty acid analysis (TLC-GC, and evaluation of potential modifiers of myocardial structure including collagen (Masson's trichrome, hydroxyproline quantitation, lipid (Oil Red O, triglyceride quantitation and myocyte cross sectional area. Results Rats fed SAT+LA and SAT+ALA diets had greater cranial LV wall thickness compared to rats fed CON and SAT diets, in the absence of hypertension or apparent insulin resistance. Treatment was not associated with changes in myocardial function. Myocardial collagen and triglycerides were similar among treatment groups; however, rats fed the high-fat diets, regardless of composition, demonstrated increased myocyte cross sectional area. Conclusions Under conditions of high-fat feeding, replacement of 10% saturated fat with either LA or ALA is associated with thickening of the cranial LV wall, but without concomitant functional changes. Increased myocyte size appears to be a more likely contributor to early LV thickening in response to high-fat feeding. These findings suggest that myocyte hypertrophy may be an early change leading to gross LV hypertrophy in the hearts of "healthy" obese rats, in the absence of hypertension, diabetes and myocardial ischemia.

Miller Melissa L

2011-06-01

318

Dietary fat induces sustained reward response in the human brain without primary taste cortex discrimination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To disentangle taste from reward responses in the human gustatory cortex, we combined high density electro-encephalography with a gustometer delivering tastant puffs to the tip of the tongue. Stimuli were pure tastants (salt solutions at two concentrations, caloric emulsions of identical taste (two milk preparations differing in fat content and a mixture of high fat milk with the lowest salt concentration. Early event-related potentials showed a dose-response effect for increased taste intensity, with higher amplitude and shorter latency for high compared to low salt concentration, but not for increased fat content. However, the amplitude and distribution of late potentials were modulated by fat content independently of reported intensity and discrimination. Neural source estimation revealed a sustained activation of reward areas to the two high-fat stimuli. The results suggest calorie detection through specific sensors on the tongue independent of perceived taste. Finally, amplitude variation of the first peak in the event-related potential to the different stimuli correlated with papilla density, suggesting a higher discrimination power for subjects with more fungiform papillae.

JulieHudry

2013-02-01

319

Dietary fat assimilation and bile salt absorption in the killifish intestine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiolabeled taurocholate (TC) and triolein were used to study fat assimilation and bile salt absorption in the stomachless saltwater killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Fat absorption occurred primarily in the proximal intestine with approximately 87% of a single dose (9 mg fat/8 g fish) absorbed in 2 h. Luminal triolein hydrolysis and enterocyte triolein resynthesis were tightly coupled. Killifish gallbladder bile contains taurocholate and cholate in an equal molar ratio at a combined concentration of 237 +/- 25 mM (n = 10) in 24-h-fasted fish. During fat assimilation luminal bile salt and fatty acid concentrations ranged between 10 and 30 mM. Between and during meals the total concentration of bile salts in the intestinal tissue remained roughly constant (4-6 mM) with the proximal one-third of the intestine containing 40% of the total and the remainder equally distributed between the mid and distal regions. All three regions of the intestine rapidly incorporated ingested TC in vivo, with the amount incorporated proportional to the pool size. In contrast, in vitro at low TC concentrations (60 nM), the distal one-third of the intestine incorporated 10 times as much TC in 2-min uptake experiments as the proximal and mid regions. Although there are many similarities between fat and bile salt assimilation in killifish and mammals, overall the processes are much simpler in killifish

1985-01-01

320

The Effect on Glucagon, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1, Total and Acyl-Ghrelin of Dietary Fats Ingested with and without Potato  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: We are interested in the metabolic response to ingested macronutrients and the interaction between macronutrients in meals. Recently, we have determined the insulin and glucose response to ingestion of lard, olive oil, or safflower oil, fat sources varying in fatty acid composition and carbohydrate (CHO), in the form of potato. Objective: Our aim was to determine the effect of these dietary fats ingested alone or with potato on glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (7-37 and 7-36 amide), and total and acyl-ghrelin concentrations. Methods: Healthy subjects ingested 25 g fat (lard, olive oil, or safflower oil), 50 g CHO (potato), 25 g fat with 50 g CHO, or water only. Glucagon, GLP-1 (7-37 and 7-36 amide), and total and acyl-ghrelin responses were determined over 4 h. Results: All fats when ingested alone increased glucagon. Glucagon increases were dramatically attenuated when fats were ingested with the potato. GLP-1 increased after all meals, but was greatest when fats were ingested alone. The fat-stimulated increase was completely negated when fats were ingested with potato. Both acyl and total ghrelin decreased when only fats were ingested, as expected. When potato was ingested with any of the fats, the fat-induced decrease in acyl-ghrelin response also was essentially negated. Paradoxically, ghrelin increased when potato alone was ingested. Conclusions: The current data indicate that the glucagon, GLP-1 and ghrelin responses to ingested fats, varying in fatty acid composition, are significantly affected by co-ingestion of CHO. Overall, the interaction between ingested foods in general is likely to be complex.

Radulescu, Angela; Gannon, Mary C.; Nuttall, Frank Q.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Fatty Acid Effect on Carcass The Influence of Various Blends of Dietary Fats Added to Corn-Soybean Meal Based Diets on the Fatty Acid Composition of Broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the fatty acid composition of the dietary fat supplement on the fatty acid composition of the adipose tissue of broilers. Samples of lard, tallow, poultry oil, and soybean oil, representative of the major source of fats and oils in poultry diets in the United States, were blended in various combinations and fed at 6.34% of the diet in corn-soybean meal broiler finisher diets fed 35 to 56 d of age. Samples of adipose tissue were subjected to fatty acid analysis and regression analysis was used to develop equations for predicting carcass fatty acid composition from the composition of the dietary fat supplement. Highly significant R2 values were observed, indicating that these equations can be used to predict the influence that a particular blend of dietary fatty acids will have upon changes in the fatty acid composition of the adipose tissue of broilers fed diets supplemented with these fats. If sources with markedly different fatty acid structures such as coconut oil, linseed oil, or fish oil are used in constructing the fat blends, these equations may not be applicable.

P.W. Waldroup

2005-01-01

322

Effects of different dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat  

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The effect of three different lipid sources (soybean oil, chicken oil or bovine fat) on the abdominal fat fatty acid composition in 50 day-old broiler chickens was evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments, 8 repetitions and 40 Arbor Acres broiler chicks of each sex. The four treatments were isocaloric and isoproteic with the following characteristics: T1 Control (Soybean-corn); T2 Control + 3% soybean oil; T3 Control + 3% chicken oil; and T4 Control + 3% bovine fa...

Sg, Rondelli; Martinez, O.; Pt, Garci?a

2004-01-01

323

Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary recommendations are moderately efficient in optimizing their status in healthy middle-aged subjects with low fish consumption: a cross-over study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several dietary recommendations have been made for marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake; however, the effectiveness of these fatty acids has not been thoroughly examined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether public-aimed dietary recommendations for long-chain n-3 PUFA from oily fish or fish oil supplements are efficient in optimizing their status in red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets of healthy middle-aged subjects with low customary fish consumption. In a randomized, cross-over trial conducted over an 8-week period and separated by a 6-month washout period, 33 participants received an oily fish (salmon), providing 274 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + 671 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day, or a commercial fish oil supplement, providing 396 mg EPA + 250 mg DHA per day. Blood samples were collected before and after each intervention period, and RBCs and platelets were used for analysis of fatty acids. After 8 weeks, there were significant increases in EPA and DHA content in RBCs and platelets with both salmon and fish oil capsules. The increase in EPA in both RBCs and platelets was higher with capsules, whereas the increase in DHA in both RBCs and platelets was higher with salmon. In spite of the quantitative and qualitative differences between n-3 fatty acid profiles in salmon and the fish oil supplement, the overall incorporation of these fatty acids into RBCs and platelets did not differ in our short-term study (P > .05). The sum of EPA + DHA significantly increased in both compartments following dietary recommendations for oily fish and fish oil supplements intake in middle-aged healthy subjects with low baseline long-chain n-3 PUFA status, although targeted values with optimal cardioprotective effect of more than 8% were not achieved. PMID:24655487

Djuricic, Ivana D; Mazic, Sanja D; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena M; Djordjevic, Vladimir R; Sobajic, Sladjana S

2014-03-01

324

Dietary Supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Plus n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Increases Food Intake and Brown Adipose Tissue in Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3 was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression measurements revealed increased expression of orexigenic and decreased expression of anorexigenic signals. Thus, CLA/n-3 increases food intake without affecting body weight potentially through increasing BAT size and up-regulating UCP-1 in rats.

Amanda C. Morris

2009-11-01

325

Coexisting role of fasting or feeding and dietary lipids in the control of gene expression of enzymes involved in the synthesis of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the liver, maintaining lipid homeostasis is regulated by physiological and exogenous factors. These lipids are synthesized by Fasn, elongases and desaturases. Interactions in an organism among these factors are quite complex and, to date, relatively little is known about them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the coexisting role of physiological (insulin, fasting and feeding) and exogenous (dietary lipids) factors in the control of gene expression of Fasn, elongases and desaturases via Srebf-1c in liver from rats. Gene expression of encoding enzymes for fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid composition was evaluated in liver from rats in fasting and feeding (at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after feeding) when food intake (adequate or high-lipid diet) was synchronized to a restricted period of 7h. Fasn, Scd and Fads2 were induced during 120 min after initial feeding in both dietary groups. This induction may be activated in part by insulin via Srebf-1c. Also, we showed for the first time that Elovl7 may be regulated by insulin and dietary lipids. The failure to synthesize saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids is consistent with a downregulation of Fasn and Scd, respectively, by dietary lipids. A higher content of LC-PUFAs was observed due to a high expression of Elovl2 and Elovl5, although Fads2 was suppressed by dietary lipids. Therefore, elongases may have a mechanism that is Srebf-1c-independent. This study suggests that a high-lipid diet triggers, during 120 min after initial feeding, a tight coordination among de novo lipogenesis, elongation, and desaturation and may not always be regulated by Srebf-1c. Finally, upregulation by feeding (insulin) of Fasn, Scd, Fads2 and Srebf-1c is insufficient to compensate for the inhibitory effect of dietary lipids. PMID:22248624

Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Sánchez González, Raúl; Sánchez García, Apolos M; Lòpez-Alarcòn, Mardia

2012-03-15

326

Effect of various dietary fats on antibody production and lymphocyte proliferation n chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One-day old Babcock-300 female chicks (n = 80) were fed one of four corn-soybean meal based diets which differed only in fat source. Diets contained 7% by weight: corn oil (CO), canola oil (CA), lard (LA), or fish oil (FO). Chicks (n = 12/trt) were injected with sheep red blood cells (sRBC) at day 21 and antibody titers were measured by haemagglutination at d 28. On d 22 (n = 4/trt) and 26 (n = 4/trt) concanavalin A (Con A), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated proliferation of splenocytes was assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation. The results show that feeding young chicks a diet containing fish oil (rich in n-3 fatty acids) significantly increased weight gain, antibody production, and had a tendency to decrease splenocyte proliferation in response to mitogens compared to other fat sources

1990-02-26

327

Effect of various dietary fats on antibody production and lymphocyte proliferation n chickens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One-day old Babcock-300 female chicks (n = 80) were fed one of four corn-soybean meal based diets which differed only in fat source. Diets contained 7% by weight: corn oil (CO), canola oil (CA), lard (LA), or fish oil (FO). Chicks (n = 12/trt) were injected with sheep red blood cells (sRBC) at day 21 and antibody titers were measured by haemagglutination at d 28. On d 22 (n = 4/trt) and 26 (n = 4/trt) concanavalin A (Con A), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated proliferation of splenocytes was assessed by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation. The results show that feeding young chicks a diet containing fish oil (rich in n-3 fatty acids) significantly increased weight gain, antibody production, and had a tendency to decrease splenocyte proliferation in response to mitogens compared to other fat sources.

Cassity, N.A.; Fritsche, K.L.; Huang, S.C. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (United States))

1990-02-26

328

Increased Intake of Ethanol and Dietary Fat in Galanin Overexpressing Mice  

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Evidence suggests that the orexigenic peptide, galanin (GAL), in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) has a role in stimulating the consumption of ethanol, in addition to a high-fat diet. This possibility was further examined in mutant mice that overexpress the GAL gene. Two sets of GAL-overexpressors (GALOE) compared to wild-type (WT) controls, maintained on lab chow and water, were trained to voluntarily drink increasing concentrations of ethanol, from 3% to 15%. In the GALOE vs W...

Karatayev, Olga; Baylan, Jessica; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

2009-01-01

329

Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Depression: The SUN Project  

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Emerging evidence relates some nutritional factors to depression risk. However, there is a scarcity of longitudinal assessments on this relationship. Objective: To evaluate the association between fatty acid intake or the use of culinary fats and depression incidence in a Mediterranean population. Material and Methods: Prospective cohort study (1999-2010) of 12,059 Spanish university graduates (mean age: 37.5 years) initially free of depression with permanently open enrolment. At baseline, a ...

Sanchez-villegas, A.; Verberne, L. D. M.; Irala, J.; Ruiz-canela, M.; Toledo, E.; Serra-majem, L.; Martinez-gonzalez, M. A.

2011-01-01

330

Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Depression: The SUN Project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Emerging evidence relates some nutritional factors to depression risk. However, there is a scarcity of longitudinal assessments on this relationship. Objective: To evaluate the association between fatty acid intake or the use of culinary fats and depression incidence in a Mediterranean population. Material and Methods: Prospective cohort study (1999–2010) of 12,059 Spanish university graduates (mean age: 37.5 years) initially free of depression with permanently open enrolment...

Sanchez-villegas, A.; Verberne, L.; Irala, J.; Ruiz-canela, M.; Toledo, E.; Serra-majem, L.; Martinez-gonzalez, M. A.

2011-01-01

331

Effects of dietary fish oil and trans fat on rat aorta histopathology and cardiovascular risk markers  

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Fish oil and shortening have been suggested to have opposite effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the effect of shortening and fish oil on CVD risk factors and aorta histopathology, and the association between risk factors and aorta histopathology. Male Wister rats (n=30) were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 20% fat in the form of fish oil, shortening, or soybean oil for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), triacylglyceride (TG), and C-reactive protein levels were signi...

Park, Seonhye; Park, Yongsoon

2009-01-01

332

Effect of linoleic acid and dietary vitamin E supplementation on sustained conjugated linoleic acid production in milk fat from dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; cis-9,trans-11 18:2), a bioactive fatty acid (FA) found in milk and dairy products, has potential human health benefits due to its anticarcinogenic and antiatherogenic properties. Conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in milk fat can be markedly increased by dietary manipulation; however, high levels of CLA are difficult to sustain as rumen biohydrogenation shifts and milk fat depression (MFD) is often induced. Our objective was to feed a typical Northeastern corn-based diet and investigate whether vitamin E and soybean oil supplementation would sustain an enhanced milk fat CLA content while avoiding MFD. Holstein cows (n=48) were assigned to a completely randomized block design with repeated measures for 28 d and received 1 of 4 dietary treatments: (1) control (CON), (2) 10,000 IU of vitamin E/d (VE), (3) 2.5% soybean oil (SO), and (4) 2.5% soybean oil plus 10,000 IU of vitamin E/d (SO-VE). A 2-wk pretreatment control diet served as the covariate. Milk fat percentage was reduced by both high-oil diets (3.53, 3.56, 2.94, and 2.92% for CON, VE, SO, and SO-VE), whereas milk yield increased significantly for the SO-VE diet only, thus partially mitigating MFD by oil feeding. Milk protein percentage was higher for cows fed the SO diet (3.04, 3.05, 3.28, and 3.03% for CON, VE, SO, and SO-VE), implying that nutrient partitioning or ruminal supply of microbial protein was altered in response to the reduction in milk fat. Milk fat concentration of CLA more than doubled in cows fed the diets supplemented with soybean oil, with concurrent increases in trans-10 18:1 and trans-11 18:1 FA. Moreover, milk fat from cows fed the 2 soybean oil diets had 39.1% less de novo synthesized FA and 33.8% more long-chain preformed FA, and vitamin E had no effect on milk fat composition. Overall, dietary supplements of soybean oil caused a reduction in milk fat percentage and a shift in FA composition characteristic of MFD. Supplementing diets with vitamin E did not overcome the oil-induced reduction in milk fat percentage or changes in FA profile, but partially mitigated the reduction in fat yield by increasing milk yield. PMID:23063161

O'Donnell-Megaro, A M; Capper, J L; Weiss, W P; Bauman, D E

2012-12-01

333

Dietary Rhus coriaria L. powder reduces the blood cholesterol, VLDL-c and glucose, but increases abdominal fat in broilers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In an experiment, 200 one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were used to investigate the effects of sumac fruit (Rhus coriaria L.) powder (SFP) on performance, plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), ver [...] y low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) and plasma fasting blood sugar (FBS), as well as proportional abdominal fat. The chicks were divided into four treatment groups with 5 replicates and 10 birds in each. The birds were fed the basal diet (Z-SFP) or diets supplemented with 2.5 g SFP (L-SFP), 5 g SFP (M-SFP) and 10 g SFP (H-SFP) per kg diet. During the whole experimental period the H-SFP birds had a higher feed intake than the Z-SFP and L-SFP birds, though the H-SFP birds had higher feed conversion ratio compared with birds in the other treatments. No significant differences for body weight gain were recorded between the treatments. The M-SFP and H-SFP birds had lower plasma TC and VLDL-c concentrations than the Z-SFP and L-SFP birds. No significant differences between the treatments were indicated for plasma TG, HDL-c and LDL-c concentrations. Moreover the plasma FBS concentration of the H-SFP birds was lower than the birds in treatments Z-SFP and L-SFP, but no significant differences were observed between the other treatments. Furthermore, significant negative correlations were found between SFP supplementation and plasma TC, VLDL-c and FBS concentrations and a significant positive correlation between SFP supplementation and abdominal fat weight. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of SFP reduces the blood TC, VLDL-c and FBS concentrations, which can be related to decreased activity of HMG-CoA reductase and ?-amylase activities. The higher abdominal fat weight of the SFP-fed birds is possibly related to changes of energy storage towards fat deposition.

M., Golzadeh; P., Farhoomand; M., Daneshyar.

334

High dietary intake of saturated fat is associated with reduced semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Saturated fat intake has been associated with both cardiovascular disease and cancer risk, and a newly published study found an association between saturated fat intake and a lower sperm concentration in infertile men. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake and semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, men were recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service from 2008 to 2010. They delivered a semen sample, underwent a physical examination, and answered a questionnaire comprising a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire to assess food and nutrient intakes. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed with semen variables as outcomes and dietary fat intakes as exposure variables, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: A lower sperm concentration and total sperm count in men with a high intake of saturated fat was found. A significant dose-response association was found, and men in the highest quartile of saturated fat intake had a 38% (95% CI: 0.1%, 61%) lower sperm concentration and a 41% (95% CI: 4%, 64%) lower total sperm count than did men in the lowest quartile. No association between semen quality and intake of other types of fat was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are of potentially great public interest, because changes in diet over the past decades may be part of the explanation for the recently reported high frequency of subnormal human sperm counts. A reduction in saturated fat intake may be beneficial for both general and reproductive health.

Jensen, Tina Kold; Heitmann, Berit L

2013-01-01

335

Dietary carbohydrates and fat influence radiographic bone mineral content of growing foals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrolyzable carbohydrate intake in horse diets may become excessive when rapidly growing pastures are supplemented with grain-based concentrates. The substitution of fat and fiber for hydrolyzable carbohydrate in concentrates has been explored in exercising horses but not in young, growing horses. Our objective was to compare bone development in foals that were fed pasture and concentrates rich in sugar and starch (corn, molasses) or fat and fiber (corn oil, beet pulp, soybean hulls, oat straw). Forty foals were examined, 20 each in 1994 and 1995. In each year, 10 mares and their foals were fed a corn and molasses supplement (SS) and 10 others were fed a corn oil and fiber supplement (FF). The concentrates were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous, and mineral content was balanced to complement the pastures and meet or exceed NRC requirements. Dorsopalmar radiographs were taken of the left third metacarpal monthly from birth to weaning and then every other month until 1 yr of age. Bone density was estimated using imaging software and an aluminum stepwedge. Radiographic examination indicated differences in medial, lateral, and central bone mineral content of the metacarpal III. Bone mineral content increased with age, and a plateau was observed during winter. Bone mineral content was lower in weanlings and yearlings fed the FF supplement than in those fed SS. Subjective clinical leg evaluations indicated differences in physitis, joint effusion, and angular and flexural limb deformities in response to age, and possibly to season. Regression analysis indicated positive relationships between bone mineral content and body weight, age, and body measurements. Nutrient and chemical interactions, such as the binding of calcium by fat and fiber, may alter the availability of elements necessary for bone development. PMID:10641881

Hoffman, R M; Lawrence, L A; Kronfeld, D S; Cooper, W L; Sklan, D J; Dascanio, J J; Harris, P A

1999-12-01

336

Effects of Dietary Fat Source and Subtherapeutic Levels of Antibiotic on the Bacterial Community in the Ileum of Broiler Chickens at Various Ages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of dietary fat source (soy oil or a mixture of lard and tallow) and dietary supplementation with antibiotics (a combination of avilamycin at 10 mg kg of feed?1 and salinomycin at 40 mg kg of feed?1) on the bacterial community in the ileum of broiler chickens at different ages (7, 14, 21, and 35 days) was studied using PCR with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and bacteriological culture. The bacterial origin of fragments in DGGE profiles was identified by...

Knarreborg, Ane; Simon, Mary Alice; Engberg, Ricarda M.; Jensen, Bent Borg; Tannock, Gerald W.

2002-01-01

337

Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb Turcz on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wild rice (WR is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

Chengkai Zhai

2013-02-01

338

Effects of dietary carbohydrate replaced with wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:23434909

Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

2013-02-01

339

Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Exc...

Shufen Han; Hong Zhang; Liqiang Qin; Chengkai Zhai

2013-01-01

340

Fatty Acid Effect on Carcass The Influence of Various Blends of Dietary Fats Added to Corn-Soybean Meal Based Diets on the Fatty Acid Composition of Broilers  

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Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the fatty acid composition of the dietary fat supplement on the fatty acid composition of the adipose tissue of broilers. Samples of lard, tallow, poultry oil, and soybean oil, representative of the major source of fats and oils in poultry diets in the United States, were blended in various combinations and fed at 6.34% of the diet in corn-soybean meal broiler finisher diets fed 35 to 56 d of age. Samples of adipose tissue were subjected to...

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Importância da gordura alimentar na prevenção e no controle de distúrbios metabólicos e da doença cardiovascular / Importance of the dietary fat on the prevention and control of metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) reiterou recentemente que o consumo de dietas inadequadas e a inatividade física estão entre os dez principais fatores de mortalidade. Diversos ensaios aleatorizados demonstram que intervenções alimentares adequadas podem diminuir ou prevenir significativamente o [...] aparecimento de várias doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. Neste contexto, o papel da dieta vem sendo exaustivamente avaliado em estudos clínicos e epidemiológicos. Assim, já foi bem estabelecido na literatura que a quantidade e o tipo de gordura alimentar exercem influência direta sobre fatores de risco cardiovascular, tais como a concentração de lípides e de lipoproteínas plasmáticas, bem como sua associação a processos inflamatórios. Os ácidos graxos participam de complexos sistemas de sinalização intracelular, função que vem sendo bastante explorada. Os ácidos graxos poli-insaturados não somente influenciam a composição das membranas, metabolismo celular e sinais de tradução, mas também modulam a expressão de genes, regulando a atividade e a produção de diversos fatores de transcrição. A proposta deste artigo é rever tópicos relevantes referentes ao metabolismo de lípides e os relacionar a terapias nutricionais que possam contribuir para a prevenção e o tratamento de doenças associadas. Abstract in english The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently reinforced the fact that inadequate diets, along with physical inactivity, are among the ten main determinant factors of mortality. Several randomized trials demonstrated that dietary interventions may lower or even prevent the occurrence of several n [...] on-communicable diseases. In this context, the role of diet has been exhaustively evaluated in several clinical and epidemiological studies. Thus, it is well established in literature that the amount and type of dietary fat have a direct influence on cardiovascular risk factors, such as lipids and plasma lipoprotein concentration, as well as their association with inflammatory processes. Fatty acids also participate in complex intracellular signaling systems, a function which has been currently investigated. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) act not only by altering membrane lipid composition, cellular metabolism and signal transduction, but also modulating gene expression by regulating the activity and/or production of different nuclear transcription factors. The aim of this article is to review important topics regarding the lipids metabolism and correlate them with nutritional therapies that may contribute to the prevention and treatment of related diseases.

Ana Maria Pita, Lottenberg.

342

Comparison of serum concentration and dietary intake of alpha -Tocopherol in a sample of urban and rural Costa Rican adolescents  

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SUMMARY. Results from several studies have suggested that vitamin E intake could inhibit the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate Costa Rican adolescents’ serum alpha -tocopherol levels and their correlation with Body Mass Index (BMI) and the dietary intake of vitamin E and saturated and polyunsaturated fat. Ninety-five healthy, non-smoking adolescents and non-vitamin supplement users (aged 13-18) from urban and rural areas in San José, Cos...

Rafael Monge-Rojas; Thelma Alfaro Calvo; Hilda Nuñez Rivas

2003-01-01

343

Dietary intake of saturated fat by food source and incident cardiovascular disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis1234  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Although dietary recommendations have focused on restricting saturated fat (SF) consumption to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, evidence from prospective studies has not supported a strong link between total SF intake and CVD events. An understanding of whether food sources of SF influence these relations may provide new insights. Objective: We investigated the association of SF consumption from different food sources and the incidence of CVD events in a multiethnic population. Design: Participants who were 45–84 y old at baseline (n = 5209) were followed from 2000 to 2010. Diet was assessed by using a 120-item food-frequency questionnaire. CVD incidence (316 cases) was assessed during follow-up visits. Results: After adjustment for demographics, lifestyle, and dietary confounders, a higher intake of dairy SF was associated with lower CVD risk [HR (95% CI) for +5 g/d and +5% of energy from dairy SF: 0.79 (0.68, 0.92) and 0.62 (0.47, 0.82), respectively]. In contrast, a higher intake of meat SF was associated with greater CVD risk [HR (95% CI) for +5 g/d and a +5% of energy from meat SF: 1.26 (1.02, 1.54) and 1.48 (0.98, 2.23), respectively]. The substitution of 2% of energy from meat SF with energy from dairy SF was associated with a 25% lower CVD risk [HR (95% CI): 0.75 (0.63, 0.91)]. No associations were observed between plant or butter SF and CVD risk, but ranges of intakes were narrow. Conclusion: Associations of SF with health may depend on food-specific fatty acids or other nutrient constituents in foods that contain SF, in addition to SF.

de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kromhout, Daan; Bertoni, Alain G; Sibley, Christopher T; Jacobs, David R; Nettleton, Jennifer A

2012-01-01

344

Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE': study protocol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Methods/Design Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2 will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-?, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF, IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. Discussion While clinical data indicate that excess weight for height is associated with poor prognosis for long term survival, little attention is paid to weight control in the clinical management of breast cancer. This study will provide information that can be used to answer important patient questions about the effects of dietary pattern and magnitude of weight loss on long term survival following breast cancer treatment. Clinical Trial Registration CA125243

Daeninck Elizabeth A

2011-07-01

345

Dietary intake of total marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid and the risk of acute coronary syndrome - a cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dietary intake of marine n-3 PUFA has been negatively associated with the risk of CHD among subjects with known CHD, whereas an effect in healthy subjects is less documented. We assessed the hypothesis that dietary intake of marine n-3 PUFA is negatively associated with the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in healthy subjects. In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study, 57 053 participants were enrolled. Dietary intake of total n-3 PUFA, including EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and DHA, was assessed. During a mean follow-up period of 7.6 years, we identified all cases (n 1150) from this cohort with an incident ACS diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Registry or the Cause of Death Registry. Diagnoses were verified through medical record review. In Cox proportional hazard models, we adjusted for established risk factors for CHD. Men in the four highest quintiles of n-3 PUFA intake (>0.39 g n-3 PUFA per d) had a lower incidence of ACS compared with men in the lowest quintile. The hazard ratiowas 0.83 (95 % CI 0.67, 1.03) when we compared men in the second lowest and lowest quintile of n-3 PUFA intake. Higher intake of n-3 PUFA did not strengthen this association. Associations for EPA, DPA and DHA were all negative, but less consistent. No convincing associations were found among women. In conclusion, we found borderline significant negative associations between the intake of marine n-3 PUFA and ACS among healthy men.

Joensen, Albert M; Schmidt, Erik B

2010-01-01

346

Dietary phospholipids are more efficient than neutral lipids for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supply in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax larval development  

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We evaluated the effects of dietary lipid class (phospholipid vs. neutral lipid) and level of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) on the growth, digestive enzymatic activity, and histological organization of the intestine and liver in European sea bass larvae. Fish were fed from the onset of exogenous feeding at 7 to 37 d post-hatch with five isoproteic and isolipidic compound diets with different levels of EPA and DHA. Diet names indicated the percentage of EPA and DHA contained in the phospholipi...

Gisbert, Enric; Villeneuve, Laure; Zambonino, Jose-luis; Quazuguel, Patrick; Cahu, Chantal

2005-01-01

347

Fitting in but getting fat: identity threat and dietary choices among U.S. immigrant groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

In two experiments, we tested the hypothesis that pressure felt by U.S. immigrant groups to prove they belong in America causes them to consume more prototypically American, and consequently less healthy, foods. Asian Americans were three times more likely to report a prototypically American food as their favorite after being asked whether they spoke English than when they had not been asked; in contrast, questioning the English abilities of White Americans had no effect on their reports (Experiment 1). Also, Asian Americans ordered and ate dishes that were more American and contained an average of 182 additional calories and 12 extra grams of fat when their American identity was directly challenged than when their American identity was not challenged (Experiment 2). Identity-based psychological processes may help explain why the diets of U.S. immigrant groups tend to decline in nutritional value with longer residence in the United States and over generations. PMID:21653909

Guendelman, Maya D; Cheryan, Sapna; Monin, Benoît

2011-07-01

348

High fat diet affects reproductive functions in female diet-induced obese and dietary resistant rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of ovulatory disorders is common in obese animal models. The mechanism behind this effect is unclear. We hypothesised that a high-fat (HF) diet induces alterations in neuroendocrine mechanisms resulting in anovulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) animals. Adult female DIO and diet-resistant (DR) rats were fed either chow or a HF diet (45% calories from fat) for 6 weeks. Oestrous cyclicity and body weight were monitored regularly. At the end of treatment, rats were implanted with a jugular catheter to monitor luteinising hormone (LH) levels on the day of pro-oestrous. Rats were sacrificed on the next pro-oestrous, and their brains and ovaries were collected. Plasma from trunk blood was analysed for oestradiol and leptin concentrations. Ovaries were fixed and sectioned for histological analysis. Brains were removed, frozen and sectioned, and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations in discrete hypothalamic areas were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. A HF diet exposure affected oestrous cyclicity in both DIO and DR rats, with the effect being more pronounced in DIO animals. HF diet exposure increased leptin levels in both DIO and DR rats. Oestradiol levels were low in the DIO-HF group. NE levels in the hypothalamus were unaffected by HF diet or genotype. A normal LH surge was observed in DR-Chow rats and LH levels were low in the remaining groups. These results lead to the conclusion that DIO rats have an inherently reduced reproductive capacity and exposure to a HF diet decreases it further. A reduction in oestradiol and LH surge levels could contribute to this effect; however, the underlying mechanisms need to be investigated further. PMID:22192683

Balasubramanian, P; Jagannathan, L; Mahaley, Rochell E; Subramanian, M; Gilbreath, E T; Mohankumar, P S; Mohankumar, S M J

2012-05-01

349

The interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp in modulating lifespan and reproduction in a Tephritid fruit fly  

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Macronutrient balance is a critical contributor in modulating lifespan and health. Consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables provides numerous health benefits. The interactions among macronutrients and botanicals and how they influence aging and health remain elusive. Here we employed a nutritional geometry approach to investigate the interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and antioxidant- and polyphenolic-rich freeze-dried açai pulp in modulating lifespan and reproductive outp...

Liedo, Pablo; Carey, James R.; Ingram, Donald K.; Zou, Sige

2012-01-01

350

Induction of gene pattern changes associated with dysfunctional lipid metabolism induced by dietary fat and exposure to a persistent organic pollutant  

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Environmental modulators of chronic diseases can include nutrition, lifestyle, as well as exposure to environmental toxicants such as persistent organic pollutants. A study was designed to explore gene expression changes as affected by both dietary fat and exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl PCB77. Mice were fed for four months diets enriched with high linoleic acid oils (20 and 40% as calories), and during the last two months half of each group was exposed to PCB77. Ribonucleic acids (R...

2009-01-01

351

Methane emission and community composition patterns of rumen bacteria and methanogens in Holstein dairy cows as affected by silage type and dietary fat  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Silage type and dietary fat supplementation can affect enteric methane (CH4) emissions from dairy cows. However, the impact of dietary interventions on the rumen microbiota is still not fully understood. The present study used six rumen cannulated Holstein cows (6x4 incomplete Latin Square) to investigate effects of silages with different methanogenic potential (early grass, late grass, and maize) combined with a CH4-reducing feed additive (crushed rapeseed) on bacterial and methanogenic communities in the rumen. Bacterial and methanogenic community patterns were evaluated by T-RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA and methyl co-enzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes, respectively. Methanogen abundances were evaluated by qPCR using two mcrA-targeting primer sets. Silage type significantly affected CH4 emissions and rumen acetate:propionate ratios, being highest for late grass and lowest for maize. Dietary fat significantly reduced the gross energy lost as CH4 regardless of silage type. Silage type significantly affected the bacterial community composition pattern; the grass silages favored potential hemicellulose- and cellulose-degrading bacteria, while the maize silage mainly favored potentially starch-degrading bacteria. The silages also significantly affected the methanogenic community composition pattern as indicated by the relative abundances of T-RFs representing methylotrophic and H2/CO2-dependent methanogens. In contrast, fat supplementation had only little effect on the community composition patterns of bacteria and methanogens. Total methanogen abundance was not affected by dietary manipulations, indicating that shifts occurred within the methanogen community without affecting its overall size. The current study illustrates that the bacterial and methanogenic communities in the rumen are susceptible to manipulation through dietary interventions.

Poulsen, Morten; Højberg, Ole

352

The effect of a moderate zinc deficiency and dietary fat source on the activity and expression of the ?(3)? (2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase in the liver of growing rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Auxiliary enzymes participate in ?-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of a moderate zinc deficiency and a high intake of polyunsaturated fat on ?(3)?(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase (ECI) in the liver and other tissues. Five groups of eight weanling rats each were fed moderately zinc-deficient (ZD) or zinc-adequate (ZA) semisynthetic diets (7 or 50 mg Zn/kg) enriched with 22 % cocoa butter (CB) or 22 % safflower oil (SO) for 4 weeks: (1) ZD-CB, fed free choice; (2) ZA-CBR, ZA-CB diet fed in equivalent amounts consumed by the ZD-CB group; (3) ZD-SO, fed free choice; (4) ZA-SOR, ZA-SO diet fed in equivalent amounts consumed by the ZD-SO group; and (5) ZA-SO, fed free choice. Growth and Zn status markers were markedly reduced in the ZD groups. ECI activity in the liver of the animals fed the ZD- and ZA-SO diets were significantly higher (approximately 2- and 3-fold, respectively) as compared with the CB-fed animals, whereas activities in extrahepatic tissues (kidneys, heart, skeletal muscle, testes, adipose tissue) were not altered by dietary treatments. Transcript levels of the mitochondrial Eci gene in the liver did not significantly differ between ZD and ZA rats, but were 1.6-fold higher in the ZA-SO- than in the ZD-CB-fed animals (P?safflower oil as a source high in linoleic acid induce markedly increased hepatic ECI activities and that a moderate Zn deficiency does not affect transcription of the mitochondrial Eci gene in the liver. PMID:24682920

Justus, Jennifer; Weigand, Edgar

2014-06-01

353

Effect of reducing dietary protein and lysine on growth performance, carcass characteristics, intramuscular fat, and fatty acid profile of finishing barrows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intramuscular fat is an important quality trait in pork. Lysine and protein have been reported to influence this trait, but most studies have modified both factors simultaneously. In this study, the effects of dietary Lys and protein were investigated in finishing pigs to determine if either of the 2 factors alone or in combination influence the deposition of intramuscular fat. One hundred and four barrows (Landrace × Duroc) were fed 1 of 4 experimental diets, including control protein-control Lys (CPCL), control protein-low Lys (CPLL), low protein-control Lys (LPCL), and low protein-low Lys diets (LPLL) with 10 pens per treatment and 2 or 3 pigs per pen. Pigs fed CPLL showed a trend to decrease feed efficiency (P MUFA (P MUFA in the longissimus thoracis was less pronounced. A reduction of n-3 FA (P < 0.05) and PUFA (P < 0.01) in the semimembranosus muscle and in the liver, respectively, was observed when the level of dietary protein was reduced. These results indicate that the effect of a reduction of dietary protein and Lys on growth and intramuscular fat is not independent, and reduction of protein, while maintaining Lys, may improve meat quality without impairing performance. PMID:24352966

Tous, N; Lizardo, R; Vilà, B; Gispert, M; Font-I-Furnols, M; Esteve-Garcia, E

2014-01-01

354

Ingestão de lipídios na dieta e indicadores antropométricos de adiposidade em policiais militares Dietary fats and measures of adiposity in military policemen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar se há relação entre a ingestão de lipídios e os indicadores antropométricos de adiposidade em policiais militares do Município de Cascavel, (PR. MÉTODOS: A amostra constituiu-se de 183 policiais militares do sexo masculino do 6º Batalhão da Polícia Militar de Cascavel (PR, com idade entre 21 e 50 anos. Avaliou-se o peso, a estatura, o índice de massa corporal, a circunferência abdominal e a ingestão alimentar, por meio do recordatório de 24horas. Relacionaram-se os resultados de ingestão de lipídios da dieta com os indicadores antropométricos índice de massa corporal, circunferência abdominal e percentual de gordura corporal. RESULTADOS: O diagnóstico nutricional mais freqüente em 117 (63,9% dos policiais, segundo o índice de massa corporal, foi de sobrepeso e obesidade; 22 (12,0% apresentaram risco elevado para complicações metabólicas associadas à obesidade pelo indicador circunferência abdominal e 26 (18,6% elevado percentual de gordura corporal. A ingestão de lipídios se mostrou aumentada em 53 (70,7% dos 75 inquéritos validados, no entanto apenas 24 (32,0% ingeriam lipídios saturados acima da recomendação. Houve correlação positiva apenas entre a ingestão de lipídios totais e o indicador antropométrico de adiposidade circunferência abdominal (p=0,03. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo sugere que a ingestão de lipídios acima das recomendações pode ser um fator relacionado à adiposidade abdominal na população estudada.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is any relationship between dietary fats and measures of adiposity in military policemen from Cascavel (PR, Brazil. METHODS: The study evaluated 183 male military policemen from the 6th. Military Police Force of Cascavel (PR, aged from 21 to 50 years. Weight, height, body mass index and waist circumference were measured and food intake was determined by the 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary fats were related with the anthropometric indicators body mass index, waist circumference and percentage of body fat. RESULTS: The most common nutritional diagnoses found in 117 (63.9% of the policemen were overweight and obesity. Waist circumference showed that 22 (12.0% of these men were at high risk of metabolic complications associated with obesity and 26 (18.6% had high body fat percentiles. Fat intake was high in 53 (70.7% of the 75 validated surveys, however, only 24 (32.0% ingested saturated fats above the recommended levels. There was a positive correlation only between total fat intake and the anthropometric indicator waist circumference (p=0.03. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that fat intake above the recommended levels may be associated with abdominal adiposity in this population.

Cristina Donadussi

2009-12-01

355

DNBS/TNBS colitis models: providing insights into inflammatory bowel disease and effects of dietary fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), including Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, have long been associated with a genetic basis, and more recently host immune responses to microbial and environmental agents. Dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis allows one to study the pathogenesis of IBD associated environmental triggers such as stress and diet, the effects of potential therapies, and the mechanisms underlying intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury. In this paper, we investigated the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the colonic mucosal inflammatory response to DNBS-induced colitis in rats. All rats were fed identical diets with the exception of different types of fatty acids [safflower oil (SO), canola oil (CO), or fish oil (FO)] for three weeks prior to exposure to intrarectal DNBS. Control rats given intrarectal ethanol continued gaining weight over the 5 day study, whereas, DNBS-treated rats fed lipid diets all lost weight with FO and CO fed rats demonstrating significant weight loss by 48 hr and rats fed SO by 72 hr. Weight gain resumed after 72 hr post DNBS, and by 5 days post DNBS, the FO group had a higher body weight than SO or CO groups. Colonic sections collected 5 days post DNBS-treatment showed focal ulceration, crypt destruction, goblet cell depletion, and mucosal infiltration of both acute and chronic inflammatory cells that differed in severity among diet groups. The SO fed group showed the most severe damage followed by the CO, and FO fed groups that showed the mildest degree of tissue injury. Similarly, colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, a marker of neutrophil activity was significantly higher in SO followed by CO fed rats, with FO fed rats having significantly lower MPO activity. These results demonstrate the use of DNBS-induced colitis, as outlined in this protocol, to determine the impact of diet in the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:24637969

Morampudi, Vijay; Bhinder, Ganive; Wu, Xiujuan; Dai, Chuanbin; Sham, Ho Pan; Vallance, Bruce A; Jacobson, Kevan

2014-01-01

356

Fat deposition and flesh quality in seawater reared, triploid brown trout (Salmo trutta) as affected by dietary fat levels and starvation  

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Three isoproteic (crude protein content: 56%) diets with different fat levels (11%, 20%, and 26%) were fed to triplicate groups of triploid brown trout (initial average body weight of 1.5 kg), reared in seawater. At the end of 3 months of feeding, fish fed the high-fat (HF) diet were split into two groups: a triplicate group of fish received the low-fat diet and another triplicate group was kept unfed for a further 2-month period. Fish initially fed the low-fat diet during the first period we...

Regost, Christelle; Arzel, Jacqueline; Cardinal, Mireille; Laroche, M.; Kaushik, Sadasivam

2001-01-01

357

Effect of Dietary Supplementation by Irradiated Full-Fat Rapeseed on Biochemical Changes in Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Supplementation of 230 gk1 of raw and irradiated full-fat rapeseed at 20 kGy in the food of male albino rats for ten weeks of age, caused significantly lower total plasma protein concentration as compared with those fed control diet, heated seeds and seeds irradiated at 50 and 70 kGy diets. On the other hand, the highest total plasma protein value was obtained from the control group flowed in descending order by heated and seeds irradiated at 70 kGy, and 50 kGy. Plasma albumin decreased significantly in rats fed either raw or rapeseed irradiated at 20 and 50 kGy as compared with rats fed control diet, heated or irradiated rapeseed at 70 kGy diets. The same result was observed with plasma globulin and A/G ratio. Supplementing the diet of rats with raw and irradiated rapeseed at 20 and 50 kGy caused significantly higher plasma transaminases activities (GOT and GPT) as compared with those fed control diet, heated or rapeseed irradiated at 70 kGy. However, rats fed raw and rapeseed irradiated at 20 kGy caused a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase as compared with those fed control diet, heated or irradiated seeds at 50 or 70 kGy diets. Moreover, there was no significant discrepancy between groups fed heated seed and seeds irradiated at 50 or 70 kGy as compared with those fed control diets. Level of plasma creatinine was significantly higher in groups of rats fed row and irradiated seeds at 20 kGy as compared with those fed heat processed and irradiated seeds at 50 kGy and 70 kGy and control diets. The results confirm that the applied radiation doses are insufficient enough to bring a complete detoxification of processed seeds. Increasing the applied radiation doses might be be beneficial in this respect

2000-01-01

358

Changes in fatty acid concentrations in tissues of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus Burchell, as a consequence of dietary carnitine, fat and lysine supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was undertaken to examine the effect of different dietary carnitine (200 and 1000 mg/kg diet) and fat (90 and 190 g/kg diet) supplementation on growth and fatty acid concentrations of fish fed either with a low- (13 g/kg) or a high-lysine (21 g/kg) diet. African catfish (22.7 g/fish), Clarias gariepinus Burchell, juveniles were stocked (sixteen aquaria, twenty-five fish per aquarium) and fed for a maximum of 74 d. Dietary lysine had a clear effect on growth performance and feed conversion ratios, but dietary carnitine supplements had no effect. High-carnitine supplements increased total carnitine content (P<0.0004) and reduced tissue free carnitine: acyl-carnitine ratio (P<0.05) compared with low-carnitine supplements. High-fat supplements decreased liver carnitine concentrations. Clear effects on liver fatty acid concentrations were observed in high-carnitine-fed fish compared with low-carnitine-fed fish. The primary liver fatty acids affected were n-6 (linoleic acid), n-3 (eicosapentanoic acid) and n-3 (docosahexanoic acid). The whole-body fatty acid balance suggested that n-3 disappeared (apparently by beta-oxidation) more readily than n-6 and/or n-3. From 774 mg n-3 eaten by high-lysine-high-fat-low-carnitine fish, 58 % was not assimilated into body tissues. High-carnitine-fed fish showed an increase in n-3 oxidation by 7 % compared with low-carnitine fish. Although dietary carnitine did not improve body growth, these results support the hypothesis that carnitine can enhance the mobilisation of long-chain fatty acids towards oxidation. PMID:11737961

Ozório, R O; Uktoseja, J L; Huisman, E A; Verreth, J A

2001-11-01

359

Effectiveness and tolerability of dietary supplementation with a combination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants in the treatment of dry eye symptoms: results of a prospective study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Andrea OleñikOn behalf of the Dry Eye Clinical Study Group (DECSGOphthalmology Department, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, SpainBackground: We assessed the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement based on the combination of omega-3 essential fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye-related symptoms.Methods: A total of 905 patients (72% women, median age 60 years with dry eye syndrome and using artificial tears to relieve symptoms participated in an open-label prospective intervention study. They were recruited during a routine ophthalmological appointment. Patients were instructed to take three capsules/day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudysec® 1.5 g for 12 weeks. Dry eye symptoms (categorized as 0, none; 1, mild; 2, moderate; and 3, severe included scratchy and stinging sensation in the eyes, eye redness, grittiness, painful eyes, tired eyes, grating sensation, and blurry vision.Results: The mean intensity of dry eye symptoms varied from 1.1 (± standard deviation [SD] 0.9 for painful eyes to 2.0 (0.9 for grittiness, with a mean value of 11.9 (4.8 for all symptoms together. At week 12, all individual symptoms improved significantly (P<0.001. The mean value for all symptoms together decreased from a mean value of 11.9 (± SD 4.8 at baseline to 6.8 (± SD 4.5 after 12 weeks of treatment (P<0.001. There was a decrease in the percentage of patients in which dry eye symptoms predominated nearly all the time (53.5% versus 34.1%. A total of 68.1% of patients reported better tolerance to contact lenses after treatment. The mean number of daily instillations of artificial tears also decreased significantly (3.8 [± SD 1.6] versus 3.3 [± SD 1.6], P<0.001. A total of 634 patients (70.1% did not report any adverse events. In the remaining patients with adverse events, the most frequent was fish-tasting regurgitation in 13.5% of cases, followed by nausea in 4.9%, diarrhea in 1.3%, and vomiting in 0.3%.Conclusion: Dietary supplementation with a combination of omega-3 essential fatty acids and antioxidants was an effective treatment for dry eye.Keywords: antioxidants, Brudysec 1.5 g, dry eye symptoms, nutraceutics, omega-3, polyunsaturated fatty acids

Oleñik A

2014-01-01

360

Dietary intake and cardiometabolic risk in ethnically diverse urban schoolchildren.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary factors vary widely among ethnic groups. However, the effect of specific nutrients on cardiometabolic risk is not well understood, especially in children. Four dietary factors known to influence cardiometabolic risk (ie, carbohydrate, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat intake) were assessed by the Block Kids 2004 Food Frequency Questionnaire in a cross-sectional sample of racially diverse fourth- through eighth-grade students (n=148) in a Boston-area school district studied between January and April 2010. Fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and body mass index z scores were measured. Differences in dietary factors and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined among the following racial/ethnic groups: white (39%), Hispanic (32%), black (8%), Asian (10%), and multiracial/other (11%). In bivariate analyses, total, saturated, and polyunsaturated fat intakes differed by race/ethnicity (P<0.05), with white and black children reporting saturated fat intakes above the recommended level. Forty-seven percent of children had at least one suboptimal cardiometabolic risk factor. HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and IL-6 concentrations differed by race/ethnicity (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.01, respectively), with Hispanics having low HDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels, whereas Asians had high IL-6 levels. In multivariate analyses controlling for demographic characteristics, none of the dietary factors examined explained racial/ethnic differences in lipid profiles or inflammatory markers. Body mass index z score was associated with lower HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride, higher CRP, and higher IL-6 levels (P<0.0001). Further research is warranted to determine the influence of dietary recommendations at a young age among different racial/ethnic groups on cardiometabolic health. PMID:23102181

Au, Lauren E; Economos, Christina D; Goodman, Elizabeth; Houser, Robert F; Must, Aviva; Chomitz, Virginia R; Morgan, Emily H; Sacheck, Jennifer M

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
361

Effects of lowering dietary fiber before marketing on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 264 pigs (initially 41.0 kg BW) were used in a 90-d study to determine the effects of lowering dietary fiber before market on pigs fed high dietary fiber [provided by wheat middlings (midds) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)] on growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights of growing-finishing pigs. Pens of pigs were randomly allotted by initial BW and sex to 1 of 6 treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 7 or 8 pigs per pen. A positive control (corn-soybean meal-based) diet containing no DDGS or midds (9.3% NDF) and a negative control diet with 30% DDGS and 19% midds (19% NDF) were fed throughout the entire trial (d 0 to 90). The other 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with the main effects of length of fiber reduction (23 or 47 d before marketing) and fiber level fed during the reduction period (low or medium). Pigs on these treatments were fed the negative control before the reduction treatment. The medium-fiber diet contained 15% DDGS and 9.5% midds (14.2% NDF) with the low-fiber diet was the positive control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of the low-fiber diets lowered overall ADFI (linear, P = 0.03) and improved G:F (linear, P < 0.01). Lowering the fiber level for the last 23 d did not influence growth performance; however, lowering the fiber level improved carcass yield (P = 0.002), with a greater response (P < 0.001) when the low-fiber diet was fed for 23 d. Jowl fat iodine value (IV) decreased when the longer lower fiber diets were fed (linear, P < 0.01) and was lower (P < 0.001) for pigs fed the low-fiber diet during the fiber reduction period than pigs fed the medium-fiber diet during the same time period; however, increasing the time lower fiber diets were fed from 23 to 47 d further reduced (P < 0.01) jowl IV. Increasing the duration that the control diet was fed by increasing the reduction time from 23 to 47 d increased (P < 0.01) backfat depth. Reducing the fiber level decreased full large intestine weight (linear, P = 0.005) with a greater response (P = 0.04) when the low-fiber diet was fed during the reduction period instead of the medium-fiber diet. In summary, lowering the fiber level before marketing can improve G:F, carcass yield, carcass IV, and reduce large intestine weight; however, the optimal duration of the fiber reduction period depends on the targeted response criteria. PMID:24352953

Asmus, M D; Derouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Houser, T A; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D

2014-01-01

362

Effect of high-fat diets on body composition, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and the role of exercise on these parameters  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Dietary fat composition can interfere in the development of obesity due to the specific roles of some fatty acids that have different metabolic activities, which can alter both fat oxidation and deposition rates, resulting in changes in body weight and/or composition. High-fat diets in general are a [...] ssociated with hyperphagia, but the type of dietary fat seems to be more important since saturated fats are linked to a positive fat balance and omental adipose tissue accumulation when compared to other types of fat, while polyunsaturated fats, omega-3 and omega-6, seem to increase energy expenditure and decrease energy intake by specific mechanisms involving hormone-sensitive lipase, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and others. Saturated fat intake can also impair insulin sensitivity compared to omega-3 fat, which has the opposite effect due to alterations in cell membranes. Obesity is also associated with impaired mitochondrial function. Fat excess favors the production of malonyl-CoA, which reduces GLUT4 efficiency. The tricarboxylic acid cycle and beta-oxidation are temporarily uncoupled, forming metabolite byproducts that augment reactive oxygen species production. Exercise can restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity, which may be crucial for a better prognosis in treating or preventing obesity.

D.F., Coelho; L.O., Pereira-Lancha; D.S., Chaves; D., Diwan; R., Ferraz; P.L., Campos-Ferraz; J.R., Poortmans; A.H., Lancha Junior.

363

Extrinsic and intrinsic regulation of DOR/TP53INP2 expression in mice: effects of dietary fat content, tissue type and sex in adipose and muscle tissues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background DOR/TP53INP2 acts both at the chromosomal level as a nuclear co-factor e.g. for the thyroid hormone receptor and at the extrachromosomal level as an organizing factor of the autophagosome. In a previous study, DOR was shown to be down-regulated in skeletal muscle of obese diabetic Zucker fa/fa rats. Methods To identify sites of differential DOR expression in metabolically active tissues, we measured differences in DOR expression in white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT, skeletal muscle (SM and heart muscle (HM by qPCR. To assess whether DOR expression is influenced in the short term by nutritional factors, NMRI mice were fed different fat rich diets (fat diet, FD: 18% or high fat diet, HFD: 80% fat for one week and DOR expression was compared to NMRI mice fed a control diet (normal diet, ND: 3.3% fat. Additionally, DOR expression was measured in young (45?days old and adult (100?days old genetically obese (DU6/DU6i mice and compared to control (DUKs/DUKsi animals. Results ANOVA results demonstrate a significant influence of diet, tissue type and sex on DOR expression in adipose and muscle tissues of FD and HFD mice. In SM, DOR expression was higher in HFD than in FD male mice. In WAT, DOR expression was increased compared to BAT in male FD and HFD mice. In contrast, expression levels in female mice were higher in BAT for both dietary conditions. DOR expression levels in all tissues of 100?days old genetically obese animals were mainly influenced by sex. In HM, DOR expression was higher in male than female animals. Conclusions DOR expression varies under the influence of dietary fat content, tissue type and sex. We identified target tissues for further studies to analyze the specific function of DOR in obesity. DOR might be part of a defense mechanism against fat storage in high fat diets or obesity.

Fromm-Dornieden Carolin

2012-09-01

364

Changes induced by dietary energy intake and divergent selection for muscle fat content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, assessed by transcriptome and proteome analysis of the liver  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing interest is turned to fat storage levels and allocation within body compartments, due to their impact on human health and quality properties of farm animals. Energy intake and genetic background are major determinants of fattening in most animals, including humans. Previous studies have evidenced that fat deposition depends upon balance between various metabolic pathways. Using divergent selection, we obtained rainbow trout with differences in fat allocation between visceral adipose tissue and muscle, and no change in overall body fat content. Transcriptome and proteome analysis were applied to characterize the molecular changes occurring between these two lines when fed a low or a high energy diet. We focused on the liver, center of intermediary metabolism and the main site for lipogenesis in fish, as in humans and most avian species. Results The proteome and transcriptome analyses provided concordant results. The main changes induced by the dietary treatment were observed in lipid metabolism. The level of transcripts and proteins involved in intracellular lipid transport, fatty acid biosynthesis and anti-oxidant metabolism were lower with the lipid rich diet. In addition, genes and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis were also under expressed with this diet. The major changes related to the selection effect were observed in levels of transcripts and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis that were higher in the fat muscle line than in the lean muscle line. Conclusion The present study led to the identification of novel genes and proteins that responded to long term feeding with a high energy/high fat diet. Although muscle was the direct target, the selection procedure applied significantly affected hepatic metabolism, particularly protein and amino acid derivative metabolism. Interestingly, the selection procedure and the dietary treatment used to increase muscle fat content exerted opposite effects on the expression of the liver genes and proteins, with little interaction between the two factors. Some of the molecules we identified could be used as markers to prevent excess muscle fat accumulation.

Lefèvre Florence

2008-10-01

365

Effects of dietary cholesterol and fat on serum non-cholesterol sterols according to different apolipoprotein E subgroups among healthy men.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of apo E phenotypes on applicability of relative cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol:cholesterol) and absorption (ratios of cholestanol, campesterol and sitosterol to cholesterol) during diets of various cholesterol and fat content is unclear. We examined and compared with each other both relative and absolute synthesis and absorption among twenty-nine men, of whom eight, nine and twelve had apo E phenotypes 2 (2/2, 2/3, 2/4), 3 (3/3) and 4 (3/4, 4/4), respectively. Serum lipids, lipoproteins, sterols and cholesterol metabolism were examined on four subsequent diets: high-cholesterol high-fat (home diet; HD), low-cholesterol low-fat (LCLF), high-cholesterol low-fat (HCLF) and low-cholesterol high-fat (LCHF). LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) level was about 40 % lower (P < 0.05) in apo E2 than apo E3 and E4 groups irrespective of dietary fat and cholesterol. Serum proportions of phytosterols were determined apo E-dependently on LCLF and HCLF, and those of lathosterol, cholestanol and campesterol were increased in apo E2 and E3 groups (P < 0.05 for each v. HD). Serum proportion of sitosterol reflected almost consistently apo E phenotype (r range+0.308 to+0.383; P range 0.214-0.011). Relative cholesterol synthesis and absorption reflected respective absolute values during each diet in the apo E4 group (r range+0.713 to+0.893; P < 0.05 for each), but only during HD (r+0.594; P = 0.015) in the apo E2+E3 group. The consumption of a high amount of fat did not interfere with cholesterol metabolism or serum levels of LDL-C differently in apo E phenotypes. Surrogate sterol markers of cholesterol metabolism reflected absolute ones (especially in the apo E4 group) and apo E phenotypes despite variable amounts of dietary cholesterol and fat. PMID:18279555

Nissinen, Markku J; Gylling, Helena; Miettinen, Tatu A

2008-08-01

366

Alternating dietary fat sources for growing-finishing pigs fed dried distillers grains with solubles: I. Growth performance, pork carcass characteristics, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat depots.  

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Crossbred pigs (n = 216) were used to test the effects of phase-feeding beef tallow (BT) and yellow grease (YGr) on live performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous (s.c.) fat depots of growing-finishing swine. Pigs were blocked by initial BW (26.0 ± 5.3 kg) before allotment to pens (6 pigs/pen), and pens (6 pens/block) were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments: 1) corn-soybean meal-based grower and finisher diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during all 5 feeding phases (YG15), 2) corn-soybean meal-based diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during all 5 phases (BT15), 3) diets containing 5.0% BT fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 4.7% YGr fed the last 3 phases (YG345), 4) diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during first 3 phases and diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the last 2 phases (YG45), 5) diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the first 3 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 2 feeding phases (BT45), or 6) diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 3 phases (BT345). Overall performance was similar (P ? 0.06) among dietary treatments; however, overall ADG and ADFI increased (quadratic, P ? 0.05) with increasing days fed BT, but duration of dietary YGr did not affect ADG (P ? 0.22) or ADFI (P ? 0.30). There was no (P ? 0.23) effect of fat inclusion on carcass characteristics, but carcass lean yield decreased (linear, P = 0.02) as duration of YGr feeding increased from 37 to 103 d. Proportions of back fat SFA (quadratic, P = 0.03) and jowl fat MUFA (linear, P = 0.02) increased as the time fed BT increased from 47 to 103 d. Conversely, PUFA content of both s.c. fat depots increased (linear, P BT and YGr durations, indicating that the percentages of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 increased at a greater rate with increasing time fed YGr than the rate of decreases in 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 associated with increasing time fed BT. Results of this study confirm that the fatty acid composition of s.c. fat depots are similar to that of the dietary fat source fed during the last 2 or 3 feeding phases, yet deposition rates of specific fatty acids appear to be dependent on the length of time pigs are fed a specific fat source. PMID:23296820

Browne, N A; Apple, J K; Bass, B E; Maxwell, C V; Yancey, J W S; Johnson, T M; Galloway, D L

2013-03-01

367

The nutritive value of dietary fats in relation to their chemical composition. Apparent fat availability and metabolizable energy in two-week-old chicks.  

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Broiler chicks at 2 wk of age were fed the following fats and oils at 4% in a corn-wheat-soybean basal diet: palm oil (PO); tallow (T1 and T2); tallow + soybean oil (50:50, TSO); tallow+acidulated soybean oil soapstock (50:50, TASO); soybean oil (SO); and linseed oil (LO). All of these, with the exception of T1, contained 5% soybean lecithin. The apparent fat availability (AFA) and AME of added fats ranged from 78.8 to 96.0% and from 7.32 to 8.95 kcal/g, respectively. Three fat sources (TSO, SO, and LO) resulted in the highest values for these two measurements, whereas PO, T1, T2, and TASO showed the lowest values. There was no difference for AME of diets among fat-supplemented treatments, regardless of the difference in the nutritive values of the fats and oils tested. The apparent availability of each fatty acid (AAFA) for C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 was calculated from the analysis of the diets and excreta collected over a 4-d period. The results of the present study indicated that 2-wk-old chicks utilize TSO, SO, and LO more efficiently than PO, T1, T2, and TASO. PMID:7479513

Blanch, A; Barroeta, A C; Baucells, M D; Puchal, F

1995-08-01

368

Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

Sugawara Kazuo

2001-10-01

369

Comparison of Dietary Control and Atorvastatin on High Fat Diet Induced Hepatic Steatosis and Hyperlipidemia in Rats  

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Abstract Background Treatment with atorvastatin (ATO) or dietary control has been demonstrated to benefit patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hyperlipidemia. However, little is known on whether combination of dietary control and ATO treatment could enhance the therapeutic effect. Methods We employed a rat model of NAFLD to examine the therapeutic efficacy of dietary control and/or ATO treatment. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with normal ch...

Ji Guiyuan; Zhao Xihong; Leng Liang; Liu Peiyi; Jiang Zhuoqin

2011-01-01

370

Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.  

Science.gov (United States)

A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries. PMID:24672198

Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

2014-01-01

371

Beneficial effect of dietary Ephedra sinica on obesity and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice  

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Obesity is a major contributor to both glucose intolerance and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of Ephedra sinica on high-fat diet-fed mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups; the normal group, the obese and diabetic control group treated with a high-fat diet, the positive control group treated with a high-fat diet containing acarbose, and the experimental group treated with a high-fat diet containing Ephedra sinica. ...

Song, Moon-koo; Um, Jae-young; Jang, Hyeung-jin; Lee, Byung-cheol

2012-01-01

372