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Sample records for dietary polyunsaturated fat

  1. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Disease Control and Prevention. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Polyunsaturated Fats and Monounsaturated ...

  2. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood clotting, and your immune system response. Linolenic fatty acids are a special type of fat called Omega-3 fats which are known to have many health benefits. Good Sources of Polyunsaturated Fat Include: Canola Oil ...

  3. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne-Sofie Q; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity-related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only ?-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures. No significant interactions with the dietary macronutrient composition were observed. Pro-inflammatory cytokineswere not associated with absolute PUFA intake, but the macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) was associated with the n-3/n-6 ratio. CONCLUSION: In humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs, in particular ALA, is beneficially associated with body fatness. The favourable association is, however, not reflected in systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nor is it influenced by macronutrients in the diet.

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2010-01-01

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children

  5. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  6. Increasing polyunsaturation of milk fats by feeding formaldehyde protected sunflower-soybean supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenn, T R; Weyant, J R; Wood, D L; Bitman, J; Rawlings, R M; Lyon, K E

    1976-04-01

    A practical means of protecting fats of a feed concentrate containing high polyunsaturated fatty acids is described. A ground mixture of 30% soybeans and 70% sunflower seeds was treated with 1% formaldehyde to protect the unsaturated lipids from microbial hydrogenation in the rumen. This was fed as a supplement to two Holstein cows in amounts that were doubled weekly. These ranged from 524 to 8384 g/day and provided successively increasing intakes of 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 g of linoleic acid daily. Percent milk fat increased by more than one, and linoleic acid (C18:2) of milk fat increased from 2.5 to 20% with compensatory declines in myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids. Cholesterol and vitamin E of plasma both doubled at the highest supplementation. Milk yield, solids-not-fat, protein and milk cholesterol were unaltered. Fat in feces doubled from about 3 to 6%. Daily linoleic acid content of feces increased from 25 g to 120 g, indicating a dietary loss of 7 to 10% of this polyunsaturated acid. These cheaper feed ingredients elevated the polyunsaturated fats in milk as effectively as the expensive purified casein and safflower oil supplements in previous experiments. PMID:944200

  7. New insights into the health effects of dietary saturated and omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    de Lorgeril Michel; Salen Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses supporting this approach. Recent studies introducing the concept of myocardial preconditioning have opened new avenues to understand the complex interplay between the various lipids and the risk of cardiov...

  8. Heterogeneity of cholesterol homeostasis in man. Response to changes in dietary fat quality and cholesterol quantity.

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, D.J.; Kolb, R; Parker, T S; Batwin, H; Samuel, P.; Brown, C.D.; Ahrens, E. H.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were carried out to examine the effects of dietary fat and cholesterol on cholesterol homeostasis in man. 75 12-wk studies were carried out during intake of 35% of calories as either saturated or polyunsaturated fat, first low and then high in dietary cholesterol. Dietary fat and cholesterol intakes, plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, cholesterol absorption and sterol synthesis in isolated blood mononuclear leukocytes were measured during each diet period. In 69% of the studies the ...

  9. Dietary fats explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body gets from your food give your body essential fatty acids called linoleic and linolenic acid. They are called " ... fats, which include safflower, sunflower, corn, and soy oil Trans fatty acids are unhealthy fats that form when vegetable oil ...

  10. The Influence of Dietary Fat on Liver Fat Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Charlotte J; Leanne Hodson

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, it has been suggested that dietary fat, both amount and composition, may play a pivotal role in its development, independent of body fatness. Studies that have investigated the role of dietary fat on liver fat accumulation are reasonably sparse. We review here the available work that has investigated the impact of dietary fat: amount, composition and frequency, on liver fat accumulation i...

  11. Effects of dietary cholesterol and fat saturation on plasma lipoproteins in an ethnically diverse population of healthy young men.

    OpenAIRE

    Fielding, C. J.; Havel, R.J.; Todd, K M; Yeo, K E; Schloetter, M C; V. Weinberg; Frost, P H

    1995-01-01

    The individual effects of dietary cholesterol and fat saturation on plasma lipoprotein concentrations were determined in an ethnically diverse population of normolipidemic young men (52 Caucasian, 32 non-Caucasian). The experimental diets contained approximately 200 or 600 mg/d of cholesterol, 36-38% of calories as fat, and high or low proportions of saturated and polyunsaturated fat (polyunsaturated/saturated fat ratio approximately 0.8 vs 0.3). At the lower cholesterol intake, the high satu...

  12. Dietary fat overload reprograms brown fat mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Tatulli, Giuseppe; Vegliante, Rolando; Cannata, Stefano M.; Bernardini, Sergio; Ciriolo, Maria R.; Aquilano, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD) at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulate health and lifespan. PMID:26483700

  13. Dietary Fat and Sports Nutrition: A Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Lowery, Lonnie M.

    2004-01-01

    The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol) choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune funct...

  14. Effect of dietary fat on intestinal inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokari, Ryota; Matsunaga, Hisayuki; Miura, Soichiro

    2013-12-01

    Dietary fat has multiple roles on human health, and some dietary fat is used to treat organic diseases because of its anti-inflammatory effect. It is commonly accepted that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is beneficial on ischemic heart disease or rheumatic arthritis. On the contrary, effect of omega-3-PUFA on Crohn's disease remained controversial. That effect of omega-3 PUFA differs according to the location of inflamed intestine was hypothesized. To elucidate this hypothesis, to investigate the role of dietary fat on disease activity in different kind of murine models of intestinal inflammatory diseases was planned. The effect of omega-3 PUFA on small intestinal Crohn's disease model and large intestinal Crohn's disease model of mice. Chronic colitis model C57BL/6 mice received two cycles of dextran sodium sulfate solution treatment to induce chronic colitis. Feeding of omega-3 fat-rich diets exacerbated colitis with decrease in adiponectin expression. Chronic small intestinal inflammation model: SAMP1/Yit mice showed remarkable inflammation of the terminal ileum spontaneously. Feeding of omega-3 fat-rich diets for 16 weeks significantly ameliorated the inflammation of the terminal ileum. Enhanced infiltration of leukocytes and expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 in intestinal mucosa was significantly decreased by omega-3 fat-rich diets treatment. Omega-3 PUFA has dual role, pro-/anti-inflammatory, on intestinal inflammatory diseases. The role of omega-3 fat and the potential for immunonutrition in inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract will be discussed. PMID:24251701

  15. Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, C.; Ross, R.P.; Fitzgerald, G.F; Patterson, E; Wall, R

    2012-01-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed “eicosanoids,” which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show str...

  16. Dietary Fat, Fat Subtypes and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Large European Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the aetiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-h diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for measurement error calibration. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) status and biomarkers of liver function were assessed separately in a nested case-control subset with available blood samples (HCC=122). In multivariable calibrated models, there was a statistically significant inverse association between total fat intake and risk of HCC (per 10 g/d, HR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.65-0.99), which was mainly driven by monounsaturated fats (per 5 g/d, HR=0.71, 95%CI: 0.55-0.92) rather than polyunsaturated fats (per 5 g/d, HR=0.92, 95%CI: 0.68-1.25). There was no association between saturated fats (HR=1.08, 95%CI: 0.88-1.34) and HCC risk. The ratio of polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fats to saturated fats was not significantly associated with HCC risk (per 0.2 point, HR=0.86, 95%CI: 0.73-1.01). Restriction of analyses to HBV/HCV free participants or adjustment for liver function did not substantially alter the findings. In this large prospective European cohort, higher consumption of monounsaturated fats is associated with lower HCC risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. How much dietary fat in therapeutic nutrition?

    OpenAIRE

    Simko, V.

    1990-01-01

    Dietary fat has a less prominent role in realimentation than the alternate source of energy, carbohydrate. Presently available therapeutic diets, in typical feeding routines, provide only 3 to 120 g of fat per day. Three major factors contribute to fat underutilization: long-standing belief that fat is to blame for various vague symptoms of indigestion, misconception that daily fecal fat in excess of 7 g represents bowel dysfunction, and fear of fat-induced atherogenesis. None of these apply ...

  18. Protein modification by advanced Maillard adducts can be modulated by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portero-Otin, M; Bellmunt, M J; Requena, J R; Pamplona, R

    2003-12-01

    Advanced Maillard adducts, such as N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine and N epsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine, can be formed efficiently in vitro from both peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and glycolysis intermediates. In an attempt to differentiate the in vivo influence of the two pathways in these modifications, Wistar rats were chronically fed with specially designed diets rich in saturated or unsaturated fats. The degree of fatty acid unsaturation of all analysed organs (liver, kidney, brain) was altered by these dietary stresses. Protein glycoxidative and lipoxidative modifications were measured by GC/MS. In accordance with fatty acid profiles, concentrations of N epsilon-(malondialdehyde)lysine in these tissues were significantly increased in animals fed the unsaturated fat diet. In contrast, N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine and N epsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine concentrations were strongly dependent on the tissue analysed; although the unsaturated fat diet increased their levels significantly in brain, levels were unchanged in kidney and decreased in liver. These later results could be interpreted on the basis that polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease the expression of several glycolytic enzymes in liver. Globally, these data suggest that tissue-specific metabolic characteristics play a key role in the degree of cellular protein modification by Maillard reactions, e.g. by modulation of the concentration of glycolysis intermediates or via specific defensive systems in these organs. PMID:14641074

  19. Dietary fat intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: results from the 24-h dietary recalls.

    OpenAIRE

    Linseisen, J; Welch, AA; Ocké, M; Amiano, P.; Agnoli, C.; Ferrari, P.; Sonestedt, E.; Chajès, V.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Kaaks, R; Weikert, C; Dorronsoro, M.; Rodríguez, L.; Ermini, I; Mattiello, A

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the dietary intake of total fat, saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and cholesterol of participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) in 27 centres across 10 countries. METHODS: Between 1995 and 2000, a stratified random sample of 36 034 participants (age range 35-74 years) completed a standardized 24-h dietary recall, assessed by means of the computer software EPIC-SOFT. Lipi...

  20. Dietary Fat in Breast Cancer Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Makarem, Nour; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.; Parekh, Niyati

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory evidence suggests a plausible role for dietary fat in breast cancer pathophysiology. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the epidemiological evidence on the impact of total dietary fat and fat subtypes, measured pre- and/or postcancer diagnosis, in relation to breast cancer–specific and all-cause mortality among breast cancer survivors. Studies were included if they were in English, had a sample size ?200, and presented the hazard ratio/rate ratio for recurrence, ...

  1. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Polyunsaturated fatty acids in human foods have been shown to have health benefits. We investigated the potential to incorporate them into rabbit meat by adding them to the diet. Good relationships between dietary fatty acids (FAs) and their content in longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of rabbits was established, especially the latter. The results should make it possible to enhance the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of rabbit meat, with benefits to the health of hu...

  2. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  3. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and Vitamin E on serum oxidative status in horses performing very light exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Prola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In sporting horses the use of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs could enhance performance because these fatty acids are very important in membrane permeability, and in particular they seem to increase the possibility of long chain fatty acids entering mythochondria to be burnt. The composition of cellular membranes and lipoprotein fatty acids com- position is strictly related to dietary fat quality; percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids and amount of antioxidants also affect tissue susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Six horses were used in a latin square design in which three homogeneous groups were subsequently assigned three dif- ferent dietary treatments for one month each: Control group (C: basic diet; Oil group (O: Basic diet + 200g/day oil rich in PUFAs (Crossential GLA TG20, Croda ®; Vitamin E group (O+E: basic diet + 200 g/day oil rich in PUFAs (Crossential GLA TG20, Croda ® + 5 g/day ?-toco- pheryl-acetate (Egon-E, Acme ®. At the end of each experimental period blood samples were taken by jugular vein puncture. Serum oxidative status was evaluated by TBARs and d-ROMs assessment. Oxidative markers showed the high- est mean values for the oil group, even if no statistically significant differences were found.

  4. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been tested for their effectiveness or safety over prolonged periods of time.

  5. Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammation: The Role of Phospholipid Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lorraine M. Sordillo; William Raphael

    2013-01-01

    The composition of fatty acids in the diets of both human and domestic animal species can regulate inflammation through the biosynthesis of potent lipid mediators. The substrates for lipid mediator biosynthesis are derived primarily from membrane phospholipids and reflect dietary fatty acid intake. Inflammation can be exacerbated with intake of certain dietary fatty acids, such as some ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and subsequent incorporation into membrane phospholipids. Inflammati...

  6. Reduction in Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids:Eicosapentaenoic Acid plus Docosahexaenoic Acid Ratio Minimizes Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation and Inflammatory Response in the LDL Receptor Null Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shu; Wu,Dayong; Nirupa R. Matthan; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Lecker, Jaime L.; LICHTENSTEIN, ALICE H.

    2008-01-01

    Dietary very long chain omega (?)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been associated with reduced CVD risk, the mechanisms of which have yet to be fully elucidated. LDL receptor null mice (LDLr-/-) were used to assess the effect of different ratios of dietary ?-6 PUFA to eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (?-6:EPA+DHA) on atherogenesis and inflammatory response. Mice were fed high saturated fat diets without EPA and DHA (HSF ?-6), or with ?-6:EPA+DHA at ratios of 20:1 (HSF...

  7. Differential metabolic effects of saturated versus polyunsaturated fats in ketogenic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrlein, Brian S; Rutenberg, Michael S; Silver, Jared N; Warren, Matthew W; Theriaque, Douglas W; Duncan, Glen E; Stacpoole, Peter W; Brantly, Mark L

    2004-04-01

    Ketogenic diets (KDs) are used for treatment of refractory epilepsy and metabolic disorders. The classic saturated fatty acid-enriched (SAT) KD has a fat:carbohydrate plus protein ratio of 4:1, in which the predominant fats are saturated. We hypothesized that a polyunsaturated fat-enriched (POLY) KD would induce a similar degree of ketosis with less detrimental effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Twenty healthy adults were randomized to two different weight-maintaining KDs for 5 d. Diets were 70% fat, 15% carbohydrate, and 15% protein. The fat contents were 60 or 15% saturated, 15 or 60% polyunsaturated, and 25% monounsaturated for SAT and POLY, respectively. Changes in serum beta-hydroxybutyrate, insulin sensitivity (S(I)), and lipid profiles were measured. Mean circulating beta-hydroxybutyrate levels increased 8.4 mg/dl in the POLY group (P = 0.0004), compared with 3.1 mg/dl in the SAT group (P = 0.07). S(I) increased significantly in the POLY group (P = 0.02), whereas total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly in the SAT group (both P = 0.002). These data demonstrate that a short-term POLY KD induces a greater level of ketosis and improves S(I), without adversely affecting total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, compared with a traditional SAT KD. Thus, a POLY KD may be superior to a classical SAT KD for chronic administration. PMID:15070924

  8. Permeabilization of enterocytes induced by absorption of dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Absorption of dietary fat in the small intestine involves epithelial exposure to potentially harmful molecules such as bile salts and free fatty acids. We used organ culture of porcine jejunal explants incubated with a pre-digested mixture of fat (plant oil), bile and pancreatin to mimick the physiological process of dietary fat absorption, and short exposures to the fat mixture caused fat droplet accumulation within villus enterocytes. Lucifer yellow (LY), a fluorescent membrane-impermeable pol...

  9. Health economic consequences of reducing salt intake and replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat in the adult Finnish population: estimates based on the FINRISK and FINDIET studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, J A; Soini, E J O; Laaksonen, D E; Niskanen, L

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To predict the health economic consequences of modest reductions in the daily intake of salt (?1.0?g per day) and replacement of saturated fat (SFA, ?1.0 energy percent (E%)) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA, +1.0 E%) in the Finnish population aged 30–74 years. Subjects/Methods: A Markov model with dynamic population structure was constructed to present the natural history of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) based on the most current information about the age- and sex-specific cardiovascular risk factors, dietary habits and nutrient intake. To predict the undiscounted future health economic consequences of the reduction of dietary salt and SFA, the model results were extrapolated for the years 2010–2030 by replacing the baseline population in the year 2007 with the extrapolated populations from the official Finnish statistics. Finnish costs (€2009, societal perspective) and EQ-5D utilities were obtained from published references. Results: During the next 20 years, a population-wide intervention directed at salt intake and dietary fat quality could potentially lead to 8000–13?000 prevented CVD cases among the Finnish adults compared the situation in year 2007. In addition, the reduced incidence of CVDs could gain 26?000–45?000 quality-adjusted life years and save €150–225 million over the same time period. Conclusion: A modest reduction of salt and replacement of SFA with PUFA in food products can significantly reduce the burden of CVD in the adult Finnish population. This impact may be even larger in the near future due to the ageing of Finnish population. PMID:21587284

  10. Effects of different dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SG Rondelli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different lipid sources (soybean oil, chicken oil or bovine fat on the abdominal fat fatty acid composition in 50 day-old broiler chickens was evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments, 8 repetitions and 40 Arbor Acres broiler chicks of each sex. The four treatments were isocaloric and isoproteic with the following characteristics: T1 Control (Soybean-corn; T2 Control + 3% soybean oil; T3 Control + 3% chicken oil; and T4 Control + 3% bovine fat. The lipids from the diets had significantly statistical effects (p<0,05 on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat. Multivariate techniques also showed differences in fatty acid composition within treatments due to sex. The studied dietary lipids affected the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S but had only small effects on the n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio.

  11. Visual evoked potentials and dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in preterm infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Faldella, G; Govoni, M.; Alessandroni, R; Marchiani, E; Salvioli, G P; Biagi, P L; Spano, C

    1996-01-01

    The influence of dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) supply, and especially of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on evoked potential maturation, was studied in 58 healthy preterm infants using flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs), flash electroretinography (ERG), and brainstem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEPs) at 52 weeks of postconceptional age. At the same time, the fatty acid composition of red blood cell membranes was examined. The infants were fed on breast milk (n = 12), a p...

  12. Saturated- and n-6 polyunsaturated-fat diets each induce ceramide accumulation in mouse skeletal muscle: reversal and improvement of glucose tolerance by lipid metabolism inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioudakis, G; Garrard, J; Raddatz, K; Nadler, J L; Mitchell, T W; Schmitz-Peiffer, C

    2010-09-01

    Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with intracellular accumulation of inhibitory intermediates depending on the prevalent fatty acid (FA) species. In cultured myotubes, ceramide and phosphatidic acid (PA) mediate the effects of the saturated FA palmitate and the unsaturated FA linoleate, respectively. We hypothesized that myriocin (MYR), an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, would protect against glucose intolerance in saturated fat-fed mice, while lisofylline (LSF), a functional inhibitor of PA synthesis, would protect unsaturated fat-fed mice. Mice were fed diets enriched in saturated fat, n-6 polyunsaturated fat, or chow for 6 wk. Saline, LSF (25 mg/kg x d), or MYR (0.3 mg/kg x d) were administered by mini-pumps in the final 4 wk. Glucose homeostasis was examined by glucose tolerance test. Muscle ceramide and PA were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Expression of LASS isoforms (ceramide synthases) was evaluated by immunoblotting. Both saturated and polyunsaturated fat diets increased muscle ceramide and induced glucose intolerance. MYR and LSF reduced ceramide levels in saturated and unsaturated fat-fed mice. Both inhibitors also improved glucose tolerance in unsaturated fat-fed mice, but only LSF was effective in saturated fat-fed mice. The discrepancy between ceramide and glucose tolerance suggests these improvements may not be related directly to changes in muscle ceramide and may involve other insulin-responsive tissues. Changes in the expression of LASS1 were, however, inversely correlated with alterations in glucose tolerance. The demonstration that LSF can ameliorate glucose intolerance in vivo independent of the dietary FA type indicates it may be a novel intervention for the treatment of insulin resistance. PMID:20660065

  13. Ruminant milk fat plasticity: nutritional control of saturated, polyunsaturated, trans and conjugated fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Chilliard, Yves; Ferlay, Anne; Mansbridge, Rosemary; Doreau, Michel

    2000-01-01

    After a brief survey of metabolic pathways and nutrient fluxes involved in mammary lipogenesis, this review summarises the known effects of diet on ruminant milk fat composition. Special attention is given to fatty acids that could play a positive role for human health, such as butyric acid, oleic acid, C18 to C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The efficiency of the transfer of C18:2, C18:3, C20:5, C22:5 and C22:6, from the duodenum to the milk, is reviewed. T...

  14. European Food Safety Authority; Outcome of the Public consultation on the Draft Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    were taken into account in the final opinion. EFSA had received contributions from 40 interested parties (individuals, non-governmental organisations, industry organisations, academia and national assessment bodies). The main comments which were received during the public consultation related to: the...... in the labelling of foods, the translation of advice into food-based dietary guidelines, nutrient goals and recommendations, certain risk management issues, and to Dietary Reference Values of fats, individual fatty acids, and cholesterol. All the public comments received that related to the remit of......On 2 July 2009, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) endorsed a draft Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats to be released for public consultation. This Scientific Report summarises the comments received through the public consultation and outlines how these...

  15. Dietary Fat, Fat Subtypes and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Large European Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J Ramón; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-01-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the aetiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A si...

  16. Effects of 2-acetylaminofluorene, dietary fats and antioxidants on nuclear envelope cytochrome P-450

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carubelli, R.; Graham, S.A.; Griffin, M.J.; McCay, P.B.

    1986-05-01

    The authors reported a marked loss of cytochrome P-450 in hepatic nuclear envelope (NE) but not in microsomes of male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a semipurified diet containing 0.05% w/w 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) for 3 weeks. This may reflect loss of NE capacity to detoxify AAF metabolites generated by microsomal P-450. They are now investigating if dietary effects such as progressive decrease in the incidence of AAF-induced tumors in rats fed high polyunsaturated fat diet (HPUF) vs. high saturated fat diet (HSF) vs. low fat diet (LF), and the anticarcinogenic activity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 0.3% w/w) correlate with preservation of NE P-450. Rats fed AAF HSF (25.6% w/w corn oil) showed marked loss of NE P-450 after 3 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Rats fed AAF in HSF (25.6% w/w; 18 parts beef tallow + 2 parts corn oil), on the other hand, experienced a marked drop in NE P-450 after 9 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Comparison of NE P-450 levels in control rats fed HPUF or HSF for 3 weeks with those of rats fed a semipurified diet with 10% fat or Purina chow (ca. 5% fat), support the prediction of an inverse correlation between the levels of dietary fat and the NE P-450 content. Studies on AAF and BHT effects using LF (2% w/w corn oil) are in progress.

  17. Oxidative Stress and Dietary Fat Type in Relation to Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the main factors studied to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory conditions, such as periodontitis. In this respect, nutrition may be of great importance. Actually, research on nutrients’ effects on periodontal diseases has expanded to include those influencing the redox status, which correlates to the inflammatory process. Dietary fat or lipids are often blamed as the major source of excess energy. Consequently, when caloric intake exceeds energy expenditure, the resultant substrate-induced increase in citric acid cycle activity generates an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In addition, dietary fatty acid intake influences in relative fatty acid composition of biological membranes determining its susceptibility to oxidative alterations. From this standpoint, here, we reviewed studies analyzing the dietary fat role in periodontal disease. Research data suggest that periodontal health could be achieved by main dietary strategies which include substitution of saturated fats with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFA. Maybe in the future, we should analyze the diet and provide some advice to periodontitis patients to improve treatment outcomes.

  18. The impact of dietary fat composition on serum leptin concentrations in healthy nonobese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Mario; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Fobker, Manfred; Buyken, Anette; Posny, Nicole; Schulte, Helmut; Assmann, Gerd; Wahrburg, Ursel

    2002-11-01

    The recently discovered hormone leptin is primarily secreted by adipose tissue and serves as an internal signal indicating the size of body fat stores. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the dietary fatty acid composition on serum leptin concentrations. Therefore, serum leptin levels were measured by RIA in healthy nonobese men (n = 30) and women (n = 25). First, all participants received a baseline high-fat diet, rich in saturated fat, for 2 wk and were then randomly assigned to one of three high-fat dietary treatments, which contained refined olive oil (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, n = 19), rapeseed oil [rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), n = 17], or sunflower oil (rich in n-6-polyunsaturated fatty acids, n = 19) as the principal source of fat for 4 wk. On the rapeseed oil diet, serum leptin concentrations increased slightly in men [+0.25 ng/ml, T(9) = -2.778, P = 0.021], but decreased distinctly in women [-4.70 ng/ml, T(6) = 5.083, P = 0.002]. Both the olive oil and the sunflower oil diet did not affect serum leptin concentrations. Thus, it is proposed that serum leptin levels were affected by the high amount of alpha-linolenic acid in rapeseed oil. However, questions remain as to why this diet differently affected serum leptin in men and women. PMID:12414865

  19. Health economic consequences of reducing salt intake and replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat in the adult Finnish population: estimates based on the FINRISK and FINDIET studies

    OpenAIRE

    Martikainen, Janne A.; Soini, Erkki; Laaksonen, David; Niskanen, Leo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To predict the health economic consequences of modest reductions in the daily intake of salt (-1.0g per day) and replacement of saturated fat (SFA, -1.0 energy percent [E%]) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA, +1.0 E%) in the Finnish population aged 30 to 74 years. Methods: A Markov model with dynamic population structure was constructed to present the natural history of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) based on the most current information about the age- and sex-...

  20. Permeabilization of enterocytes induced by absorption of dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Absorption of dietary fat in the small intestine involves epithelial exposure to potentially harmful molecules such as bile salts and free fatty acids. We used organ culture of porcine jejunal explants incubated with a pre-digested mixture of fat (plant oil), bile and pancreatin to mimick the...... physiological process of dietary fat absorption, and short exposures to the fat mixture caused fat droplet accumulation within villus enterocytes. Lucifer yellow (LY), a fluorescent membrane-impermeable polar tracer was included to monitor epithelial integrity. Both in controls and during fat absorption LY...... penetrated the epithelium and accumulated in the basal lamina and the lamina propria. LY was also seen in the paracellular space, whereas villus enterocytes were generally only weakly labeled except for small amounts taken up by apical endocytosis. In the crypts, however, fat absorption induced cell...

  1. Dietary fat intake and subsequent weight change in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sharp, Stephen J; Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Halkjaer, Jytte; Schulze, Matthias B; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Feskens, Edith J M; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear from the inconsistent epidemiologic evidence whether dietary fat intake is associated with future weight change. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the association between the amount and type of dietary fat and subsequent weight change (follow-up weight minus baseline weight divided by duration of follow-up). DESIGN: We analyzed data from 89,432 men and women from 6 cohorts of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Using count...

  2. Insulin secretion after dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in normal and insulin-resistant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Pacini, Giovanni; Ahrén, Bo

    2006-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant rodents. However, the effects of these fatty acids on insulin secretion are not known but are of importance to completely understand their influence on glucose homeostasis. We therefore examined islet function after dietary supplementation consisting of 1% CLAs in combination with 1% n-3 enriched PUFAs for 12 wk to mice on a normal diet and to insulin-resistant mice fed a high-fat diet (58% fat). In the mice fed a normal diet, CLA/PUFA supplementation resulted in insulin resistance associated with low plasma adiponectin levels and low body fat content. Intravenous and oral glucose tolerance tests revealed a marked increase in insulin secretion, which nevertheless was insufficient to counteract the insulin resistance, resulting in glucose intolerance. In freshly isolated islets from mice fed the normal diet, both basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were adaptively augmented by CLA/PUFA, and at a high glucose concentration this was accompanied by elevated glucose oxidation. In contrast, in high-fat-fed mice, CLA/PUFA did not significantly affect insulin secretion, insulin resistance, or glucose tolerance. It is concluded that dietary supplementation of CLA/PUFA in mice fed the normal diet augments insulin secretion, partly because of increased islet glucose oxidation, but that this augmentation is insufficient to counterbalance the induction of insulin resistance, resulting in glucose intolerance. Furthermore, the high-fat diet partly prevents the deleterious effects of CLA/PUFA, but this dietary supplementation was not able to counteract high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance. PMID:16188912

  3. Dietary fat supplementation and the consequences for oocyte and embryo quality: hype or significant benefit for dairy cow reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, J L M R; Sturmey, R G; Van Hoeck, V; De Bie, J; McKeegan, P J; Bols, P E J

    2014-06-01

    In many countries, fat supplementation in the diet has become common in the dairy industry. There are several ideas as to how dietary fat could influence reproductive performance. Saturated fatty acids, such as palm oil, can increase milk yield but may aggravate negative energy balance and thus may impair fertility when fed during the first week post-partum. However, priming the lipid oxidation in the liver by feeding saturated fats during the dry period has recently been shown to be a potentially promising strategy to mitigate fat mobilization and liver accumulation post-partum. Furthermore, polyunsaturated fats (omega-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids) are fed to reduce the 'de novo' fat synthesis in the udder and thus the milk fat content, which may be of modest benefit for overall energy balance. Furthermore, omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are reported to alter follicular growth, steroid synthesis and prostaglandin metabolism in the ovary and endometrium, respectively. Omega-6 fatty acids are believed to have pro-inflammatory and thus PGF2?-stimulating properties rendering them extra value as 'nutraceutical' early post-partum, while omega-3 fatty acids can weaken this inflammatory potency, leading to a higher chance of survival of the embryo when supplemented during the periconceptual period. Unfortunately, research results rarely provide a consensus in this perspective. The consequences of these fat-feeding strategies on oocyte and embryo quality remain an intriguing issue for debate. Fat feeding may alter the microenvironment of the growing and maturing oocyte of the early and older embryo and thus may affect reproductive outcome. We recently reported that dietary-induced hyperlipidaemic conditions can be harmful for embryo development and metabolism. However, to date, research results remain somewhat conflicting most probably due to differences in fat sources used, in diet and duration of supplementation and in experimental set-up in general. PMID:24697981

  4. Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Marina; Anize Delfino von Frankenberg; Seda Suvag; Callahan, Holly S; Mario Kratz; Richards, Todd L.; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturate...

  5. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tous, Nuria; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA, and slaughtered at an average BW of 117 ± 4.9 kg. Transcription of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), delta-6-desaturase (D6D), and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) were determined by real-time PCR in longissimus thoracis (LT) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles, LT subcutaneous and SM intermuscular fat, and in the liver. Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed using gas chromatography in these tissues, except for SM intermuscular fat. Dietary CLA increased PPAR? in LT muscle (P < 0.05), whereas CLA reduced PPAR? transcription in all tissues studied (P < 0.05) with the exception of intermuscular fat. Transcription of genes related to FA synthesis was reduced by CLA in SM muscle and liver (SREBP1, both P < 0.1; ACC, P < 0.01 in SM; and FAS, P < 0.01 in liver), whereas CLA reduced (P < 0.05) LPL and D6D transcriptions in SM muscle and reduced (P < 0.05) SCD in liver but increased (P < 0.05) SCD in LT muscle and intermuscular fat. Saturated FA were increased in all studied tissues (P < 0.01), while monosaturated and polyunsaturated FA were reduced in a tissue-specific way by CLA. It was concluded that dietary CLA affected transcription of genes and fat metabolism in a tissue-specific manner.

  6. Diet-gene interactions between dietary fat intake and common polymorphisms in determining lipid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, D.

    2009-07-01

    Current dietary guidelines for fat intake have not taken into consideration the possible genetic differences underlying the individual variability in responsiveness to dietary components. Genetic variability has been identified in humans for all the known lipid metabolism-related genes resulting in a plethora of candidate genes and genetic variants to examine in diet-gene interaction studies focused on fat consumption. Some examples of fat-gene interaction are reviewed. These include: the interaction between total intake and the 14C/T in the hepatic lipase gene promoter in determining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism; the interaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the 5G/A polymorphism in the APOA1 gene plasma HDL-C concentrations; the interaction between PUFA and the L162V polymorphism in the PPARA gene in determining triglycerides and APOC3 concentrations; and the interaction between PUFA intake and the -1131T>C in the APOA5 gene in determining triglyceride metabolism. Although hundreds of diet-gene interaction studies in lipid metabolism have been published, the level of evidence to make specific nutritional recommendations to the population is still low and more research in nutrigenetics has to be undertaken. (Author) 31 refs.

  7. Effect of body fat distribution on the transcription response to dietary fat interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Radonjic, Marijana; van Erk, Marjan J.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Van Ommen, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Combination of decreased energy expenditure and increased food intake results in fat accumulation either in the abdominal site (upper body obesity, UBO) or on the hips (lower body obesity, LBO). In this study, we used microarray gene expression profiling of adipose tissue biopsies to investigate the effect of body fat distribution on the physiological response to two dietary fat interventions. Mildly obese UBO and LBO male subjects (n = 12, waist-to-hip ratio range 0.93–1.12) were subjected t...

  8. Influence of dietary fats on serum phospholipid fatty acid composition and its relation to obesity in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepši? Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fat and its relation to obesity has been a controversial issue for many years. Experimental data shows that most, though not all animals, which consume a high fat diet, will become obese. However, the effect of fatty acids on animal obesity has not been studied in detail. In order to evaluate the effects of low versus high fat diet on serum phospholipids fatty acids composition a 4-wk study was conducted on male Wister rats. The rats were fed low-fat (10% energy and high-fat (46% energy foods containing constant proportions of fatty acids. Control group C was fed a standard laboratory diet (polyunsaturated/ saturated (P/S fatty ratio 1.3, group M was fed a standard laboratory diet supplemented with margarine (P/S ratio 0.95, and the diet of the SL group was additionally supplemented with a sunflower oil-lard (1:1 mixture (P/S ratio 1.3. All lipid supplemented hyperenergetic diets caused an increase in the average daily energy intake. Both the final and the daily body weight gain were significantly higher in M and SL groups than in group C. Additionally, serum triglyceride levels, LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol were also significantly higher in M and SL groups when compared to the control group. Serum phospholipids fatty acids varied in response to total dietary fat. A significant decrease in saturated fatty acids (SFA content (16:0 and 18:0 and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA content (18:1, n-9 was found in the M group when compared to both C and SL groups. In the SL group, SFA content (18:0 was higher and MUFA content (18:1, n-9 was lower than in group C. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content showed an increase in both experimental groups. The PUFA/SFA ratio was higher in the M group than in the C and SL groups. Our study suggests that the amount of dietary fat has a greater influence on obesity than the effects of the type of fat consumed. However, depending on the type of fat present in the diet the differences were observed in the composition of serum PL fatty acid suggesting that both total fat and individual fatty acids have to be considered when reaching conclusions about the effect of dietary fat and obesity in animals.

  9. Brain and Liver Headspace Aldehyde Concentration Following Dietary Supplementation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian M; Babay, Slim; Malik, Imran

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species react with unsaturated fatty acids to form a variety of metabolites including aldehydes. Many aldehydes are volatile enough to be detected in headspace gases of blood or cultured cells and in exhaled breath, in particular propanal and hexanal which are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Aldehydes are therefore potential non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress and of various diseases in which oxidative stress is thought to play a role including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is unclear, however, how changes in the abundance of the fatty acid precursors, for example by altered dietary intake, affect aldehyde concentrations. We therefore fed male Wistar rats diets supplemented with either palm oil or a combination of palm oil plus an n-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acids) for 4 weeks. Fatty acid analysis revealed large changes in the abundance of both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the liver with smaller changes observed in the brain. Despite the altered fatty acid abundance, headspace concentrations of C1-C8 aldehydes, and tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, did not differ between the 4 dietary groups. Our data suggest that tissue aldehyde concentrations are independent of fatty acid abundance, and further support their use as volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress. PMID:26358696

  10. Dietary preparation and per cent fat measurement by hydrostatic weighing.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, T R; Crough, L D; Araujo, J.

    1988-01-01

    To examine if the dietary preparation for hydrostatic weighing (HW) alters the % fat measurement, seven men and three women (age 29 +/- 6, Males 11.7 +/- 7.3% fat and Females 24.1 +/- 5.4% fat, mean +/- SD) were assessed before and after three meals. On separate days and in random order, each subject (1) ate a salad with toppings (600 g) with small beverage, (2) ate two bean burritos and one bean tostada (900 g) with small beverage, and (3) drank 800 ml of carbonated beverage. The subject was...

  11. Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Overvad, Kim; Dyerberg, Jørn; Schroll, Marianne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2004-01-01

    In a 16-year follow-up study (ending in 1998) of 3,686 Danish men and women aged 30-71 years at recruitment, the association between energy intake from dietary fat and the risk of coronary heart disease was evaluated while assessing the possible modifying role of gender and age. In the models used......, total energy and protein intake were fixed. Differences in intake of energy from fat thus reflected complementary differences in intake of energy from carbohydrates. A 5% higher level of energy from saturated fat intake was associated with a 36% greater risk of coronary heart disease among women (hazard...... ratio (HR) = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98, 1.88). No overall association between saturated fat and coronary heart disease was found among men. However, age-dependent analyses showed that saturated fat was positively associated with coronary heart disease among the younger men (HR = 1.29, 95...

  12. Dietary fats and immune status in athletes: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, J T; Leddy, J; Pendergast, D

    2000-07-01

    Athletes are competitive, train at very high levels with inadequate rest, consume too few calories, avoid fats, and may be at increased risk of infections. The immune system is sensitive to both fat intake and intense exercise, suggesting that athletes may have suppressed immune function. It has been reported that many athletes consume about 25% fewer calories than the estimated expenditure, leading to low intakes of some essential micronutrients and fats. Acute exercise has been shown to increase inflammatory and decrease antiinflammatory immune factors and may increase oxidant stress. Chronic exercise appears to improve immune competence. Lipids are powerful mediators of the immune system, and they may modulate the immunosuppressive effects of strenuous exercise. Studies have shown that a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet (15% fat, 65% CHO, 20% protein of total calories), typically eaten by athletes, increases inflammatory and decreases antiinflammatory immune factors, depresses antioxidants, and negatively affects blood lipoprotein ratios. Increasing total caloric intake by 25% to match energy expenditure and the dietary fat intake to 32% in athletes appears to reverse the negative effects on immune function and lipoprotein levels reported on a low-fat diet. Increasing the dietary fat intake of athletes to 42%, while maintaining caloric intake equal to expenditure, does not negatively affect immune competency or blood lipoproteins, whereas it improves endurance exercise performance at 60-80% of VO2max in cyclists, soldiers, and runners. There is no evidence that higher fat intakes (up to 42% of total calories), in calorically balanced diets, increase the risk of cancer, but studies are needed to determine whether the beneficial effects of higher fat diets in athletes reduce their rate of infections. PMID:10910295

  13. Examining Multiple Parenting Behaviors on Young Children's Dietary Fat Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Christina M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Crespo, Noe C.; Lopez, Nanette V.; Zive, Michelle Murphy; Corder, Kirsten; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the association between parenting and children's dietary fat consumption, this study tested a comprehensive model of parenting that included parent household rules, parent modeling of rules, parent mediated behaviors, and parent support. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Baseline data from the "MOVE/me Muevo" project, a…

  14. Neuroinflammation and aging: influence of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layé Sophie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system of the brain is principally composed of microglial cells and astrocytes, which, once activated, protect neurons against noxious agents or lesions. Activated glial cells produce inflammatory cytokines that act specifically through receptors expressed in the brain, leading to the development of altered emotional and cognitive behavior. These behavioral alterations cease along with the synthesis of brain cytokines. When the level of expression of these cytokines remains high, they become toxic to neurons possibly leading to neuronal death, as observed in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 (n-3 type polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are essential nutrients and fundamental components of neuronal and glial cell membranes. Additionally, they have immunomodulatory properties. They accumulate in the brain during the perinatal period in a dietary supply-dependant fashion. Their brain levels diminish with age, but can be corrected by a diet enriched in n-3 PUFAs. The increasing exposure of the population to diets unbalanced in n-3 PUFAs could contribute to the deleterious effect of inflammatory cytokines in the brain.

  15. Effects of dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants on biochemical characteristics of boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzezek, Jerzy; Fraser, Leyland; Kukli?ska, Magda; Dzieko?ska, Anna; Lecewicz, Marek

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of providing a supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants (PROSPERM) on the biochemical characteristics of boar semen. Two sexually mature boars were fed a standard diet with PROSPERM (250 g daily) for a 24-week period. Ejaculates collected prior to supplementation were used as the control. Semen quality and biochemical parameters were analyzed. The dietary supplementation enhanced sperm characteristics, including the percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane and osmotic resistance of the acrosomal membrane. Higher production of malondialdehyde was concurrent with increased activity of superoxide dismutase in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa after 8 weeks of supplementation. These changes were accompanied by a high content of total protein and low-molecular antioxidants of the seminal plasma. It was observed that PROSPERM supplementation enhanced the survivability of boar spermatozoa during storage in a standard semen extender supplemented with lipoprotein fractions, isolated from hen egg yolk or ostrich egg yolk, at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C. These results indicate that PROSPERM supplementation of boars had a beneficial effect on the biological characteristics of the spermatozoa, which could be useful for semen preservation at different temperatures. PMID:15592586

  16. Effects of dietary fat and calorie on immunologic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of dietary fat and calories on immunologic function in specific pathogen-free inbred DBA/2 and CBA/J mice was studied. Three diets were modified from control, the AIN-76 purified diet. The high saturated fat diet contained 22.5% coconut oil and 2.5% safflower oil. The high unsaturated fat diet contained 25% safflower oil. Fat was substituted isoclorically for carbohydrate in these two diets. The low calorie diet contained 40% less protein, carbohydrate and fat than control diet; fiber was substituted for these ingredients. Female weanling mice were on the diets for more than 35 days before testing. The natural killer (NK) activity of spleen cells was determined by in vitro cytolysis of 51Cr-labeled YAC-1 cells. The spleen cells response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or allogeneic tumor EL-4 cells was measured after immunizing the mice with SRBC or EL-4 cells for 4 or 11 days, respectively. The results showed no significant effect of the low calorie diet on NK activity, anti-SRBC or anti-EL-4 response compared to normal diet. Anti-SRBC plaque response was significantly enhanced (27% higher), while anti-EL-4 response was significantly suppressed (15% less) with high saturated fat diet. NK activity was normal. Mice on high unsaturated fat diet showed suppressed anti-SRBC response (16% less) and anti-EL-4 response (17% less), while NK activity was significantly enhanced (70% higher)

  17. Interactive effects of dietary fat source and slaughter weight in growing-finishing swine: II. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K; Maxwell, C V; Galloway, D L; Hamilton, C R; Yancey, J W S

    2009-04-01

    Crossbred pigs (n=288) were used to test the interactive effects of dietary fat source and slaughter weight on the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat. Pigs were blocked by initial BW (28.1 kg), and, within blocks, pens (8 pigs/pen) were randomly assigned to either grower and finisher diets devoid of added fat (Ctrl) or diets formulated with 5% beef tallow (BT), poultry fat (PF), or soybean oil (SBO). Immediately after treatment allotment, as well as at mean block BW of 45.5, 68.1, 90.9, and 113.6 kg, 1 pig was randomly selected from each pen, slaughtered, and, within 1 h postmortem, samples of backfat were removed from each carcass between the 4th and 8th thoracic vertebra and separated into the inner, middle, and outer layers for fatty acid composition analysis. During the first 17.4 kg of BW gain, percentages of all SFA increased by more than 4% in subcutaneous fat of pigs fed the Ctrl and BT diets, but decreased by 4.4 and 7.7% in pigs fed the PF and SBO diets, respectively (fat source x slaughter weight, P0.05) PUFA percentages, the greatest (P<0.05) and least (P<0.05) IV were in the outer and middle layers, respectively. As expected, the fat source included in swine diets was responsible for the fatty acid compositional changes in subcutaneous fat, yet the results of this study indicate that feeding 5% SBO dramatically increased the polyunsaturation of subcutaneous fat within the first 17.4 kg of BW gain, with backfat IV exceeding 80 thereafter. PMID:19066245

  18. The effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on HDL cholesterol in Chukot residents vs muscovites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, E; Perova, N; Ozerova, I; Polessky, V; Metelskaya, V; Sherbakova, I; Levachev, M; Kulakova, S; Nikitin, Y u; Astakhova, T

    1991-04-01

    Native Chukot Peninsula residents, in contrast to Muscovites, consume a diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. This dietary peculiarity is reflected in differences in plasma lipid and apolipoprotein contents. The Chukot residents have lower contents of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, but higher HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels than do Muscovites. The apolipoprotein A-I levels were identical in both groups. A higher HDL cholesterol to apolipoprotein A-I ratio was determined in the coastline Chukot residents (0.52 +/- 0.01) than in Muscovites (0.43 +/- 0.01; p less than 0.01). In contrast to Muscovites, the coastline Chukot residents also had higher n-3 and lower n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid percentages in plasma and erythrocyte lipids, and lower phosphatidylcholine and higher sphingomyelin or phosphatidylethanolamine levels in HDL2b and HDL3. The higher HDL cholesterol levels in the plasma of the coastline Chukot residents appears to reflect the higher cholesterol-scavenging capacity of their HDL. We conclude from this study that the regular consumption of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by the coastline Chukot residents decreased LDL cholesterol transfer from plasma to peripheral cells, and enhanced cholesterol efflux from cellular membranes toward HDL. PMID:1907706

  19. The Role of Dietary Fat throughout the Prostate Cancer Trajectory

    OpenAIRE

    Di Sebastiano, Katie M.; Mourtzakis, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed world-wide; however, patients demonstrate exceptionally high survival rates. Many lifestyle factors, including obesity and diet, are considered risk factors for advanced prostate cancer. Dietary fat is a fundamental contributor to obesity and may be specifically important for prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer treatment can result in changes in body composition, affecting quality of life for survivors by increasing the risk of ...

  20. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Delay Progression of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma in Fat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Mohammed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs may be beneficial for prevention of pancreatic cancer. Nutritional intervention studies are often complex, and there is no clear evidence, without potential confounding factors, on whether conversion of n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in pancreatic tissues would provide protection. Experiments were designed using n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1 transgenic mice, which can convert n-6 PUFA to n-3 FAs endogenously, to determine the impact of n-3 PUFAs on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs and their progression to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. Six-weekold female p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ andcompoundFat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice were fed (AIN-76A diets containing 10% safflower oil for 35 weeks. Pancreata were evaluated histopathologically for PanINs and PDAC. Results showed a dramatic reduction in incidence of PDAC (84%; P 85%; P < .05–0.01 in pancreas of compound transgenic mice than in those of p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice. Molecular analysis of the pancreas showed a significant down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX, 5-LOX-activating protein, Bcl-2, and cyclin D1 expression levels in Fat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice compared to p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice. These data highlight the promise of dietary n-3 FAs for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer in high-risk individuals.

  1. The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs from Hy-line and Warren hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Munoz, M. J.; Bastida, S.; Jimenez, O.; Lorenzo, C. de; Vergara, G.; Sanchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain. (Author) 37 refs.

  2. Effect of dietary fat on plasma glutathione peroxidase levels and intestinal absorption of 75Se-labeled sodium selenite in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of dietary fat on the availability of selenium was investigated in chicks fed either 4 or 20% butter, olive oil, rape oil, corn oil or sunflower oil in the diet for 3 weeks after hatching. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was used as an indicator of the body selenium status. In addition, the intestinal absorption of sodium selenite (75Se-labeled) was determined by using both the in vivo ligated loop procedure and oral administration of the isotope. The plasma GSH-Px levels increased with increasing proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Increasing the amount of fat from 4 to 20% significantly enhanced the GSH-Px activity in the groups receiving butter or olive oil, but had no effect in animals fed the unsaturated fats. The absorption of [75Se]selenite from the ligated duodenal loops tended to be reduced in chicks fed corn oil or sunflower oil as compared to the animals receiving butter in their diet. On the other hand, the type of dietary fat did not appear to affect the absorption of the orally administered selenite. The present study demonstrates that the type of dietary fat can affect the plasma GSH-Px levels in chicks without altering the intestinal absorption of selenite. However, the results on the absorption of the intraduodenally injected sodium selenite suggest that dietary fat plays some role in the intestinal transport of selenium

  3. Interactive effects of dietary fat source and slaughter weight in growing-finishing swine: III. Carcass and fatty acid compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K; Maxwell, C V; Galloway, D L; Hamilton, C R; Yancey, J W S

    2009-04-01

    Crossbred pigs (n=288) were used to test the interactive effects of dietary fat source and slaughter weight on dissected carcass composition and fatty acid composition of composite carcass samples. Pigs were blocked by initial BW, and within each of 9 blocks, pens (8 pigs/pen) were randomly assigned to either control corn-soybean meal grower and finisher diets (Ctrl) or diets formulated with 5% beef tallow (BT), poultry fat (PF), or soybean oil (SBO). Immediately after treatment allotment, as well as at mean block BW of 45.5, 68.1, 90.9, and 113.6 kg, 1 pig was randomly selected from each pen and slaughtered, and primal cuts from right carcass sides were dissected into muscle, fat, bone, and skin components. Muscle and fat tissues were then ground, and random composite samples were collected from each carcass for fatty acid composition analysis. Fat source did not alter pork primal cut yields (P >or= 0.294), nor were the percentages of carcass muscle (P=0.213), fat (P=0.502), and bone (P=0.551) affected by dietary fat source. Conversely, percentages of the whole shoulder and ham decreased linearly (P<0.001), and the percentages of loin and belly increased (P<0.001) linearly with increasing slaughter weight. Moreover, linear decreases (P<0.001) in carcass muscle, bone, and skin, as well as a linear increase (P<0.05) in carcass fat, were observed as slaughter weight increased from 28.1 to 113.6 kg. Composite samples from pigs fed the BT or Ctrl diets had greater (P<0.05) proportions of SFA, particularly oleic and stearic acids, than those from pigs fed the PF and SBO diets when slaughtered at 45.5, 68.1, and 90.9 kg (fat source x slaughter weight, P<0.001). Percentages of MUFA (including palmitoleic, oleic, and cis-vaccenic acids) decreased (P<0.05), and percentages of all PUFA, especially linoleic and linolenic acids, and iodine values increased (P<0.05) in samples from SBO-fed pigs as slaughter weight increased from 28.1 to 113.6 kg (fat source x slaughter weight, P<0.001). Dietary fat source did not affect carcass composition; however, including 5% SBO in swine diets increased the polyunsaturation of pork, which could lead to economic ramifications associated with soft pork and pork fat. PMID:19066247

  4. Dietary preparation and per cent fat measurement by hydrostatic weighing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T R; Crough, L D; Araujo, J

    1988-03-01

    To examine if the dietary preparation for hydrostatic weighing (HW) alters the % fat measurement, seven men and three women (age 29 +/- 6, Males 11.7 +/- 7.3% fat and Females 24.1 +/- 5.4% fat, mean +/- SD) were assessed before and after three meals. On separate days and in random order, each subject (1) ate a salad with toppings (600 g) with small beverage, (2) ate two bean burritos and one bean tostada (900 g) with small beverage, and (3) drank 800 ml of carbonated beverage. The subject was reweighted 45 min after the meals and immediately after the beverage ingestion. Functional residual capacity was assessed simultaneously with underwater weight. Dependent t-tests indicated that body weight in air increased after each of the three means (Bean 0.78, Salad 0.92, Beverage 0.90 kg, all p less than 0.05), but underwater weights were unchanged. Following the salad, body density (1064.6 vs 1061.8 kg.m-3) and % fat (15.0 vs 16.3%, p less than 0.05) were significantly different pre-meal vs post-meal. Likewise, beverage ingestion resulted in decreased body density (1064.7 vs 1061.2 kg.m-3) and increased % fat (15.0 vs 16.5%, p less than 0.05). The bean meal did not cause a change in measured body density (1062.8 vs 1062.8 kg.m-3) or % fat (15.8 vs 15.8%). These results indicate that for the most accurate analysis, preliminary dietary preparation for HW should include food and beverage restriction. PMID:3370405

  5. Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant oils and algae on milk fat yield and composition are associated with mammary lipogenic and SREBF1 gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J; Mahecha, L; Nuernberg, K; Nuernberg, G; Dannenberger, D; Olivera, M; Boutinaud, M; Leroux, C; Albrecht, E; Bernard, L

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine the effects of long-term supplementing diets with saturated or unprotected polyunsaturated fatty acids from two different plant oils rich in either n-3 or n-6 fatty acids (FAs) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae on mammary gene expression and milk fat composition in lactating dairy cows. Gene expression was determined from mammary tissue and milk epithelial cells. Eighteen primiparous German Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were randomly assigned into three dietary treatments that consist of silage-based diets supplemented with rumen-stable fractionated palm fat (SAT; 3.1% of the basal diet dry matter, DM), or a mixture of linseed oil (2.7% of the basal diet DM) plus DHA-rich algae (LINA; 0.4% of the basal diet DM) or a mixture of sunflower oil (2.7% of the basal diet DM) plus DHA-rich algae (SUNA; 0.4% of the basal diet DM), for a period of 10 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the cows were slaughtered and mammary tissues were collected to study the gene expression of lipogenic enzymes. During the last week, the milk yield and composition were determined, and milk was collected for FA measurements and the isolation of milk purified mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Supplementation with plant oils and DHA-rich algae resulted in milk fat depression (MFD; yield and percentage). The secretion of de novo FAs in the milk was reduced, whereas the secretion of trans-10,cis-12-CLA and DHA were increased. These changes in FA secretions were associated in mammary tissue with a joint down-regulation of mammary lipogenic enzyme gene expression (stearoyl-CoA desaturase, SCD1; FA synthase, FASN) and expression of the regulatory element binding transcription factor (SREBF1), whereas no effect was observed on lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1, mitochondrial (GPAM). A positive relationship between mammary SCD1 and SREBF1 mRNA abundances was observed, suggesting a similar regulation for these genes. Such data on mammary gene expression in lactating cows presenting MFD contribute to strengthen the molecular mechanisms that govern milk fat synthesis in the mammary glands. In purified MEC, the dietary treatments had no effect on gene expressions. Differences between mammary tissue and milk purified MEC gene expression were attributed to the effect of lipid supplements on the number of milk purified MEC and its RNA quality, which are determinant factors for the analysis of gene expression using milk cells. PMID:22717104

  6. Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Leandro P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina® and AIN-93M, which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad libitum or in a restricted amount. Methods Thus, 40 Wistar rats (90 days old were separated into 4 groups according to the amount of food offered (ad libitum or dietary restriction and the type of diet (commercial diet, 3,028.0 kcal/g or AIN-93M, 3,802.7 kcal/g: animals fed the commercial Purina® diet ad libitum (AP, animals fed restricted amounts of the commercial Purina® diet (RP, animals fed the AIN-93M diet ad libitum (AD, and animals fed restricted amounts of the AIN-93M diet (RD. Dietary restriction consisted of pair-feeding the RP and RD groups with 60% of the total food consumed by the corresponding ad libitum groups. Results Because of its higher carbohydrate and calorie content, AIN-93M was found to accelerate weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and increase the amount of fat in the liver when compared to the commercial diet. Conversely, a 40% dietary restriction assisted in weight loss without causing malnutrition, contributing to an improved glucose tolerance and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Therefore, differences in the amount of carbohydrates and calories provided by the diet can lead to important metabolic disorders, such as impaired tolerance and accumulation of hepatic fat, and dietary restriction improves serum and tissue lipid profiles in laboratory animals.

  7. Effects of Unsaturated Fat Dietary Supplements on Blood Lipids, and on Markers of Malnutrition and Inflammation in Hemodialysis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Riserus, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of commercially available unsaturated fat dietary supplements on blood lipids, and on markers of malnutrition and inflammation, in an adult population of hemodialysis (HD) patients. DESIGN: This was a restricted, randomized (equal blocks), investigator-blinded 2x6 week crossover trial, without a washout interval. SETTING: This study was conducted at the Department of Nephrology, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Herlev, Denmark, in spring 2007. PATIENTS: Participants included 40 (30 males and 10 females) stable, adult patients undergoing regular HD, with a mean age of 64.6 years and a mean body mass index of 23.3kg/m(2). INTERVENTION: In addition to patients' habitual diets, oral unsaturated fat supplements (90mL of Calogen [SHS International, Ltd., Liverpool, UK] and 4 capsules of Pikasol [Dansk Droge, Ishoej, Denmark]) were given in one period, whereas no supplements were given in the other. Dietary supplements contributed 1.8 MJ (430kcal), 47g fat, 26.5g monounsaturated fatty acids, and 3g marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids per day. Blood sampling and nutritional assessments were performed at baseline, after 6 weeks, and after 12 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dietary intakes, blood lipids, dry body weight, serum albumin, and serum C-reactive protein comprised our main outcome measures. RESULTS: According to a per-protocol analysis of 14 study completers, fat supplementation resulted in significantly increased total energy intake (+1.6 MJ/day, or 380kcal/day) and an increased dietary fat energy percentage (+9%). We observed no significant changes in blood lipids. Dry body weight (+0.49kg, P=.04) increased, and serum C-reactive protein concentration fell (-1.69mg/L, P=.01), with fat supplementation. Intention-to-treat analysis of 39 participants confirmed the absence of adverse blood-lipid changes. CONCLUSIONS: Unsaturated fat supplementation increased total dietary energy intake to recommended levels, had no adverse impact on blood lipids, improved nutritional status as assessed according to dry body weight, and reduced systemic inflammation as assessed according to C-reactive protein serum concentrations. Adding unsaturated fat to the diet seems to be a safe and effective way to prevent and treat malnutrition in hemodialysis patients.

  8. Insulin secretion after dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in normal and insulin-resistant mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Sörhede Winzell, Maria; Pacini, Giovanni; Ahrén, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Insulin secretion after dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in normal and insulin-resistance mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 290: E347-E354, 2006. First published September 27, 2005; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00163.2005.-Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant rodents. However, the effects of these fatty acids on insulin secretion are not known but are of ...

  9. The inhibition of fat cell proliferation by n-3 fatty acids in dietary obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopecky Jan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA of marine origin exert multiple beneficial effects on health. Our previous study in mice showed that reduction of adiposity by LC n-3 PUFA was associated with both, a shift in adipose tissue metabolism and a decrease in tissue cellularity. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effects of LC n-3 PUFA on fat cell proliferation and differentiation in obese mice. Methods A model of inducible and reversible lipoatrophy (aP2-Cre-ERT2 PPAR?L2/L2 mice was used, in which the death of mature adipocytes could be achieved by a selective ablation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? in response to i.p. injection of tamoxifen. Before the injection, obesity was induced in male mice by 8-week-feeding a corn oil-based high-fat diet (cHF and, subsequently, mice were randomly assigned (day 0 to one of the following groups: (i mice injected by corn-oil-vehicle only, i.e."control" mice, and fed cHF; (ii mice injected by tamoxifen in corn oil, i.e. "mutant" mice, fed cHF; (iii control mice fed cHF diet with15% of dietary lipids replaced by LC n-3 PUFA concentrate (cHF+F; and (iv mutant mice fed cHF+F. Blood and tissue samples were collected at days 14 and 42. Results Mutant mice achieved a maximum weight loss within 10 days post-injection, followed by a compensatory body weight gain, which was significantly faster in the cHF as compared with the cHF+F mutant mice. Also in control mice, body weight gain was depressed in response to dietary LC n-3 PUFA. At day 42, body weights in all groups stabilized, with no significant differences in adipocyte size between the groups, although body weight and adiposity was lower in the cHF+F as compared with the cHF mice, with a stronger effect in the mutant than in control mice. Gene expression analysis documented depression of adipocyte maturation during the reconstitution of adipose tissue in the cHF+F mutant mice. Conclusion Dietary LC n-3 PUFA could reduce both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of fat cells in vivo. Results are in agreement with the involvement of fat cell turnover in control of adiposity.

  10. Induction of apoptosis by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in human leukemic cells is not associated with DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, L C; Wan, J M; Ooi, V E

    2000-10-01

    Apoptosis is important in anticancer strategy. In this study, bivariate annexin V/PI flow cytometry showed that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), induced apoptosis in human leukemic HL-60 but not K-562 cells. Results from DNA-PI flow cytometry and TUNEL flow cytometry illustrated that neither AA nor EPA induced DNA fragmentation in the leukemic cells. These findings suggested that the AA- and EPA-induced apoptosis might not associate with endonucleases activation, and DNA fragmentation could not be used as a sole criterion to identify apoptotic cells. PMID:10995893

  11. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. PMID:26278052

  12. Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serlie Mireille J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet. Methods Streptozotocin-diabetic pigs (~45 kg were fed for 10 weeks supplemental (40% of dietary energy saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC, unsaturated fat (UF or starch (S in an eucaloric dietary intervention study. Results Fasting plasma total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were 3-5 fold higher (p 2 = 0.95. Retroperitoneal fat depot weight (g was intermediate in SFC (260 ± 72, lowest in S (135 ± 51 and highest (p Conclusion Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol induces inflammation, atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition whereas an equally high dietary unsaturated fat load does not induce these abnormalities and shows beneficial effects on postprandial glycaemia in diabetic pigs.

  13. Contribution of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGE) to circulating AGE: role of dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kathleen E; Prasad, Chandan; Vijayagopal, Parakat; Juma, Shanil; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Imrhan, Victorine

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether macronutrient content (low-fat v. high-fat diet) influences an indicator of advanced glycation end products (AGE), N ? carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), in the context of a 1-d, high-AGE diet. The effect of the diets on inflammatory markers was also assessed. A total of nineteen overweight and obese adults (nine men and ten women) without known disease were recruited to participate in a crossover challenge of a high-fat, high-AGE (HFHA) and low-fat, high-AGE (LFHA) diet. In each phase patients had fasting blood drawn, followed by consumption of a high-fat or low-fat breakfast test meal, then three postprandial blood draws at 1, 2 and 3 h after consuming the test meal. After consuming high-AGE meals for the remainder of the day, participants returned the next day for a follow-up analysis. A different pattern in the 3-h post-meal CML and soluble receptor for AGE response to the two diets was observed (P=0·01 and 0·05, respectively). No change in serum CML was observed following consumption of a LFHA breakfast (535 (25th-75th percentile 451-790) to 495 (25th-75th percentile 391-682) ng/ml; P=0·36), whereas a rise in CML occurred after the HFHA breakfast (463 (25th-75th percentile 428-664) to 578 (25th-75th percentile 474-865) ng/ml; P=0·05). High sensitivity C-reactive protein and high molecular weight adiponectin were not affected by either diet. These findings suggest that dietary CML may not be as important in influencing serum CML as other dietary factors. In addition, acute exposure to dietary CML may not influence inflammation in adults without diabetes or kidney disease. This is contrary to previous findings. PMID:26392152

  14. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary ?-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R2 = 0.94 and perirenal fat (R2 = 0.96.

  15. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds) as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA) sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA) analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary ?-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R² = 0.94) and perirenal fat (R² = 0.96). PMID:26486776

  16. Product Fat-1 Transgenic Simmental Crossbred Cattle Endogenously Synthesizing Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Using OSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Jia Lai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Meat products normally contain low omega-3 fatty acids and high ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids may contribute to the prevalence of many diseases. In order to obtained in such beef with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids will be more healthy to meet people’s diet, researchers generated the fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans c fat-1 gene encoding an omega-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the gene is absent in mammals. In this study, researchers successful product the embryo of fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle using OSM. The results of Western Blotting and fluoroscopic examination have proved that the fat-1 gene has been into genome of clone embryo and translated into proteins which could be used to embryo transfer.

  17. [Stabilization of omega-3-polyunsaturated acids in fat from Mallotus villosus (Osmeridae) by the nontoxic, sulfur-containing antioxidant CO-3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvukhin, A I; Krysin, A P; Shalaurova, I Iu

    1995-01-01

    The stabilizing effect of the newly produced sulfur-containing antioxidant SO-3 on the fatty acid composition of fat obtained from Mallotus villosus was studied at various temperatures. In the absence of the antioxidant, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in the fish fat during 1 month at -18 degrees storage, although the content of these fatty acids was decreased 2-fold in this case. After addition of the SO-3 stabilizer to the fish fat at final concentration 0.2%, content of the omega-3 fatty acids was unaltered within 1 month at - 18 degrees, 10 degrees and was half decreased only at room temperature. Thus, nontoxic antioxidant SO-3 may be used to preserve preparations containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:8585177

  18. Product Fat-1 Transgenic Simmental Crossbred Cattle Endogenously Synthesizing Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Using OSM

    OpenAIRE

    Song-Jia Lai; Jian Wang; Xiao-Mao Guo; Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Meat products normally contain low omega-3 fatty acids and high ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids may contribute to the prevalence of many diseases. In order to obtained in such beef with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids will be more healthy to meet people’s diet, researchers generated the fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans c fat-1 gene encoding an omega-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the gene is absent in m...

  19. The impact of dietary fat withdrawal on carcass iodine value, belly characteristics, and changes in body fat over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Prusa, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to understand how withdrawal from the diet of unsaturated dietary fat before slaughter impacts the composition of jowl fat during the growth cycle and at market. Fifty individually housed pigs (PIC 337 × C22/29; initial BW = 59.3 ± 0.55 kg) were allotted based on sex and initial BW to 10 treatments for an 82-d experiment as follows: 3 dietary fat withdrawal times before slaughter (21, 42, or 63 d) by 3 dietary fat unsaturation loads (DFUL), which includea high intake of unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 5% corn oil (HIGH), a high intake of a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 5% animal-vegetable blend (MED), and a moderate intake of unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 2.5% corn oil (LOW). Pigs were weighed and jowl adipose samples were collected on d 0, 21, 42, and 63 and at harvest on d 82. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED with treatment and sex as fixed effects. At market (d 82), increasing the withdrawal of dietary fat further away from market increased 18:1 (P = 0.045) and tended to increase 14:0 concentrations (P = 0.054). It also significantly decreased 18:2 (P < 0.001) and tended to decrease 18:3 concentrations (P = 0.081). A HIGH DFUL resulted in the greatest 18:2 concentrations in jowl fat followed by LOW; MED resulted in the lowest 18:2 levels (P < 0.001). Dietary fat withdrawal before market significantly reduced carcass iodine value (IV) measured at d 82 (P = 0.006). In conclusion, elevated 18:2 intake makes lowering carcass IV in the depot fat very difficult and may take as long as 61 d. The withdrawal of unsaturated dietary fat apparently altered the fat depot to be more reflective of fat synthesized de novo, resulting in a more saturated depot fat. Importantly, this alteration of deposited fat composition did not translate into improved belly firmness, depth, weight, or fat color. PMID:25568373

  20. The effect of dietary sulfur on the metabolism of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of methionine-supplemented diet on the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids was studied by comparing results of control and cysteine-supplemented diets in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a period of 17 days one of the following diets: control, cysteine-supplemented, and/or methionine-supplemented. On the last day of the feeding period, the rats were administered either [1-14C] arachidonic acid (AA) or [1-14C] eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by stomach tube five hours before sacrificing. The cyclooxygenase activity in liver microsomes, the apparent Km of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase in liver and brain homogenates, and the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into the phosphatidylinositol fraction of brain, heat, lung, spleen, and kidney tissues were analyzed

  1. Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuernberg Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor β protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ζ expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

  2. Dietary omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and Alzheimer's disease: interaction with apolipoprotein E genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Samieri, Cécilia; Féart, Catherine; Plourde, Mélanie

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest a protective role of omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, most intervention studies of supplementation with n-3 PUFA have yielded disappointing results. One reason for such discordant results may result from inadequate targeting of individuals who might benefit from the supplementation, in particular because of their genetic susceptibility to AD. The ?4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (ApoE) is a genetic...

  3. Role of Dietary Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Infant Allergies and Respiratory Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Shek, Lynette P.; Mary Foong-Fong Chong; Jia Yi Lim; Shu-E Soh; Yap-Seng Chong

    2012-01-01

    Maternal nutrition has critical effects on the developing structures and functions of the fetus. Malnutrition during pregnancy can result in low birth weight and small for gestational age babies, increase risk for infection, and impact the immune system. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported to have immunomodulatory effects. Decreased consumption of omega-6 PUFAs, in favor of more anti-inflammatory omega-3 PUFAs in modern diets, has demonstrated the potential prote...

  4. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and the Pro12Ala polymorphisms of PPARG regulate serum lipids through divergent pathways: a randomized crossover clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Schwab, Ursula; Kaminska, Dorota; Ågren, Jyrki; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Paananen, Jussi; Laakso, Markku; Uusitupa, Matti

    2015-11-01

    Human and animal studies suggest an interaction between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPARG and dietary fat. In this randomized crossover clinical trial, we investigated whether subjects with the Pro12Pro and Ala12Ala genotypes of PPARG respond differently to a diet supplemented with high saturated (SAFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA).We recruited non-diabetic men from a population-based METSIM study (including 10,197 men) to obtain men with the Ala12Ala and the Pro12Pro genotypes matched for age and body mass index. Seventeen men with the Pro12Pro genotype and 14 with the Ala12Ala genotype were randomized to both a PUFA diet and a SAFA diet for 8 weeks in a crossover setting. Serum lipids and adipose tissue mRNA expression were measured during the diet intervention. At baseline, subjects with the Ala12Ala genotype had higher levels of HDL cholesterol and lower levels of LDL cholesterol, total triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B compared to those subjects with the Pro12Pro genotype (P < 0.05, FDR < 0.1). The Ala12Ala genotype also associated with higher mRNA expression of PPARG2, LPIN1, and SREBP-1c compared to participants with the Pro12Pro genotype (FDR < 0.001). On the other hand, PUFA diet resulted in lower levels of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, total triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B (P < 0.05, FDR < 0.1) but did not affect PPARG2 mRNA expression in adipose tissue. We conclude that individuals with the Pro12Pro genotype, with higher triglyceride levels at baseline, are more likely to benefit from the PUFA diet. However, the beneficial effects of dietary PUFA and the Ala12Ala genotype of PPARG on serum lipids are mediated through divergent mechanisms. PMID:26446033

  5. Increased dietary fat content accelerates cholesterol gallstone formation in the cholesterol-fed prairie dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMorte, W W; O'Leary, D P; Booker, M L; Scott, T E

    1993-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have provided conflicting information about the relationship between fat consumption and gallstone formation. We studied cholesterol gallstone formation in prairie dogs after 1 wk of the following diets: (group A) a control diet with no added cholesterol and 5% of calories from corn oil, (group B) 1.2% cholesterol with 5% of calories from corn oil or (group C) 1.2% cholesterol with 40% of calories from corn oil. In controls serum cholesterol was 58.9 +/- 4.5 mg/dl, gallbladder bile was unsaturated with cholesterol (cholesterol saturation index = 0.7 +/- 0.1; cholesterol = 3.8 mmol/L) and none of 12 animals formed cholesterol crystals or stones. The low-fat diet supplemented with cholesterol (group B) increased serum and biliary cholesterol concentrations to 292 +/- 76 mg/dl and 7.5 +/- 1.1 mmol/L, respectively (p < 0.05), but cholesterol saturation index was only modestly increased (1.1 +/- 0.1) and in only one of eight animals did cholesterol monohydrate crystals develop. Group C, animals, which received cholesterol plus high levels of corn oil, had higher serum cholesterol levels (457 +/- 66 mg/dl), higher biliary cholesterol concentrations (16.6 +/- 1.3 mmol/L), higher cholesterol saturation indexes (1.7 +/- 0.1) and increased incidence of cholesterol gallstones (5 of 11). The two cholesterol-supplemented diets increased biliary phospholipid concentrations, decreased the ratio of cholic/chenodeoxycholic acid and increased the proportion of biliary lecithins containing linoleic acid, but these abnormalities were greatest in group C, which was given large amounts of corn oil. These findings suggest that cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog is accelerated by increased dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated triglycerides. PMID:8244276

  6. Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Marina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10: 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10: 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate. Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNF?, IFN-? and oxidative stress (urinary F2-? isoprostanes were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI: change ?2.13% (?3.74%, ?0.52%, but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-? isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  7. Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Fahimi, Saman; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G; Engell, Rebecca E; Powles, John; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1,630,069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the g...

  8. Dietary fat and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieri, Sabina; Krogh, Vittorio; Ferrari, Pietro; Berrino, Franco; Pala, Valeria; Thiébaut, Anne C M; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Chajes, Veronique; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Boeing, Heiner; Nöthlings, Ute; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Lagiou, Pagona; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Lund, Eiliv; Kumle, Merethe; Skeie, Guri; González, Carlos A; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Tormo, María José; Martínez-García, Carmen; Quirós, Jose R; Berglund, Göran; Gullberg, Bo; Hallmans, Göran; Lenner, Per; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Peeters, Petra H M; van Gils, Carla H; Key, Timothy J; Crowe, Francesca L; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay Tee; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting results with respect to an association of dietary fat with breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between fat consumption and breast cancer. DESIGN: We prospectively investigated fat consumption in a large (n = 319,826), geographically and culturally heterogeneous cohort of European women enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition who completed a dietary questionnaire. After a...

  9. Food Sources, Dietary Behavior, and the Saturated Fat Intake of Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Studies dietary patterns that distinguish children with higher and lower mean daily percentages of calories from saturated fat using data from mothers of 205 Latino children aged 4-7 years in New York City. Substituting low-fat for whole milk appears a key strategy for lowering saturated fat intake. (SLD)

  10. Induction of lipid oxidation by polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin in small intestine of mice fed a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Hooiveld Guido JEJ; Vink Carolien; Molthoff Jos; Bunschoten Annelies; Kuda Ondrej; Franssen-van Hal Nicole LW; Flachs Pavel; van Schothorst Evert M; Kopecky Jan; Keijer Jaap

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in particular the long chain marine fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA), are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Little is known of the molecular response to DHA and EPA of the small intestine, and the potential contribution of this organ to the beneficial effects of these fatty acids. Here, we assessed gene expression changes induced by DHA and EPA in the wildtype C57BL/6J muri...

  11. Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeman Jody

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended MEDFICTS cutpoints are too high, leading to overestimation of dietary quality. A cutpoint of 38 appears to be providing optimal identification of patients who do not meet AHA dietary guidelines for fat intake.

  12. Periodontal disease: modulation of the inflammatory cascade by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculley, D V

    2014-06-01

    Periodontal disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is caused by the interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune system. The ensuing oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade result in the destruction of gingival tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This article reviews the underlying mechanisms and host-bacteria interactions responsible for periodontal disease and evidence that nutritional supplementation with fish oil may provide a protective effect. Historical investigations of diet and disease have highlighted an inverse relationship between ingestion of fish oil, which is high in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the incidence of typical inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and coronary heart disease. Ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, results in their incorporation into membrane phospholipids, which can alter eicosanoid production after stimulation during the immune response. These eicosanoids promote a reduction in chronic inflammation, which has led to the proposal that fish oil is a possible modulator of inflammation and may reduce the severity of periodontal diseases. Tentative animal and human studies have provided an indication of this effect. Further human investigation is needed to establish the protective effects of fish oil in relation to periodontal disease. PMID:23889472

  13. Failure to increase lipid oxidation in response to increasing dietary fat content in formerly obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, A; Buemann, B; Christensen, N J; Toubro, S

    1994-04-01

    The effect of an increase in dietary fat content on fat and carbohydrate balances and energy expenditure (EE) was studied in nine formerly obese women with genetic predisposition to obesity (postobese) and a closely matched control group. Isocaloric low- (20% fat energy) and high-fat diets (50%) were consumed for 3 days preceding and during a 24-h respiratory chamber stay, whereas a medium-fat diet (30%) was consumed only on the day of measurement. After adjustment for 24-h energy intake to equal 24-h EE, 24-h fat balance was increased when the dietary fat content increased (P < 0.0002). No differences in macronutrient balances were found on the low-fat and medium-fat diets, but on the high-fat diet the postobese women failed to increase ratio of fat to carbohydrate oxidation appropriately (0.59 g/g, 95% confidence interval 0.47-0.67 vs. controls 1.02 g/g, 0.88-1.12; P = 0.002). This caused a positive adjusted fat balance (+11.0 g/day, 2.3-19.6 vs. controls -8.9 g/day, -17.5 to -0.2; P < 0.001) and a negative carbohydrate balance (-41.8 g/day, -69.5 to -14.0 vs. controls +23.2 g/day, -4.6 to +50.9; P < 0.001). Decreasing the dietary fat content increased 24-h EE in the postobese women (P = 0.02), whereas it was unaffected in the control group. Independent of energy balance, an increase in dietary fat content to 50% fat energy results in preferential fat storage, impaired suppression of carbohydrate oxidation, and reduction of 24-h EE in postobese women. PMID:8178980

  14. Dietary meat and fat intake and prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyake Yoshihiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fat exerts numerous complex effects on proinflammatory and immunologic pathways. Several epidemiological studies have examined the relationships between intake of fatty acids and/or foods high in fat and allergic rhinitis, but have provided conflicting findings. The current cross-sectional study investigated such relationships in Japan. Methods Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. The definition of rhinoconjunctivitis was based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for age; gestation; region of residence; number of older siblings; number of children; smoking; secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work; family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis; household income; education; and body mass index. Results The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months was 25.9%. Higher meat intake was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis: the adjusted odds ratio between extreme quartiles was 1.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-2.35, P for trend = 0.002. No measurable association was found between fish intake and rhinoconjunctivitis. Intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, ?-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and cholesterol and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake were not evidently related to the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis. Conclusions The current results suggest that meat intake may be positively associated with the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in young adult Japanese women.

  15. Dietary total fat and fatty acids intake, serum fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing

    2016-04-15

    Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and risk of breast cancer. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of serum SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were 1.00 (0.78-1.28), 1.41 (0.99-2.03), 0.59 (0.27-1.30), 0.81 (0.60-1.10) and 0.84 (0.60-1.18), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis suggested that dietary total fat and fatty acids might be not associated with risk of breast cancer. PMID:26595162

  16. Impact of Dietary Fat Type and Amount on Growth Performance and Serum Cholesterol in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    A. Alhaidary; H.E. Mohamed; Beynen, A C

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Literature data on the effect of dietary fat on growth performance in rabbits are inconclusive. For commercial rabbit production it is relevant to know to what extent dietary fat level and type can be manipulated. In the present study serum cholesterol was also analyzed because its relation to the amount and type of dietary fat was not known for rabbits. Approach: Young growing rabbits were fed diets containing one of four different levels (5.2-41.8 energy %) of either coco...

  17. [Objective assessment of the habitual dietary fat content in patients with obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, A V; Buemann, B; Western, P; Toubro, S; Raben, A; Christensen, N J

    1995-01-16

    A diet rich in fat may be an important precipitating factor of obesity, but studies on this relation have been hampered by the lack of an objective method to assess habitual dietary fat content. We measured 24-h fat oxidation in a respiration chamber in 38 overwight or obese and 35 nonobese women, and used it as an estimate of habitual dietary fat energy (%). After adjustment for confounders, obese women had higher oxidative fat energy than nonobese women [40.2% (37.8-42.6) vs. 36.0% (33.6-38.5), p or = 1.6%. This objective assessment supports the contention that obese subjects consume a diet with a higher fat content than nonobese individuals, and the high-fat diet may have causal importance for the development and maintenance of obesity. PMID:7846777

  18. The ability of genetically lean or fat slow-growing chickens to synthesize and store lipids is not altered by the dietary energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baéza, E; Gondret, F; Chartrin, P; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C; Gabriel, I; Narcy, A; Lessire, M; Métayer-Coustard, S; Collin, A; Jégou, M; Lagarrigue, S; Duclos, M J

    2015-10-01

    The increasing use of unconventional feedstuffs in chicken's diets results in the substitution of starch by lipids as the main dietary energy source. To evaluate the responses of genetically fat or lean chickens to these diets, males of two experimental lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content were fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets with either high lipid (80 g/kg), high fiber (64 g/kg) contents (HL), or low lipid (20 g/kg), low fiber (21 g/kg) contents (LL) from 22 to 63 days of age. The diet had no effect on growth performance and did not affect body composition evaluated at 63 days of age. Glycolytic and oxidative energy metabolisms in the liver and glycogen storage in liver and Sartorius muscle at 63 days of age were greater in chicken fed LL diet compared with chicken fed HL diet. In Pectoralis major (PM) muscle, energy metabolisms and glycogen content were not different between diets. There were no dietary-associated differences in lipid contents of the liver, muscles and abdominal fat. However, the percentages of saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in tissue lipids were generally higher, whereas percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were lower for diet LL than for diet HL. The fat line had a greater feed intake and average daily gain, but gain to feed ratio was lower in that line compared with the lean line. Fat chickens were heavier than lean chickens at 63 days of age. Their carcass fatness was higher and their muscle yield was lower than those of lean chickens. The oxidative enzyme activities in the liver were lower in the fat line than in the lean line, but line did not affect energy metabolism in muscles. The hepatic glycogen content was not different between lines, whereas glycogen content and glycolytic potential were higher in the PM muscle of fat chickens compared with lean chickens. Lipid contents in the liver, muscles and abdominal fat did not differ between lines, but fat chickens stored less MUFA and more PUFA in abdominal fat and muscles than lean chickens. Except for the fatty acid composition of liver and abdominal fat, no interaction between line and diet was observed. In conclusion, the amount of lipids stored in muscles and fatty tissues by lean or fat chickens did not depend on the dietary energy source. PMID:25959107

  19. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm; Bartels, E.M.; Melanson, E.L.; Saris, W.H.; Tremblay, A.; Astrup, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal fat excretion, we performed a systematic review with meta-analysis. We included randomized, controlled trials of calcium (supplements or dairy) in healthy subjects, where faecal fat excretion was measure...

  20. Correlation Between Dietary Fat Intake and Atherogenic Indices in Normal, Overweight and Obese Adults with or Without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaf Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: We investigated the association of dietary intake, particularly fat and its constituent fatty acids, with atherogenic indices in adult patients with overweight, obesity and/or type 2 diabetes (T2D. Material and Methods: Two hundred eighty-five outpatients were selected in two cities located in the Northwestern region of Algeria. Anthropometric measurements for body weight, height, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were performed. Relationships between dietary intakes, estimated by a 3- days food record, and fasting blood atherogenic indices - total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL-c and apolipoprotein (apo B-to-apo A1 ratio, were analysed. Results: Study group included 58.59% overweight/obese T2D patients, 24.91% normal weight T2D patients and 16.49 % overweight/obese patients without diabetes. Higher dietary consumption (p= 0.003 of total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, was recorded in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients. Significant positive correlations were observed between apo B/apo A1 and total fat (p= 0.035, total SFAs (p= 0.042 and palmitic acid (p= 0.042 in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients and with ?6 fatty acid (p= 0.030 in the group of overweight/obese patients without diabetes. In the two groups of T2D patients, whether normal weight, overweight/obese, numerous positive correlations with TC/HDL-c were disclosed for PUFAs, ?6 and fatty acids ratios, namely, ?6/?3, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFAs and (MUFAs+PUFAs/SFAs. Conclusion: Most adults, whom are either affected by an excess weight or T2D or both together, are prone to cardiovascular risk. Dietary intakes, particularly in fat and its constituent fatty acids, have an important effect on blood lipid atherogenic indices (TC/HDL-c and apo B/apo A1 ratios.

  1. Impact of Dietary Fat Type and Amount on Growth Performance and Serum Cholesterol in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alhaidary

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Literature data on the effect of dietary fat on growth performance in rabbits are inconclusive. For commercial rabbit production it is relevant to know to what extent dietary fat level and type can be manipulated. In the present study serum cholesterol was also analyzed because its relation to the amount and type of dietary fat was not known for rabbits. Approach: Young growing rabbits were fed diets containing one of four different levels (5.2-41.8 energy % of either coconut fat or corn oil. Fat was added to the diets at the expense of an isoenergetic amount of corn starch and dextrose in a 1:1 ratio. The diets were in pelleted form and supplied ad libitum. Results: Increasing fat intakes in the form of either coconut fat or corn oil enhanced weight gain and improved feed efficiency. The effect of coconut fat was maximal at 20.9 energy % (9.9%, w/w and the greatest effect of corn oil was seen at an inclusion level of 41.8 energy % (20.2%, w/w. As would be expected, replacement of dietary corn oil by coconut fat significantly decreased serum cholesterol concentrations. The cholesterol-lowering effect of corn oil versus coconut fat increased markedly with higher dietary inclusion levels of fat. Conclusion: The addition of fat to the diet improved growth performance. It is suggested to find out whether the present observations can be applied in the formulation of diets for fryer rabbits. The new observation for rabbits is that the hypocholesterolemic response to corn oil increased with higher intake levels.

  2. Maternal Dietary Intake of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modifies the Relationship between Lead Levels in Bone and Breast Milk1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Manish; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Peterson, Karen E.; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O

    2008-01-01

    Whereas dietary fats are known to influence bone mineral density, little is known about their effect on the skeletal stores of lead that are a pervasive source of fetal and infant lead exposure from heightened mobilization during pregnancy and lactation. This cross-sectional study examined the potential influence of maternal dietary intake of saturated and unsaturated fats on the relationship of lead levels in bone and breast milk during lactation. Lead was measured in blood, breast milk, and...

  3. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids from flaxseed affect immune responses of dairy sheep around parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Albenzio, Marzia; Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Sevi, Agostino

    2015-11-15

    The objective of the study was to characterize the immune profile of dairy ewes fed flaxseed, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), around parturition. The hypothesis to be verified was that a physiological stressor, such as parturition, could be overcome with a nutritional manipulation in the diet of the animal in order to guarantee welfare of animals and to sustain their immune responses. Twenty Comisana ewes were divided in two groups (10 ewes/group), and fed a supplementation of whole flaxseed in the diet (FS group) or no supplementation (CON group). Blood samples were collected at parturition and then 7, 14, 21, 28, and 42 day post partum. Plasma samples were used to assess the humoral immune response after ovalbumin (OVA) immunization. At parturition, at 14 day, and 42 day post partum the level of plasma cytokines was assessed. The sheep showed a reduced responsiveness to OVA immunization. In FS ewes the IL-6 level remained unchanged until 14 day post partum and then significantly decreased from 14 day to 42 day post partum. IL-10 level was significantly higher in FS ewes than in CON ewes at 14 day. At parturition IL-1β level was significantly lower in FS ewes than in CON ewes and significantly decreased in both groups from parturition to 42 day. In conclusion, PUFA from flaxseed, as supplement in the diet of ewes around parturition can modulate sheep immune reactivity by influencing cytokine production. PMID:26347035

  4. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Bouchard-Mercier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208 participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA. Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187 and ACOX1 (rs17583163 genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation.

  5. Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Merritt, MA; Riboli, E.; Weiderpass, E; Tsilidis, KK; Overvad, K.; Tjønneland, A.; Hansen, L.; Dossus, L; Fagherazzi, G; Baglietto, L.; Fortner, RT; Ose, J; Steffen, A; Boeing, H.; Trichopoulou, A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from early observational studies have suggested that the intake of dietary fat might be a contributing factor in the etiology of prostate cancer. However, the results from more recent prospective studies do not support this hypothesis, and the possible association between different food sources of fat and prostate cancer risk also remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to assess whether intakes of dietary fat, subtypes of fat, and fat from animal products were as...

  6. Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Francesca L; Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Travis, Ruth C; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Johnsen, Nina F; Tjønneland, Anne; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Krogh, Vitorrio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sánchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; González, Carlos A; Quirós, José R; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Stattin, Pär; Hallmans, Göran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bingham, Sheila; Ferrari, Pietro; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from early observational studies have suggested that the intake of dietary fat might be a contributing factor in the etiology of prostate cancer. However, the results from more recent prospective studies do not support this hypothesis, and the possible association between different food sources of fat and prostate cancer risk also remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to assess whether intakes of dietary fat, subtypes of fat, and fat from animal products were assoc...

  7. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B. M.; Bjørnsbo, K. B.; Tetens, Inge; Heitmann, B. L.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the diets of Danish children, and to examine the associations between dietary GI, GL and body fatness. Data were collected during 1997-8 as part of the European Youth Heart Study. The study...... daily dietary GI value was 85 (SD 6 center dot 9) with a range of 62-111. No significant differences were found between age groups and gender. The daily dietary GL was higher among boys aged 16, with a GL of 330 (sd 95) (P < 0 center dot 05), compared with girls or younger boys. Dietary GL was higher...

  8. Interplay between exercise and dietary fat modulates myelinogenesis in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyesook; Kleven, Andrew; Paulsen, Alex; Kleppe, Laurel; Wu, Jianmin; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Scarisbrick, Isobel A

    2016-04-01

    Here we show that the interplay between exercise training and dietary fat regulates myelinogenesis in the adult central nervous system. Mice consuming high fat with coordinate voluntary running wheel exercise for 7weeks showed increases in the abundance of the major myelin membrane proteins, proteolipid (PLP) and myelin basic protein (MBP), in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Expression of MBP and PLP RNA, as well that for Myrf1, a transcription factor driving oligodendrocyte differentiation were also differentially increased under each condition. Furthermore, expression of IGF-1 and its receptor IGF-1R, known to promote myelinogenesis, were also increased in the spinal cord in response to high dietary fat or exercise training. Parallel increases in AKT signaling, a pro-myelination signaling intermediate activated by IGF-1, were also observed in the spinal cord of mice consuming high fat alone or in combination with exercise. Despite the pro-myelinogenic effects of high dietary fat in the context of exercise, high fat consumption in the setting of a sedentary lifestyle reduced OPCs and mature oligodendroglia. Whereas 7weeks of exercise training alone did not alter OPC or oligodendrocyte numbers, it did reverse reductions seen with high fat. Evidence is presented suggesting that the interplay between exercise and high dietary fat increase SIRT1, PGC-1α and antioxidant enzymes which may permit oligodendroglia to take advantage of diet and exercise-related increases in mitochondrial activity to yield increases in myelination despite higher levels of reactive oxygen species. PMID:26826016

  9. Maternal dietary imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids impairs neocortical development via epoxy metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakayori, Nobuyuki; Kikkawa, Takako; Tokuda, Hisanori; Kiryu, Emiko; Yoshizaki, Kaichi; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Arai, Hiroyuki; Kang, Jing X; Katagiri, Hideki; Shibata, Hiroshi; Innis, Sheila M; Arita, Makoto; Osumi, Noriko

    2016-02-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients. Although several studies have suggested that a balanced dietary n-6:n-3 ratio is essential for brain development, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we found that feeding pregnant mice an n-6 excess/n-3 deficient diet, which reflects modern human diets, impairsed neocortical neurogenesis in the offspring. This impaired neurodevelopment occurs through a precocious fate transition of neural stem cells from the neurogenic to gliogenic lineage. A comprehensive mediator lipidomics screen revealed key mediators, epoxy metabolites, which were confirmed functionally using a neurosphere assay. Importantly, although the offspring were raised on a well-balanced n-6:n-3 diet, they exhibited increased anxiety-related behavior in adulthood. These findings provide compelling evidence that excess maternal consumption of n-6 PUFAs combined with insufficient intake of n-3 PUFAs causes abnormal brain development that can have long-lasting effects on the offspring's mental state. Stem Cells 2016;34:470-482. PMID:26580686

  10. Food, fat, family and friends: studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was developed. Biomarker-based validity (n = 99), relative validity against a dietary history (n = 191), and reproducibility (n = 93) were satisfactory for adults.Up to 40% of the variance in fat intake, expressed as %...

  11. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%–27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile.

  12. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Shahidi, Mariam; Du, Jianling; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%-27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile. PMID:26742059

  13. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25989998

  14. Transgenesis of humanized fat1 promotes n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in goat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yixuan; Ren, Caifang; Wang, Zhibo; Jia, Ruoxin; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Guomin; Wan, Yongjie; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-15

    The n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene fat1 codes for the n-3 desaturase enzyme, which can convert n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to n-3 PUFAs. The n-3 PUFAs are essential components required for normal cellular function and have preventive and therapeutic effects on many diseases. Goat is an important domestic animal for human consumption of meat and milk. To elevate the concentrations of n-3 PUFAs and examine the regulatory mechanism of fat1 in PUFA metabolism in goat cells, we successfully constructed a humanized fat1 expression vector and confirmed the efficient expression of fat1 in goat ear skin-derived fibroblast cells (GEFCs) by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Fatty acid analysis showed that fat1 overexpression significantly increased the levels of total n-3 PUFAs and decreased the levels of total n-6 PUFAs in GEFCs. In addition, qRT-PCR results indicate that the FADS1 and FADS2 desaturase genes, ELOV2 and ELOV5 elongase genes, ACO and CPT1 oxidation genes, and PPARa and PPAR? transcription factors are up-regulated, and transcription factors of SREBP-1c gene are down-regulated in the fat1 transgenic goat cells. Overall, fat1-overexpression resulted in an increase in the n-3 fatty acids and altered expression of PUFA synthesis related genes in GEFCs. This work lays a foundation for both the production of fat1 transgenic goats and further study of the mechanism of fat1 function in the PUFAs metabolism. PMID:26474750

  15. Olive oil, dietary fat and ageing, a mitochondrial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiles, José L.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageing represents a great concern in developed countries because the high number of people included in this group (indeed, a further increase in the rate of old people it is expected in the near future. Another important aspect concerning ageing is the number of pathologies related with this phenomenon like Alzheimer, Parkinson, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. According to the free radical theory of ageing and its further mitochondrial extension, ageing is the result of the oxidative insult to the organism throughout the life. Some of the damages are not entirely repaired and are accumulated, leading to organism malfunction. Such oxidative-stress related events are particularly important in mitochondria and specially at the mitochondrial DNA level (less protected and more prone to oxidation than nuclear DNA and with a not well established repairing system. Such mitochondrial damage directly affects to the cell energy delivery system, being that, at least in part, the explanation for the structural and functional impairments related to age. Oxidative stress is related with the fatty acid composition of membranes. The intake of a type of fat affects in a direct way the fatty acids and antioxidants composition of subcellular membranes (including mitochondrial membranes and in an indirect way the susceptibility of the membrane to oxidation. Thus, if we build specific biological membranes according to particular types of fats, we would be able to positively affect the way and intensity in which different organs would age. This work hypothesis represents a new point of view in the investigation of ageing and might have important consequences. According to the above-mentioned premises, this work reviews the convenience to use virgin olive oil as dietary fat from the point of view of mitochondrial ageing.El envejecimiento preocupa enormemente en los países desarrollados por el alto número de personas incluidas en este grupo de población (se espera un aumento de este colectivo en el futuro. También es importante la incidencia de patologías relacionadas con el envejecimiento tales como Alzheimer, Parkinson, diabetes, enfermedades cardiovasculares y cáncer. Según la teoría de los radicales libres del envejecimiento y su posterior extensión mitocondrial, el envejecimiento proviene del daño oxidativo al organismo a lo largo de la vida. Parte del daño no es reparado y se acumula, dando lugar a un funcionamiento celular incorrecto. Tales eventos oxidativos son muy importantes a nivel mitocondrial, especialmente en su ADN, menos protegido y más susceptible a la oxidación que el nuclear y con un sistema de reparación aun sin elucidar en su totalidad. El daño mitocondrial afecta a la producción de energía celular, lo cual puede explicar las alteraciones estructurales y funcionales asociadas al envejecimiento. El estrés oxidativo se relaciona con la composición en ácidos grasos de las membranas biológicas. La ingesta de un tipo de grasa afecta a la composición en ácidos grasos y antioxidantes de las membranas subcelulares y a la susceptibilidad de las mismas a la oxidación. Por tanto, si construyéramos membranas basadas en determinadas grasas, podríamos condicionar el modo e intensidad del envejecimiento en determinados órganos y tejidos. Esta hipótesis de trabajo representa un novedoso enfoque dentro del estudio del envejecimiento que podría tener importantes consecuencias. Según las premisas anteriores, el presente trabajo revisa la conveniencia del empleo en la dieta de aceite de oliva virgen de forma preferencial desde el punto de vista del envejecimiento mitocondrial.

  16. Diet-gene interactions between dietary fat intake and common polymorphisms in determining lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corella, Dolores

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Current dietary guidelines for fat intake have not taken into consideration the possible genetic differences underlying the individual variability in responsiveness to dietary components. Genetic variability has been identified in humans for all the known lipid metabolim-related genes resulting in a plethora of candidate genes and genetic variants to examine in diet-gene interaction studies focused on fat consumption. Some examples of fat-gene interaction are reviewed. These include: the interaction between total intake and the 514C/T in the hepatic lipase gene promoter in determining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C metabolism; the interaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and the 75G/A polymorphism in the APOA1 gene plasma HDL-C concentrations; the interaction between PUFA and the L162V polymorphism in the PPARA gene in determining triglycerides and APOC3 concentrations; and the interaction between PUFA intake and the 1131TC in the APOA5 gene in determining triglyceride metabolism. Although hundreds of diet-gene interaction studies in lipid metabolism have been published, the level of evidence to make specific nutritional recommendations to the population is still low and more research in nutrigenetics has to be undertaken.Las recomendaciones dietéticas actuales referentes al consumo de grasas en la dieta han sido realizadas sin tener en cuenta las posibles diferencias genéticas de las personas que podrían ser las responsables de las diferentes respuestas interindividuales que frecuentemente se observan ante la misma dieta. La presencia de variabilidad genética ha sido puesta de manifiesto para todos los genes relacionados con el metabolismo lipídico, por lo que existe un ingente número de genes y de variantes genéticas para ser incluidas en los estudios sobre interacciones dieta-genotipo en el ámbito específico del consumo de grasas y aceites. Se revisarán algunos ejemplos sobre interacciones grasa-genotipo. Estas interacciones incluyen: la interacción entre el consumo de grasa total y el polimorfismo 514C/T en el promotor del gen de la lipasa hepática determinando las concentraciones de colesterol ligado a lipoproteínas de alta densidad (c-HDL; la interacción entre el consumo de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados y el polimorfismo 75G/A en el promotor del gen APOA1 en las concentraciones plasmáticas de c-HDL; la interacción entre los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados y el polimorfismo L162V en el gen PPARA determinando las concentraciones plasmáticas de triglicéridos y de apolipoproteína C-III; la interacción entre el polimorfismo 1131TC en el promotor del gen de la APOA5 determinando el metabolismo de los triglicéridos. Aunque se han publicado cientos de estudios dieta-genotipo en el ámbito del metabolismo lipídico, el nivel de evidencia científica todavía es bajo para realizar recomendaciones nutricionales a la población, por lo que se requiere mucha más investigación nutrigenética.

  17. The Influence of Different Vegetable Oils on Some ?-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Thigh and Abdominal Fat of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago? Sorin Fota

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy sources, especialy vegetable oils, added to the combined fodder can segnificantly modefy the fatty acids profile of the chicken feed, thus through its control the fatty acids profile of the carcases can be modefied, through enrichment in some fatty acids. In this respect an experiment was coduced on broilers, made up of three experimental groups, fed with a combined base fodder (corn and soybean meal in which 2% of different energy sources were added (sunflower oil, soybean oil, linseed oil. At the end of the 42 days growing period, using gaz cromatography, the fatty acids profile, % of fatty acids in 100 g product (EPA,DPA, DHA, ? SFA, ? MUFA, ? PUFA from the studied cut pieces, were determined. The results obtained after statistc processing and interpretation of the data, showed the fact that regarding the fatty acids profile in chicken thigh and abdominal fat we can observe variations, what denotes that the fatty acids profile can be influenced by dietary factors, the quantity being yet determined by the participation % of the energy sources (vegetable oils, but also by the fatty acids content of the participating raw materials.

  18. Potential role of dietary lipids in the prophylaxis of some clinical conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagat, Urvashi; Das, Undurti N.

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance of dietary lipids may potentially have a significant role in the pathobiology of some chronic diseases. Public health dietary fat recommendations have emphasized that low saturated fat, high monounsaturated fat, and high polyunsaturated fat with a lower ω-6 to ω-3 fatty acid ratio intake are necessary for normal health. However, such universal recommendations are likely to be hazardous, since the outcome of recommended lipid intake may depend on the consumption of other important...

  19. Dietary fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio

    2014-01-01

    There are inconsistent and limited data available to assess the relationship between fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We examined the consumption of total fat, fat sources and fat subtypes in relation to risk of EOC and its major histologic subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition which includes incident invasive (n=1095) and borderline (n=96) EOC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In multivariate models, we observed no association with consumption of total fat, animal or plant fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, monounsaturated fat, or fatty fish and risk of invasive EOC. There was, however, an increased risk of invasive EOC in the highest category of intake (Quartile 4 vs. Quartile 1) of polyunsaturated fat (HR=1.22, 95% CI=1.02-1.48, Ptrend=0.02). We did not observe heterogeneity in the risk associations in comparisons of serous and endometrioid histologic subtypes. This study does not support an etiological role for total fat intake in relation to EOC risk; however, based on observations of a positive association between intake of polyunsaturated fat and invasive EOC risk in the current and previous studies, this fat subtype warrants further investigation to determine its potential role in EOC development.

  20. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R.; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Svith, Carina Roholm; Bartels, E.M.; Melanson, E.L.; Saris, W.H.; Tremblay, A.; Astrup, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Observational studies have found that dietary calcium intake is inversely related to body weight and body fat mass. One explanatory mechanism is that dietary calcium increases faecal fat excretion. To examine the effect of calcium from dietary supplements or dairy products on quantitative faecal...... fat excretion, we performed a systematic review with meta-analysis. We included randomized, controlled trials of calcium (supplements or dairy) in healthy subjects, where faecal fat excretion was measured. Meta-analyses used random-effects models with changes in faecal fat excreted expressed as...

  1. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik; Vaag, A.

    2006-01-01

    analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R-2 = 0.33, P <0.01). Conclusions A hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention programme increased......Objective Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity....... Design Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  2. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E; Vaag, Allan

    2006-01-01

    that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention programme increased incorporation......OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity....... DESIGN Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  3. Effects of partial replacement of dietary fat by olestra on dietary cholesterol absorption in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olestra, a nonabsorbable fat substitute comprising long-chain fatty acid esters of sucrose, had been previously shown to reduce cholesterol absorption in humans when ingested at a level of 50 g/d. To determine whether or not a lower level of dietary olestra would also reduce cholesterol absorption, we studied the effect of 7 g of olestra twice a day in 20 normocholesterolemic male inpatients in a double-blind, crossover trial. Two 6-day diet treatment and stool collection periods were separated by a 14-day washout period. Half of the subjects received butter, and half, a butter-olestra blend during each treatment period according to a crossover design. All subjects ingested trace amounts of 3H-cholesterol and 14C-beta-sitosterol with the butter or the butter-olestra blend. Cholesterol absorption was determined from the 3H/14C ratios in the diet and in saponified and extracted stools according to previously validated methodology. Cholesterol absorption during the butter regimen was significantly greater than that during the olestra regimen (56.1% +/- 1.6% v 46.7% +/- 1.1%, P less than .01)

  4. Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Fahimi, Saman; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G; Engell, Rebecca E; Powles, John; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1,630,069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national......OBJECTIVES: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega...... and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. SETTING AND POPULATION: Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. RESULTS: In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country...

  5. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik; Vaag, A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity. Design Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of F...

  6. Lipid metabolism and the risk factors of cardiovascular disease: implication of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Kayode A

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a complicated and multifarious disease, and is the number one cause of mortality worldwide. The pathogenesis of CVD is attributed to the interaction between genetics and environment. There are numerous data that support the cardioprotective properties of omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); however, there are also controversial reports. Considering the reported sex and age differences in the pathophysiology of CVD and the metabolism of n-3 PUFA, it is imperative to consider these factors in the cardioprotective effects of n-3 PUFA. The current thesis investigated the effects of n-3 PUFA on the risk factors of CVD, such as dyslipidemia and obesity, with a particular focus on how sex, age, and dose of n-3 PUFA affect lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins of C57BL/6 mice offspring at weaning and 16 weeks postweaning were chosen as study outcomes to assess the sex, age, and dose-specific effects of n-3 PUFA on markers of dyslipidemia, a well-known risk factor of CVD. A longer exposure to a postnatal diet high in n-3 PUFA increased plasma concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the offspring in a sex-specific manner; however, the profile of this increase was less atherogenic, as the high n-3 PUFA group had a lower plasma concentration of very small LDL particles in both males and females. There was no effect of high n-3 PUFA diet observed on plasma concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; however, the high n-3 PUFA group had a higher cholesterol efflux in the male offspring but not in female offspring. Lipidomic analyses revealed that high n-3 PUFA diet led to higher hepatic and plasma concentrations of n-3 PUFA-containing bioactive lipids, such a phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine and free fatty acids, which could positively influence pathways involved in cardioprotection. The effects of dietary n-3 PUFA on obesity at the cellular level was also investigated, using adipocyte hypertrophy as the outcome measure of adipose tissue enlargement. A diet high in n-3 PUFA prevented adipocyte hypertrophy in males, with no effect in females. High n-3 PUFA diet also led to the downregulation of the messenger RNA expression of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2, fatty acid binding protein-4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor protein γ, and leptin in males, which are key proteins involved in adipocyte hypertrophy; however, no effect was observed in females. The last study assessed the effects of dose and duration of exposure to dietary n-3 PUFA on docosahexaenoic acid accretion in the brain, and the expression of neurotrophins known to have neuroprotective and cardioprotective benefits. Dietary n-3 PUFA led to an age-dependent increase in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tropomyosin receptor kinase, and phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein. In conclusion, the results from the current thesis demonstrate a sex-, dose-, and age-specific effect of n-3 PUFA on risk factors of CVD, and on novel regulatory pathways by which n-3 PUFA could reduce dyslipidemia and obesity. The results also suggest that n-3 PUFA could be neuroprotective and cardioprotective through a common neurotrophin signalling pathway. PMID:26778139

  7. On the binding ratio of ?-cyclodextrin to dietary fat in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jen KLC; Grunberger G; Artiss JD

    2013-01-01

    KL Catherine Jen,1,2 George Grunberger,3 Joseph D Artiss2,4 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2ArtJen Complexus Inc, Windsor, ON, Canada; 3The Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA; 4Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: ?-Cyclodextrin (?-CD), a soluble dietary fiber, has been shown to bind and eliminate nine times of its own weight in dietary fat. Studie...

  8. Postprandial oxidative stress is modified by dietary fat: evidences from a human intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Quintana, Jose M; Elena M Yubero-Serrano; Tasset-Cuevas, Inmaculada; Tunez, Isaac; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Marin, Carmen; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Roche, Helen M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Previous evidences support the concept that increased oxidative stress may play an important role in the metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related manifestations. Dietary fat quality has been proposed to be critical in oxidative stress and the pathogenesis of the MetS. We investigated whether oxidative stress parameters are affected by diets with different fat quantity and quality during the postprandial state in subjects with the MetS. Patients were randomly assigned to one of fo...

  9. Relationship between Dietary Beef, Fat, and Pork and Alcoholic Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Stephen Bridges

    2009-01-01

    Nanji and French [1] investigated the relationship between per-caput consumption of total fat, beef, and pork and for alcohol consumption and rates of mortality for cirrhosis for 16 countries for 1965. The present study reports significant and positive associations for 1996 and 2003 between the following: alcohol consumption and cirrhosis mortality, pork consumption and cirrhosis mortality, the product of alcohol and pork consumption and the product of alcohol and fat consumption. These suppo...

  10. Dietary oxidized poultry offal fat: broiler performance and oxidative stability of thigh meat during chilled storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMC Racanicci

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC. Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass characteristics were measured. Skinless and deboned thigh meat was stored chilled during 12 days, and samples were periodically collected to assess their quality and oxidative stability. Dietary oxidized fat did not affect bird performance or carcass characteristics. During chilled storage, meat color (L*, a* and b* was not affected by dietary treatments; however, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances values were higher (P<0.05 in thigh meat from chickens fed the oxidized fat, indicating that oxidative stability was adversely affected.

  11. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumontet, Catherine; Even, Patrick C; Schwarz, Jessica; Simonin-Foucault, Angélique; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Tomé, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the effects of high protein intake on the development of fat deposition and partitioning in response to high-fat and/or HS feeding. A total of thirty adult male Wistar rats were assigned to one of the six dietary regimens with low and high protein, sucrose and fat contents for 5 weeks. Body weight (BW) and food intake were measured weekly. Oral glucose tolerance tests and meal tolerance tests were performed after 4th and 5th weeks of the regimen, respectively. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a calibrated meal. Blood, tissues and organs were collected for analysis of circulating metabolites and hormones, body composition and mRNA expression in the liver and adipose tissues. No changes were observed in cumulative energy intake and BW gain after 5 weeks of dietary treatment. However, high-protein diets reduced by 20 % the adiposity gain induced by HS and high-sucrose high-fat (HS-HF) diets. Gene expression and transcriptomic analysis suggested that high protein intake reduced liver capacity for lipogenesis by reducing mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase (fasn), acetyl-CoA carboxylase a and b (Acaca and Acacb) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (Srebf-1c). Moreover, ketogenesis, as indicated by plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate levels, was higher in HS-HF-fed mice that were also fed high protein levels. Taken together, these results suggest that high-protein diets may reduce adiposity by inhibiting lipogenesis and stimulating ketogenesis in the liver. PMID:26285832

  12. On the binding ratio of ?-cyclodextrin to dietary fat in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen KLC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available KL Catherine Jen,1,2 George Grunberger,3 Joseph D Artiss2,4 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2ArtJen Complexus Inc, Windsor, ON, Canada; 3The Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA; 4Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: ?-Cyclodextrin (?-CD, a soluble dietary fiber, has been shown to bind and eliminate nine times of its own weight in dietary fat. Studies with different animal models have reported that ?-CD preferentially binds saturated fatty acids, reducing saturated and trans fatty acid levels in blood. A clinical trial demonstrated that ?-CD prevented weight gain in obese diabetic patients. The present study was designed to examine whether ?-CD also shows a preference in binding saturated fatty acids in humans and to confirm the 1:9 binding ratio in humans. Sixty-six obese diabetic patients were recruited at the beginning of this 3-month, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to the Active or Placebo group. Blood samples and 3-day dietary records were collected at baseline and at the end of months 1, 2, and 3. A bottle of 180 tablets of active or placebo tablets was dispensed to each participant at the beginning of each month. Dietary records were analyzed using The Food Processor software. It was observed that ?-CD has a higher affinity towards saturated fats than to unsaturated fats. Participants with higher intakes of total and saturated fat lost more weight than those with lower intakes (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively. These data support the earlier observation in both in vitro and animal studies that ?-CD binds with dietary fat in a 1:9 ratio and further demonstrate the efficacy of ?-CD in binding to and eliminating dietary fat, especially saturated fats. ?-CD may play a significant role in reducing blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as stopping chronic weight gain. Keywords: FBCx®, fat binding capacity, 1:9 binding ratio, reducing blood cholesterol levels, saturated, dietary analysis

  13. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgit M; Bjørnsbo, Kirsten S; Tetens, Inge; Heitmann, Berit L

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the diets of Danish children, and to examine the associations between dietary GI, GL and body fatness. Data were collected during 1997-8 as part of the European Youth Heart Study. The study population comprised 485 children aged 10 years and 364 children aged 16 years from Odense County, Denmark. Dietary GI and GL were estimated using international food tables, and the associations between energy...

  14. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY FAT ON LEPTIN AND INSULIN IN MALE ALBINO RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty male albino rats were arranged into 5 equal groups which were used in this study to investigate the relation between leptin and insulin hormones under high fat intake and to assess the role of fresh vegetable intake on minimizing dyslipidemia.The results denoted that dietary fat caused significant increase in the levels of blood glucose and leptin hormone with significant decrease in insulin concentration and with prolonged high fat intake, insulin level was increased. However, the increased leptin and glucose indicated that prolonged fatty diet may cause insulin resistance. Addition of green vegetables to the diet normalized to a great extent the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, glucose and insulin

  15. The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara, G.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain.El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar los efectos de la grasa de la dieta de dos estirpes de ponedoras (Hy-line y Warren sobre el contenido de ácidos grasos y colesterol del huevo durante un periodo del ciclo de puesta de 20 meses. Ambas estirpes recibieron 3 dietas consecutivas que contenían 7% de lípidos de los cuales 3% provenía de los componentes basales de la dieta y 4% fue adicionado en forma de grasa, aceites u oleínas con objeto de aumentar progresivamente el contenido de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados y disminuir el contenido de los ácidos grasos saturados y monoinsaturados. El cambio de grasa en la dieta afectó al perfil de la mayoría de los ácidos grasos del huevo, sugiriéndose la existencia de un mínimo de ácido elaídico en la grasa añadida para su aparición en el huevo. El contenido de AGP se incrementó mientras que el de AGM disminuyó en el huevo a lo largo del estudio. El contenido de colesterol fue mas elevado con la mezcla de grasa animal/aceite de soja que con la grasa animal o con la mezcla oleica/aceite de soja. La grasa añadida a la dieta más que la estirpe de ponedora influyó sobre la composición de ácidos grasos el cociente AGS/AGP contenido de colesterol e índices aterogénicos y trombogénicos.

  16. Interactive effects of dietary fat source and slaughter weight in growing-finishing swine: I. Growth performance and longissimus muscle fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K; Maxwell, C V; Galloway, D L; Hutchison, S; Hamilton, C R

    2009-04-01

    Crossbred pigs (n=288) were used to test the interactive effects of dietary fat source and slaughter weight on live performance, carcass traits, and fatty acid composition of the LM. Pigs were blocked by initial BW, and, within each of 9 blocks, pens (8 pigs/pen) were randomly assigned to either control corn-soybean meal grower and finisher diets devoid of added fat (Ctrl) or diets formulated with 5% beef tallow (BT), poultry fat (PF), or soybean oil (SBO). Immediately after treatment allotment, as well as at mean block BW of 45.5, 68.1, 90.9, and 113.6 kg, 1 pig was randomly selected from each pen, slaughtered, and allowed to chill for 48 h at 1 degrees C. Backfat was measured on the right sides, and a sample of the LM was removed for fatty acid composition analysis. Regardless of source, inclusion of fat in swine diets did not (P >or= 0.349) affect ADG, ADFI, or G:F. Furthermore, carcasses from pigs fed diets formulated with 5% fat had greater (P=0.013) average backfat depths than those from pigs fed the Ctrl diet. Body weight, carcass weight, and backfat depths increased (P<0.001) as slaughter weight increased from 28.1 to 113.6 kg. The proportion of SFA in the LM increased (P<0.001) with increasing slaughter weight from 28.1 to 68.1 kg, but SFA percentages were similar between 68.1 and 113.6 kg, and pigs fed the Ctrl diet had greater (P=0.032) proportions of SFA than pigs fed the SBO and PF diets. Moreover, the proportion of all MUFA increased (P<0.001) by 9.4 percentage units from 28.1 to 113.6 kg; however, only pigs fed the SBO diet had reduced (P=0.004) MUFA percentages than those fed the Ctrl, BT, and PF diets. Even though the proportion of PUFA in the LM decreased with increasing slaughter weight, pigs fed SBO had greater PUFA percentages, a greater PUFA-to-SFA ratio, and greater iodine values than pigs fed all other dietary treatments when slaughtered at BW of 45.5 kg or greater (fat source x slaughter weight, P < 0.001). Results of this study indicate that fat source had little to no impact on live pig performance, but feeding a polyunsaturated fat source altered the fatty acid profile of the LM within the first 17.4 kg of BW gain; more specifically, including 5% SBO in swine diets could lead to economical ramifications associated with soft pork or fat. PMID:19066246

  17. DIETARY FAT RELATED ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS OF ADULT MALES OF DIFFERENT ETHNICITY/RACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to examine dietary-fat related attitudes and practices of adult males, ages 20 years and over, in the USDA's, nationally representative, 1994-1996 Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS). There were 2,304 non-Hispanic, White Americans, 275 African Americans, and 241 H...

  18. Social worlds, actor-networks and controversy: the case of cholesterol, dietary fat and heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrety, K

    1997-10-01

    Knowledge which links dietary fat and cholesterol to coronary heart disease (CHD) has been controversial for more than forty years. While policies advocating fat and cholesterol restriction are now deeply ingrained in affluent western societies, the scientific 'facts' on which they are supposedly based are highly contested. Applying concepts from actor-network theory and the symbolic interactionist social worlds approach, I argue that knowledge and dietary recommendations relating to cholesterol, fat and CHD are the outcome of complex social negotiations which can only be understood in their cultural, commercial and political contexts. Policies were framed in the 1960s before 'proof' of their efficacy was available. Since then, ambiguous experimental results have been shaped to support the policies. I argue that, despite its many attractive features, actor-network theory cannot adequately deal with protracted controversies. Social worlds theory provides a much more useful framework for investigating long debates in which the 'facts' remain elusive. PMID:11619512

  19. Dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk: dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luo; Hou, Rui; Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have provided controversial evidence of the association between dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk. To address this inconsistency, we conducted this dose-response meta-analysis by total dietary fat intake, based on epidemiological studies published up to the end of June 2015 identified from PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. Two authors (RH and Q-JW) independently performed the eligibility evaluation and data extraction. All differences were resolved by discussion with the third investigator (LJ). Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 16 studies (6 cohort and 10 case-control studies) that involved a total of 7556 EC cases and 563,781 non-cases. The summary RR for EC for each 30g/day increment intake was 0.98 (95%CI?=?0.95-1.001; I(2)?=?0%; n?=?11) for total dietary fat. Non-significant results were observed in plant-based fat (summary RR?=?1.05, 95%CI?=?0.94-1.18; I(2)?=?0%; n?=?5) and animal-based fat (summary RR?=?1.17, 95%CI?=?0.92-1.36; I(2)?=?85.0%; n?=?6). Additionally, the null associations were observed in almost all the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, findings of the present meta-analysis suggested a lack of association between total dietary fat intake and EC risk. Further studies, especially prospective designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:26568366

  20. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:21695545

  1. TFAP2B Influences the Effect of Dietary Fat on Weight Loss under Energy Restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, T.; Angquist, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. Methods and Findings: Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. (Registration: ISRCTN25867281.) One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat%) in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6) greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1) greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p=0.00007). The replication study showed a similar (non-significant) interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i) the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii) the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii) the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i) the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii) the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii) some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. Conclusions: Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction.

  2. Low-fat dietary pattern and change in body-composition traits in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial123

    OpenAIRE

    Carty, Cara L; Kooperberg, Charles; NEUHOUSER, MARIAN L.; Tinker, Lesley; Howard, Barbara; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Beresford, Shirley AA; Snetselaar, Linda; Vitolins, Mara; Allison, Matthew; Budrys, Nicole; Prentice, Ross; Peters, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) Trial was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of a low-fat (?20% of total energy) or a usual diet in relation to chronic disease risk in postmenopausal women.

  3. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Brewer's Spent Grain Dietary Fiber on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Sung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; N Lee, Soo-Yeo; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork back fat with brewer's spent grain (BSG) pre-emulsion for physicochemical, textural properties, and sensory evaluations of reduced-fat chicken sausages are evaluated. Control was prepared with 15% pork back fat, and three reduced-fat chicken sausages were formulated with the replacement of 20, 25, and 30% pork back fat with BSG pre-emulsion. The pH level of reduced-fat sausages formulated with BSG pre-emulsion is lower than that of the control (p0.05). Therefore, our results indicate that BSG is effective dietary fiber source for manufacturing of reduced-fat meat product and suggest that 20-25% of BSG pre-emulsion is suitable for pork back fat in chicken sausages. PMID:26760933

  4. The role of Odontella aurita, a marine diatom rich in EPA, as a dietary supplement in dyslipidemia, platelet function and oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimeur Adil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on the risk factors for high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and were fed with a standard diet (control; with the standard diet supplemented with 3% freeze-dried O. aurita (COA; with a high-fat diet (HF; or with the high-fat diet supplemented with 3% of freeze-dried O. aurita (HFOA for 7 weeks. In this study we evaluated the impact of these different diets on the risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 production, and oxidative stress. Results After 7 weeks of treatment, high fat feeding had increased final body weight, glycemia, triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol levels in plasma and liver compared to the control diet. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and basal platelet thromboxane B2 were also higher in the high-fat fed rats than in those in the control group. In the liver, oxidative stress was greater in the HF group than in the control group. O. aurita intake in HFOA-fed rats resulted in lower glycemia and lipid levels in the plasma and liver relative than in the HF group. Thus, in the HFOA group, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the tissues studied (plasma, liver, and platelets were higher than in the HF group. Platelet hyper-aggregability tended to decrease in HFOA-fed rats as basal platelet thromboxane B2 production decreased. Finally, O. aurita reduced oxidative stress in the liver, with lower malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusions O. aurita is a marine diatom rich in EPA as well as in other bioactive molecules, such as pigments. The synergistic effect of these microalgal compounds, displayed a beneficial effect in reducing the risk factors for high-fat induced metabolic syndrome: hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and oxidative stress.

  5. Effect of dietary fat level on carcass traits and flesh quality of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax from mariculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the effect of the reduction of dietary fat on juvenile European sea bass nutritional value and quality traits. Fish were reared in floating cages (Trieste Gulf, Italy from July (11 to October (10. Two isoproteic diets were compared: LF (low fat, EE = 19.4% vs. HF (high fat, EE = 24.6%. No significantly different growth performance was observed. LF diet-fed fish were characterized by the reduction of celomatic fat (not edible fraction and by the increase in dressing percentage. The tested dietary fat level also affected both fillet and epiaxial white muscle proximate composition, resulting in a significantly lower fillet lipid concentration in LF diet-fed fish. Dietary treatment influenced cooked fillet colour and texture probably as a consequence of the different intramuscular fat deposition. Fillet from HF-fed fish, in fact, presented higher lightness (L* value and lower instrumental strengthness.

  6. Methods of Epidemiology: Evaluating the Fat–Breast Cancer Hypothesis – Comparing Dietary Instruments and Other Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Laurence S.; Kipnis, Victor; Schatzkin, Arthur; Potischman, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Results from several large cohort studies that were reported 10 to 20 years ago seemed to indicate that the hypothesized link between dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk was illusory. In this article, we review several strands of more recent evidence that have emerged. These include two studies comparing the performance of dietary instruments used to investigate the dietary fat-breast cancer hypothesis, a large randomized disease prevention trial, a more recent meta-analysis of nutritional cohort studies, and a very large nutritional cohort study. Each of the studies discussed in this article suggests that a modest but real association between fat intake and breast cancer is likely. If the association is causative, it would have important implications for public health strategies in reducing breast cancer incidence. The evidence is not yet conclusive, but additional follow-up in the randomized trial, as well as efforts to improve dietary assessment methodology for cohort studies, may be sufficient to provide a convincing answer. PMID:18391610

  7. Effect of dietary fat levels on the susceptibility of colonic cells to nuclear-damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of two levels and types of dietary fats on the susceptibility of colonic cells to the nuclear-damaging effect of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (MeIQ), and gamma-radiation was investigated. Corn oil and beef tallow were added to the semisynthetic diet at 5% and 20% levels (weight/weight). A diet-related effect was not evident until after two weeks of feeding. Animals (C57BL/6J female mice) that were given the 20% corn oil or beef tallow diets had significantly (p less than 0.05) more nuclear aberrations in their colons 24 hours following treatment with DMH (5 mg or 10 mg/kg body wt or MeIQ (100 mg/kg body weight) than did those given low-fat diets (5% corn oil or beef tallow). The nuclear-damaging effect of gamma radiation was unaffected by dietary treatments. A high-fat diet had the most pronounced effect on DMH-treated animals, and maximum nuclear aberrations were observed 24 hours following the treatment. Thus, we concluded that increased levels of dietary fats elevate the toxicity of DMH and MeIQ to colonic epithelial cells

  8. Milk fat depression induced by dietary marine algae in dairy ewes: persistency of milk fatty acid composition and animal performance responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichi, E; Hervás, G; Toral, P G; Loor, J J; Frutos, P

    2013-01-01

    Addition of marine algae (MA) to the diet of dairy ruminants has proven to be an effective strategy to enhance the milk content of some bioactive lipids, but it has also been associated with the syndrome of milk fat depression. Little is known, however, about the persistency of the response to dietary MA in sheep. Based on previous experiments with dairy ewes fed sunflower oil plus MA, it was hypothesized that the response might be mediated by time-dependent adaptations of the rumen microbiota, which could be evaluated indirectly through milk fatty acid (FA) profiles. Animal performance and milk FA composition in response to MA in the diet were studied using 36 Assaf ewes distributed in 6 lots and allocated to 2 treatments (3 lots/treatment) consisting of a total mixed ration (40:60 forage:concentrate ratio) supplemented with 25 g of sunflower oil (SO)/kg of dry matter plus 0 (SO; control diet) or 8 g of MA/kg of dry matter (SOMA diet). Milk production and composition, including FA profile, were analyzed on d 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 34, 44, and 54 of treatment. Diet supplementation with MA did not affect milk yield but did decrease milk fat content. Differences in the latter were detected from d 18 onward and reached -17% at the end of the experiment (i.e., on d 54). Compared with the control diet, the SOMA diet caused a reduction in milk 18:0 and its desaturation product (cis-9 18:1) that lasted for the whole experimental period. This decrease, together with the progressive increase in some putative fat synthesis inhibitors, especially trans-10 18:1, was related to the persistency of milk fat depression in lactating ewes fed MA. Additionally, inclusion of MA in the diet enhanced the milk content of trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, and C20-22 n-3 polyunsaturated FA, mainly 22:6 n-3. Overall, the persistency of the responses observed suggests that the ruminal microbiota did not adapt to the dietary supply of very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23141833

  9. Increased fat and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in sow gestation diet has no effect on gene expression in progeny during the first 7 days of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, A; Bikker, P; Smit-Heinsbroek, A; Bruininx, E; Zwolschen, H; Fijten, H; Zetteler, P; Vastenhouw, S; Smits, M; Rebel, J

    2016-02-01

    The 'developmental origins of health and disease' hypothesis proposes not only that we are what we eat, but also that we could be what our parents ate. Here, we aimed to improve health and performance of young piglets via maternal diets based on the hypothesis that maternal nutritional interventions change metabolic programming in piglets, reflected by differential gene expression early in life. Therefore, sows were fed either a regular diet, based on barley, wheat and wheat by-products, sugar beet pulp, palm oil and oilseed meal, or a high-fat (HF) diet consisting of the regular diet supplemented with an additional amount of 3.5% soybean oil and 1% fish oil at the expense of palm oil and wheat. Performance results, physiological parameters and gene expression in liver of piglets and blood of piglets and sows at day 7 after farrowing from both diet groups were compared. The HF diet tended to enhance growth rate of the offspring in the first week of life. No significant differences in gene expression in liver tissue and blood could be detected between the two groups, neither with whole-genome microarray analysis, nor with gene specific qPCR analysis. In this study, the feeding of a high-fat diet with increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to gestating sows under practical farm settings did not induce significant changes in gene expression in sows and offspring. PMID:25962343

  10. Dietary fat and kinetics of chloesterol metabolism in miniature swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female, Hormel derived miniature swine were fed corn-soy rations containing 40% of energy as beef fat (SFA) or 8% beef fat and 32% safflower oil (PUFA) from a weight of 23 until 44 to 46 kg. At that time, surgery was performed to implant a cannula in the proximal jejunum. Two wk later, a second surgery was performed to implant cannulae in the portal vein and aorta. The pigs were fed sufficient ration to maintain weight in two meals per day. 4-14C-cholesterol was incubated with homologous serum and reinjected. Samples were withdrawn from the portal vein or aorta and the jejunal cannula at intervals. Specific activity of serum and jejunal cholesterol was determined. Bile acids were isolated, quantitated by enzymatic assay and specific activity was calculated. Diet did not affect T1/2 of serum cholesterol, but the fractional turnover rate from pool 2 to pool 1 was greater for SFA than PUFA. Pool 1 was larger for PUFA than SFA and the flow rate was greater between pools; there was greater net loss from PUFA than SFA fed pigs. Jejunal cholesterol kinetics were similar to serum from SFA but not PUFA pigs. Flow rates between pools were lower in jejunal than serum pools. Bile acid specific activity rose within 15 hr to a maximum, then exhibited a plateau for about two wk before beginning disappearance

  11. Dietary monounsaturated fat in early life regulates IGFBP2: implications for fat mass accretion and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Matthew A; Yau, Steven W; Russo, Vincenzo C; Clarke, Iain J; Dunshea, Frank R; Chau, Jillian; Cox, Maree; Werther, George A

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of dietary supplementation with fat or sugar on body composition (BC) and insulin sensitivity (IS) in maturing pigs. Fifty newborn pigs randomized to a control diet or 18% saturated fat (SF), 18% monounsaturated fat (MUF), 18% mixed fat (MF), or 50% sucrose (SUC), from 1 to 16 weeks of age. Outcomes included weight gain, BC (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA), IS (fasting insulin and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps), fasting Non-Esterified Fatty Acid (NEFA) concentrations, and mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and IS in skeletal muscle (SM), subcutaneous (SAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In vitro studies examined direct effects of fatty acids on insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) mRNA in C2C12 myotubes. While SUC-fed pigs gained most weight (due to larger quantities consumed; P < 0.01), those fed fat-enriched diets exhibited more weight gain per unit energy intake (P < 0.001). Total (P = 0.03) and visceral (P = 0.04) adiposity were greatest in MUF-fed pigs. Whole-body IS was decreased in those fed fat (P = 0.04), with fasting insulin increased in MUF-fed pigs (P = 0.03). SM IGFBP2 mRNA was increased in MUF-fed pigs (P = 0.009) and, in all animals, SM IGFBP2 mRNA correlated with total (P = 0.007) and visceral (P = 0.001) fat, fasting insulin (r = 0.321; P = 0.03) and change in NEFA concentrations (r = 0.285; P = 0.047). Furthermore, exposure of in vitro cultured myotubes to MUF, but not SF, reduced IGFBP2 mRNA suggesting a converse direct effect. In conclusion, diets high in fat, but not sugar, promote visceral adiposity and insulin resistance in maturing pigs, with evidence that fatty acids have direct and indirect effects on IGFBP2 mRNA expression in muscle. PMID:21436793

  12. EFFECTS OF HIGH DIETARY FAT ON SERUM CHOLESTEROL AND FATTY LIVER SYNDROME IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Qureshi, S.A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhry, N. A. Mian1, M. Y. Tipu and M. F. Rai

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of high dietary fat on serum cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in broilers. For this purpose, 90 day-old chicks were divided into three equal groups A, B and C. Group A acted as control. The birds of group B were fed on diet containing vegetable fat while birds of group C were fed on diet containing animal fat. It was observed that the serum cholestrol values in chicks of groups B and C were higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, the serum cholesterol value was higher in birds of group C than group B. Grossly, the livers of birds of groups B and C were enlarged, pale in colour, soft in consistency and were having petechial haemorrhages with fat and fibrin deposits. Histopathologically, livers of groups B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. It was concluded that addition of dietary fat from animal and vegetable sources in the diet of broiler chicks not only resulted in increase in serum cholesterol but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in liver.

  13. Hapag Kainan: Dietary Consumption of Fat, Sugar, Fruits and Vegetables Among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafica, Reimund C; Ceria-Ulep, Clementina D; Lane, Susan H

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among the variables of the dietary consumption and the anthropometric measurements of Filipino Americans (FAs). The study sample consisted of 128 participants residing in the US who completed two questionnaires and biometric measurements. Strong positive correlations between the consumption of fat and sugar and body mass index (BM) among the participants were found. In contrast, the correlations between the consumption of fruits and vegetables and BMI were strongly negative. This study advances the limited body of knowledge on the dietary practices of FAs in the US. PMID:26647488

  14. A solid dietary fat containing fish oil redistributes lipoprotein subclasses without increasing oxidative stress in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Hellgren, Lars; Petersen, M.; Basu, S.; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Schnohr, P.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2004-01-01

    solid dietary fat containing (n-3) PUFA decreased plasma TAG, VLDL, and IDL cholesterol, and redistributed lipoprotein subclasses in LDL and HDL, with a higher concentration of the larger and less atherogenic subfractions. These changes took place without an increase in oxidative stress as measured by...... F than O fat (P <0.05). There was no difference in the effect on in vivo oxidation measured as the ratio of plasma isoprostanes F-2 to arachidonic acid and urinary isoprostanes, whereas the vitamin E activity/plasma total lipids ratio was higher after intake of F than O (P = 0.008). In conclusion, a...

  15. Induction of lipid oxidation gene expression by polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin in small intestine of mice [Mus musculus

    OpenAIRE

    van Schothorst, E. M.; Keijer, J

    2009-01-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) act as potent natural hypolipidemics and are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Mice fed long-term a high fat diet, in which medium-chain alpha linoleic acid (ALA) was partially replaced by long-chain docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) fatty acids, showed reduced accumulation of body fat and prevention of insulin resistance, besides increased mitochondrial beta-oxidation in white adipose tissue and decreased ...

  16. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid does not enhance accumulation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in barramundi (Lates calcarifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wei-Chun; Mühlhäusler, Beverly S; James, Michael J; Stone, David A J; Gibson, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of substituting fish oil and fish meal with a blend of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3) rich vegetable oils (14%, w/w) and defatted poultry meal (34%, w/w) in a formulated diet, on growth and tissue fatty acid profiles in barramundi fingerlings. Results indicated that on average, while the ALA levels of the barramundi liver and fillet increased with increasing dietary ALA, there was no corresponding increase in the levels of the omega-3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA). Compared to fish consuming a commercial feed, which contained fish meal and fish oil, fish on the ALA diets grew slower, had a lower feed intake and lower n-3 LCPUFA levels in the tissues. Hepatic mRNA expression of ?6 desaturase (FADS2) and elongase (ELOVL5/2) was ~10 fold and ~3 fold higher, respectively, in all the ALA dietary groups, relative to those fed the commercial feed. However, the level of expression of the two genes was not different between fish fed differing ALA levels. These data demonstrate that increasing the ALA level of the diet is not an appropriate strategy for replacing marine sources of n-3 LCPUFA in barramundi. It was also noted, however, that within the different ALA dietary groups there was a large amount of variation between individual fish in their tissue DHA levels, suggesting a significant heterogeneity in their capacity for conversion of ALA and/or retention of n-3 LCPUFA. When dietary ALA intakes were greater than 0.8% en, tissue DHA levels were inversely related to ALA intake, suggesting that high intake of dietary ALA may inhibit DHA synthesis. PMID:23085323

  17. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid depletion activates caspases and decreases NMDA receptors in the brain of a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calon, Frédéric; Lim, Giselle P; Morihara, Takashi; Yang, Fusheng; Ubeda, Oliver; Salem, Norman; Frautschy, Sally A; Cole, Greg M

    2005-08-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PFA) intake is a readily manipulated dietary risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies in animals confirm the deleterious effect of n-3 PFA depletion on cognition and on dendritic scaffold proteins. Here, we show that in transgenic mice overexpressing the human AD gene APPswe (Tg2576), safflower oil-induced n-3 PFA deficiency caused a decrease in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits, NR2A and NR2B, in the cortex and hippocampus with no loss of the presynaptic markers, synaptophysin and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25). n-3 PFA depletion also decreased the NR1 subunit in the hippocampus and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) in the cortex of Tg2576 mice. These effects of dietary n-3 PFA deficiency were greatly amplified in Tg2576 mice compared to nontransgenic mice. Loss of the NR2B receptor subunit was not explained by changes in mRNA expression, but correlated with p85alpha phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase levels. Most interestingly, n-3 PFA deficiency dramatically increased levels of protein fragments, corresponding to caspase/calpain-cleaved fodrin and gelsolin in Tg2576 mice. This effect was minimal in nontransgenic mice suggesting that n-3 PFA depletion potentiated caspase activation in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22 : 6n-3) partly protected from NMDA receptor subunit loss and accumulation of fodrin and gelsolin fragments but fully prevented CaMKII decrease. The marked effect of dietary n-3 PFA on NMDA receptors and caspase/calpain activation in the cortex of an animal model of AD provide new insights into how dietary essential fatty acids may influence cognition and AD risk. PMID:16101743

  18. Beneficial effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on toxin-induced neuronal degeneration in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, M; Saint-Pierre, M; Julien, C; Salem, N; Cicchetti, F; Calon, F

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we examined whether omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may exert neuroprotective action in Parkinson's disease, as previously shown in Alzheimer's disease. We exposed mice to either a control or a high n-3 PUFA diet from 2 to 12 months of age and then treated them with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP; 140 mg/kg in 5 days). High n-3 PUFA dietary consumption completely prevented the MPTP-induced decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-labeled nigral cells (P<0.01 vs. MPTP mice on control diet), Nurr1 mRNA (P<0.01 vs. MPTP mice on control diet), and dopamine transporter mRNA levels (P<0.05 vs. MPTP mice on control diet) in the substantia nigra. Although n-3 PUFA dietary treatment had no effect on striatal dopaminergic terminals, the high n-3 PUFA diet protected against the MPTP-induced decrease in dopamine (P<0.05 vs. MPTP mice on control diet) and its metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (P<0.05 vs. MPTP mice on control diet) in the striatum. Taken together, these data suggest that a high n-3 PUFA dietary intake exerts neuroprotective actions in an animal model of Parkinsonism. PMID:18032633

  19. Screening for dietary fat intake of grade six children: self-assessment vs. maternal assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenhold, Friede; MacIntyre, Una; Rheeder, Paul

    2014-10-01

    As part of justifiable nutrition promotion, this study aimed to determine internal consistency of a dietary fat screener and to compare self-assessment to maternal assessment of fat intake of grade six (about 12 years old) learners in a South African public primary school. The children completed in school a pictorial, quantitative food frequency-type screener consisting of 10 high-fat food categories; mothers individually completed a text version. Internal consistency was measured with item-total correlations, Cronbach's alpha and the split-half method. Child-mother comparison was based on kappa (?) statistics, McNemar's tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Bland-Altman method. In total, 101 (93.5%) children and 78 (72.2%) mothers responded. The screener was internally consistent, regardless of data source and statistical technique. For portion sizes and frequency of intake, children consistently reported higher intake than mothers. This resulted in systematic error, also evidenced by a significant difference from zero for the difference between child's and mother's final test scores for the whole group, and for boys and girls separately (always P?fat or prudent intake was identical, yet the chance-corrected agreement was poor (??=?0.16) and non-agreement was non-symmetrical (P?=?0.001). Children and mothers reported high fat intakes (93% and 75%, respectively). It was concluded that the dietary fat screener was internally consistent, yet children and mothers did not agree in their assessment. The high fat intakes reported by children and mothers warrant measurement refinement and implementation of primary prevention programmes. PMID:23006413

  20. Dietary protein and urinary nitrogen in relation to 6-year changes in fat mass and fat-free mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, M Z; Gottliebsen, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to the physiological expectation, observational studies show that greater protein intake is associated with subsequent body weight (BW) gain. An increase in fat-free mass (FFM) due to the anabolic effects of protein could explain this. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between protein intake and subsequent changes in fat mass (FM) and FFM in longitudinal, observational data. DESIGN: A health examination, including measures of FM and FFM by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and follow-up 6 years later, was conducted. Diet history interviews (DHI) were performed, and 24-h urinary nitrogen collection at baseline was done. In total, 330 participants with DHI, of whom 227 had validated and complete 24-h urine collection data, were analyzed. Macronutrient energy substitution models were used. RESULTS: Mean estimated protein intake was 14.6 E% from DHI and 11.3 E% from urinary nitrogen. Estimated from DHI, FM increased 46?g per year, with every 1 E% protein substituted for fat (95% confidence interval (CI)=13, 79; P=0.006), and FFM increased 15?g per year (1, 30; P=0.046). RESULTS were similar in other substitution models. Estimated from urinary nitrogen, FM increased 53?g per year, with 1 E% protein substituted for other macronutrients (24, 81; P<0.0005), and FFM increased 18?g per year (6, 31; P=0.004). CONCLUSION: Within a habitual range, a greater protein intake was associated with BW gain, mostly in FM. This is in contrast to the expectations based on physiological and clinical trials, and calls for a better understanding of how habitual dietary protein influences long-term energy balance, versus how greater changes in dietary proteins may influence short-term energy balance.

  1. Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2004-06-01

    Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

  2. Steatohepatitis in laboratory opossums exhibiting a high lipemic response to dietary cholesterol and fat

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Jeannie; Sharkey, Francis E.; Kushwaha, Rampratap S; VandeBerg, Jane F.; VANDEBERG John L.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma VLDL and LDL cholesterol were markedly elevated (>40-fold) in high-responding opossums, but moderately elevated (6-fold) in low-responding opossums after they had consumed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet for 24 wk. In both high- and low-responding opossums, plasma triglycerides were slightly elevated, threefold and twofold, respectively. Dietary challenge also induced fatty livers in high responders, but not in low responders. We studied the lipid composition, histopathological fe...

  3. Demographic and dietary profiles of high and low fat consumers in Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Baghurst, K I; Baghurst, P A; Record, S J

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To determine the socio-demographic, attitudinal, and dietary correlates of high and low fat consumption in the community. DESIGN--The study was undertaken using a postal survey format. A questionnaire was sent for self completion to a randomised sample of the adult population of two Australian states. PARTICIPANTS--Adult participants were selected randomly from the Electoral Rolls of the states of Victoria and South Australia. As voting at elections is compulsory in Australia...

  4. Effect of dietary krill oil supplementation on the endocannabinoidome of metabolically relevant tissues from high-fat-fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohn Jeffrey S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFA are known to ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an association between elevated peripheral levels of endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of dietary ω-3-PUFA supplementation, given as krill oil (KO, on metabolic parameters in high fat diet (HFD-fed mice and, in parallel, on the levels, in inguinal and epididymal adipose tissue (AT, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, kidneys and heart, of: 1 the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, 2 two anandamide congeners which activate PPARα but not cannabinoid receptors, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine, and 3 the direct biosynthetic precursors of these compounds. Methods Lipids were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS or high resolution ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-ToF-MS. Results Eight-week HFD increased endocannabinoid levels in all tissues except the liver and epididymal AT, and KO reduced anandamide and/or 2-AG levels in all tissues but not in the liver, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Levels of endocannabinoid precursors were also generally down-regulated, indicating that KO affects levels of endocannabinoids in part by reducing the availability of their biosynthetic precursors. Usually smaller effects were found of KO on OEA and PEA levels. Conclusions Our data suggest that KO may promote therapeutic benefit by reducing endocannabinoid precursor availability and hence endocannabinoid biosynthesis.

  5. Dietary fat intake and subsequent weight change in adults: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sharp, Stephen J; Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Halkjaer, Jytte; Schulze, Matthias B; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Feskens, Edith J M; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear from the inconsistent epidemiologic evidence whether dietary fat intake is associated with future weight change. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the association between the amount and type of dietary fat and subsequent weight change (follow-up weight minus baseline weight divided by duration of follow-up). DESIGN: We analyzed data from 89,432 men and women from 6 cohorts of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Using count...

  6. Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Nutritional Status of Individuals by Stages of Change for Dietary Fat Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, C.Y.; M.S. Zalilah; L.D. Yap

    2009-01-01

    Changes in lifestyle and food habits have been implicated in the increasing rate of nutrition related chronic diseases in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify socio-demographic characteristic and nutritional status of individuals by their readiness to reduce dietary fat intake. A total of 202 non-academic staff aged 18-56 years at Universiti Putra Malaysia participated in the study. Information on demographic, socio-economic and stages of change related to dietary fat r...

  7. Socio-cultural perceptions and practices of dietary choices with focus on fat intake in middle aged

    OpenAIRE

    Dawes, Twinkle

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Socio-cultural perceptions and practices of dietary choices with focus on fat intake in middle aged Pakistani women in Oslo ? a qualitative study Introduction: The nutritional transition has resulted globally in dietary changes, of which high intake of fats, sugar and refined carbohydrates are some of the main characteristics. This has resulted in increase in lifestyle diseases like type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease. In Norway, a dramatic increase of type 2 Diabetes has been...

  8. Dietary L-arginine supplementation beneficially regulates body fat deposition of meat-type ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L Y; Fang, Y J; Guo, X Y

    2011-04-01

    1. Unlike mammals, uricotelic species, such as the duck, cannot synthesise endogenous arginine (Arg). This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary L-Arg supplementation might regulate body fat deposition in ducks without affecting their fast growth rate. 2. A total of 160 21-d-old male and female White Pekin ducks were assigned randomly to two treatments: a non-supplemented control and supplementation at 10 g/kg L-Arg of a maize and soybean meal-based diet. 3. The 3-week feeding trial showed that the addition of L-Arg had no significant effect on feed intake, but significantly increased body weight gain by 5·2 %, breast muscle weight relative to live body weight by 9·9%, carcase crude protein content by 9·2%, ether extract content in breast muscle by 11·9%. Arg supplementation significantly decreased skin with fat and abdominal fat pad contents by 7·6% and 4·9% respectively and the ether extract content of carcase by 7·2%. 4. The results of this study indicate that a diet with 10 g/kg supplemental L-Arg could reduce the fat deposition of carcase and abdominal adipose cell size (diameter and volume), enhance intramuscular fat in breast muscles, as well as increase muscle and protein gain. The decreased fat depot in the carcase may be attributed to a reduction of hepatic lipogenic enzyme activity. PMID:21491245

  9. Effect of dietary fat on x-ray-induced mammary cancer in Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effect of dietary fat levels on the induction of mammary cancer by 350 rads total-body x-radiation given to noninbred albino Sprague-Dawley rats at 50 days of age. Compared to rats on a low-fat (LF) diet (5% lard), rats on a high-fat (HF) diet (20% lard) from 30 days of age had more tumors, with a higher multiplicity of carcinomas per rat. LF-fed groups exhibited a longer median tumor latency period than did HF-fed groups. A similar trend toward more tumors with an earlier time of death was seen in rats given single iv doses of 50 mg 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea/kg and fed an HF diet as compared to an LF diet

  10. Effects of dietary lysine/protein ratio and fat levels on growth performance and meat quality of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Fumika; Toyoshi, Masanari; Irie, Masakazu

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary lysine/protein ratio and fat levels on the growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs fed feed made from food waste, including noodles and chocolate. Four dietary treatments, 2 levels of lysine/protein ratio (0.035 and 0.046) and 2 levels of fat (3.3% and 6.0%), were adapted to a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement. Each diet for the finishing pigs contained the same levels of adequate crude protein (16%) and lysine (0.58-0.75%), and similar levels of high total digestible nutrients (90.2-92.6%). In total, 32 LWD pigs with an average body weight of 57.2?kg were assigned to 4 dietary groups. The pigs were slaughtered at about 115?kg. Growth performance was not influenced by the dietary treatments. Carcass characteristics were slightly influenced by the dietary fat level. As the dietary lysine/protein ratio decreased, the marbling score of Longissimus dorsi muscle increased and the intramuscular fat (IMF) increased from 6.82% to 9.46%. Marbling score was not significantly influenced by the dietary fat level. These results indicate that IMF increased without adverse effects on growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality, when pigs were fed a diet with low lysine/protein ratio. PMID:24261827

  11. Sex differences in motivational responses to dietary fat in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, John L; Grater, Danielle M; York, Daniel; Wellman, Paul J; Morgan, Caurnel

    2015-08-01

    Women are more likely than men to exhibit motivational disorders (e.g., anhedonia and anxiety) with limited treatment options, and to overconsume high-fat "comfort foods" to improve motivational disruptions. Unfortunately, neurobiological underpinnings for sex differences in motivational disruptions and their responses to dietary fat are poorly understood. To help bridge these fundamental knowledge gaps, we assessed behavioral and neurobiological responses to dietary fat in a hamster model of female-biased motivational lability. Relative to social housing, social separation reduced hedonic drive in a new behavioral assay, the reward investigational preference (RIP) test. Fluoxetine or desipramine treatment for 21, but not 7, days improved RIP test performance. Pharmacologic specificity in this test was shown by non-responsiveness to diazepam, tracazolate, propranolol, or naltrexone. In the anxiety-related feeding/exploration conflict (AFEC) test, social separation worsened latency to eat highly palatable food under anxiogenic conditions, but not in home cages. Social separation also reduced weight gain, food intake, and adiposity while elevating energy expenditure, assessed by caloric efficiency and indirect calorimetry. Furthermore, chronic high-fat feeding improved anhedonic and anxious responses to separation, particularly in females. In the motivation-influencing nucleus accumbens, females, but not males, exhibited a separation-induced anxiety-related decrease in Creb1 mRNA levels and an anhedonia-related decrease in ?Fosb mRNA levels. Consistent with its antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects on behavior, high-fat feeding elevated accumbal Creb1 and ?Fosb mRNA levels in females only. Another accumbal reward marker, Tlr4 mRNA, was elevated in females by high-fat feeding. These results show that social separation of hamsters provides a novel model of sex-dependent comorbid anhedonia, anxiety, and anorexia, and implicate accumbal CREB, ?FosB, and TLR4. Moreover, the results validate a new assay for chronic antidepressant efficacy. PMID:25896879

  12. [Effect of fats on cardiovascular disease prevention in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-05-01

    In Denmark death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) has decreased, mainly due to a 72% reduction since 1990 in death from ischaemic heart disease from reduced smoking, elimination of industrial trans fatty acids in the diet, and more effective medical treatment. Replacement of saturated fat by carbohydrate and/or n-6 polyunsaturated fat may increase CVD, but it is reduced by substitution with n-3 fats, monounsaturated fat, or low glycaemic index carbohydrates. Despite a high saturated fat content dark chocolate and cheese may reduce CVD and diabetes risk and eggs may be neutral, and less restrictive dietary recommendations are indicated. PMID:25351669

  13. Examining the Minimal Required Elements of a Computer-Tailored Intervention Aimed at Dietary Fat Reduction: Results of a Randomized Controlled Dismantling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the minimally required feedback elements of a computer-tailored dietary fat reduction intervention to be effective in improving fat intake. In all 588 Healthy Dutch adults were randomly allocated to one of four conditions in an randomized controlled trial: (i) feedback on dietary fat intake [personal feedback (P feedback)],…

  14. Individual and environmental correlates of dietary fat intake in rural communities: a structural equation model analysis. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total dietary fat and saturated fat intake are associated with obesity, elevated cholesterol, and heart disease. This study tested a multi-group structural equation model to explore differences in the relative influence of individual, social, and physical environment factors on dietary fat intake amongst adults aged 40-70 years.

  15. Genetic variation in the cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) (G1359A polymorphism) and their influence on anthropometric parameters and metabolic parameters under a high monounsaturated vs. high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocio; Gonzalez Sagrado, Manuel; Conde, Rosa; Izaola, Olatz; de la Fuente, Beatriz

    2013-08-01

    An intragenic polymorphism (1359 G/A) of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene was reported as a common polymorphism in Caucasian populations (rs1049353). Intervention studies with this polymorphism have yield contradictories results. We decide to investigate the role of polymorphism (G1359A) of (CNR1) gene on metabolic parameters and weight loss secondary to a high monounsaturated fat and high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets in obese subjects. A population of 258 obese subjects was analyzed in a randomized trial. A nutritional evaluation was performed at the beginning and at the end of a 3-month period in which subjects received 1 of 2 diets (diet M: high monounsaturated fat diet vs diet P: high polyunsaturated fat diet). One hundred and sixty five patients (63.9%) had the genotype G1359G and 93 (36.1%) patients (A allele carriers) had G1359A (78 patients,30.3%) or A1359A (15 patients,5.8%) genotypes. In subjects with both genotypes, body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference and systolic blood pressures decreased with both diets. With the diet-type M and in both genotype groups, biochemical parameters remained unchanged. After the diet type P and in subjects with both genotypes, glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, insulin and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels decreased. In G1359G genotype subjects after both diets, leptin levels decreased. The finding of this study is the association of the A allele with a lack of improvement on leptin levels. Subjects with both genotypes and after a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet showed a significant improvement of LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, HOMA-IR and insulin levels. PMID:23337343

  16. Dietary manipulation reveals an unexpected inverse relationship between fat mass and adipose 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Man, Tak Yung; Michailidou, Zoi; Gokcel, Adnan; Ramage, Lynne; Chapman, Karen E.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Seckl, Jonathan R; Morton, Nicholas M

    2011-01-01

    Increased dietary fat intake is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic disease. In transgenic mice, adipose tissue-specific overexpression of the glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) exacerbates high-fat (HF) diet-induced visceral obesity and diabetes, whereas 11?-HSD1 gene knockout ameliorates this, favoring accumulation of fat in nonvisceral depots. Paradoxically, in normal mice HF diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated wi...

  17. Mitochondrial and Oxidative Stress Aspects in Hippocampus of Rats Submitted to Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deficiency After Exposure to Early Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Bernardi, Juliana Rombaldi; da Silva, Diego Carrilho; de Sá Couto-Pereira, Natividade; de Souza Mota, Carina; Krolow, Rachel; Weis, Simone Nardin; Pettenuzzo, Letícia; Kapczinski, Flávio; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Dalmaz, Carla

    2015-09-01

    Chronic dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) deficiency may lead to changes in cortex and hippocampus neuronal membrane phospholipids, and may be linked to impaired central nervous system function. Particularly docosahexaenoic acid deficiency appears to be involved in neuropsychiatric disorders. On the other hand, adverse events early in life may also profoundly affect brain development, leading to long-lasting effects on neurophysiology, neurobiology and behavior. This research assessed if neonatal stress and a dietary n-3 PUFAs deficiency could interact to produce hippocampal alterations related to mitochondrial functions in adult rats. There were no effects of diet, neonatal intervention or interactions on superoxide dismutase or catalase enzymatic activities, mitochondrial membrane potential and respiratory chain complexes. Rats fed n-3 PUFAs deficient diet displayed higher levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity, higher free radicals production and higher thiol content compared to rats fed n-3 PUFAs adequate diet. There were interactions among diets and neonatal stress, since glutathione peroxidase, free radicals production and thiol content were increased in groups that were subjected to neonatal interventions fed n-3 PUFAs deficient diet. Additionally, reduced mitochondrial potential was observed in handled animals. Total thiol revealed a neonatal stress effect, since animals subjected to neonatal interventions displayed lower thiol content. In conclusion, we observed that a chronic treatment with deficient n-3 PUFAs diet, from the puberty period on, increased free radicals production and imbalanced antioxidant enzymes activities, and these increases were higher in animals subjected to neonatal interventions. PMID:26232249

  18. Dietary cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation in high fat-fed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of cocoa powder supplementation on obesity-related inflammation in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J (n = 126) were fed with either low-fat (LF, 10 % kcal from fat) or HF (60 % kcal from fat) diet for 18 weeks. After 8 weeks, mice from HF group were randomized to HF diet or HF diet supplemented with 8 % cocoa powder (HF–HFC group) for 10 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Results Cocoa powder supplementation significantly reduced the rate of body weight gain (15.8 %) and increased fecal lipid content (55.2 %) compared to HF-fed control mice. Further, cocoa supplementation attenuated insulin resistance, as indicated by improved HOMA-IR, and reduced the severity of obesity-related fatty liver disease (decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase and liver triglyceride) compared to HF group. Cocoa supplementation also significantly decreased plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6, 30.4 %), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, 25.2 %), and increased adiponectin (33.7 %) compared to HF-fed mice. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Il6, Il12b, Nos2, and Emr1) in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) was significantly reduced (37–56 %) in the cocoa-supplemented mice. Conclusions Dietary supplementation with cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease in HF-fed obese mice, principally through the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression in WAT. These effects appear to be mediated in part by a modulation of dietary fat absorption and inhibition of macrophage infiltration in WAT. PMID:23494741

  19. Are the Dietary Guidelines for Meat, Fat, Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Appropriate for Environmental Sustainability? A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian John Reynolds

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current literature around the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations. The focus of the review is on collating evidence relating to environmental impacts of the dietary advice found in the World Health Organisation guidelines, and environmental impact literature: reducing the consumption of fat, reducing the consumption of meat-based protein and animal-based foods, and increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables. The environmental impact of reducing dietary fat intake is unclear, although reducing consumption of the food category of edible fats and oils appears to have little impact. However most, but not all, studies support environmental benefits of a reduced consumption of animal-based foods and increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. In general, it appears that adhering to dietary guidelines reduces impact on the environment, but further study is required to examine the environmental impacts of animal-based foods, and fruit and vegetable intake in depth.

  20. Preventive effects of taurine on development of hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat/cholesterol dietary habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Yen; Chou, Chung-Hsi; Chiu, Chih-Hsien; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Lin, Yi-Ling; Weng, Wei-Lien; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2011-01-12

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is also called hepatic steatosis and has become an emergent liver disease in developed and developing nations. This study was to exam the preventive effects of taurine (Tau) on the development of hepatic steatosis via a hamster model. Although hepatic steatosis of hamsters was induced by feeding a high-fat/cholesterol diet, drinking water containing 0.35 and 0.7% Tau improved (p UPC2) gene expressions in high-fat/cholesterol dietary hamsters, thus increasing energy expenditure. Besides, Tau also enhanced (p < 0.05) liver antioxidant capacities (GSH, TEAC, SOD, and CAT) and decreased (p < 0.05) lipid peroxidation (MDA), which alleviated liver damage in the high-fat/cholesterol dietary hamsters. Therefore, Tau shows preventive effects on the development of hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat/cholesterol dietary habit. PMID:21126079

  1. Effects of Unsaturated Fat Dietary Supplements on Blood Lipids, and on Markers of Malnutrition and Inflammation in Hemodialysis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Riserus, Ulf; Marckmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    OUTCOME MEASURES: Dietary intakes, blood lipids, dry body weight, serum albumin, and serum C-reactive protein comprised our main outcome measures. RESULTS: According to a per-protocol analysis of 14 study completers, fat supplementation resulted in significantly increased total energy intake (+1.6 MJ....../day, or 380kcal/day) and an increased dietary fat energy percentage (+9%). We observed no significant changes in blood lipids. Dry body weight (+0.49kg, P=.04) increased, and serum C-reactive protein concentration fell (-1.69mg/L, P=.01), with fat supplementation. Intention-to-treat analysis of 39...... participants confirmed the absence of adverse blood-lipid changes. CONCLUSIONS: Unsaturated fat supplementation increased total dietary energy intake to recommended levels, had no adverse impact on blood lipids, improved nutritional status as assessed according to dry body weight, and reduced systemic...

  2. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Brewer's Spent Grain Dietary Fiber on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Sung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; n Lee, Soo-Yeo; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork back fat with brewer's spent grain (BSG) pre-emulsion for physicochemical, textural properties, and sensory evaluations of reduced-fat chicken sausages are evaluated. Control was prepared with 15% pork back fat, and three reduced-fat chicken sausages were formulated with the replacement of 20, 25, and 30% pork back fat with BSG pre-emulsion. The pH level of reduced-fat sausages formulated with BSG pre-emulsion is lower than that of the control (psausages increase proportionally with increasing BSG pre-emulsion (psausages (psausages (psausage. And there is no significant difference in the overall acceptability among control, T1 (chicken sausage with 20% of BSG pre-emulsion, 10% of fat addition), and T2 (chicken sausage with 25% of BSG pre-emulsion, 5% of fat addition) (p>0.05). Therefore, our results indicate that BSG is effective dietary fiber source for manufacturing of reduced-fat meat product and suggest that 20-25% of BSG pre-emulsion is suitable for pork back fat in chicken sausages.

  3. Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation, tissue lipid composition, ex vivo prostaglandin production, and stress tolerance in juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, J A; Howell, B R; Bell, J G; Cossins, A R

    2000-07-01

    Larval Dover sole fed an Artemia diet supplemented with n-3 long-chain (C20 + C22) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to be more resistant to low-temperature injury. Here we explore the relationship between tissue fatty acid composition and tolerance of stressful environmental conditions over the larval and early juvenile periods. Artemia nauplii supplemented with n-3 long-chain PUFA-deficient and PUFA-enriched oil emulsions were fed to two groups of larvae. Whole body tissue samples from the resulting PUFA-deficient and -enriched juveniles possessed 12.1 and 21.9% n-3 long-chain PUFA, respectively. These differences were at the expense of C18 PUFA, while proportions of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and total PUFA were unaffected. Brain and eye tissues from the PUFA-deficient fish contained lower levels of 22:6n-3, known to be important for optimal nervous system function, incorporating instead a range of fatty acids of lower unsaturation. PUFA-deprived juveniles showed substantially greater mortality when exposed to a combination of low temperature and low salinity, as well as to high temperature and to hypoxia. After adaptation to the different diets, both dietary groups were fed a common formulated feed high in n-3 long-chain PUFA. Tissue PUFA in both groups progressively increased to the same high value, with a consequent loss of the differences in cold-susceptibility. These correlated changes support a link between dietary manipulation of n-3 long-chain PUFA and development of a stress-sensitive phenotype. PUFA deprivation had no detectable effect upon static hydrocarbon order of purified brain membranes (as assessed by fluorescence polarization) but was associated with an increase in the whole-body content of prostaglandins. We conclude that susceptibility to environmental stress is responsive to dietary n-3 long-chain PUFA manipulation, possibly due to altered tissue development or the overproduction of eicosanoids. PMID:10941875

  4. Effect of dietary fat level and exercise on growth, feed utilization, nutrient digestibility and fat deposition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Luyen, Giao Quynh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat level and exercise on growth, feed utilization, nutrient digestibility and fat deposition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Atlantic salmon (1409 ± 43.3 g) were reared for 97 days in net pens in sea water with water temperatures ranging from 8.9 to 5.5oC and natural photoperiod. The experiment was designed as a 2x2 factorial design with water current (high and low) and fat level (high and low) as the main fac...

  5. Effects on plasma lipoproteins of monounsaturated, saturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet of African green monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, L L; Haines, J L; Sawyer, J K

    1990-10-01

    Work by other investigators has shown that an increase in dietary content of monounsaturated fatty acids can result in a decreased plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration. This observation, combined with the epidemiologic evidence that monounsaturated fat-rich diets are associated with decreased rates of death from coronary heart disease, suggests that inclusion of increased amounts of mono-unsaturated fat in the diet may be beneficial. The present study was carried out in a primate model, the African green monkey, to evaluate the effects of dietary monounsaturated fat on plasma lipoprotein cholesterol endpoints. Two study periods were carried out in which the fatty acid compositions of the experimental diets were varied. All diets contained 35% of calories as fat. In the first experimental period, a mixture of fats was used to set the dietary fatty acid composition to be approximately 50-60% of the desired fatty acid, either saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated (n-6). In the second experimental period, pure fats were used (palm oil, oleic acid-rich safflower oil, and linoleic acid-rich safflower oil) to maximize the difference in fatty acid composition. The effects of the more exaggerated dietary fatty acid differences of period 2 were similar to those that have been reported in humans. For the group fed the diet enriched in monounsaturated fat compared to saturated fat, whole plasma and LDL cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower while high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were not affected. For the group fed the diet enriched in polyunsaturated fat compared to saturated fat, both LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower than in the group fed saturated fat. LDL cholesterol concentrations were comparable in the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat groups and the percentage of cholesterol in LDL was lowest in the monounsaturated fat fed group. Trends were similar for the mixed fat diets, although no statistically significant differences in plasma lipoprotein endpoints could be attributed to monounsaturated fatty acids in this dietary comparison. Since effects on plasma lipoproteins similar to those seen in humans were identified in this primate model, relevant mechanisms for the effects of dietary fatty acids on lipoprotein endpoints related to coronary artery atherosclerosis, per se, can subsequently be examined. PMID:2079610

  6. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids fail to reduce prostate tumorigenesis in the PB-ErbB-2 x Pten+/? preclinical mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Vissapragada, Sarada; Ghosh, Anup; Ringer, Lymor; Salinas, Patricia; Brophy, Amanda; Peaceman, Daniel; KALLAKURY, BHASKAR; Banerjee, Partha P; Fricke, Stanley T.; Helfrich, William; Lee, Yi Chien; Pestell, Richard; Scherer, Philipp; Herbert B. Tanowitz; AVANTAGGIATI, MARIA LAURA

    2010-01-01

    Diet and obesity, and their associated metabolic alterations, are some of the fastest-growing causes of disease and death in America. Findings from epidemiological studies correlating obesity, the sources of dietary fat and prostate cancer (PCa) are conflicting. We have previously shown that 15% of PB-ErbB-2 x pten+/? mice developed PCa and exhibited increased phosphorylated 4E-BP1, but not the key PI3-kinase intermediary phospho-protein, mTOR, when maintained on unrefined mouse chow.

  7. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and adaptation to chronic hypoxia alter acyl composition of serum and heart lipids.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balková, P.; Ježková, J.; Hlavá?ková, M.; Necká?, Jan; Sta?ková, B.; Kolá?, František; Novák, F.; Nováková, O.

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 102, ?. 9 (2009), s. 1297-1307. ISSN 0007-1145 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA305/07/0875 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : chronic hypoxia * dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA * heart Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 3.446, year: 2009

  8. The intake of saturated fat and dietary fibre: a possible indicator of diet quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Fagt, Sisse; Groth, Margit Velsing; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Wachmann, H.C.; Christensen, Tue

    2008-01-01

    than intermediates and non-compliers, as the diet of compliers contained more whole-grain cereals, fruits, vegetables and fish,and more frequently low-fat dairy products, lean meats and boiled potatoes. The diet of all subgroups, especially non-compliers, had a high content of nutrient-poor, energy......The aim of the present study was to assess if a simple dietary quality index (SDQI) is a useful indicator for nutritional quality in the Danish diet. Data from the Danish National Dietary Survey 2000-2 for adults (n 3151; age 18-75 years) were used to construct an SDQI based on the intake of......-dense foods, for example, salty snacks, confectionery, and beverages, for example, soft drinks and alcohol. The SDQI is a simple and useful tool to characterise the diet quality of Danish adults....

  9. The intake of saturated fat and dietary fibre: a possible indicator of diet quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Fagt, Sisse; Groth, Margit Velsing; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Wachmann, H.C.; Christensen, Tue

    2008-01-01

    than intermediates and non-compliers, as the diet of compliers contained more whole-grain cereals, fruits, vegetables and fish, and more frequently low-fat dairy products, lean meats and boiled potatoes. The diet of all subgroups, especially non-compliers, had a high content of nutrient-poor, energy......The aim of the present study was to assess if a simple dietary quality index (SDQI) is a useful indicator for nutritional quality in the Danish diet. Data from the Danish National Dietary Survey 2000-2 for adults (n 3151; age 18-75 years) were used to construct an SDQI based on the intake of......-dense foods, for example, salty snacks, confectionery, and beverages, for example, soft drinks and alcohol. The SDQI is a simple and useful tool to characterise the diet quality of Danish adults....

  10. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized ( 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while maintaining high milk production. PMID:26233447

  11. Relationship of dietary fat and lysine level with body composition in broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of varying dietary energy to protein/lysine ratio on the body composition of 300, day-old meat-type Tetra-82 hybrid broiler chicks was studied. Body composition was measured by computed tomography (CT) and direct chemical analysis.Ten chickens from each treatment group were euthanized, frozen and subjected to CT, after which carcasses were dissected and ground to obtain homogeneous samples for chemical analysis.Supplementation of the diet with lysine 6 g/kg did not change total body composition but positively influenced final body weight.In the group receiving added fat 40 g/kg and lysine 3 g/kg feed (F-LYS-I) the higher body weight ran parallel with a higher fat content

  12. Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Knudsen, K. E. B.; Jørgensen, H.; Oomah, D.; Buegel, S.; Toubro, S.; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, A.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit...... weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5......-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17-21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with...

  13. Oral and gastrointestinal sensing of dietary fat and appetite regulation in humans: modification by diet and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TanyaJLittle

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fat interacts with receptors in both the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal (GI tract to regulate fat and energy intake. This review discusses recent developments in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of fat, through its digestive products, fatty acids (FA, on GI function and energy intake, the role of oral and intestinal FA receptors, and the implications that changes in oral and small intestinal sensitivity in response to ingested fat may have for the development of obesity.

  14. Dietary structured lipids for post-weaning piglets: fat digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Danielsen, V.; Høy, Carl-Erik; Jakobsen, K.

    examined. Dietary fats included as 10% (w/w) of the diets were two structured fats of rapeseed oil interesterified with tridecanoin (R1) or coconut oil (R2), respectively, one mixture of rapeseed oil and coconut oil (R3) and rapeseed oil as control (R4). Faeces and urine from piglets weaned at 28 days of...... interesterified fats or the physical mixtures (R1, R2 and R3) compared with rapeseed oil (R4). Apparent faecal nitrogen digestibility and retention were similar in all four groups in the three periods, but increased with time. Apparent faecal fat digestibilities were significantly improved from the first to the...

  15. Effect of Some Dietary Oils and Fats on Serum Lipid Profile, Calcium Absorption and Bone Mineralization in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Elrahman M. Attia; Fatma A. Labib; Amr A. Rezq

    2010-01-01

    Amount and type of fats in the diet have an important effect on bone health and lipid profile. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different types of dietary oils and fats on lipid profile, calcium absorption and bone mineralization in male mice. Mice weighing 25±5 g were divided into nine groups and fed on diets without oils or fats (control group) and containing soybean oil, corn oil, olive oil, palm oil, sunflower oil, butter, animal fat or margarine. Mice fed on diet con...

  16. Dietary fat modifies lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue of metabolic syndrome patients

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Antonio; Meneses, María E.; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A.; Marín, Carmen; Almadén, Yolanda; Elena M Yubero-Serrano; González-Guardia, Lorena; Fuentes, Francisco; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Roche, Helen M; Malagón, María M.; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, José

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is a key organ in the regulation of total body lipid homeostasis, which is responsible for the storage and release of fatty acids according to metabolic needs. We aimed to investigate the effect of the quantity and quality of dietary fat on the lipogenesis and lipolysis processes in the AT of metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, controlled trial conducted within the LIPGENE study assigned MetS patients to one of four diets: (a) high-saturated fatty acid (HSFA)...

  17. The relation of saturated fats and dietary cholesterol to childhood cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Hillman, Charles H

    2015-10-01

    Identification of health behaviors and markers of physiological health associated with childhood cognitive function has important implications for public health policy targeted toward cognitive health throughout the life span. Although previous studies have shown that aerobic fitness and obesity exert contrasting effects on cognitive flexibility among prepubertal children, the extent to which diet plays a role in cognitive flexibility has received little attention. Accordingly, this study examined associations between saturated fats and cholesterol intake and cognitive flexibility, assessed using a task switching paradigm, among prepubertal children between 7 and 10 years (N = 150). Following adjustment of confounding variables (age, sex, socioeconomic status, IQ, VO2max, and BMI), children consuming diets higher in saturated fats exhibited longer reaction time during the task condition requiring greater amounts of cognitive flexibility. Further, increasing saturated fat intake and dietary cholesterol were correlated with greater switch costs, reflecting impaired ability to maintain multiple task sets in working memory and poorer efficiency of cognitive control processes involved in task switching. These data are among the first to indicate that children consuming diets higher in saturated fats and cholesterol exhibit compromised ability to flexibly modulate their cognitive operations, particularly when faced with greater cognitive challenge. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to comprehensively characterize the interrelationships between diet, aerobic fitness, obesity, and children's cognitive abilities. PMID:25865659

  18. Effect of dietary fat source on fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of eggs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.J., King; A., Hugo; F.H., de Witt; H.J., van der Merwe; M.D., Fair.

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of supplementary dietary lipid sources on the fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of eggs. Five isoenergetic (12.6 MJ AME/kg DM) and isonitrogenous (170 g CP/kg DM) diets were formulated, using a control diet (50 : 50 blend of fish- and linseed oil), fish oil, [...] sunflower oil, high oleic acid (HO) sunflower oil and tallow at a 30 g/kg inclusion level. Two hundred individually caged HyLine Silver-Brown hens (20 weeks of age) were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments (n = 40 hens/treatment). Birds received the experimental diets from 20 weeks of age. At 30 weeks of age, 12 eggs per treatment were randomly selected for analyses of egg yolk fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values (PV). Dietary lipid sources affected FAME, TBARS and PV of egg yolk significantly. The fish oil treatment resulted in the highest TBARS (0.27 mg malonaldehyde/kg yolk) and PV (3.96 milli-equivalent peroxide/kg fat) whereas the HO sunflower oil resulted in the lowest TBARS (0.13 mg malonaldehyde/kg yolk) and PV (2.77 milli-equivalent peroxide/kg fat). Fish oil also resulted in the lowest n-6 to n-3 ratio (1.16 to 1), while sunflower oil resulted in the highest ratio (24.6 to 1). Results indicate that the fatty acid profile of eggs could be altered by means of dietary intervention. However, an improvement of omega-3 type fatty acids of eggs will result in a higher susceptibility to lipid oxidation and possibly a shorter shelf-life of stored eggs.

  19. Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Schwab

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW, risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, cardiovascular diseases (CVD, and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT and prospective cohort studies (PCS were included as well as nested case–control studies. A few retrospective case–control studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA or monounsaturated fat (MUFA lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose concentration in these comparisons. There was probable evidence for a moderate direct association between total fat intake and BW. Furthermore, there was convincing evidence that partial replacement of SFA with PUFA decreases the risk of CVD, especially in men. This finding was supported by an association with biomarkers of PUFA intake; the evidence of a beneficial effect of dietary total PUFA, n-6 PUFA, and linoleic acid (LA on CVD mortality was limited suggestive. Evidence for a direct association between total fat intake and risk of T2DM was inconclusive, whereas there was limited-suggestive evidence from biomarker studies that LA is inversely associated with the risk of T2DM. However, there was limited-suggestive evidence in biomarker studies that odd-chain SFA found in milk fat and fish may be inversely related to T2DM, but these associations have not been supported by controlled studies. The evidence for an association between dietary n-3 PUFA and T2DM was inconclusive. Evidence for effects of fat on major types of cancer was inconclusive regarding both the amount and quality of dietary fat, except for prostate cancer where there was limited-suggestive evidence for an inverse association with intake of ALA and for ovarian cancer for which there was limited-suggestive evidence for a positive association with intake of SFA. This SR reviewed a large number of studies focusing on several different health outcomes. The time period covered by the search may not have allowed obtaining the full picture of the evidence in all areas covered by this SR. However, several SRs and meta-analyses that covered studies published before year 2000 were evaluated, which adds confidence to the results. Many of the investigated questions remain unresolved, mainly because of few studies on certain outcomes, conflicting results from studies, and lack of high quality–controlled studies. There is thus an evident need of highly controlled RCT and PCS with sufficient number of subjects and long enough duration, specifically regarding the effects of the amount and quality of dietary f

  20. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids robustly promotes neurovascular restorative dynamics and improves neurological functions after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Hailian; Zhang, Hui; Leak, Rehana K; Shi, Yejie; Hu, Xiaoming; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Stroke is a devastating neurological disease with no satisfactory therapies to preserve long-term neurological function, perhaps due to the sole emphasis on neuronal survival in most preclinical studies. Recent studies have revealed the importance of protecting multiple cell types in the injured brain, such as oligodendrocytes and components of the neurovascular unit, before long-lasting recovery of function can be achieved. For example, revascularization in the ischemic penumbra is critical to provide various neurotrophic factors that enhance the survival and activity of neurons and other progenitor cells, such as oligodendrocyte precursor cells. In the present study, we hypothesized that chronic dietary supplementation with fish oil promotes post-stroke angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis, thereby leading to long-term functional improvements. Mice received dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA-enriched fish oil for three months before and up to one month after stroke. As expected, dietary n-3 PUFAs significantly increased levels of n-3 PUFAs in the brain and improved long-term behavioral outcomes after cerebral ischemia. n-3 PUFAs also robustly improved revascularization and angiogenesis and boosted the survival of NeuN/BrdU labeled newborn neurons up to 35days after stroke injury. Furthermore, these pro-neurogenic effects were accompanied by robust oligodendrogenesis. Thus, this is the first study to demonstrate that chronic dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs is an effective prophylactic measure not only to protect against ischemic injury for the long term but also to actively promote neurovascular restorative dynamics and brain repair. PMID:25771800

  1. Dietary structured lipids for post-weaning piglets: fat digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Danielsen, V.

    2006-01-01

    In four groups of post-weaning piglets the effects of triacylglycerol structure and fatty acid profiles of four dietary fats on apparent faecal nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of platelet and erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were examined. Dietary fats included as 10% (w/w) of the diets were two structured fats of rapeseed oil interesterified with tridecanoin (R1) or coconut oil (R2), respectively, one mixture of rapeseed oil and coconut oil (R3) and rapeseed oil as control (R4). Faeces and urine from piglets weaned at 28 days of age were collected quantitatively during three periods each of 5 days, in which the piglets were kept in metabolism cages for measurement of apparent faecal nutrient and energy digestibility and nitrogen retention. Apparent faecal fat digestibilities were significantly improved in groups fed interesterified fats or the physical mixtures (R1, R2 and R3) compared with rapeseed oil (R4). Apparent faecal nitrogen digestibility and retention were similar in all four groups in the three periods, but increased with time. Apparent faecal fat digestibilities were significantly improved from the first to the third week in the groups R1 and R2. Fatty acid profiles in platelet and erythrocyte membranes and in tissues reflected the fatty acid profile of the dietary fat, except for medium-chain fatty acids, which were only found in low proportions, indicating that 10:0 was mainly used as an energy source.

  2. Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Knudsen, K. E. B.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17-21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p<0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p<0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p<0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

  3. Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weigth gain in growing rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p < 0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

  4. A common polymorphism near the interleukin-6 gene modifies the association between dietary fat intake and insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuda C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Cuda1, Bibiana Garcia-Bailo1,2, Mohamed Karmali1,2, Ahmed El-Sohemy1, Alaa Badawi21Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, 2Office of Biotechnology, Genomics and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Increasing evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the development of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, have been associated with insulin resistance, and dietary lipids can increase cytokine production. The objective of this study was to determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism near the IL6 gene (rs7801406 modifies the relationship between dietary fat and markers of insulin sensitivity.Methods: Subjects were healthy men and women aged 20–29 years from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Dietary intake was estimated using a one-month semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken for genotyping and biomarker measurement.Results: The single nucleotide polymorphism was not associated with any of the measures of insulin sensitivity. However, it modified the relationship between total dietary fat and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.053 for interaction. Total fat intake was positively related to HOMA-IR in individuals homozygous for the G allele (ß = 0.005 ± 0.002, P = 0.03, but not among heterozygotes. There was an inverse relationship between total fat intake and HOMA-IR in individuals who were homozygous for the A allele (β= –0.012 ± 0.006, P = 0.047.Conclusion: These findings suggest that dietary fat influences insulin sensitivity differently depending on genotype.Keywords: interleukin-6, insulin sensitivity, nutrigenomics, dietary fat

  5. Mapping the diverse functions of dietary fatty acids via target gene regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiadi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary fat is a strong predictor of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. A great number of epidemiological and observational studies clearly show that in addition to the amount of fat consumed in a diet, fat composition is an equally important factor in the development of chronic diseases. Evidence abounds indicating that adherence to a diet with high content of polyunsaturated (PUFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA...

  6. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on contractile function of hearts isolated from sedentary and trained rats

    OpenAIRE

    Demaison, Luc; Blet, James; Sergiel, Jean-Pierre; Gregoire, Stéphane; Argaud, Doriane

    2000-01-01

    Moderate physical training induced a decrease in arterial blood pressure in fish oil-fed rats as compared to sunflower seed oil-fed rats [14]. The purpose of this study was to determine if these changes were due to modifications of the left ventricular function of the heart. Forty rats were fed a semi-purified diet containing either 10% sunflower seed oil or 10% fish oil (EPAX 3000TG, Pronova). Each dietary group was assigned to two sub-groups, one being constituted by sedentary animals and t...

  7. Metabolism and secretory function of white adipose tissue: effect of dietary fat

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia M. Oller do, Nascimento; Eliane B., Ribeiro; Lila M., Oyama.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente 40% do total de energia consumida pela população ocidental é representada pelos lipídios, a maioria dela sendo ingerida na forma de triglicerídeos e fosfolipídios. O foco desta revisão foi analisar o efeito dos tipos de gordura da dieta sobre o metabolismo e função secretora do tecid [...] o adiposo branco, principalmente, sobre a secreção de haptoglobina, TNF-?, inibidor do ativador de plasminogênio-1 e adiponectina. Estudos prévios demonstraram que durante a exposição de dietas hiperlipídicas, a quantidade e o tipo de ácidos graxos presentes na dieta podem ou não ter um efeito significante sobre o metabolismo do tecido adiposo. Entretanto, o tratamento a curto ou longo prazo com dieta hiperlipídica, especialmente rica em ácidos graxos saturados, provavelmente por ativar receptores toll-like, estimula a expressão de adipocinas pró-inflamatórias e inibe a expressão de adiponectina. Estudos adicionais são necessários para investigar os mecanismos celulares pelos quais os ácidos graxos da dieta afetam a função secretória e metabólica do tecido adiposo branco. Abstract in english Approximately 40% of the total energy consumed by western populations is represented by lipids, most of them being ingested as triacylglycerols and phospholipids. The focus of this review is to analyze the effect of the type of dietary fat on white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory function, p [...] articularly on haptoglobin, TNF-?, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and adiponectin secretion. Previous studies have demonstrated that the duration of the exposure to the high-fat feeding, amount of fatty acid present in the diet and the type of fatty acid may or may not have a significant effect on adipose tissue metabolism. However, the long-term or short-term high fat diets, especially rich in saturated fatty acids, probably by activation of toll-like receptors, stimulated the expression of proinflammatory adipokines and inhibited adiponectin expression. Further studies are needed to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids affect white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory functions.

  8. Metabolism and secretory function of white adipose tissue: effect of dietary fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia M. Oller do Nascimento

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 40% of the total energy consumed by western populations is represented by lipids, most of them being ingested as triacylglycerols and phospholipids. The focus of this review is to analyze the effect of the type of dietary fat on white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory function, particularly on haptoglobin, TNF-?, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and adiponectin secretion. Previous studies have demonstrated that the duration of the exposure to the high-fat feeding, amount of fatty acid present in the diet and the type of fatty acid may or may not have a significant effect on adipose tissue metabolism. However, the long-term or short-term high fat diets, especially rich in saturated fatty acids, probably by activation of toll-like receptors, stimulated the expression of proinflammatory adipokines and inhibited adiponectin expression. Further studies are needed to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids affect white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory functions.Aproximadamente 40% do total de energia consumida pela população ocidental é representada pelos lipídios, a maioria dela sendo ingerida na forma de triglicerídeos e fosfolipídios. O foco desta revisão foi analisar o efeito dos tipos de gordura da dieta sobre o metabolismo e função secretora do tecido adiposo branco, principalmente, sobre a secreção de haptoglobina, TNF-?, inibidor do ativador de plasminogênio-1 e adiponectina. Estudos prévios demonstraram que durante a exposição de dietas hiperlipídicas, a quantidade e o tipo de ácidos graxos presentes na dieta podem ou não ter um efeito significante sobre o metabolismo do tecido adiposo. Entretanto, o tratamento a curto ou longo prazo com dieta hiperlipídica, especialmente rica em ácidos graxos saturados, provavelmente por ativar receptores toll-like, estimula a expressão de adipocinas pró-inflamatórias e inibe a expressão de adiponectina. Estudos adicionais são necessários para investigar os mecanismos celulares pelos quais os ácidos graxos da dieta afetam a função secretória e metabólica do tecido adiposo branco.

  9. Effects of Unsaturated Fat Dietary Supplements on Blood Lipids, and on Markers of Malnutrition and Inflammation in Hemodialysis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Riserus, Ulf; Marckmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of commercially available unsaturated fat dietary supplements on blood lipids, and on markers of malnutrition and inflammation, in an adult population of hemodialysis (HD) patients. DESIGN: This was a restricted, randomized (equal blocks), investigator-blinded 2x6...... inflammation as assessed according to C-reactive protein serum concentrations. Adding unsaturated fat to the diet seems to be a safe and effective way to prevent and treat malnutrition in hemodialysis patients....

  10. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress NHE-1 upregulation in a rabbit model of volume- and pressure-overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RubenCoronel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3-PUFAs from fish oil may have cardioprotective effects during ischemia/reperfusion, hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF. The cardiac Na+/H+-exchanger (NHE-1 is a key mediator for these detrimental cardiac conditions. Consequently, chronic NHE-1 inhibition appears to be a promising pharmacological tool for prevention and treatment. Acute application of the fish oil ?3-PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA inhibit the NHE-1 in isolated cardiomyocytes. We studied the effects of a diet enriched with ?3-PUFAs on the NHE-1 activity in healthy rabbits and in a rabbit model of HF induced by volume- and pressure-overload. Methods: Rabbits were allocated to four groups. The first two groups consisted of healthy rabbits, which were fed either a diet containing 1.25% (w/w fish oil (?3-PUFAs, or 1.25% high-oleic sunflower oil (?9-MUFAs as control. The second two groups were also allocated to either a diet containing ?3-PUFAs or ?9-MUFAs, but underwent volume- and pressure-overload to induce HF. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and used for intracellular pH (pHi and patch clamp measurements. NHE-1 activity was measured in HEPES-buffered conditions as recovery rate from acidosis due to ammonium prepulses. Results: In healthy rabbits, NHE-1 activity in ?9-MUFAs and ?3-PUFAs myocytes was not significantly different. Volume- and pressure-overload in rabbits increased the NHE-1 activity in ?9-MUFAs myocytes, but not in ?3-PUFAs myocytes, resulting in a significantly lower NHE-1 activity in myocytes of ?3-PUFA fed HF rabbits. The susceptibility to induced delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs, a cellular mechanism of arrhythmias, was lower in myocytes of HF animals fed ?3- PUFAs compared to myocytes of HF animals? fed??9-MUFAs. In our rabbit HF model, the degree of hypertrophy was similar in the ?3-PUFAs group compared to the ?9-MUFAs group. Concl

  11. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with changes in the concentrations of multiple FA in milk. Even though a direct cause and effect could not be established, a decrease in 18:0 supply in combination with increased mammary uptake of cis-11 18:1, trans-10 18:1, and trans 20- and 22-carbon FA may contribute. In conclusion, dietary FO supplements enrich 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in milk, but also elevate mono- and polyenoic trans FA concentrations, and in high amounts alter the distribution of individual trans FA isomers. PMID:26094222

  12. The effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on attention and impulsivity in an animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Makulska-Gertruda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The main symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. Both etiology and neurobiological basis of ADHD are unknown. In this context, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs, especially omega-3 (n-3 PUFAs, have become a focus of interest. The symptoms of ADHD have been suggested to be associated with a deficiency of n-3 PUFAs. In addition, the impact of a supply of dietary n-3 PUFAs in the treatment of ADHD has frequently been discussed. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of n-3 PUFA supplementation on attention and impulsivity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR which has been proposed to be a valid genetic animal model of ADHD. Methods: Seven-week-old male SHRs were randomly divided into two groups of 15 rats and fed one of two experimental diets (n-3 PUFA-enriched or n-3 PUFA-deficient prior to and during behavioral testing. Attention and impulsivity were assessed using a three-choiceserial-reaction-time-task (3CSRTT which is based on the five-choice-serial-reaction-timetask. The experiment was performed with three-month-old rats. Results: Our findings demonstrate a marked difference between groups regarding impulsivity but not attention. The n-3 PUFA-enriched diet significantly reduced impulsivity in SHRs compared with rats fed with the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet. Conclusion: The present data show a decrease in impulsivity following a dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation, but no changes in attention. A possible explanation for these results is that the attention displayed by SHR may not be linked to n-3 PUFA supply. It is important to note that inattention and impulsiveness are two of the main symptoms of ADHD. Our results regarding dietary n-3 PUFA supply may support the positive findings in human studies demonstrating that n-3 PUFA administration can improve the cognitive or behavioral symptoms in children with ADHD

  13. Influence of post hatch dietary supplementation of fat on performance, carcass cuts and biochemical profile in Ven Cobb broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Prasad Rai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of post hatch dietary fat supplementation on performance of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 day-old Ven Cobb broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups of 30 chicks in each (three replicates of 10 birds/treatment. The trial lasted for 35 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Four types of diet were formulated for 1st week: T1, T2, T3 and T4 contained control diet with no added fat, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% fat, respectively. After 1st week post-hatch period chicks were fed ad libitum with the normal basal diet as per Bureau of Indian Standard recommendations till completion of the experiment (8-35 days. Results: Significantly higher (p<0.05 body weight and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR was recorded in birds fed 5% dietary fat at the end of the experiment whereas, feed intake was not significantly affected. Significantly (p<0.05 higher dressed weight was observed due to 5% fat supplementation than other groups whereas, it was not significant for other carcass cuts. No significant differences were observed in moisture, protein and lipid content of breast and thigh muscle of broiler due to supplemented fat whereas, 2.5% dietary fat significantly (p<0.05 increase the serum HI titer on day 28th. In biochemical profile, higher serum albumin (g/dl was recorded due to 5% fat supplementation whereas other biochemical components did not show any significance difference among treatments. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of fat in broilers diet improves the overall FCR, dressing percentage and gain more body weight.

  14. Effect of increased intake of dietary animal fat and fat energy on oxidative damage, mutation frequency, DNA adduct level and DNA repair in rat colon and liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla; Daneshvar, Bahram; Autrup, Herman; Risom, Lotte; Weimann, Allan; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Wallin, Håkan; Dragsted, Lars O.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of high dietary intake of animal fat and an increased fat energy intake on colon and liver genotoxicity and on markers of oxidative damage and antioxidative defence in colon, liver and plasma was investigated in Big Blue rats. The rats were fed ad libitum with semi-synthetic feed supplemented with 0, 3, 10 or 30% w/w lard. After 3 weeks, the mutation frequency, DNA repair gene expression, DNA damage and oxidative markers were determined in liver, colon and plasma. The mutation frequen...

  15. Fatty alcohols in capelin, herring and mackerel oils and muscle lipids: I. Fatty alcohol details linking dietary copepod fat with certain fish depot fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, W N; Ackman, R G

    1979-09-01

    It is shown that the shorter chain (C14-C18) minor fatty alcohols in copepods, fish body lipids, and commercial fish oils are all qualitatively present, and quantitatively similar in proportions to acids found in the depot fats of capelin and mackerel, and in some herring. Although these fatty acids can be formed de novo in fish, copepod alcohols offer an alternative dietary source. Monoethylenic fatty alcohol details, especially for the 22:1 isomers, are reviewed, and the latter are discussed as precursors of the 22:1 fatty acids of fish depot fats, specifically of the dominant 22:1 omega 11 isomer. PMID:491864

  16. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  17. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  18. Examining the minimal required elements of a computer-tailored intervention aimed at dietary fat reduction: Results of a randomized controlled dismantling study

    OpenAIRE

    Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Dagnelie, Pieter; Brug, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the minimally required feedback elements of a computer-tailored dietary fat reduction intervention to be effective in improving fat intake. In all 588 Healthy Dutch adults were randomly allocated to one of four conditions in an randomized controlled trial: (i) feedback on dietary fat intake [personal feedback (P feedback)], (ii) P feedback and feedback on one's own behavior relative to that of peers [personal-normative feedback (PN feedback)], (iii) PN feedback and pra...

  19. Dietary fat-dependent transcriptional architecture and copy number alterations associated with modifiers of mammary cancer metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Ryan A; Merrill, Michele La; Hunter, Kent W; Sørensen, Peter; Threadgill, David W; Pomp, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease resulting from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among environmental factors, body composition and intake of specific dietary components like total fat are associated with increased incidence of breast cancer and metastasis. We previously showed...

  20. Increased dietary saturated fat intake is negatively associated with compliance to exercise regimen and improvement in fitness parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To determine if dietary intake of fat, sugar, and/or sodium affects improvement in aerobic fitness in response to a 6- mo endurance and resistance training program in peri-menopausal women. Methods:18 women aged 42-52y underwent a 6 mo exercise intervention, working out 6 d/wk, 60 min/d. ...

  1. Dietary Fat Intake and Exercise among Two- and Four-Year College Students: Differences in Behavior and Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J.; An, Lawrence C.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the demographic differences among two-year colleges and four-year universities and the relatively limited access to health education and campus-based health resources, this study compares the frequency of limiting dietary fat intake and exercising among two- and four-year college students. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18-25…

  2. Dietary fat-dependent transcriptional architecture and copy number alterations associated with modifiers of mammary cancer metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Ryan A; Merrill, Michele La; Hunter, Kent W; Sørensen, Peter; Threadgill, David W; Pomp, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease resulting from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among environmental factors, body composition and intake of specific dietary components like total fat are associated with increased incidence of breast cancer and metastasis. We previously showe...

  3. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tous, Nuria; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Lizardo, R; Vilà, B; Esteve-Garcia, E

    The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA......, and slaughtered at an average BW of 117 ± 4.9 kg. Transcription of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC......), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), delta-6-desaturase (D6D), and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) were determined by real-time PCR in longissimus thoracis (LT) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles, LT subcutaneous and SM intermuscular fat, and in the liver. Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed using gas chromatography in...

  4. Association between dietary fat and skin cancer in an Australian population using case-control and cohort study designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryer Jayne L

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human studies of dietary fat as a possible risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC – principally basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC – have produced inconsistent results. We had the opportunity to examine the association concurrently for all three types of skin cancer in a population-based study in Tasmania, Australia, involving 652 cases of CMM, BCC and SCC and a common set of 471 controls. Methods Histopathologically-confirmed cases of CMM, BCC and SCC were ascertained from the Tasmanian Cancer Registry (TCR, and controls were selected at random from the state's electoral roll. We compared subjects categorised by thirds of dietary fat intake score measured by the 'Dobson short fat questionnaire', with logistic regression models that adjusted for age, sex, skin type and usual sun exposure. We then followed all subjects for 56–80 months until 31 August, 2004 for a new NMSC using record linkage with both the TCR and the Births, Deaths, and Marriages registry. Incidence rates were calculated and ratios of rates were estimated using Poisson models. Results Relative to subjects in the lowest fat intake category, the odds ratios (OR comparing cases and controls were OR = 0.76 (95% CI: 0.56–1.03 for medium fat intake, and OR = 0.62 (95% CI: 0.45–0.85 for high fat intake, with a significant (p p = 0.30. Conclusion Using the same dietary instrument with two study designs in the same Caucasian population, we found no evidence that high fat intake increases the risk of developing melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancers. Instead, our results suggest a risk reduction for high fat intake.

  5. Involvement of dietary saturated fats, from all sources or of dairy origin only, in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Béatrice; Fardet, Anthony; Legrand, Philippe; Lecerf, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the consumption of saturated fatty acids to a level as low as possible is a European public health recommendation to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The association between dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and development and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), however, is a matter of debate. A literature search was performed to identify prospective studies and clinical trials in humans that explored the association between dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and risk of insulin resistance and T2DM. Furthermore, to assess whether specific foods, and not just the saturated fatty acid content of the food matrix, can have differential effects on human health, the relationship between consumption of full-fat dairy products, a main source of dietary saturated fatty acids, and risk of insulin resistance and T2DM was studied. There is no evidence that dietary saturated fatty acids from varied food sources affect the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM, nor is intake of full-fat dairy products associated with this risk. These findings strongly suggest that future studies on the effects of dietary saturated fatty acids should take into account the complexity of the food matrix. Furthermore, communication on saturated fats and their health effects should be prudent and well informed. PMID:26545916

  6. Dietary fat intake and its association with risk of selected components of the metabolic syndrome among rural South Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Sowmya; Nagarajan, Lakshmipriya; Vaidya, Ruchi; Gunasekaran, Geetha; Rajagopal, Gayathri; Parthasarathy, Vijayalakshmi; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Sudha, Vasudevan

    2016-01-01

    Context: There is limited literature on the dietary fat intake of rural Indian populations, particularly in relation to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS). Aim: This study aims to assess the dietary fat intake and analyze its association with the risk of selected components of the MS among rural population in the state of Tamil Nadu. Settings and Design: Adults (n = 27012) ?20 years of age were recruited from the rural component of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 42 villages in Kanchipuram District of Tamil Nadu. Subjects and Methods: Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, data were obtained on the fat intake among 6907 adults. Anthropometric and clinical measures were collected using standard methods. The components of the MS assessed were abdominal obesity, hypertension, and impaired fasting glucose. All analyses were performed using SPSS software (version 20). Results: Prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension, and impaired fasting glucose were significantly higher in the highest quintile of fat intake (33%, P fasting glucose (P = 0.01). Sunflower oil as the main cooking oil was significantly associated with a higher risk of these components of the MS (P for trend <0.001) compared to traditional oils and palmolein. Conclusions: Higher dietary fat was significantly associated with risk of components of the MS and use of sunflower oil as main cooking oil increased metabolic risk in rural South Indians.

  7. Fat source and dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio influences milk fatty-acid composition in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirigohar, M; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Rezayazdi, K; Krizsan, S J; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Shingfield, K J

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the potential benefits to human health there is an increased interest in producing milk containing lower-saturated fatty acid (SFA) and higher unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations, including cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were used in two experiments according to a completely randomized block design, with 21-day periods to examine the effects of incremental replacement of prilled palm fat (PALM) with sunflower oil (SFO) in high-concentrate diets containing 30 g/kg dry matter (DM) of supplemental fat (Experiment 1) or increases in the forage-to-concentrate (F : C) ratio from 39 : 61 to 48 : 52 of diets containing 30 g/kg DM of SFO (Experiment 2) on milk production, digestibility and milk FA composition. Replacing PALM with SFO had no effect on DM intake, but tended to increase organic matter digestibility, yields of milk, protein and lactose, and decreased linearly milk fat content. Substituting SFO for PALM decreased linearly milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and cis-9 16:1, and increased linearly 18:0, cis-9 18:1, trans-18:1 (??4 to 16), 18:2 and CLA concentrations. Increases in the F : C ratio of diets containing SFO had no effect on intake, yields of milk, milk protein or milk lactose, lowered milk protein content in a quadratic manner, and increased linearly NDF digestion and milk fat secretion. Replacing concentrates with forages in diets containing SFO increased milk fat 4:0 to 10:0 concentrations in a linear or quadratic manner, decreased linearly cis-9 16:1, trans-6 to -10 18:1, 18:2n-6, trans-7, cis-9 CLA, trans-9, cis-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA, without altering milk fat 14:0 to 16:0, trans-11 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 CLA or 18:3n-3 concentrations. In conclusion, replacing prilled palm fat on with SFO in high-concentrate diets had no adverse effects on intake or milk production, other than decreasing milk fat content, but lowered milk fat medium-chain SFA and increased trans FA and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Increases in the proportion of forage in diets containing SFO increased milk fat synthesis, elevated short-chain SFA and lowered trans FA concentrations, without altering milk polyunsaturated FA content. Changes in fat yield on high-concentrate diets containing SFO varied between experiments and individual animals, with decreases in milk fat secretion being associated with increases in milk fat trans-10 18:1, trans-10, cis-12 CLA and trans-9, cis-11 CLA concentrations. PMID:24176091

  8. Dietary fat modulation of mammary tumor growth and metabolism demonstrated by 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship of dietary fat concentration and saturation on the growth and metabolic activity of line 168 was studied using syngeneic mice fed 6 experimental diets before and during tumor growth. Tumor latency was significantly greater for mice fed a diet containing the minimum of essential fatty acids (EFA, 0.5% corn oil) or 8% coconut oil (SF) than for mice fed 8 or 20% safflower oil (PUF) or 20% SF. Changes in dietary fat resulted in alterations of tumor cell and serum fatty acid composition but not the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor. 31P-surface coil NMR was used to measure possible changes in tumor metabolism in vivo. Although pH decreased from 7.2 to 6.6 as the tumor volume increased, there was no difference in pH among dietary groups. There was an inverse relationship between both sugar phosphate (SP)/Pi and ATP/Pi ratios and tumor volume; those ratios for mice fed an EFA deficient or minimal EFA diet decreased at a different rate than ratios for mice fed diets with additional fat. Tumors of mice fed diets containing no or a low level (0.3%) of 18:2 had higher SP/ATP ratios than mice fed diets containing a moderate level (? 4%) of 18:2. Thus, high levels of dietary fat had a significant effect on promotion of mammary tumors during early stages of tumor growth. Differences in tumor volume associated with dietary fat may be related to changes in the levels of high energy phosphate metabolites

  9. Influence of dietary fat on intestinal microbes, inflammation, barrier function and metabolic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wan; Gaskins, H Rex; McIntosh, Michael K

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies using germ-free, gnotobiotic microbial transplantation/conventionalization or antibiotic treatment in rodent models have highlighted the critical role of intestinal microbes on gut health and metabolic functions of the host. Genetic and environmental factors influence the abundance and type of mutualistic vs. pathogenic bacteria, each of which has preferred substrates for growth and unique products of fermentation. Whereas some fermentation products or metabolites promote gut function and health, others impair gut function, leading to compromised nutrient digestion and barrier function that adversely impact the host. Such products may also influence food intake, energy harvest and expenditure, and insulin action, thereby influencing adiposity and related metabolic outcomes. Diet composition influences gut microbiota and subsequent fermentation products that impact the host, as demonstrated by prebiotic studies using oligosaccharides or other types of indigestible fiber. Recent studies also show that dietary lipids affect specific populations of gut microbes and their metabolic end products. This review will focus on studies examining the influence of dietary fat amount and type on the gut microbiome, intestinal health and positive and negative metabolic consequences. The protective role of omega-3-rich fatty acids on intestinal inflammation will also be examined. PMID:24355793

  10. Dietary fat interacts with PCBs to induce changes in lipid metabolism in LDL receptor deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, B.; Reiterer, G.; Toborek, M.; Matveev, S.V.; Daugherty, A.; Smart, E. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States); Robertson, L.W. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)

    2004-09-15

    From epidemiological studies, there is substantial evidence that cardiovascular diseases are linked to environmental pollution and that exposure to polycyclic and/or polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons can lead to human cardiovascular toxicity. A major route of exposure to PCBs in humans is via oral ingestion of contaminated food products. Therefore, circulating environmental contaminants derived from diets, such as PCBs, are in intimate contact with the vascular endothelium. Endothelial activation and dysfunction is an important factor in the overall regulation of vascular lesion pathology. In addition to endothelial barrier dysfunction, another functional change in atherosclerosis is the activation of the endothelium that is manifested as an increase in the expression of specific cytokines and adhesion molecules. These cytokines and adhesion molecules are proposed to mediate the inflammatory aspects of the disease by regulating the vascular entry of leukocytes. Alterations in lipid profile and lipid metabolism as a result of exposure to PCBs may be important components of endothelial cell dysfunction. Little is known about the interaction of dietary fats and PCBs in the pathology of atherosclerosis. We have reported a significant disruption in endothelial barrier function when cells were exposed to linoleic acid. In the current study we aimed to demonstrate the PCB-fatty acid interaction in vivo and hypothesized that PCB toxicity can be modulated by the type of fat consumed.

  11. Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) Decrease Obesity-Associated Th17 Cell-Mediated Inflammation during Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M.; Hou, Tim Y.; Turk, Harmony F.; Weeks, Brad; Wu, Chaodong; McMurray, David N.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that obesity-associated inflammation increases disease activity during colitis, attributed in part to the effects of Th17 cells. Using a model of concurrent obesity and colitis, we monitored changes in critical immune cell subsets and inflammatory biomarker expression in three key tissues: visceral adipose tissue, colon (local inflammatory site) and spleen (systemic inflammatory site), and we hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would reduce the percentage of inflammatory immune cell subsets and suppress inflammatory gene expression, thereby improving the disease phenotype. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6 mice by feeding a high fat (HF) diet (59.2% kcal) alone or an isocaloric HF diet supplemented with fish oil (HF-FO) for 12 weeks. Colitis was induced via a 2.5% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema. The HF-FO diet improved the obese phenotype by reducing i) serum hormone concentrations (leptin and resistin), ii) adipose tissue mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IFN?, IL-6, IL17F and IL-21) and iii) total (F4/80+ CD11b+) and inflammatory adipose tissue M1 (F4/80+ CD11c+) macrophage content compared to HF (P<0.05). In addition, the HF-FO diet reduced both colitis-associated disease severity and colonic mRNA expression of the Th17 cell master transcription factor (ROR??) and critical cytokines (IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and IFN?) versus HF (P<0.05). Compared to HF, the percentage of both splenic Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by the HF-FO group (P<0.05). Under ex vivo polarizing conditions, the percentage of HF-FO derived CD4+ T cells that reached Th17 cell effector status was suppressed (P?=?0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that n-3 PUFA suppress Th1/Th17 cells and inflammatory macrophage subsets and reconfigure the inflammatory gene expression profile in diverse tissue sites in obese mice following the induction of colitis. PMID:23166761

  12. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D; Kieronczyk, B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG wasaffected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as dietary fat type significantly affects microbiota activity in the broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract.

  13. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefiak, D; Kiero?czyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as dietary fat type significantly affects microbiota activity in the broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24674938

  14. Additive effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin and mild caloric restriction on high-fat diet-associated phenotypes in mice.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flachs, Pavel; Hensler, Michal; Jílková, Zuzana; Rossmeisl, Martin; Ogston, N. C.; Mohamed-Ali, V.; Kopecký, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 31, Supp.1 (2007), S26-S26. ISSN 0307-0565. [European congress on obesity /15./. 22.04.2007-25.04.2007, Budapest] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : polyunsaturated fatty acid Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  15. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D; Kieronczyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, Ricarda M; Højberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork...... fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C...... animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v...

  16. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D; Kieronczyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, Ricarda M; Højberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C...... were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork...... animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v...

  17. Piscivory does not cause pansteatitis (yellow fat disease) in Oreochromis mossambicus from an African subtropical reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Dabrowski, Jacqueline; Hall, G. van; Lübcker, N.; Oberholster, P.J.; Phillips, D.L.; Woodborne, Stephan M.

    2014-01-01

    1. Pansteatitis (yellow fat disease) is ubiquitous in the free-ranging population of Oreochromis mossambicus from Loskop Reservoir (LR), South Africa. The disease is nutritionally mediated and associated with a diet high in polyunsaturated or rancid fats, frequently of fish origin. While piscivory has never been reported in dietary studies of O. mossambicus in their native range, their opportunistic and omnivorous feeding habits mean that piscivory cannot be ruled out as a caus...

  18. Changes in expression of insulin signaling pathway genes by dietary fat source in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Chang; Jang, Hong-Chul; Lee, Sung-Dae; Jung, Hyun-Jung; Park, Jun-Cheol; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Hun; Choi, Bong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in gene expression by dietary fat source, i.e., beef tallow, soybean oil, olive oil, and coconut oil (each 3% in feed), in both male and female growing-finishing pigs. Real-time PCR was conducted on seven genes (insulin receptor; INSR, insulin receptor substrate; IRS, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate; PIP3, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1; PDK1, protein kinase B; Akt, forkhead box protein O1; FOXO1 and cGMP-inhibited 3', 5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase; PDE3) located upstream of the insulin signaling pathway in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) of pigs. The INSR, IRS, PIP3, and PDE3 genes showed significantly differential expression in barrow pigs. Expression of the PIP3 and FOXO1 genes was significantly different among the four dietary groups in gilt pigs. In particular, the PIP3 gene showed the opposite expression pattern between barrow and gilt pigs. These results show that dietary fat source affected patterns of gene expression according to animal gender. Further, the results indicate that the type of dietary fat affects insulin signaling-related gene expression in the LM of pigs. These results can be applied to livestock production by promoting the use of discriminatory feed supplies. PMID:26290701

  19. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Mette

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control, a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day (Flax drink, and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day (Flax bread. Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004

  20. Effect of sex, dietary glycerol or dietary fat during late fattening, on fatty acid composition and positional distribution of fatty acids within the triglyceride in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, J; Cambero, M I; Cámara, L; Loriente, C; Mateos, G G; López-Bote, C J

    2015-11-01

    The effect of sex, source of saturated fat (lard v. palm oil) and glycerol inclusion in the fattening diet on composition and fatty acid positional distribution in the triglyceride molecule was studied in pigs from 78 to 110 kg BW. Average daily gain and carcass characteristics, including ham and loin weight, were not affected by dietary treatment but sex affected backfat depth (P palm oil. Dietary glycerol increased total MUFA and C18:1n-9 concentration in the IMF and increased total MUFA and decreased C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and total PUFA concentrations in the SF. The data indicate that altering the fatty acid composition of the triglyceride molecule at the 2-position, by dietary intervention during the fattening phase, is very limited. PMID:26272512

  1. Endogenous conversion of ω-6 to ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fat-1 mice attenuated intestinal polyposis by either inhibiting COX-2/β-catenin signaling or activating 15-PGDH/IL-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Cha, Ji-Young; Jeong, Migyeong; Go, Eun-Jin; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-05-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs) have inhibitory effects in various preclinical cancer models, but their effects in intestinal polyposis have never been examined. As attempts have been made to use nutritional intervention to counteract colon cancer development, in this study we evaluated the effects of ω-3 PUFAs on intestinal polyposis in the Apc(Min/) (+) mouse model. The experimental groups included wild-type C56BL/6 mice, Apc(Min/) (+) mice, fat-1 transgenic mice expressing an n-3 desaturase to enable ω-3 PUFA synthesis, and Apc(Min/) (+) × fat-1 double-transgenic mice; all mice were 20 weeks of age. Small intestines were collected for gross and pathologic evaluation, including assessment of polyp number and size, followed by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. After administration of various concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs, PUFA levels were measured in small intestine tissue by GC/MS/MS analysis to compare with PUFA synthesis of between C57BL6 and fat-1mice. As a result, ω-3 PUFAs significantly attenuated Apc mutation-induced intestinal polyposis accompanied with significant inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, COX-2 and PGE2, but induced significant levels of 15-PGDH. In addition, significant induction of the inflammasome-related substrates as IL-1β and IL-18 and activation of caspase-1 was observed in Apc(Min/) (+) × fat-1 mice. Administration of at least 3 g/60 kg ω-3 PUFAs was equivalent to ω-3 PUFAs produced in fat-1 mice and resulted in significant increase in the expression of IL-1β, caspase-3 and IL-18, as seen in Apc(Min/) (+) × fat-1 mice. We conclude that ω-3PUFAs can prevent intestinal polyp formation by inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, but increased levels of 15-PGDH and IL-18. PMID:26650508

  2. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  3. High Dietary Fat Exacerbates Weight Gain and Obesity in Female Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene-Ablated Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Atshaves, Barbara P.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Storey, Stephen M; Kerstin K. Landrock; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    Since liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) facilitates uptake/oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in cultured transfected cells and primary hepatocytes, loss of L-FABP was expected to exacerbate weight gain and/or obesity in response to high dietary fat. Male and female wild-type (WT) and L-FABP gene-ablated mice, pair-fed a defined isocaloric control or high fat diet for 12 weeks, consumed equal amounts of food by weight and kcal. Male WT mice gained weight faster than their female WT c...

  4. Effect of Dietary Supplements of Apple Pectin, Wheat Bran or Fat on The Enzyme Activity of the Human Faecal Flora

    OpenAIRE

    Mallett, A. K.; Rowland, I. R.; Bearne, C A; Flynn, J. C.; Fehilly, B. J.; Udeen, S.; Farthing, M J G

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dietary manipulation on faecal enzyme activities was studied in six healthy volunteers who consumed a mixed, free choice diet (control) or that diet with additional apple pectin (18 g/day), wheat bran (30 g/day) or fat (total greater than 150 g/day) for periods of up to 3 weeks. Control and test diets were alternated over a continuous period of 5 months. Food consumption was recorded and showed that in control periods each subject maintained a high fat (approximately 40 per cent...

  5. Effect of long term low-fat dietary intervention on change in hemostatic factors: Results from the Women's Health Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Rajpathak, Swapnil N.; Xue, Xioanan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Van Horn, Linda; Snetselaar, Linda; Martin, Lisa W.; Rohan, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Low-fat diet may play a role in prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by altering the levels of hemostatic factors. There are yet limited data on the effects of low-fat diet on the circulating levels of these factors and existing studies are limited by small sample size and short duration of follow-up. We conducted an analysis in a subset of women (active arm = 723; control arm = 1,036) within the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial to investigate the long-term effect of...

  6. Dietary Carnitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ozorio, R.; Ginneken, V.J.T. van; Thillart, G., van den; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1). Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam v...

  7. Comparison of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy on fat to authenticate dietary history of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Andueza, D; de Oliveira, L; Zawadzki, F; Prache, S

    2015-11-01

    Since consumers are showing increased interest in the origin and method of production of their food, it is important to be able to authenticate dietary history of animals by rapid and robust methods used in the ruminant products. Promising breakthroughs have been made in the use of spectroscopic methods on fat to discriminate pasture-fed and concentrate-fed lambs. However, questions remained on their discriminatory ability in more complex feeding conditions, such as concentrate-finishing after pasture-feeding. We compared the ability of visible reflectance spectroscopy (Vis RS, wavelength range: 400 to 700 nm) with that of visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis-NIR RS, wavelength range: 400 to 2500 nm) to differentiate between carcasses of lambs reared with three feeding regimes, using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) as a classification method. The sample set comprised perirenal fat of Romane male lambs fattened at pasture (P, n = 69), stall-fattened indoors on commercial concentrate and straw (S, n = 55) and finished indoors with concentrate and straw for 28 days after pasture-feeding (PS, n = 65). The overall correct classification rate was better for Vis-NIR RS than for Vis RS (99.0% v. 95.1%, P < 0.05). Vis-NIR RS allowed a correct classification rate of 98.6%, 100.0% and 98.5% for P, S and PS lambs, respectively, whereas Vis RS allowed a correct classification rate of 98.6%, 94.5% and 92.3% for P, S and PS lambs, respectively. This study suggests the likely implication of molecules absorbing light in the non-visible part of the Vis-NIR spectra (possibly fatty acids), together with carotenoid and haem pigments, in the discrimination of the three feeding regimes. PMID:26165321

  8. Influence of dietary fat and selenium fed during initiation or promotion on the development of preneoplastic lesions in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci in rat liver were assessed in animals fed different levels of fat and selenium (Se) during either initiation (IN) or promotion (PR). Male Sprague Dawley rats (50g) were divided into 12 groups. One of six modified AIN-76 experimental diets were fed to groups 1-6 during weeks 1-4.5 (IN) and to groups 7-12 during weeks 4.5-15 (PR). During weeks 3-4, 13 rats/group received 10 daily doses of AFB1 (.4 mg/kg bwt/dose, i.g.). Two levels of corn oil (2% and 20%) were fed, each containing 3 levels of Se: < 0.02; 0.15; 2.5 (IN) or 1.9 (PR) ppm. When not fed the experimental diets rats were fed a standard AIN-76 diet. In groups 1-6, 0.03% phenobarbital was added to the standard diet. At week 15 rats were sacrificed. Compared to all low-fat groups, the high-fat diets with either < 0.02 or 0.15 ppm Se fed during IN resulted in a marked increase in mean diameter of GGT-positive foci and % liver section occupied by foci. In rats fed high-fat 2.5 ppm Se, preneoplastic development was decreased below all low-fat groups. During PR, Se status but not dietary fat level influenced foci formation. Rats fed < 0.02 ppm Se had greater mean diameter of foci and % section occupied by foci than either 0.15 or 1.9 ppm Se. Thus, an interaction was observed between dietary fat and selenium during IN, but not during PR

  9. Effect of dietary fat type on the fatty acids composition of irradiated and frozen storage japanese quails meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of substitution of dietary cotton seed oil (CSO) by used restaurant oil (URO) with different percentages 25% group 2 (G2), 50% group 3 (G3) and 100% group 4 (G4) in Japanese quail diets on the fatty acids composition of their meat especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The effect of gamma irradiation doses (1.5, 3 and 5 kGy) at frozen storage -18 C (degree) for 2 and 4 months in comparison with unirradiated and un storage were studied. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in quail meat fed G4 diet (100% URO) increased significantly in comparison with SFA in G2 (25% URO) and G3 (50% URO) but there is no significant effect with G2 and G3 in comparison with G1 (100% CSO).The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were not affected by G2 and G3 diet. Also, linoleic acid (C 18:2, n-6) had the same trend in those groups with range (32.75% to 33.35%). It is concluded that feeding a diet with URO 25% and 50% conserve the content of linoleic acid and the content of PUFA in quail meat. The irradiation doses and storage periods had no significant effect on the linoleic acid, MUFA and PUFA content.

  10. Dietary protein and urinary nitrogen in relation to 6-year changes in fat mass and fat-free mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Gottliebsen, K; Ängquist, L; Astrup, Arne; Heitmann, B L; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background:In contrast to the physiological expectation, observational studies show that greater protein intake is associated with subsequent body weight (BW) gain. An increase in fat-free mass (FFM) due to anabolic effects of protein could explain this.Objective:To examine associations between protein intake and subsequent changes in fat mass (FM) and FFM in longitudinal, observational data.Design:A health examination, including measures of FM and FFM by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and ...

  11. Dietary protein and urinary nitrogen in relation to 6-year changes in fat mass and fat-free mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, M Z; Gottliebsen, K; Ängquist, L; Astrup, A; Heitmann, B L; Sørensen, T I A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to the physiological expectation, observational studies show that greater protein intake is associated with subsequent body weight (BW) gain. An increase in fat-free mass (FFM) due to the anabolic effects of protein could explain this. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between protein intake and subsequent changes in fat mass (FM) and FFM in longitudinal, observational data. DESIGN: A health examination, including measures of FM and FFM by bioelectrical impedance at base...

  12. A diet rich in OMEGA-6 polyunsaturated fat and sucrose reproduces key features of metabolic syndrome in C57BL/6 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether a diet enriched in v-6 fatty acids and sucrose will reproduce features of metabolic syndrome in C57BL/6 mice. 4- to 7-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomized to chow (13% kcal fat, lard and corn oil) or high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet (48% kcal fat, corn oil) for a period ...

  13. Effect of dietary oil supplementation on fatty acid profile of backfat and intramuscular fat in finishing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Pulina; Roberto Rubattu; Maria Grazia Manca; Anna Nudda; Gianni Battacone

    2010-01-01

    Two groups of finishing gilts were fed, for 4 weeks, a commercial feed enriched (2%) with either rapeseed oil or sunflower oil. Pig growth was monitored bi-weekly and the fatty acid composition of backfat and Longissimus muscle was determined after slaughtering. Type of dietary oil affected significantly the fatty acid profile of pork fat, especially the C18:3n-3 concentration which was higher in pigs fed rapeseed oil than in those fed sunflower oil. The content of monounsaturated...

  14. Hypolipidemic effect of fruit fibers in rats fed with high dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmael, O A; Sonbul, S N; Kumosani, T A; Moselhy, S S

    2015-03-01

    The hypolipidemic effect of 10% fruit fibers in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD) was evaluated. This study was conducted on a total of 50 male Albino rats divided into 10 equal groups fed with different types of dietary fruits. The feeding period lasted for 24 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected and sera separated and subjected to lipid profile assay and atherogenic index. In addition, total antioxidant activity of different fruits was determined. The results obtained showed that pomegranate had higher content of antioxidants followed by apple, strawberry and guava compared with other fruits. Rats fed with 20% coconut oil showed a highly significant elevation in the levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic factor while the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly decreased when compared with control rats. Histological examination revealed that there was a large lipid and cholesterol deposition in the livers of rats fed with HFD. The potential in lowering the levels of plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride is in the following order: pomegranate > apple > strawberry > guava > papaya > mandarin and orange. Accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets was diminished when compared with the HFD group. Also, antiatherogenic is better than the untreated groups. Accordingly these hypolipidemic effects may be due to high-fiber content and antioxidant activity of these fruits. PMID:23315090

  15. Induction of ketosis in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets depends on the relative abundance of dietary fat and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Menhofer, Dominik; Kirchner, Henriette; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Müller, Timo D; Stock, Peggy; Hempel, Madlen; Stemmer, Kerstin; Pfluger, Paul T; Kienzle, Ellen; Christ, Bruno; Tschöp, Matthias H; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate/high-fat diets (LC-HFDs) in rodent models have been implicated with both weight loss and as a therapeutic approach to treat neurological diseases. LC-HFDs are known to induce ketosis; however, systematic studies analyzing the impact of the macronutrient composition on ketosis induction and weight loss success are lacking. Male Wistar rats were pair-fed for 4 wk either a standard chow diet or one of three different LC-HFDs, which only differed in the relative abundance of fat and protein (percentages of fat/protein in dry matter: LC-75/10; LC-65/20; LC-55/30). We subsequently measured body composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), analyzed blood chemistry and urine acetone content, evaluated gene expression changes of key ketogenic and gluconeogenic genes, and measured energy expenditure (EE) and locomotor activity (LA) during the first 4 days and after 3 wk on the respective diets. Compared with chow, rats fed with LC-75/10, LC-65/20, and LC-55/30 gained significantly less body weight. Reductions in body weight were mainly due to lower lean body mass and paralleled by significantly increased fat mass. Levels of ?-hydroxybutyate were significantly elevated feeding LC-75/10 and LC-65/20 but decreased in parallel to reductions in dietary fat. Acetone was about 16-fold higher with LC-75/10 only (P induce ketosis. LC-HFDs must be high in fat, but also low in protein contents to be clearly ketogenic. Independent of the macronutrient composition, LC-HFD-induced weight loss is not due to increased EE and LA. PMID:20943751

  16. Impact of Dietary Fat Type Within the Context of Altered Cholesterol Homeostasis on Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Metabolism in the F1B Hamster

    OpenAIRE

    Lecker, Jaime L.; Nirupa R. Matthan; Billheimer, Jeffrey T.; Rader, Daniel J.; LICHTENSTEIN, ALICE H.

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol status and dietary fat alter several metabolic pathways reflected in lipoprotein profiles. To assess plasma lipoprotein response and mechanisms by which cholesterol and dietary fat type regulate expression of genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism we developed an experimental model system using F1B hamsters fed diets (12 weeks) enriched in 10% (w/w) coconut, olive or safflower oil with either high cholesterol (0.1%; cholesterol-supplemented) or low cholesterol coupled with chole...

  17. Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010 : a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1,630,069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. SETTING AND POPULATION: Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. RESULTS: In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world's adult population, the mean intake was <10%E. Country-specific omega 6 consumption ranged from 1.2 to 12.5%E (global mean=5.9%E); corresponding range was 0.2 to 6.5%E (1.4%E) for trans fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and <100 to 5,542 mg/day (1,371 mg/day) for plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat ? 5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (? 0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (<300 mg/day); 18.9% for seafood omega 3 fat (? 250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (? 1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased. CONCLUSIONS: These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic diversity across nations and inform policies and priorities for improving global health.

  18. Cholesterol kinetic effects of dietary fat in CBA/J and C57BR/cdJ mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small differences in dietary fats cause marked differences in cholesterol metabolism in different strains of mice. CBA/J mice adjust HMGCOA reductase activity and C57BR/cdJ mice change fecal excretion of cholesterol. Phenomenological compartmental modeling of movement of 414C-cholesterol in the two strains of mice fed 40 en % fat, P/S = 0.24 (SFA) or 30 en % fat, P/S = 1 (PUFA) was used to analyze rates of movement between serum, liver, heart, and carcass. The C57 mice had slower movement between all compartments than CBA. Residence times in tissues were longer in mice fed SFA than those fed PUFA diet. The kinetic results are in agreement with the organ concentrations and enzyme activities measured

  19. Effect of dietary fat on uptake of lysine, phenylalanine, leucine and methionine by bovine mammary tissue slices in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four mature Holstein cows in late lactation were blocked in two groups based on milk production, in a 2x2 reversal with 21-day periods, and fed: (A) control diet; (B) A plus 1 kg/day tallow. Cows were fed sorghum silage ad libitum. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on day 15, 17, and 19 of each period. Fat did not effect DM intake or milk yield, however milk CP yield was 20% lower. Plasma lipids increased 33.6%, glucose decreased 9% and insulin/glucagon ratio decreased 21.2% in cow fed fat. After period two, cows were slaughtered and mammary tissue sampled for incubation in Krebs Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 22 AA at arterial concentration and .225 ?Ci/ml of 14C-labelled L-Leu, L-Phe, L-Lys or D/L Met. Dietary fat decreased tissue AA uptake rate by 21.2%. Uptake was 4.8, 10.3, 17.8 and 2.4 x 10-3 ?M/min/gm of tissue DM for Phe, Lys, Leu and Met, respectively. Results suggest that dietary fat may decrease milk protein synthesis by lowering the rate of AA uptake

  20. Eating behavior toward oil and fat consumption versus dietary fat intake / Comportamento alimentar para consumo de óleos e gorduras versus consumo alimentar de lipídeos da dieta

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Andrade de Medeiros, Moreira; Luana Caroline dos, Santos; Mariana Carvalho de, Menezes; Aline Cristine Souza, Lopes.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar se os estágios de mudança, segundo o Modelo Transteórico, estão de acordo com o consumo de gorduras por parte de usuárias da Academia da Cidade de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Métodos: Estudo seccional com amostra aleatória simples de usuárias (?20 anos) da Academia da Cida [...] de. Avaliou-se o comportamento alimentar para consumo de óleos e gorduras pelo Modelo Transteórico; posteriormente, confrontou-se tal comportamento com a adequação da ingestão de lipídeos, obtida pela média de três recordatórios 24 horas, e coletaram-se dados antropométricos e sociodemográficos. Adicionalmente, verificou-se se os estágios de mudança, após reclassificação, estavam em consonância com o consumo de alimentos gordurosos, lipídeos e frações. Resultados: Avaliaram-se 131 mulheres com média de idade de 53,9±12,1 anos, apresentando consumo mediano de óleo de 556,0 mL; ingestão excessiva de alimentos ricos em gorduras, lipídeos (20,6%), ácidos graxos saturados (31,3%) e poli-insaturados (38,2%) e colesterol (16,0%). Os estágios de comportamento alimentar foram significativamente diferentes após reclassificação, com redução de mulheres em ação e manutenção; ao final, 4,6% das mulheres estavam em pré-contemplação, 19,8% em contemplação, 26,0% em decisão, 28,2% em ação e 21,4% em manutenção. O consumo de pele de frango, de molho com gordura para salada, de pães, rosquinhas ou bolos com manteiga/margarina, de lipídeos, de ácidos graxos saturados e monoinsaturados foi inferior nos estágios finais do Modelo Transteórico. Conclusão: O algoritmo, após reclassificação, apresenta-se em consonância com a ingestão de alimentos ricos em lipídeos, o que denota sua aplicabilidade para avaliar o comportamento alimentar e subsidiar ações de educação alimentar e nutricional Abstract in english Objective: To analyze whether the stages of change of the Transtheoretical Model are in accordance with the fat consumption of members of the Academia da Cidade of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a simple random sample of users aged ?20 years frequent [...] ing an Academia da Cidade. Eating behavior toward oil and fat consumption was evaluated by the transtheoretical model and compared with fat intake adequacy, obtained through mean fat intake was investigated by three 24-hour recalls. Anthropometric and sociodemographic data were also collected. Additionally, the stages of change were verified, after reclassification the stages of change agreed with the consumption of fatty foods, fats, and fractions. Results: A total of 131 women with a mean age of 53.9±12.1 had an average fatty acid consumption of 556.0 mL. Some participants consumed high-fat foods, lipids (20.6%), saturated (31.3%) and polyunsaturated (38.2%) fatty acids, and cholesterol (16.0%) in excess. The stages of eating behavior were significantly different after reclassification. The number of women in action and maintenance decreased in a way that in the end, 4.6% were in precontemplation, 19.8% were in contemplation, 26.0% were in preparation, 28.2% were in action, and 21.4% were in maintenance. The consumption of chicken skin; fatty salad dressing; bread, doughnuts or cake with butter/margarine; and fats, saturated fatty acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids was lower in the final stages of the transtheoretical model. Conclusion: After reclassification the algorithm is in agreement with the ingestion of high-fat foods, which denotes its applicability for the evaluation of eating behavior and for providing data to food and nutrition education actions.

  1. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE'): study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Daeninck Elizabeth A; Wisthoff Mark R; McGinley John N; Wolfe Pamela; Playdon Mary C; Sedlacek Scot M; Jiang Weiqin; Zhu Zongjian; Thompson Henry J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes...

  2. Dietary protein and urinary nitrogen in relation to 6-year changes in fat mass and fat-free mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Gottliebsen, K; Ängquist, L; Astrup, Arne; Heitmann, B L; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2015-01-01

    protein intake and subsequent changes in fat mass (FM) and FFM in longitudinal, observational data.Design:A health examination, including measures of FM and FFM by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and follow-up six years later, was conducted. Diet history interviews (DHI) were performed, and 24-hour...

  3. Dietary hydroxypropyl methylcellulose increases excretion of saturated and trans fats by hamsters fed fast food diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic nonfermentable soluble dietary fiber, are well established. However, effects of HPMC on dietary saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids are largely unknown. This study investigated the eff...

  4. The Effect of Dietary Fat Level on the Response of Broiler Chicks to Betaine and Choline Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jahanian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary betaine (Betafine supplementation as a replacement for choline on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. Three betaine replacement levels (0, 50 and 100% in substitution for choline were used in two various basal diets (without or containing 30 g kg-1 oil in a 2x3 factorial arrangement with four replicates of 10 birds. Two hundred-forty day-old broiler chicks were fed with the experimental diets from 1 to 49 days of age and at 49 days of age, two birds from each replicate were selected randomly for blood sampling and comparison of carcass characteristics. Dietary betaine inclusion had no effect on feed intake, but the significant differences in body weight (BW gain (at 1-3 and 3-5 weeks of age and feed conversion ratio (at 3-5 weeks of age were observed among the experimental diets. Replacing choline with betaine increased (p<0.05 dressing and breast meat percentages and reduced (p<0.01 abdominal fat percent, but had no significant effect on thigh and liver weight percentages. Plasma levels of cholesterol and low density lipoproteins (LDL were not affected by dietary substitution of betaine for choline. Dietary betaine replacement caused a significant decrease in plasma triglycerides (p<0.05 and very low density lipoproteins (p<0.01 and significant increase in (p<0.05 high density lipoproteins (HDL. These findings indicate that although dietary betaine inclusion instead of choline had little benefit in terms of performance parameters, but resulted favourable changes in abdominal fat and breast meat percentages.

  5. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A; Rennie, Michael J; Kiens, Bente

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet would lead to decreased glucose uptake and impaired muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise compared with ingestion of a carbohydrate diet all along. We studied 13 untrained men; 7 consumed a high-fat (Fat-CHO; 62% fat, 21% carbohydrate) and 6 a high-carbohydrate diet (CHO; 20% fat, 65% carbohydrate) for 7 wk, and thereafter both groups consumed the carbohydrate diet for an eighth week. Training w...

  6. Role of anorectic N-acylethanolamines in intestinal physiology and satiety control with respect to dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.

    2014-01-01

    Anandamide is a well-known agonist for the cannabinoid receptors. Along with endogenous anandamide other non-endocannabinoid N-acylethanolamines are also formed, apparently in higher amounts. These include mainly oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoyelethanolamide (PEA) and linoleoylethanolamide (LEA), and they have biological activity by themselves being anorectic and anti-inflammatory. It appears that the major effect of dietary fat on the level of these molecules is in the gastrointestinal system, where OEA, PEA and LEA in the enterocytes may function as homeostatic signals, which are decreased by prolonged consumption of a high-fat diet. These lipid amides appear to mediate their signaling activity via activation of PPAR? in the enterocyte followed by activation of afferent vagal fibers leading to the brain. Through this mechanism OEA, PEA and LEA may both reduce the consumption of a meal as well as increase the reward value of the food. Thus, they may function as homeostatic intestinal signals involving hedonic aspects that contribute to the regulation of the amounts of dietary fat to be ingested.

  7. TFAP2B Influences the Effect of Dietary Fat on Weight Loss under Energy Restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, T.; Angquist, L.; Banasik, K.; Harder, M. N.; Taylor, M. A.; Hager, J.; Arner, P.; Oppert, J. M.; Martinez, J. A.; Polak, J.; Rousseau, F.; Langin, D.; Rossner, S.; Holst, C.; MacDonald, I. A.; Kamatani, Y.; Pfeiffer, A. F. H.; Kunesova, M.; Saris, W. H. M.; Hansen, T.; Pedersen, O.; Astrup, A.; Sorensen, T. I. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. Methods and Findings: Randomized...... controlled trial of 771 obese adults. (Registration: ISRCTN25867281.) One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat%) in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The...... replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study...

  8. Comparison of Dietary Control and Atorvastatin on High Fat Diet Induced Hepatic Steatosis and Hyperlipidemia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Peiyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment with atorvastatin (ATO or dietary control has been demonstrated to benefit patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and hyperlipidemia. However, little is known on whether combination of dietary control and ATO treatment could enhance the therapeutic effect. Methods We employed a rat model of NAFLD to examine the therapeutic efficacy of dietary control and/or ATO treatment. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with normal chow diet as normal controls or with high fat diet (HFD for 12 weeks to establish NAFLD. The NAFLD rats were randomized and continually fed with HFD, with normal chow diet, with HFD and treated with 30 mg/kg of ATO or with normal chow diet and treated with the same dose of ATO for 8 weeks. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed and the serum lipids, aminotranferase, hepatic lipids, and liver pathology were characterized. The relative levels of fatty acid synthesis and ?-oxidation gene expression in hepatic tissues were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Hepatic expression of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase was determined by Western blot assay. Results While continual feeding with HFD deteriorated NAFLD and hyperlipidemia, treatment with dietary control, ATO or ATO with dietary control effectively improved serum and liver lipid metabolism and liver function. In comparison with ATO treatment, dietary control or combined with ATO treatment significantly reduced the liver weight and attenuated the HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and liver steatosis in rats. Compared to ATO treatment or dietary control, combination of ATO and dietary control significantly reduced the levels of serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. However, the combination therapy did not significantly improve triglyceride and free fatty acid metabolism, hepatic steatosis, and liver function, as compared with dietary control alone. Conclusions ATO treatment effectively improved NAFLD-related hyperlipidemia and inhibited liver steatosis, accompanied by modulating the expression of genes for regulating lipid metabolism. ATO enhanced the effect of dietary control on reducing the levels of serum total cholesterol and LDL-C, but not triglyceride, free fatty acid and hepatic steatosis in HFD-induced fatty liver and hyperlipidemia in rats.

  9. Dietary omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and Alzheimer's disease: interaction with apolipoprotein E genotype. : Fatty acids and ApoE genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Samieri, Cécilia; Féart, Catherine; Plourde, Mélanie

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest a protective role of omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) against Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, most intervention studies of supplementation with n-3 PUFA have yielded disappointing results. One reason for such discordant results may result from inadequate targeting of individuals who might benefit from the supplementation, in particular because of their genetic susceptibility to AD. The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (ApoE) is a genetic...

  10. Physicochemical and functional properties of micronized jincheng orange by-products (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) dietary fiber and its application as a fat replacer in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tian; Huang, Xingjian; Pan, Siyi; Wang, Lufeng

    2014-08-01

    Orange by-products from juice extraction are generally discarded or used in animal feed due to their low market value. However, orange by-products show potential as dietary fiber (DF) and fat replacers in products such as yogurt. This study assessed the benefits of using orange by-products in DF-enriched materials such as DF powders (OP) and micronized DF with ball-milling (MDF). The study also investigated the effects of adding different levels of OP and MDF on the quality of low-fat yogurt. Results show that MDF showed better physicochemical and functional properties than OP, and that 2% MDF as a fat replacer in yogurt retained most of the textural and sensory properties of full-fat yogurt. Therefore, this study showed that MDF is a promising alternative as a fat replacer in low-fat yogurt, without sacrificing good taste and other qualities of full-fat yogurt. PMID:24625022

  11. The effect of a controlled manipulation of maternal dietary fat intake on medium and long chain fatty acids in human breast milk in Saskatoon, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Alison M; Nasser Roseann; Goh Yeow K; Clandinin M Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies in recent years have demonstrated the effect of maternal diet on fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods Fourteen free-living lactating women participated in a cross-over dietary intervention study, consuming a low fat diet (17.6% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 68.0% of energy as carbohydrate) and a high fat diet (40.3% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 45.3% of energy as carbohydrate) each for periods of 4 days, in randomised o...

  12. Quality of Raw, Frozen and Cooked Duck Meat as Affected by Dietary Fat and ?-Tocopheryl Acetate Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Russell; A. Lynch; Galvin, K; LYNCH, P.B.; J.P. Kerry

    2003-01-01

    Poultry meat, particularly that of duck, has relatively high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and low levels of antioxidants. Ducks consume twice as much feed as broilers during growth, therefore, duck meat is more likely to be influenced by diet than chicken meat. The effects of dietary fat differing in unsaturation level (2.5% tallow or olive, sunflower or linseed oils) together with ?-tocopheryl acetate ( ?-TA) at either a control (20 mg ?-TA/kg feed) or a supplemented level (400 mg ?-TA/...

  13. Effects of Dietary Fat Types on Growth Performance, Pork Quality, and Gene Expression in Growing-finishing Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Park, J C; Kim, S C.; Lee, S.D.; Jang, H. C.; Kim, N K; Lee, S.H.; Jung, H. J.; Kim, I. C.; Seong, H. H.; Choi, B. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary fat sources, i.e., beef tallow, soybean oil, olive oil and coconut oil (each 3% in feed), on the growth performance, meat quality and gene expression in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 72 crossbred pigs (Landrace×Large White×Duroc) were used at 71±1 kg body weight (about 130 d of age) in 24 pens (320×150 cm) in a confined pig house (three pigs per pen) with six replicate pens per treatment. The growing diet was given for periods ...

  14. Diet digestibility in growing rabbits: effect of origin and oxidation level of dietary fat and vitamin e supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    CASADO, C.; Moya, V.J.; Fernández, C.; Pascual Amorós, Juan José; Blas, E. de; Cervera, C.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the dietary inclusion of fats with different origin (lard or vegetal oil), fatty acid profile (linseed or sunflower), oxidation level (fresh, peroxidised: 11 d at 55ºC or oxidised: 31 h at 140ºC) and vitamin E supplementation (0 or 100 ppm) on the rabbit diet apparent digestibility were studied. Digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and gross energy were determined in eight diets using 58 rabbits aged 49 d. Contrast analysis betw...

  15. Maldigestion and colonic fermentation of wheat bread in humans and the influence of dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, M; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1997-07-01

    A fraction of wheat bread is malabsorbed in healthy humans. The malabsorbed fraction is bigger than what can be accounted for by in vitro measurements of dietary fibers and resistant starch. To determine whether it is a specific fraction defined by the structure of the starch molecule or a variable amount--which depends on the individual, the amount ingested, and other components of the meal--we performed a dose-response study on wheat bread in healthy human volunteers. Malabsorption was evaluated by using the breath-hydrogen test. Test meals were as follows: 20 g wheat bran mixed in 100 mL water; bread made from 25, 75, 100, 150, and 200 g white wheat flour (WWF); bread made from 0 g WWF and 20 g wheat bran; and bread made from 100 g WWF served with 11 or 26 g butter, corresponding to 20% or 35% of energy from fat in the meals. Three of seven volunteers malabsorbed a fraction of the bread made from 25 g WWF and five of seven a fraction of the bread made from 75 g WWF. All volunteers malabsorbed a fraction of the 100-g WWF bread, Bread made from 180 g WWF and 20 g wheat bran resulted in a breath-hydrogen response of the same magnitude as that from bread made from 200 g WWF alone. The 100-g WWF bread + 11 g butter resulted in a significantly higher breath-hydrogen response than did the bread alone, whereas the 100-g WWF bread + 26 g butter resulted in an average response of the same magnitude as that from bread alone. We conclude that the malabsorbed fraction of wheat bread was dependent on the amount ingested, the composition of the meal, and individual gastrointestinal handling. Fermentation of wheat bran resulted in a very low breath-hydrogen response compared with lactulose or wheat bread. Addition of 11 g butter to the bread seemed to increase the malabsorbed fraction of the starch, an effect that was abolished when the amount of butter was increased to 26 g. PMID:9209170

  16. Effect of Dietary Fats on Oxidative-Antioxidative Status of Blood in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Walczewska, Anna; Dziedzic, Barbara; Stepien, Tomasz; Swiatek, Elzbieta; Nowak, Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the effect of different fat sources, lard, sunflower oil (SO), and fish oil (FO) in high-fat and low-fat diet on reactive oxygen species generation by blood phagocytes, glutathione redox status in erythrocytes, and total plasma antioxidant ability in rats. Whole blood chemiluminescence (CL) did not differ between three low-fat fed groups. However, baseline and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated CL in blood of high-lard fed rats were lower than in lo...

  17. The association of substituting carbohydrates with total fat and different types of fatty acids with mortality and weight change among diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo J; Sluijs, Ivonne; Nöthlings, Ute; Freisling, Heinz; Overvad, Kim; Boeing, Heiner; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sieri, Sabina; Johansson, Ingegerd; Winkvist, Anna; Katzke, Verena A; Kuehn, Tilman; Nilsson, Peter M; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Spijkerman, Annemieke M; Arriola, Larraitz; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Barricarte, Aurelio; May, Anne M; Beulens, Joline W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Substitution of carbohydrates with fat in a diet for type 2 diabetes patients is still debated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary carbohydrate intake and isocaloric substitution with (i) total fat, (ii) saturated fatty acids (SFA), (iii) mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and (iv) poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality risk and 5-year weight change in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The s...

  18. Impacts of dietary fat level and saturation when feeding distillers grains to high producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, J M; Robinson, P H; Karges, K

    2015-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether increasing the net energy (NEL ) of a total mixed ration (TMR) with mainly unsaturated fat from corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) vs. rumen inert (RI)-saturated fat has similar impacts on animal performance. The experiment was an incomplete Youden square with three treatments and four 28-days periods, completed on a large commercial dairy using three early lactation pens each with approximately 380 multiparity cows. The TMR for all treatments was the same, except for 150 g/kg dry matter (DM) of each TMR which contained 90 g/kg high-protein DDGS (HPDDGS) and 60 g/kg beet pulp (i.e. low-fat control diet; LFC); 150 g/kg DDGS (i.e. high-fat diet with unsaturated fat; HFU); or 111 g/kg HPDDGS, 20 g/kg beet pulp and 19 g/kg RI fat (i.e. high-fat diet with saturated fat; HFS). The DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for HFU-fed cows. Milk, fat and true protein yields, as well as milk energy output, were higher (p < 0.01) when cows were fed HFS vs. HFU and LFC diets. Milk true protein concentration was lowest (p < 0.01) for HFS-fed cows, but milk fat % was lowest (p < 0.01) for HFU and highest (p < 0.01) for HFS-fed cows. There were numerous differences (p < 0.01) in milk fatty acid levels amongst diets. The increase in body condition score was lowest (p < 0.01) for LFC. Whole tract digestibility of acid detergent fibre was lower (p < 0.01) for LFC vs. HFS cows, and fat digestion was lowest (p < 0.01) for LFC-fed cows. This DDGS, high in unsaturated fatty acids, was fed at high levels (i.e. 152 g/kg DM) with little impact on animal performance vs. a lower fat control diet, although addition of an RI-saturated fat to create a diet with a similarly higher fat level resulted in higher animal productivity. PMID:25040565

  19. Saturated- and n-6 Polyunsaturated-Fat Diets Each Induce Ceramide Accumulation in Mouse Skeletal Muscle: Reversal and Improvement of Glucose Tolerance by Lipid Metabolism Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Frangioudakis, G.; J. Garrard; Raddatz, K.; Nadler, J.L.; Mitchell, T. W.; Schmitz-Peiffer, C.

    2010-01-01

    Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with intracellular accumulation of inhibitory intermediates depending on the prevalent fatty acid (FA) species. In cultured myotubes, ceramide and phosphatidic acid (PA) mediate the effects of the saturated FA palmitate and the unsaturated FA linoleate, respectively. We hypothesized that myriocin (MYR), an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, would protect against glucose intolerance in saturated fat-fed mice, while lisofylline (LSF), a funct...

  20. Suicide Mortality in Relation to Dietary Intake of n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Fish: Equivocal Findings From 3 Large US Cohort Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander C. Tsai; Lucas, Michel; Okereke, Olivia I.; O'Reilly, Éilis J; Mirzaei, Fariba; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ascherio, Alberto; Willett, Walter C

    2014-01-01

    Intake of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. We sought to estimate the association between intake of fish and n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and suicide mortality over the course of long-term follow-up. In this prospective cohort study, biennial questionnaires were administered to 42,290 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1988–2008), 72,231 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study (1986–2008), and 90,836 women enr...

  1. Dietary fatty acid modulation of murine T-cell responses in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, I K; Erickson, K L

    1985-11-01

    The effect of dietary fat concentration and saturation on T-cell functions in vivo were investigated by using delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and graft-versus-host (GVH) reactions. These were selected because they circumvent the problem of fatty acid flux from the lymphocyte during in vitro assays. The DTH reaction to allogeneic line B16-BL6 melanoma cells was suppressed in BALB/c mice fed a diet containing 20% saturated fat (coconut oil) or polyunsaturated fat (safflower oil) compared to control mice fed a diet with the minimum of essential fatty acids (EFA). Likewise, DTH responsiveness of mice fed an EFA-deficient diet was less than that of mice fed the EFA control diet. The GVH reaction of C57BL/6 spleen cells injected into irradiated BALB/c mice was suppressed in those fed 20% polyunsaturated fat. Serum levels of linoleic acid increased commensurate with the levels of polyunsaturated fat in the diet. Likewise, previous work has demonstrated that levels of linoleic acid in whole lymphocytes changed in direct relation to the levels of fatty acids in serum and the diet. Thus, T-cell functions in vivo may be differentially affected by the degree of saturation or the concentration of dietary fat. Moreover, linoleic acid appears to play a pivotal role in modulating cellular immune responses. PMID:3877154

  2. Dietary fat source affects metabolism of fatty acids in pigs as evaluated by altered expression of lipogenic genes in liver and adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Montgé, P; Theil, P K; Lauridsen, C; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2009-04-01

    Little is known about pig gene expressions related to dietary fatty acids (FAs) and most work have been conducted in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary fats regulate fat metabolism of pigs in different tissues. Fifty-six crossbred gilts (62 ± 5.2 kg BW) were fed one of seven dietary treatments (eight animals per treatment): a semi-synthetic diet containing a very low level of fat (no fat (NF)) and six fat-supplemented diets (ca. 10%) based on barley and soybean meal. The supplemental fat sources were tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), blend (FB) (55% T, 35% SFO and 10% LO) and fish oil (FO) blend (40% FO and 60% LO). Pigs were slaughtered at 100 kg BW and autopsies from liver, adipose tissue and muscle semimembranousus were collected for qPCR. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) abundances of genes related to lipogenesis were modified due to dietary treatments in both liver (sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACACA) and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD)) and adipose tissue (fatty acid synthase (FASN), ACACA and SCD), but were not affected in semimembranousus muscle. In the liver, the mRNA abundances of genes encoding lipogenic enzymes were highest in pigs fed HOSF and lowest in pigs fed FO. In adipose tissue, the mRNA abundances were highest in pigs fed the NF diet and lowest in pigs fed T. The study demonstrated that dietary FAs stimulate lipogenic enzyme gene expression differently in liver, fat and muscles tissues. PMID:22444377

  3. Effects of Pullet Nutrition and Dietary Energy and Fat of Layer Rations on the performance of Hy-line Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nassiri Moghaddam

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment with 720 pullets was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary energy levels of pullet and dietary energy and fat of laying ration on subsequent performance parameters during 14-20 and 22-44 weeks of age. In the first period, white leghorn pullets were fed with two diets of low and high density energy (2600 and 3200 Kcal ME/kg. In the lating period (second period, birds, in each treatment of pullet period, were fed with six diets containing three levels of low, medium and high energy (2600, 2750 and 2900 kcal/kg at two levels of supplemental fat (zero and 2%. All diets were formulated to meet minimum NRC (1994 requirements of amino acids and protein. This experiment was done in randomized complete block designs with 5 replicates. The levels of energy in the growing period did not affect egg production, egg weight, daily feed intake, feed conversion rate and age of pubertal maturity in laying period, but pullets fed with high energy diet had significantly higher weights as compared to low energy diet in the beginning of laying period. In the laying period, the use of supplemental fat (2% improved egg production and egg weight, but feed intake and feed conversion rate were not affected. Means of feed conversion rate, feed intake and egg production during laying period in low energy diet were greater than those as compared to high energy diet, but egg weight was not affected by energy level of diets. Low energy intake to protein intake ratio in low energy diet versus high energy diet may be a reason for greater egg production in lower energy than in higher energy diets.

  4. Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA, gut microbiota and fat mass in early postnatal piglet development—exploring a potential interplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A.D.; Mølbak, Lars; Thymann, T.; Michaelsen, K.F.; Lauritzen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary n-3PUFA and gut bacteria, particularly Bacteroidetes, have been suggested to be related to adiposity. We investigated if n-3PUFA affected fat storage and cecal bacteria in piglets. Twenty-four 4-day-old piglets were allocated to formula rich in n-3PUFA (∼3E%) from fish oil (FO) or n-6PUFA...... from sunflower oil (SO) for 14 days. We assessed body weight, fat accumulation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and microbial molecular fingerprints. Dietary PUFA-composition was reflected in higher erythrocyte n-3PUFA in the FO- than the SO-group (P...

  5. Dietary Intakes in Asthmatic and Non-Asthmatic Female Pupils of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Nazemi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "nDietary factors are suggested to be involved in recent increases in the prevalence of asthma. The differences in dietary intake of 23 asthmatic and 317 non-asthmatic students were investigated, who were chosen by multistage stratified cluster sampling. The dietary data were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and a 24-h recall form. Total calorie and fat intake were similar. Daily intake of Saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and calcium and sodium were significantly higher in asthmatics. There was no significant difference between dietary antioxidant intake of asthmatic and non asthmatics. It seems that in this age, the type of consumed fat may be more important than the amount of fat intake in inducing asthma. For accurate results, n-6 and n-3 fatty acid intake must be assessed. Higher sodium and calcium intake may also be associated with asthma. Randomized controlled trials with restricting diets can help to elucidate the results.

  6. Potential role of dietary lipids in the prophylaxis of some clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Urvashi; Das, Undurti N

    2015-08-12

    An imbalance of dietary lipids may potentially have a significant role in the pathobiology of some chronic diseases. Public health dietary fat recommendations have emphasized that low saturated fat, high monounsaturated fat, and high polyunsaturated fat with a lower ω-6 to ω-3 fatty acid ratio intake are necessary for normal health. However, such universal recommendations are likely to be hazardous, since the outcome of recommended lipid intake may depend on the consumption of other important dietary constituents that have an important role in the metabolism of lipids. In addition, consumption of fatty acids as per the individually tailored specific requirements in the context of other nutritional factors may have the potential to stabilize hormones, mood and sleep, and minimize adverse events. In support of this proposal, we review various factors that influence fatty acid metabolism, which need to be taken into consideration for appropriate utilization and consequently prevention of various diseases. PMID:26322094

  7. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Ängquist, Lars Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.

  8. Fat mass- and obesity-associated genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometric measures in European adults: the Food4Me study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Forster, Hannah; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Kolossa, Silvia; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwi??o, Agnieszka; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne C; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C

    2016-02-01

    The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AA v. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (P trend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (P trend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings. PMID:26620191

  9. Intestinal absorption of dietary fat from a liquid diet perfused in rats at a submaximum level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The small intestine of rats was perfused in vivo for 2 h with a nutritionally complete liquid diet (68% calories from fat as corn oil). As the perfusion increased from 106 mg/2 h, the intestinal disappearance of the 14C-triolein marker remained proportional to the load up to 2359 mg fat/2 h. Despite a decrease in absorption from 70 to 17%, this represents a very large fat intake. Fat absorption improved when medium-chain triglycerides or octanoic acid replaced corn oil (both p less than 0.01). Linoleic acid was absorbed from the diet less than corn oil (p less than 0.01). Dry ox bile reduced fat absorption (p less than 0.05); lipase and an antacid had no effect. Corn oil perfused alone was absorbed better than from the diet (p less than 0.01). Data with 14C-triolein was confirmed by dry-weight disappearance of the diet and by net intestinal water balance. Usual feeding underutilizes a large reserve for fat absorption. This reserve should be considered in therapeutic nutrition

  10. The interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp in modulating lifespan and reproduction in a Tephritid fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedo, Pablo; Carey, James R; Ingram, Donald K; Zou, Sige

    2012-07-01

    Macronutrient balance is a critical contributor in modulating lifespan and health. Consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables provides numerous health benefits. The interactions among macronutrients and botanicals and how they influence aging and health remain elusive. Here we employed a nutritional geometry approach to investigate the interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and antioxidant- and polyphenolic-rich freeze-dried açai pulp in modulating lifespan and reproductive output in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew). Individual flies were cultured on one of the 24 diets made from a combination of 1) sugar and yeast extract (SY) at four ratios, 2) palmitic acid, a saturated fat, at two concentrations and 3) freeze-dried açai pulp at three concentrations. Fat addition decreased lifespan in females on the sugar only diet and the diet with a low SY ratio, while decreasing lifetime reproductive output in flies on the diet with the low SY ratio when compared to SY ratio-matched low fat controls. Açai supplementation promoted survival, while decreasing lifetime reproductive output, in flies on diets with high fat and high sugar but not other diets when compared to diet-matched non-supplemented controls. These findings reveal that the impact of fat and açai on lifespan and reproductive output depends on the dietary content of other macronutrients. Our results reveal the intricate interplay among macronutrients and nutraceuticals, and underscore the importance of taking macronutrient balance into consideration in designing dietary interventions for aging and health. PMID:22580089

  11. The role of dietary fatty acids in predicting myocardial structure in fat-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Melissa L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity increases the risk for development of cardiomyopathy in the absence of hypertension, diabetes or myocardial ischemia. Not all obese individuals, however, progress to heart failure. Indeed, obesity may provide protection from cardiovascular mortality in some populations. The fatty acid milieu, modulated by diet, may modify obesity-induced myocardial structure and function, lending partial explanation for the array of cardiomyopathic phenotypy in obese individuals. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 1 of the following 4 diets for 32 weeks: control (CON; 50% saturated fat (SAT; 40% saturated fat + 10% linoleic acid (SAT+LA; 40% saturated fat + 10% ?-linolenic acid (SAT+ALA. Serum leptin, insulin, glucose, free fatty acids and triglycerides were quantitated. In vivo cardiovascular outcomes included blood pressure, heart rate and echocardiographic measurements of structure and function. The rats were sacrificed and myocardium was processed for fatty acid analysis (TLC-GC, and evaluation of potential modifiers of myocardial structure including collagen (Masson's trichrome, hydroxyproline quantitation, lipid (Oil Red O, triglyceride quantitation and myocyte cross sectional area. Results Rats fed SAT+LA and SAT+ALA diets had greater cranial LV wall thickness compared to rats fed CON and SAT diets, in the absence of hypertension or apparent insulin resistance. Treatment was not associated with changes in myocardial function. Myocardial collagen and triglycerides were similar among treatment groups; however, rats fed the high-fat diets, regardless of composition, demonstrated increased myocyte cross sectional area. Conclusions Under conditions of high-fat feeding, replacement of 10% saturated fat with either LA or ALA is associated with thickening of the cranial LV wall, but without concomitant functional changes. Increased myocyte size appears to be a more likely contributor to early LV thickening in response to high-fat feeding. These findings suggest that myocyte hypertrophy may be an early change leading to gross LV hypertrophy in the hearts of "healthy" obese rats, in the absence of hypertension, diabetes and myocardial ischemia.

  12. Dietary fat induces sustained reward response in the human brain without primary taste cortex discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Rytz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To disentangle taste from reward responses in the human gustatory cortex, we combined high density electro-encephalography with a gustometer delivering tastant puffs to the tip of the tongue. Stimuli were pure tastants (salt solutions at two concentrations, caloric emulsions of identical taste (two milk preparations differing in fat content and a mixture of high fat milk with the lowest salt concentration. Early event-related potentials showed a dose-response effect for increased taste intensity, with higher amplitude and shorter latency for high compared to low salt concentration, but not for increased fat content. However, the amplitude and distribution of late potentials were modulated by fat content independently of reported intensity and discrimination. Neural source estimation revealed a sustained activation of reward areas to the two high-fat stimuli. The results suggest calorie detection through specific sensors on the tongue independent of perceived taste. Finally, amplitude variation of the first peak in the event-related potential to the different stimuli correlated with papilla density, suggesting a higher discrimination power for subjects with more fungiform papillae.

  13. GDF-3 is an adipogenic cytokine under high fat dietary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF-3) is structurally a bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor subfamily member of the TGF-? superfamily. GDF-3 exhibits highest level of expression in white fat tissue in mice and is greatly induced by high fat diet if fat metabolic pathway is blocked. To identify its biological function, GDF-3 was overexpressed in mice by adenovirus mediated gene transfer. Mice transduced with GDF-3 displayed profound weight gain when fed with high fat diet. The phenotypes included greatly expanded adipose tissue mass, increased body adiposity, highly hypertrophic adipocytes, hepatic steatosis, and elevated plasma leptin. GDF-3 stimulated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression in adipocytes, a master nuclear receptor that controls adipogenesis. However, GDF-3 was not involved in blood glucose homeostasis or insulin resistance, a condition associated with obesity. In contrast, similar phenotypes were not observed in GDF-3 mice fed with normal chow, indicating that GDF-3 is only active under high lipid load. Thus, GDF-3 is a new non-diabetic adipogenic factor tightly coupled with fat metabolism

  14. Effects of dietary fat on fertility of dairy cattle: A meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, R M; Celi, P; Scott, W; Breinhild, K; Lean, I J

    2015-08-01

    Evidence is increasing of positive effects of feeding fats during transition on fertility and the adaptation to lactation. This study used meta-analytic methods to explore the effects of including fats in the transition diet on the risk of pregnancy to service (proportion pregnant) and calving to pregnancy interval. Meta-analysis was used to integrate smaller studies and increase the statistical power over that of any single study and explore new hypotheses. We explored the effect of fats and diet composition on fertility using meta-regression methods. Relatively few highly controlled studies are available providing detailed descriptions of the diets used that examined interactions between fat nutrition and reproductive outcomes. Only 17 studies containing 26 comparisons were suitable for inclusion in statistical evaluations. Reproductive variables evaluated were risk of pregnancy (proportion pregnant), primarily to first service, and calving to pregnancy interval. Production variables examined were milk yield, milk composition, and body weight. The sources of heterogeneity in these studies were also explored. A 27% overall increase in pregnancy to service was observed (relative risk=1.27; 95% confidence interval Knapp Hartung 1.09 to 1.45), and results were relatively consistent (I(2)=19.9%). A strong indication of a reduction in calving to pregnancy interval was also identified, which was consistent across studies (I(2)=0.0%), supporting a conclusion that, overall, the inclusion of fats does improve fertility. Further exploration of the factors contributing to proportion pregnant using bivariate meta-regression identified variables that reflected changes in diet composition or animal response resulting from inclusion of the fat interventions in the experimental diets fed. Increased fermentable neutral detergent fiber and soluble fiber intakes increased the proportion pregnant, whereas increased milk yield of the treatment group decreased this measure. Unexpectedly, the estimated energy costs of urea production also had a positive association with proportion pregnant. The limited number of suitable studies for the analysis highlights the need for more work to improve understanding of the critical nutritional factors affecting fertility. These factors include specific fatty acids in dietary interventions that contribute to increasing fertility of cows in dairy production systems. PMID:26094218

  15. The effect of a controlled manipulation of maternal dietary fat intake on medium and long chain fatty acids in human breast milk in Saskatoon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Alison M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies in recent years have demonstrated the effect of maternal diet on fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods Fourteen free-living lactating women participated in a cross-over dietary intervention study, consuming a low fat diet (17.6% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 68.0% of energy as carbohydrate and a high fat diet (40.3% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 45.3% of energy as carbohydrate each for periods of 4 days, in randomised order. Each mother was her own control. Mature milk samples were collected during each period and analysed for medium and long chain fatty acids. Results The concentration of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, was 13.6% in breast milk for the low fat diet compared to 11.4% for the high fat (p Conclusions Changing maternal dietary fat intake has a rapid response in terms of changes to fatty acids in breast milk.

  16. Development of the SoFAS (solid fats and added sugars) concept: the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E

    2015-05-01

    The diets of most US children and adults are poor, as reflected by low diet quality scores, when compared with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). Contributing to these low scores is that most Americans overconsume solid fats, which may contain saturated fatty acids and added sugars; although alcohol consumption was generally modest, it provided few nutrients. Thus, the 2005 DGAs generated a new recommendation: to reduce intakes of solid fats, alcohol, and added sugars (SoFAAS). What precipitated the emergence of the new SoFAAS terminology was the concept of discretionary calories (a "calorie" is defined as the amount of energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C), which were defined as calories consumed after an individual had met his or her recommended nutrient intakes while consuming fewer calories than the daily recommendation. A limitation with this concept was that additional amounts of nutrient-dense foods consumed beyond the recommended amount were also considered discretionary calories. The rationale for this was that if nutrient-dense foods were consumed beyond recommended amounts, after total energy intake was met then this constituted excess energy intake. In the 2010 DGAs, the terminology was changed to solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS); thus, alcohol was excluded because it made a minor contribution to overall intake and did not apply to children. The SoFAS terminology also negated nutrient-dense foods that were consumed in amounts above the recommendations for the specific food groups in the food patterns. The ambiguous SoFAS terminology was later changed to "empty calories" to reflect only those calories from solid fats and added sugars (and alcohol if consumed beyond moderate amounts). The purpose of this review is to provide an historical perspective on how the dietary recommendations went from SoFAAS to SoFAS and how discretionary calories went to empty calories between the 2005 and 2010 DGAs. This information will provide practitioners, as well as the public, with valuable information to better understand the evolution of SoFAS over time. PMID:25979510

  17. Effect of dietary fat concentration and wet sorghum distiller's grains plus solubles on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of finishing heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three hundred ninety-eight crossbred yearling heifers (initial BW = 373.5 kg) were used in two experiments to examine the effect of dietary fat concentration on the feeding value of wet sorghum distiller's grains plus solubles (WSDGS). Treatments included two 92% concentrate diets based on steam-fl...

  18. Increased hepatic fat in overweight Hispanic youth influenced by interaction between genetic variation in PNPLA3 and high dietary carbohydrate and sugar consumption1234

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jaimie N.; Lê, Kim-Anne; Walker, Ryan W; Vikman, Susanna; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Allayee, Hooman; Goran, Michael I

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recently, a genetic variant (rs738409; C?G) of the PNPLA3 gene was identified to be associated with increased hepatic fat deposition, and the effect was more pronounced in Hispanics. Animal models have also shown that PNPLA3 expression can be regulated by dietary carbohydrate.

  19. Influence of Supplemental Dietary Poultry Fat on the Yolk Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation and 1.5 % supplemental dietary poultry fat (PF) on the egg yolk characteristics of commercial layers between 24 and 58 wk of age were investigated. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (early in lay)...

  20. Effect of Dietary Cocoa Tea (Camellia ptilophylla) Supplementation on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity, Hepatic Steatosis, and Hyperlipidemia in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao Rong; Wat, Elaine; Wang, Yan Ping; Ko, Chun Hay; Koon, Chi Man; Siu, Wing Sum; Gao, Si; Cheung, David Wing Shing; Lau, Clara Bik San; Ye, Chuang Xing; Leung, Ping Chung

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that green tea has the potential to protect against diet-induced obesity. The presence of caffeine within green tea has caused limitations. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. To determine whether cocoa tea supplementation results in an improvement in high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis, and whether such effects would be comparable to those of green tea extract, we studied six groups (n = 10) of C57BL/6 mice that were fed with (1) normal chow (N); (2) high-fat diet (21% butterfat + 0.15% cholesterol, wt/wt) (HF); (3) a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% green tea extract (HFLG); (4) a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% green tea extract (HFHG); (5) a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% cocoa tea extract (HFLC); and (6) a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% cocoa tea extract (HFHC). From the results, 2% and 4% dietary cocoa tea supplementation caused a dose-dependent decrease in (a) body weight, (b) fat pad mass, (c) liver weight, (d) total liver lipid, (e) liver triglyceride and cholesterol, and (f) plasma lipids (triglyceride and cholesterol). These data indicate that dietary cocoa tea, being naturally decaffeinated, has a beneficial effect on high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis, and elevated plasma lipid levels in mice, which are comparable to green tea. The present findings have provided the proof of concept that dietary cocoa tea might be of therapeutic value and could therefore provide a safer and cost effective option for patients with diet-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:23935682

  1. The role of the small intestine in the development of dietary fat-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bromhaar Mechteld

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and insulin resistance are two major risk factors underlying the metabolic syndrome. The development of these metabolic disorders is frequently studied, but mainly in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. To gain more insight in the role of the small intestine in development of obesity and insulin resistance, dietary fat-induced differential gene expression was determined along the longitudinal axis of small intestines of C57BL/6J mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet that mimicked the fatty acid composition of a Western-style human diet. After 2, 4 and 8 weeks of diet intervention small intestines were isolated and divided in three equal parts. Differential gene expression was determined in mucosal scrapings using Mouse genome 430 2.0 arrays. Results The high-fat diet significantly increased body weight and decreased oral glucose tolerance, indicating insulin resistance. Microarray analysis showed that dietary fat had the most pronounced effect on differential gene expression in the middle part of the small intestine. By overrepresentation analysis we found that the most modulated biological processes on a high-fat diet were related to lipid metabolism, cell cycle and inflammation. Our results further indicated that the nuclear receptors Ppars, Lxrs and Fxr play an important regulatory role in the response of the small intestine to the high-fat diet. Next to these more local dietary fat effects, a secretome analysis revealed differential gene expression of secreted proteins, such as Il18, Fgf15, Mif, Igfbp3 and Angptl4. Finally, we linked the fat-induced molecular changes in the small intestine to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Conclusion During dietary fat-induced development of obesity and insulin resistance, we found substantial changes in gene expression in the small intestine, indicating modulations of biological processes, especially related to lipid metabolism. Moreover, we found differential expression of potential signaling molecules that can provoke systemic effects in peripheral organs by influencing their metabolic homeostasis. Many of these fat-modulated genes could be linked to obesity and/or insulin resistance. Together, our data provided various leads for a causal role of the small intestine in the etiology of obesity and/or insulin resistance.

  2. Relevance of liver fat to the impact of dietary extrinsic sugars on lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, B A

    2015-08-01

    In contrast to the decline in mortality from many non-infectious, chronic diseases in the UK, death from liver disease has increased exponentially in men and women over the past 40 years. This is primarily because of the over consumption of alcohol, but also the increased prevalence of obesity, which is linked to early pathology through the accumulation of liver fat. Supra-physiological intakes of fructose-containing sugar can produce acute, adverse effects on lipid metabolism, and deliver excess energy that increases bodyweight and the deposition of fat in sites other than adipose tissue, including the liver. This review addresses the variable metabolic origins of liver fat, and the key importance of postprandial lipid metabolism in this respect. The effects of supra-physiological intakes of sugar are also considered in context of the real world and established threshold for the adverse effects of sugar on cardio-metabolic risk factors. The review concludes that while the average intake of sugar in the UK falls well below this critical threshold, intakes in subgroups of adults, and especially adolescents, may be cause for concern. There is also evidence to suggest that raised liver fat, acquired, in part, through an impaired removal of postprandial lipaemia, can increase sensitivity to the adverse effects of sugar at all ages. PMID:25992705

  3. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A; Rennie, Michael J; Kiens, Bente

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet would lead to decreased glucose uptake and impaired muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise compared with ingestion of a carbohydrate diet all along. We studied 13 untrained men; 7 consumed a high...

  4. Dietary fat and antioxidant vitamin intake in patients of neurodegenerative disease in a rural region of Jalisco, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Meza, Mónica; Gabriel-Ortiz, Genaro; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Cruz-Ramos, José A.; López-Espinoza, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the intake of lipids and (A, E, and C) vitamins in patients with and without possible neurodegenerative diseases. Methods Twenty adults with possible Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease and 41 control subjects (50–89 years old) from a rural region were studied. Dietary intake was evaluated with the analysis of macronutrients and micronutrients conducted by a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hours dietary record. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and energy intake. Through interrogation and use of medical record form of health secretary we obtained information about the sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analysis of variance to allow for covariated adjustment was used. Results Patients had a lower energy intake, vitamin C (P = 0.016), fruits (P < 0.001), vegetables (P = 0.037), and oils and fat (P = 0.002), than the controls. Interestingly, the C vitamin intake in patients was still higher than the recommended. Patients had a higher consumption of cereals (P = 0.017), high-animal fat diet (P = 0.024), and whole milk (P < 0.001); 2.4% of the controls smoke and 5% are alcohol consumers. Eighty-five percent of patients and 78% of the controls do not have physical activity. Family history of subjects in this study indicated chronic diseases. Conclusion The subjects included in this study had a high intake of C vitamin, this is due to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, patients with possible Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease had a lower intake of fruits and vegetables, which could be due to type of food to which they have access. PMID:24257159

  5. Methane emission and community composition patterns of rumen bacteria and methanogens in Holstein dairy cows as affected by silage type and dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria; Brask, Maike; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter; Jensen, Bent Borg; Engberg, Ricarda M

    Silage type and dietary fat supplementation can affect enteric methane (CH4) emissions from dairy cows. However, the impact of dietary interventions on the rumen microbiota is still not fully understood. The present study used six rumen cannulated Holstein cows (6x4 incomplete Latin Square) to...... rRNA and methyl co-enzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes, respectively. Methanogen abundances were evaluated by qPCR using two mcrA-targeting primer sets. Silage type significantly affected CH4 emissions and rumen acetate:propionate ratios, being highest for late grass and lowest for maize. Dietary fat...... significantly reduced the gross energy lost as CH4 regardless of silage type. Silage type significantly affected the bacterial community composition pattern; the grass silages favored potential hemicellulose- and cellulose-degrading bacteria, while the maize silage mainly favored potentially starch...

  6. Dietary Polyphenols Promote Growth of the Gut Bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila and Attenuate High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopchand, Diana E; Carmody, Rachel N; Kuhn, Peter; Moskal, Kristin; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-08-01

    Dietary polyphenols protect against metabolic syndrome, despite limited absorption and digestion, raising questions about their mechanism of action. We hypothesized that one mechanism may involve the gut microbiota. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 1% Concord grape polyphenols (GP). Relative to vehicle controls, GP attenuated several effects of HFD feeding, including weight gain, adiposity, serum inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]?, interleukin [IL]-6, and lipopolysaccharide), and glucose intolerance. GP lowered intestinal expression of inflammatory markers (TNF?, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase) and a gene for glucose absorption (Glut2). GP increased intestinal expression of genes involved in barrier function (occludin) and limiting triglyceride storage (fasting-induced adipocyte factor). GP also increased intestinal gene expression of proglucagon, a precursor of proteins that promote insulin production and gut barrier integrity. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR of cecal and fecal samples demonstrated that GP dramatically increased the growth of Akkermansia muciniphila and decreased the proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, consistent with prior reports that similar changes in microbial community structure can protect from diet-induced obesity and metabolic disease. These data suggest that GP act in the intestine to modify gut microbial community structure, resulting in lower intestinal and systemic inflammation and improved metabolic outcomes. The gut microbiota may thus provide the missing link in the mechanism of action of poorly absorbed dietary polyphenols. PMID:25845659

  7. Dietary cholesterol induces hepatic inflammation and blunts mitochondrial function in the liver of high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songpei; Zeng, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Xiu; Wang, Hao; Jo, Eunjung; Robinson, Stephen R; Xu, Aimin; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of dietary cholesterol and fat in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a common liver disease in metabolic disorders. Mice were fed a diet of regular chow (CH), chow supplemented with 0.2% w/w cholesterol (CHC), high fat (HF, 45kcal%) or HF with cholesterol (HFC) for 17weeks. While both HF and HFC groups displayed hepatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome, only HFC group developed the phenotype of liver injury, as indicated by an increase in plasma level of alanine transaminase (ALT, by 50-80%). There were ~2-fold increases in mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 1? and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in the liver of HFC-fed mice (vs. HF) but no endoplasmic reticulum stress or oxidative stress was observed. Furthermore, cholesterol suppressed HF-induced increase of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? and mitochondrial transcription factor A expression and blunted fatty acid oxidation. Interestingly, after switching HFC to HF diet for 5weeks, the increases in plasma ALT and liver inflammatory markers were abolished but the blunted of mitochondrial function remained. These findings suggest that cholesterol plays a critical role in the conversion of a simple fatty liver toward nonalcoholic steatohepatitis possibly by activation of inflammatory pathways together with retarded mitochondrial function. PMID:26391864

  8. Effect of various dietary fats on antibody production and lymphocyte proliferation n chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassity, N.A.; Fritsche, K.L.; Huang, S.C. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (United States))

    1990-02-26

    One-day old Babcock-300 female chicks (n = 80) were fed one of four corn-soybean meal based diets which differed only in fat source. Diets contained 7% by weight: corn oil (CO), canola oil (CA), lard (LA), or fish oil (FO). Chicks (n = 12/trt) were injected with sheep red blood cells (sRBC) at day 21 and antibody titers were measured by haemagglutination at d 28. On d 22 (n = 4/trt) and 26 (n = 4/trt) concanavalin A (Con A), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated proliferation of splenocytes was assessed by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation. The results show that feeding young chicks a diet containing fish oil (rich in n-3 fatty acids) significantly increased weight gain, antibody production, and had a tendency to decrease splenocyte proliferation in response to mitogens compared to other fat sources.

  9. The effects of a controlled worksite environmental intervention on determinants of dietary behavior and self-reported fruit, vegetable and fat intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin A Paw Marijke

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating patterns in Western industrialized countries are characterized by a high energy intake and an overconsumption of (saturated fat, cholesterol, sugar and salt. Many chronic diseases are associated with unhealthy eating patterns. On the other hand, a healthy diet (low saturated fat intake and high fruit and vegetable intake has been found important in the prevention of health problems, such as cancer and cardio-vascular disease (CVD. The worksite seems an ideal intervention setting to influence dietary behavior. The purpose of this study is to present the effects of a worksite environmental intervention on fruit, vegetable and fat intake and determinants of behavior. Methods A controlled trial that included two different governmental companies (n = 515: one intervention and one control company. Outcome measurements (short-fat list and fruit and vegetable questionnaire took place at baseline and 3 and 12 months after baseline. The relatively modest environmental intervention consisted of product information to facilitate healthier food choices (i.e., the caloric (kcal value of foods in groups of products was translated into the number of minutes to perform a certain (occupational activity to burn these calories. Results Significant changes in psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior were found; subjects at the intervention worksite perceived more social support from their colleagues in eating less fat. But also counter intuitive effects were found: at 12 months the attitude and self-efficacy towards eating less fat became less positive in the intervention group. No effects were found on self-reported fat, fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusion This environmental intervention was modestly effective in changing behavioral determinant towards eating less fat (social support, self-efficacy and attitude, but ineffective in positively changing actual fat, fruit and vegetable intake of office workers.

  10. Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weigth gain in growing rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jørgensen, Henry; Oomah, David; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5...

  11. Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Oomah, David; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5...

  12. Fat Maintenance Is a Predictor of the Murine Lifespan Response to Dietary Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Chen-Yu; Rikke, Brad A.; Johnson, Thomas E; Gelfond, Jonathan A.L.; Diaz, Vivian; Nelson, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR), one of the most robust life-extending manipulations, is usually associated with reduced adiposity. This reduction is hypothesized to be important in the life-extending effect of DR, because excess adiposity is associated with metabolic and age-related disease. Previously, we described remarkable variation in the lifespan response of 41 recombinant inbred strains of mice to DR, ranging from life extension to life shortening. Here, we used this variation to determine t...

  13. The inhibition of fat cell proliferation by fatty acids in dietary obese mice.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hensler, Michal; Bardová, Kristina; Macek Jílková, Zuzana; Wahli, W.; Meztger, D.; Chambon, P.; Kopecký, Jan; Flachs, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 10, - (2011), s. 128. ISSN 1476-511X R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP301/11/0226; GA ?R(CZ) GD305/08/H037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : DHA and EPA * fish oil * fat cell turnover Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.170, year: 2011

  14. A dietary fat excess alters metabolic and neuroendocrine responses before the onset of metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Sophie M; Rouch, Claude; Kassis, Nadim; Markaki, Eirini M; Gerozissis, Kyriaki

    2009-03-01

    Early changes in neuroendocrine pathways are essential in the development of metabolic pathologies. Thus, it is important to have a better understanding of the signals involved in their initiation. Long-term consumption of high-fat diets induces insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes. Here, we have investigated early neural and endocrine events in the hypothalamus and hippocampus induced by a short-term high fat, low carbohydrate diet in adult male Wistar rats. The release of serotonin, which is closely associated with the actions of insulin and leptin, was measured, by electrochemical detection following reverse-phase liquid chromatography (HPLC), in the extracellular space of the medial hypothalamus and the dorsal hippocampus in samples obtained from non-anesthetized animals, by microdialysis. The high-fat diet had a specific effect on the hypothalamus. Serotonin release induced by food intake was reduced after 1 week, and effectively ceased after 6 weeks of the diet. After 1 week, there was an increased gene expression of the insulin receptor and the insulin receptor substrates IRS1 and IRS2, as measured by real-time PCR. After 6 weeks of diet, insulin gene expression increased. Leptinemia increased in all cases. This new data support the concept that high-fat diets, in addition to have peripheral effects, cause a rapid alteration in specific central mechanisms involved in energy and glucose homeostasis. The changes in the gene expression of insulin and signaling elements represent possible adaptations aimed at counterbalancing the reduced responsiveness of the serotonergic system to nutritional signals and maintaining homeostasis. PMID:18773289

  15. Dietary Prebiotics, Milk Fat Globule Membrane, and Lactoferrin Affects Structural Neurodevelopment in the Young Piglet

    OpenAIRE

    Mudd, Austin T.; Lindsey S. Alexander; Berding, Kirsten; Waworuntu, Rosaline V.; Berg, Brian M.; Sharon M. Donovan; Dilger, Ryan N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and lactoferrin have been identified as two components that have potential to affect neurodevelopment. While concentrations of some MFGM constituents in infant formulas are within human milk range, they may not be present at optimal or clinically effective levels. However, lactoferrin levels of infant formulas are consistently reported to be lower than human milk. This study sought to provide a novel combination of prebiotics, bovine-derived MF...

  16. Dietary Prebiotics, Milk Fat Globule Membrane, and Lactoferrin Affects Structural Neurodevelopment in the Young Piglet

    OpenAIRE

    Mudd, Austin T.; Lindsey S. Alexander; Berding, Kirsten; Waworuntu, Rosaline V.; Berg, Brian M.; Sharon M. Donovan; Dilger, Ryan N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and lactoferrin have been identified as two components that have potential to affect neurodevelopment. While concentrations of some MFGM constituents in infant formulas are within human milk range, they may not be present at optimal or clinically effective levels. However, lactoferrin levels of infant formulas are consistently reported to be lower than human milk. This study sought to provide a novel combination of prebiotics, bovine-derived MFGM,...

  17. Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Depression: The SUN Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Villegas, A.; Verberne, L. (Lisa); de Irala, J.; Ruiz-Canela, M.; Toledo, E; Serra-Majem, L; Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence relates some nutritional factors to depression risk. However, there is a scarcity of longitudinal assessments on this relationship. Objective: To evaluate the association between fatty acid intake or the use of culinary fats and depression incidence in a Mediterranean population. Material and Methods: Prospective cohort study (1999–2010) of 12,059 Spanish university graduates (mean age: 37.5 years) initially free of depression with permanently open enrolment. ...

  18. Effects of dietary fish oil and trans fat on rat aorta histopathology and cardiovascular risk markers

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seonhye; Park, Yongsoon

    2009-01-01

    Fish oil and shortening have been suggested to have opposite effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the effect of shortening and fish oil on CVD risk factors and aorta histopathology, and the association between risk factors and aorta histopathology. Male Wister rats (n=30) were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 20% fat in the form of fish oil, shortening, or soybean oil for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), triacylglyceride (TG), and C-reactive protein levels were signi...

  19. The effectiveness of policies for reducing dietary trans fat: a systematic review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna M Downs

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of policies, including self-regulation, aimed at reducing industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs in food. METHODS: The Medline, Embase and Cinahl databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles examining the effect of TFA policies. In addition, the first 20 pages of Google searches were examined for articles from the grey literature. A study was included if: (i it was empirical and conducted in a "real-world" setting (i.e. modelling studies were excluded; (ii it examined a TFA policy involving, for example, labelling, voluntary limits or bans; and (iii it examined a policy's effect on TFA levels in food, people's diets, blood or breast milk. FINDINGS: Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria: 5 involved voluntary self-regulation; 8, labelling alone; 4, labelling and voluntary limits; 5, local bans and 4, national bans. Overall, the TFA content of food decreased with all types of policy intervention. In general, saturated fat levels increased or decreased, depending on the product type, and total fat content remained stable. National and local bans were most effective at eliminating TFAs from the food supply, whereas mandatory TFA labelling and voluntary TFA limits had a varying degree of success, which largely depended on food category. CONCLUSION: Policies aimed at restricting the TFA content of food were associated with significant reductions in TFA levels, without increasing total fat content. Such policies are feasible, achievable and likely to have an effect on public health.

  20. Fasted Exercise and Increased Dietary Protein Reduces Body Fat and Improves Strength in Jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G; Pritchard, P P; Papageorgiou, C; Phillips, S; Kumar, P; Langan-Evans, C; Routledge, H; Owens, D J; Morton, J P; Close, G L

    2015-11-01

    The present study assessed the effects of a diet and exercise intervention in jockeys on body composition, metabolism, bone and mental health. 10 jockeys followed an individually prescribed 6-wk diet (Carbohydrate=2.5-3.5?g/kg, Protein=2.5?g/kg, Fat=1.0?g/kg). Body mass (59.2±4.6 vs. 57.6±4.5?kg), fat mass (7.5±3.5 vs. 6.2±2.6) and body fat (13.1±5.9 vs. 11.5±4.9%) all decreased (PRMR (1703±329 vs. 1975±313?kcal.d(-1)), VO2max (3.8±0.8 vs. 4.1±0.7?L/min(-?1)) chest strength (65±11 vs. 71±13?kg), leg strength (160±28 vs. 175±29?kg) and jumping height (40±6 vs. 48±5?cm) significantly increased (P0.05) at hip (-1.04±1.29 vs. -?0.76±0.71) or lumbar sites (-1.32±0.76 vs. -?1.31±0.77). Psychometrics (GHQ-12 and EAT-26) remained unchanged (10.3±4.3 vs. 8.9±3.8 and 14.8±9.6 vs. 11.0±5.6, P>0.05, respectively). This approach represents a marked difference from jockeys' habitual weight-making that largely involves dehydration and food deprivation. PMID:26212241

  1. THE EGG – FUNCTIONAL FOOD.COMPARATIVE STUDY ON VARIOUS NUTRITIONAL SOLUTIONS TO ENRICH THE EGG POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS. II YOLK FATTY ACIDS PROFILE RESULTING FROM THE DIETARY USE OF SAFFLOWER OIL AND FLAX SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTE RODICA. D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in a study on the comparative evaluation of the effect of a diet with safflower oil and flax seeds compared to a control soybean oil diet given to layers on the bioproductive effects, egg characteristics and yolk fatty acids profile. The trial involved 32 Lowman Brown layers during the age period 23- 28 weeks (1 week of accommodation and 4 experimental weeks. The layers, assigned to 2 groups (16 layers/group, 4 layers/cage received diets based on corn, wheat and soybean meal. The diets differed by the source of fatty acids: soybean oil for the control group (SO; safflower oil and flax seeds for SSO+FS. The diets were supplemented with 250 ppm vitamin E. Twelve eggs per group were collected randomly 10 and 30 days, respectively, after the beginning of the experiment. The paper presents comparative data on the: average egg weight, egg component (egg shell, yolk, egg white weight, intensity of yolk colour (Hoffman – La Roche colour range, yolk protein, fat yolk pH (measured one week after collection, the eggs being kept at 50C and yolk fatty acids. All data show that the profile of yolk unsaturated fatty acids can be handled quite easily by the nature of the dietary fats, their level of inclusion and their dietary ratio.

  2. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Brewer's Spent Grain Dietary Fiber on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Min-Sung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; n Lee, Soo-Yeo; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork back fat with brewer's spent grain (BSG) pre-emulsion for physicochemical, textural properties, and sensory evaluations of reduced-fat chicken sausages are evaluated. Control was prepared with 15% pork back fat, and three reduced-fat chicken sausages were formulated with the replacement of 20, 25, and 30% pork back fat with BSG pre-emulsion. The pH level of reduced-fat sausages formulated with BSG pre-emulsion is lower than that of the control (p

  3. Dietary intake of total marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid and the risk of acute coronary syndrome - a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Albert M; Schmidt, Erik B

    2010-01-01

    Dietary intake of marine n-3 PUFA has been negatively associated with the risk of CHD among subjects with known CHD, whereas an effect in healthy subjects is less documented. We assessed the hypothesis that dietary intake of marine n-3 PUFA is negatively associated with the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in healthy subjects. In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study, 57 053 participants were enrolled. Dietary intake of total n-3 PUFA, including EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and DHA, was assessed. During a mean follow-up period of 7.6 years, we identified all cases (n 1150) from this cohort with an incident ACS diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Registry or the Cause of Death Registry. Diagnoses were verified through medical record review. In Cox proportional hazard models, we adjusted for established risk factors for CHD. Men in the four highest quintiles of n-3 PUFA intake (>0.39 g n-3 PUFA per d) had a lower incidence of ACS compared with men in the lowest quintile. The hazard ratiowas 0.83 (95 % CI 0.67, 1.03) when we compared men in the second lowest and lowest quintile of n-3 PUFA intake. Higher intake of n-3 PUFA did not strengthen this association. Associations for EPA, DPA and DHA were all negative, but less consistent. No convincing associations were found among women. In conclusion, we found borderline significant negative associations between the intake of marine n-3 PUFA and ACS among healthy men.

  4. A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, E E; Garfield, S; Hoffman, D R; Uauy, R; Birch, D G

    2000-03-01

    The effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supply during infancy on later cognitive development of healthy term infants were evaluated in a randomized clinical trial of infant formula milk supplemented with 0.35% DHA or with 0.36% DHA and 0.72% arachidonic acid (AA), or control formula which provided no DHA or AA. Fifty-six 18-month-old children (26 male, 30 female) who were enrolled in the trial within the first 5 days of life and fed the assigned diet to 17 weeks of age were tested using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) (Bayley 1993) at the Retina Foundation of the Southwest, Dallas, TX. These children had also been assessed at 4 months and 12 months of age for blood fatty-acid composition, sweep visual evoked potential (VEP) acuity, and forced-choice preferential looking (FPL) acuity (Birch et al. 1998). Supplementation of infant formula with DHA+AA was associated with a mean increase of 7 points on the Mental Development Index (MDI) of the BSID-II. Both the cognitive and motor subscales of the MDI showed a significant developmental age advantage for DHA- and DHA+AA-supplemented groups over the control group. While a similar trend was found for the language subscale, it did not reach statistical significance. Neither the Psychomotor Development Index nor the Behavior Rating Scale of the BSID-II showed significant differences among diet groups, consistent with a specific advantage of DHA supplementation on mental development. Significant correlations between plasma and RBC-DHA at 4 months of age but not at 12 months of age and MDI at 18 months of age suggest that early dietary supply of DHA was a major dietary determinant of improved performance on the MDI. PMID:10755457

  5. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase variants associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease interact with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids to modulate plasma homocysteine in puerto rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Tucker, Katherine L; Lee, Yu-Chi; Crott, Jimmy W; Parnell, Laurence D; Shen, Jian; Smith, Caren E; Ordovas, Jose M; Li, Duo; Lai, Chao-Qiang

    2011-04-01

    Although methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genetic variants are associated with plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), little is known whether dietary fatty acid intake modulates these associations. The goal was to examine the interaction of MTHFR variants with dietary fatty acids influencing plasma Hcy in 995 Boston Puerto Rican adults. We found that plasma Hcy concentration was negatively correlated with (n-3) PUFA intake (r = -0.117; P = 0.022), and the ratio of (n-3):(n-6) PUFA in the diet (r = -0.122; P = 0.009). Further, 2 functional MTHFR variants, 1298A>C and 677C>T, which are not in linkage disequilibrium in this population, were significantly associated with hypertension (OR = 1.72, P = 0.024, and OR = 1.60, P = 0.002, respectively). In addition, the 1298A>C variant was significantly associated with CVD (OR = 3.32; P = 0.030). Importantly, this variant exhibited significant interactions with intakes of total and (n-6) PUFA and the (n-3):(n-6) PUFA ratio of the diet. The plasma Hcy concentration of carriers of risk allele 1298C was greater than that of noncarriers only when participants had consumed a high-PUFA diet (>7.8% energy) but was not greater when they had low intake of PUFA (?7.8% energy). In addition, participants with combined genotypes of both SNP (677 TT with 1298 AC or CC) who consumed high levels of (n-3) PUFA (>0.66% energy) had lower plasma Hcy compared with those who had the same genotype and consumed low levels of (n-3) PUFA (?0.66% energy). Our study suggests that dietary PUFA intake modulates the effect of 2 MTHFR variants on plasma Hcy in Boston Puerto Rican adults. PMID:21270364

  6. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Ludvig, Stine E; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Pulkkinen, Pasi; Finnilä, Mikko; Mu, Huiling; Thymann, Thomas; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mølgaard, Christian; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCPUFA) and palmitate (16:0) positioning in the triacylglycerol (TAG) of infant formula may affect calcium-uptake which could affect bone health. We investigated if a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) with a modified TAG structure holding 16:0 predominantly in the sn-2-position compared with a control (CONT) and if increasing n-3LCPUFA intake giving fish oil (FO) compared with sunflower oil (SO) would affect bone parameters in piglets in two sets of controlled 14d-interventio...

  7. A Protective Lipidomic Biosignature Associated with a Balanced Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio in fat-1 Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Astarita, Giuseppe; McKenzie, Jennifer H.; Wang, Bin; Strassburg, Katrin; Doneanu, Angela; Johnson, Jay; Baker, Andrew; Hankemeier, Thomas; Murphy, James; Vreeken, Rob J.; Langridge, James; Kang, Jing X.

    2014-01-01

    A balanced omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio has been linked to health benefits and the prevention of many chronic diseases. Current dietary intervention studies with different sources of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) lack appropriate control diets and carry many other confounding factors derived from genetic and environmental variability. In our study, we used the fat-1 transgenic mouse model as a proxy for long-term omega-3 supplementation to determine, in a well-contr...

  8. / PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND SENSORIAL EFFECTS OF THE USE OF DIETARY FIBER IN SAUSAGES OF THE VIENNA TYPE OF LOW FAT CONTENT

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco L, Quino; Juan A, Alvarado.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el presente trabajo se estudia los efectos causados por la adición de dos porcentajes de inulina (4% y 6%) como fuente de fibra dietaria, en algunas propiedades fisicoquímicas y sensoriales de salchichas tipo Viena cuyo contenido en grasa se ha reducido, elaboradas bajo los requisitos de [...] calidad del Instituto Boliviano de Normalización y Calidad (IBNORCA) y bajo los lineamientos de la Agencia de Drogas y Alimentos de EE.UU. (FDA) para la reducción de grasas. La adición de 4% de inulina no influyó en los valores proteicos, y de ceniza, pero si generó un aumento en la humedad del 1.5% y una disminución hasta del 27% en grasa. La adición de 6% de inulina no influyó en los valores proteicos y de ceniza, pero si generó un aumento en humedad del 3.5% y una disminución hasta del 42% en grasas. La adición de estos dos porcentajes de inulina mantuvo el sabor y olor, pero la textura y color variaron disminuyendo la suavidad y tonalidad rojiza del producto Abstract in english In this paper were studied the effects caused by the addition of two percentages of inulin (4% and 6%) as a source of dietary fiber, on some physicochemical and sensory properties of sausages type Vienna whose fat content has been reduced, prepared under quality requirements of the Bolivian Institut [...] e for Standards and Quality (IBNORCA) and under the guidelines of the Food and Drug Agency of USA (FDA) for fat reduction. Adding 4% inulin did not influence the protein and ashvalues, but caused an increase in moisture of 1.5% and a decrease to 27% of fat. Adding 6% inulin not influence protein and ash values, but caused an increase in humidity of 3.5% and a decrease to 42% of fat. The addition of these two percentages inulin kept the flavor (taste and odor), but varied texture and color decreasing softness and the reddish hue of the product. Original Spanish mu: Efectos fisicoquímicos y sensoriales del uso de fibra dietaria en salchichas tipo viena reducida en grasas

  9. Dietary Rhus coriaria L. powder reduces the blood cholesterol, VLDL-c and glucose, but increases abdominal fat in broilers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Golzadeh; P., Farhoomand; M., Daneshyar.

    Full Text Available In an experiment, 200 one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were used to investigate the effects of sumac fruit (Rhus coriaria L.) powder (SFP) on performance, plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), ver [...] y low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) and plasma fasting blood sugar (FBS), as well as proportional abdominal fat. The chicks were divided into four treatment groups with 5 replicates and 10 birds in each. The birds were fed the basal diet (Z-SFP) or diets supplemented with 2.5 g SFP (L-SFP), 5 g SFP (M-SFP) and 10 g SFP (H-SFP) per kg diet. During the whole experimental period the H-SFP birds had a higher feed intake than the Z-SFP and L-SFP birds, though the H-SFP birds had higher feed conversion ratio compared with birds in the other treatments. No significant differences for body weight gain were recorded between the treatments. The M-SFP and H-SFP birds had lower plasma TC and VLDL-c concentrations than the Z-SFP and L-SFP birds. No significant differences between the treatments were indicated for plasma TG, HDL-c and LDL-c concentrations. Moreover the plasma FBS concentration of the H-SFP birds was lower than the birds in treatments Z-SFP and L-SFP, but no significant differences were observed between the other treatments. Furthermore, significant negative correlations were found between SFP supplementation and plasma TC, VLDL-c and FBS concentrations and a significant positive correlation between SFP supplementation and abdominal fat weight. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of SFP reduces the blood TC, VLDL-c and FBS concentrations, which can be related to decreased activity of HMG-CoA reductase and ?-amylase activities. The higher abdominal fat weight of the SFP-fed birds is possibly related to changes of energy storage towards fat deposition.

  10. Dietary cocoa reduces metabolic endotoxemia and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan; Park, Jong Yung; Harvatine, Kevin; Lambert, Joshua D

    2014-04-01

    In diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue (AT) is in a chronic state of inflammation predisposing the development of metabolic syndrome. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a polyphenol-rich food with putative anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of cocoa on AT inflammation in high fat-fed mice. In the present study, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high fat diet (HF), a HF diet with 8% (w/w) unsweetened cocoa powder (HFC), or a low-fat diet (LF) for 18 weeks. Cocoa supplementation decreased AT mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 by 40-60% compared to HF group, and this was accompanied by decreased nuclear protein levels of nuclear factor-?B. Cocoa treatment reduced the levels of arachidonic acid in the AT by 33% compared to HF controls. Moreover, cocoa treatment also reduced protein levels of the eicosanoid-generating enzymes, adipose-specific phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 by 53% and 55%, respectively, compared to HF-fed mice. Finally, cocoa treatment ameliorated metabolic endotoxemia (40% reduction in plasma endotoxin) and improved gut barrier function (as measured by increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-2). In conclusion, the present study has shown for the first time that long-term cocoa supplementation can reduce AT inflammation in part by modulating eicosanoid metabolism and metabolic endotoxemia. PMID:24561154

  11. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders D; Ludvig, Stine E; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Pulkkinen, Pasi; Finnilä, Mikko; Mu, Huiling; Thymann, Thomas; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-09-01

    Long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCPUFA) and palmitate (16:0) positioning in the triacylglycerol (TAG) of infant formula may affect calcium-uptake which could affect bone health. We investigated if a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) with a modified TAG structure holding 16:0 predominantly in the sn-2-position compared with a control (CONT) and if increasing n-3LCPUFA intake giving fish oil (FO) compared with sunflower oil (SO) would affect bone parameters in piglets in two sets of controlled 14d-interventions (n=12/group). We assessed this by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical strength. Bone mineral content (BMC) was higher in the FO compared to the SO-group (p=0.03). Despite similar weight gain in HMFS- and CONT-groups, body fat accumulation was higher with HMFS (p<0.001), and BMC, bone area (BA) and cortical BA in femur were lower (p=0.002, p=0.005, and p=0.02, respectively), indicating importance of both n-3LCPUFA and 16:0 TAG-positioning in infant formulas. PMID:23867727

  12. High dietary intake of saturated fat is associated with reduced semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Heitmann, Berit L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saturated fat intake has been associated with both cardiovascular disease and cancer risk, and a newly published study found an association between saturated fat intake and a lower sperm concentration in infertile men. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake and semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, men were recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service from 2008 to 2010. They delivered a semen sample, underwent a physical examination, and answered a questionnaire comprising a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire to assess food and nutrient intakes. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed with semen variables as outcomes and dietary fat intakes as exposure variables, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: A lower sperm concentration and total sperm count in men with a high intake of saturated fat was found. A significant dose-response association was found, and men in the highest quartile of saturated fat intake had a 38% (95% CI: 0.1%, 61%) lower sperm concentration and a 41% (95% CI: 4%, 64%) lower total sperm count than did men in the lowest quartile. No association between semen quality and intake of other types of fat was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are of potentially great public interest, because changes in diet over the past decades may be part of the explanation for the recently reported high frequency of subnormal human sperm counts. A reduction in saturated fat intake may be beneficial for both general and reproductive health.

  13. [Nutritive physiological effect of dietary fats in growing swine rations. 3. Effect of sunflower and coconut kernels on protein and fat retention, backfat fatty acid pattern and various blood parameters in piglets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berschauer, F; Ehrensvärd, U; Menke, K H

    1983-12-01

    Two groups, each of 9 castrated male piglets of the German Landrace breed, body weight 13-29 kg, were fed ad libitum for a 5 week period in order to determine the influence of the fatty acid composition of the dietary fat on protein and fat retention. The concentrations of urea, insulin, glucose, free glycerol and triglycerides were also determined. That fat in ration I (derived from 27% sunflower seed) contained 50% linoleic acid while that of ration II (derived from 12,5% coconut kernels) had a maximum lauric acid content of 41,8%. The relationship between digestible crude protein and ME-content was calculated to be similar in both rations. In addition protein quality was calculated to be similar in both rations. Protein deposition was determined from both nitrogen and comparative slaughter procedures. The results can be summarized as follows: The animals fed ration I had a higher daily ME-intake and growth rate than those fed ration II, although no great difference was observed in ME required per kg body weight gain. The efficiency of protein utilization was significantly better in group I and this was associated with a lower blood urea concentration. The concentrations of insulin and glucose in the blood, measured before as well as 20, 45, 60 and 120 minutes following feeding, showed little differences between the groups. The triglyceride concentration measured before and 1 and 5 hours following feeding was significantly higher (p less than 0,01) in group II. There was no significant difference in the protein and fat content of the body as well as in the daily protein and fat deposition. The fatty acid composition of the back fat was significantly influenced by the fatty acid pattern of the dietary fat. In group I the linoleic acid content was 3,6 times higher and the lauric- and myristic acid content 11,7 times lower compared to that of group II. PMID:6370196

  14. Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Katalin Fekete; Tamás Decsi

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of children with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) is mainly based on restricted dietary intake of protein-containing foods. However, dietary protein restriction may not only reduce amino acid intake, but may be associated with low intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well. This review focuses on the consequences of dietary restriction in IEM on the bioavailability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and on the attempts to ameliorate these consequences. We we...

  15. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb Turcz on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengkai Zhai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild rice (WR is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

  16. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium could improve performance, antibody response, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed on diets containing oxidized fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laika, M; Jahanian, R

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of organic selenium (Se) on performance, egg quality indices, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed diets with different fat sources. A total of 270 Hy-line W-36 Leghorn hens of 47 weeks of age were randomly distributed into the 5 replicate cages of 9 dietary treatments. Experimental diets consisted of a 3?×?3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three different fat sources (soybean oil, SO; yellow grease, YG; and palm fat powder, PFP) and three different levels of supplemental Se (0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg of diet) as supplied by zinc-L-selenomethionine (ZnSeMet) complex, which fed during a 77-day feeding trial including 7 days for adaptation and 70 days as the main recording period. Results showed that the highest (P?production was affected by both dietary fat source (P?dietary fat source, dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P?fat? source×?Se interactions were observed for egg mass, so that dietary supplementation with 0.4 mg/kg Se was more effective in diets supplemented with YG. Although feed intake was not affected by experimental diets during the first 35-day period, dietary inclusion of PFP reduced feed intake during both second 35-day (P?Dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P?fat sources had no effect on antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus, supplemental ZnSeMet improved (P?dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet could improve performance parameters and egg oxidative stability in laying hens, with the highest impact in diets containing oxidized (high peroxide values) fat sources. PMID:25653003

  17. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and C16:0 yield. Dietary linoleic acid content also had a positive coefficient for milk trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid yield. These results demonstrate that even when total dietary FA are below 3%, free oils rich in linoleic acid can reduce milk fat yield by reducing secretion of milk FA with fewer than 18 carbons. Fatty acid composition of fat supplements is important even at this low level of total dietary fat. PMID:25468700

  18. Intake of Total and Subgroups of Fat Minimally Affect the Associations between Selected Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the PPARγ Pathway and Changes in Anthropometry among European Adults from Cohorts of the DiOGenes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Nautrup Østergaard, Jane; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Roswall, Nina; Mortensen, Lotte M; Nielsen, Birgit M; Tjønneland, Anne; Wareham, Nicholas J; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Saris, Wim Hm; van der A, Daphne L; Boer, Jolanda Ma; Feskens, Edith Jm; Boeing, Heiner; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Loos, Ruth Jf; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Overvad, Kim

    2016-01-01

    nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 4 genes in the PPARγ pathway are associated with the OR of being a BW gainer or with annual changes in anthropometry and whether intake of total fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, or saturated fat has a modifying effect on these associations. METHODS: A case......BACKGROUND: Although the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) pathway is central in adipogenesis, it remains unknown whether it influences change in body weight (BW) and whether dietary fat has a modifying effect on the association. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether 27 single......), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2, PPARγ gene (PPARG), and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1] according to evidence about biologic plausibility for interactions with dietary fat in weight regulation. Diet was assessed at baseline, and anthropometry was followed for 7 y. RESULTS: The ORs for...

  19. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Chengkai Zhai; Shufen Han; Hong Zhang; Liqiang Qin

    2013-01-01

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Exc...

  20. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Bascuñán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of maternal diet and erythrocyte phospholipid status in Chilean pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán, Karla A; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20-36 years old) in the 3rd-6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  2. Importância da gordura alimentar na prevenção e no controle de distúrbios metabólicos e da doença cardiovascular / Importance of the dietary fat on the prevention and control of metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Maria Pita, Lottenberg.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) reiterou recentemente que o consumo de dietas inadequadas e a inatividade física estão entre os dez principais fatores de mortalidade. Diversos ensaios aleatorizados demonstram que intervenções alimentares adequadas podem diminuir ou prevenir significativamente o [...] aparecimento de várias doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. Neste contexto, o papel da dieta vem sendo exaustivamente avaliado em estudos clínicos e epidemiológicos. Assim, já foi bem estabelecido na literatura que a quantidade e o tipo de gordura alimentar exercem influência direta sobre fatores de risco cardiovascular, tais como a concentração de lípides e de lipoproteínas plasmáticas, bem como sua associação a processos inflamatórios. Os ácidos graxos participam de complexos sistemas de sinalização intracelular, função que vem sendo bastante explorada. Os ácidos graxos poli-insaturados não somente influenciam a composição das membranas, metabolismo celular e sinais de tradução, mas também modulam a expressão de genes, regulando a atividade e a produção de diversos fatores de transcrição. A proposta deste artigo é rever tópicos relevantes referentes ao metabolismo de lípides e os relacionar a terapias nutricionais que possam contribuir para a prevenção e o tratamento de doenças associadas. Abstract in english The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently reinforced the fact that inadequate diets, along with physical inactivity, are among the ten main determinant factors of mortality. Several randomized trials demonstrated that dietary interventions may lower or even prevent the occurrence of several n [...] on-communicable diseases. In this context, the role of diet has been exhaustively evaluated in several clinical and epidemiological studies. Thus, it is well established in literature that the amount and type of dietary fat have a direct influence on cardiovascular risk factors, such as lipids and plasma lipoprotein concentration, as well as their association with inflammatory processes. Fatty acids also participate in complex intracellular signaling systems, a function which has been currently investigated. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) act not only by altering membrane lipid composition, cellular metabolism and signal transduction, but also modulating gene expression by regulating the activity and/or production of different nuclear transcription factors. The aim of this article is to review important topics regarding the lipids metabolism and correlate them with nutritional therapies that may contribute to the prevention and treatment of related diseases.

  3. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeninck Elizabeth A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Methods/Design Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2 will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-?, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF, IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. Discussion While clinical data indicate that excess weight for height is associated with poor prognosis for long term survival, little attention is paid to weight control in the clinical management of breast cancer. This study will provide information that can be used to answer important patient questions about the effects of dietary pattern and magnitude of weight loss on long term survival following breast cancer treatment. Clinical Trial Registration CA125243

  4. The role of the small intestine in the development of dietary fat-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bromhaar Mechteld; Hooiveld Guido JEJ; de Groot Philip J; Bosch-Vermeulen Hanneke; de Wit Nicole JW; Jansen Jenny; Müller Michael; van der Meer Roelof

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity and insulin resistance are two major risk factors underlying the metabolic syndrome. The development of these metabolic disorders is frequently studied, but mainly in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. To gain more insight in the role of the small intestine in development of obesity and insulin resistance, dietary fat-induced differential gene expression was determined along the longitudinal axis of small intestines of C57BL/6J mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J ...

  5. The Effect of Food Images on Mood and Arousal Depends on Dietary Histories and the Fat and Sugar Content of Foods Depicted

    OpenAIRE

    Heather E. Creary; Antonelli, Danielle E.; Gregory J. Privitera

    2013-01-01

    Background: While brain imaging studies show that reward regions in the human brain that regulate reward-guided behavior and integrate sensory modalities of smell, taste, and texture respond preferentially to high calorie foods, few studies account for dietary histories or account for recent behavioral evidence showing preferential responding for fruits (a low calorie food that tastes sweet). To address these concerns, the present study tested the hypothesis that images of high/low fat and s...

  6. The interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp in modulating lifespan and reproduction in a Tephritid fruit fly

    OpenAIRE

    Liedo, Pablo; CAREY, JAMES R; Donald K Ingram; Zou, Sige

    2012-01-01

    Macronutrient balance is a critical contributor in modulating lifespan and health. Consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables provides numerous health benefits. The interactions among macronutrients and botanicals and how they influence aging and health remain elusive. Here we employed a nutritional geometry approach to investigate the interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and antioxidant- and polyphenolic-rich freeze-dried açai pulp in modulating lifespan and reproductive outpu...

  7. The effect of a moderate zinc deficiency and dietary fat source on the activity and expression of the ?(3)? (2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase in the liver of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, Jennifer; Weigand, Edgar

    2014-06-01

    Auxiliary enzymes participate in ?-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of a moderate zinc deficiency and a high intake of polyunsaturated fat on ?(3)?(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase (ECI) in the liver and other tissues. Five groups of eight weanling rats each were fed moderately zinc-deficient (ZD) or zinc-adequate (ZA) semisynthetic diets (7 or 50 mg Zn/kg) enriched with 22 % cocoa butter (CB) or 22 % safflower oil (SO) for 4 weeks: (1) ZD-CB, fed free choice; (2) ZA-CBR, ZA-CB diet fed in equivalent amounts consumed by the ZD-CB group; (3) ZD-SO, fed free choice; (4) ZA-SOR, ZA-SO diet fed in equivalent amounts consumed by the ZD-SO group; and (5) ZA-SO, fed free choice. Growth and Zn status markers were markedly reduced in the ZD groups. ECI activity in the liver of the animals fed the ZD- and ZA-SO diets were significantly higher (approximately 2- and 3-fold, respectively) as compared with the CB-fed animals, whereas activities in extrahepatic tissues (kidneys, heart, skeletal muscle, testes, adipose tissue) were not altered by dietary treatments. Transcript levels of the mitochondrial Eci gene in the liver did not significantly differ between ZD and ZA rats, but were 1.6-fold higher in the ZA-SO- than in the ZD-CB-fed animals (P?safflower oil as a source high in linoleic acid induce markedly increased hepatic ECI activities and that a moderate Zn deficiency does not affect transcription of the mitochondrial Eci gene in the liver. PMID:24682920

  8. Usual Energy Intake from Polyunsaturated Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  9. Methane emission and community composition patterns of rumen bacteria and methanogens in Holstein dairy cows as affected by silage type and dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; HØjberg, Ole

    Silage type and dietary fat supplementation can affect enteric methane (CH4) emissions from dairy cows. However, the impact of dietary interventions on the rumen microbiota is still not fully understood. The present study used six rumen cannulated Holstein cows (6x4 incomplete Latin Square) to investigate effects of silages with different methanogenic potential (early grass, late grass, and maize) combined with a CH4-reducing feed additive (crushed rapeseed) on bacterial and methanogenic communities in the rumen. Bacterial and methanogenic community patterns were evaluated by T-RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA and methyl co-enzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes, respectively. Methanogen abundances were evaluated by qPCR using two mcrA-targeting primer sets. Silage type significantly affected CH4 emissions and rumen acetate:propionate ratios, being highest for late grass and lowest for maize. Dietary fat significantly reduced the gross energy lost as CH4 regardless of silage type. Silage type significantly affected the bacterial community composition pattern; the grass silages favored potential hemicellulose- and cellulose-degrading bacteria, while the maize silage mainly favored potentially starch-degrading bacteria. The silages also significantly affected the methanogenic community composition pattern as indicated by the relative abundances of T-RFs representing methylotrophic and H2/CO2-dependent methanogens. In contrast, fat supplementation had only little effect on the community composition patterns of bacteria and methanogens. Total methanogen abundance was not affected by dietary manipulations, indicating that shifts occurred within the methanogen community without affecting its overall size. The current study illustrates that the bacterial and methanogenic communities in the rumen are susceptible to manipulation through dietary interventions.

  10. An Investigation into the Association between DNA Damage and Dietary Fatty Acid in Men with Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Bishop

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a growing problem in New Zealand and worldwide, as populations adopt a Western style dietary pattern. In particular, dietary fat is believed to be associated with oxidative stress, which in turn may be associated with cancer risk and development. In addition, DNA damage is associated with the risk of various cancers, and is regarded as an ideal biomarker for the assessment of the influence of foods on cancer. In the study presented here, 20 men with prostate cancer adhered to a modified Mediterranean style diet for three months. Dietary records, blood fatty acid levels, prostate specific antigen, C-reactive protein and DNA damage were assessed pre- and post-intervention. DNA damage was inversely correlated with dietary adherence (p = 0.013 and whole blood monounsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.009 and oleic acid (p = 0.020. DNA damage was positively correlated with the intake of dairy products (p = 0.043, red meat (p = 0.007 and whole blood omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.015. Both the source and type of dietary fat changed significantly over the course of the dietary intervention. Levels of DNA damage were correlated with various dietary fat sources and types of dietary fat.

  11. Fat deposition and flesh quality in seawater reared, triploid brown trout (Salmo trutta) as affected by dietary fat levels and starvation

    OpenAIRE

    Regost, Christelle; Arzel, Jacqueline; Cardinal, Mireille; Laroche, M; Kaushik, Sadasivam

    2001-01-01

    Three isoproteic (crude protein content: 56%) diets with different fat levels (11%, 20%, and 26%) were fed to triplicate groups of triploid brown trout (initial average body weight of 1.5 kg), reared in seawater. At the end of 3 months of feeding, fish fed the high-fat (HF) diet were split into two groups: a triplicate group of fish received the low-fat diet and another triplicate group was kept unfed for a further 2-month period. Fish initially fed the low-fat diet during the first period we...

  12. Effectiveness and tolerability of dietary supplementation with a combination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants in the treatment of dry eye symptoms: results of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleñik A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrea OleñikOn behalf of the Dry Eye Clinical Study Group (DECSGOphthalmology Department, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, SpainBackground: We assessed the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement based on the combination of omega-3 essential fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye-related symptoms.Methods: A total of 905 patients (72% women, median age 60 years with dry eye syndrome and using artificial tears to relieve symptoms participated in an open-label prospective intervention study. They were recruited during a routine ophthalmological appointment. Patients were instructed to take three capsules/day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudysec® 1.5 g for 12 weeks. Dry eye symptoms (categorized as 0, none; 1, mild; 2, moderate; and 3, severe included scratchy and stinging sensation in the eyes, eye redness, grittiness, painful eyes, tired eyes, grating sensation, and blurry vision.Results: The mean intensity of dry eye symptoms varied from 1.1 (± standard deviation [SD] 0.9 for painful eyes to 2.0 (0.9 for grittiness, with a mean value of 11.9 (4.8 for all symptoms together. At week 12, all individual symptoms improved significantly (P<0.001. The mean value for all symptoms together decreased from a mean value of 11.9 (± SD 4.8 at baseline to 6.8 (± SD 4.5 after 12 weeks of treatment (P<0.001. There was a decrease in the percentage of patients in which dry eye symptoms predominated nearly all the time (53.5% versus 34.1%. A total of 68.1% of patients reported better tolerance to contact lenses after treatment. The mean number of daily instillations of artificial tears also decreased significantly (3.8 [± SD 1.6] versus 3.3 [± SD 1.6], P<0.001. A total of 634 patients (70.1% did not report any adverse events. In the remaining patients with adverse events, the most frequent was fish-tasting regurgitation in 13.5% of cases, followed by nausea in 4.9%, diarrhea in 1.3%, and vomiting in 0.3%.Conclusion: Dietary supplementation with a combination of omega-3 essential fatty acids and antioxidants was an effective treatment for dry eye.Keywords: antioxidants, Brudysec 1.5 g, dry eye symptoms, nutraceutics, omega-3, polyunsaturated fatty acids

  13. Effect of Dietary Supplementation by Irradiated Full-Fat Rapeseed on Biochemical Changes in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplementation of 230 gk1 of raw and irradiated full-fat rapeseed at 20 kGy in the food of male albino rats for ten weeks of age, caused significantly lower total plasma protein concentration as compared with those fed control diet, heated seeds and seeds irradiated at 50 and 70 kGy diets. On the other hand, the highest total plasma protein value was obtained from the control group flowed in descending order by heated and seeds irradiated at 70 kGy, and 50 kGy. Plasma albumin decreased significantly in rats fed either raw or rapeseed irradiated at 20 and 50 kGy as compared with rats fed control diet, heated or irradiated rapeseed at 70 kGy diets. The same result was observed with plasma globulin and A/G ratio. Supplementing the diet of rats with raw and irradiated rapeseed at 20 and 50 kGy caused significantly higher plasma transaminases activities (GOT and GPT) as compared with those fed control diet, heated or rapeseed irradiated at 70 kGy. However, rats fed raw and rapeseed irradiated at 20 kGy caused a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase as compared with those fed control diet, heated or irradiated seeds at 50 or 70 kGy diets. Moreover, there was no significant discrepancy between groups fed heated seed and seeds irradiated at 50 or 70 kGy as compared with those fed control diets. Level of plasma creatinine was significantly higher in groups of rats fed row and irradiated seeds at 20 kGy as compared with those fed heat processed and irradiated seeds at 50 kGy and 70 kGy and control diets. The results confirm that the applied radiation doses are insufficient enough to bring a complete detoxification of processed seeds. Increasing the applied radiation doses might be be beneficial in this respect

  14. Dietary polyphenols increase fecal mucin and immunoglobulin A and ameliorate the disturbance in gut microbiota caused by a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Sayori; Takahashi, Azusa; Okazaki, Yukako; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Sakaguchi, Hirohide; Chiji, Hideyuki

    2015-11-01

    The effects of dietary polyphenols on human health have mainly been discussed in the context of preventing degenerative diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The antioxidant properties of polyphenols have been widely studied, but it has become clear that the mechanism of action of polyphenols extends beyond the modulation of oxidative stress, as they are poorly absorbed from the digestive tract. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of polyphenols on the colonic environment, intestinal barrier function, and gut microbiota. We demonstrated that dietary polyphenols derived from aronia, haskap, and bilberry, markedly elevated the amount of fecal mucin and immunoglobulin A (IgA) as an intestinal barrier function and ameliorated the disturbance in gut microbiota caused by a high fat diet in rats. These results suggest that dietary polyphenols play a significant role in the prevention of degenerative diseases through improvement of the colonic environment without any absorption from the digestive tract. PMID:26566306

  15. Evaluation of the effect of increasing dietary vitamin E in combination with different fat sources on performance, humoral immune responses and antioxidant status of weaned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of different fat sources and vitamin E supplementation on performance, humoral immune responses, plasma biochemical responses, mucosal fatty acid profile, and ?-tocopherol status in serum and intestine of pigs after weaning (days 28-56 of age). The experiment...... fish oil at three different vitamin E levels (85, 150, and 300 mg all-rac-?-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet). No effect (P>0.05) of the dietary treatments was obtained on the performance of the pigs. Seven pigs from each treatment combination (n = 63) were immunised with sheep red blood cells at weaning...... serum decreased (P<0.001) during the first week after weaning, and dietary all-rac-?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation had no influence (P>0.05) before day 42 of age. Thereafter, serum ?-tocopherol concentration reflected the dietary vitamin E level and stayed above 1.5 mg/L serum when pigs were fed...

  16. A variant in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and variants near the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) do not influence dietary intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann L; Angquist, Lars; Christiansen, Lene; Heitmann, Berit L; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the role of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) and variants near the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) in modulating habitual intake of total energy and macronutrients, glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary energy density, and energy from 20 food groups in adults. In...... a population-based sample of 756 healthy adult twin pairs, we studied associations between FTO rs9939609, near-MC4R rs12970134, rs17700633, and rs17782313 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and habitual dietary intake. Habitual dietary intake was assessed by a 247-question FFQ. Nontransformed...... associations with intake of energy from whole grains (P >or= 0.04). These associations did not remain significant after controlling for multiple testing. The outcome of this study indicates that polymorphisms in the FTO gene and near the MC4R gene do not have a role in regulating food intake and preference for...

  17. Effects of Dietary Plant Sterols and Stanol Esters with Low- and High-Fat Diets in Chronic and Acute Models for Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Velde, Anje A; Brüll, Florence; Heinsbroek, Sigrid E M; Meijer, Sybren L; Lütjohann, Dieter; Vreugdenhil, Anita; Plat, Jogchum

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary plant sterols and stanols as their fatty acid esters on the development of experimental colitis. The effects were studied both in high- and low-fat diet conditions in two models, one acute and another chronic model of experimental colitis that resembles gene expression in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the first experiments in the high fat diet (HFD), we did not observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols and stanols on the development of acute dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) colitis. In the chronic CD4CD45RB T cell transfer colitis model, we mainly observed an effect of the presence of high fat on the development of colitis. In this HFD condition, the presence of plant sterol or stanol did not result in any additional effect. In the second experiments with low fat, we could clearly observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols on colitis parameters in the T cell transfer model, but not in the DSS model. This positive effect was related to the gender of the mice and on Treg presence in the colon. This suggests that especially dietary plant sterol esters may improve intestinal inflammation in a T cell dependent manner. PMID:26501315

  18. Alternating dietary fat sources for growing-finishing pigs fed dried distillers grains with solubles: I. Growth performance, pork carcass characteristics, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, N A; Apple, J K; Bass, B E; Maxwell, C V; Yancey, J W S; Johnson, T M; Galloway, D L

    2013-03-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 216) were used to test the effects of phase-feeding beef tallow (BT) and yellow grease (YGr) on live performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous (s.c.) fat depots of growing-finishing swine. Pigs were blocked by initial BW (26.0 ± 5.3 kg) before allotment to pens (6 pigs/pen), and pens (6 pens/block) were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments: 1) corn-soybean meal-based grower and finisher diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during all 5 feeding phases (YG15), 2) corn-soybean meal-based diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during all 5 phases (BT15), 3) diets containing 5.0% BT fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 4.7% YGr fed the last 3 phases (YG345), 4) diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during first 3 phases and diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the last 2 phases (YG45), 5) diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the first 3 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 2 feeding phases (BT45), or 6) diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 3 phases (BT345). Overall performance was similar (P ? 0.06) among dietary treatments; however, overall ADG and ADFI increased (quadratic, P ? 0.05) with increasing days fed BT, but duration of dietary YGr did not affect ADG (P ? 0.22) or ADFI (P ? 0.30). There was no (P ? 0.23) effect of fat inclusion on carcass characteristics, but carcass lean yield decreased (linear, P = 0.02) as duration of YGr feeding increased from 37 to 103 d. Proportions of back fat SFA (quadratic, P = 0.03) and jowl fat MUFA (linear, P = 0.02) increased as the time fed BT increased from 47 to 103 d. Conversely, PUFA content of both s.c. fat depots increased (linear, P < 0.01) with increasing durations of dietary YGr. Moreover, quadratic slopes for linolenic (18:2n-6) and linolenic (18:3n-3) acids in jowl fat differed (P ? 0.05) between BT and YGr durations, indicating that the percentages of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 increased at a greater rate with increasing time fed YGr than the rate of decreases in 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 associated with increasing time fed BT. Results of this study confirm that the fatty acid composition of s.c. fat depots are similar to that of the dietary fat source fed during the last 2 or 3 feeding phases, yet deposition rates of specific fatty acids appear to be dependent on the length of time pigs are fed a specific fat source. PMID:23296820

  19. Facts about saturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight gain . Many high-fat foods such as pizza, baked goods, and fried foods have a lot ... FG, Moore HJ, Davey Smith G. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database ...

  20. Reducing dietary fat from a meal increases the bioavailability of exogenous carbohydrate without altering plasma glucose concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Knuth, Nicolas D.; Shrivastava, Cara R.; Horowitz, Jeffrey F.

    2008-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine the acute glycemic and endocrine responses to the reduction of fat content from a meal. On three separate occasions, nine overweight subjects (body mass index = 30 ± 1 kg/m2; 5 men, 4 women) consumed 1) a control meal (?800 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 31 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), 2) a low-fat meal (?530 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 1 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), or 3) a low-fat meal plus lipid infusion [same meal as low-fat meal, but t...

  1. Associations of Bone Mineral Density with Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Dietary Patterns in Postmenopausal Chinese Women: A 2-Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongjie; Xiang, Jing; Wang, Zhiqiang; Xiao, Yaming; Zhang, Dongmei; Chen, Xia; Li, Huiting

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in a longitudinal study, and to examine the relative contribution of lean mass, fat mass, dietary patterns, and years since menopause to BMD. Methods Two hundred and eighty-two postmenopausal women were randomly selected from Hongqi Community Health Center, in Harbin City, China. All participants were followed up from 2009 to 2011. Dietary data were collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMD of the left hip, the lumbar spine, and the total body, and the body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up. Results Lean mass and fat mass were positively associated with BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body at both baseline and follow-up. The association between fat mass and BMD at the spine at baseline (P = 0.210) and at the spine (P = 0.116) and hip (P = 0.073) in the second year was not statistically significant when height was adjusted. Six dietary patterns were identified but only cereal grains-fruits pattern (P = 0.001 in the spine, P = 0.037 in hip) and milk-root vegetables pattern (P = 0.010 in hip) were associated with BMD of the spine and hip. The linear mixed model of follow-up data showed that lean mass, years since menopause, and age of menophania were the significant determinants of BMD of all sites. Moreover, lean mass was the best determinant of BMD (VIP = 1.936). Conclusion Lean mass, years since menopause, age of menophania and dietary patterns are the important determinants of BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body. Lean mass is the best determinant of BMD. PMID:26335921

  2. 21 CFR 101.75 - Health claims: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...the United States. Intakes of cholesterol are...than 10 percent of calories from saturated fat...percent or less of total calories from all fat. Recommended daily cholesterol intakes are 300 mg or less per day. (c)...

  3. Effect of high-fat diets on body composition, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and the role of exercise on these parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Coelho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fat composition can interfere in the development of obesity due to the specific roles of some fatty acids that have different metabolic activities, which can alter both fat oxidation and deposition rates, resulting in changes in body weight and/or composition. High-fat diets in general are associated with hyperphagia, but the type of dietary fat seems to be more important since saturated fats are linked to a positive fat balance and omental adipose tissue accumulation when compared to other types of fat, while polyunsaturated fats, omega-3 and omega-6, seem to increase energy expenditure and decrease energy intake by specific mechanisms involving hormone-sensitive lipase, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα and others. Saturated fat intake can also impair insulin sensitivity compared to omega-3 fat, which has the opposite effect due to alterations in cell membranes. Obesity is also associated with impaired mitochondrial function. Fat excess favors the production of malonyl-CoA, which reduces GLUT4 efficiency. The tricarboxylic acid cycle and beta-oxidation are temporarily uncoupled, forming metabolite byproducts that augment reactive oxygen species production. Exercise can restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity, which may be crucial for a better prognosis in treating or preventing obesity.

  4. Effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on LXR? and CYP7?1 gene expression, liver enzyme activities and fat metabolism in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z; Mu, C; Chen, Y; Zhu, Z; Chen, C; Lan, L; Xu, Q; Zhao, W; Chen, G

    2015-04-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on liver X receptor alpha (LXR?) and cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7?1) mRNA levels, protein enzymatic activities and fat metabolism in Cherry Valley Pekin ducks. 2. A total of 750 one-day-old Cherry Valley Pekin ducks were randomly divided into 5 groups with three replicates of 50 ducks each in a completely randomised experiment. Each group was fed on a basal diet supplemented with 0, 500, 1000, 1500 or 2000 mg probiotics/kg. 3. Body rate and feed conversion ratio were highest and abdominal subcutaneous fat % was lowest at 1000 mg probiotic/kg. 4. The mRNA levels of LXR? and CYP7?1 in liver tissue was estimated by RT-PCR; serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations were measured by ELISA. 5. The expression levels and enzyme activity of LXR? and CYP7?1 increased in conjunction with decreases in TG and TC concentrations following probiotic supplementation to a maximum at 1000 mg probiotics/kg and decreased thereafter. 6. It is concluded that dietary probiotics can enhance LXR? and CYP7?1 enzyme activities in the liver and reduce lipid concentrations and fat deposition in ducks. PMID:25559164

  5. Effects of dietary fats rich in lauric and myristic acid on performance, intestinal morphology, gut microbes, and meat quality in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, J O; Fennhoff, J; Kluge, H; Stangl, G I; Eder, K

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that dietary fats rich in lauric (C12) and myristic acid (C14) increase broiler performance and that the underlying mechanism involves antimicrobial effects on gut bacteria and changes in gut morphology. One hundred eighty 1-day-old Cobb-500 broilers were allotted to 3 groups. All groups received a basal diet consisting of maize, wheat, soybean meal, and a fat source (4.5, 7.0, 7.6, and 8.0% of fat product in the diet during d 1 to 9, 10 to 17, 18 to 27, and 28 to 35, respectively) until 35 d of age. The diet of the control group contained a fat with 67% of oleic and linoleic acid and 1.4% of C12 and C14 of total fatty acids, that of the esterified lauric and myristic acid (ELA) group a fat with 33% of esterified C12 and C14 and that of the free lauric and myristic acid (FLA) group a fat with 31% of both esterified and free (1:1) C12 and C14 (6 replicates/treatment, 10 birds/replicate). Gain and feed consumption did not differ between groups, but feed:gain was lower in FLA group as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Carcass weight, liver weight, triglyceride content of liver and muscle, and muscle cholesterol were similar between groups; however, breast muscle weight was higher in the FLA than in the control group (P < 0.05). The villus height:crypt depth ratio of the duodenal wall did not differ between groups, but in the jejunum, it was lower in the FLA group as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). DNA copy numbers of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Enterobacteria, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in jejunal digesta were similar among groups. The study shows that dietary fats rich in free C12 and C14 improved feed:gain and breast muscle yield, but the observed effects could not be conclusively explained based on the parameters measured. The decreased jejunal villi:crypt ratio may point to changes in gut protein or cell turnover. PMID:26240391

  6. Effect of saponified high fat sunflower oilcake and lipoic acid on fat quality of lambs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.K., Siebrits; A., Makgekgenene; A., Hugo.

    Full Text Available Sheep fat contains relatively high levels of saturated fatty acids while poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are toxic to cellulolytic bacteria and are also saturated in the rumen. Stabilization of residual oil in sunflower oilcake by conversion into calcium salts would be advantageous. Alpha lipoic [...] acid acts as an anti-oxidant to ameliorate the effects of oxidative stress caused by high dietary levels of PUFA. Residual oil (14%) in mechanically extracted (expeller) sunflower oilcake (SFOC) was saponified in situ and compared in a complete feedlot diet (100 g crude protein and 31 g extractable fat/kg feed) with commercially extracted oilcake containing 2.4% residual oil (control diet with 29 g fat and 123 g crude protein kg feed) fed to four groups of 10 SA Mutton Merino weaner lambs (ca. 23 kg) for nine weeks. Both diets were fed either with, or without a weekly oral dosing of 500 mg ?-lipoic acid. Fatty acid composition was determined on back fat samples while thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were determined on samples of m. longissimus dorsi stored for zero and six months and displayed for six days. The back fat of the lambs on the saponified expeller SFOC diets contained significantly higher levels of saturated fatty acids and lower levels of mono-unsaturated fatty acids. PUFA were unaffected. High TBARS levels (>1.0) were found after six months storage. Non significant increases in TBARS were observed in the groups that received lipoic acid.

  7. Early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition and ontogenetic changes in muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout: short- and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami-Durante, Hélène; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Duval, Carine; Maunas, Patrick; Girod-David, Virginia; Médale, Françoise

    2014-09-14

    As the understanding of the nutritional regulation of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is fragmentary, the present study aimed to (1) characterise ontogenetic changes in muscle growth-related genes in parallel to changes in muscle cellularity; (2) determine whether an early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition affects the muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) alevins; and (3) determine whether this early feeding of a high-fat (HF) diet to alevins had a long-term effect on muscle growth processes in juveniles fed a commercial diet. Developmental regulation of hyperplasia and hypertrophy was evidenced at the molecular (expression of myogenic regulatory factors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and myosin heavy chains (MHC)) and cellular (number and diameter of white muscle fibres) levels. An early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition stimulated the body growth of alevins but led to a fatty phenotype, with accumulation of lipids in the anterior part, and less caudal muscle when compared at similar body weights, due to a decrease in both the white muscle hyperplasia and maximum hypertrophy of white muscle fibres. These HF diet-induced cellular changes were preceded by a very rapid down-regulation of the expression of fast-MHC. The present study also demonstrated that early dietary composition had a long-term effect on the subsequent muscle growth processes of juveniles fed a commercial diet for 3 months. When compared at similar body weights, initially HF diet-fed juveniles indeed had a lower mean diameter of white muscle fibres, a smaller number of large white muscle fibres, and lower expression levels of MyoD1 and myogenin. These findings demonstrated the strong effect of early feed composition on the muscle growth mechanisms of trout alevins and juveniles. PMID:24949706

  8. Composition and textural properties of Mozzarella cheese naturally-enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Sevi, Agostino; Marino, Rosaria; Santillo, Antonella; Tateo, Alessandra; Albenzio, Marzia

    2013-08-01

    The effects of adding flaxseed or fish oil to the diet of dairy cows on the chemical and physical profile of Mozzarella cheese production were studied. The experiment involved 24 Friesian cows, divided into 3 groups accordingly fat supplementation: basal diet (CT), diet supplemented with flaxseed (FS) or fish oil (FO). Mozzarella cheeses were manufactured from bulk milk of each group. Bulk milk was analysed for chemical composition and renneting parameters. Mozzarella cheeses were analysed for chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and textural properties. Results suggest that Mozzarella cheese from cows receiving flaxseed supplementation showed a decrease in saturated fatty acids (SFA), an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared with control Mozzarella cheese. The increased dietary intake of C18:3 in flaxseed supplemented cows resulted in increased levels of trans-11 C18:1, and of CLA cis-9 trans-11 C18:2, and in low Atherogenic and Trombogenic Indexes. FO Mozzarella cheese showed compositional and textural properties quite similar to CT Mozzarella cheese; however, increased levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in FO Mozzarella were found. PMID:23611673

  9. The influence of dietary vitamin E, fat, and methionine on blood cholesterol profile, homocysteine levels, and oxidizability of low density lipoprotein in the gerbil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidiroglou, Nick; Gilani, G Sarwar; Long, Lori; Zhao, Xin; Madere, Rene; Cockell, Kevin; Belonge, Bart; Ratnayake, W M Nimal; Peace, Robert

    2004-12-01

    A 90-day feeding study with gerbils was conducted to evaluate the influence of dietary vitamin E levels (25 mg/kg diet, 75 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 900 mg/kg), two levels of dietary methionione (casein or casein+L-methionine (1% w/w)) and two sources of lipid (soybean oil [20%] or soybean oil [4%]+coconut oil [16%, 1:4 w/w]) upon serum lipids (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol). In addition, this study examined the effects of diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia and supplemental dietary vitamin E on the oxidation of low density lipoproteins. Tissue vitamin E (heart, liver, and plasma) demonstrated a dose response (Pcoconut oil+soybean oil as compared to the group receiving soybean oil solely. Blood cholesterol profiles indicated an increase (Pproduction (Pproduction was increased (Pproduction) and plasma hydroperoxide formations were affected by vitamin E and methionine supplementation; and 3) plasma homocysteine concentrations were influenced by supplemental methionine and the inclusion of dietary saturated fat. PMID:15607646

  10. The effects of a high fibre, low fat and low sodium dietary regime on diabetic hypertensive patients of different ethnic groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, P. M.; Pacy, P. J.; Beevers, M; Bal, P.; Fletcher, R. F.; Taylor, K. G.

    1983-01-01

    Fifty-three diabetic patients with mild hypertension were allocated to a treatment diet with a high fibre, low fat and low sodium dietary regime or a control diet. After a 1-month treatment period, the modified-diet treated group (n = 35) showed a highly significant reduction in mean diastolic blood pressure (P less than 0.001) accompanied by significant reduction in urinary sodium excretion (P less than 0.01). The mean values of diastolic pressure (P less than 0.05) and urinary sodium/potass...

  11. Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine; Haldorssoni, Thorhallur; Riserus, Ulf; Uusitupa, Matti; Becker, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering...... controlled RCT and PCS with sufficient number of subjects and long enough duration, specifically regarding the effects of the amount and quality of dietary fat on insulin sensitivity, T2DM, low-grade inflammation, and blood pressure. New metabolic and other potential risk markers and utilization of new...... methodology in the area of lipid metabolism may provide new insight....

  12. Dietary linoleic acid elevates the endocannabinoids 2-AG and anandamide and promotes weight gain in mice fed a low fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Alvheim, Anita Røyneberg; Torstensen, Bente Elisabeth; Lin, Yu Hong; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Lock, Erik-Jan; Madsen, Lise; Frøyland, Livar; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Malde, Marian Kjellevold

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intake of linoleic acid (LNA, 18:2n-6) has increased dramatically during the 20th century and is associated with greater prevalence of obesity. The endocannabinoid system is involved in regulation of energy balance and a sustained hyperactivity of the endocannabinoid system may contribute to obesity. Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) is the precursor for 2-AG and anandamide (AEA), and we sought to determine if low fat diets (LFD) could be made obesogenic by increasing the endocannabinoi...

  13. Analysis of nutritional habits and intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids in veterans with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosova, Emily V; Bartel, Kevin; Chong, Karen C; Alley, Hugh F; Conte, Michael S; Owens, Christopher D; Grenon, S Marlene

    2015-10-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake may contribute to the development and progression of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This study's aim was to assess intake of essential fatty acids and nutrients among veterans with PAD. All 88 subjects had ankle-brachial indices of food frequency questionnaire evaluated dietary intake, and values were compared to guidelines established by the American Heart Association (AHA) and American College of Cardiology (ACC), as well as the AHA/ACC endorsed Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. The mean age was 69 ± 8 years. Compared to the AHA/ACC guidelines, subjects with PAD had an inadequate intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA; 59% consumed >1 gram daily). Our subjects with PAD had an increased intake of cholesterol (31% met the cut-off established in the DASH plan), total fat (5%) and sodium (53%). They had an inadequate intake of magnesium (3%), calcium (5%), and soluble fiber (3%). Dietary potassium intake met the recommended guidelines. In our subjects with PAD, intake of critical nutrients deviated substantially from the recommended amounts. Further prospective studies should evaluate whether PAD patients experience clinical benefit if diets are modified to meet the AHA/ACC recommendations. PMID:26129736

  14. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  15. The 2-monoacylglycerol moiety of dietary fat appears to be responsible for the fat-induced release of GLP-1 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandøe, Mette J.; Hansen, Katrine B.; Hartmann, Bolette; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Holst, Jens J.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary triglycerides can, after digestion, stimulate the intestinal release of incretin hormones through activation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 119 by 2-monoacylglycerol and by the activation of fatty acid receptors for long- and short-chain fatty acids. Medium-chain fatty...

  16. Anthocyanin-rich Phytochemicals from Aronia Fruits Inhibit Visceral Fat Accumulation and Hyperglycemia in High-fat Diet-induced Dietary Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Azusa; Shimizu, Hisae; Okazaki, Yukako; Sakaguchi, Hirohide; Taira, Toshio; Suzuki, Takashi; Chiji, Hideyuki

    2015-12-01

    Aronia fruits (chokeberry: Aronia melanocarpa E.) containing phenolic phytochemicals, such as cyanidin 3-glycosides and chlorogenic acid, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential human health benefits in humans including antioxidant activities and ability to improved vision. In the present study, the effects of anthocyanin-rich phytochemicals from aronia fruits (aronia phytochemicals) on visceral fat accumulation and fasting hyperglycemia were examined in rats fed a high-fat diet (Experiment 1). Total visceral fat mass was significantly lower in rats fed aronia phytochemicals than that in both the control group and bilberry phytochemicals-supplemented rats (p < 0.05). Moreover, perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue mass in rats fed aronia phytochemicals was significantly lower than that in both the control and bilberry phytochemicals group. Additionally, the mesenteric adipose tissue mass in aronia phytochemicals-fed rats was significantly low (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the fasting blood glucose levels significantly decreased in rats fed aronia phytochemicals for 4 weeks compared to that in the control rats (p < 0.05). Therefore, we investigated the effects of phytochemicals on postprandial hyperlipidemia after corn oil loading in rats, pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and the plasma glycemic response after sucrose loading in order to elucidate the preventive factor of aronia phytochemical on visceral fat accumulation. In the oral corn oil tolerance tests (Experiment 2), aronia phytochemicals significantly inhibited the increases in plasma triglyceride levels, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.50 mg/mL. However, the inhibitory activity was similar to that of bilberry and tea catechins. In the sucrose tolerance tests (Experiment 3), aronia phytochemicals also significantly inhibited the increases in blood glucose levels that were observed in the control animals (p < 0.05). These results suggest that anthocyanin-rich phytochemicals in aronia fruits suppress visceral fat accumulation and hyperglycemia by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity and/or intestinal lipid absorption. PMID:26582155

  17. Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rat is more impaired in a steatotic liver induced by dietary fructose compared to dietary fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Hepatic steatosis in rats fed a high fructose diet was less severe than that in rats fed a high fat diet. ? Liver regeneration was more impaired in rats fed a high fructose diet than in rats fed a high fat diet. ? Dysregulation of genes associated with metabolism may contribute to impairment of liver regeneration. ? Regulation of the TGF-?1 level after partial hepatectomy may be impaired in rats fed a high fructose diet. -- Abstract: Hepatic steatosis (HS) has a negative effect on liver regeneration, but different pathophysiologies of HS may lead to different outcomes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fructose (66% fructose; H-fruc), high fat (54% fat; H-fat), or control chow diet for 4 weeks. Based on hepatic triglyceride content and oil red O staining, HS developed in the H-fruc group, but was less severe compared to the H-fat group. Hepatic mRNA expression levels of fatty acid synthase and fructokinase were increased and those of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? were decreased in the H-fruc group compared to the H-fat group. Liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx) was evaluated by measuring the increase in postoperative liver mass and PCNA-positive hepatocytes, and was impaired in the H-fruc group compared to the H-fat and control groups on days 3 and 7. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6 and hepatocyte growth factor did not change significantly after PHx. In contrast, serum TGF-?1 levels were slightly but significantly lower in the control group on day 1 and in the H-fat group on day 3 compared to the level in each group on day 0, and then gradually increased. However, the serum TGF-?1 level did not change after PHx in the H-fruc group. These results indicate that impairment of liver regeneration after PHx in HS is related to the cause, rather than the degree, of steatosis. This difference may result from altered metabolic gene expression profiles and potential dysregulation of TGF-?1 expression.

  18. Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rat is more impaired in a steatotic liver induced by dietary fructose compared to dietary fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanoue, Shirou [Department of Digestive and Lifestyle-Related Diseases, Kagoshima University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Uto, Hirofumi, E-mail: hirouto@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Digestive and Lifestyle-Related Diseases, Kagoshima University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Kumamoto, Ryo; Arima, Shiho; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Nasu, Yuichiro; Takami, Yoichiro; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Sakiyama, Toshio; Oketani, Makoto; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito [Department of Digestive and Lifestyle-Related Diseases, Kagoshima University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Highlights: {yields} Hepatic steatosis in rats fed a high fructose diet was less severe than that in rats fed a high fat diet. {yields} Liver regeneration was more impaired in rats fed a high fructose diet than in rats fed a high fat diet. {yields} Dysregulation of genes associated with metabolism may contribute to impairment of liver regeneration. {yields} Regulation of the TGF-{beta}1 level after partial hepatectomy may be impaired in rats fed a high fructose diet. -- Abstract: Hepatic steatosis (HS) has a negative effect on liver regeneration, but different pathophysiologies of HS may lead to different outcomes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fructose (66% fructose; H-fruc), high fat (54% fat; H-fat), or control chow diet for 4 weeks. Based on hepatic triglyceride content and oil red O staining, HS developed in the H-fruc group, but was less severe compared to the H-fat group. Hepatic mRNA expression levels of fatty acid synthase and fructokinase were increased and those of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} were decreased in the H-fruc group compared to the H-fat group. Liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx) was evaluated by measuring the increase in postoperative liver mass and PCNA-positive hepatocytes, and was impaired in the H-fruc group compared to the H-fat and control groups on days 3 and 7. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, interleukin-6 and hepatocyte growth factor did not change significantly after PHx. In contrast, serum TGF-{beta}1 levels were slightly but significantly lower in the control group on day 1 and in the H-fat group on day 3 compared to the level in each group on day 0, and then gradually increased. However, the serum TGF-{beta}1 level did not change after PHx in the H-fruc group. These results indicate that impairment of liver regeneration after PHx in HS is related to the cause, rather than the degree, of steatosis. This difference may result from altered metabolic gene expression profiles and potential dysregulation of TGF-{beta}1 expression.

  19. Effect of dietary fat and vitamin E on colour stability and on lipid and protein oxidation in Turkey meat during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Y; Gatellier, P; Viau, M; Remignon, H; Renerre, M

    1998-03-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of dietary fat (6% soya oil or rapeseed oil or tallow), together with tocopheryl acetate at either a basal (30 ppm) or a supplemented (400 ppm) level for 16 weeks on lipid and protein oxidation, including myoglobin, during refrigerated storage of turkey muscles. When turkeys were fed tallow in particular, vitamin E supplementation improved the vitamin E status of the muscles. Vitamin E supplementation significantly delayed lipid oxidation measured by TBARS, whatever the dietary fat. TBARS were highest in meat from animals fed soya oil. Vitamin E supplementation had no positive effect on colour stability of meat during refrigerated storage. Feeding soya oil induced significantly higher oxidation of proteins (carbonyl content) than rapeseed oil or tallow and vitamin E supplementation induced a slight decrease in carbonyl content at day 9 of storage for M. sartorius. SH content was significantly higher in vitamin E supplemented M. sartorius and M. pectoralis than in controls. PMID:22063078

  20. The influence of dietary fat source on liver and skeletal muscle mitochondrial modifications and lifespan changes in calorie-restricted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, José Manuel; López-Domínguez, José Alberto; Chen, Yana; Khraiwesh, Husam; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Del Río, Lucía Fernández; Gutiérrez-Casado, Elena; Del Río, Mercedes; Calvo-Rubio, Miguel; Ariza, Julia; de Cabo, Rafael; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; Hagopian, Kevork; Burón, María Isabel; Ramsey, Jon Jay

    2015-10-01

    The Membrane Theory of Aging proposes that lifespan is inversely related to the level of unsaturation in membrane phospholipids. Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition extends lifespan in many model organisms, which may be related to alterations in membrane phospholipids fatty acids. During the last few years our research focused on studying how altering the predominant fat source affects the outcome of CR in mice. We have established four dietary groups: one control group fed 95 % of a pre-determined ad libitum intake (in order to prevent obesity), and three CR groups fed 40 % less than ad libitum intake. Lipid source for the control and one of the CR groups was soybean oil (high in n-6 PUFA) whereas the two remaining CR groups were fed diets containing fish oil (high in n-3 PUFA), or lard (high in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids). Dietary intervention periods ranged from 1 to 18 months. We performed a longitudinal lifespan study and a cross-sectional study set up to evaluate several mitochondrial parameters which included fatty acid composition, H(+) leak, activities of electron transport chain enzymes, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial ultrastructure, and mitochondrial apoptotic signaling in liver and skeletal muscle. These approaches applied to different cohorts of mice have independently indicated that lard as a fat source often maximizes the effects of 40 % CR on mice. These effects could be due to significant increases of monounsaturated fatty acids levels, in accordance with the Membrane Theory of Aging. PMID:25860863

  1. Insight into the impact of dietary saturated fat on tissue-specific cellular processes underlying obesity-related diseases?

    OpenAIRE

    Enos, Reilly T.; Velázquez, Kandy T.; Murphy, E. Angela

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of three high-fat diets (HFDs), differing in the percentage of total calories from saturated fat (SF) (6%, 12%, 24%) but identical in total fat (40%), for a 16-week period in mice on a variety of tissue-specific cellular processes believed to be at the root of obesity-related diseases. Specifically, we examined ectopic lipid accumulation, oxidative capacity [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1?) mRNA and protein; mt...

  2. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  3. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Karhu, Toni

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods: We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results: MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053). MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04). Conclusion: We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564.

  4. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemel Michael B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61 were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1 placebo; 2 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P P Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.

  5. Abnormalities in myo-inositol metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes in mice fed a high-fat diet: benefits of a dietary myo-inositol supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, Marine L; Géloën, Alain; Soulage, Christophe O

    2015-06-28

    We previously reported that a chronic supplementation with myo-inositol (MI) improved insulin sensitivity and reduced fat accretion in mice. We then tested the potency of such dietary intervention in the prevention of insulin resistance in C57BL/6 male mouse fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In addition, some abnormalities in inositol metabolism were reported to be associated with insulin resistance in several animal and human studies. We then investigated the presence of such anomalies (i.e. inosituria and an inositol intra-tissue depletion) in this diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, as well as the potential benefit of a MI supplementation for inositol intra-tissue deficiency correction. HFD (60 % energy from fat) feeding was associated with inosituria and inositol intra-tissue depletion in the liver and kidneys. MI supplementation (0·58 mg/g per d) restored inositol pools in kidneys (partially) and liver (fully). HFD feeding for 4 months induced ectopic lipid redistribution to liver and muscles, fasting hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance and obesity that were not prevented by MI supplementation, despite a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity parameter K insulin tolerance test and a reduction in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass ( - 17 %, Psupplementation significantly reduced fatty acid synthase activity in epididymal WAT, which might explain its beneficial, but modest, effect on WAT accretion in HFD-fed mice. Finally, we found some abnormalities in inositol metabolism in association with a diabetic phenotype (i.e. insulin resistance and fasting hyperglycaemia) in a DIO mouse model. Dietary MI supplementation was efficient in the prevention of inositol intra-tissue depletion, but did not prevent insulin resistance or obesity efficiently in this mouse model. PMID:25990651

  6. Screening and identification of dietary oils and unsaturated fatty acids in inhibiting inflammatory prostaglandin E2 signaling in fat stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Diana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of dietary oils (such as fish oil and unsaturated fatty acids, which are widely used by the public for anti-inflammation and vascular protection, have not been settled yet. In this study, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2-mediated calcium signaling was used to screen dietary oils and eight unsaturated fatty acids for identification of their anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Isolated fat/stromal cells expressing endogenous PGE2 receptors and an HEK293 cell line specifically expressing the recombinant human PGE2 receptor subtype-1 (EP1 were cultured and used in live cell calcium signaling assays. The different dietary oils and unsaturated fatty acids were used to affect cell signaling under the specific stimulation of a pathological amount of inflammatory PGE2. Results It was identified that fish oil best inhibited the PGE2 signaling in the primary cultured stromal cells. Second, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, found in abundance in fish oil, was identified as a key factor of inhibition of PGE2 signaling. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, another major fatty acid found in fish oil and tested in this study was found to have small effect on EP1 signaling. The study suggested one of the four PGE2 subtype receptors, EP1 as the key target for the fish oil and DHA target. These findings were further confirmed by using the recombinant EP1 expressed in HEK293 cells as a target. Conclusion This study demonstrated the new mechanism behind the positive effects of dietary fish oils in inhibiting inflammation originates from the rich concentration of DHA, which can directly inhibit the inflammatory EP1-mediated PGE2 receptor signaling, and that the inflammatory response stimulated by PGE2 in the fat stromal cells, which directly related to metabolic diseases, could be down regulated by fish oil and DHA. These findings also provided direct evidence to support the use of dietary oils and unsaturated fatty acids for protection against heart disease, pain, and cancer resulted from inflammatory PGE2.

  7. Interactions between barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat on nitrogen metabolism and urea-nitrogen recycling in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozho, G N; Hobin, M R; Mutsvangwa, T

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of methods of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on urea-N transfer to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the utilization of this recycled urea-N in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (656.3 +/- 27.7 kg of BW; 79.8 +/- 12.3 d in milk) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods and a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Experimental diets contained dry-rolled barley or pelleted barley in combination with whole canola or whole flaxseed as supplemental fat sources. Nitrogen balance was measured from d 15 to 19, with concurrent measurements of urea-N kinetics using continuous intrajugular infusions of [15N 15N]-urea. Dry matter intake and N intake were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Nitrogen retention was not affected by diet, but fecal N excretion was higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in those fed pelleted barley. Actual and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by diet. Milk fat content and milk fat yield were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Source of supplemental fat did not affect urea-N kinetics. Urea-N production was higher (442.2 vs. 334.3 g of N/d), and urea-N entering the GIT tended to be higher (272.9 vs. 202.0 g of N/d), in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. The amount of urea-N entry into the GIT that was returned to the ornithine cycle was higher (204.1 vs. 159.5 g of N/d) in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in pelleted barley-fed cows. The amount of urea-N recycled to the GIT and used for anabolic purposes, and the amounts lost in the urine or feces were not affected by dietary treatment. Microbial nonammonia N supply, estimated using total urinary excretion of purine derivatives, was not affected by diet. These results show that even though barley grain processing altered urea-N entry into the GIT, the utilization of this recycled urea-N for microbial production was unaffected as the additional urea-N, which entered the GIT was returned to ureagenesis. PMID:18096947

  8. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara Kazuo; Katsura Shuji; Sakamoto Juichi; Umeda Takashi; Shimoyama Tadashi; Nakaji Shigeyuki; Baxter David

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method) was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Ja...

  9. Exposure to elevated levels of dietary fat attenuates psychostimulant reward and mesolimbic dopamine turnover in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jon F.; Tracy, Andrea L; Schurdak, Jennifer D.; Tschöp, Matthias H; Lipton, Jack W; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit., Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that decreased central dopamine is associated with diet-induced obesity in humans and in animal models. In the current study, we assessed the hypothesis that diet-induced obesity reduces mesolimbic dopamine function. Specifically, we compared dopamine turnover in this region between rats fed a high-fat diet and those consuming a standard low-fat diet. We also assessed behavioral consequences of diet-induced obesity by testing the response of these animals in a conditio...

  10. Induction of ketosis in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high fat diets depends on the relative abundance of dietary fat and protein

    OpenAIRE

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Menhofer, Dominik; Kirchner, Henriette; Stoehr, Barbara J. M.; Müller, Timo D.; Stock, Peggy; Hempel, Madlen; Stemmer, Kerstin; Pfluger, Paul T.; Kienzle, Ellen; Christ, Bruno; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate/high-fat diets (LC-HFDs) in rodent models have been implicated with both weight loss and as therapeutic approach to treat neurological diseases. LC-HFDs are known to induce ketosis, however, systematic studies analyzing the impact of the macronutrient composition on ketosis induction and weight loss success are lacking. Methods: Male Wistar rats were pair-fed either a standard chow diet or one of 3 different LC-HFDs for 4 weeks, which only differed in the relative abundance o...

  11. Estimating the cardiovascular mortality burden attributable to the European Common Agricultural Policy on dietary saturated fats / Estimation de la charge de mortalité cardiovasculaire imputable à la Politique agricole commune de l'UE concernant les graisses saturées dans l'alimentation / Estimación de la carga de mortalidad cardiovascular atribuible a la Política Agrícola Común europea en relación con las grasas saturadas alimentarias

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ffion, Lloyd-Williams; Martin, O' Flaherty; Modi, Mwatsama; Christopher, Birt; Robin, Ireland; Simon, Capewell.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar en 15 países de la Unión Europea (antes de la ampliación de 2004) la carga de enfermedades cardiovasculares debida al exceso de grasas saturadas alimentarias atribuible a la Política Agrícola Común (PAC). MÉTODOS: Mediante una hoja de cálculo se desarrolló un modelo para sintetizar [...] los datos sobre la población, la dieta, los niveles de colesterol y las tasas de mortalidad. Se estableció como estimación prudente una reducción del consumo de grasas saturadas de sólo 2,2 g, lo que equivale al 1% del aporte calórico diario. Partiendo de ese dato se calculó la caída de la concentración de colesterol sérico, suponiendo que esa reducción del 1% del consumo de grasas saturadas se compensaría con un 0,5% de grasas monoinsaturadas y un 0,5% de grasas poliinsaturadas. Por último, se estimó la reducción resultante de las defunciones por causas cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares y se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad. RESULTADOS: Reduciendo el consumo de grasas saturadas en un 1% y aumentando un 0,5% el de las monoinsaturadas y otro tanto el de las poliinsaturadas se lograría reducir los niveles sanguíneos de colesterol en 0,06 mmol/l aproximadamente, lo que se traduciría en unas 9800 muertes menos por cardiopatía coronaria y unas 3000 muertes menos por accidente cerebrovascular cada año. CONCLUSIÓN: La carga de enfermedades cardiovasculares atribuible a la PAC parece considerable. Además, las cifras se han calculado por lo bajo, de modo que la verdadera carga de mortalidad podría ser mayor. Este análisis viene a alimentar el amplio debate en curso sobre la PAC, la salud y las enfermedades crónicas en Europa, en el marco de las últimas iniciativas y compromisos tendentes a combatir ese tipo de enfermedades. Las estimaciones de la mortalidad aportadas deberían tenerse en cuenta en relación tanto con la PAC actual como con cualquier reforma de la misma que se haga en el futuro. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of cardiovascular disease within 15 European Union countries (before the 2004 enlargement) as a result of excess dietary saturated fats attributable to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). METHODS: A spreadsheet model was developed to synthesize data on population, [...] diet, cholesterol levels and mortality rates. A conservative estimate of a reduction in saturated fat consumption of just 2.2 g was chosen, representing 1% of daily energy intake. The fall in serum cholesterol concentration was then calculated, assuming that this 1% reduction in saturated fat consumption was replaced with 0.5% monounsaturated and 0.5% polyunsaturated fats. The resulting reduction in cardiovascular and stroke deaths was then estimated, and a sensitivity analysis conducted. FINDINGS: Reducing saturated fat consumption by 1% and increasing monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat by 0.5% each would lower blood cholesterol levels by approximately 0.06 mmol/l, resulting in approximately 9800 fewer coronary heart disease deaths and 3000 fewer stroke deaths each year. CONCLUSION: The cardiovascular disease burden attributable to CAP appears substantial. Furthermore, these calculations were conservative estimates, and the true mortality burden may be higher. The analysis contributes to the current wider debate concerning the relationship between CAP, health and chronic disease across Europe, together with recent international developments and commitments to reduce chronic diseases. The reported mortality estimates should be considered in relation to the current CAP and any future reforms.

  12. The influence of increasing dietary fat or protein on the efficiency of broiler chickens exposed to low levels of gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 400 one-day-old chicks, from hubbard line of meat production type, were used in this study. The chicks were divided into three nutritional groups. The second group was fed on a high protein feed containing 3% protein higher than that of the normal diet (group one). The fat level was increased by 4% in the feed of the third group over the value of the normal diet. Each group was divided again into four subgroup treatments (To, T1, T2, and T3) according to the exposure to gamma rays in a single or multi doses. The aim of this study was to compare between the nutritional types and its combinations with the applied doses of gamma rays on broiler performance. The results can be summarized as follows: The broiler chicks fed on the high fat ration and exposed to 0.25 Gy of gamma-rays four times (group 111, T3) recorded the highest body weight gain along the duration of the experiment. in general, the stimulation effect of the gamma-ray doses applied herein was obvious during the period of rapid growth (0-4 weeks of age) then it was followed by retardation in growth rate. The group of chicks fed on a diet containing high fat (group 111), achieved the crude fiber and nitrogen extract digestibility's. Increase of dietary protein was accompanied by a significant increase in carcass protein, water and ash content. Carcass fat was increased while carcass water was decreased with low level of gamma rays

  13. The Physico-Chemical Properties of Dietary Fibre Determine Metabolic Responses, Short-Chain Fatty Acid Profiles and Gut Microbiota Composition in Rats Fed Low- and High-Fat Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Fåk, Frida; Jakobsdottir, Greta; Kulcinskaja, Evelina; Marungruang, Nittaya; Matziouridou, Chrysoula; Nilsson, Ulf; Stålbrand, Henrik; Nyman, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how physico-chemical properties of two dietary fibres, guar gum and pectin, affected weight gain, adiposity, lipid metabolism, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and the gut microbiota in male Wistar rats fed either low- or high-fat diets for three weeks. Both pectin and guar gum reduced weight gain, adiposity, liver fat and blood glucose levels in rats fed a high-fat diet. Methoxylation degree of pectin (low, LM and high (HM)) and viscosity of gua...

  14. Dietary constituents reduce lipid accumulation in murine C3H10 T1/2 adipocytes: A novel fluorescent method to quantify fat droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhrer Erna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipocyte volume (fat accumulation and cell number (adipogenesis is increased in obese individuals. Our objective was the identification of dietary constituents with inhibitory effects on triglyceride formation during adipogenesis. Therefore an in vitro adipose cell assay in murine C3H10 T1/2 cells was developed, which enabled rapid quantification of intracellular fat droplet accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. Results were corroborated by expression levels of several specific adipogenic and lipogenic genes which are known to regulate triglyceride accumulation. Methods C3H10 T1/2 adipocyte differentiation was conducted with rosiglitazone in the presence of test compounds for 7 days. Accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets was measured using the Cellomics® ArrayScan® VTI HCS reader and SpotDetector® BioApplication from ThermoFisher. Fluorescent images were automatically acquired and analysed employing the fluorescent dyes BODIPY® 493/503 and Hoechst 33342, for staining neutral lipids and localisation of nuclei, respectively. The expression levels of adipogenic and lipogenic genes, such as PPAR? and PPAR?, C/EBP?, aP2, adiponectin, LPL and HSL, CPT-1?, ACC1, Glut4 and FAS, were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Dietary ingredients including PUFAs, carotenoids, polyphenols and catechins were tested for their effect on lipid accumulation. Results The ?-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, the carotenoid ?-carotene and hydroxytyrosol exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects on the rosiglitazone-stimulated lipid formation. (all-E-lycopene and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG showed a moderate inhibition, whereas resveratrol did not reduce fat droplet formation. Additionally, it was demonstrated that adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression was attenuated. DHA, ?-carotene and hydroxytyrosol inhibited the gene expression of PPAR?, C/EBP?, aP2 and CPT-1?. Conclusion This in vitro assay in differentiating adipocytes enables automated detection and quantification of changes in lipid droplet number, size and intensity. The observed inhibitory effects of identified dietary constituents such as ?-3 PUFAs and ?-carotene correlate with the modulation of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation.

  15. In vivo absorption, metabolism, and urinary excretion of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes in experimental animals. Relevance to the development of cardiovascular diseases by the dietary ingestion of thermally stressed polyunsaturate-rich culinary oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Grootveld, M; Atherton, M D; Sheerin, A N; Hawkes, J; Blake, D R; Richens, T E; Silwood, C J; Lynch, E.; Claxson, A W

    1998-01-01

    Thermal stressing of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)- rich culinary oils according to routine frying or cooking practices generates high levels of cytotoxic aldehydic products (predominantly trans-2-alkenals, trans,trans-alka-2,4-dienals, cis,trans-alka-2, 4-dienals, and n-alkanals), species arising from the fragmentation of conjugated hydroperoxydiene precursors. In this investigation we demonstrate that typical trans-2-alkenal compounds known to be produced from the thermally induced auto...

  16. High-fat diet aggravates amyloid-beta and tau pathologies in the 3xTg-AD mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Carl; Tremblay, Cyntia; Phivilay, Alix; Berthiaume, Line; Emond, Vincent; Julien, Pierre; Calon, Frédéric

    2010-09-01

    To investigate potential dietary risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD), triple transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice were exposed from 4 to 13 months of age to diets with a low n-3:n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio incorporated in either low-fat (5% w/w) or high-fat (35% w/w) formulas and compared with a control diet. The n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio was decreased independently of the dietary treatments in the frontal cortex of 3xTg-AD mice compared to non-transgenic littermates. Consumption of a high-fat diet with a low n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio increased amyloid-beta (Abeta) 40 and 42 concentrations in detergent-insoluble extracts of parieto-temporal cortex homogenates from 3xTg-AD mice. Low n-3:n-6 PUFA intake ratio increased insoluble tau regardless of total fat consumption, whereas high-fat diet incorporating a low n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio also increased soluble tau compared to controls. Moreover, the high-fat diet decreased cortical levels of the postsynaptic marker drebrin, while leaving presynaptic proteins synaptophysin, SNAP-25 and syntaxin 3 unchanged. Overall, these results suggest that high-fat consumption combined with low n-3 PUFA intake promote AD-like neuropathology. PMID:18926603

  17. Relationship between Serum Leptin, Ghrelin and Dietary Macronutrients in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Houjeghani, Shiva; Farzadi, Laya; Houjeghani, Sheyda; Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women. It may involve an impairment in physiologic regulation of leptin and ghrelin. There is limited, controversial data on the relation of dietary components with leptin and ghrelin in PCOS, so the current study has been conducted to explore the effects of different macronutrients on serum levels of leptin and ghrelin in PCOS and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, we randomly choose 30 PCOS pa- tients and 30 healthy age and body mass index (BMI) matched controls. Intake of macronutrients [protein, total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), carbohydrate, dietary fiber] and energy were assessed using 3-day, 24-hour food recall and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Fasting hormonal status was measured for each participant. Results PCOS women had higher levels of serum leptin, insulin, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone (LH), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was lower compared to healthy women. There was no significant difference in mean ghrelin concentrations between the groups. Among PCOS women, independent of BMI and total energy intake, we observed an inverse association between leptin concentration and total dietary fat (?=-0.16, PPCOS and healthy participants. Conclusion Certain habitual dietary components such as fat and SFA may decrease serum leptin, whereas ghrelin is not influenced by these in PCOS women. More studies are needed to better clarify the effects of dietary macronutrients on serum leptin and ghrelin. PMID:26644854

  18. APOA2, dietary fat and body mass index: replication of a gene-diet interaction in three independent populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Nutrigenetics studies the role of genetic variation on interactions between diet and health aimed at providing more personalized dietary advice. However, replication has been very low and our aim was to study the interaction between a functional polymorphism of the APOA2 gene, food intak...

  19. Randomized Trial of a Brief Dietary Intervention To Decrease Consumption of Fat and Increase Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Victor J.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Toobert, Deborah J.; Karanja, Njeri; Smith, K. Sabina

    2002-01-01

    Tested the efficacy of a computer-assisted counseling intervention to reduce diet-related cancer risk. Healthy female HMO members were randomly assigned to nutrition counseling or attention-control interventions. Women completed dietary recalls and eating behavior questionnaires. Four-month follow-up results indicated that this moderate-intensity…

  20. Oral and intestinal sweet and fat tasting: impact of receptor polymorphisms and dietary modulation for metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijanovic, Nada; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Young, Richard L; Little, Tanya J

    2015-05-01

    The human body has evolved with a disposition for nutrient storage, allowing for periods of irregular food availability and famine. In contrast, the modern diet is characterized by excessive consumption of fats and sugars, resulting in a surge in the rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although these metabolic disorders arise from a complex interaction of genetic, social, and environmental factors, evidence now points to fundamental changes in nutrient metabolism at the cellular level contributing to the underlying pathology. Taste receptors detect nutrients in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract and can influence the hormonal response to nutrients; they may also become maladaptive in conditions of excess fat or sugar consumption. Precise links between taste receptor activity, and downstream effects on energy intake and glycemia are not well defined. This review outlines the candidate taste receptors for carbohydrates and fats in the oral cavity and within the small intestine, highlighting the contributions of underlying genetics (polymorphisms) and sensory challenges (e.g., a high-fat diet) to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26011905

  1. Influence of dietary fatty acids on endocannabinoid and N-acylethanolamine levels in rat brain, liver and small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Andreas; Petersen, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    Endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines are lipid mediators regulating a wide range of biological functions including food intake. We investigated short-term effects of feeding rats five different dietary fats (palm oil (PO), olive oil (OA), safflower oil (LA), fish oil (170) and arachidonic acid (AA)) on tissue levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, anandamide, oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide, stearoylethanolamide, linoleoylethanolamide, eicosapentaenoylethanolamide, docosahexaenoylethanolamide and tissue fatty acid composition. The LA-diet increased linoleoylethanolamide and linoleic acid in brain, jejunum and liver. The OA-diet increased brain levels of anandamide and oleoylethanolamide (not 2-arachidonoylglycerol) without changing tissue fatty acid composition. The same diet increased oleoylethanolamide in liver. All five dietary fats decreased oleoylethanolamide in jejunum without changing levels of anandamide, suggesting that dietary fat may have an orexigenic effect. The AA-diet increased anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in jejunum without effect on liver. The FO-diet decreased liver levels of all N-acylethanolamines (except eicosapentaenoylethanolamide and docosahexaenoylethanolamide) with similar changes in precursor lipids. The AA-diet and FO-diet had no effect on N-acylethanolamines, endocannabinoids or precursor lipids in brain. All N-acylethanolamines activated PPAR-alpha. In conclusion, short-term feeding of diets resembling human diets (Mediterranean diet high in monounsaturated fat, diet high in saturated fat, or diet high in polyunsaturated fat) can affect tissue levels of endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines.

  2. Measurement of hepatic sterol synthesis in the Mongolian gerbil in vivo using [3H]water: diurnal variation and effect of type of dietary fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hepatic synthesis of sterol was measured in the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) in vivo following the administration of [3H]water by monitoring the incorporation of radioactivity into digitonin-precipitable sterol. A diurnal rhythm in cholesterol synthesis was exhibited under conditions of ad libitum feeding with alternating 12-hour periods of light (0200 to 1400 hr) and dark (1400 to 0200 hr). The zenith was reached between 1500 and 2100 hr and the nadir approximately 10-12 hours later between 0200 and 0400 hr, which provided a zenith/nadir ratio of 9.6 to 1.0. The in vivo rates of hepatic sterol synthesis and plasma cholesterol levels were measured in gerbils fed semi-purified diets containing either 19.5% beef tallow + 0.5% safflower, 20% lard, or 20% safflower oil and widely differing ratios of polyunsaturated: saturated fatty acids. All diets were equalized to contain 0.01% cholesterol and 0.05% plant sterol. After 3 days on the experimental diets, the mean rates of cholesterol synthesis (nmol/g liver per hr) were 41.5, 26.6, and 13.8 for animals fed the diets containing beef tallow, lard, and safflower oil, respectively. After 7 and 14 days, synthetic rates were lowest in the gerbils fed safflower oil as were also the plasma cholesterol levels. These results indicate that the type of dietary lipid can significantly influence the in vivo rate of sterol biosynthesis in gerbil liver. This response may contribute, at least in part, to the observed differences in plasma cholesterol levels

  3. Measurement of hepatic sterol synthesis in the Mongolian gerbil in vivo using (/sup 3/H)water: diurnal variation and effect of type of dietary fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, N.J.; Holub, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    The hepatic synthesis of sterol was measured in the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) in vivo following the administration of (/sup 3/H)water by monitoring the incorporation of radioactivity into digitonin-precipitable sterol. A diurnal rhythm in cholesterol synthesis was exhibited under conditions of ad libitum feeding with alternating 12-hour periods of light (0200 to 1400 hr) and dark (1400 to 0200 hr). The zenith was reached between 1500 and 2100 hr and the nadir approximately 10-12 hours later between 0200 and 0400 hr, which provided a zenith/nadir ratio of 9.6 to 1.0. The in vivo rates of hepatic sterol synthesis and plasma cholesterol levels were measured in gerbils fed semi-purified diets containing either 19.5% beef tallow + 0.5% safflower, 20% lard, or 20% safflower oil and widely differing ratios of polyunsaturated: saturated fatty acids. All diets were equalized to contain 0.01% cholesterol and 0.05% plant sterol. After 3 days on the experimental diets, the mean rates of cholesterol synthesis (nmol/g liver per hr) were 41.5, 26.6, and 13.8 for animals fed the diets containing beef tallow, lard, and safflower oil, respectively. After 7 and 14 days, synthetic rates were lowest in the gerbils fed safflower oil as were also the plasma cholesterol levels. These results indicate that the type of dietary lipid can significantly influence the in vivo rate of sterol biosynthesis in gerbil liver. This response may contribute, at least in part, to the observed differences in plasma cholesterol levels.

  4. Association of dietary fat and carbohydrate consumption and predicted ten-year risk for developing coronary heart disease in a general Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoura, Akira; Wang, Da-Hong; Sato, Yoshie; Zou, Yu; Sakano, Noriko; Kubo, Masayuki; Takemoto, Kei; Masatomi, Chie; Ogino, Keiki

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between dietary carbohydrate, protein, fat, and the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acid intakes with the predicted 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in a general Japanese population. We used the Framingham risk score to determine the 10-year CHD risk of the subjects, who were employees of 6 companies in a single prefecture in Japan. After excluding the subjects who reported any history of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, diabetes, or cancer, and those with missing data resulting in the inability of estimation of 10-year CHD risk and food intakes, the final data analysis was carried out for 809 subjects. The logistic regression models revealed a significantly increased odds ratio of 10-year CHD risk in the subjects with the highest tertile of carbohydrate intake (% energy) (odds ratio 3.64, 95% CI, 2.07-6.40); after adjustment for other variables, the odds ratio for the 10-year CHD risk was also higher in the subjects with the highest tertile of carbohydrate intake (odds ratio 1.72, 95% CI, 0.70-4.25). We also found that fat intake and the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids were inversely associated with the predicted 10-year CHD risk (p for trendJapanese population. PMID:24942790

  5. Plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein B are modulated by a gene--diet interaction effect between the LFABP T94A polymorphism and dietary fat intake in French-Canadian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, J; Brouillette, C; Lemieux, S; Pérusse, L; Gaudet, D; Vohl, M C

    2004-08-01

    Hyperapobetalipoproteinemia is a common feature of the metabolic syndrome and could result from the interaction between genetic and dietary factors. The objective of this study was to verify whether dietary fat intake interacts with the T94A polymorphism of the liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) gene to modulate plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B levels. Dietary fat and saturated fat intakes were obtained by a dietitian-administered food frequency questionnaire and the LFABP T94A genotype was determined by a PCR-RFLP based method in 623 French-Canadian men recruited through the Chicoutimi Lipid Clinic (279 T94/T94, 285 T94/A94, and 59 A94/A94). The LFABP T94A polymorphism was not associated with plasma apo B levels when fat intake was not taken into consideration. However, in a model including the polymorphism, fat intake expressed as a percentage of total energy intake, the interaction term and covariates, the variance in apo B concentrations was partly explained by the LFABP T94A polymorphism (5.24%, p = 0.01) and by the LFABP T94A*fat interaction (6.25%, p = 0.005). Results were similar when saturated fat replaced fat intake in the model (4.49%, p = 0.02 for LFABP T94A and 6.43%, p = 0.004 for the interaction). Moreover, in men consuming more than 30% of energy from fat, the odds ratio for having plasma apo B levels above 1.04 g/L for A94 carriers was of 0.40 (p = 0.02) compared to T94/T94 homozygotes. Results were similar for carriers of the A94 allele consuming more than 10% of energy from saturated fat (OR: 0.32, p = 0.005). In conclusion, T94/T94 exhibit higher apo B levels whereas carriers of the A94 allele seem to be protected against high apo B levels when consuming a high fat and saturated fat diet. These findings reinforce the importance to take into account gene-diet interactions in the prevention and management of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:15308127

  6. Structure and mechanism of the Propionibacterium acnes polyunsaturated fatty acid isomerase

    OpenAIRE

    Liavonchanka, Alena; Hornung, Ellen; Feussner, Ivo; Rudolph, Markus Georg

    2006-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) affect body fat gain, carcinogenesis, insulin resistance, and lipid peroxidation in mammals. Several isomers of CLA exist, of which the (9Z, 11E) and (10E, 12Z) isomers have beneficial effects on human metabolism but are scarce in foods. Bacterial polyunsaturated fatty acid isomerases are promising biotechnological catalysts for CLA production. We describe six crystal structures of the Propionibacterium acnes polyunsaturated fatty acid isomerase PAI in apo- an...

  7. Dietary blueberry attenuates whole-body insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice by reducing adipocyte death and its inflammatory sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFuria, Jason; Bennett, Grace; Strissel, Katherine J; Perfield, James W; Milbury, Paul E; Greenberg, Andrew S; Obin, Martin S

    2009-08-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation promotes insulin resistance (IR) and other obesity complications. AT inflammation and IR are associated with oxidative stress, adipocyte death, and the scavenging of dead adipocytes by proinflammatory CD11c+ AT macrophages (ATMPhi). We tested the hypothesis that supplementation of an obesitogenic (high-fat) diet with whole blueberry (BB) powder protects against AT inflammation and IR. Male C57Bl/6j mice were maintained for 8 wk on 1 of 3 diets: low-fat (10% of energy) diet (LFD), high-fat (60% of energy) diet (HFD) or the HFD containing 4% (wt:wt) whole BB powder (1:1 Vaccinium ashei and V. corymbosum) (HFD+B). BB supplementation (2.7% of total energy) did not affect HFD-associated alterations in energy intake, metabolic rate, body weight, or adiposity. We observed an emerging pattern of gene expression in AT of HFD mice indicating a shift toward global upregulation of inflammatory genes (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, inducible nitric oxide synthase), increased M1-polarized ATMPhi (CD11c+), and increased oxidative stress (reduced glutathione peroxidase 3). This shift was attenuated or nonexistent in HFD+B-fed mice. Furthermore, mice fed the HFD+B were protected from IR and hyperglycemia coincident with reductions in adipocyte death. Salutary effects of BB on adipocyte physiology and ATMPhi gene expression may reflect the ability of BB anthocyanins to alter mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB stress signaling pathways, which regulate cell fate and inflammatory genes. These results suggest that cytoprotective and antiinflammatory actions of dietary BB can provide metabolic benefits to combat obesity-associated pathology. PMID:19515743

  8. TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leshukov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

  9. Dietary protein content affects evolution for body size, body fat and viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker; Mayntz, David

    2011-01-01

    The ability to use different food sources is likely to be under strong selection if organisms are faced with natural variation in macro-nutrient (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) availabilities. Here, we use experimental evolution to study how variable dietary protein content affects adult body composition and developmental success in Drosophila melanogaster. We reared flies on either a standard diet or a protein-enriched diet for 17 generations before testing them on both diet types. Flies from...

  10. A common polymorphism near the interleukin-6 gene modifies the association between dietary fat intake and insulin sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Cuda C; Garcia-Bailo B; Karmali M; El-Sohemy A; Badawi A

    2012-01-01

    Cristina Cuda1, Bibiana Garcia-Bailo1,2, Mohamed Karmali1,2, Ahmed El-Sohemy1, Alaa Badawi21Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, 2Office of Biotechnology, Genomics and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Increasing evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the development of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, have been associated with insulin resistance, and dietary li...

  11. The Danish fat tax - effects on consumption patterns and risk of ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØdker, Malene; Toft, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects on consumption and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) of the Danish fat tax, effective from October 2011 to January 2013. Methods: We used comprehensive retail outlet data on the sale of twelve foodstuff categories targeted by the fat tax. Data covered January 2010 to July 2013. IHD risk was assessed by modelling first the effect of changes in intake of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fat and dietary cholesterol on serum cholesterol and subsequently modelling the resulting changes in risk of IHD using two different methods. Results: Thetotal sale of the included foodstuffs decreased by 0.9%. The fat tax was associated with marginal changes in population risk of IHD. One estimate suggests an increased population risk of IHD by 0.2% and the other estimate suggests that the risk of IHD decreased by 0.3%. Conclusions: The Danish fat tax had a marginal effect on population consumption of fat and risk of IHD. Fat taxes have to be carefully designed to prevent possible adverse effects from outweighing its beneficial effects on health outcomes. Policymakers must therefore be more ambitious in relation to food taxes, e.g. by implementing more comprehensive tax-subsidy schemes.

  12. Effects of birth weight and maternal dietary fat source on the fatty acid profile of piglet tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; Missotten, J; Vlaeminck, B; De Smet, S

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects and possible interactions of birth weight and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation of the maternal diet on the fatty acid status of different tissues of newborn piglets. These effects are of interest as both parameters have been associated with pre-weaning mortality. Sows were fed a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed, echium or fish oil from day 73 of gestation. As fish oil becomes a scarce resource, linseed and echium oil were supplemented as sustainable alternatives, adding precursor fatty acids for DHA to the diet. At birth, the lightest and heaviest male piglet per litter were killed and samples from liver, brain and muscle were taken for fatty acid analysis. Piglets that died pre-weaning had lower birth weights than piglets surviving lactation (1.27±0.04 v. 1.55±0.02 kg; Pmortality was found. Lower DHA concentrations were observed in the brain of the lighter piglets compared with their heavier littermates (9.46±0.05 v. 9.63±0.04 g DHA/100 g fatty acids; P=0.008), suggesting that the higher incidence of pre-weaning mortality in low birth weight piglets may be related to their lower brain DHA status. Adding n-3 PUFA to the sow diet could not significantly reduce this difference in DHA status, although numerically the difference in the brain DHA concentration between the piglet weight groups was smaller when fish oil was included in the sow diet. Independent of birth weight, echium or linseed oil in the sow diet increased the DHA concentration of the piglet tissues to the same extent, but the concentrations were not as high as when fish oil was fed. PMID:25322791

  13. Effect of dietary fat saturation on lipid metabolism, arachidonic acid turnover and peritoneal macrophage oxidative stress in mice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.B., Oliveros; A.M., Videla; M.S., Giménez.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a saturated fat diet on lipid metabolism and arachidonic acid (AA) turnover in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. The pro-oxidative effect of this diet was also studied. Female C57BL/6 mice were weaned at 21 days of age and assigned to either the experimental diet [...] containing coconut oil (COCO diet), or the control diet containing soybean oil as fat source (10 mice per group). The fat content of each diet was 15% (w/w). Mice were fed for 6 weeks and then sacrificed. The concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, (LDL + VLDL)-cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione were increased in the plasma of mice fed the COCO diet, without changes in phospholipid or total cholesterol concentrations compared to control. The concentrations of total cholesterol, free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, and TBARS were increased in the macrophages of COCO-fed mice, while the content of total phospholipids did not change. The phospholipid composition showed an increase of phosphatidylcholine and a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine. The [³H]-AA distribution in the phospholipid classes showed an increase in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Incorporation of [³H]-cholesterol into the macrophages of COCO-fed mice and into the cholesterol ester fraction was increased. The COCO diet did not affect [³H]-AA uptake but induced an increase in [³H]-AA release. The COCO diet also enhanced AA mobilization induced by lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that the COCO diet, high in saturated fatty acids, alters the lipid metabolism and AA turnover of peritoneal macrophages in female mice and also produces a significant degree of oxidative stress.

  14. Effect of dietary fat saturation on lipid metabolism, arachidonic acid turnover and peritoneal macrophage oxidative stress in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Oliveros

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a saturated fat diet on lipid metabolism and arachidonic acid (AA turnover in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. The pro-oxidative effect of this diet was also studied. Female C57BL/6 mice were weaned at 21 days of age and assigned to either the experimental diet containing coconut oil (COCO diet, or the control diet containing soybean oil as fat source (10 mice per group. The fat content of each diet was 15% (w/w. Mice were fed for 6 weeks and then sacrificed. The concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, (LDL + VLDL-cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and reduced glutathione were increased in the plasma of mice fed the COCO diet, without changes in phospholipid or total cholesterol concentrations compared to control. The concentrations of total cholesterol, free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, and TBARS were increased in the macrophages of COCO-fed mice, while the content of total phospholipids did not change. The phospholipid composition showed an increase of phosphatidylcholine and a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine. The [³H]-AA distribution in the phospholipid classes showed an increase in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Incorporation of [³H]-cholesterol into the macrophages of COCO-fed mice and into the cholesterol ester fraction was increased. The COCO diet did not affect [³H]-AA uptake but induced an increase in [³H]-AA release. The COCO diet also enhanced AA mobilization induced by lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that the COCO diet, high in saturated fatty acids, alters the lipid metabolism and AA turnover of peritoneal macrophages in female mice and also produces a significant degree of oxidative stress.

  15. Composition of ?-tocopherol and fatty acids in porcine tissues after dietary supplementation with vitamin E and different fat sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Theil, Peter Kappel; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of increasing supplementation of all-rac-?-tocopheryl acetate and dietary fatty acid composition during a four week period after weaning on porcine tissue composition of ?-tocopherol stereoisomers and fatty acids, and on hepatic expression of genes involved in transfer of ?-tocopherol, and oxidation and metabolism of fatty acids. From day 28 to 56 of age, pigs were provided 5% of tallow, fish oil or sunflower oil and 85, 150, or 300 mg/kg of all-rac-?-tocop...

  16. Dietary Whey Protein Lowers the Risk for Metabolic Disease in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet12

    OpenAIRE

    Shertzer, Howard G.; Woods, Sally E.; Krishan, Mansi; Genter, Mary Beth; Pearson, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Consuming a high-fat (HF) diet produces excessive weight gain, adiposity, and metabolic complications associated with risk for developing type 2 diabetes and fatty liver disease. This study evaluated the influence of whey protein isolate (WPI) on systemic energy balance and metabolic changes in mice fed a HF diet. Female C57BL/6J mice received for 11 wk a HF diet, with or without 100 g WPI/L drinking water. Energy consumption and glucose and lipid metabolism were examined. WPI mice had lower ...

  17. Biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lower eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttaro, Antonio D

    2006-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids have important structural roles in cell membranes. They are also intermediates in the synthesis of biologically active molecules such as eicosanoids, which mediate fever, inflammation, blood pressure and neurotransmission. Arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids are essential components of brain tissues and, through their involvement in the development of neural and retinal functions, important dietary nutrients for neonatal babies. Lower eukaryotes are particularly rich in C20-22 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fungi and marine microalgae are currently used to produce nutraceutic oils. Other protists and algae are being studied because of the variability in their enzymes involved in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Such enzymes could be used as source for the production of transgenic organisms able to synthesize designed oils for human diet or, in the case of parasitic protozoa, they might be identified as putative chemotherapeutic targets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids can be synthesized by two different pathways: an anaerobic one, by using polyketide synthase related enzymes, and an aerobic one, which involves the action of elongases and oxygen dependent desaturases. Desaturases can be classified into three main types, depending on which of the consecutive steps of polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis they are involved with. The enzymes may be specialized to act on: saturated substrates (type I); mono- and di-unsaturated fatty acids by introducing additional double bonds at the methyl-end site of the existing double bonds (type II); or the carboxy half ('front-end') of polyunsaturated ones (type III). Type III desaturases require the alternating action of elongases. A description of the enzymes that have been isolated and functionally characterized is provided, in order to highlight the different pathways found in lower eukaryotes. PMID:17028087

  18. Assessment of the fatty acid patterns in vegetable oils, fats and fat-rich foods commonly consumed in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantellops, Dennis

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one individual food samples were analyzed for their fatty acid contents by gas-liquid chromatography using capillary tubes. The samples belonged to 5 different food groups and included vegetable oils, butter & ghee, animal fats, dairy products, fishes, chicken & meats and other popular dishes. The results show that maize oil was lowest in its total saturated fatty acid content (11% and richest in linolenic acid. On the other hand, total saturated fatty acids made up 42-62 % of the total fatty acid patterns of the lamb and camel fat tallow, respectively. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (C20-C22 with two to six double bonds were present only in fishes. Estimate of fat intake amounted to 36 grams per subject per day and the % contribution of the analyzed fats was presented. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids amounted to 0.96; which falls within the optimum dietary goals.Cuarenta y una muestras de alimentos individuales fueron analizadas por su contenido en ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía gas-líquido usando columnas capilares. Las muestras pertenecieron a 5 grupos diferentes, incluyendo aceites vegetales, mantequilla y «ghee», grasas animales, productos lácteos, pescados, pollo y carnes, y otros platos populares. Los resultados mostraron que el aceite de maíz fue el que tuvo el más bajo contenido en ácidos grasos saturados totales (11% y el más rico en ácido linolénico. Por otro lado, los ácidos grasos saturados totales alcanzaron el 42-62% de los ácidos grasos totales del sebo de cordero y camello respectivamente. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (C20-C22 con dos a seis dobles enlaces estuvieron presentes solo en pescados. La estimación de la ingesta ascendió a 36 g por sujeto y día, y se presenta el porcentaje de contribución de las grasas analizadas. La relación de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados a saturados ascendió a 0.96; estando dentro del óptimo alimenticio.

  19. Dietary fiber prevents obesity-related liver lipotoxicity by modulating sterol-regulatory element binding protein pathway in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shufen; Jiao, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jiaying; Wan, Zhongxiao; Zhang, Weiguo; Gao, Xiaoran; Qin, Liqiang

    2015-01-01

    Adequate intake of dietary fibers has proven metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, molecular mechanisms remain still limited. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cereal dietary fiber on obesity-related liver lipotoxicity in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet and underlying mechanism. Forty-eight adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly given a reference chow diet, or a high fat/choleserol (HFC) diet supplemented with or without oat fiber or wheat bran fiber for 24 weeks. Our results showed mice fed oat or wheat bran fiber exhibtied lower weight gain, lipid profiles and insulin resistance, compared with HFC diet. The two cereal dietary fibers potently decreased protein expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and key factors involved in lipogenesis, including fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in target tissues. At molecular level, the two cereal dietary fibers augmented protein expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma, liver X receptor alpha, and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in target tissues. Our findings indicated that cereal dietary fiber supplementation abrogated obesity-related liver lipotoxicity and dyslipidemia in C57BL/6J mice fed a HFC diet. In addition, the efficacy of oat fiber is greater than wheat bran fiber in normalizing these metabolic disorders and pathological profiles. PMID:26510459

  20. Dietary fiber prevents obesity-related liver lipotoxicity by modulating sterol-regulatory element binding protein pathway in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shufen; Jiao, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jiaying; Wan, Zhongxiao; Zhang, Weiguo; Gao, Xiaoran; Qin, Liqiang

    2015-01-01

    Adequate intake of dietary fibers has proven metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, molecular mechanisms remain still limited. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cereal dietary fiber on obesity-related liver lipotoxicity in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet and underlying mechanism. Forty-eight adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly given a reference chow diet, or a high fat/choleserol (HFC) diet supplemented with or without oat fiber or wheat bran fiber for 24 weeks. Our results showed mice fed oat or wheat bran fiber exhibtied lower weight gain, lipid profiles and insulin resistance, compared with HFC diet. The two cereal dietary fibers potently decreased protein expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and key factors involved in lipogenesis, including fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in target tissues. At molecular level, the two cereal dietary fibers augmented protein expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma, liver X receptor alpha, and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in target tissues. Our findings indicated that cereal dietary fiber supplementation abrogated obesity-related liver lipotoxicity and dyslipidemia in C57BL/6J mice fed a HFC diet. In addition, the efficacy of oat fiber is greater than wheat bran fiber in normalizing these metabolic disorders and pathological profiles. PMID:26510459

  1. Insight into the impact of dietary saturated fat on tissue-specific cellular processes underlying obesity-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enos, Reilly T; Velázquez, Kandy T; Murphy, E Angela

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of three high-fat diets (HFDs), differing in the percentage of total calories from saturated fat (SF) (6%, 12%, 24%) but identical in total fat (40%), for a 16-week period in mice on a variety of tissue-specific cellular processes believed to be at the root of obesity-related diseases. Specifically, we examined ectopic lipid accumulation, oxidative capacity [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1?) mRNA and protein; mtDNA; Cox IV and cytochrome C protein; citrate synthase activity; and gene expression of fission 1, mitofusin (Mfn) 1 and Mfn2], oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (binding immunoglobulin protein, activating transcription factor 6-p50, p-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha and x-box binding protein 1 spliced protein), inflammatory [p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p-nuclear factor kappa-B, p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) and insulin signaling (p-Akt), and inflammation [tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6, F4/80, toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 gene expression] in various tissues, including the adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscle and heart. In general, adipose and hepatic tissues were the only tissues which displayed evidence of dysfunction. All HFDs down-regulated adipose, cardiac and hepatic PGC-1? mRNA and hepatic citrate synthase activity, and induced adipose tissue oxidative stress, whereas only the 6%-SF and 12%-SF diet produced hepatic steatosis. However, compared to the 6%-SF and 24%-SF diets, consumption of the 12%-SF diet resulted in the greatest degree of dysregulation (hepatic ER and oxidative stress, JNK activation, increased F4/80 gene expression and down-regulation of adipose tissue Akt signaling). These findings suggest that the saturated fatty acid composition of an HFD can greatly influence the processes responsible for obesity-related diseases - nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, in particular - as well as provide further evidence that the mechanisms at the root of these diseases are diet and tissue sensitive. PMID:24742471

  2. Influence of Supplemental Dietary Poultry Fat, Phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the Blood Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    OpenAIRE

    S.K. Womack; P.D. Gerard; S. L. Branton; Park, S W; E.D. Peebles

    2010-01-01

    The effects of 2 supplemental levels of dietary Poultry Fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] on the blood characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG inoculations were administered at 12 (before lay) and 22 (early in lay) wk and dietary treatments [Basal Control Diet (BCD); BCD with 0.75% supplemental PF (LPFD); BCD with 1.50% supplemental PF (HPFD)...

  3. Efeito da suplementação de linhaça, óleo de canola e vitamina E na dieta sobre as concentrações de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados em ovos de galinha / Effect of dietary supplementation of flaxseed, canola oil and vitamin E upon polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.C.G., Pita; E., Piber Neto; P.R., Carvalho; C.X., Mendonça Junior.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de diferentes fontes de ácidos graxos insaturados (óleo de canola e semente de linhaça), acrescidas de diferentes teores de alfa-tocoferol nas dietas de poedeiras, sobre a composição de ácidos graxos da gema do ovo foi estudado. Foram utilizadas 288 galinhas da linhagem Babcock q [...] ue receberam dietas com 6% de óleo de canola, 20% de semente de linhaça moída ou 3% de óleo de canola e 10% de linhaça moída com teores de 0, 100 e 200UI/kg de alfa-tocoferol. As dietas com 20% de semente de linhaça proporcionaram teores mais elevados de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados no ovo com aumento, em particular, dos teores de ácido alfa-linolênico e EPA (ácido eicosapentaenóico) e diminuição de ácido araquidônico na gema. Os teores de vitamina E contidos nas rações experimentais não determinaram alteração significativa na deposição dos diferentes ácidos graxos na gema dos ovos, exceto com relação aos ácidos graxos saturados. Abstract in english The effect of dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids - canola oil and flaxseed - with different vitamin E supplementation on the fatty acid deposition into the eggs of 288 Babcock laying hens was investigated. Birds were fed diets containing 6% of canola oil, 20% of flaxseed or a combination [...] of 3% of canola oil and 10% of flaxseed, enriched with 0, 100 or 200Ul of dl-alpha-tocopheril acetate. The inclusion of flaxseed in the diets increased the yolk polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly alpha-linolenic acid and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid). The concentration of alpha-tocopherol in the diet did not change the egg yolk, fatty acids deposition but changed the saturated fatty acids deposition.

  4. Relación del polimorfismo -55CT del gen UCP3 con la pérdida de peso y los cambios metabólicos tras una dieta hipocalórica rica en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados en pacientes obesos / Relation of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene with weight loss and metabolic changes after a high polyunsaturated fat diet in obese patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D. A., de Luis; R., Aller; O., Izaola; M., González Sagrado; R., Conde; M., Ruiz Mambrilla.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y objetivos: La alteración en la expresión de las proteinas UCP3 podrían reducir el gasto energético y aumentar el almacenamiento de energía en forma de grasa. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue investigar la influencia del polimorfismo -55CT del gen UCP3 en la respuesta metabólica, pér [...] dida de peso y los niveles séricos de adipocitoquinas tras una dieta hipocalórica rica en grasas poliinsaturadas en pacientes obesos. Diseño: Se estudió una muestra de 133 pacientes obesos de forma prospectiva durante 3 meses. La dieta hipocalórica tenía 1.459 kcal, un 45,7% de hidratos de carbono, un 34,4% de los lípidos y un 19,9% de las proteínas. La distribución de las grasas era; un 21,8% de grasas saturadas, un 55,5% de grasas monoinsaturadas y un 22,7% de las grasas poliinsaturadas (7 g por día de ácidos graso w6, 2 g por díia de w-3 y una ratio w6/w3 de 3,5). Resultados: Un total de 100 pacientes (28 varones/72 mujeres) (75,2%) tenían el genotipo -55CC (grupo con genotipo salvaje) y 33 pacientes (8 varones/25 mujeres) (24,8%) el genotipo -55CT (grupo con genotipo mutante). En el grupo con genotipo salvaje disminuyeron el índice de masa corporal (-2,5 ± 5,3 kg/m²), peso (-4,2 ± 3,7 kg), masa grasa (-3,7 ± 3,3 kg), circunferencia de la cintura (-4,1 ± 2,9 cm), tensión arterial sistólica (-4,9 ± 10,1 mmHg), niveles de colesterol total (-16,1 ± 23,6 mg/dl), colesterol LDL (-11,1 ± 26,8 mg/dl), triglicéridos (-12,0 ± 46,8 mg/dl), insulina (-1,8 ± 4,5 UI/L), HOMA-R (-0,6 ± 1,5) y leptina (-6,2 ± 8,4 ng/ml). En el grupo con genotipo mutante disminuyeron significativamente los parámetros antropométricos sin modificaciones significativas de parámetros bioquímicos. Conclusión: Los pacientes portadores del alelo T del polimorfismo -55CT del gen UCP3, presentan una ausencia respuesta metabólica ante la perdida de peso inducida por una dieta hipocalórica rica en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados. Abstract in english Background and objectives: The alteration in the protein expression of UCP3 could reduce energy consumption and increase energy storage as fat. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene in the metabolic response, weight loss and serum levels of adipokin [...] es following a hypocaloric diet rich in polyunsaturated fat in obese patients. Design: A sample of 133 obese patients were analyzed prospectively for 3 months. The hypocaloric diet was 1459 kcal, 45.7% carbohydrate, 34.4% from 19.9% lipids and proteins. The fat distribution was, a 21.8% saturated fat, 55.5% monounsaturated and 22.7% of polyunsaturated fat (7 g per day of fatty acids w6, 2 g per day of w -3 and a ratio w6/w3 of 3.5). Results: A total of 100 patients (28 males/72 females) (75.2%) had genotype - 55CC (wild genotype group) and 33 patients (8 males/25 females) (24.8%) -55CT genotype (group mutant genotype). In the wild genotype, body mass index (-2.5 ± 5.3 kg/m²), weight (-4.2 ± 3.7 kg), fat mass (-3,7 ± 3.3 kg), waist circumference (-4.1 ± 2.9 cm), systolic blood pressure (-4.9 ± 10.1 mmHg), total cholesterol levels (- 16.1 ± 23.6 mg / dl), LDL cholesterol (-11.1 ± 26.8 mg/dl), triglycerides (-12.0 ± 46.8 mg/dl), insulin (-1.8 ± 4.5 IU/L), HOMA-R (-0.6 ± 1.5) and leptin (-6.2 ± 8.4 ng/ml) decreased. In the mutant genotype anthropome-tric parameters were significantly decreased without significant changes in biochemical parameters. Conclusion: The T allele carriers of -55CT UCP3 polymorphism exhibit no metabolic response to weight loss induced by a hypocaloric diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  5. Relación del polimorfismo -55CT del gen UCP3 con la pérdida de peso y los cambios metabólicos tras una dieta hipocalórica rica en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados en pacientes obesos Relation of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene with weight loss and metabolic changes after a high polyunsaturated fat diet in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. de Luis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y objetivos: La alteración en la expresión de las proteinas UCP3 podrían reducir el gasto energético y aumentar el almacenamiento de energía en forma de grasa. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue investigar la influencia del polimorfismo -55CT del gen UCP3 en la respuesta metabólica, pérdida de peso y los niveles séricos de adipocitoquinas tras una dieta hipocalórica rica en grasas poliinsaturadas en pacientes obesos. Diseño: Se estudió una muestra de 133 pacientes obesos de forma prospectiva durante 3 meses. La dieta hipocalórica tenía 1.459 kcal, un 45,7% de hidratos de carbono, un 34,4% de los lípidos y un 19,9% de las proteínas. La distribución de las grasas era; un 21,8% de grasas saturadas, un 55,5% de grasas monoinsaturadas y un 22,7% de las grasas poliinsaturadas (7 g por día de ácidos graso w6, 2 g por díia de w-3 y una ratio w6/w3 de 3,5. Resultados: Un total de 100 pacientes (28 varones/72 mujeres (75,2% tenían el genotipo -55CC (grupo con genotipo salvaje y 33 pacientes (8 varones/25 mujeres (24,8% el genotipo -55CT (grupo con genotipo mutante. En el grupo con genotipo salvaje disminuyeron el índice de masa corporal (-2,5 ± 5,3 kg/m², peso (-4,2 ± 3,7 kg, masa grasa (-3,7 ± 3,3 kg, circunferencia de la cintura (-4,1 ± 2,9 cm, tensión arterial sistólica (-4,9 ± 10,1 mmHg, niveles de colesterol total (-16,1 ± 23,6 mg/dl, colesterol LDL (-11,1 ± 26,8 mg/dl, triglicéridos (-12,0 ± 46,8 mg/dl, insulina (-1,8 ± 4,5 UI/L, HOMA-R (-0,6 ± 1,5 y leptina (-6,2 ± 8,4 ng/ml. En el grupo con genotipo mutante disminuyeron significativamente los parámetros antropométricos sin modificaciones significativas de parámetros bioquímicos. Conclusión: Los pacientes portadores del alelo T del polimorfismo -55CT del gen UCP3, presentan una ausencia respuesta metabólica ante la perdida de peso inducida por una dieta hipocalórica rica en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados.Background and objectives: The alteration in the protein expression of UCP3 could reduce energy consumption and increase energy storage as fat. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene in the metabolic response, weight loss and serum levels of adipokines following a hypocaloric diet rich in polyunsaturated fat in obese patients. Design: A sample of 133 obese patients were analyzed prospectively for 3 months. The hypocaloric diet was 1459 kcal, 45.7% carbohydrate, 34.4% from 19.9% lipids and proteins. The fat distribution was, a 21.8% saturated fat, 55.5% monounsaturated and 22.7% of polyunsaturated fat (7 g per day of fatty acids w6, 2 g per day of w -3 and a ratio w6/w3 of 3.5. Results: A total of 100 patients (28 males/72 females (75.2% had genotype - 55CC (wild genotype group and 33 patients (8 males/25 females (24.8% -55CT genotype (group mutant genotype. In the wild genotype, body mass index (-2.5 ± 5.3 kg/m², weight (-4.2 ± 3.7 kg, fat mass (-3,7 ± 3.3 kg, waist circumference (-4.1 ± 2.9 cm, systolic blood pressure (-4.9 ± 10.1 mmHg, total cholesterol levels (- 16.1 ± 23.6 mg / dl, LDL cholesterol (-11.1 ± 26.8 mg/dl, triglycerides (-12.0 ± 46.8 mg/dl, insulin (-1.8 ± 4.5 IU/L, HOMA-R (-0.6 ± 1.5 and leptin (-6.2 ± 8.4 ng/ml decreased. In the mutant genotype anthropome-tric parameters were significantly decreased without significant changes in biochemical parameters. Conclusion: The T allele carriers of -55CT UCP3 polymorphism exhibit no metabolic response to weight loss induced by a hypocaloric diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  6. Dietary protein content affects evolution for body size, body fat and viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker; Mayntz, David

    2011-01-01

    The ability to use different food sources is likely to be under strong selection if organisms are faced with natural variation in macro-nutrient (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) availabilities. Here, we use experimental evolution to study how variable dietary protein content affects adult body...... composition and developmental success in Drosophila melanogaster. We reared flies on either a standard diet or a protein-enriched diet for 17 generations before testing them on both diet types. Flies from lines selected on protein-rich diet produced phenotypes with higher total body mass and relative lipid...... content when compared with those selected on a standard diet, irrespective of which of the two diets they were tested on. However, selection on protein-rich diet incurred a cost as flies reared on this diet had markedly lower developmental success in terms of egg-to-adult viability on both medium types...

  7. Dietary protein content affects evolution for body size, body fat and viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The ability to use different food sources is likely to be under strong selection if organisms are faced with natural variation in macro-nutrient (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) availabilities. Here, we use experimental evolution to study how variable dietary protein content affects adult body composition and developmental success in Drosophila melanogaster. We reared flies on either a standard diet or a protein-enriched diet for 17 generations before testing them on both diet types. Flies from lines selected on protein-rich diet produced phenotypes with higher total body mass and relative lipid content when compared with those selected on a standard diet, irrespective of which of the two diets they were tested on. However, selection on protein-rich diet incurred a cost as flies reared on this diet had markedly lower developmental success in terms of egg-to-adult viability on both medium types, suggesting a possible trade-off between the traits investigated.

  8. Increased dietary protein and combined high intensity aerobic and resistance exercise improves body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Gentile, Christopher L; Martin-Pressman, Roger; Ormsbee, Michael J; Everett, Meghan; Zwicky, Lauren; Steele, Christine A

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of two lifestyle modification programs of exercise training and nutritional intake (ad libitum) on improving body composition and disease risk in overweight/obese men and women. Sixty-three subjects were weight matched and assigned to one of three groups for a 12 wk intervention: (1) high-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training and a balanced diet (RC+BD, 40% CHO: 40% PRO; n=27, 16 female/11 male, age = 42 +/- 9 y); (2) moderate-intensity cardiovascular training and a traditional food guide pyramid diet (C+TD, CHO 50 to 55%; PRO 15 to 20%; FAT 0.05) in RC+BD, whereas C+TD and C remained unchanged. Our results suggest that RC+BD may be more effective than C+TD and C in enhancing body composition and lowering cardiovascular risk in obese individuals. PMID:17136940

  9. Effect of dietary (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids on growth and survival of fat snook (Centropomus parallelus, Pisces: Centropomidae) larvae during first feeding

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.E.B., Seiffert; V.R., Cerqueira; L.A.S., Madureira.

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rotifers, Brachionus rotundiformis (S-type), fed three different diets: A (rotifer fed Nannochloropsis oculata), B (rotifer fed N. oculata and baker's yeast, 1:1), and C (rotifer fed N. oculata and baker's yeast, 1:1, and enriched with Selcoâ), was evaluated [...] based on the survival, growth and swim bladder inflation rate of fat snook larvae. Rotifers of treatment A had higher levels (4.58 mg/g dry weight) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) than B (1.81 mg/g dry weight), and similar levels (0.04 and 0.06 mg/g dry weight, respectively) of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Rotifers of treatment C had the highest levels of EPA (13.2 mg/g dry weight) and DHA (6.08 mg/g dry weight). Fat snook eggs were obtained by spawning induction with human chorionic gonadotropin. Thirty hours after hatching, 30 larvae/liter were stocked in black cylindric-conical tanks (36-liter capacity). After 14 days of culture, there were no significant differences among treatments. Mean standard length was 3.13 mm for treatment A, 3.17 mm for B, and 3.39 mm for C. Mean survival rates were very low (2.7% for treatment A, 2.3% for B, and 1.8% for C). Swim bladder inflation rates were 34.7% for treatment A, 27.1% for B, and 11.9% for C. The lack of differences in growth and survival among treatments showed that the improvement of the dietary value of rotifer may not have been sufficient to solve the problem of larval rearing. Some other factor, probably pertaining to the quality of the larvae, may have negatively influenced survival.

  10. Effect of dietary (n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids on growth and survival of fat snook (Centropomus parallelus, Pisces: Centropomidae larvae during first feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiffert M.E.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rotifers, Brachionus rotundiformis (S-type, fed three different diets: A (rotifer fed Nannochloropsis oculata, B (rotifer fed N. oculata and baker's yeast, 1:1, and C (rotifer fed N. oculata and baker's yeast, 1:1, and enriched with Selcoâ, was evaluated based on the survival, growth and swim bladder inflation rate of fat snook larvae. Rotifers of treatment A had higher levels (4.58 mg/g dry weight of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA than B (1.81 mg/g dry weight, and similar levels (0.04 and 0.06 mg/g dry weight, respectively of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Rotifers of treatment C had the highest levels of EPA (13.2 mg/g dry weight and DHA (6.08 mg/g dry weight. Fat snook eggs were obtained by spawning induction with human chorionic gonadotropin. Thirty hours after hatching, 30 larvae/liter were stocked in black cylindric-conical tanks (36-liter capacity. After 14 days of culture, there were no significant differences among treatments. Mean standard length was 3.13 mm for treatment A, 3.17 mm for B, and 3.39 mm for C. Mean survival rates were very low (2.7% for treatment A, 2.3% for B, and 1.8% for C. Swim bladder inflation rates were 34.7% for treatment A, 27.1% for B, and 11.9% for C. The lack of differences in growth and survival among treatments showed that the improvement of the dietary value of rotifer may not have been sufficient to solve the problem of larval rearing. Some other factor, probably pertaining to the quality of the larvae, may have negatively influenced survival.

  11. A high oleic sunflower oil fatty acid esters of plant sterols mixed with dietary diacylglycerol reduces plasma insulin and body fat accumulation in Psammomys obesus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelled Dori

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome is associated with subsequent development of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. It is characterized by reduced response to insulin, central obesity, and dyslipidemia. Intake of plant sterols (PS has been shown to confer a healthier lipid profile and ameliorate cardiovascular disease risk factors in experimental animals and humans. In this study we used an animal model of type 2 diabetes to assess the effects of a preparation of PS esterified to high oleic sunflower oil fatty acids mixed with dietary diacylglycerol (PS-HOSO on diabetic related metabolic parameters. Psammomys obesus (P. obesus were fed high energy (HE diet supplemented by either PS-HOSO or control oil. Following 4.5 weeks of intervention, animals were divided into fasting and non-fasting modes prior to outcome measurements. Glucose and insulin levels as well as blood lipid profile, body weight, and fat accumulation were evaluated in fasting and non-fasting modes. Results P. obesus fed with a HE diet displayed a characteristic heterogeneity in their blood glucose and insulin levels with a subset group displaying type 2 diabetes symptoms. PS-HOSO treatment significantly reduced total cholesterol (24%, P P P P Conclusion PS-HOSO supplementation to diabetes-prone gerbils counteracts the increase in body weight and epididymal fat accumulation, and also results in a drop in circulating insulin levels. These effects are pointing out that PS-HOSO may serve as a functional ingredient for metabolic syndrome or diabetic sufferers, which not only influences body weight, but also prevents or reverses insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia.

  12. Effects of biological type and dietary fat treatment on factors associated with tenderness: II. Measurements on beef semitendinosus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuber, P S; Busboom, J R; Duckett, S K; Mir, P S; Mir, Z; McCormick, R J; Gaskins, C T; Cronrath, J D; Marks, D J; Reeves, J J

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate attributes in semitendinosus muscle (ST) associated with tenderness in divergent breeds--Wagyu (W; n = 12), Limousin (L; n = 12), and Wagyu x Limousin cross cattle (WxL; n = 12)--fed two dietary treatments (0 or 6% sunflower oil, DM basis). A randomized complete block repeated measures design with a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to measure effects of breed, diet, block, and associated interactions. Cattle were fed barley-based diets for an average of 259 d. Temperature and pH were measured at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h postmortem (PM). Steaks from the ST were removed 24 h postmortem, vacuum-packaged, aged (1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 d postmortem) at 2 degrees C, and frozen (-40 degrees C) until analyzed. Dietary treatment did not (P > 0.10) affect Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), collagen amount (OH-PRO) or cross-linking (HP), temperature, or pH. Steaks from WxL aged 14 d postmortem had lower (P Cooking time was longer (P 0.10) cooking loss. Cooking time was not influenced by diet, but steaks from cattle fed 6% sunflower oil had lower (P cooking losses. Temperature decreased more (P oil added) resulted in steaks that were lighter (P oil). Neither breed nor diet affected (P > 0.10) OH-PRO or HP concentration. The results of this study indicate that biological type differences may not be as great in the ST as in longissimus muscle; thus, to increase tenderness in ST, emphasis may need to be placed on processing and cooking techniques rather than genetic selection. PMID:15032434

  13. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Pumpkin oil (Cucurbita pepo on Performance and Blood Fat of Broiler Chickens during Finisher Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Using most of antibiotic growth promoters as feed additives has been banned by the European Union due to cross-resistance against pathogens and residues in tissues; and scientists search for alternatives to antibiotics, two days. In this view, medicinal plants and essential oils extracted are becoming more important due to their antimicrobial and stimulating effects on animal digestive systems. Approach: This study was conducted to evaluate the use of Pumpkin oil in broiler nutrition as a natural growth promoting substance and its effect on abdominal and blood fat. A total of 144 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308 were used in a completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 3 replicates. The experiment was conducted from 29-49 d of age. The main ingredients of diets included corn, soybean meal and wheat. The pumpkin oil levels added to the diets were 0.00 (control, 5.00 and 10.00 g kg?1 DM. Results: Pumpkin oil supplementation up to 5.00 g kg?1 DM diet had not significant effect on broilers performance, but supplementation in higher level (10.00 g kg?1 DM significantly decreased broilers performance. Pumpkin oil supplementation decreased bird?s mortality. Adding pumpkin oil had not any significant effect on abdominal fat pad and carcass composition, however cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in plasma decreased at 49 days of age (PConclusion: Results of this study indicated that supplementation of diets with 5.00 g kg?1 DM pumpkin oil in corn-soybean meal-wheat based diet can be profitable because it reduced broiler chicken?s mortality and it did not have any adverse effect on bird?s performance.

  14. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE'): study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2) will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-?, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF), IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. While clinical data indicate that excess weight for height is associated with poor prognosis for long term survival, little attention is paid to weight control in the clinical management of breast cancer. This study will provide information that can be used to answer important patient questions about the effects of dietary pattern and magnitude of weight loss on long term survival following breast cancer treatment. CA125243

  15. The effect of ripening, heat processing and frozen storage on the in vitro bioaccessibility of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from Jalapeño peppers in absence and presence of two dietary fat types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; Ramos-Aguilar, Olivia P; Failla, Mark L; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime D

    2015-08-15

    To date, there is no information in the literature regarding the bioaccessibility of capsaicinoids from natural sources. The effect of ripening and heat-processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin was studied in the absence and presence of two dietary fat types. The capsaicinoid bioaccessibility was also studied during the frozen storage of peppers for 6 months. Fresh green peppers showed the highest capsaicinoid bioaccessibility, as compared with that of other experimental groups. The bioaccessibility of capsaicinoids from green peppers decreased as the intensity of heat treatment increased. The dietary fat increased the bioaccessibility of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in digestions with red peppers, especially that of dihydrocapsaicin. The bioaccessibility of capsaicinoids was altered by frozen storage. The Caco-2 cells incorporated capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin (8.4% and 10.9%, respectively) but they were probably metabolized by cells. PMID:25794757

  16. The effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D on growth and bone mineralization in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamin D are important for fat and bone metabolism but the intake is declining in Western societies with a potential deleterious effect on growth and bone health. Dietary PUFA composition favors the intake of omega-6 (n-6 PUFA) compared to omega-3 (n-3 PUFA). Hormones (eicosanoids) from n-6 PUFA induce fat cell differentiation and an intake high in n-3 PUFA relative to n-6 PUFA is hypothesized to inhibit differentiation and hypertrophy of adipose cells and subsequently the risk for obesity. Identification of dietary components with effects on fat tissue growth early in life is essential for preventive steps against development of overweight and obesity. Vitamin D promotes bone mineralization and growth through regulation of the calcium homeostasis, and via activation of vitamin D receptors on bone and cartilage forming cells. However vitamin D insufficiency is increasing in many Western societies. Bone mineral accrual in childhood influences later bone health andoptimization may be preventive against the development of demineralizing skeletal disorders. The purpose of this PhD thesis is to investigate the association between n-3 PUFA in breastmilk and BMI development, and fat percentage; serum vitamin D status in cord blood and height development and bone mineralization; and serum vitamin D status at 4 years and bone mineralization. This is performed in the Copenhagen Prospective Study of Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000). In Study 1, breast-milk n-3 PUFA exposure from 281 mothers was expressed as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and n-6/n-3 PUFA-ratio. In 222 of the children, we registered BMI from 2-7 years and age and BMI at adiposity rebound, parameters predictive of adiposity risk. In 207of the children, we furthermore measured body fat percentage by dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA) at 7 years. We found a significant inverse association between DHA and BMI from 2-7 years, body fat 8 percentage at 7 years and a positive association with age at adiposity rebound, but the latter was only significant in the girls. We found no association between the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in breast-milk and any of the growth parameters. From these results, we conclude that early dietary DHA content may have an impact on fat tissue formation, and a potential preventive effect on the development of obesity. In Study 2 and 3, we have examined the relationship between: 1: 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) in cord blood, and - Height Development from 2 weeks to 7 years in 222 children - Bone mineralization by ultrasound of proximal phalanges at 3 years in 159 children. - Bone width and mineralization at 7 years by DXA in 189 children. 2: 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) in children at 4 years and - Bone mineralization by ultrasound of proximal phalanges at 3 years in 228 children. - Bone width and mineralization at 7 years by DXA in 249 children. Regions of interest were appendicular skeleton (arms + legs), spine, total body less head and the skull. Mineralization was defined as the mineral content (g hydroxyapatite) adjusted for projected bone area, height, weight and age and bone width was defined as projected bone area adjusted for height, weight and age. For 25OHD in cord blood we found a significant association to length/height development from 2 weeks to 7 years but not to bone mineralization or width at 3 or 7 years. For 25OHD at 4 years, we found a significant association to skull mineralization at 7 years, but not to mineralization in any other regions, a non-significant association to mineralization at 3 years and no association to bone width. From these results, we concluded that intrauterine and childhood vitamin D status has a promoting effect on bone growth and mineralization.

  17. Energy and macronutrient intake and dietary pattern among school children in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Parveen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is increasing in Bahrain and there is lack of information on the energy and macronutrient intake of children. The objective of this research was to study the energy and macronutrient intake as well as food frequency pattern of Bahraini school children. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on Bahraini school boys and girls aged 6-18 years from all the 11 populated regions of the country. Data on food intake consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall and was obtained by interviewing a sub-sample of the study population. Information was also obtained through a self-administered questionnaire for the entire sample on the weekly frequency of food items that were grouped into 7 categories based on similarity of nutrient profiles. Dietary analysis was performed using the Nutritionist 5 (First Data Bank Version 1.6 1998. Results While the average energy intake of students was close to the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK Reference standards, protein intake substantially exceeded the Reference Nutrient Intake values as did daily sugar consumption. Dietary fiber fell short of the Dietary Recommended Values (UK and 36%-50% students exceeded the Energy % limits for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The Polyunsaturated: Saturated fat ratio remained at an unacceptable level of 0.6 for girls and boys. While sweets, snacks and regular soda drinks were popular, milk, fruits and vegetables were not commonly consumed. Conclusions High sugar consumption, low intake of dietary fiber and high energy % of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol by many Bahraini children, is likely to increase their risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Nutrition education programs in schools should emphasize the importance of healthy balanced diets for growth and health maintenance of children as well as dietary prevention of diseases.

  18. Saturated fat supplementation interacts with dietary forage neutral detergent fiber content during the immediate postpartum and carryover periods in Holstein cows: Production responses and digestibility of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-05-01

    Forty-eight multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the interaction between a highly saturated free FA supplement (SFFA) and dietary forage neutral detergent fiber (fNDF) content on production responses and nutrient digestibility of dairy cows in the postpartum period. Treatment diets were offered from 1 to 29d postpartum (postpartum period; PP) and contained 20 or 26% fNDF (50:50 corn silage:alfalfa silage and hay, dry matter basis) and 0 or 2% SFFA [Energy Booster 100 (Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN); 96.1% FA: 46.2% C18:0 and 37.0% C16:0]. From 30 to 71d postpartum (carryover period), a common diet (~23% fNDF, 0% SFFA) was offered to all cows to evaluate carryover effects of the treatment diets early in lactation. During the PP, higher fNDF decreased dry matter intake (DMI) by 2.0 kg/d, whereas SFFA supplementation increased it by 1.4kg/d. In addition, high fNDF with 0% SFFA decreased DMI compared with the other diets and this difference increased throughout the PP. Treatments did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield during the PP but did during the carryover period when SFFA supplementation decreased 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield for the low-fNDF diet (51.1 vs. 58.7kg/d), but not for the high-fNDF diet (58.5 vs. 58.0kg/d). During the PP, lower fNDF and SFFA supplementation decreased body condition score loss. A tendency for an interaction between fNDF and SFFA indicated that low fNDF with 2% SFFA decreased body condition score loss compared with the other diets (-0.49 vs. -0.89). During the PP, lower fNDF and 2% SFFA supplementation decreased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DMI) by 0.30 and 0.23 units, respectively. The low-fNDF diet with 2% SFFA decreased feed efficiency compared with other diets early in the PP, but this difference decreased over time. Supplementation of SFFA in the PP favored energy partitioning to body reserves and limited DMI depression for the high-fNDF diet, which might allow higher-fNDF diets to be fed to cows in the PP. However, SFFA supplemented in the low-fNDF diet during the PP affected production negatively in the carryover period. Dietary fNDF and SFFA interacted, affecting performance in the PP with carryover effects when cows were fed a common diet in early lactation. PMID:25726102

  19. Time Trend Investigation of PCBs, PBDEs, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Selected n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Rich Dietary Fish Oil and Vegetable Oil Supplements; Nutritional Relevance for Human Essential n-3 Fatty Acid Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, M.N.; Covaci, A.; Gheorghe, A.; Schepens, P.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to being used in the food and animal feed industry, fish oils have also been used traditionallyas dietary supplements. Due to the presence of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, fish oils have therapeuticbenefits in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, immunological, and arthritic diseases, aswell as childhood deficiency diseases such as rickets, because of a high content of vitamin D. However,fish oils are also susceptible to contamination with lipophilic organic chemicals tha...

  20. Low-fat diets and energy balance: how does the evidence stand in 2002?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Arne; Astrup, Arne; Buemann, Benjamin; Flint, Anne; Raben, Anne

    2002-05-01

    The role of high-fat diets in weight gain and obesity is assessed by evidence-based principles. Four meta-analyses of weight change occurring on ad libitum low-fat diets in intervention trials consistently demonstrate a highly significant weight loss of 3-4 kg in normal-weight and overweight subjects (P < 0.001). The analyses also find a dose-response relationship, i.e. the reduction in percentage energy as fat is positively associated with weight loss. Weight loss is also positively related to initial weight; a 10 % reduction in dietary fat is predicted to produce a 4-5 kg weight loss in an individual with a BMI of 30 kg/m2. The non-fat macronutrient composition of the diet is also important. Whereas the glycaemic index of the carbohydrate may play a role for cardiovascular risk factors, there is so far no evidence that low-glycaemic index foods facilitate weight control. In contrast, intervention studies show that sugar in drinks is more likely to produce weight gain than solid sugar in foods. Although the evidence is weak, alcoholic beverages promote a positive energy balance, and wine may be more obesity-promoting than beer. Protein is more satiating and thermogenic than carbohydrates, and one intervention study has shown that an ad libitum low-fat diet where carbohydrate was replaced by protein produced more weight loss after 6 months (8.1 v. 5.9 kg). The evidence linking particular fatty acids to body fatness is weak. If anything, monounsaturated fat may be more fattening than polyunsaturated and saturated fats, and no ad libitum dietary intervention study has shown that a normal-fat high-monounsaturated fatty acid diet is equivalent or superior to a low-fat diet in the prevention of weight gain and obesity. The evidence strongly supports the low-fat diet as the optimal choice for the prevention of weight gain and obesity, while the use of a normal-fat high-monounsaturated fatty acid diet is unsubstantiated. PMID:12133213

  1. Effects of postpartum dietary fat and body condition score at parturition on plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fatty acid composition of lactating beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, S L; Weston, T R; Scholljegerdes, E J; Murrieta, C M; Alexander, B M; Rule, D C; Moss, G E; Hess, B W

    2007-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted with lactating Angus x Gelbvieh beef cows to determine the effects of postpartum lipid supplementation, BCS at parturition, and day of lactation on fatty acid profiles in plasma, adipose tissue, and milk. In Exp. 1, 36 pri-miparous cows (488 +/- 10 kg of initial BW; 5.5 +/- 0.02 initial BCS) were given ad libitum access to hay and assigned randomly to a low-fat (control) supplement or supplements with cracked, high-linoleate safflower seeds (linoleate) or cracked, high-oleate safflower seeds (oleate) from d 3 to 90 of lactation. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric; safflower seed diets provided 5% of DMI as fat. Plasma and milk samples were collected on d 30, 60, and 90 of lactation. Adipose tissue biopsies were collected near the tail-head region of cows on d 45 and 90 of lactation. In Exp. 2, 3-yr-old cows achieving a BCS of 4 +/- 0.07 (479 +/- 36 kg of BW) or 6 +/- 0.07 (580 +/- 53 kg of BW) at parturition were used in a 2-yr experiment (n = 36/yr). Beginning 3 d postpartum through d 61 of lactation, cows were fed diets similar to those of Exp. 1. Adipose tissue and milk samples were collected on d 30 and 60, and plasma was collected on d 31 and 61 of lactation. Responses to postpartum dietary treatment were comparable in both experiments. Cows fed linoleate and oleate had greater (P CLA. Milk from cows fed oleate had the greatest (P CLA in adipose tissue of cows with a BCS of 6 decreased (P = 0.001) from d 30 to 60 of lactation. Plasma and milk fatty acid composition reflected alterations in postpartum diet. Less medium-chain fatty acids and more 18-carbon fatty acids in milk were indicative of reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland of beef cows fed lipid supplements; however, the metabolic demands of lactation prevented the deposition of exogenously derived fatty acids in adipose tissue through d 90 of lactation. PMID:17060413

  2. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaella Crescenzo; Francesca Bianco; Arianna Mazzoli; Antonia Giacco; Rosa Cancelliere; Giovanni di Fabio; Armando Zarrelli; Giovanna Liverini; Susanna Iossa

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease i...

  3. Systemic stiffening of mouse tail tendon is related to dietary advanced glycation end products but not high-fat diet or cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Christian; Svensson, R B

    2014-01-01

    Tendon pathology is related to metabolic disease and mechanical overloading, but the effect of metabolic disease on tendon mechanics is unknown. This study investigated the effect of diet and apolipoprotein E deficiency (ApoE(-/-)) on mechanical properties and advanced glycation end product (AGE) cross-linking of non-weight-bearing mouse tail tendons. Twenty ApoE(-/-) male mice were used as a model for hypercholesterolemia along with 26 wild-type (WT) mice. One-half of the mice from each group was fed a normal diet (ND) and the other half was fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. All were killed at 40 wk, and tail tendon fascicles were mechanically tested to failure and analyzed for AGEs. Diets were also analyzed for AGEs. ApoE(-/-) mice displayed a 14% increase in plateau modulus compared with WT mice (P < 0.05), whereas HFD mice displayed a 13% decrease in plateau modulus (P < 0.05) and a 12% decrease in total modulus (P < 0.05) compared with ND mice. Tail tendons of HFD mice had significantly lower concentrations of AGEs [carboxymethyllysine (CML): 26%, P < 0.0001; methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1): 15%, P < 0.005; pentosidine: 13%, P < 0.0005]. The HFD had ?44-fold lower content of CML (P < 0.01), ?29-fold lower content of carboxyethyllysine (P < 0.005), and ?16-fold lower content of MG-H1 (P < 0.05) compared with ND. ApoE(-/-) increased, whereas HFD decreased mouse tail tendon stiffness. Dietary AGE content may be a crucial determinant for accumulation of AGE cross-links in tendons and for tissue compliance. The results demonstrate how systemic metabolic factors may influence tendon health.

  4. Whole Berries Vs. Berry Anthocyanins: Interactions with Dietary Fat Levels in the C57BL/6J Mouse Model of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male C57BL/6J mice received diets with either 10% of calories from fat (LF) or a high fat diet [45% (HF45) or 60% (HF60) cal. from fat] for 92 days (Expt. 1) or 70 days (Expt. 2). These were given with or without freeze dried powders from whole blueberries (BB) or strawberries (SB) (Expt. 1), or pur...

  5. Validación de un cuestionario de hábitos alimentarios asociados al consumo de grasas y azúcares / Validation of a dietary habits questionnaire related to fats and sugars intake

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Gladys, Aráuz Hernández; Marlene, Roselló Araya; Sonia, Guzmán Padilla; Gioconda, Padilla Vargas.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue validar un instrumento sicométrico para medir las prácticas alimentarias asociadas al consumo de grasas y azúcares en una población de adultos con sobrepeso y obesidad, utilizando la teoría clásica de los Test. El constructo en evaluación fue los hábitos alimentarios [...] y se utilizaron las dimensiones teóricas de exclusión, modificación, sustitución y reemplazo, las cuales fueron definidas previamente en estudios semejantes, realizados en otros países. El instrumento se validó con 139 adultos, hombres y mujeres, con índice de masa corporal mayor o igual a 25. La validez del constructo para cada dimensión del instrumento se obtuvo por medio del análisis de factores. El cuestionario final quedó constituido por 47 ítems y la confiabilidad mostró un a-Cronbach de 0,948, lo cual indica una consistencia interna altamente satisfactoria. A partir de los datos del gráfico de sedimentación y del análisis de factores, de las cuatro dimensiones de la conducta teóricas propuestas los ítems se fusionaron en dos que se renombraron “eliminación” y “modificación”; la varianza acumulada para ambas fue de 58%. El a-Cronbach para la dimensión de eliminación fue 0,906 y para modificación 0,873, que indica una elevada confiabilidad en la medición del constructo. Los resultados evidencian la necesidad de adaptar los instrumentos foráneos a nuestro contexto sociocultural antes de utilizarlos en intervenciones orientadas a modificar los patrones alimentarios; ya que éstos están interrelacionados con otros aspectos de la misma cultura. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to design and validate a psychometric tool to measure dietary practices related to the intake of fats and sugars in a sample of overweight and obese adults. Classical test theory was applied. The validated construct was dietary habits, and the following theoretical di [...] mensions were utilized: exclusion, modification, substitution and replacement. These had been previously defined in similar studies conducted in other countries. The tool was validated with 139 adults, males and females, with body mass indexes equal to or higher than 25. Construct validity for each section of the tool was obtained through factor analysis. The final tool was made up of 47 items. Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient was 0.948, which indicates a highly satisfactory internal consistency. Using sediment graph data and factor analysis of the four proposed theoretical dimensions of behavior, items were fused into two dimensions with a cumulative variance of 58%. These were renamed “elimination” and “modification”. Cronbach’s Alphas were 0,906 and 0,873, respectively, indicating a high level of reliability for construct measurement. Results show the need to adapt foreign tools to our socio-cultural context before utilizing them in interventions intended to modify dietary patterns, since these are interrelated to other aspects of the culture itself.

  6. Alternating dietary fat sources for growing-finishing pigs fed dried distillers grains with solubles: II. Fresh belly and bacon quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, N A; Apple, J K; Maxwell, C V; Yancey, J W; Johnson, T M; Galloway, D L; Bass, B E

    2013-03-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 216) were used to test the effects of phase-feeding beef tallow (BT) and yellow grease (YGr) on fresh belly and bacon quality characteristics of growing-finishing swine fed dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Pigs were blocked by initial BW (26.0 ± 5.3 kg) before allotment to pens (6 pigs/pen), and pens (6 pens/block) were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments: 1) corn-soybean meal-based grower and finisher diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during all 5 feeding phases (YG15); 2) corn-soybean meal-based diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during all 5 phases (BT15); 3) diets containing 5.0% BT fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 4.7% YGr fed the last 3 phases (YG345); 4) diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during first 3 phases and diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the last 2 phases (YG45); 5) diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the first 3 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 2 feeding phases (BT45); or 6) diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 3 phases (BT345). All dietary treatments were formulated with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) during the first 3 phases, 15% DDGS in the fourth phase, and no DDGS during the last phase. Fresh belly quality data were collected on the left-side bellies, whereas bacon from the right-side bellies was prepared under commercial processing conditions. Additionally, USDA-certified No. 1 slices were collected for cooking characteristics and sensory panel evaluations. Bellies from the YG15-fed pigs were softer (P ? 0.05) than bellies from BT15-fed pigs; however, instrumentally measured belly firmness was not (P ? 0.06) different among treatments. Concentrations of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids, as well as all SFA and all MUFA, were greater (P < 0.01) in bellies from BT15- than YG15-fed pigs. In contrast, proportions of linoleic acid, all PUFA, and iodine value were greater (P < 0.01) in belly fat from YG15-fed pigs in comparison with BT15-fed pigs. Yield of commercially processed bacon (P ? 0.06), mechanical bacon tenderness (P ? 0.69), and bacon palatability attributes (P ? 0.55) were not affected by the dietary treatments. Thus, results of this study indicated that phase-feeding BT to pigs fed diets formulated with DDGS produced minor improvements in fresh belly firmness due to greater proportions of SFA but had no effect on yields of commercially processed bacon or bacon quality characteristics. PMID:23296832

  7. Efeito da suplementação de linhaça, óleo de canola e vitamina E na dieta sobre as concentrações de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados em ovos de galinha Effect of dietary supplementation of flaxseed, canola oil and vitamin E upon polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.G. Pita

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de diferentes fontes de ácidos graxos insaturados (óleo de canola e semente de linhaça, acrescidas de diferentes teores de alfa-tocoferol nas dietas de poedeiras, sobre a composição de ácidos graxos da gema do ovo foi estudado. Foram utilizadas 288 galinhas da linhagem Babcock que receberam dietas com 6% de óleo de canola, 20% de semente de linhaça moída ou 3% de óleo de canola e 10% de linhaça moída com teores de 0, 100 e 200UI/kg de alfa-tocoferol. As dietas com 20% de semente de linhaça proporcionaram teores mais elevados de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados no ovo com aumento, em particular, dos teores de ácido alfa-linolênico e EPA (ácido eicosapentaenóico e diminuição de ácido araquidônico na gema. Os teores de vitamina E contidos nas rações experimentais não determinaram alteração significativa na deposição dos diferentes ácidos graxos na gema dos ovos, exceto com relação aos ácidos graxos saturados.The effect of dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids - canola oil and flaxseed - with different vitamin E supplementation on the fatty acid deposition into the eggs of 288 Babcock laying hens was investigated. Birds were fed diets containing 6% of canola oil, 20% of flaxseed or a combination of 3% of canola oil and 10% of flaxseed, enriched with 0, 100 or 200Ul of dl-alpha-tocopheril acetate. The inclusion of flaxseed in the diets increased the yolk polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly alpha-linolenic acid and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid. The concentration of alpha-tocopherol in the diet did not change the egg yolk, fatty acids deposition but changed the saturated fatty acids deposition.

  8. Obesity: dietary treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Steer, T; Jebb, S

    2004-01-01

    Dietary treatment of obesity should aim to reduce the risk of chronic disease. This involves reductions in energy intake to facilitate weight loss together with other changes in the composition of the diet to further decrease health risks. Assessing habitual food intake can provide useful qualitative information on a woman's eating habits. In general terms, advice should be given on reducing dietary fat, increasing unrefined carbohydrates, fruits and vegetables and avoiding too many high-fat/...

  9. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of changes in dietary fatty acid composition on macronutrient oxidation were studied on controls and 6 obese women, 30-45 years old. Anthropometry, body composition, physical activity, continuous indirect calorimetry (200 min), plasma fatty acids, serum insulin and glucose were measured. The study was performed using a crossover design: baseline and three-period 2wk each: canola oil supplementation, washout and sunflower oil supplementation. Subjects were provided with commercially available oil (1 L/wk) either canola or sunflower during the corresponding period. Oil treatment produced significant modifications of plasma fatty acid profile, according to the type of oil consumed. In both groups, most of the fat provided was oxidised (ratio oxidised/intake: 79-102%) in the two dietary regimes, no differences were found between groups. Controls however, had a higher fat oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) with sunflower compared to canola treatment. Changes in plasma polyunsaturated/saturated ratio (P/S) from canola to sunflower treatment were not associated to fat oxidation. Changes in plasma n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment showed a positive association with fat oxidation in controls (r=0. 72) and a negative association in obese (r=-0.79). Carbohydrate oxidation was on average 20-29% of CHO intake. Glucose oxidation was not associated to n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment, but it was inversely correlated to PIS ratio changes in both groups. With sunflower treatment obese showed a higher CHO oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) associated to a greater insulin response compared to controls. This study showed that the type of oil can induce differences in substrate oxidation. Canola oil intake could be stimulated based on its smaller insulin response in subjects predisposed to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. (author)

  10. Diet fat alters synaptosomal phosphatidylethanolaminemethyl-transferase activity and phosphatidylcholine synthesis in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) can be synthesized via three routes, each having potentially different metabolic fates. One route for PC synthesis is methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). To examine if dietary fat affects membrane PE composition and phosphatidylethanolaminemethyltransferase (PEMT) activity, male weanling rats were fed semi-purified diets containing 20% (w/w) fat of differing fatty acid composition for 24 days. Microsomal and synaptic plasma membranes were isolated and phospholipid composition analyzed. PEMT activity was measured by incorporation of the methyl group from 3H-S-adenosylmethionine into PE. Polyunsaturated diets high in omega 6 fatty acids produce a high ratio of omega 6/omega 3 fatty acids in synaptic plasma membranes. Dietary omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acid levels are reflected in membrane phospholipid content of 22:6(3), 20:4(6), 22:4(6) and 22:5(6). Diet-induced increase in these longer chain homologues of omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids and a high ratio of omega 6/omega 3 fatty acids in PE are both associated with increased PEMT activity. These results suggest that diet-fat induced change in fatty acid composition of membrane PE results in transition in PEMT activity and synthesis of PC in brain, by providing preferred species of PE for methylation

  11. Foods with a high fat quality are essential for healthy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevenbergen, H; de Bree, A; Zeelenberg, M; Laitinen, K; van Duijn, G; Flöter, E

    2009-01-01

    Fat is generally a highly valued element of the diet to provide energy, palatability to dry foods or to serve as a cooking medium. However, some foods rich in fat have a low fat quality with respect to nutrition, i.e., a relative high content of saturated (SFA) as compared to unsaturated fatty acids, whereas others have a more desirable fat quality, i.e., a relative high content of unsaturated fatty acids as compared to SFA. High-fat dairy products and fatty meats are examples of foods with low fat quality, whereas vegetable oils (tropical oils such as palm and coconut oil excluded) are products with a generally high fat quality. The aim of this paper is to explore the nutritional impact of products made of vegetable oils, e.g. margarines and dressings, and how they can be designed to contribute to good health. Since their first industrial production, the food industry has endeavored to improve products like margarines, including their nutritional characteristics. With evolving nutrition science, margarines and cooking products, and to a lesser extent dressings, have been adapted to contain less trans fatty acids (TFA), less SFA and more essential (polyunsaturated, PUFA) fatty acids. This has been possible by using careful fat and oil selection and modification processes. By blending vegetable oils rich in the essential PUFAs alpha-linolenic acid (vegetable omega-3) or linoleic acid (omega-6), margarines and dressings with both essential fatty acids present in significant quantities can be realized. In addition, full hydrogenation and fat rearrangement have enabled the production of cost-effective margarines virtually devoid of TFA and low in SFA. Dietary surveys indicate that vegetable oils, soft margarines and dressings are indeed often important sources of essential fatty acids in people's diets, whilst providing negligible amounts of TFA and contributing modestly to SFA intakes. Based on empirical and epidemiological data, the public health benefit of switching from products with a low fat quality to products with a high fat quality can be predicted. For example, switching from butter or palm oil to a soft margarine shows a substantial improvement in the nutritional quality of the diet. These simple, practical dietary adaptations can be expected to contribute to the healthy growth and development of children and to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. PMID:19641346

  12. Dietary manipulation of oil production in commercial emu

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Matlhoko; E.C., Webb; P., Chamunorwa.

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize emu oil production by manipulation of the dietary protein and energy ratios for greater fat accretion. The research was done at African Emu Ranch in Muldersdrift, Gauteng. Twenty-four, four to five months old emu birds were randomly allocated to three dietary [...] protein treatments, namely a standard control diet containing 170 g crude protein (CP) or a 140 and 200 CP/kg diet, all with similar metabolizable energy content. Proximate analyses were done on representative samples of the diets to confirm the nutrient composition based on AOAC techniques. Water and feed were given ad libitum. The feeding trial spanned eight weeks. The birds were slaughtered and fat yield, anatomical and histological parameters, volatile fatty acid production and carcass weights were recorded. The fat was analyzed for lipid content and composition by means of gas chromatography. Growth rates and average weight gains of the birds in different treatments did not differ. The average dressed out carcass weights for 140, 170 and 200 g CP/kg groups were 16.75, 18.65 and 19.11 kg respectively and differed between treatments. The 200 g CP diet yielded the heaviest carcasses and highest dressing percentage. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations did not differ between dietary treatments. Acetic acid was the most abundant volatile fatty acid in the distal and proximal intestines. The highest concentration of acetic acid was found in the distal ileum. A small volume of iso-butyric acid was detected in the distal ileum. Total average fat yields for the 140, 170 and 200 g CP groups were 4.1, 4.2 and 4.4 kg respectively, but fat yields did not differ between treatments. The long-chain fatty acid composition of the fat did not differ between treatment groups and consisted of saturated fatty acids (27.74%), monounsaturated fatty acids (51.80%), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (20.45%). Fatty acid composition did not differ between different anatomical fat depots in the carcass. The total mean of lipid produced in the omental and subcutaneous locations were 82% and 92.5% respectively. The results suggest that optimum emu oil production can be achieved by feeding diets with a low protein (optimum level of 140 g) to energy ratio.

  13. Saturated fat supplementation interacts with dietary forage neutral detergent fiber content during the immediate postpartum period in Holstein cows: Energy balance and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-05-01

    Forty-eight multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the interaction between a highly saturated free FA supplement (SFFA) and dietary forage NDF (fNDF) content on energy balance and metabolic responses in postpartum cows. Treatment diets were offered from 1 to 29 d postpartum and contained 20 or 26% fNDF and 0 or 2% SFFA (Energy Booster 100; 96.1% FA: 46.2% C18:0, and 37.0% C16:0). Overall, low fNDF versus high fNDF and 2% SFFA versus 0% SFFA increased digestible energy intake (DEI; 67.5 vs. 62.2 Mcal/d and 68.1 vs. 61.6 Mcal/d, respectively). The low fNDF diet with SFFA increased energy balance compared with the other treatments early during the treatment period, but treatment differences diminished over time. Overall, low fNDF versus high fNDF diets and 2% SFFA versus 0% SFFA improved energy balance (-13.0 vs. -16.3 Mcal/d and -12.0 vs. -17.3, respectively) decreasing efficiency of utilization of DEI for milk (milk NEL/DEI; 0.575 vs. 0.634 and 0.565 vs. 0.643). Low fNDF diets increased plasma insulin (308 vs. 137µg/mL) and glucose concentrations (50.5 vs. 45.7mg/dL) and decreased plasma nonesterified FA (606 vs. 917µEq/L) and ?-hydroxybutyrate (9.29 vs. 16.5mg/dL) concentrations and liver triglyceride content. Compared with 0% SFFA, 2% SFFA decreased plasma nonesterified FA concentration during the first week postpartum (706 vs. 943µEq/L) and tended to decrease plasma nonesterified FA overall throughout the treatment period, but did not affect liver triglyceride content. During a glucose tolerance test, 2% SFFA increased plasma insulin concentration more in the low fNDF diet (84.5 vs. 44.6µIU/mL) than in the high fNDF diet (40.4 vs. 38.0µIU/mL). After glucose infusion, 2% SFFA increased insulin area under the curve by 64% when included in the low fNDF diet, but only by 5.2% when included in the high fNDF diet. Even though 2% SFFA did not affect weekly plasma insulin concentration, it increased plasma insulin baseline concentration before the tolerance tests. Supplementation of 2% SFFA and low fNDF diets increased DEI and improved energy balance, but decreased apparent efficiency of utilization of DEI for milk production. Fat supplementation affected energy partitioning, increasing energy balance and decreasing body condition score loss, especially in the lower fNDF diet. The decrease in body condition score loss observed was likely related to an increase in plasma insulin concentration. Feeding SFFA in a low fNDF diet during the first 29 d postpartum might have primed the cows to limit fat mobilization at the expense of milk. PMID:25726097

  14. Children's very low food security is associated with increased dietary intakes in energy, fat, and added sugar among Mexican-origin children (6-11 y in Texas border Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity among Mexican-origin and Hispanic households is a critical nutritional health issue of national importance. At the same time, nutrition-related health conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are increasing in Mexican-origin youth. Risk factors for obesity and type 2 diabetes are more common in Mexican-origin children and include increased intakes of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. This study assessed the relationship between children's experience of food insecurity and nutrient intake from food and beverages among Mexican-origin children (age 6-11 y who resided in Texas border colonias. Methods Baseline data from 50 Mexican-origin children were collected in the home by trained promotora-researchers. All survey (demographics and nine-item child food security measure and 24-hour dietary recall data were collected in Spanish. Dietary data were collected in person on three occasions using a multiple-pass approach; nutrient intakes were calculated with NDS-R software. Separate multiple regression models were individually fitted for total energy, protein, dietary fiber, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, sodium, Vitamin C, and percentage of calories from fat and added sugars. Results Thirty-two children (64% reported low or very low food security. Few children met the recommendations for calcium, dietary fiber, and sodium; and none for potassium or vitamin D. Weekend intake was lower than weekday for calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and vitamin C; and higher for percent of calories from fat. Three-day average dietary intakes of total calories, protein, and percent of calories from added sugars increased with declining food security status. Very low food security was associated with greater intakes of total energy, calcium, and percentage of calories from fat and added sugar. Conclusions This paper not only emphasizes the alarming rates of food insecurity for this Hispanic subgroup, but describes the associations for food insecurity and diet among this sample of Mexican-origin children. Child-reported food insecurity situations could serve as a screen for nutrition problems in children. Further, the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs, which play a major beneficial role in children's weekday intakes, may not be enough to keep pace with the nutritional needs of low and very low food secure Mexican-origin children.

  15. Dietary determinants of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarized the mechanisms and influences of several major dietary determinants of weight change, with a focus on their potential in the prevention of weight gain or regain. We discussed the intake of fat, p...

  16. The major European dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Martín-Calvo, Nerea

    2013-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors that significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. The lack of universally accepted diagnosis criteria makes it difficult to know the real prevalence of MetS in both adult and pediatric population. Lifestyle, especially nutritional habits and physical activity, have been suggested to be independent risk factors for the development of MetS. Recent studies highlight the need to prioritize overall dietary patterns, rather than isolated nutrients, to better appraise the associations between nutritional habits and MetS. In this review we summarize recently published intervention trials and systematic reviews that evaluated the association between overall dietary patterns and the risk of MetS. Westernized dietary patterns, characterized by a high consumption of meat or meat products, snacks, baked desserts and sugar-sweetened beverages, which provide high amounts of saturated fatty acids and simple carbohydrates as added sugars, have been associated with higher risk of MetS. In contrast, more traditional dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP), characterized by a high consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole cereals and fish are associated with a reduced risk of MetS. The main characteristics of the MDP include a high consumption of nuts and olive oil, resulting in a relatively fat-rich pattern that provides high amounts of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, bioactive polyphenols and dietary fiber. Strong evidence is accumulating to support that a closer conformity with the MDP is inversely associated with the incidence of MetS, cardiovascular risk factors, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23979531

  17. Association of Dietary Proportions of Macronutrients with Visceral Adiposity Index: Non-Substitution and Iso-Energetic Substitution Models in a Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Nazanin; Ehsani, Behnaz; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hojjat, Parvane; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate associations between dietary macronutrient proportions and prospective visceral adiposity index changes (?VAI). The study included 1254 adults (18-74 years), from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), who were followed for three years. Dietary intakes were assessed twice using food frequency questionnaires. Associations of dietary macronutrient with ?VAI and risk of visceral adiposity dysfunction (VAD) after three years were investigated. The percentage of energy intake from protein in the total population, and from fat in women, were associated with higher increases in VAI. A 5% higher energy intake from protein substituted for carbohydrate, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was associated with higher ?VAI. Higher energy intake from animal protein substituted for PUFAs was positively associated with ?VAI. Substituting protein and PUFAs with MUFAs were related to higher ?VAI. The associations were similar in men and women, but reached significance mostly among women. Risk of VAD was increased when 1% of energy from protein was replaced with MUFAs. Substituting protein for carbohydrate and fat, and fat for carbohydrate, resulted in increased risk of VAD in women. Higher dietary proportions of protein and animal-derived MUFA may be positively associated with ?VAI and risk of VAD. PMID:26516906

  18. Association of Dietary Proportions of Macronutrients with Visceral Adiposity Index: Non-Substitution and Iso-Energetic Substitution Models in a Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Moslehi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate associations between dietary macronutrient proportions and prospective visceral adiposity index changes (?VAI. The study included 1254 adults (18–74 years, from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, who were followed for three years. Dietary intakes were assessed twice using food frequency questionnaires. Associations of dietary macronutrient with ?VAI and risk of visceral adiposity dysfunction (VAD after three years were investigated. The percentage of energy intake from protein in the total population, and from fat in women, were associated with higher increases in VAI. A 5% higher energy intake from protein substituted for carbohydrate, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs was associated with higher ?VAI. Higher energy intake from animal protein substituted for PUFAs was positively associated with ?VAI. Substituting protein and PUFAs with MUFAs were related to higher ?VAI. The associations were similar in men and women, but reached significance mostly among women. Risk of VAD was increased when 1% of energy from protein was replaced with MUFAs. Substituting protein for carbohydrate and fat, and fat for carbohydrate, resulted in increased risk of VAD in women. Higher dietary proportions of protein and animal-derived MUFA may be positively associated with ?VAI and risk of VAD.

  19. The Dietary Composition and Source of Macronutrients Determine Obesity Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrmel, Lene Secher

    2014-01-01

    The drastic worldwide increase in obesity during the last decades is accompanied with several different health disorders. The underlying mechanisms for this escalation is not clear, but certain alterations in the dietary macronutrient composition are suggested to be of importance. In addition to an elevation in energy intake, these alterations include increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and a relative decrease in protein consumption. The relative intake of dietary fat has not increased during the last decades, but the proportion of vegetable oils has increased at the expense of saturated fat and marine oils. To further investigate the importance of the macronutrient composition on obesity development, we have performed a series of mice experiments. Our results demonstrate that both the amount and source of macronutrients influence obesity development and related disorders. The anti-obesity and insulin-sensitizing effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are well described in rodents. In line with this, we show that replacing marine oil with soybean oil in salmon feed, translates into a lower content of n-3 PUFAs in salmon fillets leading to aggravated insulin resistance in mice fed salmon in a Western diet. However, a high dietary content of sucrose or other high glycemic index carbohydrates attenuate the anti-obesogenic effect of n-3 PUFAs. When casein is used as the protein source, a high protein:carbohydrate ratio prevents high fat diet induced obesity, this is observed in studies where the dietary fat is enriched with either marine n-3 PUFAs or vegetable n-6 PUFAs. The protein:carbohydrate ratio furthermore influence on the accumulation of POPs in adipose tissue. However, we also demonstrate that the protein source determines the potential of high protein diets to attenuate obesity development. The gut microbiota is less affected by alterations in protein:carbohydrate ratio and adiposity, but is altered in response to an elevated fat intake. The macronutrient composition is able to affect obesity development through direct influence on energy consuming metabolic processes, such as gluconeogenesis, amino acid degradation, urea synthesis and nonshivering thermogenesis.

  20. The combination of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and treadmill exercise lowers gain in body fat mass and enhances lean body mass in high fat-fed male Balb/C mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Sun, Dongxu; Lawrence, Richard; Mejia, Walter; McCarter, Roger; O'Shea, Marianne; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2005-05-01

    Nearly half of the U.S. adult population is overweight or obese, which may be related to increased energy intake combined with lack of physical activity. Obesity increases the risk of several chronic diseases including diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and stroke. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) were shown to decrease fat and increase lean mass in several animal studies. However, the effects of CLA in combination with exercise (Ex) on body composition have not been studied in an animal model. We examined the effect of a low concentration of either safflower oil as control (0.5%) or mixed isomers of CLA (0.4%) along with treadmill exercise on body composition in male Balb/C mice fed a high-fat diet (20% corn oil) in a 2 x 2 factorial design. CLA consumption lowered change in fat mass (P CLA and exercise. Change in lean mass did not increase with exercise alone; it increased, although not significantly, with CLA alone and increased significantly (P CLA and exercise. This effect was accompanied by decreased serum leptin levels and lower leptin mRNA expression in peritoneal fat (P CLA-fed mice than in controls (P CLA and exercise decreased fat mass and increased lean mass in mice fed a high-fat diet, and these effects may be related in part to decreased serum leptin and exercise-induced increases in oxygen consumption and energy expenditure. PMID:15867292

  1. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods. The objective ...

  2. Effects of Dietary Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Supplementation in High-Fat Fed Mice on Lipid Metabolism and Apelin/APJ System in Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Chantal; Pignalosa, Angelica; Wanecq, Estelle; Rancoule, Chloé; Batut, Aurélie; Deleruyelle, Simon; Lionetti, Lillà; Valet, Philippe; Castan-Laurell, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Various studies have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has beneficial effects on obesity and associated disorders. Apelin, the ligand of APJ receptor also exerts insulin-sensitizing effects especially by improving muscle metabolism. EPA has been shown to increase apelin production in adipose tissue but its effects in muscle have not been addressed. Thus, the effects of EPA supplementation (36 g/kg EPA) in high-fat diet (HFD) (45% fat, 20% protein, 35% carbohydrate) were studied in mice w...

  3. A controlled trial of a low sodium, low fat, high fibre diet in treated hypertensive patients: the efficacy of multiple dietary intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Little, P.; Girling, G.; Hasler, A; Trafford, A; Craven, A.

    1990-01-01

    An 8-week combination low sodium, low fat, high fibre diet was compared to the individual components of this diet in a controlled trial using 193 patients already on treatment for essential hypertension. No significant changes were observed in the high fibre group. The low sodium group showed a decrease in systolic blood pressure which was close to significance. The low fat group showed a small but significant decrease in seated diastolic blood pressure and weight. The combination group showe...

  4. The effects of a controlled worksite environmental intervention on determinants of dietary behavior and self-reported fruit, vegetable and fat intake

    OpenAIRE

    Chin A Paw Marijke; van Poppel Mireille NM; Engbers Luuk H; van Mechelen Willem

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Eating patterns in Western industrialized countries are characterized by a high energy intake and an overconsumption of (saturated) fat, cholesterol, sugar and salt. Many chronic diseases are associated with unhealthy eating patterns. On the other hand, a healthy diet (low saturated fat intake and high fruit and vegetable intake) has been found important in the prevention of health problems, such as cancer and cardio-vascular disease (CVD). The worksite seems an ideal inte...

  5. Application of dietary fish oil in dairy cow reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    ZWYRZYKOWSKA, Anna; KUPCZYNSKI, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Feed fats are commonly used as a component of high-yielding cow diet rations. Many studies have been conducted on the effects of fat supplementation on metabolism, milk composition, and improvements in dairy cow reproduction. The positive effects on fat (vegetable oil) and energy supplementation on improvements in reproduction are well documented. Consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including n-3 acids, in appropriate feed doses improves fertility of dairy cows. A fat source w...

  6. New human milk fat substitutes from butterfat to improve fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Mu, Huiling; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Xu, X.B.; Meyer, Otto A.; Orngreen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new human milk fat substitute (HMFS) was produced from butterfat. A 2-week's feeding experiment was performed using three groups of rats with 10 wt.% fat in their feed; the fat was either (1) butterfat-based HMFS + long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), (2) the reference oil + LCPUFA, or (3) the reference oil without LCPUFA. The apparent fat absorption after intake of butterfat-based HMFS (95.9% +/- 1.8%) was significantly higher than the other two groups, indicating that much less c...

  7. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enrichment alters performance and immune response in infectious bursal disease challenged broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Maroufyan Elham; Kasim Azhar; Ebrahimi Mahdi; Loh Tech; Bejo Mohd; Zerihun Hailemariam; Hosseni Fatemeh; Goh Yong; Farjam Abdoreza

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Infectious bursal disease (IBD) results in economic loss due to mortality, reduction in production efficiency and increasing the usage of antibiotics. This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory roles of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) enrichment in immune response and performance of IBD challenged broiler chickens. Methods A total of 300 day old male broiler chicks were assigned to four dietary n-3 PUFA ascending levels as the treatment groups ...

  8. Dietary patterns associated with anthropometric indicators of abdominal fat in adults / Patrones alimentarios asociados a los indicadores antropométricos de adiposidad abdominal en adultos / Padrões alimentares associados a indicadores antropométricos de adiposidade abdominal em adultos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Amélia Freitas, Vilela; Rosely, Sichieri; Rosângela Alves, Pereira; Diana Barbosa, Cunha; Paulo Rogério Melo, Rodrigues; Regina Maria Veras, Gonçalves-Silva; Márcia Gonçalves, Ferreira.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo identificar padrões alimentares e analisar a associação com a adiposidade abdominal. Estudo transversal, realizado na Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, com amostra probabilística de 208 adultos, de ambos os sexos. O consumo alimentar foi obtido por questionário de frequência [...] alimentar e aplicada análise fatorial (componentes principais) para identificar padrões alimentares. A circunferência da cintura (CC) e a relação cintura quadril (RCQ) foram indicadores de adiposidade abdominal. A associação dos padrões alimentares com adiposidade abdominal foi analisada em modelos de regressão linear múltipla ajustados por fatores de confusão. Identificaram-se três padrões alimentares: ocidental, tradicional regional e prudente. O padrão ocidental associou-se positivamente com CC (p = 0,04) e RCQ (p = 0,001) e o padrão tradicional regional associou-se também com RCQ (p = 0,05), e marginal a associação com a CC (p = 0,07) somente em mulheres. Os padrões ocidental e tradicional regional associaram à maior adiposidade abdominal em mulheres. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar los patrones alimentarios y analizar su asociación con la adiposidad abdominal. Estudio transversal, realizado en la región centro-oeste de Brasil, con una muestra probabilística de 208 adultos de ambos sexos. El consumo alimentario se obtuvo en un cuestion [...] ario de frecuencia alimentaria y para determinar los patrones alimentarios se utilizó un análisis factorial (componentes principales). El perímetro de cintura (PC) y la relación cintura/cadera (RCC) indicaron adiposidad abdominal. La asociación de patrones alimentarios y adiposidad abdominal se analizó en modelos de regresión lineal múltiple, ajustados por factores de confusión. Se identificaron tres patrones alimentarios: occidental, tradicional regional y prudente. El occidental se asoció positivamente al PC (p = 0,04) y RCC (p = 0,001), el tradicional regional se asoció también a RCC (p = 0,05) y marginal la asociación al PC (p = 0,07), sólo en mujeres. Los patrones occidental y tradicional regional se asociaron a una mayor adiposidad abdominal en mujeres. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify dietary patterns and assess their association with abdominal fat. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Central West Region of Brazil with a probabilistic sample of 208 adults of both sexes. Data on food intake was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and [...] factor analysis (principal components) was conducted to identify dietary patterns. Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were used to assess abdominal fat. The association between dietary patterns and body fat distribution was examined using multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, regional traditional, and prudent. A positive association was found between the Western pattern and WC (p = 0.04) and WHR (p = 0.001) and between the regional traditional pattern and WHR (p = 0.05) among women. A slight association was also found between the latter pattern and WC (p = 0.07) also among women. An association was found between the Western and regional traditional dietary patterns and a larger concentration of abdominal fat among women.

  9. Fat absorption and deposition in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed a high fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Mhlengi M. Magubane; Busisani W. Lembede; Erlwanger, Kennedy H.; Eliton Chivandi; Janine Donaldson

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fat contributes significantly to the energy requirements of poultry. Not all species are able to increase their absorptive capacity for fats in response to a high fat diet. The effects of a high fat diet (10% canola oil) on the lipid absorption and deposition in the liver, breast and thigh muscles of male and female Japanese quail were investigated. Thirty-eight Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly divided into a high fat diet (HFD) and a standard diet (STD) group...

  10. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L.; Arbuckle, Matthew D.; Tidwell, Jaime M.; Richards, Todd L.; Craft, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23% fat/7% saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high...

  11. Seasonal changes in the accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in zooplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwich, Melanie; Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik; Wacker, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In aquatic food webs, consumers, such as daphnids and copepods, differ regarding their accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). We tested if the accumulation of PUFAs in a seston size fraction containing different consumers and in Daphnia as a separate consumer is subject to seasonal changes in a large deep lake due to changes in the dietary PUFA supply and specific demands of different consumers. We found that the accumulation of arachidonic acid (ARA) in Daphnia increased from e...

  12. Impact of feeding polyunsaturated fatty acids on cholesterol metabolism of dyslipidemic obese rats of WNIN/GR-Ob strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheril, Alex; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M; Jayashree, Thiyyari; Giridharan, Nappan V; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula

    2009-05-01

    Dietary fatty acids are known to play an important role in the development as well as prevention of dyslipidemia. In this study, we evaluated the impact of feeding polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for a period of 4 months on various aspects of cholesterol metabolism in genetically obese mutant rats of WNIN/GR-Ob strain. Based on their phenotype, lean and obese rats were divided into two groups, A and B respectively, and further subdivided depending on the type of dietary fat. Control groups of rats (AI and BI), were fed on 4% groundnut oil, which was replaced by safflower oil; n-6 PUFA diet (AII and BII) or oil blend of safflower and soybean oil, n-6 and n-3 PUFA diet (AIII and BIII) in the experimental groups. It was observed that feeding of diets with n-6 PUFA or a combination of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs resulted in marked elevation of plasma levels of total as well as HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in obese rats (BII and BIII), as compared to the control group (BI). Further, plasma HDL fraction of obese rats had elevated apolipoprotein E (apo E), while apo A1 levels remained unaltered. Increased lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and cholesteryl ester (CE) levels in the plasma and enhanced expression of hepatic scavenger receptor class B type1 (SR-B1) were also observed in PUFA-fed obese rats (BII and BIII). However, there was no change in hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter protein A1 (ABCA1) levels in the obese rats fed on PUFA rich diets. Intriguingly, though these changes favor efficient removal of cholesterol from peripheral tissues, its esterification and enhanced clearance through reverse cholesterol transport (RCT); plasma HDL-C remained higher in these genetically dyslipidemic obese rats, thereby pointing at yet unknown mechanisms, involved in cholesterol homeostasis, which need to be studied. PMID:18848326

  13. Dietary Blueberry Attenuates Whole-Body Insulin Resistance in High Fat-Fed Mice by Reducing Adipocyte Death and Its Inflammatory Sequelae1–3

    OpenAIRE

    DeFuria, Jason; Bennett, Grace; Strissel, Katherine J; Perfield, James W.; Milbury, Paul E.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Obin, Martin S.

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation promotes insulin resistance (IR) and other obesity complications. AT inflammation and IR are associated with oxidative stress, adipocyte death, and the scavenging of dead adipocytes by proinflammatory CD11c+ AT macrophages (ATM?). We tested the hypothesis that supplementation of an obesitogenic (high-fat) diet with whole blueberry (BB) powder protects against AT inflammation and IR. Male C57Bl/6j mice were maintained for 8 wk on 1 of 3 diets: low-fat (10% of e...

  14. Aspectos metabólicos y dietarios involucrados en la etiología de la obesidad en mujeres chilenas Metabolic and dietary factors involved in the etiology of obesity in Chilean women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Díaz B

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the factors involved in the aetiology of obesity. The effect of dietary macronutrient composition on the metabolic fate of fat (oxidation or storage is emphasised. Available information on dietary intake in adults from food balance sheets or dietary surveys, show that females eat a relatively low amount of fat (50-70 g/d on average, although this seems to be rising. The increasing prevalence of obesity in our population could be related to the glycemic index of meals, their fatty acid composition and the time interval between meals. This paper compares the oxidation rates of different fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and among these, the high oxidation rates found for a-linolenic and linoleic acids. Medium chain saturated fatty acids (C8 to C12 are more likely to be oxidised in comparison with PUFA and longer chain saturated fatty acids. The latter are more likely to be directed to fat storage, particularly when they are combined with highly glycemic carbohydrates (CHO in the same meal. Given the large proportion of CHO in the usual diet, the relevance of de-novo lipogenesis from CHO is questioned. It is concluded that this route is not readily used in humans consuming normal diets. Therefore, this mechanism can not be responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity.

  15. Relationship between dietary macronutrient intake and the risk of age-related cataract in middle-aged and elderly patients in northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Quan Lu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To examine the association between dietary macronutrient intake and the risk of age-related cataract (ARC in middle-aged and elderly men.METHODS:A hospital-based case-control study was conducted from December 2009 to November 2011. Cases (n=360 were patients with cataract aged 45-85 years old, and controls (n=360 were patients who had been admitted to the same hospital for diseases not related with cataract. All subjects were interviewed using a structured interviewer-administrated questionnaire that included information on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits and detailed medical history, simultaneously, the dietary intakes of nutrients were collected via a valid semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI of three types of ARC were estimated using multiple logistic regression models.RESULTS: After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, total dietary intake of carbohydrate was positively associated with cortical cataract, compared to controls in the lowest quartile, and the OR for cases in the highest quartile of intake was 2.471 (95%CI:1.348-6.043, P=0.027. Higher dietary intakes of protein were protective for posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC (OR=0.528, 95%CI:0.148-0.869, P=0.023. Dietary fat intake was not associated with any type of cataract, however, participants in the highest quartile of polyunsaturated fatty acids intake had 2.7 times the risk of nuclear cataract as did those in the lowest quartile (OR=2.742, 95%CI:1.790-4.200, P=0.033.CONCLUSION: A high intake of carbohydrate and polyunsaturated fatty acid may increase the odds of cortical and nuclear cataract, respectively, whereas high intake of protein, especially animal protein, may protect against PSC cataract. It is possible that dietary changes of target population may reduce the risk of ARC.

  16. Dietary Supplementation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Deline, Marshall L.; VRABLIK, TRACY L.; WATTS, JENNIFER L.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways...

  17. Bioavailability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has caused greater attention about dietary intake of these fatty acids. Fatty fish is the major dietary source of these fatty acids. Because of the low intake of fish at many places, foods...... enriched with omega-3 LCPUFA can be good alternatives to improve the intake of these fatty acids. Effects of lipid structures and food matrices on bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA have been investigated. Short term studies showed that both lipid structure and food matrix affect the bioavailability of...

  18. The use of rabbits in atherosclerosis research. Diet and drug intervention in different rabbit models exposed to selected dietary fats and the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja

    used for dietary or drug intervention: 1) the cholesterol-fed normolipidemic rabbit, 2) the 1% cholesterol- fed heterozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit and 3) the homozygous WHHL rabbit. The reproductive performance and physiological blood lipid levels in growing and adult...

  19. Whole Grain Compared with Refined Wheat Decreases the Percentage of Body Fat Following a 12-Week, Energy-Restricted Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Toubro, Søren; Jensen, Morten Georg; Ross, Alastair B.; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies show inverse associations between intake of whole grain and adiposity and cardiovascular risk; however, only a few dietary intervention trials have investigated the effect of whole-grain consumption on health outcomes. We studied the effect of replacing refined wheat (RW) wi...

  20. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY FAT, CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID, AND RACTOPAMINE ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, PORK QUALITY, AND FATTY ACID PROFILES IN GENETICALLY LEAN GILTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An eight week study of the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), rendered animal fats, and ractopamine, and their interactive effects on growth, fatty acid composition, and carcass quality of genetically lean pigs was conducted. Female pigs (n = 228; initial body weight of 58.1 kg) were assign...

  1. Efficacy of dietary behavior modification for preserving cardiovascular health and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Moira McAllister; Kannel, William Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The preventive benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle exceed those reported for using medication and procedures. Among the modifiable preventive measures, diet is of paramount importance, and recent data suggest some misconceptions and uncertainties that require reconsideration. These include commonly accepted recommendations about polyunsaturated fat intake, processed meat consumption, fish choices and preparation, transfatty acids, low carbohydrate diets, egg consumption, coffee, added sugar, soft drink beverages, glycemic load, chocolate, orange juice, nut consumption, vitamin D supplements, food portion size, and alcohol. PMID:21253499

  2. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed high fat diets / Carnitina dietética mantem reservas energéticas e evita a fatiga de bagre-africano durante exercício

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, Ozório; Vincent, Van Ginneken; Guido, van den Thillart; Martin, Verstegen; Johan, Verreth.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipídios e proteínas são tradicionalmente considerados combustíveis primários durante natação aeróbica. Nesse ensaio foi investigado o efeito da suplementação de vários níveis de gordura e carnitina no metabolismo de 100 bagres africanos juvenis (Clarias gariepinus). Os peixes foram arraçoados com q [...] uatro dietas isoprotéicas, cada uma contendo 100 ou 190 g gordura kg-1 dieta, e um dos dois níveis de carnitina (15 e 1000 mg kg-1). Os peixes cresceram de 61 a 162 g em 10 semanas. No final do ensaio de alimentação, grupos de seis peixes por tratamento foram induzidos a nadar vigorosamente por 3 h e em seguida vários parâmetros foram determinados no tecido muscular e plasma, e os resultados observados nos grupos exercitados foram comparados com grupos controles (não exercitados). Os peixes arraçoados com 1,000 mg carnitina acumularam de duas a três vezes mais carnitina que os peixes arraçoados com 15 mg carnitina. O nível de acyl-carnitina no plasma foi influenciado pela interação entre os tratamentos dietéticos e exercício físico (P Abstract in english Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitr [...] ogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1). Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam vigorously for 3 h and the results were compared with unexercised groups. Fish receiving 1,000 mg carnitine accumulated 2- to 3-fold more carnitine than fish receiving 15 mg carnitine. Plasma acyl-carnitine level was affected by an interaction between dietary treatment and exercise (P

  3. Preferences Predict Food Intake From 5 to 11 Years, but Not in Girls With Higher Weight Concerns, Dietary Restraint, and % Body Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Rollins, Brandi Y; Loken, Eric; Birch, Leann L.

    2011-01-01

    Food preferences (FP) predict food intake in childhood; however, the predictive power of FP may decline among girls as weight concerns (WC) and dietary restraint (DR) increase during preadolescence. To examine longitudinal change in the preference–intake (P–I) relation and assess whether this relation weakens among non-Hispanic white girls (n = 197) with a history of WC and DR from age 5 to 11. Girls’ preferences for and intake (kcal) of 10 palat