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Dietary Fat  

Science.gov (United States)

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Dietary Fat What counts as fat? Are some fats better ... polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. How much total dietary fat do I need? The Dietary Guidelines for Americans ...

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Polyunsaturated fats attenuate the dietary phytol-induced increase in hepatic fatty acid oxidation in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of dietary phytol and the type of dietary fat on hepatic fatty acid oxidation were examined in male ICR mice. Mice were fed diets containing 0 or 5 g/kg phytol and 100 g/kg palm, safflower, or fish oil for 21 d. Among the groups fed phytol-free diets, the activities and mRNA abundance of various enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation were greater in mice fed fish oil than in those fed palm or safflower oil. Dietary phytol profoundly increased the activities and mRNA abundance of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes in mice fed palm oil. However, safflower and fish oils, especially the latter, greatly attenuated the phytol-dependent increase in hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The hepatic concentration of phytanic acid, a metabolite of phytol that is the ligand and activator of retinoid X receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, was higher in mice fed fish oil than safflower or palm oil, and in those administered safflower oil than palm oil. The hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol carrier protein-2, a lipid-binding protein involved in phytol metabolism, was inversely correlated with the hepatic concentration of phytanic acid. We demonstrated that polyunsaturated fats attenuate the enhancing effect of dietary phytol on hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Dietary fat-dependent changes in the hepatic phytanic acid concentration cannot account for this phenomenon.

Hashimoto T; Shimizu N; Kimura T; Takahashi Y; Ide T

2006-04-01

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Posttranscriptional regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by dietary polyunsaturated fat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is inhibited by the addition of polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to a high carbohydrate diet. To define the regulated step, we measured enzyme activity, accumulation of G6PD mRNA, and transcriptional activity of the gene. At steady-state, G6PD activity and mRNA abundance were inhibited by 80% in the livers of mice fed a high-fat diet (6% safflower oil) compared to mice fed a low-fat diet (1% safflower oil). Inhibition of mRNA accumulation was 20% by 4 h and was maximal by 9 h after beginning the high-fat diet. Changes in mRNA accumulation preceded changes in enzyme activity, indicating pretranslational regulation. The rapid kinetics of G6PD mRNA accumulation depended on prior dietary history of the mice. In meal-trained mice, abundance of G6PD mRNA increased by twofold within 4 h of the onset of a low-fat meal and was maximal by 12 h. In contrast, an increase in G6PD mRNA was not observed until 12 h after refeeding starved mice and the increase was maximal (12-fold) by 27 h. Transcriptional activity of the gene was measured using the nuclear run-on assay. The G6PD probes were rigorously screened for repetitive elements and for transcription of the noncoding strand of the gene. Throughout the time course of changes in G6PD mRNA accumulation due to PUFA or refeeding, transcriptional activity of the gene did not change. Therefore, regulation of G6PD expression by nutritional status occurs at a posttranscriptional step.

Stabile LP; Hodge DL; Klautky SA; Salati LM

1996-08-01

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Short term effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fat metabolism of healthy volunteers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount and quality of dietary fatty acids can modulate the fat metabolism. Objective This dietary intervention is based on the different metabolic pathways of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCFA), which are mostly stored in adipocytic triacylglycerols, medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) which are preferentially available for hepatic mitochondrial ?-oxidation and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) suggested to modulate fat oxidation and storage by stimulating the peroxisomal ?-oxidation. Combined dietary MCFA and n-3 LCPUFA without LCFA may synergistically stimulate fatty acid oxidation resulting in blood lipid clearance and LCFA release from adipocytes. Design In a short term, parallel, randomized, double-blind trial effects on the fatty acid metabolism of 10 healthy volunteers (Body Mass Index 25–30) of a formula containing 72% MCFA and 22% n-3 LCPUFA without LCFA (intake: 1.500 kcal/day; fat: 55.5% of energy) were measured in comparison to an isoenergetic formula with equal fat amount and LCFA dominated lipid profile. Results The plasma triacylglycerol (p Conclusion Combined dietary 72% MCFA and 22% n-3 LCPUFA without LCFA stimulate the fatty acid oxidation and release from adipocytes without affecting any safety parameters measured.

Beermann Christopher; Jelinek J; Reinecker T; Hauenschild A; Boehm G; Klör H-U

2003-01-01

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Dietary Fat and Toddlers  

Science.gov (United States)

... Dietary Fat and Toddlers Ages & Stages Listen Dietary Fat and Toddlers Article Body If you’re worried ... about cutting down on the amount of dietary fat he consumes. However, you should think again. Here’s ...

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A lower proportion of dietary saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces the expression of adiponectin in rats fed a high-fat diet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role for the amount of different dietary fatty acids in regulating expression of adiponectin and metabolism of glucose and lipids has been implicated, but the optimal amount has not been established yet. To address this issue, we fed male Wistar rats with either chow diet or various high-fat diets (HFDs) for 12 weeks. The HFDs contained the same percentage of fat (35% energy from fat) but had different proportions of saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated (S/M/P) (1:1.7:1.2, 1:1:1, 2:1.5:1, 1:2:1, or 1:1:2) fat. Glucose and lipid metabolism and adiponectin expression were subsequently examined. In comparison with chow diet, HFD with any proportion of S/M/P increased energy intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1:1 or 1:1:2 significantly decreased the serum triglyceride level and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison with the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1.7:1.2, 2:1.5:1, or 1:2:1. The HFD containing the highest level of saturated fatty acids (S/M/P proportion at 2:1.5:1) increased levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood glucose. Levels of serum insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index were significantly increased by HFD with S/M/P proportions at 1:1.7:1.2, 1:1:1, 2:1.5:1, or 1:2:1 but not by the HFD with the S/M/P proportions at 1:1:2 (containing the highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids). Levels of adiponectin messenger RNA in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were reduced by the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1.7:1.2 or 1:1:1 but increased by the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1:2. These changes in expression of adiponectin were inversely associated with those in levels of triglyceride, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Together, the proportion of different fatty acids in diets plays an important role in expression of adiponectin and metabolism of glucose and lipids. Specifically, the proportion of S/M/P at 1:1:2 can promote expression of adiponectin, improve metabolism of glucose and lipids, and increase insulin sensitivity.

Yang X; Zhang Y; Lin J; Pen A; Ying C; Cao W; Mao L

2012-04-01

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[Dietary fats and cardiovascular health].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although dietary fat and its role in cardiovascular prevention has been one of the most extensively studied nutritional topics, it continues to be an ever-expanding research area. Particularly thanks to studies on Mediterranean diet, we now know that fat quality is more relevant than the amount of fat we eat in the diet. Thus, saturated and trans fats have been found to increase the risk of atherogenic disease. This is why it is recommended to substitute complex carbohydrates or unsaturated fat for unsaturated and trans fats with the aim of reducing saturated and trans fat intake to <10% and <1%, respectively, of the total calorie intake. Recent population studies, particularly that conducted in Kuopio, Finland, and those on Mediterranean diet, stress the important role of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats as key nutrients in preventing cardiovascular disease in modern societies. Furthermore, a special type of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e. those of the omega-3 (n-3) series, is increasingly becoming essential nutrients for a healthy diet, especially in the case of children. Therefore, there is a rationale for four the Scientific Societies that are strongly committed to disseminate the benefits of a healthy diet in preventing cardiovascular disease, and to prepare a joint statement with the purpose of spreading improved knowledge on the importance of changing to a healthy diet with a well-balanced fat intake for industrialized populations. Accordingly, a multidisciplinary panel of experts from the following institutions has developed the present joint statement targeted at both adults and children of different ages: Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis, Spanish Society of Family and Community Medicine, Spanish Association of Paediatrics, Spanish Society of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Paediatric Nutrition and Dietetics, and Spanish Society for Food Sciences.

Fernández LC; Serra JD; Álvarez JR; Alberich RS; Jiménez FP

2011-03-01

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N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity-related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only ?-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures. No significant interactions with the dietary macronutrient composition were observed. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were not associated with absolute PUFA intake, but the macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) was associated with the n-3/n-6 ratio. CONCLUSION: In humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs, in particular ALA, is beneficially associated with body fatness. The favourable association is, however, not reflected in systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nor is it influenced by macronutrients in the diet.

Lund AS; Hasselbalch AL; Gamborg M; Skogstrand K; Hougaard DM; Heitmann BL; Kyvik KO; Sørensen TI; Jess T

2013-01-01

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Dietary polyunsaturated fat intake is associated with low-density lipoprotein size, but not with susceptibility to oxidation in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism and type II diabetes: the Hoorn study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: A high monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake is associated with lower plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. However, PUFA may increase the susceptibility of LDL to undergo oxidative modifications. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of habitual dietary fat intake with LDL size and oxidizability. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Cohort study. SUBJECTS: Seven hundred and fifty-eight subjects with normal, impaired glucose metabolism and type II diabetes. INTERVENTIONS: Mean LDL size was measured by high-performance gel-filtration chromatography. In vitro oxidizability of LDL was determined by measuring lag time, reflecting the resistance of LDL to copper-induced oxidation. Information about dietary fat intake was obtained by a validated food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: PUFA intake (energy percent) was significantly and negatively associated with LDL size in subjects with type II diabetes (standardized beta (95% confidence interval) -0.17 (-0.28;-0.06)) and impaired glucose metabolism - although not statistically significant - (-0.09 (-0.24;0.05)), but not in subjects with normal glucose metabolism (0.01 (-0.10;0.12)) (P-value for interaction=0.02). No significant associations were observed for total, saturated fat and MUFA intake with LDL size. Intake of fat was associated with lag time; however, the small magnitude of the associations suggested that the composition of dietary fat is not a major factor affecting lag time. The same association with lag time was observed in all three glucose metabolism categories. CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with abnormal glucose metabolism, higher PUFA intake is associated with smaller LDL particle size, but does not alter the susceptibility of LDL to in vitro oxidation. SPONSORSHIP: Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation, and the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO).

Bos G; Poortvliet MC; Scheffer PG; Dekker JM; Ocke MC; Nijpels G; Stehouwer CD; Bouter LM; Teerlink T; Heine RJ

2007-02-01

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Dietary fats and coronary heart disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relation of dietary fat to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) has been studied extensively using many approaches, including controlled feeding studies with surrogate end-points such as plasma lipids, limited randomized trials and large cohort studies. All lines of evidence indicate that specific dietary fatty acids play important roles in the cause and the prevention of CHD, but total fat as a percent of energy is unimportant. Trans fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils have clear adverse effects and should be eliminated. Modest reductions in CHD rates by further decreases in saturated fat are possible if saturated fat is replaced by a combination of poly- and mono-unsaturated fat, and the benefits of polyunsaturated fat appear strongest. However, little or no benefit is likely if saturated fat is replaced by carbohydrate, but this will in part depend on the form of carbohydrate. Because both N-6 and N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential and reduce risk of heart disease, the ratio of N-6 to N-3 is not useful and can be misleading. In practice, reducing red meat and dairy products in a food supply and increasing intakes of nuts, fish, soy products and nonhydrogenated vegetable oils will improve the mix of fatty acids and have a markedly beneficial effect on rates of CHD.

Willett WC

2012-07-01

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EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children

Tetens, Inge

2010-01-01

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Modulation of human postprandial lipemia by changing ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated (P/S) fatty acid content of blended dietary fats: a cross-over design with repeated measures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Postprandial lipemia (PL) contributes to coronary artery disease. The fatty acid composition of dietary fats is potentially a modifiable factor in modulating PL response. METHODS: This human postprandial study evaluated 3 edible fat blends with differing polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P/S) ratios (POL?=?0.27, AHA?=?1.00, PCAN?=?1.32). A cross-over design included mildly hypercholestrolemic subjects (9 men and 6 women) preconditioned on test diets fats at 31% energy for 7 days prior to the postprandial challenge on the 8th day with 50 g test fat. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins were monitored at 0, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 7 hr. RESULTS: Plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations in response to POL, AHA or PCAN meals were not significant for time x test meal interactions (P?>?0.05) despite an observed trend (POL?>?AHA?>?PCAN). TAG area-under-the-curve (AUC) increased by 22.58% after POL and 7.63% after PCAN compared to AHA treatments (P?>?0.05). Plasma total cholesterol (TC) response was not significant between meals (P?>?0.05). Varying P/S ratios of test meals significantly altered prandial high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations (P??AHA?>?PCAN). Paired comparisons was significant between POL vs PCAN (P?=?0.009) but not with AHA or between AHA vs PCAN (P?>?0.05). A significantly higher HDL-C AUC for POL vs AHA (P?=?0.015) and PCAN (P?=?0.001) was observed. HDL-C AUC increased for POL by 25.38% and 16.0% compared to PCAN and AHA respectively. Plasma low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations was significant (P?=?0.005) between meals and significantly lowest after POL meal compared to PCAN (P?=?0.004) and AHA (P?>?0.05) but not between AHA vs PCAN (P?>?0.05). AUC for LDL-C was not significant between diets (P?>?0.05). Palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acids in TAGs and cholesteryl esters were significantly modulated by meal source (P?dietary fats significantly affected prandial HDL-C levels without affecting lipemia.

Karupaiah T; Sundram K

2013-01-01

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Dietary fat and breast cancer risk in the Swedish women's lifestyle and health cohort  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated whether dietary intakes of total fat, monounsaturated fat (MUFA), polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) and saturated fat (SFA) were associated with breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of 49?261 Swedish women (30–49 years at enrolment), which yielded 974 breast cancer cases by December 2...

Löf, M; Sandin, S; Lagiou, P; Hilakivi-Clarke, L; Trichopoulos, D; Adami, H-O; Weiderpass, E

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Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many antiinflammatory pharmaceutical products inhibit the production of certain eicosanoids and cytokines and it is here that possibilities exist for therapies that incorporate n-3 and n-9 dietary fatty acids. The proinflammatory eicosanoids prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) are derived from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA), which is maintained at high cellular concentrations by the high n-6 and low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the modern Western diet. Flaxseed oil contains the 18-carbon n-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid, which can be converted after ingestion to the 20-carbon n-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Fish oils contain both 20- and 22-carbon n-3 fatty acids, EPA and docosahexaenoic acid. EPA can act as a competitive inhibitor of AA conversion to PGE(2) and LTB(4), and decreased synthesis of one or both of these eicosanoids has been observed after inclusion of flaxseed oil or fish oil in the diet. Analogous to the effect of n-3 fatty acids, inclusion of the 20-carbon n-9 fatty acid eicosatrienoic acid in the diet also results in decreased synthesis of LTB(4). Regarding the proinflammatory ctyokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta, studies of healthy volunteers and rheumatoid arthritis patients have shown < or = 90% inhibition of cytokine production after dietary supplementation with fish oil. Use of flaxseed oil in domestic food preparation also reduced production of these cytokines. Novel antiinflammatory therapies can be developed that take advantage of positive interactions between the dietary fats and existing or newly developed pharmaceutical products.

James MJ; Gibson RA; Cleland LG

2000-01-01

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Usual Energy Intake from Polyunsaturated Fat  

Science.gov (United States)

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Home Diet Usual Dietary Intakes: Background The NCI Method Details of the NCI Method Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04 Selected Intakes

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Dietary fat and heart failure: moving from lipotoxicity to lipoprotection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is growing evidence suggesting that dietary fat intake affects the development and progression of heart failure. Studies in rodents show that in the absence of obesity, replacing refined carbohydrate with fat can attenuate or prevent ventricular expansion and contractile dysfunction in response to hypertension, infarction, or genetic cardiomyopathy. Relatively low intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine sources alters cardiac membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, decreases the onset of new heart failure, and slows the progression of established heart failure. This effect is associated with decreased inflammation and improved resistance to mitochondrial permeability transition. High intake of saturated, monounsaturated, or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids has also shown beneficial effects in rodent studies. The underlying mechanisms are complex, and a more thorough understanding is needed of the effects on cardiac phospholipids, lipid metabolites, and metabolic flux in the normal and failing heart. In summary, manipulation of dietary fat intake shows promise in the prevention and treatment of heart failure. Clinical studies generally support high intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine sources to prevent and treat heart failure. Additional clinical and animals studies are needed to determine the optimal diet in terms of saturated, monounsaturated, and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids intake for this vulnerable patient population.

Stanley WC; Dabkowski ER; Ribeiro RF Jr; O'Connell KA

2012-03-01

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Fat Grams: How to Track Your Dietary Fat  

Science.gov (United States)

... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Fat grams: How to track your dietary fat By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ... share your e-mail address Sign up Question Fat grams: How to track your dietary fat To ...

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Polyunsaturated dietary lipids lower the selected body temperature of a lizard.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cold acclimation lowers the selected body temperature (Tb) in many ectothermic vertebrates. This change in behavioural thermoregulation is accompanied by an increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in tissues and cellular membranes. We investigated how diets containing different fatty acids, known to significantly alter the fatty acid composition of animal tissues and membranes, affect the selected Tb of the lizard Tiliqua rugosa. Lizards on a diet containing many polyunsaturated fatty acids (10% sunflower oil) showed a 3-5 degrees C decrease in Tb, whereas Tb in animals on a diet containing mainly saturated fatty acids (10% sheep fat) did not change. Our study suggests that the composition of dietary lipids influences thermoregulation in ectothermic vertebrates and may thus play a role in the seasonal adjustment of their physiology. PMID:1560116

Geiser, F; Firth, B T; Seymour, R S

1992-01-01

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Polyunsaturated dietary lipids lower the selected body temperature of a lizard.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cold acclimation lowers the selected body temperature (Tb) in many ectothermic vertebrates. This change in behavioural thermoregulation is accompanied by an increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in tissues and cellular membranes. We investigated how diets containing different fatty acids, known to significantly alter the fatty acid composition of animal tissues and membranes, affect the selected Tb of the lizard Tiliqua rugosa. Lizards on a diet containing many polyunsaturated fatty acids (10% sunflower oil) showed a 3-5 degrees C decrease in Tb, whereas Tb in animals on a diet containing mainly saturated fatty acids (10% sheep fat) did not change. Our study suggests that the composition of dietary lipids influences thermoregulation in ectothermic vertebrates and may thus play a role in the seasonal adjustment of their physiology.

Geiser F; Firth BT; Seymour RS

1992-01-01

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Modification of high saturated fat diet with n-3 polyunsaturated fat improves glucose intolerance and vascular dysfunction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The ability of dietary enrichment with monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to reverse glucose intolerance and vascular dysfunction resulting from excessive dietary saturated fatty acids is not resolved. We hypothesized that partial replacement of dietary saturated fats with n-3 PUFA-enriched menhaden oil (MO) would provide greater improvement in glucose tolerance and vascular function compared to n-6 enriched safflower oil (SO) or MUFA-enriched olive oil (OO). METHODS: We fed mice a high saturated fat diet (HF) (60% kcal from lard) for 12 weeks before substituting half the lard with MO, SO or OO for an additional 4 weeks. At the end of 4 weeks, we assessed glucose tolerance, insulin signalling and reactivity of isolated pressurized gracilis arteries. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of saturated fat diet, body weights were elevated and glucose tolerance was abnormal compared to mice on control diet (13% kcal lard). Diet substituted with MO restored basal glucose levels, glucose tolerance and indices of insulin signalling (phosphorylated Akt) to normal, whereas restoration was limited for SO and OO substitutions. Although dilation to acetylcholine was reduced in arteries from mice on HF, OO and SO diets compared to normal diet, dilation to acetylcholine was fully restored and constriction to phenylephrine was reduced in MO-fed mice compared to normal. CONCLUSION: We conclude that short-term enrichment of an ongoing high fat diet with n-3 PUFA rich MO, but not MUFA rich OO or n-6 PUFA rich SO, reverses glucose tolerance, insulin signalling and vascular dysfunction.

Lamping KG; Nuno DW; Coppey LJ; Holmes AJ; Hu S; Oltman CL; Norris AW; Yorek MA

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
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DIETARY FAT AND SPORTS NUTRITION: A PRIMER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol) choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits. Toward this end, many companies now sell specialty dietary fat supplements and recognized health authorities have begun recommending them to certain populations. This review will cover data regarding the physiology, dietary needs, food sources, and potential benefits and risks most relevant to athletes. Practical suggestions for incorporating healthy fats will be made. Both food-source and supplemental intakes will be addressed with interrelationships to health throughout.

Lonnie M. Lowery

2004-01-01

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Dietary fat, fatty acid intakes and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults: a case-control study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The associations between dietary fat intakes and the risk of colorectal cancer have been examined in many epidemiological studies, but the results have remained inconsistent. This study aimed to examine the associations of total fat and fatty acid intakes with the risk of colorectal cancer in Guangzhou, China. A case-control study was carried out between July 2010 and May 2012 in Guangzhou, China. Four hundred and eighty-nine consecutively recruited colorectal cancer cases were frequency matched to 976 controls by age (5-year interval) and sex. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary information by face-to-face interviews. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The total fat intake was not related to the risk of colorectal cancer, with an OR (95% CI) of 0.95 (0.68-1.32) comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles. Intakes of saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and n-6 polyunsaturated fat were also not associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. However, a significant inverse association was found between total n-3 polyunsaturated fat, ?-linolenic acid, and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer. The adjusted ORs of the highest versus the lowest quartile were 0.45 (95% CI=0.32-0.64, Ptrend<0.01) for total n-3 polyunsaturated fat, 0.54 (95% CI=0.38-0.76, Ptrend<0.01) for ?-linolenic acid, and 0.58 (95% CI=0.41-0.82, Ptrend<0.01) for long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fat. This study suggested that total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and n-6 polyunsaturated fat intakes were not related to the risk of colorectal cancer. However, increased consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fat might reduce the risk.

Zhong X; Fang YJ; Pan ZZ; Li B; Wang L; Zheng MC; Chen YM; Zhang CX

2013-09-01

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Dietary fats and dietary cholesterol and risk of stroke in women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Whether intakes of dietary fat and cholesterol are associated with risk of stroke remain unclear. We examined the associations between intakes of total fat, specific types of fat, and cholesterol and risk of stroke in a prospective cohort of women. METHODS: The study population consisted of 34,670 women, aged 49-83 years, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort who were free of cardiovascular disease and completed a food-frequency questionnaire in 1997. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 10.4 years, we ascertained 1680 stroke events, including 1310 cerebral infarctions, 233 hemorrhagic strokes, and 137 unspecified strokes. After adjustment for other stroke risk factors, intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was inversely associated with risk of total stroke. The multivariable RR of total stroke for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of long-chain omega-3 PUFA intake was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.72-0.99; P for trend=0.04). Dietary cholesterol was positively associated with risk of total stroke (highest versus lowest quintile: RR=1.20; 95% CI, 1.00-1.44; P for trend=0.01) and cerebral infarction (corresponding RR=1.29; 95% CI, 1.05-1.58; P for trend=0.004). Total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, ?-linolenic acid, and omega-6 PUFA intakes were not associated with stroke. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that intake of long-chain omega-3 PUFAs is inversely associated with risk of stroke, whereas dietary cholesterol is positively associated with risk.

Larsson SC; Virtamo J; Wolk A

2012-03-01

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Development and evaluation of a brief questionnaire to assess dietary fat quality in low-income overweight women in the southern United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To develop a brief questionnaire to assess dietary fat quality, the Dietary Fat Quality Assessment (DFQA), for use in dietary counseling to reduce heart disease risk. METHODS: A subsample of 120 underserved, midlife women enrolled in a randomized, controlled weight loss trial completed baseline and follow-up telephone surveys. Main outcome measures included dietary fat components (total fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, monounsaturated fat, omega-3 fatty acids, and cholesterol). RESULTS: Assessments of major dietary fat components using the DFQA and a food frequency questionnaire were significantly correlated, with correlation coefficients of 0.54-0.66 (P < .001). Intra-class correlation coefficients to assess reliability ranged from 0.48 to 0.59 for each of the fat components studied. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The DFQA provides a reasonable assessment of dietary fat quality associated with coronary heart disease risk and may prove useful as a brief assessment tool to guide dietary counseling given to reduce heart disease risk.

Kraschnewski JL; Gold AD; Gizlice Z; Johnston LF; Garcia BA; Samuel-Hodge CD; Keyserling TC

2013-07-01

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Dietary fat and colon cancer: animal models.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the past 15 years, human and animal model studies performed in our laboratory indicate that dietary fat plays an important role in the etiology of colon cancer. The effect of dietary fat during the stages of initiation and postinitiation of colon carcinogenesis depends on not only the amount of fat but also the type of fat and its fatty acid composition. Studies conducted in animal models have shown that high intake of dietary corn oil, beef fat, safflower oil, and lard increases colon carcinogenesis, whereas diets high in olive oil, coconut oil, and fish oil are without enhancing effect. The mechanisms by which various types of fat increase colon carcinogenesis are not fully understood; however, in most instances, the high-fat diet seems to enhance colon carcinogenesis through its elevation of agents that act as promoters of tumor development.

Reddy BS

1987-07-01

26

Putting the brakes on dietary fat breakdown.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dietary lipid digestion is critical for body fat storage control, but little is known about the regulation of genes involved in fat breakdown and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. A Drosophila study (Sieber and Thummel, 2009 [this issue of Cell Metabolism]) now demonstrates that the orphan nuclear receptor DHR96 adjusts fat storage in flies by tuning gastric lipase expression.

Kühnlein RP

2009-12-01

27

Health implications of high dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated Fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed "eicosanoids," which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show striking increases in the (n-6) to (n-3) ratio (~15?:?1), which are associated with greater metabolism of the n-6 PUFA compared with n-3 PUFA. Coinciding with this increase in the ratio of (n-6)?:?(n-3) PUFA are increases in chronic inflammatory diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). By increasing the ratio of (n-3)?:?(n-6) PUFA in the Western diet, reductions may be achieved in the incidence of these chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:22570770

Patterson, E; Wall, R; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P; Stanton, C

2012-04-05

28

Health implications of high dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated Fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed "eicosanoids," which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show striking increases in the (n-6) to (n-3) ratio (~15?:?1), which are associated with greater metabolism of the n-6 PUFA compared with n-3 PUFA. Coinciding with this increase in the ratio of (n-6)?:?(n-3) PUFA are increases in chronic inflammatory diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). By increasing the ratio of (n-3)?:?(n-6) PUFA in the Western diet, reductions may be achieved in the incidence of these chronic inflammatory diseases.

Patterson E; Wall R; Fitzgerald GF; Ross RP; Stanton C

2012-01-01

29

Dietary fat in breast cancer survival.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Laboratory evidence suggests a plausible role for dietary fat in breast cancer pathophysiology. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the epidemiological evidence on the impact of total dietary fat and fat subtypes, measured pre- and/or postcancer diagnosis, in relation to breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality among breast cancer survivors. Studies were included if they were in English, had a sample size ?200, and presented the hazard ratio/rate ratio for recurrence, disease-specific mortality, or all-cause mortality (n = 18). Although the results are mixed, most studies suggested that higher saturated fat intake prediagnosis was associated with increased risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Postdiagnostic trans fat intake was associated with a 45% and 78% increased risk of all-cause mortality. Higher monounsaturated fat intake before and after diagnosis was generally associated with increased risk of all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality, albeit the majority of the studies were statistically nonsignificant. Two studies evaluating omega-3 fat intake suggested an inverse association with all-cause mortality. Although there were too few studies on fat subtypes to draw definitive conclusions, high consumption of saturated fat may exert a detrimental effect on breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, whereas omega-3 fat may be beneficial. The inconsistent and limited evidence warrants research to assess the impact of consumption of fat subtypes on breast cancer recurrence and mortality.

Makarem N; Chandran U; Bandera EV; Parekh N

2013-01-01

30

New insights into the health effects of dietary saturated and omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses supporting this approach. Recent studies introducing the concept of myocardial preconditioning have opened new avenues to understand the complex interplay between the various lipids and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The optimal dietary fat profile includes a low intake of both saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and a moderate intake of omega-3 fatty acids. This profile is quite similar to the Mediterranean diet. On the other hand, recent studies have found a positive association between omega-6 and breast cancer risk. In contrast, omega-3 fatty acids do have anticancer properties. It has been shown that certain (Mediterranean) polyphenols significantly increase the endogenous synthesis of omega-3 whereas high intake of omega-6 decreases it. Finally, epidemiological studies suggest that a high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio may be the optimal strategy to decrease breast cancer risk. Thus, the present high intake of omega-6 in many countries is definitely not the optimal strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancers. A moderate intake of plant and marine omega-3 in the context of the traditional Mediterranean diet (low in saturated and omega-6 fatty acids but high in plant monounsaturated fat) appears to be the best approach to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in particular breast cancer.

de Lorgeril M; Salen P

2012-01-01

31

Study of the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids: Molecular mechanisms involved intestinal inflammation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of omics techniques in combination with model systems and molecular tools allows to understand how foods and food components act on metabolic pathways to regulate transcriptional processes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have distinctive nutritional and metabolic effects because they give rise to lipid mediated products and affect the expression of various genes involved in intestinal inflammation. The present review focuses on the molecular effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on intestinal inflammation. (Author) 74 refs.

Knoch, B.; Barnett, M. P. G.; Roy, N. C.; McNabb, W. C.

2009-07-01

32

Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and Vitamin E on serum oxidative status in horses performing very light exercise  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In sporting horses the use of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could enhance performance because these fatty acids are very important in membrane permeability, and in particular they seem to increase the possibility of long chain fatty acids entering mythochondria to be burnt. The composition of cellular membranes and lipoprotein fatty acids com- position is strictly related to dietary fat quality; percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids and amount of antioxidants also affect tissue susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Six horses were used in a latin square design in which three homogeneous groups were subsequently assigned three dif- ferent dietary treatments for one month each: Control group (C): basic diet; Oil group (O): Basic diet + 200g/day oil rich in PUFAs (Crossential GLA TG20, Croda ®); Vitamin E group (O+E): basic diet + 200 g/day oil rich in PUFAs (Crossential GLA TG20, Croda ®) + 5 g/day ?-toco- pheryl-acetate (Egon-E, Acme ®). At the end of each experimental period blood samples were taken by jugular vein puncture. Serum oxidative status was evaluated by TBARs and d-ROMs assessment. Oxidative markers showed the high- est mean values for the oil group, even if no statistically significant differences were found.

Domenico Bergero; Nicoletta Miraglia; Achille Schiavone; Mimmo Polidori; Liviana Prola

2010-01-01

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Clinical Overview of Effects of Dietary Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids during the Perinatal Period.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current report provides a brief background introducing 30 years of research on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and infant development, but focuses mainly on challenges for future studies. Infants fed formulas containing only vegetable fats were found to have lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) status than infants fed human milk. Studies soon focused on efforts to improve LC-PUFA status and evaluate functions suggested by early primate studies of DHA deficiency. Despite evidence for the importance of these fatty acids for development, particularly DHA, several recent meta-analyses conclude dietary supplementation does not enhance development. Future studies should employ (1) more finely grained measures of brain development as opposed to global measures, and (2) tests that evaluate development later in childhood when children are able to be tested on more complex behaviors (if found effective these would also be evidence of early brain programming). (3) Studies are needed to understand the cause of high variability in transfer of DHA to the fetus. (4) Finally, the role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the fatty acid desaturase genes 1 and 2 of mother and infant needs study to determine how they affect requirements for these fatty acids by the fetus/infant. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

Scholtz SA; Colombo J; Carlson SE

2013-01-01

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Effects of different dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of three different lipid sources (soybean oil, chicken oil or bovine fat) on the abdominal fat fatty acid composition in 50 day-old broiler chickens was evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatments, 8 repetitions and 40 Arbor Acres broiler chicks of each sex. The four treatments were isocaloric and isoproteic with the following characteristics: T1 Control (Soybean-corn); T2 Control + 3% soybean oil; T3 Control + 3% chicken oil; and T4 Control + 3% bovine fat. The lipids from the diets had significantly statistical effects (p<0,05) on the fatty acid composition of broiler abdominal fat. Multivariate techniques also showed differences in fatty acid composition within treatments due to sex. The studied dietary lipids affected the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) but had only small effects on the n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio.

SG Rondelli; O Martinez; PT García

2004-01-01

35

OXIDATIVE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT DIETARY FATS ON MOUSE DNA DETECTED BY COMET ASSAY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Here we report on the introduction of the Comet assay for the in vivo testing of oxidative effects of different polyunsaturated dietary fats on mouse nuclear DNA. Five groups of mice were fed with the diet of the same composition but with different fat supplementation: 1st group - oleic acid rich sunflower oil, 2nd group - sunflower oil, 3rd gruop - rape oil, 4th group - lard, 5thgroup - control group. Fats with different degrees of unsaturation have caused different degrees of mice DNA damage. The highest degree of DNA damage (2.72) was found in the group fed with oleic acid rich sunflower oil. The lowest degree of DNA damage was found in the control group. The results obtained indicate that Comet assay is sensitive enough to differentiate the quality of nutritional fats from the view of free radicals formation.

Romana Marinšek Logar; Karl Salobir

2000-01-01

36

Dietary polyunsaturated n-6 lipids effects on the growth and fatty acid composition of rat mammary tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a polyunsaturated n-6 high-fat diet on rat DMBA-induced breast cancer at different stages of the carcinogenesis and to investigate if changes in the tumor fatty acid composition are one of the mechanisms by which dietary lipids could exert their effects. 14 fatty acids were evaluated in 6 lipid fractions. The results firstly showed that this high-fat diet stimulated the malignant mammary tumor growth, mainly all in the promotion group. The tumor lipid analysis indicated: 1) that each lipid fraction presented distinct major fatty acids (>5%) which were not the most abundant in the diet, except in the case of the triacylglicerides, suggesting the different resistance to dietary fatty acid modification of the tumor lipid fractions; 2) a higher arachidonic acid content in the fractions with less linoleic acid, above all in phospholipids, particularly in the phosphatidylethanolamine, indicating a different efficiency of conversion; 3) the three most abundant fatty acids in the dietary lipid (18:2n-6, 18:1n-9 and 16:0) were those which essentially displayed the differences between groups; thus, the high-fat diet changed the tumor lipid profile, increasing the 18:2n-6 relative content and decreasing that of the 18:1n-9; differences were significant in phosphatidylcholine, free fatty acids and triacylglycerides. Any change was obtained in the phosphatidylinositol. The greatest number of differences was found in the promotion group. Taken as a whole, our results suggest the different roles of lipid fractions in breast cancer cells and an association between cancer malignancy and the content of linoleic and oleic acids. PMID:11834214

Escrich, E; Solanas, M; Soler, M; Ruiz de Villa, M C.; Sanchez, J A.; Segura, R

2001-09-01

37

Dietary polyunsaturated n-6 lipids effects on the growth and fatty acid composition of rat mammary tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a polyunsaturated n-6 high-fat diet on rat DMBA-induced breast cancer at different stages of the carcinogenesis and to investigate if changes in the tumor fatty acid composition are one of the mechanisms by which dietary lipids could exert their effects. 14 fatty acids were evaluated in 6 lipid fractions. The results firstly showed that this high-fat diet stimulated the malignant mammary tumor growth, mainly all in the promotion group. The tumor lipid analysis indicated: 1) that each lipid fraction presented distinct major fatty acids (>5%) which were not the most abundant in the diet, except in the case of the triacylglicerides, suggesting the different resistance to dietary fatty acid modification of the tumor lipid fractions; 2) a higher arachidonic acid content in the fractions with less linoleic acid, above all in phospholipids, particularly in the phosphatidylethanolamine, indicating a different efficiency of conversion; 3) the three most abundant fatty acids in the dietary lipid (18:2n-6, 18:1n-9 and 16:0) were those which essentially displayed the differences between groups; thus, the high-fat diet changed the tumor lipid profile, increasing the 18:2n-6 relative content and decreasing that of the 18:1n-9; differences were significant in phosphatidylcholine, free fatty acids and triacylglycerides. Any change was obtained in the phosphatidylinositol. The greatest number of differences was found in the promotion group. Taken as a whole, our results suggest the different roles of lipid fractions in breast cancer cells and an association between cancer malignancy and the content of linoleic and oleic acids.

Escrich E; Solanas M; Soler M; Ruiz de Villa MC; Sanchez JA; Segura R

2001-09-01

38

Effect of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on experimental periodontitis in the mouse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Periodontitis is an infective disease caused predominantly by gram-negative anerobes. The host inflammatory response to these bacteria causes alveolar bone loss, which characterizes periodontitis. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have recognized anti-inflammatory effects; their oxygenated derivatives are key mediators in reducing inflammation. In this study we tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with tuna fish oil rich in the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid, would reduce alveolar bone loss in mice inoculated with periodontopathic bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult mice were fed experimental diets containing either 10% tuna oil or Sunola oil for 57 d. After 14 d, 35 mice on each diet were inoculated orally with Porphyromonas gingivalis, with a mixture of P. gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, with carboxymethylcellulose or remained untreated. The mice were killed, and soft tissue biopsies from the oral cavity of treated mice were used to determine the polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations. The maxilla was removed, stained and digitally imaged to assess bone loss around the upper molars. RESULTS: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were significantly higher in oral soft tissues of mice fed tuna oil compared with the control group. Mice fed tuna oil and inoculated with P. gingivalis or with the combination of F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis exhibited 72% and 54% less alveolar bone loss respectively, compared with the treatment control group. CONCLUSION: Alveolar bone loss was inversely related to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid tissue levels. In conclusion, fish oil dietary supplementation may have potential benefits as a host modulatory agent in the prevention and/or adjunctive management of periodontitis.

Bendyk A; Marino V; Zilm PS; Howe P; Bartold PM

2009-04-01

39

Dietary fat intake, circulating and membrane fatty acid composition of healthy Norwegian men and women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to assess the dietary fat intake and blood fatty acid status of healthy Norwegian men and women living in Bergen whose habitual diet is known to be high in long-chain omega-3 fat. METHODS: Healthy men (n = 41) and women (n = 40) aged 20-50 years who were regular blood donors completed 7-day food diaries and their nutrient intake was analysed by Norwegian food database software, kbs, version 4.9 (kostberegningssystem; University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway). Blood samples were obtained before blood donation and assessed for the fatty acid composition of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol esters, phosphatidylcholine, and red cell phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. RESULTS: There was no difference in dietary fat intake between men and women. Total and saturated fat intakes exceeded the upper limits of the recommendations of the National Nutrition Council of Norway. Although polyunsaturated fat intake was close to the lower limit of the recommended level, the intake varied greatly among individuals, partly as a result of the use of supplementary fish oil. Moreover, the proportional fatty acid composition of plasma and red cell lipids was similar between men and women. Enrichment of docosahexaenoic acid in red cell phosphatidylethanolamine was found in fish oil users. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study provide a snapshot of the current nutritional status of healthy Norwegian adults. Moreover, the detailed blood fatty acid composition of men and women whose habitual diet constitutes high long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fat as well as saturated fat could be used as reference value for population studies.

Min Y; Blois A; Geppert J; Khalil F; Ghebremeskel K; Holmsen H

2013-04-01

40

Dietary fat intake and quality of life: the SUN project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have related nutritional factors with quality of life in healthy populations. The purpose of the study was to assess whether dietary fat intake is associated to mental and physical quality of life. Methods This analysis included 8,430 participants from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project. The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was assessed through a 136-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Quality of life was measured with the SF-36 Health Survey after 4 years of follow-up. Generalized Linear Models were fitted to assess the regression coefficients (b) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the 8 domains of the SF-36 according to successive quintiles of each kind of fatty acids intake. Results The multivariate-adjusted models revealed a significant inverse association for SFA intake (in quintiles) and two of the physical domains (physical functioning and general health). E.g. for general health domain: (highest quintile of intake (Q5) vs. lowest quintile (Q1), b = -1.6; 95% CI = -3.1, -0.1. General health also showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend Conclusions A detrimental relationship between TFA intake at baseline and most of the SF-36 mental domains measured 4 years later were found, whereas weak inverse associations were found for SFA intake and some physical domains.

Ruano Cristina; Henriquez Patricia; Bes-Rastrollo Maira; Ruiz-Canela Miguel; del Burgo Cristina; Sánchez-Villegas Almudena

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Metabolic and Histological Effects of Different Polyunsaturated Fat Types in the Diet: Omega-3 and Omega-6  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fats and omega 3 supplements in human and animal nutrition have been widely discussed and established though clinical and experimental studies. In this study the High-Fat (HF) diet rodent models were used to evaluate the effects high doses of two polyunsaturated fats omega-3 and omega-6 on metabolic parameters and histology of liver and kidney. Male and female Wistar rats were fed High-Fat (HF) diets containing Omega-3 fish oil supplements (HF-F) and Omega-6 corn oil (HF-C) at a level that was equivalent to three times the maximum safe daily dosage and the control group was fed with regular laboratory chow. Body weight and plasma parameters of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured after a 8 week diet course. Rats fed both the high fat oil based diets (HF-F, HF-C) reported a significantly higher body weight gain than the control group. Plasma triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the high fat diets being highest in the fish oil based diet. Both the high fat diets fed animals (HF-F, HF-C) showed pronounced hepatic micro vesicular steaosis and renal interstitial inflammation in comparison with the control in the histological studies. Thus this study demonstrated that high fat diets with polyunsaturated fats including omega-3 rich fish oil could induce dyslipidemia and obesity in rodent models reflecting signs of metabolic syndrome in the humans.

Maha Hasan Daghestani; Promy Virk; Ayman EL-Meghawry EL-Kenawy

2012-01-01

42

Dietary omega-3 fatty acids, other fat intake, genetic susceptibility, and progression to incident geographic atrophy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between dietary omega-3 fatty acids and other fat intake, genes related to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and progression to geographic atrophy (GA). DESIGN: Observational analysis of a prospective cohort. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2531 individuals from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study, among which 525 eyes progressed to GA and 4165 eyes did not. METHODS: Eyes without advanced AMD at baseline were evaluated for progression to GA. Behavioral data, including smoking and body mass index measurements, were collected at baseline using questionnaires. Dietary data were collected from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) at baseline. Omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]), omega-6 fatty acids, monounsaturated, saturated, polyunsaturated, and total fat were adjusted for sex and calories and divided into quintiles (Q). Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in 7 genes (CFH, ARMS2/HTRA1, CFB, C2, C3, CFI, and LIPC) were genotyped. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test for associations between incident GA and intake of dietary lipids and interaction effects between dietary fat intake and genetic variation on risk of GA. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Associations between dietary fat intake reported from FFQs, genetic variants, and incident GA. RESULTS: Increased intake of DHA was significantly associated with reduced risk of progression to GA in models with behavioral factors (model A) plus genetic variants (model B) (P trend = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Total omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated (DHA + EPA) fatty acid intake was significantly associated with reduced risk of progression in model B (P trend = 0.02). Monounsaturated fat was associated with increased risk in model A (P trend = 0.05). DHA intake was significantly associated with reduced risk of incident GA among those with the ARMS2/HTRA1 homozygous risk genotype (hazard ratio [HR] Q5 vs Q1, 0.4; P = 0.002; P for interaction between gene and fat intake = 0.05). DHA was not associated with reduced risk of GA among those with the homozygous ARMS2/HTRA1 nonrisk genotype (HR, 1.0; P = 0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Increased self-reported dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with reduced risk of GA and may modify genetic susceptibility for progression to GA. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

Reynolds R; Rosner B; Seddon JM

2013-05-01

43

Study of the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids: Molecular mechanisms involved in intestinal inflammation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of «omic» techniques in combination with model systems and molecular tools allows to understand how foods and food components act on metabolic pathways to regulate transcriptional processes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have distinctive nutritional and metabolic effects because they give rise to lipid mediated products and affect the expression of various genes involved in intestinal inflammation. The present review focuses on the molecular effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on intestinal inflammation.El uso de técnicas «omic» en combinación con sistemas modelo y herramientas moleculares nos permiten entender como los alimentos y sus componentes actúan en las rutas metabólicas que regulan los procesos transcripcionales. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados tienen efectos nutricionales y metabólicos diferenciadores porque producen una elevación de los productos regulados por lípidos y afectan a la expresión de varios genes involucrados en la inflamación intestinal. La presente revisión se enfoca en los efectos moleculares de los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de la dieta en la inflamación intestinal.

McNabb, Warren C.; Roy, Nicole C.; Barnett, Matthew P.G.; Knoch, Bianca

2009-01-01

44

Dietary fat intake and risk of Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present case-control study examined the relationship between dietary intake of individual fatty acids and the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Japan. Included were 249 cases within 6 years of onset of PD. Controls were 368 inpatients and outpatients without a neurodegenerative disease. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Compared with arachidonic acid intake in the first quartile, consumption of that in the fourth quartile was significantly related to an increased risk of PD: the adjusted odds ratio between extreme quartiles was 2.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.21-3.64, P for trend=0.008). Cholesterol intake was also significantly positively associated with the risk of PD: the adjusted odds ratio between extreme quartiles was 1.78 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-3.05, P for trend=0.01). Consumption of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and linoleic acid and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake were not associated with PD. Higher consumption of arachidonic acid and cholesterol may be related to an increased risk of PD.

Miyake Y; Sasaki S; Tanaka K; Fukushima W; Kiyohara C; Tsuboi Y; Yamada T; Oeda T; Miki T; Kawamura N; Sakae N; Fukuyama H; Hirota Y; Nagai M

2010-01-01

45

Dietary alpha-linolenic acid enhances omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in chicken tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of enriching broiler chicken diets with a vegetable source of n-3 fat in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) on the accumulation of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in chicken meat were investigated. Sixty unsexed one-day-old broiler chickens (Cobb 500) were randomly allocated to one of six diets (n=10 birds/diet) for 4 weeks. The ALA levels varied from 1 to 8% energy (%en) while the level of the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) was held to less than 5%en in all diets. At harvest (day 28) the levels of n-3 LCPUFA including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in breast and thigh meat increased in a curvilinear manner as dietary ALA increased, reaching 4- to 9-fold above the levels seen in control birds. In contrast, arachidonic acid (AA) was reduced in response to increasing dietary ALA. PMID:22925778

Kartikasari, L R; Hughes, R J; Geier, M S; Makrides, M; Gibson, R A

2012-08-24

46

Dietary alpha-linolenic acid enhances omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in chicken tissues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of enriching broiler chicken diets with a vegetable source of n-3 fat in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) on the accumulation of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in chicken meat were investigated. Sixty unsexed one-day-old broiler chickens (Cobb 500) were randomly allocated to one of six diets (n=10 birds/diet) for 4 weeks. The ALA levels varied from 1 to 8% energy (%en) while the level of the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) was held to less than 5%en in all diets. At harvest (day 28) the levels of n-3 LCPUFA including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in breast and thigh meat increased in a curvilinear manner as dietary ALA increased, reaching 4- to 9-fold above the levels seen in control birds. In contrast, arachidonic acid (AA) was reduced in response to increasing dietary ALA.

Kartikasari LR; Hughes RJ; Geier MS; Makrides M; Gibson RA

2012-10-01

47

Dietary polyunsaturated Fatty acids and inflammation: the role of phospholipid biosynthesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The composition of fatty acids in the diets of both human and domestic animal species can regulate inflammation through the biosynthesis of potent lipid mediators. The substrates for lipid mediator biosynthesis are derived primarily from membrane phospholipids and reflect dietary fatty acid intake. Inflammation can be exacerbated with intake of certain dietary fatty acids, such as some ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and subsequent incorporation into membrane phospholipids. Inflammation, however, can be resolved with ingestion of other fatty acids, such as ?-3 PUFA. The influence of dietary PUFA on phospholipid composition is influenced by factors that control phospholipid biosynthesis within cellular membranes, such as preferential incorporation of some fatty acids, competition between newly ingested PUFA and fatty acids released from stores such as adipose, and the impacts of carbohydrate metabolism and physiological state. The objective of this review is to explain these factors as potential obstacles to manipulating PUFA composition of tissue phospholipids by specific dietary fatty acids. A better understanding of the factors that influence how dietary fatty acids can be incorporated into phospholipids may lead to nutritional intervention strategies that optimize health.

Raphael W; Sordillo LM

2013-01-01

48

Dietary fat increases quercetin bioavailability in overweight adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SCOPE: Epidemiologic evidence supports that dietary quercetin reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but its oral bioavailability is paradoxically low. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary fat would improve quercetin bioavailability in adults at high risk for CVD and to assess lipid-mediated micellarization of quercetin in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a randomized, cross-over study, overweight/obese men and postmenopausal women (n = 4 M/5 F; 55.9 ± 2.1 years; 30.8 ± 1.4 kg/m(2) ) ingested 1095 mg of quercetin aglycone with a standardized breakfast that was fat-free (<0.5 g), low-fat (4.0 g), or high-fat (15.4 g). Plasma was obtained at timed intervals for 24 h to measure quercetin and its methylated metabolites isorhamnetin and tamarixetin. Compared to the fat-free trial, plasma quercetin maximum concentration (Cmax ), and area under curve (AUC0-24 h ) increased (p < 0.05) by 45 and 32%, respectively, during the high-fat trial. During the high-fat trial, isorhamnetin Cmax and AUC0-24 h also increased by 40 and 19%, respectively, whereas Cmax and AUC0-24 h of tamarixetin increased by 46 and 43%, respectively. Dietary fat dose-dependently increased micellarization efficiency of quercetin aglycone in vitro. CONCLUSION: Dietary fat improves quercetin bioavailability by increasing its absorption, likely by enhancing its micellarization at the small intestine.

Guo Y; Mah E; Davis CG; Jalili T; Ferruzzi MG; Chun OK; Bruno RS

2013-05-01

49

Dietary intake in HIV-infected men with lipodystrophy: relationships with body composition, visceral fat, lipid, glucose and adipokine metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-infection is associated with lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, increased prevalence of disturbances in glucose tolerance and diabetes, hyperlipidemia and increased cardiovascular risk. Whether dietary intake influences total body fat, visceral fat, insulin resistance, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and circulating inflammatory markers in HIV-infected subjects with lipodystrophy is unclear and the focus of this report. We examined the dietary intake of 106 male HIV-infected HAART-recipients with lipodystrophy, enrolled in a study of the effects of rosiglitazone. All subjects had normal glucose tolerance. Dietary intakes were determined at study entry using Food Frequency Questionnaires and examined cross-sectionally against body composition by dual-energy Xray absorptiometry, visceral obesity by computed tomography, fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, adiponectin, leptin, insulin resistance (by HOMA). Energy underreporters were identified and excluded. After exclusion of underreporters (n = 22) we found no relationships between diet composition (% dietary fat, %carbohydrate) and BMI, %body fat and visceral adiposity (p>0.3). Only modest relationships were found between BMI and fat subtypes: polyunsaturated fats (g/day) (r = 0.14, p = 0.007), monounsaturated fat (g/d) (r = 0.06, p = 0.001), saturated fat (g/d) (r = 0.02, p0.4). Fat subtype did not relate to fasting insulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, adiponectin. In conclusion, there are weak relationships between saturated fat intake and adiposity in HIV-infected subjects with lipodystrophy, using gold standard measures of body fat. There were no relationships between nutrient intake and visceral adiposity, any measure of glucose metabolism, insulin resistance or adipokines. Only interventional, prospective studies will determine whether any nutritional strategy can assist in ameliorating the metabolic complications associated with HIV lipodystrophy. PMID:19601783

Samaras, Katherine; Wand, Handan; Law, Matthew; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A; Carr, Andrew

2009-07-01

50

Associations between plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids, plasma stearoyl-CoA desaturase indices and body fat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 deficient mice are resistant to obesity and plasma SCD indices are related to obesity in humans. Both n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) regulate expression of the SCD enzymes. Whether higher plasma PUFA were associated with lower SCD indices in humans was examined. DESIGN AND METHODS: Population-based study of 2,021 elderly subjects from the Hordaland Health Study. Using multivariate linear regression, the cross-sectional associations among plasma PUFA, estimated SCD indices (from fatty acid profiles in plasma total lipids), and fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were explored. Two plasma SCD indices were used: SCD-16 (16:1n-7/16:0) and SCD-18 (18:1n-9/18:0). RESULTS: Plasma total, n-6 and n-3 PUFA were inversely associated with both SCD indices (P?fat (P?fat.

Vinknes KJ; Elshorbagy AK; Drevon CA; Nurk E; Tell GS; Nygård O; Vollset SE; Refsum H

2013-09-01

51

Associations of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids with bone mineral density in elderly women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Significance of dietary fatty acids on bone health is not clear, and the evidence is controversial. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and bone mineral density (BMD) among elderly women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Subjects (n=554) were drawn from the Kuopio OSTPRE Fracture Prevention Study. At baseline they filled a 3-day food record and a questionnaire on lifestyle factors, diseases and medications. BMD was measured at lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck and total body by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after 3 years. The associations between dietary fatty acids and BMD were analyzed by a linear mixed model adjusting for potential dietary and non-dietary confounders. RESULTS: Our findings suggested a positive relationship between the dietary PUFAs and BMD at lumbar spine and in total body but not at femoral neck. Further analyses revealed that these results were due to associations among the women without hormone therapy (HT) at baseline. Among them, the intake of total PUFAs as well the intakes of linoleic and linolenic acids and total n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were significantly associated with BMD at lumbar spine; P for trend over the quartiles ranged between 0.013 and 0.001. Similarly, significant associations were demonstrated for total body BMD and fatty acids with an exception of total PUFA. No significant associations were found among women with HT at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings among elderly women without HT support the suggested beneficial effect of dietary PUFAs on bone health.

Järvinen R; Tuppurainen M; Erkkilä AT; Penttinen P; Kärkkäinen M; Salovaara K; Jurvelin JS; Kröger H

2012-04-01

52

Composition of Dietary Fat Source Shapes Gut Microbiota Architecture and Alters Host Inflammatory Mediators in Mouse Adipose Tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Growing evidence shows that dietary factors can dramatically alter the gut microbiome in ways that contribute to metabolic disturbance and progression of obesity. In this regard, mesenteric adipose tissue has been implicated in mediating these processes through the elaboration of proinflammatory adipokines. In this study, we examined the relationship of these events by determining the effects of dietary fat content and source on gut microbiota, as well as the effects on adipokine profiles of mesenteric and peripheral adipocytes. Methods: Adult male C57Bl/6 mice were fed milk fat-based, lard-based (saturated fatty acid sources), or safflower oil (polyunsaturated fatty acid)-based high-fat diets for 4 weeks. Body mass and food consumption were measured. Stool 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was isolated and analyzed via terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism as well as variable V3-4 sequence tags via next-generation sequencing. Mesenteric and gonadal adipose samples were analyzed for both lipogenic and inflammatory mediators via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: High-fat feedings caused more weight gain with concomitant increases in caloric consumption relative to low-fat diets. In addition, each of the high-fat diets induced dramatic and specific 16S rRNA phylogenic profiles that were associated with different inflammatory and lipogenic mediator profiles of mesenteric and gonadal fat depots. Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that dietary fat composition can both reshape the gut microbiota and alter host adipose tissue inflammatory/lipogenic profiles. They also demonstrate the interdependency of dietary fat source, commensal gut microbiota, and inflammatory profile of mesenteric fat that can collectively affect the host metabolic state. PMID:23639897

Huang, Edmond Y; Leone, Vanessa A; Devkota, Suzanne; Wang, Yunwei; Brady, Matthew J; Chang, Eugene B

2013-05-01

53

Composition of Dietary Fat Source Shapes Gut Microbiota Architecture and Alters Host Inflammatory Mediators in Mouse Adipose Tissue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Growing evidence shows that dietary factors can dramatically alter the gut microbiome in ways that contribute to metabolic disturbance and progression of obesity. In this regard, mesenteric adipose tissue has been implicated in mediating these processes through the elaboration of proinflammatory adipokines. In this study, we examined the relationship of these events by determining the effects of dietary fat content and source on gut microbiota, as well as the effects on adipokine profiles of mesenteric and peripheral adipocytes. Methods: Adult male C57Bl/6 mice were fed milk fat-based, lard-based (saturated fatty acid sources), or safflower oil (polyunsaturated fatty acid)-based high-fat diets for 4 weeks. Body mass and food consumption were measured. Stool 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was isolated and analyzed via terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism as well as variable V3-4 sequence tags via next-generation sequencing. Mesenteric and gonadal adipose samples were analyzed for both lipogenic and inflammatory mediators via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: High-fat feedings caused more weight gain with concomitant increases in caloric consumption relative to low-fat diets. In addition, each of the high-fat diets induced dramatic and specific 16S rRNA phylogenic profiles that were associated with different inflammatory and lipogenic mediator profiles of mesenteric and gonadal fat depots. Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that dietary fat composition can both reshape the gut microbiota and alter host adipose tissue inflammatory/lipogenic profiles. They also demonstrate the interdependency of dietary fat source, commensal gut microbiota, and inflammatory profile of mesenteric fat that can collectively affect the host metabolic state.

Huang EY; Leone VA; Devkota S; Wang Y; Brady MJ; Chang EB

2013-05-01

54

Dietary fat level and alcohol-induced pancreatic injury  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects of dietary fat levels on alcohol-induced pancreatic injury were studied in a rat model which achieves sustained blood alcohol levels and maximal nutritional control. A diet containing 5, 25, or 35% of fat (corn oil; % total calories) and either ethanol or isocaloric dextrose were intragastrically infused in male Wistar rats for 30-120 days. Following intoxication, the pancreatic pathology was examined light-microscopically. None of pair-fed controls showed abnormal pancreas histology. These results indicate potentiation of alcohol-induced pancreatic injury. Particularly higher incidence of chronic interstitial pancreatitis with increased dietary fat.

Towner, S.J.; Inomata, T.; Largman, C.; French, S.W.

1986-03-01

55

Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA, and slaughtered at an average BW of 117 ± 4.9 kg. Transcription of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), delta-6-desaturase (D6D), and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) were determined by real-time PCR in longissimus thoracis (LT) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles, LT subcutaneous and SM intermuscular fat, and in the liver. Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed using gas chromatography in these tissues, except for SM intermuscular fat. Dietary CLA increased PPAR? in LT muscle (P < 0.05), whereas CLA reduced PPAR? transcription in all tissues studied (P < 0.05) with the exception of intermuscular fat. Transcription of genes related to FA synthesis was reduced by CLA in SM muscle and liver (SREBP1, both P < 0.1; ACC, P < 0.01 in SM; and FAS, P < 0.01 in liver), whereas CLA reduced (P < 0.05) LPL and D6D transcriptions in SM muscle and reduced (P < 0.05) SCD in liver but increased (P < 0.05) SCD in LT muscle and intermuscular fat. Saturated FA were increased in all studied tissues (P < 0.01), while monosaturated and polyunsaturated FA were reduced in a tissue-specific way by CLA. It was concluded that dietary CLA affected transcription of genes and fat metabolism in a tissue-specific manner.

Tous, Nuria; Theil, Peter Kappel

2012-01-01

56

Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA, and slaughtered at an average BW of 117 ± 4.9 kg. Transcription of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), delta-6-desaturase (D6D), and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) were determined by real-time PCR in longissimus thoracis (LT) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles, LT subcutaneous and SM intermuscular fat, and in the liver. Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed using gas chromatography in these tissues, except for SM intermuscular fat. Dietary CLA increased PPAR? in LT muscle (P < 0.05), whereas CLA reduced PPAR? transcription in all tissues studied (P < 0.05) with the exception of intermuscular fat. Transcription of genes related to FA synthesis was reduced by CLA in SM muscle and liver (SREBP1, both P < 0.1; ACC, P < 0.01 in SM; and FAS, P < 0.01 in liver), whereas CLA reduced (P < 0.05) LPL and D6D transcriptions in SM muscle and reduced (P < 0.05) SCD in liver but increased (P < 0.05) SCD in LT muscle and intermuscular fat. Saturated FA were increased in all studied tissues (P < 0.01), while monosaturated and polyunsaturated FA were reduced in a tissue-specific way by CLA. It was concluded that dietary CLA affected transcription of genes and fat metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:23365373

Tous, N; Theil, P K; Lauridsen, C; Lizardo, R; Vilà, B; Esteve-Garcia, E

2012-12-01

57

The lipid messenger OEA links dietary fat intake to satiety.  

Science.gov (United States)

The association between fat consumption and obesity underscores the need to identify physiological signals that control fat intake. Previous studies have shown that feeding stimulates small-intestinal mucosal cells to produce the lipid messenger oleoylethanolamide (OEA) which, when administered as a drug, decreases meal frequency by engaging peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-alpha (PPAR-alpha). Here, we report that duodenal infusion of fat stimulates OEA mobilization in the proximal small intestine, whereas infusion of protein or carbohydrate does not. OEA production utilizes dietary oleic acid as a substrate and is disrupted in mutant mice lacking the membrane fatty-acid transporter CD36. Targeted disruption of CD36 or PPAR-alpha abrogates the satiety response induced by fat. The results suggest that activation of small-intestinal OEA mobilization, enabled by CD36-mediated uptake of dietary oleic acid, serves as a molecular sensor linking fat ingestion to satiety. PMID:18840358

Schwartz, Gary J; Fu, Jin; Astarita, Giuseppe; Li, Xiaosong; Gaetani, Silvana; Campolongo, Patrizia; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Piomelli, Daniele

2008-10-01

58

Influence of dietary fats on serum phospholipid fatty acid composition and its relation to obesity in animals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dietary fat and its relation to obesity has been a controversial issue for many years. Experimental data shows that most, though not all animals, which consume a high fat diet, will become obese. However, the effect of fatty acids on animal obesity has not been studied in detail. In order to evaluate the effects of low versus high fat diet on serum phospholipids fatty acids composition a 4-wk study was conducted on male Wister rats. The rats were fed low-fat (10% energy) and high-fat (46% energy) foods containing constant proportions of fatty acids. Control group C was fed a standard laboratory diet (polyunsaturated/ saturated (P/S) fatty ratio 1.3), group M was fed a standard laboratory diet supplemented with margarine (P/S ratio 0.95), and the diet of the SL group was additionally supplemented with a sunflower oil-lard (1:1) mixture (P/S ratio 1.3). All lipid supplemented hyperenergetic diets caused an increase in the average daily energy intake. Both the final and the daily body weight gain were significantly higher in M and SL groups than in group C. Additionally, serum triglyceride levels, LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol were also significantly higher in M and SL groups when compared to the control group. Serum phospholipids fatty acids varied in response to total dietary fat. A significant decrease in saturated fatty acids (SFA) content (16:0 and 18:0) and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content (18:1, n-9) was found in the M group when compared to both C and SL groups. In the SL group, SFA content (18:0) was higher and MUFA content (18:1, n-9) was lower than in group C. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content showed an increase in both experimental groups. The PUFA/SFA ratio was higher in the M group than in the C and SL groups. Our study suggests that the amount of dietary fat has a greater influence on obesity than the effects of the type of fat consumed. However, depending on the type of fat present in the diet the differences were observed in the composition of serum PL fatty acid suggesting that both total fat and individual fatty acids have to be considered when reaching conclusions about the effect of dietary fat and obesity in animals.

Tepši? Vesna; Pavlovi? Mirjana; Risti?-Medi? Danijela; Risti? Vanja; Leki? N.; Tepši? Jasna; Debeljak-Marta?i? Jasmina; Mili?evi? M.; Glibeti? Marija

2008-01-01

59

Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (C18:2 omega6 and C18:3 omega3) do not suppress hepatic lipogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are promoted as beneficial in the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In general, dietary omega 3 fatty acids are derived from plant sources as linolenic acid (LNA, C18:3 omega3) the precursor to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 omega3). However, it remains unclear if the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) LNA can provide the same health benefits as the very long chain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) EPA and DHA generally derived from oily fish. In this study, mice were fed synthetic diets containing lard (low in PUFA and HUFA), canola oil (to supply PUFA), or a mixture of menhaden and arasco (fish and fungal) oils (to supply HUFA) for 8 weeks. The diets were neither high in calories nor fat, which was supplied at 6%. The lard and canola oil diets resulted in high levels of hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol and elevation of lipogenic gene expression. By comparison livers from mice fed the fish/fungal oil diet had low levels of lipid accumulation and more closely resembled livers from mice fed standard laboratory chow. SREBP1c and PPARgamma gene and protein expression were high in livers of animals fed diets containing lard or canola oil compared with fish/fungal oil. Hepatic fatty acid analyses indicated that dietary PUFA were efficiently converted to HUFA regardless of source. Therefore, differences in hepatic lipid levels and gene expression between dietary groups were due to exogenous fatty acid supplied rather than endogenous pools. These results have important implications for understanding the regulation of hepatic lipogenesis by dietary fatty acids. PMID:18655845

Sealls, Whitney; Gonzalez, Monica; Brosnan, M Julia; Black, Paul N; DiRusso, Concetta C

2008-07-04

60

Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (C18:2 omega6 and C18:3 omega3) do not suppress hepatic lipogenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are promoted as beneficial in the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In general, dietary omega 3 fatty acids are derived from plant sources as linolenic acid (LNA, C18:3 omega3) the precursor to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 omega3). However, it remains unclear if the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) LNA can provide the same health benefits as the very long chain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) EPA and DHA generally derived from oily fish. In this study, mice were fed synthetic diets containing lard (low in PUFA and HUFA), canola oil (to supply PUFA), or a mixture of menhaden and arasco (fish and fungal) oils (to supply HUFA) for 8 weeks. The diets were neither high in calories nor fat, which was supplied at 6%. The lard and canola oil diets resulted in high levels of hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol and elevation of lipogenic gene expression. By comparison livers from mice fed the fish/fungal oil diet had low levels of lipid accumulation and more closely resembled livers from mice fed standard laboratory chow. SREBP1c and PPARgamma gene and protein expression were high in livers of animals fed diets containing lard or canola oil compared with fish/fungal oil. Hepatic fatty acid analyses indicated that dietary PUFA were efficiently converted to HUFA regardless of source. Therefore, differences in hepatic lipid levels and gene expression between dietary groups were due to exogenous fatty acid supplied rather than endogenous pools. These results have important implications for understanding the regulation of hepatic lipogenesis by dietary fatty acids.

Sealls W; Gonzalez M; Brosnan MJ; Black PN; DiRusso CC

2008-08-01

 
 
 
 
61

Dietary intake in HIV-infected men with lipodystrophy: relationships with body composition, visceral fat, lipid, glucose and adipokine metabolism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-infection is associated with lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, increased prevalence of disturbances in glucose tolerance and diabetes, hyperlipidemia and increased cardiovascular risk. Whether dietary intake influences total body fat, visceral fat, insulin resistance, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and circulating inflammatory markers in HIV-infected subjects with lipodystrophy is unclear and the focus of this report. We examined the dietary intake of 106 male HIV-infected HAART-recipients with lipodystrophy, enrolled in a study of the effects of rosiglitazone. All subjects had normal glucose tolerance. Dietary intakes were determined at study entry using Food Frequency Questionnaires and examined cross-sectionally against body composition by dual-energy Xray absorptiometry, visceral obesity by computed tomography, fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, adiponectin, leptin, insulin resistance (by HOMA). Energy underreporters were identified and excluded. After exclusion of underreporters (n = 22) we found no relationships between diet composition (% dietary fat, %carbohydrate) and BMI, %body fat and visceral adiposity (p>0.3). Only modest relationships were found between BMI and fat subtypes: polyunsaturated fats (g/day) (r = 0.14, p = 0.007), monounsaturated fat (g/d) (r = 0.06, p = 0.001), saturated fat (g/d) (r = 0.02, p<0.0001). Only saturated fat related to % total body fat (g/d: r = 0.08, p<0.0001, %energy intake: r = 0.16, p<0.0001). No nutrient related to visceral adiposity by CT. Dietary fat intake (expressed as a % of energy intake) was not related to total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting insulin, glucose, leptin, adiponectin or HOMA-IR (p>0.4). Fat subtype did not relate to fasting insulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, adiponectin. In conclusion, there are weak relationships between saturated fat intake and adiposity in HIV-infected subjects with lipodystrophy, using gold standard measures of body fat. There were no relationships between nutrient intake and visceral adiposity, any measure of glucose metabolism, insulin resistance or adipokines. Only interventional, prospective studies will determine whether any nutritional strategy can assist in ameliorating the metabolic complications associated with HIV lipodystrophy.

Samaras K; Wand H; Law M; Emery S; Cooper DA; Carr A

2009-07-01

62

Synergistic interaction of dietary cholesterol and dietary fat in inducing experimental steatohepatitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The majority of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have "simple steatosis," which is defined by hepatic steatosis in the absence of substantial inflammation or fibrosis and is considered to be benign. However, 10%-30% of patients with NAFLD progress to fibrosing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterized by varying degrees of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, in addition to hepatic steatosis, and can lead to cirrhosis. The cause(s) of progression to fibrosing steatohepatitis are unclear. We aimed to test the relative contributions of dietary fat and dietary cholesterol and their interaction on the development of NASH. We assigned C57BL/6J mice to four diets for 30 weeks: control (4% fat and 0% cholesterol); high cholesterol (HC; 4% fat and 1% cholesterol); high fat (HF; 15% fat and 0% cholesterol); and high fat, high cholesterol (HFHC; 15% fat and 1% cholesterol). The HF and HC diets led to increased hepatic fat deposition with little inflammation and no fibrosis (i.e., simple hepatic steatosis). However, the HFHC diet led to significantly more profound hepatic steatosis, substantial inflammation, and perisinusoidal fibrosis (i.e., steatohepatitis), associated with adipose tissue inflammation and a reduction in plasma adiponectin levels. In addition, the HFHC diet led to other features of human NASH, including hypercholesterolemia and obesity. Hepatic and metabolic effects induced by dietary fat and cholesterol together were more than twice as great as the sum of the separate effects of each dietary component alone, demonstrating significant positive interaction. CONCLUSION: Dietary fat and dietary cholesterol interact synergistically to induce the metabolic and hepatic features of NASH, whereas neither factor alone is sufficient to cause NASH in mice.

Savard C; Tartaglione EV; Kuver R; Haigh WG; Farrell GC; Subramanian S; Chait A; Yeh MM; Quinn LS; Ioannou GN

2013-01-01

63

Permeabilization of enterocytes induced by absorption of dietary fat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Absorption of dietary fat in the small intestine involves epithelial exposure to potentially harmful molecules such as bile salts and free fatty acids. We used organ culture of porcine jejunal explants incubated with a pre-digested mixture of fat (plant oil), bile and pancreatin to mimick the physiological process of dietary fat absorption, and short exposures to the fat mixture caused fat droplet accumulation within villus enterocytes. Lucifer yellow (LY), a fluorescent membrane-impermeable polar tracer was included to monitor epithelial integrity. Both in controls and during fat absorption LY penetrated the epithelium and accumulated in the basal lamina and the lamina propria. LY was also seen in the paracellular space, whereas villus enterocytes were generally only weakly labeled except for small amounts taken up by apical endocytosis. In the crypts, however, fat absorption induced cell permeabilization with LY accumulating in the cytosol and nucleus. Morphologically, both apical and basolateral membranes appeared intact, indicating that the leakiness was caused by minor lesions in the membrane. Albeit to a lesser extent, bile alone was capable of permeabilizing crypt cells, implying that the surfactant properties of bile salts are involved in the process. In addition to LY, crypt enterocytes also became permeable for albumin, ovalbumin and insulin. In conclusion, during fat absorption the permeability of the gut epithelium is increased mainly in the crypts. A possible explanation is that cell membranes of immature crypt cells, lacking detergent-resistant lipid raft microdomains, are less resistant to the deleterious effects of bile salts and free fatty acids.

Danielsen EM; Hansen GH; Rasmussen K; Niels-Christiansen LL

2013-05-01

64

Dietary fat modulation of left ventricular ejection fraction in the marmoset due to enhanced filling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the influence of long term dietary fish oil consumption on cardiac function in a non-human primate, to elucidate further the basis of the apparently reduced cardiovascular disease mortality associated with its consumption in man. METHODS: Adult male marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) were fed diets supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of marine (tuna fish oil) or plant (sunflower seed oil) origin, saturated animal fat (sheep perirenal fat), or a low fat reference diet for 24 months. Cardiac function was assessed using radionuclide angiography under pentobarbitone anaesthesia with a counts based adaptation for ventricular volume estimations. Measures were made at rest and during infusion of adrenaline. RESULTS: The mean left ventricular ejection fraction was greater in the tuna fish oil group [55.0(SEM 1.1)% n = 7] and the sunflower seed oil group [58.1(2.4)% n = 8] than in the reference group [48.5(1.4)% n = 9] and the sheep fat group [47.6(1.8)% n = 8]. This was associated with a more than 25% greater end diastolic volume and 40-70% increases in stroke volume in tuna fish or sunflower seed oil fed animals. There was no evidence of cardiac hypertrophy. In contrast, adrenaline increased stroke volume and ejection fraction by increasing emptying, thus reducing residual end systolic. Tuna fish oil fed animals had a low resting heart rate. When this was raised to comparable levels by adrenaline, lower pressure-rate indices and greater cardiac minute work suggested higher myocardial energy efficiency in PUFA fed animals compared with the reference and sheep fat groups. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary fish oil and sunflower seed oil increased the left ventricular ejection fraction in the marmoset monkey by enhancing ventricular filling, thus providing an energy sparing promotion of diastolic relaxation.

McLennan PL; Barnden LR; Bridle TM; Abeywardena MY; Charnock JS

1992-09-01

65

Antioxidant system response is modified by dietary fat in adipose tissue of metabolic syndrome patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with high oxidative stress, which is caused by an increased expression of NADPH-oxidase and a decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes in the adipose tissue. Our aim was to evaluate whether the quality and quantity of dietary fat can modify that process. A randomized, controlled trial conducted within the LIPGENE study assigned MetS patients to one of four diets for 12 wk each: (i) high-saturated fatty acid (HSFA), (ii) high-monounsaturated fatty acid (HMUFA), (iii) and (iv) two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LFHCC n3), or placebo (LFHCC). A fat challenge reflecting the same fatty acid composition as the original diets was conducted post-intervention. The intake of an HSFA meal induced a higher postprandial increase in gp91phox and p67phox mRNA levels than after the intake of HMUFA, LFHCC and LFHCC n-3 meals (all p-values<0.05). The postprandial decrease in CAT, GPXs and TXNRD1 mRNA levels after the HSFA meal intake was higher than after the intake of HMUFA, LFHCC and LFHCC n-3 meals (all p-values<0.05). The intake of an HSFA meal induced a higher postprandial increase in KEAP1 mRNA levels than after the consumption of the HMUFA (P=.007) and LFHCC n-3 (P=.001) meals. Our study demonstrated that monounsaturated fat consumption reduces oxidative stress as compared to saturated fat by inducing higher postprandial antioxidant response in adipose tissue, and thus, replacing SFA for MUFA may be an effective dietary strategy to reduce the oxidative stress in MetS patients and its pathophysiological consequences. PMID:23647888

Peña-Orihuela, Patricia; Camargo, Antonio; Rangel-Zuñiga, Oriol Alberto; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Cruz-Teno, Cristina; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Paniagua, Juan A; Tinahones, Francisco J; Malagon, Maria M; Roche, Helen M; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

2013-05-03

66

Postnatal dietary fat influences mRNAS involved in myelination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis and composition of myelin in the developing mouse central nervous system can be influenced by diet. Postnatal maternal fat intake altered nursing pup brain and liver fatty acid composition. Peak (day 21) proteolipid protein (PLP) and myelin basic protein (MBP) mRNA levels were reduced when pups were nursed by mothers fed a fat-free or 5% coconut oil diet. This effect was reversed by feeding a corn oil based diet. Oleic acid accounts for about 30% of myelin fatty acids. mRNA levels of stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD), the rate-limiting step in oleic acid synthesis, increase in neonatal mouse brain. Postnatal maternal fat-free feeding reduced day 21 pup brain SCD and LDL receptor, but not apolipoprotein (Apo E) E mRNA levels. In contrast to brain, nursing pup hepatic SCD mRNA levels were induced, LDL receptor mRNA levels were unaffected and Apo E mRNA levels were reduced by postnatal maternal fat-free feeding. Myelin-specific mRNA levels are developmentally regulated and influenced by dietary fat. Neonatal brain SCD and LDL receptor mRNA levels are also altered by neonatal fat intake. The neonatal response to dietary fat is tissue-specific at the mRNA level. PMID:1350977

DeWille, J W; Farmer, S J

1992-01-01

67

Postnatal dietary fat influences mRNAS involved in myelination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The synthesis and composition of myelin in the developing mouse central nervous system can be influenced by diet. Postnatal maternal fat intake altered nursing pup brain and liver fatty acid composition. Peak (day 21) proteolipid protein (PLP) and myelin basic protein (MBP) mRNA levels were reduced when pups were nursed by mothers fed a fat-free or 5% coconut oil diet. This effect was reversed by feeding a corn oil based diet. Oleic acid accounts for about 30% of myelin fatty acids. mRNA levels of stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD), the rate-limiting step in oleic acid synthesis, increase in neonatal mouse brain. Postnatal maternal fat-free feeding reduced day 21 pup brain SCD and LDL receptor, but not apolipoprotein (Apo E) E mRNA levels. In contrast to brain, nursing pup hepatic SCD mRNA levels were induced, LDL receptor mRNA levels were unaffected and Apo E mRNA levels were reduced by postnatal maternal fat-free feeding. Myelin-specific mRNA levels are developmentally regulated and influenced by dietary fat. Neonatal brain SCD and LDL receptor mRNA levels are also altered by neonatal fat intake. The neonatal response to dietary fat is tissue-specific at the mRNA level.

DeWille JW; Farmer SJ

1992-01-01

68

Effect of Dietary Fats on Glucose Tolerance, Insulin Sensitivity and Membrane Free Fatty Acids in Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work was designed to assess the possible effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) as fish oil, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) as olive oil (OO), saturated fatty acid (SFA) as butter oil (BO) and their combinations on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and membrane free fatty acid levels. Relatively high fat (20% w/w, 40% energy) content diets were prepared and supplemented to adult male Wistar rats for 5-weeks. Body growth, intravenous glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and membrane free fatty acid levels in hepatic cells and erythrocytes were measured. Mean body weights and total body fats were significantly increased in both SFA and MUFA diets fed rats as compared to control and n-3 PUFA dietary groups respectively. Significant impaired glucose tolerance and insulin insensitivity was observed in rats supplemented with SFA diet as compared to all other dietary groups. However, MUFA diet has not shown any significant effect on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, although it significantly induced obesity in rats. The presence of (10%) fish oil in the diet corrected the adiposity affect of SFA and significantly reduced the impairment in glucose tolerance and insulin insensitivity. In conclusion, the results provide evidence that replacing SFA with MUFA is most beneficial even though MUFA promotes the obesity. Fish oil proven the protective effect against the impairment of glucose tolerance, insulin insensitivity and obesity which induced by butter oil.

Mohammed Abdullah Alsaif

2004-01-01

69

Endocannabinoid signal in the gut controls dietary fat intake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oral sensory signals drive dietary fat intake, but the neural mechanisms underlying this process are largely unknown. The endocannabinoid system has gained recent attention for its central and peripheral roles in regulating food intake, energy balance, and reward. Here, we used a sham-feeding paradi...

DiPatrizio, Nicholas V.; Astarita, Giuseppe; Schwartz, Gary; Li, Xiaosong; Piomelli, Daniele

70

Effect of intake of linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid levels on conversion into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in backfat and in intramuscular fat of growing pigs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was conducted to determine the effect of two levels of linoleic acid (LA) intake at either high or low ?-linolenic acid (ALA) intake on their conversion and subsequent deposition into long-chain (20-22 C-atoms) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) in muscle and backfat in growing pigs. In a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement, 32 gilts from 8 litters were assigned to one of four dietary treatments, varying in LA and ALA intakes. Low ALA and LA intakes were 0.15 and 1.31?g/(kg BW(0.75) /day), respectively, and high ALA and LA intakes were 1.48 and 2.65?g/(kg BW(0.75) /day) respectively. There was a close positive relation between intake of ALA and the concentration of ALA in backfat and in intramuscular fat. Dietary ALA did not affect the concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), but increased docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in backfat. High ALA intake did not significantly affect DHA but significantly increased EPA, 20:3 n-3 and DPA concentrations in intramuscular fat. The n-3 LC PUFA proportion in backfat was increased from approximately 1-3%, which may be useful to enrich meat with these fatty acids. The effect of ALA intake on n-3 LC PUFA was suppressed by LA intake. Dietary ALA suppressed the concentration of n-6 LC PUFA in blood plasma by more than 50%. When compared at equal incremental dose, the inhibiting effect of ALA on blood arachidonic acid was stronger than the stimulating effect of LA as precursor.

Smink W; Verstegen MW; Gerrits WJ

2013-06-01

71

Replacement of dietary saturated fat with trans fat reduces serum paraoxonase activity in healthy men and women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A high intake of saturated fat and of trans isomers of unsaturated fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we found that replacement of saturated fat by trans fat in a dietary controlled study with 32 men and women decreased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cho...

Roos, N.M., de; Schouten, E.G.; Scheek, L.M.; Tol, A., van; Katan, M.B.

72

Increasing Dietary Fat Elicits Similar Changes in Fat Oxidation and Markers of Muscle Oxidative Capacity in Lean and Obese Humans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In lean humans, increasing dietary fat intake causes an increase in whole-body fat oxidation and changes in genes that regulate fat oxidation in skeletal muscle, but whether this occurs in obese humans is not known. We compared changes in whole-body fat oxidation and markers of muscle oxidative capa...

Bergouignan, Audrey; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Barry, Daniel W.; Leitner, Wayne; MacLean, Paul S.; Hill, James O.

73

[Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on the content and metabolism of glutathione in rat kidney  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PIFA) upon the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) of the kidney was studied in 32 male Wistar rats. Two equal size groups were fed diets supplemented with either 10% or 18% corn oil. Sixteen hours before death, half of each experimental group was submitted to fasting. The content of GSH and the activity of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) and gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase was determined in kidney tissue. Fasting led to a reduction of GSH from 3.21 +/- 0.54 to 1.25 +/- 0.20 mumol per gm in the group fed 10%. PIFA. Equivalent figures for the group fed 18% PIFA were 3.49 +/- 0.54 and 0.49 +/- 0.08, respectively. GGTP activity increased significantly after fasting but no differences were observed according to level of PIFA intake. The exaggerated reduction of GSH during fasting after a high PIFA intake may expose the animals to risk of cell damage induced by peroxides or other oxidating agents.

Araya J; Vera G; Araya H; Arteaga A

1992-02-01

74

Baseline transtheoretical and dietary behavioral predictors of dietary fat moderation over 12 and 24months.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Longitudinal predictors of dietary behavior change are important and in need of study. This secondary data analysis combined primary data across three randomized trials to examine transtheoretical model (TTM) and specific dietary predictors of successful dietary change at 12 and 24months separately in treatment and control groups (N=4178). The treatment group received three TTM-tailored print interventions over 12months between 1995 and 2000. Chi-square and MANOVA analyses were used to examine baseline predictors of dietary outcome at 12 and 24months. Last, a multivariable logistic regression was conducted with all baseline variables included. Across all analyses in both treatment and control groups, the most robust predictors of successful change were for TTM-tailored treatment group, preparation stage of change, and increased use of dietary behavior variables such as moderating fat intake, substitution of lower fat foods, and increasing intake of healthful foods. These results provide strong evidence for treatment, stage and behavioral dietary severity effects predicting dietary behavior change over time, and for targeting these variables with the strongest relationships to outcome in interventions, such as TTM-tailored dietary interventions.

Greene GW; Redding CA; Prochaska JO; Paiva AL; Rossi JS; Velicer WF; Blissmer B; Robbins ML

2013-08-01

75

Baseline transtheoretical and dietary behavioral predictors of dietary fat moderation over 12 and 24 months.  

Science.gov (United States)

Longitudinal predictors of dietary behavior change are important and in need of study. This secondary data analysis combined primary data across three randomized trials to examine transtheoretical model (TTM) and specific dietary predictors of successful dietary change at 12 and 24 months separately in treatment and control groups (N = 4178). The treatment group received three TTM-tailored print interventions over 12 months between 1995 and 2000. Chi-square and MANOVA analyses were used to examine baseline predictors of dietary outcome at 12 and 24 months. Last, a multivariable logistic regression was conducted with all baseline variables included. Across all analyses in both treatment and control groups, the most robust predictors of successful change were for TTM-tailored treatment group, preparation stage of change, and increased use of dietary behavior variables such as moderating fat intake, substitution of lower fat foods, and increasing intake of healthful foods. These results provide strong evidence for treatment, stage and behavioral dietary severity effects predicting dietary behavior change over time, and for targeting these variables with the strongest relationships to outcome in interventions, such as TTM-tailored dietary interventions. PMID:23910762

Greene, Geoffrey W; Redding, Colleen A; Prochaska, James O; Paiva, Andrea L; Rossi, Joseph S; Velicer, Wayne F; Blissmer, Bryan; Robbins, Mark L

2013-03-01

76

Endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids delay progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Preclinical studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may be beneficial for prevention of pancreatic cancer. Nutritional intervention studies are often complex, and there is no clear evidence, without potential confounding factors, on whether conversion of n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in pancreatic tissues would provide protection. Experiments were designed using n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1) transgenic mice, which can convert n-6 PUFA to n-3 FAs endogenously, to determine the impact of n-3 PUFAs on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs) and their progression to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Six-week-old female p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) and compound Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice were fed (AIN-76A) diets containing 10% safflower oil for 35 weeks. Pancreata were evaluated histopathologically for PanINs and PDAC. Results showed a dramatic reduction in incidence of PDAC (84%; P < .02) in Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice compared to p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. Importantly, significant reductions of pancreatic ducts with carcinoma (90%; P < .0001) and PanIN 3 (~50%; P < .001) lesions were observed in the compound transgenic mice. The levels of n-3 PUFA were much higher (>85%; P < .05-0.01) in pancreas of compound transgenic mice than in those of p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. Molecular analysis of the pancreas showed a significant down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5-LOX-activating protein, Bcl-2, and cyclin D1 expression levels in Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice compared to p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. These data highlight the promise of dietary n-3 FAs for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer in high-risk individuals.

Mohammed A; Janakiram NB; Brewer M; Duff A; Lightfoot S; Brush RS; Anderson RE; Rao CV

2012-12-01

77

Parental dietary fat intake alters offspring microbiome and immunity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mechanisms underlying modern increases in prevalence of human inflammatory diseases remain unclear. The hygiene hypothesis postulates that decreased microbial exposure has, in part, driven this immune dysregulation. However, dietary fatty acids also influence immunity, partially through modulation of responses to microbes. Prior reports have described the direct effects of high-fat diets on the gut microbiome and inflammation, and some have additionally shown metabolic consequences for offspring. Our study sought to expand on these previous observations to identify the effects of parental diet on offspring immunity using mouse models to provide insights into challenging aspects of human health. To test the hypothesis that parental dietary fat consumption during gestation and lactation influences offspring immunity, we compared pups of mice fed either a Western diet (WD) fatty acid profile or a standard low-fat diet. All pups were weaned onto the control diet to specifically test the effects of early developmental fat exposure on immune development. Pups from WD breeders were not obese or diabetic, but still had worse outcomes in models of infection, autoimmunity, and allergic sensitization. They had heightened colonic inflammatory responses, with increased circulating bacterial LPS and muted systemic LPS responsiveness. These deleterious impacts of the WD were associated with alterations of the offspring gut microbiome. These results indicate that parental fat consumption can leave a "lard legacy" impacting offspring immunity and suggest inheritable microbiota may contribute to the modern patterns of human health and disease. PMID:23935191

Myles, Ian A; Fontecilla, Natalia M; Janelsins, Brian M; Vithayathil, Paul J; Segre, Julia A; Datta, Sandip K

2013-08-09

78

Effects of dietary fat and calorie on immunologic function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of dietary fat and calories on immunologic function in specific pathogen-free inbred DBA/2 and CBA/J mice was studied. Three diets were modified from control, the AIN-76 purified diet. The high saturated fat diet contained 22.5% coconut oil and 2.5% safflower oil. The high unsaturated fat diet contained 25% safflower oil. Fat was substituted isoclorically for carbohydrate in these two diets. The low calorie diet contained 40% less protein, carbohydrate and fat than control diet; fiber was substituted for these ingredients. Female weanling mice were on the diets for more than 35 days before testing. The natural killer (NK) activity of spleen cells was determined by in vitro cytolysis of 51Cr-labeled YAC-1 cells. The spleen cells response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or allogeneic tumor EL-4 cells was measured after immunizing the mice with SRBC or EL-4 cells for 4 or 11 days, respectively. The results showed no significant effect of the low calorie diet on NK activity, anti-SRBC or anti-EL-4 response compared to normal diet. Anti-SRBC plaque response was significantly enhanced (27% higher), while anti-EL-4 response was significantly suppressed (15% less) with high saturated fat diet. NK activity was normal. Mice on high unsaturated fat diet showed suppressed anti-SRBC response (16% less) and anti-EL-4 response (17% less), while NK activity was significantly enhanced (70% higher)

1986-03-05

79

Saturated fat stimulates obesity and hepatic steatosis and affects gut microbiota composition by an enhanced overflow of dietary fat to the distal intestine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the effect of dietary fat type, varying in polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratios (P/S), on development of metabolic syndrome. C57Bl/6J mice were fed purified high-fat diets (45E% fat) containing palm oil (HF-PO; P/S 0.4), olive oil (HF-OO; P/S 1.1), or safflower oil (HF-SO; P/S 7.8) for 8 wk. A low-fat palm oil diet (LF-PO; 10E% fat) was used as a reference. Additionally, we analyzed diet-induced changes in gut microbiota composition and mucosal gene expression. The HF-PO diet induced a higher body weight gain and liver triglyceride content compared with the HF-OO, HF-SO, or LF-PO diet. In the intestine, the HF-PO diet reduced microbial diversity and increased the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio. Although this fits a typical obesity profile, our data clearly indicate that an overflow of the HF-PO diet to the distal intestine, rather than obesity itself, is the main trigger for these gut microbiota changes. A HF-PO diet-induced elevation of lipid metabolism-related genes in the distal small intestine confirmed the overflow of palm oil to the distal intestine. Some of these lipid metabolism-related genes were previously already associated with the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, our data indicate that saturated fat (HF-PO) has a more stimulatory effect on weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation than unsaturated fat (HF-OO and HF-SO). The overflow of fat to the distal intestine on the HF-PO diet induced changes in gut microbiota composition and mucosal gene expression. We speculate that both are directly or indirectly contributive to the saturated fat-induced development of obesity and hepatic steatosis.

de Wit N; Derrien M; Bosch-Vermeulen H; Oosterink E; Keshtkar S; Duval C; de Vogel-van den Bosch J; Kleerebezem M; Müller M; van der Meer R

2012-09-01

80

Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. METHODS: The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. RESULTS: The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r: 0.743; P<0.001) and between blood MDA and liver MDA (r: 0.897; P<0.001). The results showed also negative correlations between blood MDA on one hand and SOD, GPx, vitamin E and TAC on the other hand. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage.

Haggag Mel-S; Elsanhoty RM; Ramadan MF

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Effect of dietary fat on plasma glutathione peroxidase levels and intestinal absorption of 75Se-labeled sodium selenite in chicks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of dietary fat on the availability of selenium was investigated in chicks fed either 4 or 20% butter, olive oil, rape oil, corn oil or sunflower oil in the diet for 3 weeks after hatching. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was used as an indicator of the body selenium status. In addition, the intestinal absorption of sodium selenite (75Se-labeled) was determined by using both the in vivo ligated loop procedure and oral administration of the isotope. The plasma GSH-Px levels increased with increasing proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Increasing the amount of fat from 4 to 20% significantly enhanced the GSH-Px activity in the groups receiving butter or olive oil, but had no effect in animals fed the unsaturated fats. The absorption of [75Se]selenite from the ligated duodenal loops tended to be reduced in chicks fed corn oil or sunflower oil as compared to the animals receiving butter in their diet. On the other hand, the type of dietary fat did not appear to affect the absorption of the orally administered selenite. The present study demonstrates that the type of dietary fat can affect the plasma GSH-Px levels in chicks without altering the intestinal absorption of selenite. However, the results on the absorption of the intraduodenally injected sodium selenite suggest that dietary fat plays some role in the intestinal transport of selenium.

1984-01-01

82

Effects of Unsaturated Fat Dietary Supplements on Blood Lipids, and on Markers of Malnutrition and Inflammation in Hemodialysis Patients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of commercially available unsaturated fat dietary supplements on blood lipids, and on markers of malnutrition and inflammation, in an adult population of hemodialysis (HD) patients. DESIGN: This was a restricted, randomized (equal blocks), investigator-blinded 2x6 week crossover trial, without a washout interval. SETTING: This study was conducted at the Department of Nephrology, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Herlev, Denmark, in spring 2007. PATIENTS: Participants included 40 (30 males and 10 females) stable, adult patients undergoing regular HD, with a mean age of 64.6 years and a mean body mass index of 23.3kg/m(2). INTERVENTION: In addition to patients' habitual diets, oral unsaturated fat supplements (90mL of Calogen [SHS International, Ltd., Liverpool, UK] and 4 capsules of Pikasol [Dansk Droge, Ishoej, Denmark]) were given in one period, whereas no supplements were given in the other. Dietary supplements contributed 1.8 MJ (430kcal), 47g fat, 26.5g monounsaturated fatty acids, and 3g marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids per day. Blood sampling and nutritional assessments were performed at baseline, after 6 weeks, and after 12 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dietary intakes, blood lipids, dry body weight, serum albumin, and serum C-reactive protein comprised our main outcome measures. RESULTS: According to a per-protocol analysis of 14 study completers, fat supplementation resulted in significantly increased total energy intake (+1.6 MJ/day, or 380kcal/day) and an increased dietary fat energy percentage (+9%). We observed no significant changes in blood lipids. Dry body weight (+0.49kg, P=.04) increased, and serum C-reactive protein concentration fell (-1.69mg/L, P=.01), with fat supplementation. Intention-to-treat analysis of 39 participants confirmed the absence of adverse blood-lipid changes. CONCLUSIONS: Unsaturated fat supplementation increased total dietary energy intake to recommended levels, had no adverse impact on blood lipids, improved nutritional status as assessed according to dry body weight, and reduced systemic inflammation as assessed according to C-reactive protein serum concentrations. Adding unsaturated fat to the diet seems to be a safe and effective way to prevent and treat malnutrition in hemodialysis patients.

Ewers, Bettina; Riserus, Ulf

2009-01-01

83

Endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids delay progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preclinical studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may be beneficial for prevention of pancreatic cancer. Nutritional intervention studies are often complex, and there is no clear evidence, without potential confounding factors, on whether conversion of n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in pancreatic tissues would provide protection. Experiments were designed using n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1) transgenic mice, which can convert n-6 PUFA to n-3 FAs endogenously, to determine the impact of n-3 PUFAs on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs) and their progression to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Six-week-old female p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) and compound Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice were fed (AIN-76A) diets containing 10% safflower oil for 35 weeks. Pancreata were evaluated histopathologically for PanINs and PDAC. Results showed a dramatic reduction in incidence of PDAC (84%; P 85%; P < .05-0.01) in pancreas of compound transgenic mice than in those of p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. Molecular analysis of the pancreas showed a significant down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5-LOX-activating protein, Bcl-2, and cyclin D1 expression levels in Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice compared to p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. These data highlight the promise of dietary n-3 FAs for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer in high-risk individuals. PMID:23308056

Mohammed, Altaf; Janakiram, Naveena B; Brewer, Misty; Duff, Ashley; Lightfoot, Stan; Brush, Richard S; Anderson, Robert E; Rao, Chinthalapally V

2012-12-01

84

The inhibition of fat cell proliferation by n-3 fatty acids in dietary obese mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) of marine origin exert multiple beneficial effects on health. Our previous study in mice showed that reduction of adiposity by LC n-3 PUFA was associated with both, a shift in adipose tissue metabolism and a decrease in tissue cellularity. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effects of LC n-3 PUFA on fat cell proliferation and differentiation in obese mice. Methods A model of inducible and reversible lipoatrophy (aP2-Cre-ERT2 PPAR?L2/L2 mice) was used, in which the death of mature adipocytes could be achieved by a selective ablation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? in response to i.p. injection of tamoxifen. Before the injection, obesity was induced in male mice by 8-week-feeding a corn oil-based high-fat diet (cHF) and, subsequently, mice were randomly assigned (day 0) to one of the following groups: (i) mice injected by corn-oil-vehicle only, i.e."control" mice, and fed cHF; (ii) mice injected by tamoxifen in corn oil, i.e. "mutant" mice, fed cHF; (iii) control mice fed cHF diet with15% of dietary lipids replaced by LC n-3 PUFA concentrate (cHF+F); and (iv) mutant mice fed cHF+F. Blood and tissue samples were collected at days 14 and 42. Results Mutant mice achieved a maximum weight loss within 10 days post-injection, followed by a compensatory body weight gain, which was significantly faster in the cHF as compared with the cHF+F mutant mice. Also in control mice, body weight gain was depressed in response to dietary LC n-3 PUFA. At day 42, body weights in all groups stabilized, with no significant differences in adipocyte size between the groups, although body weight and adiposity was lower in the cHF+F as compared with the cHF mice, with a stronger effect in the mutant than in control mice. Gene expression analysis documented depression of adipocyte maturation during the reconstitution of adipose tissue in the cHF+F mutant mice. Conclusion Dietary LC n-3 PUFA could reduce both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of fat cells in vivo. Results are in agreement with the involvement of fat cell turnover in control of adiposity.

Hensler Michal; Bardova Kristina; Jilkova Zuzana; Wahli Walter; Meztger Daniel; Chambon Pierre; Kopecky Jan; Flachs Pavel

2011-01-01

85

Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant oils and algae on milk fat yield and composition are associated with mammary lipogenic and SREBF1 gene expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main aim of the present study was to examine the effects of long-term supplementing diets with saturated or unprotected polyunsaturated fatty acids from two different plant oils rich in either n-3 or n-6 fatty acids (FAs) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae on mammary gene expression and milk fat composition in lactating dairy cows. Gene expression was determined from mammary tissue and milk epithelial cells. Eighteen primiparous German Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were randomly assigned into three dietary treatments that consist of silage-based diets supplemented with rumen-stable fractionated palm fat (SAT; 3.1% of the basal diet dry matter, DM), or a mixture of linseed oil (2.7% of the basal diet DM) plus DHA-rich algae (LINA; 0.4% of the basal diet DM) or a mixture of sunflower oil (2.7% of the basal diet DM) plus DHA-rich algae (SUNA; 0.4% of the basal diet DM), for a period of 10 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the cows were slaughtered and mammary tissues were collected to study the gene expression of lipogenic enzymes. During the last week, the milk yield and composition were determined, and milk was collected for FA measurements and the isolation of milk purified mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Supplementation with plant oils and DHA-rich algae resulted in milk fat depression (MFD; yield and percentage). The secretion of de novo FAs in the milk was reduced, whereas the secretion of trans-10,cis-12-CLA and DHA were increased. These changes in FA secretions were associated in mammary tissue with a joint down-regulation of mammary lipogenic enzyme gene expression (stearoyl-CoA desaturase, SCD1; FA synthase, FASN) and expression of the regulatory element binding transcription factor (SREBF1), whereas no effect was observed on lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1, mitochondrial (GPAM). A positive relationship between mammary SCD1 and SREBF1 mRNA abundances was observed, suggesting a similar regulation for these genes. Such data on mammary gene expression in lactating cows presenting MFD contribute to strengthen the molecular mechanisms that govern milk fat synthesis in the mammary glands. In purified MEC, the dietary treatments had no effect on gene expressions. Differences between mammary tissue and milk purified MEC gene expression were attributed to the effect of lipid supplements on the number of milk purified MEC and its RNA quality, which are determinant factors for the analysis of gene expression using milk cells.

Angulo J; Mahecha L; Nuernberg K; Nuernberg G; Dannenberger D; Olivera M; Boutinaud M; Leroux C; Albrecht E; Bernard L

2012-12-01

86

Dietary fat status influencing radiosensitivity of aortic histological structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Effect of lipid dietary status and cummulative doses of whole body gamma irrdiation up to 15 Gy, on histological pattern of the dorsal aorta of male albino rats was studied. Rats fed fat-free diet showed enlarged spaces filled with amorphous fibrous material lying in-between smooth muscle cells, whereas animals fed fat-rich diet showed none of these changes. Rats fed normal fat diet and subjected to the fractionated dose levels showed structural changes in all the 3 layers of the dorsal aorta. Thickening of both tunica media and adventitia, degenerative endothelia cells and granulomatous inflammation of the adventitia were observed. Irradiated rats fed fat-free diet showed more intensive structural changes. These included degeneration of endothelial lining, disorganization of smooth muscle cells and vacuolation in tunica media and degenerated muscle cells. Condensed elastic and collagen fibers could be observed in-between smooth muscles and tunica aventitia looked degenerated with less numbers of fibroblasts. Irradiated rats fed rich-fat diet showed rapid structural changes. These included degeneration of endothelium of tunica intima, reduced numbers of smooth muscle cells, hyaline degeneration of tunica adventitia with signs of necrosis and fragmentation, decreased thickness of the dorsal aorta cells and ill-defined separation between the tunica media and adventitia. (orig.)

1991-01-01

87

Dietary fat status influencing radiosensitivity of aortic histological structure  

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Effect of lipid dietary status and cummulative doses of whole body gamma irrdiation up to 15 Gy, on histological pattern of the dorsal aorta of male albino rats was studied. Rats fed fat-free diet showed enlarged spaces filled with amorphous fibrous material lying in-between smooth muscle cells, whereas animals fed fat-rich diet showed none of these changes. Rats fed normal fat diet and subjected to the fractionated dose levels showed structural changes in all the 3 layers of the dorsal aorta. Thickening of both tunica media and adventitia, degenerative endothelia cells and granulomatous inflammation of the adventitia were observed. Irradiated rats fed fat-free diet showed more intensive structural changes. These included degeneration of endothelial lining, disorganization of smooth muscle cells and vacuolation in tunica media and degenerated muscle cells. Condensed elastic and collagen fibers could be observed in-between smooth muscles and tunica aventitia looked degenerated with less numbers of fibroblasts. Irradiated rats fed rich-fat diet showed rapid structural changes. These included degeneration of endothelium of tunica intima, reduced numbers of smooth muscle cells, hyaline degeneration of tunica adventitia with signs of necrosis and fragmentation, decreased thickness of the dorsal aorta cells and ill-defined separation between the tunica media and adventitia. (orig.).

El-Malkh, N.M. (Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Zoology); Ashry, M.A. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Zoology); Yousri, R.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Soliman, S.M. (National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt))

1991-01-01

88

Endocannabinoid signal in the gut controls dietary fat intake.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oral sensory signals drive dietary fat intake, but the neural mechanisms underlying this process are largely unknown. The endocannabinoid system has gained recent attention for its central and peripheral roles in regulating food intake, energy balance, and reward. Here, we used a sham-feeding paradigm, which isolates orosensory from postingestive influences of foods, to examine whether endocannabinoid signaling participates in the positive feedback control of fat intake. Sham feeding a lipid-based meal stimulated endocannabinoid mobilization in the rat proximal small intestine by altering enzymatic activities that control endocannabinoid metabolism. This effect was abolished by surgical transection of the vagus nerve and was not observed in other peripheral organs or in brain regions that control feeding. Sham feeding of a nutritionally complete liquid meal produced a similar response to that of fat, whereas protein or carbohydrate alone had no such effect. Local infusion of the CB(1)-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, rimonabant, into the duodenum markedly reduced fat sham feeding. Similarly to rimonabant, systemic administration of the peripherally restricted CB(1)-receptor antagonist, URB 447, attenuated sham feeding of lipid. Collectively, the results suggest that the endocannabinoid system in the gut exerts a powerful regulatory control over fat intake and might be a target for antiobesity drugs.

DiPatrizio NV; Astarita G; Schwartz G; Li X; Piomelli D

2011-08-01

89

Endocannabinoid signal in the gut controls dietary fat intake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral sensory signals drive dietary fat intake, but the neural mechanisms underlying this process are largely unknown. The endocannabinoid system has gained recent attention for its central and peripheral roles in regulating food intake, energy balance, and reward. Here, we used a sham-feeding paradigm, which isolates orosensory from postingestive influences of foods, to examine whether endocannabinoid signaling participates in the positive feedback control of fat intake. Sham feeding a lipid-based meal stimulated endocannabinoid mobilization in the rat proximal small intestine by altering enzymatic activities that control endocannabinoid metabolism. This effect was abolished by surgical transection of the vagus nerve and was not observed in other peripheral organs or in brain regions that control feeding. Sham feeding of a nutritionally complete liquid meal produced a similar response to that of fat, whereas protein or carbohydrate alone had no such effect. Local infusion of the CB(1)-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, rimonabant, into the duodenum markedly reduced fat sham feeding. Similarly to rimonabant, systemic administration of the peripherally restricted CB(1)-receptor antagonist, URB 447, attenuated sham feeding of lipid. Collectively, the results suggest that the endocannabinoid system in the gut exerts a powerful regulatory control over fat intake and might be a target for antiobesity drugs. PMID:21730161

DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Astarita, Giuseppe; Schwartz, Gary; Li, Xiaosong; Piomelli, Daniele

2011-07-05

90

Does enteral nutrition of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids promote oxidative stress and tumour growth in ductal pancreatic cancer? Experimental trial in Syrian Hamster.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Type and composition of dietary fat intake is supposed to play an important role in carcinogenesis. Thus we investigated the effects of n-3, n-6 and n-9 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on oxidative stress (lipidperoxidation) and tumour growth in ductal pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Ninety male hamsters were randomized into 6 groups (gr.) (n=15) and allocated to 3 main dietary categories: gr. 1 and 2 received a standard high fat diet (SHF, rich in n-6 PUFA), while gr. 3 and 4 were fed with a diet containing a mixture of n-3, n-6 and n-9 PUFA (SMOF) and gr. 5 and 6 had free access to a diet rich in n-3 PUFA (FISH-OIL). Gr. 1, 3 and 5 received weekly subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of 10 mg N-nitrosobis-2-oxypropylamine (BOP)/kg body weight in order to induce ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Healthy control gr. 2, 4 and 6 were treated with 0.5 ml 0.9% sodium chloride s.c. After 32 weeks all animals were sacrificed. Removed pancreata were weighed and analysed histologically and biochemically. Activities of glutathionperoxidase (GSH-Px), superoxiddismutase (SOD) and levels of lipidperoxidation were measured in samples of pancreatic carcinoma as well as in tumour-free pancreatic tissue. RESULTS: While different diets did not significantly alter the overall incidence of histologically proven pancreatic adenocarcinoma, the number of macroscopically visible tumours was decreased in the FISH-OIL-gr. CONCLUSION: Different diets did not significantly influence the incidence of histologically proven pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, administration of a diet rich in n-3 PUFA (FISH-OIL) resulted in a decrease of macroscopically visible tumours, thus indicating its beneficial effects in respect to attenuation of tumour growth.

Gregor JI; Heukamp I; Kilian M; Kiewert C; Schimke I; Kristiansen G; Walz MK; Jacobi CA; Wenger FA

2006-01-01

91

Dietary supplementation with long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and weight loss in obese adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with elevated levels of inflammation and metabolic abnormalities, with increased risk of developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, stroke and CVD. Nutrients that can assist in weight loss may also reduce the risk of obesity related co-morbidities. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate whether LCn-3PUFA, combined with a reduced energy diet, facilitated weight loss and improvements in blood lipids and inflammatory mediators. DESIGN: A double blind randomised controlled trial with two parallel groups. Both groups followed a low energy diet for 12 weeks, one group consumed 6 × 1 g capsules/d monounsaturated oil (Placebo) (n = 18), the other 6 × 1 g capsules/d LCn-3PUFA (fish oil) (n = 17). Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements and 3-day food diaries were collected at baseline and post intervention. RESULTS: There was a two-fold increase in plasma levels of EPA and DHA in the fish oil group (p < 0.001). There were no significant difference within and between the placebo and the fish oil groups for weight reduction (3.37% and 4.35% respectively), fat mass reduction (8.95% and 9.76% respectively), or changes in inflammatory biomarkers and blood lipids apart from triglycerides, reduced by 27% in fish oil group (p < 0.05). For fish oil group there were significant correlations between leptin and weight loss (p = 0.01) and leptin and EPA and DHA (p < 0.05 for both). CONCLUSION: Dietary LCn-3PUFA supplementation during a weight loss program does not appear to assist weight loss. Poor dietary compliance may be a contributing factor in accurate assessment of the role of these fatty acids in weight loss.

Munro IA; Garg ML

2013-05-01

92

Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet. Methods Streptozotocin-diabetic pigs (~45 kg) were fed for 10 weeks supplemental (40% of dietary energy) saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC), unsaturated fat (UF) or starch (S) in an eucaloric dietary intervention study. Results Fasting plasma total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were 3-5 fold higher (p 2 = 0.95). Retroperitoneal fat depot weight (g) was intermediate in SFC (260 ± 72), lowest in S (135 ± 51) and highest (p Conclusion Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol induces inflammation, atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition whereas an equally high dietary unsaturated fat load does not induce these abnormalities and shows beneficial effects on postprandial glycaemia in diabetic pigs.

Koopmans Sietse J; Dekker Ruud; Ackermans Mariette T; Sauerwein Hans P; Serlie Mireille J; van Beusekom Heleen MM; van den Heuvel Mieke; van der Giessen Wim J

2011-01-01

93

Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds) as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA) sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA) analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary ?-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R2 = 0.94) and perirenal fat (R2 = 0.96).

Pier Giorgio Peiretti

2012-01-01

94

Effects of different dietary ?-6/3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratios on infarct size and the limbic system after myocardial infarction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Changes in dietary omega-6/3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratios affect anti- and proinflammatory equilibrium. As reperfused myocardial infarction (MI) is an inflammatory pathology that alters the cell integrity of the myocardium but also of other tissues, such as the hippocampus and amygdala, attenuation of the inflammation could be helpful in maintaining cell integrity after MI. Therefore, we hypothesized that a decrease in the dietary omega-6/3 PUFA ratio, without altering the diet content in total fat, proteins, or carbohydrates, will result in a reduction of infarct size and a diminution of postreperfusion apoptosis observed in the amygdala and hippocampus. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 1 of 3 diets containing different omega-6/3 PUFA ratios for 2 weeks (5:1; 1:1; 1:5). Then, myocardial ischemia was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion for 40 min, followed by reperfusion. Cardioprotective mechanisms were studied in the myocardium at 15 min of reperfusion, along with myocardial infarct size after 24 h of reperfusion. Apoptosis was evaluated in the hippocampus and the amygdala. We found that infarct size was significantly reduced by 32% in groups 1:5 and 1:1 vs. group 5:1. Akt activity was higher in groups 1:5 and 1:1 compared with group 5:1. Caspase-3 enzymatic activity doubled in area CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG) in group 5:1 compared with groups 1:1 and 1:5. In addition, caspase-8 enzymatic activity was increased in the DG at 24 h, and caspase-9 was enhanced in CA1 at 24 h in group 5:1 vs. groups 1:1 and 1:5. These results demonstrate that the increase in the dietary omega-3 PUFA, at the expense of omega-6 PUFA, reduces infarct size and helps to inhibit apoptosis in the limbic system after MI.

Rondeau I; Picard S; Bah TM; Roy L; Godbout R; Rousseau G

2011-03-01

95

Probiotics and dietary counselling targeting maternal dietary fat intake modifies breast milk fatty acids and cytokines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Breast milk fatty acids possess immunomodulatory properties, and new intervention strategies beyond supplementation of maternal diet with single oils are called for. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary intervention during pregnancy and breastfeeding on breast milk fatty acid and cytokine composition. METHODS: Pregnant women were randomised into three study groups: dietary intervention with probiotics (diet/probiotic) or with placebo (diet/placebo) and a control group (control/placebo). Dietary intervention included dietary counselling and provision of rapeseed oil-based food products. The probiotics used were Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 in combination. Dietary intake was evaluated by food records at every trimester of pregnancy and 1 month postpartum. Breast milk samples were collected after birth (colostrum) and 1 month after delivery for fatty acid and cytokine analysis (n = 125). RESULTS: Dietary intervention improved the quality of fat in the diet. In breast milk, the proportion of ?-linolenic acid and total n-3 fatty acids was higher in both dietary intervention groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). In the diet/probiotic group, the ?-linolenic acid content was higher compared with the diet/placebo group (p < 0.05). The concentrations of TNF-?, IL-10, IL-4 and IL-2 were higher in both dietary intervention groups compared with controls, and furthermore, long-chain n-3 fatty acids were associated with several cytokines in colostrum samples. CONCLUSION: The present intervention demonstrated the possibility of modifying breast milk immunomodulatory factors by dietary means.

Hoppu U; Isolauri E; Laakso P; Matomäki J; Laitinen K

2012-03-01

96

Dietary fat intake and the risk of depression: the SUN Project.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Emerging evidence relates some nutritional factors to depression risk. However, there is a scarcity of longitudinal assessments on this relationship. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between fatty acid intake or the use of culinary fats and depression incidence in a Mediterranean population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study (1999-2010) of 12,059 Spanish university graduates (mean age: 37.5 years) initially free of depression with permanently open enrolment. At baseline, a 136-item validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate the intake of fatty acids (saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and culinary fats (olive oil, seed oils, butter and margarine) During follow-up participants were classified as incident cases of depression if they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression models were used to calculate Hazard Ratios (HR) of incident depression and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for successive quintiles of fats. RESULTS: During follow-up (median: 6.1 years), 657 new cases of depression were identified. Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) for depression incidence across successive quintiles of TFA intake were: 1 (ref), 1.08 (0.82-1.43), 1.17 (0.88-1.53), 1.28 (0.97-1.68), 1.42 (1.09-1.84) with a significant dose-response relationship (p for trend?=?0.003). Results did not substantially change after adjusting for potential lifestyle or dietary confounders, including adherence to a Mediterranean Dietary Pattern. On the other hand, an inverse and significant dose-response relationship was obtained for MUFA (p for trend?=?0.05) and PUFA (p for trend?=?0.03) intake. CONCLUSIONS: A detrimental relationship was found between TFA intake and depression risk, whereas weak inverse associations were found for MUFA, PUFA and olive oil. These findings suggest that cardiovascular disease and depression may share some common nutritional determinants related to subtypes of fat intake.

Sánchez-Villegas A; Verberne L; De Irala J; Ruíz-Canela M; Toledo E; Serra-Majem L; Martínez-González MA

2011-01-01

97

Dietary fat modulates serum paraoxonase 1 activity in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the effects of dietary fats with specific fatty acid compositions, on serum paraoxonase (PON1) activity in rats. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into four dietary groups. One group received the control diet [AIN 93M with soybean oil (5 g/100 g diet)], whereas the remaining three groups received the modified control diet supplemented with (15 g/100 g diet) triolein, tripalmitin or fish oil, respectively. After 20 d, blood was obtained after overnight food deprivation and PON1 activity was determined. Serum lipids and lipid components of lipoproteins were also determined. Serum PON1 activity [micromol/(L.min)] was significantly (P: < 0.05) higher in triolein (98 +/- 6) and lower in fish oil (41 +/- 4), compared with tripalmitin-fed rats (63 +/- 11). Serum PON1 activity in tripalmitin-fed rats was comparable to that of controls (67 +/- 9). Serum PON1 activity correlated significantly with serum lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity (r = 0.77, P: < 0.001) and was transported in blood principally in association with the denser subfraction of HDL, very high density lipoprotein (VHDL; d > 1.15 kg/L). Serum PON1 activity correlated strongly with serum lipids as well as lipids of VLDL, HDL and its subfractions. Multiple linear regression analysis, however, showed a significant relationship of serum PON1 activity, principally with the phospholipids of VHDL (r = 0.47, P: < 0.002). These data suggest that the modulation of serum PON1 activity by dietary fat may be mediated via the effect of the specific fatty acids on the synthesis and secretion of VHDL, the subfraction of HDL that transports the majority of PON1 in the blood.

Kudchodkar BJ; Lacko AG; Dory L; Fungwe TV

2000-10-01

98

Dietary alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids competitively affect metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the effects of various levels of dietary 18:2(n-6) (linoleic acid) and 18: 3(n-3) (alpha-linolenic acid) on the growth, feeding, body composition and metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver and muscle of Arctic charr. Fish were fed 8 or 12 casein-based semipurified diets in two separate experiments for 12 or 14 wk, respectively. Low levels of dietary 18:2(n-6) and 18:3(n-3) supplemented with pure methyl esters or linseed (flax) oil had an additive effect on fish growth. For each 100 g of diet, the addition of 1.6-1.7 g of 18:3(n-3) and 2.6 g of 18:2(n-6) led to significantly lower fish growth compared with the treatment diets with lower amounts of 18:2(n-6). Whereas 18:2(n-6) was converted to 20:4(n-6) and 22: 5(n-6) in the absence or presence of dietary 18: 3(n-3), the dominant product of 18:3(n-3) conversion was consistently 22:6(n-3). High levels of dietary 18: 3(n-3) markedly inhibited the conversion of 18:2(n-6), whereas the inhibition of dietary 18:2(n-6) on 18: 3(n-3) conversion was noted only when the ratio of dietary 18:2(n-6) to 18:3(n-3) changed from 1.0 to 1.5. Feeding diets rich in 18:3(n-3) led to a marked accumulation of 18:3(n-3) and 18:4(n-3) in fish muscle but a negligible change in 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3), regardless of the level of 18:3(n-3) in the diets.

Yang X; Dick TA

1994-07-01

99

Dietary omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and Alzheimer's disease: interaction with apolipoprotein E genotype.  

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Epidemiological studies suggest a protective role of omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) against Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, most intervention studies of supplementation with n-3 PUFA have yielded disappointing results. One reason for such discordant results may result from inadeq...

Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Samieri, Cécilia; Féart, Catherine; Plourde, Mélanie

100

Dietary fat, fatty acids, and risk of prostate cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Observational studies report inconsistent associations of fat and fatty acids with prostate cancer. METHODS: We investigated associations between dietary fats and fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer in the NIH-American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) Diet and Health Study. Diet was assessed at baseline with self-administered food-frequency questionnaires. Cases were determined by linkage with state cancer registries. HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Among 288,268 men with average follow-up of nine years, 23,281 prostate cancer cases (18,934 nonadvanced and 2,930 advanced including 725 fatal cases) were identified. Total fat and mono- and polyunsaturated fat intakes were not associated with incidence of prostate cancer. Saturated fat intake was related to increased risk of advanced prostate cancer (HRQuintile 5 vs. Qunitile 1 (Q1 vs. Q5), 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.46; Ptrend = 0.03) and fatal prostate cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01-2.15; Ptrend = 0.04). ?-Linolenic acid (ALA) intake was related to increased risk of advanced prostate cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.31; Ptrend = 0.01). Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) intake was related to decreased risk of fatal prostate cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.64-1.04; Ptrend = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that the associations of fat and fatty acids differ by prostate cancer severity. Saturated fat, ALA, and EPA intakes were related to the risk of advanced or fatal prostate cancer but not to nonadvanced prostate cancer. IMPACT: Identifying factors associated with advanced prostate cancer could reduce morbidity and mortality.

Pelser C; Mondul AM; Hollenbeck AR; Park Y

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Procedure to obtain a product consisting in a partially low-fat flour with a high content of stabilized, polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially omega3  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A procedure which comprises a second step of pressing of the Salvia Hispanica L. seeds with temperature control modifying the ratio between the polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants contained as well as obtaining an expeller. The procedure comprises a third step in which the expeller obtained is let to cool until it reaches room temperature and a fourth step in which the expeller, at room temperature, is entered into a disc-driven mill to obtain different particle sizes of a partially low-fat flour with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially Omega3 type.

NUNEZ DANIEL ALFONSO; LAURIA MARIANO GUSTAVO

102

Psychosocial correlates of dietary fat intake in African-American adults: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Current dietary guidelines recommend that dietary fat should comprise 20–35% percent of total energy intake, with less than 10% of energy from saturated fat. However, many Americans exceed these goals and data suggest that African Americans tend to consume a higher percentage of energy from dietary fat than Whites. Because diets low in dietary fat, particularly saturated fat, are associated with lower risk for many chronic illnesses, it is important to identify strategies to reduce high fat intakes. This study examined associations of psychosocial factors with dietary fat intake in African American adults 18 to 70 years. Methods Data are self-reported from a cross-sectional survey of African Americans (n = 658) using an 11-page questionnaire, collected from June to October 2003. Associations of psychosocial (predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling) factors based on the PRECEDE framework, dietary fat-related behaviors, and participant characteristics (e.g., age, sex, education, BMI) with total and saturated fat consumption are described using linear regression and analysis of variance. Results The mean age of participants was 43.9 years, 57% were female, 37% were college graduates, and 76% were overweight/obese. Respondents with lower fat intakes were female, older, had high education and very good/excellent perceived health. Among the psychosocial factors, the strongest (inverse) associations with fat intake were with two predisposing factors: belief in the importance of a low-fat diet (both genders) and high self-efficacy (women only). Fat intake was also significantly lower among participants who could count on those close for encouragement to eat healthy foods (a reinforcing factor) and among men who needed more information about preparing healthy foods (an enabling factor). Conclusion Dietary interventions to decrease fat intake in African American adults may benefit from incorporating predisposing factors, such as personal beliefs and self-efficacy, in their design and implementation.

Watters Joanne L; Satia Jessie A

2009-01-01

103

Dietary n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and energy balance in overweight or moderately obese men and women: a randomized controlled trial  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFA) have been shown to reduce body weight and fat mass in rodents as well as in humans in one small short-term study. We conducted this controlled randomized dietary trial to test the hypothesis that n-3-PUFA lower body weight and fat mass by reducing appetite and ad libitum food intake and/or by increasing energy expenditure. Methods Twenty-six overweight or moderately obese (body mass index 28–33 kg/m2) men and women were included, and received either a diet rich in n-3-PUFA from both plant and marine sources or a control diet. Diets were administered in an isocaloric fashion for 2 weeks followed by 12 weeks of ad libitum intake. The n-3-PUFA and control diets were identical in all regards except for the fatty acid composition. All foods were provided to subjects, and leftovers were weighed back to assess actual food intake accurately for each day of the study. This design gave us 80% power to detect a difference in weight change between the n-3-PUFA and control diet groups of 2.25 kg at an ?-error level of 5%. Results Both groups lost similar amounts of weight when these diets were consumed ad libitum for 12 weeks [mean (SD): -3.5 (3.7) kg in the control group vs. -2.8 (3.7) kg in the n-3-PUFA group, F(1,24) = 13.425, p = 0.001 for time effect; F(1,24) = 0.385, p = 0.541 for time × group interaction]. Consistent with this finding, we also found no differences between the n-3-PUFA and control groups with regard to appetite as measured by visual analogue scale, ad libitum food intake, resting energy expenditure as measured by indirect calorimetry, diurnal plasma leptin concentrations, or fasting ghrelin concentrations. Conclusion Our results suggest that dietary n-3-PUFA do not play an important role in the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure, or body weight in humans.

Kratz Mario; Callahan Holly S; Yang Pamela Y; Matthys Colleen C; Weigle David S

2009-01-01

104

Product Fat-1 Transgenic Simmental Crossbred Cattle Endogenously Synthesizing Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Using OSM  

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Full Text Available Meat products normally contain low omega-3 fatty acids and high ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids may contribute to the prevalence of many diseases. In order to obtained in such beef with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids will be more healthy to meet people’s diet, researchers generated the fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans c fat-1 gene encoding an omega-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the gene is absent in mammals. In this study, researchers successful product the embryo of fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle using OSM. The results of Western Blotting and fluoroscopic examination have proved that the fat-1 gene has been into genome of clone embryo and translated into proteins which could be used to embryo transfer.

Wei Wang; Xiao-Mao Guo; Jian Wang; Song-Jia Lai

2012-01-01

105

Effect of source of dietary fat on pig performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content, distribution and fatty acid composition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seventy gilts were used to compare the effect of including 10% tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), a fat blend (FB), or an oil blend (OB) in finishing diets vs. feeding a semi-synthetic diet with no added fat (NF) on pig performance, carcass traits and carcass fatty acid (FA) composition. Carcasses from SFO-fed gilts had greater fat and lower lean compositions than carcasses from T-fed gilts. Gilts fed NF had greater loin fat than FB-fed gilts, and greater flare fat, loin intermuscular fat and fat:lean than T-fed gilts. Bellies from NF-fed gilts had lower lean and higher intermuscular fat and fat:lean than other diets except HOSF. Fat source had minor effects on animal performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content and distribution, whereas feeding NF resulted in carcasses and major cuts with higher fat content. Diets rich in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) did not reduce fat deposition in separable fat depots with respect to monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and saturated FA (SFA). Carcasses from gilts fed NF had a high degree of saturation (40.6% SFA) followed by carcasses of T- and FB-fed gilts. Feeding HOSF, SFO and LO enriched diets elevated the percentages of MUFA (56.7%), n-6 (30.0%) and n-3 (16.6%) PUFA, respectively, whereas carcasses from gilts fed OB had greater percentages of n-3 FA (14.8% n-3, 0.9% EPA, 1.0% DPA, 3.1% DHA) than gilts fed FB (6.72% n-3, 0.1% EPA, 0.4% DPA, 0.1% DHA).

Realini CE; Duran-Montgé P; Lizardo R; Gispert M; Oliver MA; Esteve-Garcia E

2010-08-01

106

Effect of source of dietary fat on pig performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content, distribution and fatty acid composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy gilts were used to compare the effect of including 10% tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), a fat blend (FB), or an oil blend (OB) in finishing diets vs. feeding a semi-synthetic diet with no added fat (NF) on pig performance, carcass traits and carcass fatty acid (FA) composition. Carcasses from SFO-fed gilts had greater fat and lower lean compositions than carcasses from T-fed gilts. Gilts fed NF had greater loin fat than FB-fed gilts, and greater flare fat, loin intermuscular fat and fat:lean than T-fed gilts. Bellies from NF-fed gilts had lower lean and higher intermuscular fat and fat:lean than other diets except HOSF. Fat source had minor effects on animal performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content and distribution, whereas feeding NF resulted in carcasses and major cuts with higher fat content. Diets rich in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) did not reduce fat deposition in separable fat depots with respect to monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and saturated FA (SFA). Carcasses from gilts fed NF had a high degree of saturation (40.6% SFA) followed by carcasses of T- and FB-fed gilts. Feeding HOSF, SFO and LO enriched diets elevated the percentages of MUFA (56.7%), n-6 (30.0%) and n-3 (16.6%) PUFA, respectively, whereas carcasses from gilts fed OB had greater percentages of n-3 FA (14.8% n-3, 0.9% EPA, 1.0% DPA, 3.1% DHA) than gilts fed FB (6.72% n-3, 0.1% EPA, 0.4% DPA, 0.1% DHA). PMID:20416832

Realini, C E; Duran-Montgé, P; Lizardo, R; Gispert, M; Oliver, M A; Esteve-Garcia, E

2010-03-21

107

Enrichment of anhydrous milk fat in polyunsaturated fatty acid residues from linseed and rapeseed oils through enzymatic interesterification.  

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Lipozyme TL IM was used in a solvent-free batch and microaqueous system for enzymatic interesterification of anhydrous milkfat (AMF) with linseed oil (LO) in binary blends and with rapeseed oil (RO) in one ternary blend. The aim was to obtain and characterize physicochemically fats enriched with unsaturated C 18 fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and, especially, linolenic acids) from natural vegetable oils. Binary blends of AMF/LO 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, and 60/40 (w/w) were interesterified. The change in triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles showed that quasi-equilibrium conditions were reached after 4-6 h of reaction. Free fatty acid contents <1%. The decrease in solid fat content and in dropping point temperature obtained with increasing content of LO and interesterification resulted in good plastic properties for the products originating from the blends 70/30 and 60/40. This was confirmed by textural measurements. Melting profiles determined by differential scanning calorimetry showed complete disappearance of low-melting TAGs from LO and the formation of intermediary species with a lower melting temperature. Oxidative stability of the interesterified products was diminished with increasing LO content, resulting in low oxidation induction times. A ternary blend composed of AMF/RO/LO 70/20/10 gave satisfactory rheological and oxidative properties, fulfilling the requirements for a marketable spread and, moreover, offering increased potential health benefits due to the enriched content in polyunsaturated fatty acid residues. PMID:18271538

Aguedo, Mario; Hanon, Emilien; Danthine, Sabine; Paquot, Michel; Lognay, Georges; Thomas, Annick; Vandenbol, Micheline; Thonart, Philippe; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Blecker, Christophe

2008-02-14

108

Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6) leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP) leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein), or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein) or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein) for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor ? protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ? expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

Nuernberg Karin; Breier Bernhard H; Jayasinghe Shakeela N; Bergmann Hannes; Thompson Nichola; Nuernberg Gerd; Dannenberger Dirk; Schneider Falk; Renne Ulla; Langhammer Martina; Huber Korinna

2011-01-01

109

Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA.

Du M; Ahn DU; Sell JL

2000-12-01

110

Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.  

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A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA. PMID:11194037

Du, M; Ahn, D U; Sell, J L

2000-12-01

111

Influence of long-term nutrition with different dietary fats on fatty acid composition of heavy pigs backfat  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of long-term fat supplementation on the fatty acid profile of heavy pig adipose tissue. Fifty-four Large White barrows, averaging 25 kg LW, were randomized (matched weights) to one of three isoenergetic diets supplemented with either tallow (TA), maize oil (MO), or rapeseed oil (RO). The fats were supplement- ed at 3% as fed from 25 to 110 kg LW, and at 2.5 % from 110 kg to slaughtering. Following slaughter at about 160 kg LW, backfat samples were collected from ten animals per treatment and analyzed. Fatty acid composition of backfat close- ly reflected the fatty acid composition of the supplemented fats. The backfat of pigs fed TA had the highest saturated fatty acid content (SFA) (P<0.01); those fed MO had the highest content in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and the lowest in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content; those fed RO had the highest content of linolenic acid (C18:3) and cis 11- ecosenoic acid (C20:1). Only MO treatment had an effect on linoleic acid levels and the iodine value (IV) of backfat, result- ing in levels higher than those (IV = 70; C18:2 = 15%) accepted by the Parma Consortium for dry-cured ham. The IV and unsaturation index in both layers of subcutaneous backfat tissue differed significantly between treatments. These results show that long-term dietary supplementation with different fats changes the fatty acid profile of heavy pig adipose tissue. Supplementation with rapeseed oil increases the proportion of “healthy” fatty acids in pig fat, thereby improving the nutritional quality, however the effects on the technological quality of the fat must be carefully assessed.

Raffaella Rossi; Carlo Corino

2010-01-01

112

Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF) questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA) dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ) and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2%) had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1) diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet]) was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036). The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet) were highly sensitive (96%), but had low specificity (46%) for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended MEDFICTS cutpoints are too high, leading to overestimation of dietary quality. A cutpoint of 38 appears to be providing optimal identification of patients who do not meet AHA dietary guidelines for fat intake.

Taylor Allen J; Wong Henry; Wish Karen; Carrow Jon; Bell Debulon; Bindeman Jody; Watkins Tammy; Lehmann Trudy; Bhattarai Saroj; O'Malley Patrick G

2003-01-01

113

Dietary meat and fat intake and prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fat exerts numerous complex effects on proinflammatory and immunologic pathways. Several epidemiological studies have examined the relationships between intake of fatty acids and/or foods high in fat and allergic rhinitis, but have provided conflicting findings. The current cross-sectional study investigated such relationships in Japan. Methods Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. The definition of rhinoconjunctivitis was based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for age; gestation; region of residence; number of older siblings; number of children; smoking; secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work; family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis; household income; education; and body mass index. Results The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months was 25.9%. Higher meat intake was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis: the adjusted odds ratio between extreme quartiles was 1.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-2.35, P for trend = 0.002). No measurable association was found between fish intake and rhinoconjunctivitis. Intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, ?-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and cholesterol and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake were not evidently related to the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis. Conclusions The current results suggest that meat intake may be positively associated with the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in young adult Japanese women.

Miyake Yoshihiro; Tanaka Keiko; Okubo Hitomi; Sasaki Satoshi; Arakawa Masashi

2012-01-01

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Interactive effects of dietary fat source and slaughter weight in growing-finishing swine: I. Growth performance and longissimus muscle fatty acid composition.  

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Crossbred pigs (n=288) were used to test the interactive effects of dietary fat source and slaughter weight on live performance, carcass traits, and fatty acid composition of the LM. Pigs were blocked by initial BW, and, within each of 9 blocks, pens (8 pigs/pen) were randomly assigned to either control corn-soybean meal grower and finisher diets devoid of added fat (Ctrl) or diets formulated with 5% beef tallow (BT), poultry fat (PF), or soybean oil (SBO). Immediately after treatment allotment, as well as at mean block BW of 45.5, 68.1, 90.9, and 113.6 kg, 1 pig was randomly selected from each pen, slaughtered, and allowed to chill for 48 h at 1 degrees C. Backfat was measured on the right sides, and a sample of the LM was removed for fatty acid composition analysis. Regardless of source, inclusion of fat in swine diets did not (P >or= 0.349) affect ADG, ADFI, or G:F. Furthermore, carcasses from pigs fed diets formulated with 5% fat had greater (P=0.013) average backfat depths than those from pigs fed the Ctrl diet. Body weight, carcass weight, and backfat depths increased (Ppig performance, but feeding a polyunsaturated fat source altered the fatty acid profile of the LM within the first 17.4 kg of BW gain; more specifically, including 5% SBO in swine diets could lead to economical ramifications associated with soft pork or fat. PMID:19066246

Apple, J K; Maxwell, C V; Galloway, D L; Hutchison, S; Hamilton, C R

2008-12-09

115

Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish among US children 12-60 months of age.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to estimate intake of individual polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), identify major dietary sources of PUFAs and estimate the proportion of individuals consuming fish among US children 12-60 months of age, by age and race and ethnicity. The study employed a cross-sectional design using US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Representative sample of US population based on selected counties. Subjects: 2496 US children aged 12-60 months. Mean daily intake of n-6 PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) varied by age, with children 12-24 months of age having lower average intakes (mg or g?day(-1) ) than children 49-60 months of age and the lowest n6?:?n3 ratio, upon adjustment for energy intake. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake was low (20?mg?day(-1) ) compared to typical infant intake and did not change with age. Compared to non-Hispanic white children, Mexican American children had higher DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) intake. In the previous 30 days, 53.7% of children ever consumed fish. Non-Hispanic black children were more likely than non-Hispanic white children to have consumed fish (64.0% vs. 53.0%). Results indicate low prevalence of fish intake and key n-3 PUFAs, relative to n-6 fatty acids, which suggests room for improvement in the diets of US children. More research is needed to determine how increasing dietary intakes of n-3 PUFAs like DHA could benefit child health.

Keim SA; Branum AM

2013-09-01

116

Periodontal disease: modulation of the inflammatory cascade by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Periodontal disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is caused by the interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune system. The ensuing oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade result in the destruction of gingival tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This article reviews the underlying mechanisms and host-bacteria interactions responsible for periodontal disease and evidence that nutritional supplementation with fish oil may provide a protective effect. Historical investigations of diet and disease have highlighted an inverse relationship between ingestion of fish oil, which is high in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the incidence of typical inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and coronary heart disease. Ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, results in their incorporation into membrane phospholipids, which can alter eicosanoid production after stimulation during the immune response. These eicosanoids promote a reduction in chronic inflammation, which has led to the proposal that fish oil is a possible modulator of inflammation and may reduce the severity of periodontal diseases. Tentative animal and human studies have provided an indication of this effect. Further human investigation is needed to establish the protective effects of fish oil in relation to periodontal disease.

Sculley DV

2013-07-01

117

The Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides (Bleeker), requires low dietary lipid levels with a preference for lipid sources with high omega-6 and low omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two feeding trials were conducted sequentially, firstly, to determine the optimal lipid requirement for Tor tambroides (Bleeker) fingerlings, and secondly, to evaluate the effects of various dietary lipid sources on the growth and tissue fatty acid composition. In Experiment 1, triplicate groups of hatchery-raised T. tambroides were fed diets containing one of six dietary lipid levels (3.0 to 19.1%) for 13weeks. Fish of initial weight 2.5±0.1g were fed close to apparent satiation in two equal feedings per day. Based on specific growth rate, a diet with 5.0% lipid is recommended for maximum growth of T. tambroides. There was no significant growth effect (P>0.05) in feeding higher amounts of lipid which led to a significant increase (P<0.05) in perivisceral and whole-body lipid deposition. In Experiment 2, seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain either 5% of cod liver oil (CLO), sunflower oil (SFO), canola oil (CO), crude palm oil (CPO), poultry fat (PF), or a mixed oil consisting of CLO:SFO with n?3:n?6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio of 0.6 (M0.6) or 0.3 (M0.3), respectively, and fed to triplicate groups of T. tambroides (initial weight 4.6±0.1g) at close to apparent satiation for 9weeks. A combination of the growth-depressing and growth-enhancing effect of dietary n?3 and n?6 PUFA, respectively, contributed to the significant variation in growth performance of fish fed diets with various lipid sources. Listed in decreasing order of nutritive value, PF>M0.3>SFO>CPO>M0.6>CO>CLO. In choosing a lipid source, the optimal ratio of dietary n?3 and n?6 PUFA for T. tambroides should preferably be less than or equal to about 0.3. With the exception of saturated fatty acids, the fatty acid composition of fish muscle lipids was closely related to dietary fatty acid composition. T. tambroides has some ability to bio-convert 18:3n?3 to n?3 long chain PUFA but this was not as evident for 18:2n?6. Whole-body proximate composition was generally not significantly affected by dietary lipid source. In conclusion, T. tambroides requires relatively low dietary lipid levels with a preference for lipid sources with high n?6 PUFA, high monounsaturated fatty acids and very low n?3 PUFA content. The ability of T. tambroides to utilize PF or n?6 PUFA rich plant oils will augment well for the use of cost-effective lipid sources in formulating feeds for this new aquaculture species.

Ng WK; Andin VC

2011-12-01

118

Beneficial effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on livers of high-fat dietary hamsters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9 mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (p<0.05) sizes of liver and visceral fat in high-fat dietary hamsters compared to the control hamsters were ameliorated (p<0.05) by NJ supplementation. NJ also decreased (p<0.05) serum/liver lipids but enhanced (p<0.05) daily faecal lipid/bile acid outputs in the high-fat dietary hamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, and IL-1? expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses.

Lin YL; Chang YY; Yang DJ; Tzang BS; Chen YC

2013-09-01

119

Beneficial effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on livers of high-fat dietary hamsters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9 mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (p<0.05) sizes of liver and visceral fat in high-fat dietary hamsters compared to the control hamsters were ameliorated (p<0.05) by NJ supplementation. NJ also decreased (p<0.05) serum/liver lipids but enhanced (p<0.05) daily faecal lipid/bile acid outputs in the high-fat dietary hamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, and IL-1? expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:23578611

Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Yang, Deng-Jye; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

2013-02-20

120

Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent allergic sensitization to cow's milk protein in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cow's milk allergy is one of the most common food allergies in children and no treatment is available. Dietary lipid composition may affect the susceptibility to develop allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: Assess whether dietary supplementation with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) prevents the establishment of food allergy. METHODS: Mice were fed a control or fish oil diet before and during oral sensitization with whey. Acute allergic skin response, serum immunoglobulins as well as dendritic cell (DC) and T cell subsets in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), spleen and/or small intestine were assessed. RESULTS: The acute allergic skin response was reduced by more than 50% in sensitized mice fed the fish oil diet compared to the control diet. In addition, anti-whey-IgE and anti-whey-IgG1 levels were decreased in the fish oil group. Serum transfer confirmed that the Th2-type humoral response was suppressed since sera of fish oil fed sensitized mice had a diminished capacity to induce an allergic effector response in naïve recipient mice compared to control sera. Furthermore, the acute skin response was diminished upon passive sensitization in fish oil fed naïve recipient mice. In addition, the percentage of activated Th1 cells was reduced by fish oil in spleen and MLN of sham mice. The percentage of activated Th2 cells was reduced in both sham- and whey-sensitized mice. In contrast, whey-sensitized mice showed an increased percentage of CD11b+CD103+CD8?- DC in MLN in association with enhanced FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in spleen and intestine of fish oil fed whey-sensitized mice compared to sham mice. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dietary n-3 LCPUFA largely prevented allergic sensitization in a murine model for cow's milk allergy by suppressing the humoral response, enhancing local intestinal and systemic Treg and reducing acute allergic symptoms, suggesting future applications for the primary prevention of food allergy.

van den Elsen LW; van Esch BC; Hofman GA; Kant J; van de Heijning BJ; Garssen J; Willemsen LE

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effects of the type of dietary fat on acetylcholine-evoked amylase secretion and calcium mobilization in isolated rat pancreatic acinar cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Olive oil is a major component of the Mediterranean diet, and its role in human health is being actively debated. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of pancreatic adaptation to dietary fat. For this purpose, we examined whether dietary-induced modification of pancreatic membranes affects acinar cell function in response to the secretagogue acetylcholine (ACh). Weaning male Wistar rats were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed for 8 weeks with a commercial chow (C) or a semisynthetic diet containing virgin olive oil as dietary fat (OO). The fatty acid composition of pancreatic plasma membranes was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. For assessment of secretory function, viable acini were incubated with ACh and amylase of supernatant was further assayed with a substrate reagent. Changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in response to ACh were measured by fura-2 AM fluorimetry. Compared to C rats, pancreatic cell membranes of OO rats had a higher level of monounsaturated fatty acids and a lower level of both saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, thus, reflecting the type of dietary fat given. Net amylase secretion in response to ACh was greatly enhanced after OO feeding, although this was not paralleled by enhancement of ACh-evoked Ca(2+) peak increases. In conclusion, chronic intake of diets that differ in the fat type influences not only the fatty acid composition of rat pancreatic membranes but also the responsiveness of acinar cells to ACh. This mechanism may be, at least in part, responsible for the adaptation of the exocrine pancreas to the type of fat available.

Yago MD; Díaz RJ; Martínez MA; Audi N; Naranjo JA; Martínez-Victoria E; Mañas M

2006-04-01

122

High content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cells of Kenyan Maasai despite low dietary intake.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Increasing land restrictions and a reduced livestock-to-human ratio during the 20th century led the Maasai to lead a more sedentary, market-orientated lifestyle. Although plant-derived food nowadays contributes substantially to their diet, dairy products being high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) still are an important energy source. Since reliable data regarding the Maasai diet date back to the 1980s, the study objective was to document current diet practices in a Kenyan Maasai community and to investigate the fatty acid distribution in diet and red blood cells. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 26 Maasai (20 women, 6 men) from Loodokilani, Kajiado District, Kenya. Food intake was described by the subjects via 24-h recall, and both food and blood samples were analysed. RESULTS: Two main foods--milk and ugali--constituted the Maasai diet in this region. A total of 0.9 L of milk and 0.6 kg of ugali were consumed per person and day to yield an energy intake of 7.6 MJ/d per person. A major proportion of ingested food contributing 58.3% to the total dietary energy (en%) was plant-derived, followed by dairy products representing 41.1 en%. Fat consumed (30.5 en%) was high in SFA (63.8%) and low in PUFA (9.2%). Long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) made up only 0.15% of the ingested fatty acids, but 5.9% of red blood cell fatty acids. CONCLUSION: The study indicates the Maasai diet is rich in SFA and low in PUFA. Nevertheless, red blood cells are composed of comparable proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA to populations consuming higher amounts of this fatty acid group.

Knoll N; Kuhnt K; Kyallo FM; Kiage-Mokua BN; Jahreis G

2011-01-01

123

High content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cells of Kenyan Maasai despite low dietary intake  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing land restrictions and a reduced livestock-to-human ratio during the 20th century led the Maasai to lead a more sedentary, market-orientated lifestyle. Although plant-derived food nowadays contributes substantially to their diet, dairy products being high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) still are an important energy source. Since reliable data regarding the Maasai diet date back to the 1980s, the study objective was to document current diet practices in a Kenyan Maasai community and to investigate the fatty acid distribution in diet and red blood cells. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 26 Maasai (20 women, 6 men) from Loodokilani, Kajiado District, Kenya. Food intake was described by the subjects via 24-h recall, and both food and blood samples were analysed. Results Two main foods - milk and ugali - constituted the Maasai diet in this region. A total of 0.9 L of milk and 0.6 kg of ugali were consumed per person and day to yield an energy intake of 7.6 MJ/d per person. A major proportion of ingested food contributing 58.3% to the total dietary energy (en%) was plant-derived, followed by dairy products representing 41.1 en%. Fat consumed (30.5 en%) was high in SFA (63.8%) and low in PUFA (9.2%). Long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) made up only 0.15% of the ingested fatty acids, but 5.9% of red blood cell fatty acids. Conclusion The study indicates the Maasai diet is rich in SFA and low in PUFA. Nevertheless, red blood cells are composed of comparable proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA to populations consuming higher amounts of this fatty acid group.

Knoll Nadja; Kuhnt Katrin; Kyallo Florence M; Kiage-Mokua Beatrice N; Jahreis Gerhard

2011-01-01

124

Dietary saturated and monounsaturated fats protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by altering fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane in rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fats increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We evaluated the effect of dietary corn oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and beef tallow (BT) on fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane and acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 15% (wt/wt) CO, OO or BT for 6 weeks. After treatment with acetaminophen (600 mg/kg), samples of plasma and liver were taken for analyses of the fatty acid composition and toxicity. Results Treatment with acetaminophen significantly elevated levels of plasma GOT and GPT as well as hepatic TBARS but reduced hepatic GSH levels in CO compared to OO and BT groups. Acetaminophen significantly induced protein expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the CO group. In comparison with the CO diet, lower levels of linoleic acid, higher levels of oleic acids and therefore much lower ratios of linoleic to oleic acid were detected in rats fed OO and BT diets. Conclusions Dietary OO and BT produces similar liver microsomal fatty acid composition and may account for less severe liver injury after acetaminophen treatment compared to animals fed diets with CO rich in linoleic acid. These findings imply that types of dietary fat may be important in the nutritional management of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

Hwang Jinah; Chang Yun-Hee; Park Jung; Kim Soo; Chung Haeyon; Shim Eugene; Hwang Hye

2011-01-01

125

Dietary Role of Omega - 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA): A Study with Growing Chicks, Gallus domesticus  

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The 7 days old chicks, Gallus domesticus were fed with a diet supplemented with 2.5%, 5% and 10% of ?-3 enriched PUFA (containing 180mg of eciosapentaenoic acid and 120mg docosahexaenoic acid per gram oil) for a period of 30 days. Dietary supplementation of PUFA promotes the growth of the bir...

R. Roy; S. Singh; S. Pujari

126

Increasing dietary fat elicits similar changes in fat oxidation and markers of muscle oxidative capacity in lean and obese humans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In lean humans, increasing dietary fat intake causes an increase in whole-body fat oxidation and changes in genes that regulate fat oxidation in skeletal muscle, but whether this occurs in obese humans is not known. We compared changes in whole-body fat oxidation and markers of muscle oxidative capacity differ in lean (LN) and obese (OB) adults exposed to a 2-day high-fat (HF) diet. Ten LN (BMI?=?22.5±2.5 kg/m², age?=?30±8 yrs) and nine OB (BMI?=?35.9±4.93 kg/m², 38±5 yrs, Mean±SD) were studied in a room calorimeter for 24hr while consuming isocaloric low-fat (LF, 20% of energy) and HF (50% of energy) diets. A muscle biopsy was obtained the next morning following an overnight fast. 24h respiratory quotient (RQ) did not significantly differ between groups (LN: 0.91±0.01; OB: 0.92±0.01) during LF, and similarly decreased during HF in LN (0.86±0.01) and OB (0.85±0.01). The expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) and the fatty acid transporter CD36 increased in both LN and OB during HF. No other changes in mRNA or protein were observed. However, in both LN and OB, the amounts of acetylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1-? (PGC1-?) significantly decreased and phosphorylated 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) significantly increased. In response to an isoenergetic increase in dietary fat, whole-body fat oxidation similarly increases in LN and OB, in association with a shift towards oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle, suggesting that the ability to adapt to an acute increase in dietary fat is not impaired in obesity.

Bergouignan A; Gozansky WS; Barry DW; Leitner W; MacLean PS; Hill JO; Draznin B; Melanson EL

2012-01-01

127

Diet-gene interactions between dietary fat intake and common polymorphisms in determining lipid metabolism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current dietary guidelines for fat intake have not taken into consideration the possible genetic differences underlying the individual variability in responsiveness to dietary components. Genetic variability has been identified in humans for all the known lipid metabolim-related genes resulting in a...

Corella, Dolores

128

Milk Fat Intake and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Supplementation : Dietary Markers and Associations to Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present thesis dietary markers for intake of milk fat, associations between intake of milk fat and risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD), and the effects of supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) to healthy humans are investigated.The dietary fat quality is one ...

Smedman, Annika

129

Effects of removal of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma extravasation and mechanical allodynia in a trigeminal neuropathic pain model  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain (NP) is partially mediated by neuroinflammatory mechanisms, and also modulates local neurogenic inflammation. Dietary lipids, in particular the total amount and relative proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the ?-3 and ?-6 families, have been reported to modify the threshold for thermal and mechanical allodynia in the partial sciatic nerve ligation model of NP in rats. The effects of dietary lipids on other popular NP models, such as the chronic constriction injury (CCI), have not yet been examined. It is also unknown whether dietary PUFAs exert any effect on the capsaicin (CAP)-induced neurogenic inflammation under control or NP conditions. In this study we investigated these interrelated phenomena in the trigeminal territory, which has been much less explored, and for which not all data derived from limb nerves can be directly applied. Results We studied the effects of a CCI of the infraorbital nerve (IoN) on the development of mechanical allodynia and CAP-induced plasma extravasation in rats fed either a regular diet (RD), or a modified diet (MD) with much lower total content and ?-3:?-6 ratio of PUFAs. In rats kept on MD, mechanical allodynia following CCI-IoN was more pronounced and developed earlier. Extravasation was substantially increased in naive rats fed MD, and displayed differential diet-depending changes one and four weeks after CCI-IoN. When compared with basal levels (in naive and/or sham cases), the net effect of CCI-IoN on ipsilateral extravasation was a reduction in the MD group, but an increase in the RD group, effectively neutralizing the original intergroup differences. Conclusion In summary, PUFA intake reduces CAP-induced neurogenic plasma extravasation in the trigeminal territory, and their removal significantly alters the mechanical allodynia and the plasma extravasation that result from a unilateral CCI-IoN. It is likely that this "protective" effect of dietary lipids is temporary. Also, the presence of contralateral effects of CCI-IoN precludes using the contralateral side as control.

Martin Yasmina B; Avendaño Carlos

2009-01-01

130

Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorates acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae in BALB/c mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The immune benefits associated with the optimal intake of dietary fatty acids are widely known. The objective of the present investigation was to elucidate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) food source on acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Three different n-3 PUFA preparations (cod liver oil, Maxigard, and flaxseed oil) were orally supplemented and infection was induced in different groups of experimental mice. Mice fed olive oil and normal saline served as oil and saline controls, respectively. After 2 weeks of fatty acid feeding, no effect on the establishment of infection was observed when acute pneumonia was induced in animals. On the other hand, 6 weeks of n-3 PUFA administration was found to improve resistance in mice, as reduced lung bacterial load coupled with significant improvement in pathology was seen in infected mice. Alveolar macrophages collected from all 3 groups of mice fed n-3 PUFA exhibited a significant decrease in the level of apoptosis following infection with K. pneumoniae and an enhanced in vitro phagocytic potential for the pathogen. Lower lung levels of nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase were associated with a decrease in the severity of tissue damage. There was a significant increase in the lung levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?)). No significant change was observed in the levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10). This study highlights that dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation exerts an overall beneficial effect against acute experimental pneumonia. This mechanism is operative through upregulation of nonspecific and specific immune defenses of the host.

Sharma S; Chhibber S; Mohan H; Sharma S

2013-07-01

131

Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on Stearoyl CoA-Desaturase gene expression in intramuscular lipids of lamb  

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Full Text Available The effect of replacement of dietary sunflower oil (SO) with linseed oil (LO) on Stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression was investigated. Thirty-six lambs were randomly assigned to four groups and fed with one of the experimental diets, consisting of lucerne pellets with oil (60 g/Kg). The diets varied in the percentage of the oil supplemented and were: 100% SO; 66.6% SO plus 33.3% LO; 33.3% SO plus 66.6% LO and 100% LO. The trial period was of 7 weeks. Longissimus dorsi was removed from each carcass and stored at - 80°C until the analysis. Total fatty acids composition was determined by gas-chromatograph, while SCD gene expression was assessed by Real-Time Reverse-Transcription PCR. Replacement of SO with LO decreases significantly the SCD mRNA content with a concomitant increment of polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA) n-3. These results are related to the higher level of PUFA n-3 present in linseed than sunflower. Although, there were differences on mRNA level, there was not a simultaneously changes on SCD activity. In conclusion, PUFA n-3 act on the regulation of mRNA SCD level without affecting the activity of the relative enzyme.

Giuseppe Conte; Eliana Jeronimo; Andrea Serra; Rui J.B. Bessa; Marcello Mele

2012-01-01

132

Effects of dietary ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immunoglobulins, cytokines, fatty acid composition, and performance of lactating sows and suckling piglets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the performance of lactating sows and their piglets. Thirty pregnant Landrace sows were assigned to one of three treatments from d 108 of gestation until weaning (26-29 d) and were fed diets containing different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA including 3:1, 9:1 and 13:1. The effects on sow and litter production traits were examined together with an assessment of sow body condition. No differences were detected among the treatments for the daily feed intake of sows or changes in sow weight and back-fat levels during lactation (P?>?0.05). Litter size at d 14 and d 21 were tended to increase in 3:1 treatment compared with 9:1 and 13:1 treatments (P??0.05). A great significant difference for IgG concentration was observed among 3 group in colostrum. A great significant difference for IgA, and IgM (P?dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA was 9:1.

Yao W; Li J; Wang JJ; Zhou W; Wang Q; Zhu R; Wang F; Thacker P

2012-01-01

133

Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dietary Milk Fat  

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Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted on the utilization of milk fat as lipid energy source by Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (0.85±0.03 g). The fishes were fed with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20% milk fat based diets respectively for 8 weeks. The results obtained showed significant differences (p<0.05) for diets containing graded levels of milk fat in terms of weight gain, feed efficiency ratio and specific growth rate when compared with the control diet (0% milk fat). Among the milk fat based diets, containing that had 20% inclusion level of milk fat gave the highest specific growth rate and lowest feed conversion ratio. Carcass analysis showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the control diet and milk fat based diets. Therefore, the results indicated efficient utilization of milk fat as protein sparing which would promote sustainable aquaculture in view of the high cost fish oil.

A.M. Orire; S.O. Fawole

2012-01-01

134

Olive oil, dietary fat and ageing, a mitochondrial approach  

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Full Text Available Ageing represents a great concern in developed countries because the high number of people included in this group (indeed, a further increase in the rate of old people it is expected in the near future). Another important aspect concerning ageing is the number of pathologies related with this phenomenon like Alzheimer, Parkinson, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. According to the free radical theory of ageing and its further mitochondrial extension, ageing is the result of the oxidative insult to the organism throughout the life. Some of the damages are not entirely repaired and are accumulated, leading to organism malfunction. Such oxidative-stress related events are particularly important in mitochondria and specially at the mitochondrial DNA level (less protected and more prone to oxidation than nuclear DNA and with a not well established repairing system). Such mitochondrial damage directly affects to the cell energy delivery system, being that, at least in part, the explanation for the structural and functional impairments related to age. Oxidative stress is related with the fatty acid composition of membranes. The intake of a type of fat affects in a direct way the fatty acids and antioxidants composition of subcellular membranes (including mitochondrial membranes) and in an indirect way the susceptibility of the membrane to oxidation. Thus, if we build specific biological membranes according to particular types of fats, we would be able to positively affect the way and intensity in which different organs would age. This work hypothesis represents a new point of view in the investigation of ageing and might have important consequences. According to the above-mentioned premises, this work reviews the convenience to use virgin olive oil as dietary fat from the point of view of mitochondrial ageing.El envejecimiento preocupa enormemente en los países desarrollados por el alto número de personas incluidas en este grupo de población (se espera un aumento de este colectivo en el futuro). También es importante la incidencia de patologías relacionadas con el envejecimiento tales como Alzheimer, Parkinson, diabetes, enfermedades cardiovasculares y cáncer. Según la teoría de los radicales libres del envejecimiento y su posterior extensión mitocondrial, el envejecimiento proviene del daño oxidativo al organismo a lo largo de la vida. Parte del daño no es reparado y se acumula, dando lugar a un funcionamiento celular incorrecto. Tales eventos oxidativos son muy importantes a nivel mitocondrial, especialmente en su ADN, menos protegido y más susceptible a la oxidación que el nuclear y con un sistema de reparación aun sin elucidar en su totalidad. El daño mitocondrial afecta a la producción de energía celular, lo cual puede explicar las alteraciones estructurales y funcionales asociadas al envejecimiento. El estrés oxidativo se relaciona con la composición en ácidos grasos de las membranas biológicas. La ingesta de un tipo de grasa afecta a la composición en ácidos grasos y antioxidantes de las membranas subcelulares y a la susceptibilidad de las mismas a la oxidación. Por tanto, si construyéramos membranas basadas en determinadas grasas, podríamos condicionar el modo e intensidad del envejecimiento en determinados órganos y tejidos. Esta hipótesis de trabajo representa un novedoso enfoque dentro del estudio del envejecimiento que podría tener importantes consecuencias. Según las premisas anteriores, el presente trabajo revisa la conveniencia del empleo en la dieta de aceite de oliva virgen de forma preferencial desde el punto de vista del envejecimiento mitocondrial.

Mataix, José; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

2004-01-01

135

Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the diets of Danish children, and to examine the associations between dietary GI, GL and body fatness. Data were collected during 1997-8 as part of the European Youth Heart Study. The study population comprised 485 children aged 10 years and 364 children aged 16 years from Odense County, Denmark. Dietary GI and GL were estimated using international food tables, and the associations between energy-adjusted dietary GI, GL and body fatness were analysed by multiple linear regression. The mean daily dietary GI value was 85 (SD 6 center dot 9) with a range of 62-111. No significant differences were found between age groups and gender. The daily dietary GL was higher among boys aged 16, with a GL of 330 (sd 95) (P < 0 center dot 05), compared with girls or younger boys. Dietary GL was higher among 10-year-old boys than girls (250 (sd 81) v. 230 (sd 66) P < 0 center dot 05), whereas dietary GL among 16-year-old girlswas 230 (sd 56). Neither dietary GI nor GL was associated with the sum of four skinfolds (Sigma SF) among girls or among 10-year-old boys. Among 16-year-old boys, significant associations were observed between dietary GI and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 60, SE=0 center dot 21, P=0 center dot 006), and between dietary GL and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 15, SE=0.06, P=0 center dot 009). In conclusion, dietary GI and GL were positively associated with body fatness among Danish boys aged 16 years, whereas no associations were found among girls or younger boys

Nielsen, B. M.; BjØrnsbo, K. B.

2005-01-01

136

A gut lipid messenger links excess dietary fat to dopamine deficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Excessive intake of dietary fats leads to diminished brain dopaminergic function. It has been proposed that dopamine deficiency exacerbates obesity by provoking compensatory overfeeding as one way to restore reward sensitivity. However, the physiological mechanisms linking prolonged high-fat intake to dopamine deficiency remain elusive. We show that administering oleoylethanolamine, a gastrointestinal lipid messenger whose synthesis is suppressed after prolonged high-fat exposure, is sufficient to restore gut-stimulated dopamine release in high-fat-fed mice. Administering oleoylethanolamine to high-fat-fed mice also eliminated motivation deficits during flavorless intragastric feeding and increased oral intake of low-fat emulsions. Our findings suggest that high-fat-induced gastrointestinal dysfunctions play a key role in dopamine deficiency and that restoring gut-generated lipid signaling may increase the reward value of less palatable, yet healthier, foods.

Tellez LA; Medina S; Han W; Ferreira JG; Licona-Limón P; Ren X; Lam TT; Schwartz GJ; de Araujo IE

2013-08-01

137

Effect of dietary fat on hepatic metabolism of 14C-oleic acid and very low density lipoprotein triglyceride in the gerbil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to compare in vitro and in vivo aspects of lipid metabolism and lipoprotein secretion associated with the hyperlipemia of saturated fat feeding, gerbils were fed a diet containing 15% coconut oil or safflower oil for 6 weeks. In vitro incorporation of fatty acid was determined by measuring 14C-oleic acid incorporation into hepatic lipis in liver fasting gerbils following Triton WR1339 injection. The plasma lipoprotein profile was assessed by agarose electrophoresis. Coconut oil produced a hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia associated with the appearance of very low density migrating lipoprotein, not seen with the safflower oil. Coconut oil also increased the hepatic triglyceride content, enhanced 14C-oleic acid incorporation into total lipid, and favored fatty acid incorporation into triglyceride; safflower oil facilitated esterification of oleic acid into phospholipid. Triton blockade of gerbils fed safflower oil resulted in twice the triglyceride secretion rate of those fed coconut oil. Our interpretation of the data is that dietary polyunsaturated fat favors incorporation of fatty acids into phospholipid, enhances both triglyceride secretion and the plasma transport and clearance of triglyceride and cholesterol and that the hyperlipemia of coconut oil feeding reflects a reduced metabolic clearnace of circulating lipid associated with that dietary fat.

Nicolosi RJ; Herrera MG; el Lozy M; Hayes KC

1976-09-01

138

Endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) mitigate ovariectomy-induced bone loss by attenuating bone marrow adipogenesis in FAT1 transgenic mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To investigate the effect of endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on bone marrow adipogenesis under osteoporosis conditions. METHODS: A mouse osteoporosis model overexpressing the FAT1 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans and converting n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs endogenously was used. RESULTS: The mice presented significantly lower bone marrow adiposity (adipocyte volume/tissue volume, mean adipocyte number) but increased the bone parameters (bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone volume/total volume) in the distal femoral metaphysis. CONCLUSION: Endogenous n-3 PUFAs protect bone marrow adipogenesis, which provides a novel drug target.

Chen TY; Zhang ZM; Zheng XC; Wang L; Huang MJ; Qin S; Chen J; Lai PL; Yang CL; Liu J; Dai YF; Jin DD; Bai XC

2013-01-01

139

Dietary fat and N-nitrosation in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Groups of four conventional (CV) rats ate natural or purified diets either with or without 100 g fat/kg and drank 0.235 M-sodium nitrate. The fats tested were butterfat, coconut oil, olive oil, maize oil and safflower oil. 2. Decreased urinary excretion of N-nitrosoproline (NPRO) was observed in rats fed on fat-supplemented diets compared with those fed on low-fat diets, with butterfat having the greatest effect of the fats tested. 3. Reduced excretion of NPRO was not the result of inhibition of the intragastric N-nitrosation reaction or absorption of nitrosamine from the gastrointestinal tract. 4. The availability of nitrite in aqueous solution was decreased by the fat diets but the effect was similar in all the fats tested. 5. Nitrate reductase activity was present in the forestomach contents of CV rats at pH greater than 4 and was apparently inhibited by feeding a fat diet. No nitrate reductase activity was detected in stomach contents of germ-free rats. 6. Nitrate reductase activity in stomach and small intestinal tissue was not altered by feeding a fat diet. 7. It was concluded that nitrate reductase activity in stomach contents was of microbial origin and the decreased urinary excretion of NPRO on feeding the fat diets was mainly due to the inhibition of nitrate reductase activity in stomach contents. PMID:3676244

Ward, F W; Coates, M E

1987-09-01

140

Dietary fat and N-nitrosation in the rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Groups of four conventional (CV) rats ate natural or purified diets either with or without 100 g fat/kg and drank 0.235 M-sodium nitrate. The fats tested were butterfat, coconut oil, olive oil, maize oil and safflower oil. 2. Decreased urinary excretion of N-nitrosoproline (NPRO) was observed in rats fed on fat-supplemented diets compared with those fed on low-fat diets, with butterfat having the greatest effect of the fats tested. 3. Reduced excretion of NPRO was not the result of inhibition of the intragastric N-nitrosation reaction or absorption of nitrosamine from the gastrointestinal tract. 4. The availability of nitrite in aqueous solution was decreased by the fat diets but the effect was similar in all the fats tested. 5. Nitrate reductase activity was present in the forestomach contents of CV rats at pH greater than 4 and was apparently inhibited by feeding a fat diet. No nitrate reductase activity was detected in stomach contents of germ-free rats. 6. Nitrate reductase activity in stomach and small intestinal tissue was not altered by feeding a fat diet. 7. It was concluded that nitrate reductase activity in stomach contents was of microbial origin and the decreased urinary excretion of NPRO on feeding the fat diets was mainly due to the inhibition of nitrate reductase activity in stomach contents.

Ward FW; Coates ME

1987-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

[Relation of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene with weight loss and metabolic changes after a high polyunsaturated fat diet in obese patients].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The alteration in the protein expression of UCP3 could reduce energy consumption and increase energy storage as fat. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene in the metabolic response, weight loss and serum levels of adipokines following a hypocaloric diet rich in polyunsaturated fat in obese patients. DESIGN: A sample of 133 obese patients were analyzed prospectively for 3 months. The hypocaloric diet was 1459 kcal, 45.7% carbohydrate, 34.4% from 19.9% lipids and proteins. The fat distribution was, a 21.8% saturated fat, 55.5% monounsaturated and 22.7% of polyunsaturated fat (7 g per day of fatty acids w6, 2 g per day of w -3 and a ratio w6/w3 of 3.5). RESULTS: A total of 100 patients (28 males/72 females) (75.2%) had genotype - 55CC (wild genotype group) and 33 patients (8 males/25 females) (24.8%) -55CT genotype (group mutant genotype). In the wild genotype, body mass index (-2.5 ± 5.3 kg/m²), weight (-4.2 ± 3.7 kg), fat mass (-3,7 ± 3.3 kg), waist circumference (-4.1 ± 2.9 cm), systolic blood pressure (-4.9 ± 10.1 mmHg), total cholesterol levels (- 16.1 ± 23.6 mg / dl), LDL cholesterol (-11.1 ± 26.8 mg/dl), triglycerides (-12.0 ± 46.8 mg/dl), insulin (-1.8 ± 4.5 IU/L), HOMA-R (-0.6 ± 1.5) and leptin (-6.2 ± 8.4 ng/ml) decreased. In the mutant genotype anthropometric parameters were significantly decreased without significant changes in biochemical parameters. CONCLUSION: The T allele carriers of -55CT UCP3 polymorphism exhibit no metabolic response to weight loss induced by a hypocaloric diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

de Luis DA; Aller R; Izaola O; GonzÁlez Sagrado M; Conde R; Ruiz Mambrilla M

2012-07-01

142

Effects of partial replacement of dietary fat by olestra on dietary cholesterol absorption in man  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Olestra, a nonabsorbable fat substitute comprising long-chain fatty acid esters of sucrose, had been previously shown to reduce cholesterol absorption in humans when ingested at a level of 50 g/d. To determine whether or not a lower level of dietary olestra would also reduce cholesterol absorption, we studied the effect of 7 g of olestra twice a day in 20 normocholesterolemic male inpatients in a double-blind, crossover trial. Two 6-day diet treatment and stool collection periods were separated by a 14-day washout period. Half of the subjects received butter, and half, a butter-olestra blend during each treatment period according to a crossover design. All subjects ingested trace amounts of 3H-cholesterol and 14C-beta-sitosterol with the butter or the butter-olestra blend. Cholesterol absorption was determined from the 3H/14C ratios in the diet and in saponified and extracted stools according to previously validated methodology. Cholesterol absorption during the butter regimen was significantly greater than that during the olestra regimen (56.1% +/- 1.6% v 46.7% +/- 1.1%, P less than .01).

Jandacek, R.J.; Ramirez, M.M.; Crouse, J.R. III (Procter Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

1990-08-01

143

Effects of partial replacement of dietary fat by olestra on dietary cholesterol absorption in man  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Olestra, a nonabsorbable fat substitute comprising long-chain fatty acid esters of sucrose, had been previously shown to reduce cholesterol absorption in humans when ingested at a level of 50 g/d. To determine whether or not a lower level of dietary olestra would also reduce cholesterol absorption, we studied the effect of 7 g of olestra twice a day in 20 normocholesterolemic male inpatients in a double-blind, crossover trial. Two 6-day diet treatment and stool collection periods were separated by a 14-day washout period. Half of the subjects received butter, and half, a butter-olestra blend during each treatment period according to a crossover design. All subjects ingested trace amounts of 3H-cholesterol and 14C-beta-sitosterol with the butter or the butter-olestra blend. Cholesterol absorption was determined from the 3H/14C ratios in the diet and in saponified and extracted stools according to previously validated methodology. Cholesterol absorption during the butter regimen was significantly greater than that during the olestra regimen (56.1% +/- 1.6% v 46.7% +/- 1.1%, P less than .01)

1990-01-01

144

Influence of genetic polymorphisms on responsiveness to dietary fat and cholesterol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genes influence quantitative variations in plasma lipoprotein concentrations. For example, intake of dietary saturated fat and cholesterol raises the average serum cholesterol concentration, leading to a higher risk of coronary artery disease in populations. However, not all individuals within the population are susceptible: genetic factors appear to render individuals either "dietary responsive" or "dietary nonresponsive." In this review, we focus on current knowledge about the influence of genetic polymorphisms in certain genes on the lipoprotein response to dietary fat and cholesterol. Our preliminary studies in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children suggest a significant dose-response relation between the decrease in LDL cholesterol from baseline to 36 mo of follow-up in both the intervention group (who consumed a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet) and the usual care group (who consumed a regular diet) and the presence of the APOA1*A allele at the M1 site and the + site at the M2 site of the gene encoding apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. The DNA polymorphisms on the genes encoding apo A-IV, apo B, apo C-III, apo E, lipoprotein lipase, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (phosphatidylcholine-sterol O:-acyltransferase), and LDL receptor were found by others to be associated with the plasma lipoprotein response to dietary intervention. Possible mechanisms involved in these effects are discussed and certain discrepancies in the literature about some genetic effects on responsiveness are analyzed. An improved understanding of the influence of specific genes on lipoprotein responsiveness to dietary fat and cholesterol may allow us to identify and counsel certain individuals to avoid high-fat diets so that they may reduce their risk of developing hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease. PMID:11063469

Ye, S Q; Kwiterovich, P O

2000-11-01

145

[Effects of dietary fat level on the xenobiotic metabolism enzymes activity and antioxidant enzymes in rats].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Male Wistar rats received fat-free diet or diets containing 5, 10 and 30% of fat (sunflower oil + lard, 1:1) for 4 weeks. The direct relationship between dietary fat level and ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity of CYP1A1, methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity of CYP1A2, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity of CYP2B1 and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity of CYP3A was found. Activities of key enzymes of phase II xenobiotic metabolism (total activity of glutathione transferase, activity of UDP-glucuronosyle transferase) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, paraoxonase-1 and heme oxygenase-1) also increased with higher dietary fat level.

Kravchenko LV; Aksenov IV; Trusov NV; Guseva GV; Avren'eva LI

2012-01-01

146

Effect of dietary oil supplementation on fatty acid profile of backfat and intramuscular fat in finishing pigs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two groups of finishing gilts were fed, for 4 weeks, a commercial feed enriched (2%) with either rapeseed oil or sunflower oil. Pig growth was monitored bi-weekly and the fatty acid composition of backfat and Longissimus muscle was determined after slaughtering. Type of dietary oil affected significantly the fatty acid profile of pork fat, especially the C18:3n-3 concentration which was higher in pigs fed rapeseed oil than in those fed sunflower oil. The content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) of Longissimus muscle was significantly higher than that of backfat, due to the its higher concentration of C18:1cis9 and C16:1. Differently, the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content was higher in backfat than in Longissimus muscle. These results confirm that it is possible to manipulate the fatty acid composition of the diet, in order to improve the health properties of the adipose tissues of pork meat.

Gianni Battacone; Anna Nudda; Maria Grazia Manca; Roberto Rubattu; Giuseppe Pulina

2010-01-01

147

Dietary oxidized poultry offal fat: broiler performance and oxidative stability of thigh meat during chilled storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC). Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass characteristics were measured. Skinless and deboned thigh meat was stored chilled during 12 days, and samples were periodically collected to assess their quality and oxidative stability. Dietary oxidized fat did not affect bird performance or carcass characteristics. During chilled storage, meat color (L*, a* and b*) was not affected by dietary treatments; however, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances) values were higher (P<0.05) in thigh meat from chickens fed the oxidized fat, indicating that oxidative stability was adversely affected.

AMC Racanicci; JFM Menten; MAB Regitano-d'Arce; EAFS Torres; LM Pino; AA Pedroso

2008-01-01

148

The role of dietary fats in efficiency of ruminants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fat increases energetic efficiency in lactating cows by increasing total energy intake, by generating ATP more efficiently (ATP/unit energy expended) than volatile fatty acids or protein, by direct incorporation into product, and by promoting nutrient partition toward milk production. Factors that limit utilization of large amounts of fat by ruminants include inhibitory effects on ruminal fermentation, lower intestinal absorption at high intake, low contribution to total oxidation of nutrients, and sensitivity to nutrient imbalance, causing reduced energy intake. Research has resolved many problems associated with effects on ruminal fermentation; research in the future may improve fat digestibility and reduce limits of oxidation. Effect of high fat on regulation of feed intake has received little attention.

Palmquist DL

1994-08-01

149

Dietary fat quality in regular fat diets has minor effects on biomarkers of inflammation in obese Zucker rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Adipose tissue-associated chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases. Dietary fatty acids are known to influence inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate, whether diets with regular fat contents but variable fat qualities affect adipose tissue-associated inflammation through the fatty acid composition of mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT). METHODS: Obese Zucker rats were fed diets containing 7 % wt:wt rapeseed oil, corn oil, or lard for 10 weeks. Fatty acid composition and endocrine function regarding adipokines and cytokines of MAT, number of total CD3(+) T cells, and cytokine secretion of mesenteric lymph node (MLN)-derived lymphocytes were determined. Local effects in MAT and MLN were compared to systemic effects assessed in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: Fatty acid composition of MAT reflected dietary fatty acid intake, without affecting endocrine function. Feeding the lard diet for 10 weeks increased the serum adiponectin and TNF-? secretion of blood lymphocytes, whereas CD3(+) T cells in blood were decreased. No effects were seen for the secretion of adipokines and cytokines from MAT, the amount of T cells in MLN, and cytokine secretion of MLN lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, feeding obese rats a diet with regular fat content but variable fat sources for 10 weeks, changed the fatty acid composition of MAT but not its secretory properties or MLN functions. Although the local immune system was not influenced, lard-feeding induced minor changes in systemic immune function.

Graf D; Barth SW; Bub A; Narr J; Rüfer CE; Watzl B; Seifert S

2013-04-01

150

Influence of source and amount of dietary fat on digestibility in lactating cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Digestibility of commercial fat supplements was determined in two experiments with high (59% of diet DM) forage diets. Experiment 1 was a preliminary trial in which six Jersey cows were in two 3 x 3 Latin squares to evaluate two formulations of calcium soap at two intake levels (500 and 1000 g/d). The two formulations were compared with control (0 supplement) within squares; the squares differed in amount of soap supplemented. Mean apparent digestibilities of fat were not influenced by source or amount of fat supplemented and averaged 82.5, 84.3, and 83.4% for control, 500, and 1000 g/d. In Experiment 2, six Jersey cows were in a 6 x 6 Latin square to compare effects of various commercial fats on digestibility of diet components at 2.85 and 5.7% (DM) added fat. Higher fat decreased digestibility of P and fatty acid. Fatty acid intake affected fatty acid digestibility quadratically, and variability among cows increased at higher fatty acid intake. Endogenous fecal fat was 55.9 g/d; apparent digestibility of fat was relatively constant at 80 to 82% between 2 and 5% of diet DM, whereas marginal true digestibility decreased linearly (4.4% units/100 g fatty acid consumed). There were no differences among fat sources in fatty acid digestibility. Rumen VFA were not influenced by dietary fat.

Palmquist DL

1991-04-01

151

Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin upregulate mitochondrial biogenesis and induce-beta oxidation in white fat  

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Aims/hypothesis Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces adipose tissue mass, preferentially in the abdomen. The more pronounced effect of marine-derived eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids on adiposity, compared with their precursor -linolenic acid, may be mediated by c...

Flachs, P.; Horakova, O.; Brauner, P.; Rossmeisl, M.; Pecina, P.; Franssen-Hal, N.L.W., van; Ruzickova, J.; Sponarova, J.

152

On the binding ratio of ?-cyclodextrin to dietary fat in humans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available KL Catherine Jen,1,2 George Grunberger,3 Joseph D Artiss2,4 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2ArtJen Complexus Inc, Windsor, ON, Canada; 3The Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA; 4Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: ?-Cyclodextrin (?-CD), a soluble dietary fiber, has been shown to bind and eliminate nine times of its own weight in dietary fat. Studies with different animal models have reported that ?-CD preferentially binds saturated fatty acids, reducing saturated and trans fatty acid levels in blood. A clinical trial demonstrated that ?-CD prevented weight gain in obese diabetic patients. The present study was designed to examine whether ?-CD also shows a preference in binding saturated fatty acids in humans and to confirm the 1:9 binding ratio in humans. Sixty-six obese diabetic patients were recruited at the beginning of this 3-month, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to the Active or Placebo group. Blood samples and 3-day dietary records were collected at baseline and at the end of months 1, 2, and 3. A bottle of 180 tablets of active or placebo tablets was dispensed to each participant at the beginning of each month. Dietary records were analyzed using The Food Processor software. It was observed that ?-CD has a higher affinity towards saturated fats than to unsaturated fats. Participants with higher intakes of total and saturated fat lost more weight than those with lower intakes (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively). These data support the earlier observation in both in vitro and animal studies that ?-CD binds with dietary fat in a 1:9 ratio and further demonstrate the efficacy of ?-CD in binding to and eliminating dietary fat, especially saturated fats. ?-CD may play a significant role in reducing blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as stopping chronic weight gain. Keywords: FBCx®, fat binding capacity, 1:9 binding ratio, reducing blood cholesterol levels, saturated, dietary analysis

Jen KLC; Grunberger G; Artiss JD

2013-01-01

153

Effects of dietary trans fatty acids on fat accumulation and metabolic rate in rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dietary intake of high trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is well known to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, few reports demonstrated definitive relationships between dietary TFAs and obesity. In addition, the difference in the gastrointestinal absorption rate of TFAs containing oil from that of cis-FAs containing oil was not taken into consideration in many rat studies. In experiment A, we investigated the difference in the apparent absorption rate of TFAs containing oil from control oil. Hydrogenated rapeseed oil and a mixture of camellia oil and tristearin (90:10 [w/w]) were used as TFA-containing test oil and control oil, respectively. Ten Wistar rats were divided into the control group or TFA group, and fed the respective diet containing the control oil or the test oil for 1 week. The apparent absorption rates of these oils were measured by fecal fat excretion rate and dietary fat intake. The results showed a significantly lower gastrointestinal apparent absorption rate of the test oil (93.1%) than that of the control oil (96.2%). In consideration of the apparent absorption rate of these dietary oils, the effects of dietary TFAs on body fat accumulation and energy metabolism were investigated in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into the control group or the TFA group. Each group received an isoenergetic diet containing the control oil or the test oil for 8 weeks. Pre- and postprandial metabolic rates were measured between weeks 7 and 8. The test oil-based diet did not significantly influence body weight gain, fat accumulation, and metabolic rate. In contrast, liver weight, hepatic triglyceride content, and serum non-high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (CHO)/HDL-CHO ratio were significantly higher in the TFA group than in the control group. In conclusion, these findings suggest that dietary TFAs did not influence body fat accumulation but increased the levels of risk markers of cardiovascular diseases.

Ochiai M; Fujii K; Takeuchi H; Matsuo T

2013-01-01

154

Effects of dietary iodine value product on growth performance and carcass fat quality of finishing pigs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 120 barrows (initial BW = 47.9 ± 3.6 kg; PIC 1050) were used in an 83-d study to determine the effects of dietary iodine value (IV) product (IVP) on growth performance and fat quality. Pigs were blocked by BW and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 treatments with 2 pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment. Dietary treatments were fed in 3 phases and formulated to 3 IVP concentrations (low, medium, and high) in each phase. Treatments were 1) corn-soybean meal control diet with no added fat (low IVP), 2) corn-extruded expelled soybean meal (EESM) diet with no added fat (medium IVP), 3) corn-soybean meal diet with 15% distillers dried grains with solubles and choice white grease (DDGS + CWG; medium IVP), 4) corn-soybean meal diet with low CWG (medium IVP), 5) corn-EESM diet with 15% DDGS (high IVP), and 6) corn-soybean meal diet with high CWG (high IVP). On d 83, pigs were slaughtered and backfat and jowl fat samples were collected and analyzed. The calculated and analyzed dietary IVP values were highly correlated (r(2) = 0.86, P < 0.01). Pigs fed the control diet, EESM, or high CWG had greater (P < 0.05) ADG than pigs fed EESM + DDGS. Pigs fed the control diet had greater (P < 0.05) ADFI than pigs fed all other diets. Pigs fed EESM + DDGS and high CWG had improved (P < 0.05) G:F compared with pigs fed the control diet or DDGS + CWG. Pigs fed diets with DDGS had greater (P < 0.05) backfat and jowl fat IV, C18:2n-6, and PUFA and less SFA than pigs fed all other treatments. Pigs fed EESM had greater (P < 0.05) backfat and jowl fat IV, C18:2n-6, and PUFA than pigs fed the control diet, low CWG, or high CWG. Pigs fed low CWG or high CWG had greater (P < 0.05) jowl fat IV than control pigs. Feeding ingredients high in unsaturated fatty acids, such as DDGS and EESM, had a greater impact on fat IV than CWG, even when diet IVP was similar. Therefore, IVP was a poor predictor of carcass fat IV in pigs fed diets with different fat sources and amounts of unsaturated fats formulated with similar IVP. Dietary C18:2n-6 content was a better predictor of carcass fat IV than diet IVP.

Benz JM; Tokach MD; Dritz SS; Nelssen JL; Derouchey JM; Sulabo RC; Goodband RD

2011-05-01

155

N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent excessive fat deposition in adulthood in a mouse model of postnatal nutritional programming.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates whether improved quality of nutrients during early postnatal life has effects on adult metabolic profile and body composition in a murine model of nutritional programming. Male offspring of C57Bl/6j dams received a diet containing 21% energy (En%) as fat of either 100% vegetable oils [control (CTRL)] or 80% vegetable oils/20% tuna fish oil [rich in n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCP)] from postnatal day (PN) 2 to 42. Subsequently, mice of both experimental groups were switched to a western style diet (WSD; 21 En% fat, high saturated fatty acid [FA] content, and cholesterol) until dissection at PN98. Body composition was analyzed by dual x-ray absorptiometry during the WSD challenge. Results showed that a n-3 LCP-rich diet during postnatal life not only reduced fat accumulation by ?30% during the WSD challenge from PN42 to 98 (p < 0.001) but also led to a healthier plasma lipid profile, healthier plasma glucose homeostasis, and less hypertrophic adipocytes compared with CTRL. This study shows that postnatal nutrition has programming effects on adult body composition and metabolic homeostasis. In addition, it emphasizes that moderate alterations in fat quality during early postnatal life considerably affect adult metabolic health. PMID:20724957

Oosting, Annemarie; Kegler, Diane; Boehm, Günther; Jansen, Harm T; van de Heijning, Bert J M; van der Beek, Eline M

2010-12-01

156

N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent excessive fat deposition in adulthood in a mouse model of postnatal nutritional programming.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigates whether improved quality of nutrients during early postnatal life has effects on adult metabolic profile and body composition in a murine model of nutritional programming. Male offspring of C57Bl/6j dams received a diet containing 21% energy (En%) as fat of either 100% vegetable oils [control (CTRL)] or 80% vegetable oils/20% tuna fish oil [rich in n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCP)] from postnatal day (PN) 2 to 42. Subsequently, mice of both experimental groups were switched to a western style diet (WSD; 21 En% fat, high saturated fatty acid [FA] content, and cholesterol) until dissection at PN98. Body composition was analyzed by dual x-ray absorptiometry during the WSD challenge. Results showed that a n-3 LCP-rich diet during postnatal life not only reduced fat accumulation by ?30% during the WSD challenge from PN42 to 98 (p < 0.001) but also led to a healthier plasma lipid profile, healthier plasma glucose homeostasis, and less hypertrophic adipocytes compared with CTRL. This study shows that postnatal nutrition has programming effects on adult body composition and metabolic homeostasis. In addition, it emphasizes that moderate alterations in fat quality during early postnatal life considerably affect adult metabolic health.

Oosting A; Kegler D; Boehm G; Jansen HT; van de Heijning BJ; van der Beek EM

2010-12-01

157

Interactive effects of dietary fat source and slaughter weight in growing-finishing swine: I. Growth performance and longissimus muscle fatty acid composition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Crossbred pigs (n=288) were used to test the interactive effects of dietary fat source and slaughter weight on live performance, carcass traits, and fatty acid composition of the LM. Pigs were blocked by initial BW, and, within each of 9 blocks, pens (8 pigs/pen) were randomly assigned to either control corn-soybean meal grower and finisher diets devoid of added fat (Ctrl) or diets formulated with 5% beef tallow (BT), poultry fat (PF), or soybean oil (SBO). Immediately after treatment allotment, as well as at mean block BW of 45.5, 68.1, 90.9, and 113.6 kg, 1 pig was randomly selected from each pen, slaughtered, and allowed to chill for 48 h at 1 degrees C. Backfat was measured on the right sides, and a sample of the LM was removed for fatty acid composition analysis. Regardless of source, inclusion of fat in swine diets did not (P >or= 0.349) affect ADG, ADFI, or G:F. Furthermore, carcasses from pigs fed diets formulated with 5% fat had greater (P=0.013) average backfat depths than those from pigs fed the Ctrl diet. Body weight, carcass weight, and backfat depths increased (P<0.001) as slaughter weight increased from 28.1 to 113.6 kg. The proportion of SFA in the LM increased (P<0.001) with increasing slaughter weight from 28.1 to 68.1 kg, but SFA percentages were similar between 68.1 and 113.6 kg, and pigs fed the Ctrl diet had greater (P=0.032) proportions of SFA than pigs fed the SBO and PF diets. Moreover, the proportion of all MUFA increased (P<0.001) by 9.4 percentage units from 28.1 to 113.6 kg; however, only pigs fed the SBO diet had reduced (P=0.004) MUFA percentages than those fed the Ctrl, BT, and PF diets. Even though the proportion of PUFA in the LM decreased with increasing slaughter weight, pigs fed SBO had greater PUFA percentages, a greater PUFA-to-SFA ratio, and greater iodine values than pigs fed all other dietary treatments when slaughtered at BW of 45.5 kg or greater (fat source x slaughter weight, P < 0.001). Results of this study indicate that fat source had little to no impact on live pig performance, but feeding a polyunsaturated fat source altered the fatty acid profile of the LM within the first 17.4 kg of BW gain; more specifically, including 5% SBO in swine diets could lead to economical ramifications associated with soft pork or fat.

Apple JK; Maxwell CV; Galloway DL; Hutchison S; Hamilton CR

2009-04-01

158

Palm Oil and Animal Fats for Increasing Dietary Energy in Rearing Pullets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 300 Nera chicks at 8 weeks of age were randomized into five experimental rearing diets containing 170g/kg crude protein and 2800Kcal/kg of metabolizable energy to determine the comparative advantage of palm oil and animal fat as sources of increasing dietary energy in pullets....

M.A. Isika; E.A. Agiang; B.I. Okon

159

Template to improve glycemic control without reducing adiposity or dietary fat  

Science.gov (United States)

Drugs that improve chronic hyperglycemia independently of insulin signaling or reduction of adiposity or dietary fat intake may be highly desirable. Ad36, a human adenovirus, promotes glucose uptake in vitro independently of adiposity or proximal insulin signaling. We tested the ability of Ad36 to i...

160

Evaluation of Dietary Calcium Level and Fat Source on Growth Performance and Mineral Utilization of Heat-distressed Broilers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Male broilers (commercial strain) were used to evaluate the effects of diets differing in fat source on performance of heat-distressed broilers. Dietary treatments included corn oil (CO), animal fat (AF), fish oil (FO) and a dry blended (animal and vegetable) fat product (DB) at either 0.9 or 1....

M. O. Smith; K. Soisuvan; L. C. Miller

 
 
 
 
161

The intake of saturated fat and dietary fibre: a possible indicator of diet quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to assess if a simple dietary quality index (SDQI) is a useful indicator for nutritional quality in the Danish diet. Data from the Danish National Dietary Survey 2000-2 for adults (n 3151; age 18-75 years) were used to construct an SDQI based on the intake of dietary fibre and saturated fat. The SDQI was used to rank the individuals into three subgroups: the 25 % closest in meeting the recommended intakes of saturated fat and dietary fibre (compliers), the 25 % furthest away (non-compliers) and the 50 % in between (intermediates). Significant differences in food and nutrient intake between these subgroups were identified by intakes of food groups and intakes of nutrients followed by non-parametric tests. Compared with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2004 and the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, compliers had a significantly better nutrient profile than intermediates and non-compliers, as the diet of compliers contained more whole-grain cereals, fruits, vegetables and fish,and more frequently low-fat dairy products, lean meats and boiled potatoes. The diet of all subgroups, especially non-compliers, had a high content of nutrient-poor, energy-dense foods, for example, salty snacks, confectionery, and beverages, for example, soft drinks and alcohol. The SDQI is a simple and useful tool to characterise the diet quality of Danish adults.

Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Fagt, Sisse

2008-01-01

162

The intake of saturated fat and dietary fibre: a possible indicator of diet quality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to assess if a simple dietary quality index (SDQI) is a useful indicator for nutritional quality in the Danish diet. Data from the Danish National Dietary Survey 2000-2 for adults (n 3151; age 18-75 years) were used to construct an SDQI based on the intake of dietary fibre and saturated fat. The SDQI was used to rank the individuals into three subgroups: the 25 % closest in meeting the recommended intakes of saturated fat and dietary fibre (compliers), the 25 % furthest away (non-compliers) and the 50 % in between (intermediates). Significant differences in food and nutrient intake between these subgroups were identified by intakes of food groups and intakes of nutrients followed by non-parametric tests. Compared with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2004 and the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, compliers had a significantly better nutrient profile than intermediates and non-compliers, as the diet of compliers contained more whole-grain cereals, fruits, vegetables and fish, and more frequently low-fat dairy products, lean meats and boiled potatoes. The diet of all subgroups, especially non-compliers, had a high content of nutrient-poor, energy-dense foods, for example, salty snacks, confectionery, and beverages, for example, soft drinks and alcohol. The SDQI is a simple and useful tool to characterise the diet quality of Danish adults.

Biltoft-Jensen A; Fagt S; Groth MV; Matthiessen J; Wachmann HC; Christensen T

2008-09-01

163

Dietary fat ingestion activates ?-endorphin neurons in the hypothalamus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The opioid system regulates food choice, consumption, and reinforcement processes, especially for palatable meals such as fatty food. ?-Endorphin is known as an endogenous opioid peptide produced in neurons of the hypothalamus. In this study, we found that Intralipid (fat emulsion) ingestion increased c-fos expression in ?-endorphin neurons. However, intragastric infusion of Intralipid only slightly increased c-fos expression 2h after infusion. Further, dissection of glossopharyngeal nerve, innervating posterior tongue taste buds, partially but significantly decreased the Intralipid-induced c-fos expression. These results indicate that mainly the orosensory stimulation from fat may activate ?-endorphin neurons, thereby promoting ?-endorphin release.

Matsumura S; Eguchi A; Okafuji Y; Tatsu S; Mizushige T; Tsuzuki S; Inoue K; Fushiki T

2012-04-01

164

Differential effects of dietary fats on sympathetic nervous system activity in the rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fat feeding stimulates sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity in rats. To determine if fats vary in their potency as stimulants of the SNS, [3H]norepinephrine ([3H]NE) turnover was measured in heart and interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) of animals fed lab chow diets supplemented with safflower oil, coconut oil, or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). At 5 days, all three fats accelerated [3H]NE turnover in heart and did so equally, but only when the fat supplement represented an increase in energy intake. However, after 14 days, safflower oil and coconut oil but not MCT increased [3H]NE turnover in heart compared with turnover rates obtained in animals fed isoenergetic amounts of chow. Furthermore, the stimulatory effect of safflower oil on [3H]NE turnover was statistically greater than that seen in animals fed equivalent amounts of coconut oil. In vivo synthesis of NE assessed by accumulation of dopamine (DA) in heart following inhibition of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (D beta H) was likewise highest in safflower oil-fed rats and lowest in those fed MCT. Thus, sympathetic activation by dietary fat varies among different fats, suggesting a role for fatty acid intake in dietary regulation of the SNS.

Young JB; Walgren MC

1994-01-01

165

Effects of dietary fat content on adiposity during energy restriction in genetically obese rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of the amount of fat provided in a restricted diet on weight loss and body composition were studied in this work. Lean male (Fa/?) Zucker rats were fed a control diet ad libitum. Obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats were divided into three groups: one group was fed a control diet ad libitum and the other two groups were fed 75% energy-restricted diets, which provided 10 or 50% of calories as fat. After 4 weeks, energy restriction normalized body weight but not body composition in the genetically obese rats. Reductions in adipose tissue weights and adipocyte size, without changes in the cellularity, were observed. Differences only reached statistical significance in subcutaneous adipose tissue. A standard fat content in the diet induced the same fat-free mass reduction as a higher amount of this macronutrient, but a greater body fat reduction. This suggests that the restriction of dietary fat, as well as energy, is necessary to achieve dietary management in obesity. PMID:10327447

Portillo, M P; Cantoral, R; Macarulla, M T

166

Effects of dietary fat content on adiposity during energy restriction in genetically obese rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of the amount of fat provided in a restricted diet on weight loss and body composition were studied in this work. Lean male (Fa/?) Zucker rats were fed a control diet ad libitum. Obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats were divided into three groups: one group was fed a control diet ad libitum and the other two groups were fed 75% energy-restricted diets, which provided 10 or 50% of calories as fat. After 4 weeks, energy restriction normalized body weight but not body composition in the genetically obese rats. Reductions in adipose tissue weights and adipocyte size, without changes in the cellularity, were observed. Differences only reached statistical significance in subcutaneous adipose tissue. A standard fat content in the diet induced the same fat-free mass reduction as a higher amount of this macronutrient, but a greater body fat reduction. This suggests that the restriction of dietary fat, as well as energy, is necessary to achieve dietary management in obesity.

Portillo MP; Cantoral R; Macarulla MT

1999-03-01

167

Dietary fat alters HIV protease inhibitor-induced metabolic changes in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PI) may alter lipid metabolism in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, the influence of dietary fat on the metabolic effects of PI therapy remains unknown. AKR/J mice were fed high or low fat diets and treated with the PI indinavir (IDV), nelfinavir (NFV), saquinavir (SQV) or amprenavir (APV) by subcutaneous delivery for 2 wk. Serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, free fatty acid, glycerol, pancreatic lipase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen and PI, and interscapular and epididymal fat weights were determined. Some metabolic effects of PI were dependent on diet. IDV- and NFV-treated mice had greater serum glucose concentration and body weight; IDV-treated mice had lower serum insulin; NFV-treated mice had greater interscapular fat mass; and SQV treated mice had lower serum triglyceride concentration than control mice fed the low but not the high fat diet. In contrast, NFV- and IDV-treated mice had greater triglyceride concentration and blood urea nitrogen, and SQV treated mice had greater serum cholesterol than control mice fed the high but not the low fat diet. The serum concentration of SQV was lower in mice fed the high fat compared with the low fat diet. Other effects were not dependent on diet. IDV- and NFV-treated mice had greater fatty acids, and IDV-treated mice had greater pancreatic lipase, bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase than control mice fed either diet. APV treatment had little effect on these serum measurements. Thus, changes in dietary fat can influence some but not all of the effects of PI on metabolism. Furthermore, each PI produces different effects in vivo, indicating that various PI affect distinct metabolic pathways.

Lenhard JM; Croom DK; Weiel JE; Spaltenstein A; Reynolds DJ; Furfine ES

2000-09-01

168

Dietary whey protein decreases food intake and body fat in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the effects of dietary whey protein on food intake, body fat, and body weight gain in rats. Adult (11-12 week) male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three dietary treatment groups for a 10-week study: control. Whey protein (HP-W), or high-protein content control (HP-S). Albumin was used as the basic protein source for all three diets. HP-W and HP-S diets contained an additional 24% (wt/wt) whey or isoflavone-free soy protein, respectively. Food intake, body weight, body fat, respiratory quotient (RQ), plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin were measured during and/or at the end of the study. The results showed that body fat and body weight gain were lower (P < 0.05) at the end of study in rats fed HP-W or HP-S vs. control diet. The cumulative food intake measured over the 10-week study period was lower in the HP-W vs. control and HP-S groups (P < 0.01). Further, HP-W fed rats exhibited lower N(2) free RQ values than did control and HP-S groups (P < 0.01). Plasma concentrations of total GLP-1 were higher in HP-W and HP-S vs. control group (P < 0.05), whereas plasma CCK, PYY, and leptin did not differ among the three groups. In conclusion, although dietary HP-W and HP-S each decrease body fat accumulation and body weight gain, the mechanism(s) involved appear to be different. HP-S fed rats exhibit increased fat oxidation, whereas HP-W fed rats show decreased food intake and increased fat oxidation, which may contribute to the effects of whey protein on body fat.

Zhou J; Keenan MJ; Losso JN; Raggio AM; Shen L; McCutcheon KL; Tulley RT; Blackman MR; Martin RJ

2011-08-01

169

The role of Odontella aurita, a marine diatom rich in EPA, as a dietary supplement in dyslipidemia, platelet function and oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on the risk factors for high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and were fed with a standard diet (control); with the standard diet supplemented with 3% freeze-dried O. aurita (COA); with a high-fat diet (HF); or with the high-fat diet supplemented with 3% of freeze-dried O. aurita (HFOA) for 7 weeks. In this study we evaluated the impact of these different diets on the risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 production, and oxidative stress. RESULTS: After 7 weeks of treatment, high fat feeding had increased final body weight, glycemia, triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol levels in plasma and liver compared to the control diet. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and basal platelet thromboxane B2 were also higher in the high-fat fed rats than in those in the control group. In the liver, oxidative stress was greater in the HF group than in the control group. O. aurita intake in HFOA-fed rats resulted in lower glycemia and lipid levels in the plasma and liver relative than in the HF group. Thus, in the HFOA group, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the tissues studied (plasma, liver, and platelets) were higher than in the HF group. Platelet hyper-aggregability tended to decrease in HFOA-fed rats as basal platelet thromboxane B2 production decreased. Finally, O. aurita reduced oxidative stress in the liver, with lower malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. CONCLUSIONS: O. aurita is a marine diatom rich in EPA as well as in other bioactive molecules, such as pigments. The synergistic effect of these microalgal compounds, displayed a beneficial effect in reducing the risk factors for high-fat induced metabolic syndrome: hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and oxidative stress.

Haimeur A; Ulmann L; Mimouni V; Guéno F; Pineau-Vincent F; Meskini N; Tremblin G

2012-01-01

170

The role of Odontella aurita, a marine diatom rich in EPA, as a dietary supplement in dyslipidemia, platelet function and oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on the risk factors for high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and were fed with a standard diet (control); with the standard diet supplemented with 3% freeze-dried O. aurita (COA); with a high-fat diet (HF); or with the high-fat diet supplemented with 3% of freeze-dried O. aurita (HFOA) for 7 weeks. In this study we evaluated the impact of these different diets on the risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 production, and oxidative stress. Results After 7 weeks of treatment, high fat feeding had increased final body weight, glycemia, triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol levels in plasma and liver compared to the control diet. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and basal platelet thromboxane B2 were also higher in the high-fat fed rats than in those in the control group. In the liver, oxidative stress was greater in the HF group than in the control group. O. aurita intake in HFOA-fed rats resulted in lower glycemia and lipid levels in the plasma and liver relative than in the HF group. Thus, in the HFOA group, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the tissues studied (plasma, liver, and platelets) were higher than in the HF group. Platelet hyper-aggregability tended to decrease in HFOA-fed rats as basal platelet thromboxane B2 production decreased. Finally, O. aurita reduced oxidative stress in the liver, with lower malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusions O. aurita is a marine diatom rich in EPA as well as in other bioactive molecules, such as pigments. The synergistic effect of these microalgal compounds, displayed a beneficial effect in reducing the risk factors for high-fat induced metabolic syndrome: hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and oxidative stress.

Haimeur Adil; Ulmann Lionel; Mimouni Virginie; Guéno Frédérique; Pineau-Vincent Fabienne; Meskini Nadia; Tremblin Gérard

2012-01-01

171

The lowering effect of dietary glucose versus starch on fat digestibility in rats is dependent on the type of fat in the diet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the study was to determine whether the type of dietary fat influences the effect of dietary glucose on lipid digestibility. Earlier work had shown that glucose, when compared with starch, reduced fat digestibility in rats fed rations containing animal fat as fat source. Male rats (n = 6/group) were fed for two weeks on purified diets containing either 62% (w/w) starch or glucose and either 8% (w/w) palm oil, coconut fat, soybean oil or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) as the main source of fat. The diets had no differential effect on growth. Glucose significantly depressed apparent lipid digestibility in rats fed the diets containing either palm oil or coconut fat, but not in rats given the diets containing either soybean oil or MCT. Thus, the inhibitory effect of glucose on lipid digestibility in rats is dependent on the dietary lipid source. This observation may contribute to understanding the mechanism by which dietary glucose inhibits fat digestion.

Vissia GH; Beynen AC

2000-07-01

172

TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. (Registration: ISRCTN25867281.) One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat%) in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6) greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1) greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p?=?0.00007). The replication study showed a similar (non-significant) interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i) the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii) the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii) the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i) the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii) the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii) some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction.

Stocks T; Angquist L; Banasik K; Harder MN; Taylor MA; Hager J; Arner P; Oppert JM; Martinez JA; Polak J; Rousseau F; Langin D; Rössner S; Holst C; MacDonald IA; Kamatani Y; Pfeiffer AF; Kunesova M; Saris WH; Hansen T; Pedersen O; Astrup A; Sørensen TI

2012-01-01

173

Effects of Skip a Day Feeding and Dietary Fat Type on Abdominal Fat Pad and Blood Lipids in Broiler Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experiment carried out to study the effects of skip a day feeding and different dietary unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and carcass traits. A total of 720 10-days-old male Ross chicks were fed diets with Unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (U/S) of 2, 3.5, 5 or 6.5 as ad lib or skip a day feeding program during 18-28 days of age. Generally at 28 day of age, chicks body, liver and abdominal fat pad weights and serum triglyceride concentration were significantly (p<0.05) lower and serum cholesterol level were significantly higher in the restricted compared with ad libitum birds. Re-feeding moved out these differences at 42 days of age except for body weight. The serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were decreased (p<0.05) by increased dietary U/S.

M. Nosrati; A. Qutbi; B. Navidshad; Z. Mirhoseini; A. Jafari Sayadi; M. Royan

2006-01-01

174

Coassimilation of dietary fat and benzo(a)pyrene in the small intestine: an absorption model using the killifish  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) was dissolved in dietary fat and fed in a single dose to killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Fluorescence microscopic examinations of small intestinal content and frozen sections of whole small intestine revealed that during fat digestion BP was codispersed in liquid crystalline product phases produced during lipolysis and then coabsorbed with dietary lipid followed by its reappearance in intracellular fat droplets. During the time that the absorbed fat remained in the enterocytes, BP fluorescence was initially concentrated in the intracellular fat droplets and then spread throughout the cytosol of the enterocytes. Tissue analyses showed that BP was rapidly metabolized in the intestine and transported to the gallbladder. These studies show that separation of a dissolved hydrophobic carcinogen from dietary fat occurs primarily after the fat has been digested, dispersed, absorbed, and reassembled in the enterocyte. The inability of the enterocyte to discriminate between dietary fat and dissolved carcinogenic compounds may be a partial explanation of the observed link between high fat diets and the incidence of some cancers. In vertebrates, the intestine and not the liver, appears to be the major site of metabolism of dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

Vetter, R.D.; Carey, M.C.; Patton, J.S.

1985-04-01

175

Dietary proportions of carbohydrates, fat, and protein and risk of oesophageal cancer by histological type.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Dietary habits influence the risk of cancer of the oesophagus and oesophago-gastric junction, but the role of proportions of the main dietary macronutrients carbohydrates, fats and proteins is uncertain. METHODS: Data was derived from a nationwide Swedish population-based case-control study conducted in 1995-1997, in which case ascertainment was rapid, and all cases were uniformly classified. Information on the subjects' history of dietary intake was collected in personal interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression, with adjustment for potentially confounding factors. RESULTS: Included were 189 oesophageal adenocarcinomas, 262 oesophago-gastric adenocarcinomas, 167 oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and 820 control subjects. Regarding oesophageal or oesophago-gastric junctional adenocarcinoma, a high dietary proportion of carbohydrates decreased the risk (OR 0.50, CI 0.34-0.73), and a high portion of fat increased the risk (OR 1.96, CI 1.34-2.87), while a high proportion of protein did not influence the risk (OR 1. 08, 95% CI 0.75-1.56). Regarding oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, the single macronutrients did not influence the risk statistically significantly. CONCLUSIONS: A diet with a low proportion of carbohydrates and a high proportion of fat might increase the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

Lagergren K; Lindam A; Lagergren J

2013-01-01

176

Endocannabinoid signaling in the gut mediates preference for dietary unsaturated fats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dietary fat exerts a potent stimulatory effect on feeding. This effect is mediated, at least in part, by a cephalic mechanism that involves recruitment of the vagus nerve and subsequent activation of endocannabinoid signaling in the gut. Here, we used a sham-feeding protocol in rats to identify fatty-acid constituents of dietary fat that might be responsible for triggering small-intestinal endocannabinoid signaling. Sham feeding rats with a corn oil emulsion increased endocannabinoid levels in jejunum, relative to animals that received either mineral oil (which contains no fatty acids) or no oil. Sham-feeding emulsions containing oleic acid (18:1) or linoleic acid (18:2) caused, on average, a nearly 2-fold accumulation of jejunal endocannabinoids, whereas emulsions containing stearic acid (18:0) or linolenic acid (18:3) had no such effect. In a 2-bottle-choice sham-feeding test, rats displayed strong preference for emulsions containing 18:2, which was blocked by pretreatment with the peripherally restricted CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonists, AM6546 and URB447. Our results suggest that oral exposure to the monoenoic and dienoic fatty acid component of dietary fat selectively initiates endocannabinoid mobilization in the gut, and that this local signaling event is essential for fat preference.

DiPatrizio NV; Joslin A; Jung KM; Piomelli D

2013-06-01

177

High dietary fat selectively increases catalase expression within cardiac mitochondria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity is a predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One consequence of obesity is dyslipidemia characterized by high blood triglycerides. It has been proposed that oxidative stress, driven by utilization of lipids for energy, contributes to these diseases. The effects of oxidative stress are mitigated by an endogenous antioxidant enzyme network, but little is known about its response to high fat utilization. Our experiments used a multiplexed quantitative proteomics method to measure antioxidant enzyme expression in heart tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. This experiment showed a rapid and specific up-regulation of catalase protein, with subsequent assays showing increases in activity and mRNA. Catalase, traditionally considered a peroxisomal protein, was found to be present in cardiac mitochondria and significantly increased in content and activity during high fat feeding. These data, coupled with the fact that fatty acid oxidation enhances mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production, suggest that a localized catalase increase is needed to consume excessive mitochondrial H(2)O(2) produced by increased fat metabolism. To determine whether the catalase-specific response is a common feature of physiological conditions that increase blood triglycerides and fatty acid oxidation, we measured changes in antioxidant expression in fasted versus fed mice. Indeed, a similar specific catalase increase was observed in mice fasted for 24 h. Our findings suggest a fundamental metabolic process in which catalase expression is regulated to prevent damage while preserving an H(2)O(2)-mediated sensing of diet composition that appropriately adjusts insulin sensitivity in the short term as needed to prioritize lipid metabolism for complete utilization.

Rindler PM; Plafker SM; Szweda LI; Kinter M

2013-01-01

178

Dietary fat intake, body composition and blood lipids of university men and women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease rates are high in the U.K., particular in men, and are related to dietary fat intake. We conducted a pilot study to investigate relationships between saturated and unsaturated dietary fat intakes, body composition and blood lipid parameters in Caucasian men and women at university. METHODS: Volunteers (52 men and 52 women; age range 20-50 years) were recruited from staff and students of London Metropolitan University. Dietary intake, body composition, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose and lipids were assessed. Gender differences between the measured variables and their relationships were assessed by Mann-Whitney U-test, and by multi-linear (stepwise) regression, respectively. RESULTS: Men consumed more saturated fat (29.5 vs. 20.5 g/day, p < 0.001), and had elevated levels of glucose (5.34 + 0.74 vs. 4.85 + 0.49 mmol/l, p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (2.99 + 1.5 vs. 2.62+ 0.74 mmol/l, p < 0.05), systolic blood pressure (126.4 + 11.0 vs. 112.6 + 17.2 mm/Hg, p < 0.001), and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (1.41 ± 0.34 vs. 1.83 ± 0.43, p < 0.001). Saturated fat was positively associated with total body fat (?p < 0.05), trunk fat (?p < 0.001), HDL cholesterol (?p < 0.05) and systolic blood pressure (?p < 0.001) in women, while in men docosahexaenoic acid and total cholesterol (?p < 0.05), total omega-3 fatty acids and LDL cholesterol (?p < 0.001), total omega-3 fatty acids and triglycerides (?p < 0.01) were positively related. Similar n-3 fatty acid intakes were reported in nutritionally aware students and other university subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The data of this study indicate gender-related differences in response to dietary fat, and widespread low compliance with n-3 fatty acid recommendations. Although the men are highly health conscious and physically active, their blood lipid levels are indicative of a risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition to enhanced nutritional education to increase seafood intakes in this age group of men and women, customised dietary and lifestyle advice may be required in the men.

Neville MM; Geppert J; Min Y; Grimble G; Crawford MA; Ghebremeskel K

2012-07-01

179

Time-of-day-dependent dietary fat consumption influences multiple cardiometabolic syndrome parameters in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Excess caloric intake is strongly associated with the development of increased adiposity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia (that is the cardiometabolic syndrome). Research efforts have focused attention primarily on the quality (that is nutritional content) and/or quantity of ingested calories as potential causes for diet-induced pathology. Despite growing acceptance that biological rhythms profoundly influence energy homeostasis, little is known regarding how the timing of nutrient ingestion influences development of common metabolic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the time of day at which dietary fat is consumed significantly influences multiple cardiometabolic syndrome parameters. RESULTS: We report that mice fed either low- or high-fat diets in a contiguous manner during the 12? h awake/active period adjust both food intake and energy expenditure appropriately, such that metabolic parameters are maintained within a normal physiologic range. In contrast, fluctuation in dietary composition during the active period (as occurs in human beings) markedly influences whole body metabolic homeostasis. Mice fed a high-fat meal at the beginning of the active period retain metabolic flexibility in response to dietary challenges later in the active period (as revealed by indirect calorimetry). Conversely, consumption of high-fat meal at the end of the active phase leads to increased weight gain, adiposity, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperleptinemia (that is cardiometabolic syndrome) in mice. The latter perturbations in energy/metabolic homeostasis are independent of daily total or fat-derived calories. CONCLUSIONS: The time of day at which carbohydrate versus fat is consumed markedly influences multiple cardiometabolic syndrome parameters.

Bray MS; Tsai JY; Villegas-Montoya C; Boland BB; Blasier Z; Egbejimi O; Kueht M; Young ME

2010-11-01

180

Dietary fat level affects tissue iron levels but not the iron regulatory gene HAMP in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because dietary fats affect the regulation and use of body iron, we hypothesized that iron regulatory and transport genes may be affected by dietary fat. A model of early-stage I to II, nonalcoholic fatty liver was used in which rats were fed standard (35% energy from fat) or high-fat (71% energy from fat) liquid diets with normal iron content (STD/HF groups). In addition, intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran were given to iron-loaded (STD+/HF+ groups) and iron-deficient diets to STD-/HF- groups. Plasma osmolality, hemoglobin level, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were increased in all STD diet groups compared with all HF diet groups. Plasma iron and transferrin saturation were affected by an interaction between dietary fat and iron. They were high in the STD group (normal iron) compared with their respective HF group. Similarly, this group also showed a 4-fold increase in the messenger RNA expression of the hepatic hemochromatosis gene. Spleen iron was high in the iron-loaded STD+ group compared with all other groups. Hepatic iron and messenger RNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ?, interleukin-6, and iron transport genes (transferrin receptor 2, divalent metal transporter 1 iron-responsive element, and divalent metal transporter 1 non-iron-responsive element) were increased, whereas tumor necrosis factor ? was decreased in the HF diet groups. The expression of iron regulatory gene HAMP was not increased in the HF diet groups. Iron regulatory and transport genes involved in cellular and systemic iron homeostasis may be affected by the macronutrient composition of the diet. PMID:23399663

Ahmed, Umbreen; Oates, Phillip S

2012-12-20

 
 
 
 
181

Dietary fat level affects tissue iron levels but not the iron regulatory gene HAMP in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because dietary fats affect the regulation and use of body iron, we hypothesized that iron regulatory and transport genes may be affected by dietary fat. A model of early-stage I to II, nonalcoholic fatty liver was used in which rats were fed standard (35% energy from fat) or high-fat (71% energy from fat) liquid diets with normal iron content (STD/HF groups). In addition, intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran were given to iron-loaded (STD+/HF+ groups) and iron-deficient diets to STD-/HF- groups. Plasma osmolality, hemoglobin level, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were increased in all STD diet groups compared with all HF diet groups. Plasma iron and transferrin saturation were affected by an interaction between dietary fat and iron. They were high in the STD group (normal iron) compared with their respective HF group. Similarly, this group also showed a 4-fold increase in the messenger RNA expression of the hepatic hemochromatosis gene. Spleen iron was high in the iron-loaded STD+ group compared with all other groups. Hepatic iron and messenger RNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ?, interleukin-6, and iron transport genes (transferrin receptor 2, divalent metal transporter 1 iron-responsive element, and divalent metal transporter 1 non-iron-responsive element) were increased, whereas tumor necrosis factor ? was decreased in the HF diet groups. The expression of iron regulatory gene HAMP was not increased in the HF diet groups. Iron regulatory and transport genes involved in cellular and systemic iron homeostasis may be affected by the macronutrient composition of the diet.

Ahmed U; Oates PS

2013-02-01

182

Effect of dietary fat source and level on the performance of neonatal and early weaned pigs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of dietary fat source in liquid, semipurified diets was studied with 22 Yorkshire pigs. The four treatment groups were fed diets containing 32% butterfat, corn oil, coconut oil or lard on a dry matter basis. Pigs were delivered by Cesarean section and maintained under pathogen-free conditions. Gain and efficiency of feed use were greater (P less than .05) for pigs fed coconut oil than for pigs fed corn oil or lard. In a second trial, choice white grease was added to a starter diet at levels of 0, 4, 8 and 12%. Individual performance of 68 early-weaned (about 27 d of age) Yorkshire pigs was monitored for 35 d. Levels of corn and soybean meal were altered to maintain a constant ratio of other nutrients to digestible energy. Feed intake decreased as fat level increased (linear effect, P less than .004). Gains the first 2 wk also decreased linearly with fat level (P less than .06). Efficiency of feed use was not significantly affected by dietary fat level, but efficiency of use of calculated digestible energy tended to decrease (P less than .07) with added fat.

Lawrence NJ; Maxwell CV

1983-10-01

183

Influence of dietary fats on butyrylcholinesterase and esterase-1 (ES-1) activity in plasma of rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the effects of dietary fats, especially fish oil, on the activities of esterase-1 (ES-1) and butyrylcholinesterase in the plasma of rats. The identification of nutritional determinants of these enzymes could provide clues as to their physiological function. Fish oil, when compared with corn oil, consistently caused increased activities of both enzymes. Plasma ES-1 activity, but not butyrylcholinesterase activity, was increased after isocaloric replacement of carbohydrates by coconut fat. Dietary medium-chain triglycerides, when compared with corn oil, produced decreased and increased activities of butyrylcholinesterase and ES-1, respectively. Various plant fats, such as corn oil, linseed oil, coconut fat, palm oil, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil, did not differentially influence butyrylcholinesterase activities. Plasma triglyceride concentrations were lowered by fish oil and increased by coconut fat and palm kernel oil. For individual rats in 5 out of 6 experiments, weak, negative correlation coefficients of the order of 0.3 were found between the changes in plasma butyrylcholinesterase activities and in plasma triglyceride concentrations.

Van Lith HA; Herman S; Zhang X; Van Der Palen JG; Van Zutphen LF; Beynen AC

1990-12-01

184

EFFECTS OF HIGH DIETARY FAT ON SERUM CHOLESTEROL AND FATTY LIVER SYNDROME IN BROILERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of high dietary fat on serum cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in broilers. For this purpose, 90 day-old chicks were divided into three equal groups A, B and C. Group A acted as control. The birds of group B were fed on diet containing vegetable fat while birds of group C were fed on diet containing animal fat. It was observed that the serum cholestrol values in chicks of groups B and C were higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, the serum cholesterol value was higher in birds of group C than group B. Grossly, the livers of birds of groups B and C were enlarged, pale in colour, soft in consistency and were having petechial haemorrhages with fat and fibrin deposits. Histopathologically, livers of groups B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. It was concluded that addition of dietary fat from animal and vegetable sources in the diet of broiler chicks not only resulted in increase in serum cholesterol but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in liver.

I. A. Qureshi, S.A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhry, N. A. Mian1, M. Y. Tipu and M. F. Rai

2004-01-01

185

The ddY mouse: a model of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in response to dietary fat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Postprandial hyperlipidemia (lipemia) is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, mouse models of postprandial hyperlipidemia have not been reported. Here, we report that ddY mice display marked postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in response to dietary fat. In ddY mice, the fasting serum total triacylglyceride (TG) concentration was 134 mg/dl, which increased to 571 mg/dl after an intragastric safflower oil load (0.4 ml/mouse). In C57BL/6J mice, these concentrations were 57 and 106 mg/dl, respectively. By lipoprotein analysis, ddY mice showed increases in chylomicron- and VLDL-sized TG fractions (remnants and VLDL) after fat load. In C57BL/6J mice, post-heparin plasma LPL activity after fat load was increased 4.8-fold relative to fasting. However, in ddY mice, the increase of LPL activity after fat load was very small (1.2-fold) and not significant. High fat feeding for 10 weeks led to obesity in ddY mice. A difference in LPL amino acid composition between C57BL/6J and ddY mice was detected but was deemed unlikely to cause hypertriglyceridemia because hypertriglyceridemia was not evident in other strains harboring the ddY-type LPL sequence. These findings indicate that postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in ddY mice is induced by decreased LPL activity after fat load and is associated with obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

Yamazaki T; Kishimoto K; Ezaki O

2012-10-01

186

Effect of bile diversion on satiety and fat absorption from liquid and solid dietary sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In previous studies, liquid fat has been used to determine the effect of bile diversion on fat absorption. Since protein digests, in addition to bile salts, are capable of solubilizing lipids, we hypothesized that fat incorporated in the protein-rich matrix of solid food would be less sensitive to bile diversion than fat ingested as an oil or liquid. Using [3H]glycerol triether as a nonabsorbable fat recovery marker, we determined how much [14C]triolein was absorbed from solid (chicken liver) and liquid (margarine) dietary sources. After a standard liquid/solid meal with either the chicken liver or margarine labeled, midintestinal chyme was collected for 6 hr, extracted, and counted for 14C and 3H activity. Zero, eighty, or one hundred percent of endogenous bile was diverted. Fat absorption from both chicken liver and margarine was nearly complete by midintestine with 0% diversion and was little affected by diversion of 80% of bile. Complete biliary diversion significantly decreased fat absorption from margarine (87.9 +/- 4.4 to 37.2 +/- 9.2%, P less than 0.05) but reduced [14C]triolein absorption from chicken liver less consistently and insignificantly (78.8 +/- 6.9 to 43.9 +/- 10.6%). These data indicate that fat absorption is not solely dependent on bile and support the hypothesis that fat ingested in a cellular matrix is less dependent on bile than liquid fat. Using these same animals but with the midintestinal cannulas plugged to expose the distal intestine to unabsorbed luminal nutrients, we also demonstrated that bile diversion of an initial meal reduced food consumption at a meal offered 3 hr later

1988-01-01

187

Effect of bile diversion on satiety and fat absorption from liquid and solid dietary sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In previous studies, liquid fat has been used to determine the effect of bile diversion on fat absorption. Since protein digests, in addition to bile salts, are capable of solubilizing lipids, we hypothesized that fat incorporated in the protein-rich matrix of solid food would be less sensitive to bile diversion than fat ingested as an oil or liquid. Using (3H)glycerol triether as a nonabsorbable fat recovery marker, we determined how much (14C)triolein was absorbed from solid (chicken liver) and liquid (margarine) dietary sources. After a standard liquid/solid meal with either the chicken liver or margarine labeled, midintestinal chyme was collected for 6 hr, extracted, and counted for 14C and 3H activity. Zero, eighty, or one hundred percent of endogenous bile was diverted. Fat absorption from both chicken liver and margarine was nearly complete by midintestine with 0% diversion and was little affected by diversion of 80% of bile. Complete biliary diversion significantly decreased fat absorption from margarine (87.9 +/- 4.4 to 37.2 +/- 9.2%, P less than 0.05) but reduced (14C)triolein absorption from chicken liver less consistently and insignificantly (78.8 +/- 6.9 to 43.9 +/- 10.6%). These data indicate that fat absorption is not solely dependent on bile and support the hypothesis that fat ingested in a cellular matrix is less dependent on bile than liquid fat. Using these same animals but with the midintestinal cannulas plugged to expose the distal intestine to unabsorbed luminal nutrients, we also demonstrated that bile diversion of an initial meal reduced food consumption at a meal offered 3 hr later.

Doty, J.E.; Gu, Y.G.; Meyer, J.H.

1988-12-01

188

Dietary fat content and fiber type modulate hind gut microbial community and metabolic markers in the pig.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease) and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose). High fat diets (HFD) resulted in a higher (P<0.05) total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05) the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05) expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO), a marker of peroxisomal ?-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity.

Yan H; Potu R; Lu H; Vezzoni de Almeida V; Stewart T; Ragland D; Armstrong A; Adeola O; Nakatsu CH; Ajuwon KM

2013-01-01

189

FISH OIL INSTEAD OF SAFFLOWER OIL AS THE DIETARY FAT SOURCE MODIFIES THE OXIDATIVE STRESS RESPONSE TO BORON DEFICIENCY IN RATS  

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Both dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid composition and boron (B) affect oxidative metabolism. Thus, an experiment was performed to determine whether a change in one these dietary components would affect the oxidative metabolism response of rats to a change in the other. Female rats were fed diets c...

190

Dietary alpha-linolenic acid does not enhance accumulation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in barramundi (Lates calcarifer).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the effects of substituting fish oil and fish meal with a blend of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3) rich vegetable oils (14%, w/w) and defatted poultry meal (34%, w/w) in a formulated diet, on growth and tissue fatty acid profiles in barramundi fingerlings. Results indicated that on average, while the ALA levels of the barramundi liver and fillet increased with increasing dietary ALA, there was no corresponding increase in the levels of the omega-3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA). Compared to fish consuming a commercial feed, which contained fish meal and fish oil, fish on the ALA diets grew slower, had a lower feed intake and lower n-3 LCPUFA levels in the tissues. Hepatic mRNA expression of ?6 desaturase (FADS2) and elongase (ELOVL5/2) was ~10 fold and ~3 fold higher, respectively, in all the ALA dietary groups, relative to those fed the commercial feed. However, the level of expression of the two genes was not different between fish fed differing ALA levels. These data demonstrate that increasing the ALA level of the diet is not an appropriate strategy for replacing marine sources of n-3 LCPUFA in barramundi. It was also noted, however, that within the different ALA dietary groups there was a large amount of variation between individual fish in their tissue DHA levels, suggesting a significant heterogeneity in their capacity for conversion of ALA and/or retention of n-3 LCPUFA. When dietary ALA intakes were greater than 0.8% en, tissue DHA levels were inversely related to ALA intake, suggesting that high intake of dietary ALA may inhibit DHA synthesis.

Tu WC; Mühlhäusler BS; James MJ; Stone DA; Gibson RA

2013-01-01

191

Effect of dietary krill oil supplementation on the endocannabinoidome of metabolically relevant tissues from high-fat-fed mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3-PUFA) are known to ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an association between elevated peripheral levels of endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids) and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of dietary ?-3-PUFA supplementation, given as krill oil (KO), on metabolic parameters in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and, in parallel, on the levels, in inguinal and epididymal adipose tissue (AT), liver, gastrocnemius muscle, kidneys and heart, of: 1) the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), 2) two anandamide congeners which activate PPAR? but not cannabinoid receptors, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine, and 3) the direct biosynthetic precursors of these compounds. Methods Lipids were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) or high resolution ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-ToF-MS). Results Eight-week HFD increased endocannabinoid levels in all tissues except the liver and epididymal AT, and KO reduced anandamide and/or 2-AG levels in all tissues but not in the liver, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Levels of endocannabinoid precursors were also generally down-regulated, indicating that KO affects levels of endocannabinoids in part by reducing the availability of their biosynthetic precursors. Usually smaller effects were found of KO on OEA and PEA levels. Conclusions Our data suggest that KO may promote therapeutic benefit by reducing endocannabinoid precursor availability and hence endocannabinoid biosynthesis.

Piscitelli Fabiana; Carta Gianfranca; Bisogno Tiziana; Murru Elisabetta; Cordeddu Lina; Berge Kjetil; Tandy Sally; Cohn Jeffrey S; Griinari Mikko; Banni Sebastiano; Di Marzo Vincenzo

2011-01-01

192

Influence of lifelong dietary fats on the brain fatty acids and amphetamine-induced behavioral responses in adult rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of dietary fatty acids (FA) on mania-like behavior and brain oxidative damage were evaluated in rats. First generation of rats born and maintained under supplementation with soybean-oil (SO), fish-oil (FO) or hydrogenated-vegetable-fat (HVF), which are rich in n-6, n-3 and trans (TFA) FA, respectively, until adulthood, were exposed to an amphetamine (AMPH)-induced mania animal model to behavioral and biochemical evaluations. While AMPH caused hyperlocomotion in HVF and, to a less extent, in SO- and FO-groups, a better memory performance was observed in FO group. Among vehicle-groups, HVF increased reactive species (RS) generation and protein-carbonyl (PC) levels in cortex; FO reduced RS generation in hippocampus and decreased PC levels in hippocampus and striatum. Among AMPH-treated animals, HVF exacerbated RS generation in all evaluated brain areas and increased PC levels in cortex and striatum; FO reduced RS generation in hippocampus and decreased PC levels in hippocampus and striatum. FO was related to higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in cortex and striatum, while HVF was associated to higher incorporation of TFA in cortex, hippocampus and striatum, besides increased n-6/n-3 FA ratio in striatum. While a continuous exposure to TFA may intensify oxidative events in brain, a prolonged FO consumption may prevent mania-like-behavior; enhance memory besides decreasing brain oxidative markers. A substantial inclusion of processed foods, instead of foods rich in omega-3, in the long term is able to influence the functionality of brain structures related to behavioral disturbances and weaker neuroprotection, whose impact should be considered by food safety authorities and psychiatry experts.

Trevizol F; Roversi K; Dias VT; Roversi K; Pase CS; Barcelos RC; Benvegnu DM; Kuhn FT; Dolci GS; Ross DH; Veit JC; Piccolo J; Emanuelli T; Bürger ME

2013-08-01

193

Influence of lifelong dietary fats on the brain fatty acids and amphetamine-induced behavioral responses in adult rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of dietary fatty acids (FA) on mania-like behavior and brain oxidative damage were evaluated in rats. First generation of rats born and maintained under supplementation with soybean-oil (SO), fish-oil (FO) or hydrogenated-vegetable-fat (HVF), which are rich in n-6, n-3 and trans (TFA) FA, respectively, until adulthood, were exposed to an amphetamine (AMPH)-induced mania animal model to behavioral and biochemical evaluations. While AMPH caused hyperlocomotion in HVF and, to a less extent, in SO- and FO-groups, a better memory performance was observed in FO group. Among vehicle-groups, HVF increased reactive species (RS) generation and protein-carbonyl (PC) levels in cortex; FO reduced RS generation in hippocampus and decreased PC levels in hippocampus and striatum. Among AMPH-treated animals, HVF exacerbated RS generation in all evaluated brain areas and increased PC levels in cortex and striatum; FO reduced RS generation in hippocampus and decreased PC levels in hippocampus and striatum. FO was related to higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in cortex and striatum, while HVF was associated to higher incorporation of TFA in cortex, hippocampus and striatum, besides increased n-6/n-3 FA ratio in striatum. While a continuous exposure to TFA may intensify oxidative events in brain, a prolonged FO consumption may prevent mania-like-behavior; enhance memory besides decreasing brain oxidative markers. A substantial inclusion of processed foods, instead of foods rich in omega-3, in the long term is able to influence the functionality of brain structures related to behavioral disturbances and weaker neuroprotection, whose impact should be considered by food safety authorities and psychiatry experts. PMID:23791617

Trevizol, F; Roversi, K; Dias, V T; Roversi, Kr; Pase, C S; Barcelos, R C S; Benvegnu, D M; Kuhn, F T; Dolci, G S; Ross, D H; Veit, J C; Piccolo, J; Emanuelli, T; Bürger, M E

2013-06-19

194

Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels  

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Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

2004-06-01

195

Dietary trans-fat combined with monosodium glutamate induces dyslipidemia and impairs spatial memory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Recent evidence suggests that intake of excessive dietary fat, particularly saturated fat and trans-hydrogenated oils (trans-fatty acids: TFA) can impair learning and memory. Central obesity, which can be induced by neonatal injections of monosodium Glutamate (MSG), also impairs learning and memory. To further clarify the effects of dietary fat and MSG, we treated C57BL/6J mice with either a TFA-enriched diet, dietary MSG, or a combination of both and examined serum lipid profile and spatial memory compared to mice fed standard chow. Spatial learning was assessed at 6, 16 and 32 weeks of age in a Morris Water Maze (MWM). The subjects were given four days of training to find a hidden platform and a fifth day of reversal learning, in which the platform was moved to a new location. RESULTS: The TFA+MSG combination caused a central adiposity that was accompanied by impairment in locating the hidden platform in the MWM. Females in the TFA+MSG group showed a greater impairment compared to the other diet groups, and also showed elevated levels of fasting serum LDL-C and T-CHOL:HDL-C ratio, together with the lowest levels of HDL-C. Similarly, males in the TFA+MSG diet group were less successful than control mice at locating the hidden platform and had the highest level of abdominal adiposity and elevated levels of fasting serum LDL-C. CONCLUSION: Dietary trans-fat combined with MSG increased central adiposity, promoted dyslipidemia and impaired spatial learning.

Collison KS; Makhoul NJ; Inglis A; Al-Johi M; Zaidi MZ; Maqbool Z; Saleh SM; Bakheet R; Mondreal R; Al-Rabiah R; Shoukri M; Milgram NW; Al-Mohanna FA

2010-03-01

196

IMPACTS OF HIGH DIETARY FAT ON SERUM CHOLESTEROL AND DEVELOPMENT OF FATTY LIVER IN RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the impacts of high dietary fat on serum Total cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in rats. Rats are fed on diets containing cholesterol; they develop fatty livers which are characterized by the presence in the liver of excessive amounts of cholesteryl esters, and glyceride. Increasement of glyceride content depend on a number of factors, such as the dietary contents of choline, While the nature of the "cholesterol" fatty liver and the effects on its composition of a number of dietary and other factors. In the present paper, we investigated the quantitative changes which occur in the "cholesterol" fatty liver, as a result of variations in the fat content of the diet, with particular reference to the deposition of cholesterol and of glyceride on diets of constant cholesterol content. Investigation was conducted on 90 day old Wister rats. It was observed that the serum TC values in rats of groups B and C were higher than control group. Furthermore, the serum TC and TG value was higher in rats of group C than group B. Grossly, the livers of rats of groups B and C were enlarged, pale in colour, soft in consistency and were having petechial haemorrhages with fat and fibrin deposits. Histopathologically, livers of groups B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. The results suggested that addition of dietary fat from animal and vegetable sources in the diet of rats not only resulted in increase in serum TC and TG but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in vital organ liver.

Rajesh Pandey et al

2012-01-01

197

Inhibition by dietary d-psicose of body fat accumulation in adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the anti-obesity effects of dietary D-psicose on adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Wistar rats (16 weeks old) that had previously been fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD) were fed HSD or a high-starch diet (HTD) with or without 5% D-psicose for 8 weeks. The food efficiency, carcass fat percentage, abdominal fat accumulation, and body weight gain were all significantly suppressed by dietary D-psicose.

Ochiai M; Nakanishi Y; Yamada T; Iida T; Matsuo T

2013-05-01

198

Inhibition by dietary d-psicose of body fat accumulation in adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the anti-obesity effects of dietary D-psicose on adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Wistar rats (16 weeks old) that had previously been fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD) were fed HSD or a high-starch diet (HTD) with or without 5% D-psicose for 8 weeks. The food efficiency, carcass fat percentage, abdominal fat accumulation, and body weight gain were all significantly suppressed by dietary D-psicose. PMID:23649241

Ochiai, Masaru; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

2013-05-07

199

Dietary fats influence 'open-field' behaviour of male and female laboratory mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Swiss mice of differing ages (juvenile and adult) and sexes were fed four specially formulated, pelleted diets containing respectively 8% saturated vegetable fat, 8% soya oil, 8% olive oil and 2% soya oil (with identities hidden from the experimenter) or a local commercial chow (3% crude fat) for 3 or 6 weeks. Subjects were individually housed and were assessed under red lighting for behaviour in a modified 'open field' (a 30 x 20 cm box with a black floor). Videotaped records were analysed using 'The Observer' system, quantifying transitions between inner and outer zones, rearing, freezing, grooming and defaecation as well as location in the two equal-sized zones. Clearly, these non-isocaloric diets differed in palatability, producing complex effects on growth as well as physiological and behavioural measures. Many indices were influenced by age, sex, and the duration of dietary exposure. Interactions between factors were common. Defaecation does not seem to provide a useful index of 'emotionality' in this type of study and investigations lacking a wide range of indices seem unlikely to provide unequivocal support for postulated links between dietary lipids and behaviour. The study broadly supports the contention that dietary fats subtly influence mood in mice. PMID:12869285

Maimanee, Tahia A; Brain, Paul F; Zari, Talal A

2003-07-01

200

Dietary fat intake of Japanese male children and its associated factors: Results of the 1995 National Nutrition Survey in Japan  

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Full Text Available Aim: To clarify the factors associated with reported dietary fat intake by Japanese male children. Methods: This study is based on the data of a nationally representative cross-sectional study in Japan. Three hundred and seventy-seven male children (age, 6 - 11 years) whose households were sampled in the 1995 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions of the People on Health and Welfare, and the 1995 National Nutrition Survey and whose parents were identified through record linkage between the 2 survey data sets were enrolled. Results: The final dataset in this study consisted of 377 boys with 329 of their parents. Fifty-two boys were found to be overweight (13.8%). The reported dietary fat intake was higher among the overweight boys than among the non-overweight boys. Maternal obesity was significantly associated with obesity in male children. Boys who frequently consumed foods from the “fats and lipids” group and the “meat” groups, and children from nuclear families rather than 3- generation families reported high dietary fat intake. In addition, parental fat intake was also significantly associated with fat intake of male children. Conclusions: Child and parental dietary habits along with the household status should be considered when implementing nutritional education programmes to control dietary fat intake and reduce the obesity risks of male children.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Dietary Calcium Had No Reducing Effect on Body Fat and Weight Gain in Sprague-Dawley Rats  

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Full Text Available Recently, studies have focused on the effects of dietary calcium on the weight and fatness. Some of these studies have indicated that there is negative relationship between dietary calcium and body fat, while others have reported no such effects. There are also controversies over serum parathyroid hormone, as its mechanism, on body fat and weight. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of three dietary calcium levels (0.2%, 0.5% or 1.2% Ca2+) on body fat and weight gain in male Sprague-Dawley rats, using same diet composition for nutrients other than calcium. The study duration was 72 days. At the end, truncal blood samples were drawn from decapitated rats to measure the effects of diets on serum calcium, PTH and vitamin D. The carcasses were minced and homogenized to measure their body fat percent by the methods of Soxhelet. There were no significant effects of dietary calcium on food intake (p>0.05), body weight gain (p>0.05) or carcass fat content (p>0.05), while the serum PTH levels were inversely related to calcium intake (p<0.05). In conclusion, our findings do not support the effects of dietary calcium and parathyroid hormone on body fat and weight.

J.M. Malekzadeh; S.A. Keshavarz; F. Siassi; M. Eshraghian; M. Kadkhodaee; A.R. Dorosty; A. Aliehpour; M. Chamari

2007-01-01

202

The Generation of Transgenic Mice with Fat1 and Fad2 Genes that have their own Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Microorganisms and higher plants possess their own omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) biosynthetic pathways. The n-6 fatty acid desaturase gene fad-2 codes for the n-6 desaturase enzyme that coverts oleic acid (OA 18:1 n-9) into linoleic acid (LA 18:2 n-6). The n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene fat-1 codes for the n-3 desaturase enzyme that converts n-6 PUFAs into n-3 PUFAs. Mammals lack n-3 and n-6 desaturase enzymes; therefore, they must obtain their omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids by consuming plants or seafood. The beneficial effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on human development and cardiovascular health have been well documented. Methods: Here, we generated fat-1 and fad-2 transgenic mice by introducing mammal expression vectors containing the fat-1 and fad-2 genes via microinjection. Results: Seven transgenic mice were obtained that expressed functional n-3 and n-6 desaturase enzymes. Analysis of the fatty acid contents of transgenic mouse livers revealed that n-6 and n-3 PUFA levels were greatly increased in the transgenic mice compared to wild-type mice. The use ratios of n-9 PUFAs (18:1 n-9) and n-6 PUFAs were both greater in the transgenic mice than in the wild-type controls. Conclusion: These transgenic mice were capable of producing their own omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. They have the same fatty acid metabolic pathways as higher plants and microbes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Chen Y; Mei M; Zhang P; Ma K; Song G; Ma X; Zhao T; Tang B; Ouyang H; Li G; Li Z

2013-08-01

203

En Balance participants decrease dietary fat and cholesterol intake as part of a culturally sensitive Hispanic diabetes education program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake habits of Mexican American Hispanic adults participating in the En Balance diabetes education program. METHODS: En Balance is a 3-month culturally sensitive diabetes education intervention for Spanish-speaking Hispanics. Of the 46 participants enrolled, 39 mainly Mexican American Hispanic adults with type 2 diabetes completed the En Balance program. Participants lived in the Riverside and San Bernardino counties of California, and all participants completed the program by June 2008. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and at 3 months using the validated Southwest Food Frequency Questionnaire. RESULTS: Clinically important decreases in glycemic control and serum lipid levels were observed at the end of the 3-month program. The baseline diet was characterized by a high intake of energy (2478 ± 1140 kcal), total fat (87 ± 44 g/day), saturated fat (28 ± 15 g/day), dietary cholesterol (338 ± 217 mg/day), and sodium (4236 ± 2055 mg/day). At 3 months, the En Balance group mean intake of dietary fat (P = .045) and dietary cholesterol (P = .033) decreased significantly. Low dietary intakes of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and vitamin E were also observed in these adults with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The En Balance program improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in a group of Hispanic diabetic participants. En Balance also promoted decreases in dietary fat and dietary cholesterol intake.

Salto LM; Cordero-MacIntyre Z; Beeson L; Schulz E; Firek A; De Leon M

2011-03-01

204

Dietary saturated fat intake is inversely associated with bone density in humans: analysis of NHANES III.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mounting evidence indicates that the amount and type of fat in the diet can have important effects on bone health. Most of this evidence is derived from animal studies. Of the few human studies that have been conducted, relatively small numbers of subjects and/or primarily female subjects were included. The present study assessed the relation of dietary fat to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in men and women using NHANES III data (n = 14,850). Multivariate models using SAS-callable SUDAAN were used to adjust for the sampling scheme. Models were adjusted for age, sex, weight, height, race, total energy and calcium intakes, smoking, and weight-bearing exercise. Data from women were further adjusted for use of hormone replacement therapy. Including dietary protein, vitamin C, and beta-carotene in the model did not influence the outcome. Analysis of covariance was used to generate mean BMD by quintile of total and saturated fat intake for 4 sex/age groups. Saturated fat intake was negatively associated with BMD at several hip sites. The greatest effects were seen among men < 50 y old (linear trend P = 0.004 for the femoral neck). For the femoral neck, adjusted mean BMD was 4.3% less among men with the highest compared with the lowest quintile of saturated fat intake (BMD, 95% CI: highest quintile: 0.922 g/cm2, 0.909-0.935; lowest quintile: 0.963 g/cm2, 95% CI: 0.950-0.976). These data indicate that BMD is negatively associated with saturated fat intake, and that men may be particularly vulnerable to these effects. PMID:16365076

Corwin, Rebecca L; Hartman, Terryl J; Maczuga, Steven A; Graubard, Barry I

2006-01-01

205

Dietary saturated fat intake is inversely associated with bone density in humans: analysis of NHANES III.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mounting evidence indicates that the amount and type of fat in the diet can have important effects on bone health. Most of this evidence is derived from animal studies. Of the few human studies that have been conducted, relatively small numbers of subjects and/or primarily female subjects were included. The present study assessed the relation of dietary fat to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in men and women using NHANES III data (n = 14,850). Multivariate models using SAS-callable SUDAAN were used to adjust for the sampling scheme. Models were adjusted for age, sex, weight, height, race, total energy and calcium intakes, smoking, and weight-bearing exercise. Data from women were further adjusted for use of hormone replacement therapy. Including dietary protein, vitamin C, and beta-carotene in the model did not influence the outcome. Analysis of covariance was used to generate mean BMD by quintile of total and saturated fat intake for 4 sex/age groups. Saturated fat intake was negatively associated with BMD at several hip sites. The greatest effects were seen among men < 50 y old (linear trend P = 0.004 for the femoral neck). For the femoral neck, adjusted mean BMD was 4.3% less among men with the highest compared with the lowest quintile of saturated fat intake (BMD, 95% CI: highest quintile: 0.922 g/cm2, 0.909-0.935; lowest quintile: 0.963 g/cm2, 95% CI: 0.950-0.976). These data indicate that BMD is negatively associated with saturated fat intake, and that men may be particularly vulnerable to these effects.

Corwin RL; Hartman TJ; Maczuga SA; Graubard BI

2006-01-01

206

High levels of dietary fat impair glucose homeostasis in rainbow trout.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was designed to assess the effects of dietary fat levels on glucose homeostasis in rainbow trout under prolonged hyperglycaemia induced by high carbohydrate intake. Trout were fed identical amounts of one of two iso-energetic diets containing either a low (LFD, 3%) or a high fat level (HFD, 20%) and similar amounts of digestible carbohydrates (26-30%) for 14 days. While a single high fat meal reduced glycaemia compared with a low fat meal, the consumption of a high fat diet for 14 days resulted in prolonged hypergylcaemia and reduced plasma glucose clearance in response to an exogenous glucose or insulin challenge. The hyperglycaemic phenotype in trout was characterised by a reduction of the activities of lipogenic and glucose phosphorylating enzymes with a concomitant stimulation of enzymes involved in glucose production in the liver and reduced glycogen levels in the white muscle. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was further associated with a significant reduction of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein content in muscle, and with a poor response of HFD fed fish to an exogenous insulin load, suggestive of impaired insulin signalling in trout fed with a HFD. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that a teleost can also develop a high fat-induced IGT, characterised by persistent hyperglycaemia and reduced insulin sensitivity, established symptoms of IGT and the prediabetic insulin-resistant state in mammals. Our results also provide evidence that persistent hyperglycaemia after a high carbohydrate meal stems from a metabolic interaction between dietary macronutrients rather than from high carbohydrate intake alone.

Figueiredo-Silva AC; Panserat S; Kaushik S; Geurden I; Polakof S

2012-01-01

207

The influence of dietary nucleotides and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the incorporation of [³H] arachidonic acid on experimental liver cirrhosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine: a) the incorporation of labeled arachidonic acid on the intestinal mucosa, the liver and plasma, after 1, 3 and 5 hours of administration, b)preferential incorporation by different tissues, c) and the effects on experimental rats with thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis, after four weeks of a dietary supplementation with nucleotides and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. 209 female Wistar rats were divided into two groups (control and TAA group). The TAA group was given 300 mg of thioacetamide/L, in their drinking water for four months. After this period, a sample of 6 rats were taken from each group and examined, to evaluate the biochemical and histological changes of the experimental model, and 36 rats were taken to determine the incorporation of radioactivity by the groups. The rest of the animals were divided into four subgroups. Each group, receiving a supplementary diet with only long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and/or nucleotides or neither, for 4 weeks. After four months of thioacetamide, the incorporation of the arachidonic acid showed: a) an increased within 3 h in the intestinal mucosa, b) a decreased in the liver after 3 lo 5 h c) and a drastic decrease in the plasma after 3 to 5 h. With a dietary supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and nucleotides combined, there was a decrease of accumulate arachidonic acid in the intestine and a increase in the liver and plasma. The simultaneous supply of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and nucleotides was beneficial in the reversal of abnormalities of the lipid metabolism, in this experimental model of liver cirrhosis.Influência dos nucleotídeos dietéticos e ácidos graxos poliinsaturados na incorporação de ácido araquidônico na cirrose hepática experimental. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar: a) a incorporação de ácido araquidônico na mucosa intestinal, fígado e plasma, após 1, 3 e 5 horas de administração da emulsão radioativa, b) a incorporação preferencial em diferentes tecidos e c) os efeitos do tratamento dietético, por quatro semanas, com nucleotídeos e ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, em ratos com cirrose hepática induzida por tioacetamida. 209 ratas da raça Wistar, foram divididas em dois grupos (controle e TAA). O grupo TAA recebeu a tioacetamida na concentração de 300 mg/L, dissolvido na água de bebida, por quatro meses. Após este período, uma amostra de 6 animais de cada grupo foram sacrificados para confirmação das mudanças bioquímicas e histológicas, características do modelo experimental e trinta e seis animais foram utilizados para determinar a incorporação do radioisótopo. O restante dos animais foram divididos emquatro subgrupos. Cada grupo recebeu uma dieta suplementada com ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e nucleotídeos, isoladamente ou combinados. Após quatro meses de tioacetamida, a incorporação do ácido araquidônico resultou em: a) aumentada retenção na mucosa intestinal após 3 h, b) reduzida retenção no fígado após 3 e 5 horas, c) uma importante redução no plasma após 3 e 5 horas. O tratamento dietético com ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e nucleotídeos combinados promoveu uma redução do ácido araquidônico acumulado na mucosa intestinal e num aumento da incorporação no fígado e plasma. A suplementação simultânea de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e nucleotídeos dietéticos foi benéfica para reverter anormalidades do metabolismo lipídico existentes, neste modelo experimental de cirrose hepática.

Luísa R.M. Leite; Eliane Moreira- Vaz; Glorimar Rosa; Andréa C. Pereira; Christianne R. Monteiro; Femanda J. Medeiros; Vera L.A. Chagas

2000-01-01

208

The effects of dietary taurocholate, fat, protein, and carbohydrate on the distribution and fate of dietary beta-carotene in ferrets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dietary beta-carotene has been shown to have cancer chemopreventive action on the basis of epidemiologic evidence and studies in animals. Because the anticarcinogenic property of beta-carotene may be exerted per se, it is desirable to achieve the maximum absorption and accumulation of intact beta-carotene in various parts of the body. Therefore the effects of dietary taurocholate, fat, protein, and carbohydrate on the absorption, accumulation, and fate of dietary beta-carotene (3.730 nmol/g diet) in selected tissues of ferrets were explored. Taurocholate (0.2-1.0% wt/wt) and fat (6-23% wt/wt) caused two- to threefold (p < 0.05) increases in the absorption and accumulation of beta-carotene in the liver, lungs, and adipose tissue in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, neither dietary protein (10-40% wt/wt) nor carbohydrate (25-55% wt/wt) affected the absorption and accumulation of beta-carotene in various tissues. Significantly, taurocholate, 23% fat, or 40% protein also markedly increased the amounts of hepatic retinol and retinyl esters derived from dietary beta-carotene. These results indicate that dietary taurocholate, fat, and high protein have a marked influence on the exposure of beta-carotene to intestinal carotene cleavage enzyme or its activity. Thus an ideal combination of dietary components (wt/wt) in ferrets for the maximal absorption and accumulation of beta-carotene in different tissues is 0.5% taurocholate and 13.4% fat, whereas 1% taurocholate, 23% fat, or 40% protein stimulates its conversion to vitamin A.

Lakshman MR; Liu QH; Sapp R; Somanchi M; Sundaresan PR

1996-01-01

209

The effects of dietary taurocholate, fat, protein, and carbohydrate on the distribution and fate of dietary beta-carotene in ferrets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary beta-carotene has been shown to have cancer chemopreventive action on the basis of epidemiologic evidence and studies in animals. Because the anticarcinogenic property of beta-carotene may be exerted per se, it is desirable to achieve the maximum absorption and accumulation of intact beta-carotene in various parts of the body. Therefore the effects of dietary taurocholate, fat, protein, and carbohydrate on the absorption, accumulation, and fate of dietary beta-carotene (3.730 nmol/g diet) in selected tissues of ferrets were explored. Taurocholate (0.2-1.0% wt/wt) and fat (6-23% wt/wt) caused two- to threefold (p < 0.05) increases in the absorption and accumulation of beta-carotene in the liver, lungs, and adipose tissue in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, neither dietary protein (10-40% wt/wt) nor carbohydrate (25-55% wt/wt) affected the absorption and accumulation of beta-carotene in various tissues. Significantly, taurocholate, 23% fat, or 40% protein also markedly increased the amounts of hepatic retinol and retinyl esters derived from dietary beta-carotene. These results indicate that dietary taurocholate, fat, and high protein have a marked influence on the exposure of beta-carotene to intestinal carotene cleavage enzyme or its activity. Thus an ideal combination of dietary components (wt/wt) in ferrets for the maximal absorption and accumulation of beta-carotene in different tissues is 0.5% taurocholate and 13.4% fat, whereas 1% taurocholate, 23% fat, or 40% protein stimulates its conversion to vitamin A. PMID:8844721

Lakshman, M R; Liu, Q H; Sapp, R; Somanchi, M; Sundaresan, P R

1996-01-01

210

The short-term effect of diacylglycerol oil consumption on total and dietary fat utilization in overweight women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a natural component of edible oils with metabolic characteristics distinct from those of triacylglycerol (TAG). Consumption of DAG oil (containing > 80% DAG) induces greater fat oxidation than consumption of TAG oil. We compared the effects of 4 days of DAG oil consumption with those of TAG oil consumption on total and dietary fat oxidation over 24 h in overweight women using a whole-room respiratory chamber. Overweight (BMI (kg/m²) ? 25) females participated in this double-blind, crossover-controlled trial. The subjects consumed test diets containing either TAG or DAG oil as 15% of their total caloric intake (mean test oil intake was 33.0 ± 3.1 g/day) during each 4-day treatment. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured in a respiratory chamber on the 4th day of each treatment. Compared with TAG oil, DAG oil consumption significantly increased total fat oxidation and dietary fat oxidation in overweight subjects. Total energy expenditure (TEE) and carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation did not significantly differ between DAG oil and TAG oil consumption in overweight subjects. Compared with TAG oil, DAG oil consumption enhanced total fat oxidation and dietary fat oxidation in overweight subjects. The enhanced fat metabolism in overweight subjects that consumed DAG oil partly explains the greater loss of body weight and body fat related to DAG oil consumption in weight-loss studies.

Hibi M; Sugiura Y; Yokoyama R; Takase H; Shiiba D; Meguro S; Katashima M; Shimizu A; Tokimitsu I

2011-03-01

211

The short-term effect of diacylglycerol oil consumption on total and dietary fat utilization in overweight women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a natural component of edible oils with metabolic characteristics distinct from those of triacylglycerol (TAG). Consumption of DAG oil (containing > 80% DAG) induces greater fat oxidation than consumption of TAG oil. We compared the effects of 4 days of DAG oil consumption with those of TAG oil consumption on total and dietary fat oxidation over 24 h in overweight women using a whole-room respiratory chamber. Overweight (BMI (kg/m²) ? 25) females participated in this double-blind, crossover-controlled trial. The subjects consumed test diets containing either TAG or DAG oil as 15% of their total caloric intake (mean test oil intake was 33.0 ± 3.1 g/day) during each 4-day treatment. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured in a respiratory chamber on the 4th day of each treatment. Compared with TAG oil, DAG oil consumption significantly increased total fat oxidation and dietary fat oxidation in overweight subjects. Total energy expenditure (TEE) and carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation did not significantly differ between DAG oil and TAG oil consumption in overweight subjects. Compared with TAG oil, DAG oil consumption enhanced total fat oxidation and dietary fat oxidation in overweight subjects. The enhanced fat metabolism in overweight subjects that consumed DAG oil partly explains the greater loss of body weight and body fat related to DAG oil consumption in weight-loss studies. PMID:20814410

Hibi, Masanobu; Sugiura, Youko; Yokoyama, Rika; Takase, Hideto; Shiiba, Daisuke; Meguro, Shinichi; Katashima, Mitsuhiro; Shimizu, Akira; Tokimitsu, Ichiro

2010-09-02

212

Association between dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and severity of skin photoaging in a middle-aged Caucasian population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) supplementation has been reported to be associated with reduced UVB-erythemal sensitivity, but their relationship to photoaging has not been studied to date. OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between daily n-3 PUFA intake and the severity of skin photoaging. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2919 subjects aged 45-60 years from the SU.VI.MAX cohort. At baseline, trained investigators graded the severity of facial skin photoaging using a validated 6-grade scale during a clinical examination. Intake of ?-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) were evaluated by dietary source using ten 24-h dietary record questionnaires during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. RESULTS: After adjustment for possible confounders, severe photoaging was found to be inversely associated with higher intake of ALA in men and with higher intake of EPA in women. When considering the different food sources of ALA for men, an inverse association appeared between severe photoaging and ALA from vegetable oils, as well as with ALA from fruit and vegetables, whereas no association was observed for ALA from dairy products. In women, ALA from vegetable oils also tended to be inversely linked to photoaging. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a possible benefit effect of n-3 PUFAs on skin aging. Nonetheless, further epidemiological studies are necessary to confirm our results and to gain additional insights into underlying mechanisms.

Latreille J; Kesse-Guyot E; Malvy D; Andreeva V; Galan P; Tschachler E; Hercberg S; Guinot C; Ezzedine K

2013-07-01

213

Acute pulmonary injury in rats by nitrofurantoin and modification by vitamin E, dietary fat, and oxygen.  

Science.gov (United States)

The subcutaneous administration of nitrofurantoin to rats caused severe pulmonary damage, characterized by edema, congestion, and hemorrhage. The acute lethality of the drug was greater in rats fed vitamin E-deficient diets high in polyunsaturated fats as compared to rats fed the NIH open-formula diet. The survival times of vitamin E-deficient rats were increased if such animals were fed diets supplemented with vitamin E and/or diets containing saturated fat (lard) for 3 weeks before administration of nitrofurantoin. The toxicity of nitrofurantoin was enhanced in both the rats deficient in vitamin E and in those given vitamin E supplements and exposed to O2-enriched atmospheres. These results, in conjunction with previous metabolic studies in vitro showing redox cycling and O2 activation in rat lung microsomes in the presence of nitrofurantoin, illustrate certain similarities with the lung-toxic herbicide, paraquat, and raise the question of whether the 2 agents may be capable of damaging lungs by a common mechanism. PMID:464388

Boyd, M R; Catignani, G L; Sasame, H A; Mitchell, J R; Stiko, A W

1979-07-01

214

Acute pulmonary injury in rats by nitrofurantoin and modification by vitamin E, dietary fat, and oxygen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The subcutaneous administration of nitrofurantoin to rats caused severe pulmonary damage, characterized by edema, congestion, and hemorrhage. The acute lethality of the drug was greater in rats fed vitamin E-deficient diets high in polyunsaturated fats as compared to rats fed the NIH open-formula diet. The survival times of vitamin E-deficient rats were increased if such animals were fed diets supplemented with vitamin E and/or diets containing saturated fat (lard) for 3 weeks before administration of nitrofurantoin. The toxicity of nitrofurantoin was enhanced in both the rats deficient in vitamin E and in those given vitamin E supplements and exposed to O2-enriched atmospheres. These results, in conjunction with previous metabolic studies in vitro showing redox cycling and O2 activation in rat lung microsomes in the presence of nitrofurantoin, illustrate certain similarities with the lung-toxic herbicide, paraquat, and raise the question of whether the 2 agents may be capable of damaging lungs by a common mechanism.

Boyd MR; Catignani GL; Sasame HA; Mitchell JR; Stiko AW

1979-07-01

215

Dietary cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation in high fat-fed mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of cocoa powder supplementation on obesity-related inflammation in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J (n = 126) were fed with either low-fat (LF, 10 % kcal from fat) or HF (60 % kcal from fat) diet for 18 weeks. After 8 weeks, mice from HF group were randomized to HF diet or HF diet supplemented with 8 % cocoa powder (HF-HFC group) for 10 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical analyses. RESULTS: Cocoa powder supplementation significantly reduced the rate of body weight gain (15.8 %) and increased fecal lipid content (55.2 %) compared to HF-fed control mice. Further, cocoa supplementation attenuated insulin resistance, as indicated by improved HOMA-IR, and reduced the severity of obesity-related fatty liver disease (decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase and liver triglyceride) compared to HF group. Cocoa supplementation also significantly decreased plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6, 30.4 %), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, 25.2 %), and increased adiponectin (33.7 %) compared to HF-fed mice. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Il6, Il12b, Nos2, and Emr1) in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) was significantly reduced (37-56 %) in the cocoa-supplemented mice. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary supplementation with cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease in HF-fed obese mice, principally through the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression in WAT. These effects appear to be mediated in part by a modulation of dietary fat absorption and inhibition of macrophage infiltration in WAT.

Gu Y; Yu S; Lambert JD

2013-03-01

216

Spillover of Fatty acids during dietary fat storage in type 2 diabetes: relationship to body fat depots and effects of weight loss.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spillover of lipoprotein lipase-generated fatty acids from chylomicrons into the plasma free fatty acid (FFA) pool is an important source of FFA and reflects inefficiency in dietary fat storage. We measured spillover in 13 people with type 2 diabetes using infusions of a [(3)H]triolein-labeled lipid emulsion and [U-(13)C]oleate during continuous feeding, before and after weight loss. Body fat was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Participants lost ?14% of body weight. There was an ?38% decrease in meal-suppressed FFA concentration (P < 0.0001) and an ?23% decrease in oleate flux (P = 0.007). Fractional spillover did not change (P = NS). At baseline, there was a strong negative correlation between spillover and leg fat (r = -0.79, P = 0.001) and a positive correlation with the trunk-to-leg fat ratio (R = 0.56, P = 0.047). These correlations disappeared after weight loss. Baseline leg fat (R = -0.61, P = 0.027) but not trunk fat (R = -0.27, P = 0.38) negatively predicted decreases in spillover with weight loss. These results indicate that spillover, a measure of inefficiency in dietary fat storage, is inversely associated with lower body fat in type 2 diabetes.

Almandoz JP; Singh E; Howell LA; Grothe K; Vlazny DT; Smailovic A; Irving BA; Nelson RH; Miles JM

2013-06-01

217

Role of G308 promoter variant of tumor necrosis factor alpha gene on weight loss and metabolic parameters after a high monounsaturated versus a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of G-308 promoter variant of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha gene on metabolic changes and weight loss secondary to a high monounsaturated fat vs a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet in obese subjects. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A sample of 261 obese subjects were enrolled in a consecutive prospective way, from May 2011 to July 2012 in a tertiary hospital. In the basal visit, patients were randomly allocated during 3 months to Diet M (high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet) and Diet P (high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet). RESULTS: One hundred and ninety seven patients (73.2%) had the genotype G-308G and 64 (26.8%) patients had the genotype G-308A. There were no significant differences between the effects (on weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass) in either genotype group with both diets. With the diet type P and in genotype G-308G, glucose levels (-6.7(22.1)mg/dl vs -3.7(2.2)mg/dl: p = 0.02), HOMA-R (-0.6(2.1)units vs -0.26(3.1)units: p = 0.01), insulin levels (-1.7(6.6)UI/L vs -0.6(7.1)UI/L: p = 0.009), total cholesterol levels (-15.3(31.1)mg/dl vs -8.4(22.1)mg/dl: p = 0.01), LDL cholesterol levels (-10.7(28.1)mg/dl vs -3.8(21.1)mg/dl: p = 0.008) and triglycerides (-12.1(52.1)mg/dl vs -6.6(43.1)mg/dl: p = 0.02) decreased. CONCLUSION: Carriers of the G-308G promoter variant of TNF alpha gene have a better metabolic response than A-308 obese with a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet.

de Luis DA; Aller R; Izaola O; Gonzalez Sagrado M; Conde R

2013-09-01

218

Genetic variation in the cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) (G1359A polymorphism) and their influence on anthropometric parameters and metabolic parameters under a high monounsaturated vs. high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

An intragenic polymorphism (1359 G/A) of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene was reported as a common polymorphism in Caucasian populations (rs1049353). Intervention studies with this polymorphism have yield contradictories results. We decide to investigate the role of polymorphism (G1359A) of (CNR1) gene on metabolic parameters and weight loss secondary to a high monounsaturated fat and high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets in obese subjects. A population of 258 obese subjects was analyzed in a randomized trial. A nutritional evaluation was performed at the beginning and at the end of a 3-month period in which subjects received 1 of 2 diets (diet M: high monounsaturated fat diet vs diet P: high polyunsaturated fat diet). One hundred and sixty five patients (63.9%) had the genotype G1359G and 93 (36.1%) patients (A allele carriers) had G1359A (78 patients,30.3%) or A1359A (15 patients,5.8%) genotypes. In subjects with both genotypes, body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference and systolic blood pressures decreased with both diets. With the diet-type M and in both genotype groups, biochemical parameters remained unchanged. After the diet type P and in subjects with both genotypes, glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, insulin and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels decreased. In G1359G genotype subjects after both diets, leptin levels decreased. The finding of this study is the association of the A allele with a lack of improvement on leptin levels. Subjects with both genotypes and after a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet showed a significant improvement of LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, HOMA-IR and insulin levels. PMID:23337343

de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocio; Gonzalez Sagrado, Manuel; Conde, Rosa; Izaola, Olatz; de la Fuente, Beatriz

2013-01-18

219

Characterization of biophysical properties of baboon lipoproteins: modulation by dietary fat and cholesterol  

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The serum lipoproteins of baboons fed diets containing differing types and amounts of fat and varying amounts of cholesterol were examined by analytic ultracentrifugation, gradient gel electrophoresis, density gradient ultracentrifugation, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and standard protein and lipid composition assays. These studies characterized the lipoproteins of the baboon, observed how concentrations and physical-chemical properties of the lipoproteins are modulated by dietary fat and cholesterol and described the suitability of the baboon as an animal model of human lipoprotein metabolism. Results indicate that baboon high density lipoproteins (HDL), though higher in total serum concentration than human HDL, are remarkably similar to human HDL. The concentration of baboon HDL is increased by dietary saturated fat but decreased by the addition of cholesterol. While serum concentrations of low density lipoproteins (LDL) tend to be lower in baboons, the physical-chemical properties of the LDL of baboons and humans are comparable. The LDL of both species contains apolipoprotein B as their major apolipoprotein and exhibit considerable polydispersity in particle size. LDL of both species consists of seven discrete subpopulations. The analytical and statistical data presented in this dissertation indicate that the baboon is a good model for studying the role of lipoproteins in the development of atherosclerosis. 125 references, 31 figures, 28 tables.

Babiak, J.

1984-04-01

220

Fat and Diabetes  

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Full Text Available ... by eating the healthy fats—monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and omega-3 fats. It is true that all fat is ... sunflower seeds Soft (tub) margarine Mayonnaise Salad dressings Omega-3 Fatty Acids Omega-3 fatty acids help prevent ...

 
 
 
 
221

Relationship of estimated dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish with peripheral nerve function after adjusting for mercury exposure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Some clinical studies have suggested that ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerve function. However, few epidemiological studies have examined the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA intake from fish consumption on peripheral nerve function, and none have controlled for co-occurrence of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of estimated dietary n-3 PUFA intake on peripheral nerve function after adjusting for biomarkers of methylmercury and elemental mercury in a convenience sample of 515 dental professionals. METHODS: We measured sensory nerve conduction (peak latency and amplitude) of the median, ulnar and sural nerves and total mercury concentrations in hair and urine samples. We estimated daily intake (mg/day) of the total n-3 PUFA, n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) based on a self-administrated fish consumption frequency questionnaire. We also collected information on mercury exposure, demographics and other covariates. RESULTS: The estimated median intakes of total n-3 PUFA, n-3 EPA, and n-3 DHA were 447, 105, and 179 mg/day, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations in urine (1.05 ?g/L) and hair (0.49 ?g/g) were not significantly different from the US general population. We found no consistent association between n-3 PUFA intake and sensory nerve conduction after adjusting for mercury concentrations in hair and urine although some positive associations were observed with the sural nerve. CONCLUSIONS: In a convenience sample of dental professionals, we found little evidence suggesting that dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs from fish has any impact on peripheral nerve function after adjustment for methylmercury exposure from fish and elemental mercury exposure from dental amalgam.

Wang Y; Goodrich JM; Werner R; Gillespie B; Basu N; Franzblau A

2013-06-01

222

An independent validation association study of carcass quality, shear force, intramuscular fat percentage and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content with gene markers in Australian lamb.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous association studies revealed several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that explained the observed phenotypic variation for meat tenderness and long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of Australian lamb. To confirm the validity of these associated SNPs at predicting meat tenderness and omega-3 PUFA content, an independent validation study was designed. The OvineSNP50 genotypes of these animals were used to impute the 192 SNP Meat Quality Research (MQR) panel genotypes on nearly 6200 animals from the Cooperative Research Centre for Sheep Industry Innovation Information Nucleus Flock and Sheep Genomics Falkiner Memorial Field Station flock. Association analysis revealed numerous SNP from the 192 SNP MQR panel that were associated with carcass quality - fat depth at the C-site and eye muscle depth; shear force at day 1 and day 5 after slaughter (SF1 and SF5); and omega-3 PUFA content at P<0.01. However, 1 SNP was independently validated for SF5 (i.e. CAST_101781475). The magnitude of the effect of each significant SNP and the relative allele frequencies across Merino-, Maternal- and Terminal-sired progeny was determined. The independently validated SNP for SF5 and the associated SNP with omega-3 PUFA content will accelerate efforts to improve these phenotypic traits in Australian lamb.

Knight MI; Daetwyler HD; Hayes BJ; Hayden MJ; Ball AJ; Pethick DW; McDonagh MB

2013-07-01

223

Effect of Some Dietary Oils and Fats on Serum Lipid Profile, Calcium Absorption and Bone Mineralization in Mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Amount and type of fats in the diet have an important effect on bone health and lipid profile. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different types of dietary oils and fats on lipid profile, calcium absorption and bone mineralization in male mice. Mice weighing 25±5 g were divided into nine groups and fed on diets without oils or fats (control group) and containing soybean oil, corn oil, olive oil, palm oil, sunflower oil, butter, animal fat or margarine. Mice fed on diet containing soybean oil or olive oil had the lowest levels of TG, TC, LDL-c and HDL-c as compared to the other groups. Diets with palm oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, butter, animal fat or margarine caused significant decreases in the serum level of calcium as compared to the effect of diet without oils or fats. Mice fed diet containing olive oil, butter or animal fat had significant increase in bone density, while those fed diet containing soybean oil, corn oil, sunflower oil or margarine had significant decreases in femur bone density, compared to the control group. The apparent calcium absorption was significantly increased by feeding diets containing soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, butter or animal fat. Dietary intake of vegetable oils improved lipid profile while butter, animal fat and margarine had the opposite effect. Butter and animal fats increased calcium and phosphorus deposition in femur bone more than vegetable oils.

Amr A. Rezq; Fatma A. Labib; Abd Elrahman M. Attia

2010-01-01

224

Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice.

Arai T; Kim HJ; Hirako S; Nakasatomi M; Chiba H; Matsumoto A

2013-01-01

225

Effects of dietary fatty acid composition from a high fat meal on satiety.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of fats within a high-fat (HF) meal may differentially affect hunger and satiety. Purpose: Compare HF meals rich in either monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), or saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on the satiety hormone, peptide YY (PYY), and subjective feelings of hunger and fullness. Methods: Fifteen normal weight women (18-45 year) were randomized in a crossover design to complete three study visits. The three treatments (three visits) were HF meals (70% of energy from fat) rich in MUFAs (42% of total energy), PUFAs (42% of total energy), or SFAs (45% of total energy). At each visit, subjects consumed a HF meal and eight blood draws were collected over a 5 h period. A visual analog scale (VAS) was completed at the same time as each blood draw for subjective feelings of hunger and fullness. Results: The postprandial PYY response (area under the curve) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for the MUFA-rich meal (MUFA: 534.5±27.2 pg/mL/5 h) vs. the SFA-rich or PUFA-rich meals (SFA: 607.3±51.6 pg/mL/5h, PUFA: 633.1±35.8 pg/mL/5 h). The SFA-rich meal elicited greater subjective feelings of fullness compared to MUFA- and PUFA-rich meals (288.1±9.6 vs. 236.8±7.9 and 220.9±7.4 mm/5 h; p=0.04, for 5h AUC for SFA, MUFA, and PUFA, respectively). The only significant correlations between PYY levels and VAS measures were found with the SFA-rich meal. Conclusion: Our data shows that liquid meals rich in MUFAs may elicit a weaker satiety response based on PYY levels compared to liquid meals rich in PUFAs or SFAs in normal weight women. PMID:23688821

Kozimor, Amanda; Chang, Hui; Cooper, Jamie A

2013-05-18

226

Effects of dietary fatty acid composition from a high fat meal on satiety.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The composition of fats within a high-fat (HF) meal may differentially affect hunger and satiety. Purpose: Compare HF meals rich in either monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), or saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on the satiety hormone, peptide YY (PYY), and subjective feelings of hunger and fullness. Methods: Fifteen normal weight women (18-45 year) were randomized in a crossover design to complete three study visits. The three treatments (three visits) were HF meals (70% of energy from fat) rich in MUFAs (42% of total energy), PUFAs (42% of total energy), or SFAs (45% of total energy). At each visit, subjects consumed a HF meal and eight blood draws were collected over a 5 h period. A visual analog scale (VAS) was completed at the same time as each blood draw for subjective feelings of hunger and fullness. Results: The postprandial PYY response (area under the curve) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for the MUFA-rich meal (MUFA: 534.5±27.2 pg/mL/5 h) vs. the SFA-rich or PUFA-rich meals (SFA: 607.3±51.6 pg/mL/5h, PUFA: 633.1±35.8 pg/mL/5 h). The SFA-rich meal elicited greater subjective feelings of fullness compared to MUFA- and PUFA-rich meals (288.1±9.6 vs. 236.8±7.9 and 220.9±7.4 mm/5 h; p=0.04, for 5h AUC for SFA, MUFA, and PUFA, respectively). The only significant correlations between PYY levels and VAS measures were found with the SFA-rich meal. Conclusion: Our data shows that liquid meals rich in MUFAs may elicit a weaker satiety response based on PYY levels compared to liquid meals rich in PUFAs or SFAs in normal weight women.

Kozimor A; Chang H; Cooper JA

2013-10-01

227

Preliminary investigation of the influence of dietary protected lipid supplements on the characteristics of cows' milk fat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dietary manipulation of cows' milk fat composition has principally been concerned with increasing the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids present. However, such changes in fatty acid composition result in a softening of the milk fat, a property not to the benefit of every user. Bakers and confectioners, for example, frequently prefer a harder milk fat to achieve the desired textural characteristics of their products. A preliminary investigation of the influence of protected lipid supplements on the characteristics of milk fat found that inclusion of Dairy Fat Prills (at a level of 1.0 kg day-1) in the diet of dairy cows hardened the fat. This was shown by a significant increase in percentage solid fat content over the temperature range (5-30 degrees C) investigated and was accompanied by a significant increase in mean slip melting point from 31.81 degrees C (control diet) to 35.18 degrees C.

Fearon AM; Kilpatrick DJ

1991-01-01

228

Dietary olive cake reduces the oxidation of lipids, including cholesterol, in lamb meat enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 40 days, lambs were fed: concentrate (C), concentrate containing 20% linseed (L), concentrate containing 35% olive cake (OC), or concentrate containing 10% linseed and 17% olive cake (OCL). The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and peroxidation index (PI) in phospholipids were increased by the L and OCL treatments (P=0.007 and P=0.003, respectively). The OC and OCL diets increased the concentration of tocopherol in muscle (POCL diet, the L diet increased fatty acid oxidation, measured as conjugated dienes (CD; P=0.003), peroxides (PV; P<0.001) and TBARS (P=0.002) in minced muscle over 11 days of storage in high-oxygen atmosphere. Also, the L diet increased (P<0.001) the levels cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). In conclusion, feeding olive cake improved the oxidative stability of lamb meat and the combination of olive cake and linseed improved the fatty acid composition of meat without compromising its oxidative stability. PMID:23273482

Luciano, G; Pauselli, M; Servili, M; Mourvaki, E; Serra, A; Monahan, F J; Lanza, M; Priolo, A; Zinnai, A; Mele, M

2012-11-23

229

Influence of dietary fat on growth and liver lipid content, glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases, and aldolase activities in the chick.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of fat in chick diets containing 18, 21, and 24% protein on growth and liver lipid content, glucose 6-phosphate, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases, and aldolase activities was evaluated. Twelve percent fat in diets containing 21 and 24% protein increased the rate of growth. The fat level also decreased liver lipid content at 24% dietary protein. Improved growth was attributed to higher feed intake. However, dietary fat did not affect the activities of the above enzymes indicating their inadaptive nature to dietary fat. PMID:7267556

Akinwande, A I

1981-06-01

230

Influence of dietary fat on growth and liver lipid content, glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases, and aldolase activities in the chick.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of fat in chick diets containing 18, 21, and 24% protein on growth and liver lipid content, glucose 6-phosphate, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases, and aldolase activities was evaluated. Twelve percent fat in diets containing 21 and 24% protein increased the rate of growth. The fat level also decreased liver lipid content at 24% dietary protein. Improved growth was attributed to higher feed intake. However, dietary fat did not affect the activities of the above enzymes indicating their inadaptive nature to dietary fat.

Akinwande AI

1981-06-01

231

New Study Suggests Weight Loss from Gastric Bypass Might be Partly Due to Dietary Fat Aversion  

Science.gov (United States)

Press release on a recent study finding that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery leads to a significant reduction in dietary fat intake, and that this reduction may be due to digestive consequences and the hormone GLP-1. This study, ÃÂGastric Bypass Reduces Fat Intake and Preference,àwas conducted by Carel le Roux, Marco Bueter, Torsten Olbers, Hutan Ashrafian, Thanos Athanasious and Stephen Bloom, all of Imperial Weight Centre, Imperial College London, UK; Nadine Theis, Christian Löwenstein, and Thomas A. Lutz, the Institute of Veterinary Physiology Zurich, Switzerland; Malin Werling, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden; and Alan Spector, Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee. The study is published in the American Journal of Physiology àRegulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2011-07-27

232

Dietary meat fats and burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors, in the elderly: a report from the MEDIS study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Dietary fats have long been associated with human health, and especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). Some observational studies have shown that reduction in dietary fats, and particularly cholesterol is associated with lower cardiovascular risk; however, other prospective studies or randomized controlled trials of dietary fat reduction or modification have shown varying results on CVD morbidity and mortality. In this work we evaluated the relationships between dietary fats and a cluster of CVD risk factors (i.e., diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension), among elderly individuals without known CVD. In particular, dietary and clinical data from 1486 elderly (aged 65 to 100 years) men and women living in Cyprus, Mitilini, Samothraki, Cephalonia, Crete, Lemnos, Syros, Naxos, Corfu and Zakynthos islands, and participated in the MEDIS study, were analysed. Data analysis revealed that 18.5% of males and 33.3% of females had three or four cardiovascular disease risk factors; the major source of fat was olive oil (mean intake for men and women 50.0 ± 19.3 g/day and 46.0 ± 16.8 g/day, p

Polychronopoulos Evangelos; Pounis George; Bountziouka Vassiliki; Zeimbekis Akis; Tsiligianni Ioanna; Qira Brikena-Eirini; Gotsis Efthimios; Metallinos George; Lionis Christos; Panagiotakos Demosthenes

2010-01-01

233

A common polymorphism near the interleukin-6 gene modifies the association between dietary fat intake and insulin sensitivity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the development of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, have been associated with insulin resistance, and dietary lipids can increase cytokine production. The objective of this study was to determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism near the IL6 gene (rs7801406) modifies the relationship between dietary fat and markers of insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Subjects were healthy men and women aged 20-29 years from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Dietary intake was estimated using a one-month semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken for genotyping and biomarker measurement. RESULTS: The single nucleotide polymorphism was not associated with any of the measures of insulin sensitivity. However, it modified the relationship between total dietary fat and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.053 for interaction). Total fat intake was positively related to HOMA-IR in individuals homozygous for the G allele (? = 0.005 ± 0.002, P = 0.03), but not among heterozygotes. There was an inverse relationship between total fat intake and HOMA-IR in individuals who were homozygous for the A allele (? = -0.012 ± 0.006, P = 0.047). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary fat influences insulin sensitivity differently depending on genotype.

Cuda C; Garcia-Bailo B; Karmali M; El-Sohemy A; Badawi A

2012-01-01

234

A novel mechanism for gut barrier dysfunction by dietary fat: epithelial disruption by hydrophobic bile acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impairment of gut barrier is associated with a fat-rich diet, but mechanisms are unknown. We have earlier shown that dietary fat modifies fecal bile acids in mice, decreasing the proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) vs. deoxycholic acid (DCA). To clarify the potential role of bile acids in fat-induced barrier dysfunction, we here investigated how physiological concentrations of DCA and UDCA affect barrier function in mouse intestinal tissue. Bile acid experiments were conducted in vitro in Ussing chambers using 4- and 20-kDa FITC-labeled dextrans. Epithelial integrity and inflammation were assayed by histology and Western blot analysis for cyclooxygenase-2. LPS was studied in DCA-induced barrier dysfunction. Finally, we investigated in a 10-wk in vivo feeding trial in mice the barrier-disrupting effect of a diet containing 0.1% DCA. DCA disrupted epithelial integrity dose dependently at 1-3 mM, which correspond to physiological concentrations on a high-fat diet. Low-fat diet-related concentrations of DCA had no effect. In vivo, the DCA-containing diet increased intestinal permeability 1.5-fold compared with control (P = 0.016). Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed a clear disruption of the epithelial barrier by 3 mM DCA in vitro. A short-term treatment by DCA did not increase cyclooxygenase-2 content in colon preparations. UDCA did not affect barrier function itself, but it ameliorated DCA-induced barrier disruption at a 0.6 mM concentration. LPS had no significant effect on barrier function at 0.5-4.5 ?g/ml concentrations. We suggest a novel mechanism for barrier dysfunction on a high-fat diet involving the effect of hydrophobic luminal bile acids. PMID:23203158

Stenman, Lotta K; Holma, Reetta; Eggert, Ariane; Korpela, Riitta

2012-11-29

235

A novel mechanism for gut barrier dysfunction by dietary fat: epithelial disruption by hydrophobic bile acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Impairment of gut barrier is associated with a fat-rich diet, but mechanisms are unknown. We have earlier shown that dietary fat modifies fecal bile acids in mice, decreasing the proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) vs. deoxycholic acid (DCA). To clarify the potential role of bile acids in fat-induced barrier dysfunction, we here investigated how physiological concentrations of DCA and UDCA affect barrier function in mouse intestinal tissue. Bile acid experiments were conducted in vitro in Ussing chambers using 4- and 20-kDa FITC-labeled dextrans. Epithelial integrity and inflammation were assayed by histology and Western blot analysis for cyclooxygenase-2. LPS was studied in DCA-induced barrier dysfunction. Finally, we investigated in a 10-wk in vivo feeding trial in mice the barrier-disrupting effect of a diet containing 0.1% DCA. DCA disrupted epithelial integrity dose dependently at 1-3 mM, which correspond to physiological concentrations on a high-fat diet. Low-fat diet-related concentrations of DCA had no effect. In vivo, the DCA-containing diet increased intestinal permeability 1.5-fold compared with control (P = 0.016). Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed a clear disruption of the epithelial barrier by 3 mM DCA in vitro. A short-term treatment by DCA did not increase cyclooxygenase-2 content in colon preparations. UDCA did not affect barrier function itself, but it ameliorated DCA-induced barrier disruption at a 0.6 mM concentration. LPS had no significant effect on barrier function at 0.5-4.5 ?g/ml concentrations. We suggest a novel mechanism for barrier dysfunction on a high-fat diet involving the effect of hydrophobic luminal bile acids.

Stenman LK; Holma R; Eggert A; Korpela R

2013-02-01

236

Effect of dietary fat source on fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of eggs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This study investigated the effects of supplementary dietary lipid sources on the fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation of eggs. Five isoenergetic (12.6 MJ AME/kg DM) and isonitrogenous (170 g CP/kg DM) diets were formulated, using a control diet (50 : 50 blend of fish- and linseed oil), fish oil, sunflower oil, high oleic acid (HO) sunflower oil and tallow at a 30 g/kg inclusion level. Two hundred individually caged HyLine Silver-Brown hens (20 weeks of age) were random (more) ly allocated to the five dietary treatments (n = 40 hens/treatment). Birds received the experimental diets from 20 weeks of age. At 30 weeks of age, 12 eggs per treatment were randomly selected for analyses of egg yolk fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values (PV). Dietary lipid sources affected FAME, TBARS and PV of egg yolk significantly. The fish oil treatment resulted in the highest TBARS (0.27 mg malonaldehyde/kg yolk) and PV (3.96 milli-equivalent peroxide/kg fat) whereas the HO sunflower oil resulted in the lowest TBARS (0.13 mg malonaldehyde/kg yolk) and PV (2.77 milli-equivalent peroxide/kg fat). Fish oil also resulted in the lowest n-6 to n-3 ratio (1.16 to 1), while sunflower oil resulted in the highest ratio (24.6 to 1). Results indicate that the fatty acid profile of eggs could be altered by means of dietary intervention. However, an improvement of omega-3 type fatty acids of eggs will result in a higher susceptibility to lipid oxidation and possibly a shorter shelf-life of stored eggs.

King, E.J.; Hugo, A.; de Witt, F.H.; van der Merwe, H.J.; Fair, M.D.

2012-01-01

237

Influence of dietary fats on atherosclerosis, coagulation and platelet phospholipids in rabbits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Summary: Male rabbits were fed for six months diets comprising cholesterol (0.1%) and either butter alone (10%) or butter (5%) plus cacao butter, coconut oil, olive oil, or corn oil (4.5%). These fats could be classified according to their atherogenicity as follows, in decreasing order: butter, olive oil, coconut oil, cacao butter, and corn oil. The severity of the atherosclerotic lesions was correlated with the plasma cholesterol. By contrast, concerning their effect on the recalcification plasma (platelet-rich) clotting time (PCT), These fats could be classified in the following way: cacao butter, butter,, coconut oil, olive oil and corn oil. The values of the PCT were significantly correlated with the ratio stearic/linoleic acid in the dietary fats, the clotting activity and the fatty acid composition of the platelet phospholipid fractions examined (phosphatidyl serine plus phosphatidyl inositol), but not with the concentration of these fractions in platelets. Butter was the only fat able to induce severe alterations at the same time in coagulation (presumably through an increase in the activity of certain platelet phospholipids), lipemia and arterial wall morphology.

Renaud S; Gautheron P

1975-01-01

238

Influence of dietary fats on atherosclerosis, coagulation and platelet phospholipids in rabbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary: Male rabbits were fed for six months diets comprising cholesterol (0.1%) and either butter alone (10%) or butter (5%) plus cacao butter, coconut oil, olive oil, or corn oil (4.5%). These fats could be classified according to their atherogenicity as follows, in decreasing order: butter, olive oil, coconut oil, cacao butter, and corn oil. The severity of the atherosclerotic lesions was correlated with the plasma cholesterol. By contrast, concerning their effect on the recalcification plasma (platelet-rich) clotting time (PCT), These fats could be classified in the following way: cacao butter, butter,, coconut oil, olive oil and corn oil. The values of the PCT were significantly correlated with the ratio stearic/linoleic acid in the dietary fats, the clotting activity and the fatty acid composition of the platelet phospholipid fractions examined (phosphatidyl serine plus phosphatidyl inositol), but not with the concentration of these fractions in platelets. Butter was the only fat able to induce severe alterations at the same time in coagulation (presumably through an increase in the activity of certain platelet phospholipids), lipemia and arterial wall morphology. PMID:1131297

Renaud, S; Gautheron, P

239

[Determination of trace elements in dietary fats and emulsifiers by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 1. Determination of the ionogenically bound heavy metals copper, iron, nickel, zinc, lead and cadmium in dietary fats  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The knowledge of the trace metal contents in dietary fats is of considerable interest from the viewpoints of food hygiene and and storage stability. In the framework of the present paper, it is dealt with the determination of the ionogenically bound heavy metals copper, iron, nickel, zinc, lead and cadmium by means of flameless atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Problems related to trace analysis in dietary fats are discussed. Problem-oriented surveys in the form of tables inform about:--analytical conditions of the AAS technique,--metal contents as compared to data with the approved standard method,--contents of the ionogenically bound toxic trace elements cadmium, zinc and lead in samples of various dietary fats currently used in the German Democratic Republic.

Schütze I; Müller W

1978-01-01

240

Modulating absorption and postprandial handling of dietary fatty acids by structuring fat in the meal: a randomized crossover clinical trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Prolonged postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In the context of obesity, this is associated with a chronic imbalance of lipid partitioning oriented toward storage and not toward ?-oxidation. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that the physical structure of fat in a meal can modify the absorption, chylomicron transport, and further metabolic handling of dietary fatty acids. DESIGN: Nine normal-weight and 9 obese subjects were fed 40 g milk fat (+[(13)C]triacylglycerols), either emulsified or nonemulsified, in breakfasts of identical composition. We measured the postprandial triacylglycerol content and size of the chylomicron-rich fraction, plasma kinetics of [(13)C]fatty acids, exogenous lipid oxidation with breath-test/indirect calorimetry, and fecal excretion. RESULTS: The emulsified fat resulted in earlier (>1 h) and sharper chylomicron and [(13)C]fatty acid peaks in plasma than in spread fat in both groups (P < 0.0001). After 2 h, the emulsified fat resulted in greater apolipoprotein B-48 concentrations (9.7 ± 0.7 compared with 7.1 ± 0.9 mg/L; P < 0.05) in the normal-weight subjects than did the spread fat. In the obese subjects, emulsified fat resulted in a 3-fold greater chylomicron size (218 ± 24 nm) compared with the spread fat (P < 0.05). The emulsified fat induced higher dietary fatty acid spillover in plasma and a sharper (13)CO(2) appearance, which provoked increased exogenous lipid oxidation in each group: from 45% to 52% in normal-weight subjects (P < 0.05) and from 40% to 57% in obese subjects (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study supports a new concept of "slow vs fast fat," whereby intestinal absorption can be modulated by structuring dietary fat to modulate postprandial lipemia and lipid ?-oxidation in humans with different BMIs. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01249378.

Vors C; Pineau G; Gabert L; Drai J; Louche-Pélissier C; Defoort C; Lairon D; Désage M; Danthine S; Lambert-Porcheron S; Vidal H; Laville M; Michalski MC

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Dietary fat mediates hyperglycemia and the glucogenic response to increased protein consumption in an insect, Manduca sexta L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many insects display non-homeostatic regulation over blood sugar level. The concentration of trehalose varies dramatically depending on physiological and nutritional state. In the absence of dietary carbohydrate, blood trehalose in larvae of the lepidopteran insect Manduca sexta is maintained by gluconeogenesis and is dependent on dietary protein consumption. In the present study, the effect of dietary fat on the glucogenic response of insects to increased dietary protein was examined by NMR analysis of (2-13C)pyruvate metabolism. Last instar larvae were maintained on a carbohydrate-free chemically defined artificial diet having variable levels of casein with and without corn oil. Gluconeogenic flux, the ratio of the rate of gluconeogenesis to the rate of glycolysis, was estimated from the 13C distribution in trehalose arising by gluconeogenesis and the 13C enrichment of alanine due to pyruvate cycling. Insects grew well on carbohydrate-free diets and growth increased with increasing dietary protein level. At all dietary protein levels, larvae grew better on diets with fat. Without dietary fat, larvae were glucogenic but displayed low blood trehalose concentrations, <30 mM, regardless of protein consumption. When fat was included in the diet, however, gluconeogenic flux and blood trehalose level increased sharply in response to increased dietary protein level, with trehalose concentrations >50 mM at higher levels of protein consumption. When offered a choice of a high carbohydrate and a high protein diet, larvae maintained on diets with fat displayed a food preference related to blood sugar level. Those with low blood sugar fed on carbohydrate, while those with high blood sugar preferred protein. Trehalose synthesized from (2-13C)pyruvate exhibited asymmetry in the 13C distribution in individual glucose molecules, indicating a disequilibrium at the triose phosphate isomerase-catalyzed step of the gluconeogenic pathway. In trehalose from larvae on diets with fat, the asymmetric 13C distribution was higher than in trehalose from insects on diets lacking fat. This may partially result from isotopic disequilibrium when unenriched glycerol is metabolized to dihydroxyacetone phosphate following fat hydrolysis. The asymmetry in 13C distribution, however, also occurred in insects on diets without fat and decreased with increased gluconeogenic flux suggesting that true disequilibrium between the triose phosphates is the principal reason for the asymmetry.

Thompson SN

2004-08-01

242

Postprandial oxidative stress is modulated by dietary fat in adipose tissue from elderly people.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have investigated whether dietary fat modifies the postprandial oxidative stress in adipose tissue of elderly people. Twenty participants received three diets for 4 weeks each: SFA-rich diet, Mediterranean (Med) diet enriched in MUFA with virgin olive oil, and a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet enriched in n-3 PUFA (?-linolenic acid from plant origin) (CHO-PUFA diet). After 12 h of fasting, volunteers received a breakfast reflecting the fatty acid composition of the diet ingested in the preceding dietary period. Med diet induced higher postprandial SOD2 and TrxR mRNA levels, and CHO-PUFA diet induced higher GPx1 and TrxR mRNA levels compared with SFA-rich diet. Med and CHO-PUFA breakfasts induced a postprandial increase in plasma reduced glutathione (GSH), and a greater postprandial GSH/oxidized glutathione ratio compared to the SFA-rich diet. Our study suggests that the consumption of Med and CHO-PUFA diets may reduce postprandial oxidative stress compared to an SFA-rich diet, which may be due to higher antioxidant enzymes gene expression in adipose tissue.

Meza-Miranda ER; Camargo A; Rangel-Zuñiga OA; Delgado-Lista J; Garcia-Rios A; Perez-Martinez P; Tasset-Cuevas I; Tunez I; Tinahones FJ; Perez-Jimenez F; Lopez-Miranda J

2013-08-01

243

Dietary olive cake reduces the oxidation of lipids, including cholesterol, in lamb meat enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over 40 days, lambs were fed: concentrate (C), concentrate containing 20% linseed (L), concentrate containing 35% olive cake (OC), or concentrate containing 10% linseed and 17% olive cake (OCL). The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and peroxidation index (PI) in phospholipids were increased by the L and OCL treatments (P=0.007 and P=0.003, respectively). The OC and OCL diets increased the concentration of tocopherol in muscle (P<0.001). Compared to the OC and OCL diet, the L diet increased fatty acid oxidation, measured as conjugated dienes (CD; P=0.003), peroxides (PV; P<0.001) and TBARS (P=0.002) in minced muscle over 11 days of storage in high-oxygen atmosphere. Also, the L diet increased (P<0.001) the levels cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). In conclusion, feeding olive cake improved the oxidative stability of lamb meat and the combination of olive cake and linseed improved the fatty acid composition of meat without compromising its oxidative stability.

Luciano G; Pauselli M; Servili M; Mourvaki E; Serra A; Monahan FJ; Lanza M; Priolo A; Zinnai A; Mele M

2013-03-01

244

[Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy adults in relation to current recommended intake].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The health benefits of n-3 PUFA and especially long-chain n-3 PUFA are well recognized and recommendation of their dietary intake for general population are elaborated However, there is still a need for assessment of LCn-3 PUFA intake in different population groups. The aim of this study was to assess intake of n-3 PUFA, particularly long-chain n-3PUFA (LCn-3 PUFA) and to identify their major sources in diets of healthy subjects. The studied group consisted of 182 adults, both men and women. Assessment of n-3 PUFA dietary intake was based on individual 3-day records. Data were analyzed using updated polish food composition tables and "Dieta 2" and "Dieta 4" Software. It was found, that more than 40% of studied subjects consumed daily less than 1 g ALA, about 50%--less than 100 mg LCn-3 PUFA and about 60% less than 10 mg DHA.

Jab?onowska B; D?uzniewska B; Jarosz A; Nowicka G

2011-01-01

245

[Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy adults in relation to current recommended intake].  

Science.gov (United States)

The health benefits of n-3 PUFA and especially long-chain n-3 PUFA are well recognized and recommendation of their dietary intake for general population are elaborated However, there is still a need for assessment of LCn-3 PUFA intake in different population groups. The aim of this study was to assess intake of n-3 PUFA, particularly long-chain n-3PUFA (LCn-3 PUFA) and to identify their major sources in diets of healthy subjects. The studied group consisted of 182 adults, both men and women. Assessment of n-3 PUFA dietary intake was based on individual 3-day records. Data were analyzed using updated polish food composition tables and "Dieta 2" and "Dieta 4" Software. It was found, that more than 40% of studied subjects consumed daily less than 1 g ALA, about 50%--less than 100 mg LCn-3 PUFA and about 60% less than 10 mg DHA. PMID:22435293

Jab?onowska, Beata; D?uzniewska, Beata; Jarosz, Agnieszka; Nowicka, Grazyna

2011-01-01

246

A common polymorphism near the interleukin-6 gene modifies the association between dietary fat intake and insulin sensitivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cristina Cuda1, Bibiana Garcia-Bailo1,2, Mohamed Karmali1,2, Ahmed El-Sohemy1, Alaa Badawi21Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, 2Office of Biotechnology, Genomics and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Increasing evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the development of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, have been associated with insulin resistance, and dietary lipids can increase cytokine production. The objective of this study was to determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism near the IL6 gene (rs7801406) modifies the relationship between dietary fat and markers of insulin sensitivity.Methods: Subjects were healthy men and women aged 20–29 years from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Dietary intake was estimated using a one-month semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken for genotyping and biomarker measurement.Results: The single nucleotide polymorphism was not associated with any of the measures of insulin sensitivity. However, it modified the relationship between total dietary fat and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.053 for interaction). Total fat intake was positively related to HOMA-IR in individuals homozygous for the G allele (ß = 0.005 ± 0.002, P = 0.03), but not among heterozygotes. There was an inverse relationship between total fat intake and HOMA-IR in individuals who were homozygous for the A allele (?= –0.012 ± 0.006, P = 0.047).Conclusion: These findings suggest that dietary fat influences insulin sensitivity differently depending on genotype.Keywords: interleukin-6, insulin sensitivity, nutrigenomics, dietary fat

Cuda C; Garcia-Bailo B; Karmali M; El-Sohemy A; Badawi A

2012-01-01

247

Reduction of dietary fat absorption by the novel gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor cetilistat in healthy volunteers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To assess the efficacy, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability of a range of doses of cetilistat, a novel inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipases, in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Three Phase I, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies were conducted. Enrolled subjects in the three studies (n = 99) received a controlled calorie diet (total intake 2160 calories daily, 30% from fat). Twenty-four subjects were randomized to placebo and 66 were randomized to the following cetilistat doses: 50 mg three times daily [t.i.d. (n = 7)], 60 mg t.i.d. (n = 9), 100 mg t.i.d. (n = 7), 120 mg t.i.d. (n = 9), 150 mg t.i.d. (n = 16), 240 mg t.i.d. (n = 9) and 300 mg t.i.d. (n = 9). Nine subjects received the approved orlistat dose (120 mg t.i.d.). Treatment was for 5 days, with a 2-day run-in period and 1-day post-treatment follow-up. The primary outcome measure was daily faecal fat excretion. Secondary outcomes included plasma lipid levels, tolerability [gastrointestinal adverse events (AEs)] and safety. RESULTS: Cetilistat increased faecal fat excretion relative to baseline at all doses. Cetilistat was well tolerated, with gastrointestinal AEs the most common (51%). Steatorrhoea (oily stool) was more frequent in the orlistat group (4.11 events per subject) than in any cetilistat dose group (0.14-1.81 events per subject). Most AEs (98%) were mild or moderate in intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Cetilistat increased dietary fat excretion in healthy volunteers receiving a controlled calorie diet. Cetilistat was well tolerated at all doses examined and tolerability appeared to be improved relative to orlistat. Faecal fat excretion in the cetilistat groups was at least comparable to the orlistat 120 mg t.i.d. group.

Bryson A; de la Motte S; Dunk C

2009-03-01

248

Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17-21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p < 0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

Kristensen M; Knudsen KE; Jørgensen H; Oomah D; Bügel S; Toubro S; Tetens I; Astrup A

2013-01-01

249

Dietary protein, carbohydrate, and fat enhance memory performance in the healthy elderly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Dietary carbohydrates can improve memory. Whether these effects are related to elevations in blood glucose or to energy ingestion is unknown. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine 1) the influence of isoenergetic protein-, carbohydrate-, and fat-containing drinks on cognitive performance and 2) whether the time period after ingestion affects cognition. DESIGN: After fasting overnight, 11 men and 11 women aged 61-79 y consumed either a 300-mL drink containing 774 kJ as pure protein (whey), carbohydrate (glucose), or fat (safflower oil) or a nonenergy placebo on 4 separate mornings. Cognitive tests were administered 15 and 60 min after ingestion of the drinks. Plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were measured. RESULTS: Only the carbohydrate drink increased blood glucose (P < 0.0001). Compared with the placebo, all 3 macronutrients improved delayed paragraph recall (PR) (P < 0.001) and improved or tended to improve immediate PR (P < 0.04) 15 min after ingestion. Beneficial effects on other cognitive tests were confined to one or more of the macronutrients: carbohydrate improved Trail Making Test (Trails) performance at 60 min (P = 0.02) and tended to improve Trails at 15 min (P = 0.04) and PR at 60 min in men, carbohydrate and fat improved or tended to improve performance on Trails at 15 and 60 min in subjects with poor baseline scores (r > -0.41, P < 0.03), fat tended to improve attention at 60 min (P < 0.05), and protein reduced the rate of forgetting on the PR at 15 min (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Energy intake from protein, carbohydrate, or fat can enhance memory independently of elevations in blood glucose. Each macronutrient may also exert unique effects on cognition.

Kaplan RJ; Greenwood CE; Winocur G; Wolever TM

2001-11-01

250

Reduced serum cholesterol with dietary change using fat-modified and oat bran supplemented diets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A low-fat, low-cholesterol diet and oat bran supplementation for treatment of hypercholesterolemia were studied for their effectiveness in lowering blood lipids and their impact on dietary intake. Seventy-one free-living men and women with hypercholesterolemia (serum cholesterol greater than 75th percentile) were randomly assigned to one of the following four groups: low-fat, low-cholesterol diet (LFLC); low-fat, low-cholesterol diet plus 50 gm/day oat bran (LFLC + OB); 50 gm/day oat bran supplemented diet (OB); or 42.5 gm/day processed oat bran (ready-to-eat cereal containing beta-glucan concentrated from oat bran) (POB). Subjects assigned to regimens OB and POB were requested to add the oat supplement without making additional changes in their diet. Serum cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol analyses were performed at 4-week intervals, and diet records were assigned and analyzed. All groups experienced significant decreases in cholesterol from original levels (p less than .05). The average decrease in total serum cholesterol varied from 10% to 17%, with no significant differences among the four groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased in all groups except group 4, in which there was a slight increase; however, no differences were found between groups. Energy, fat, and cholesterol intakes decreased in all groups, suggesting that displacement of higher fat foods from the diet may be one of the many mechanisms whereby oat supplements lower serum cholesterol. In addition, all groups reduced their intakes of calcium, copper, folic acid, and potassium from marginal levels at the beginning of the study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Demark-Wahnefried W; Bowering J; Cohen PS

1990-02-01

251

Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17-21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p <0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p <0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p <0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

Kristensen, Mette; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

2013-01-01

252

Preferential loss of body fat during starvation in dietary obese rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was undertaken to examine whether diet-induced obesity alters the amount and/or composition of weight lost during starvation. The amount and composition of weight lost during a 4-day period of starvation was determined before and at 17, 30 and 42 weeks after rats (350 g of body weight) were given a high fat diet (HFD). To control for effects of aging, a second group of rats, fed standard laboratory chow, was also subjected to similar periods of starvation. Although total weight loss during starvation was never greater for HFD rats than for chow-fed rats, the former group showed a clear patter of increasing loss of body fat and total energy and conservation of fat-free tissues with periods of starvation later in life. In addition, chow-fed rats showed substantial energy conservation during each period of starvation (i.e. they lost less energy each day than their pre-starvation energy requirements). In contrast, HFD rats demonstrated substantial energy conservation only at 17 weeks and not at 30 or 42 weeks; during the last period of starvation, their average daily loss of carcass energy exceeded their pre-starvation energy requirements. This suggests the increased fat mass of these rats may have led to increased fuel availability and to an increased metabolic rate during starvation. If these results are applicable to humans, the more obese subjects are likely to show greater total loss of energy than lean subjects, but show a lesser loss of lean body mass, at least initially. If protein requirements are reflected by the ability to mobilize protein during food restriction, protein requirements would be substantially lower in the dietary obese rats than in controls. In summary, diet-induced obesity leads to preferential loss of body fat and conservation of lean mass during starvation.

Hill JO; DiGirolamo M

1991-01-01

253

Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weigth gain in growing rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p < 0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

Kristensen, Mette; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

2013-01-01

254

Dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y), attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E) from total fat, saturated fat (SFA) and monounsaturated fat (MUFA) reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES) children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002) and SFA (p 97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions ?-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA). This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting nutrients.

Bermudez Odilia I; Toher Claire; Montenegro-Bethancourt Gabriela; Vossenaar Marieke; Mathias Paul; Doak Colleen; Solomons Noel W

2010-01-01

255

Lung eicosanoid synthesis is affected by age, dietary fat and vitamin E.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of age, dietary fat type and all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E) supplementation on ex vivo synthesis of lung eicosanoids was measured in C57BL/6NIA mice using a 2 (age) x 3 (fat) x 3 (vitamin E) factorial design. Young (3-mo-old) and old (24-mo-old) mice were fed a semipurified diet containing 5% (by wt) corn oil, coconut oil or fish oil supplemented with 30, 100 or 500 mg vitamin E/kg for 4 wk. Ex vivo synthesis of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (PGI2) were measured by RIA in lung homogenates. Old mice had significantly higher concentrations of TXB2 and PGI2 than did young mice, resulting in a significant increase in the TXB2:PGI2 ratio with aging. Young and old mice fed fish oil had significantly lower concentrations of PGI2 and TXB2 than those fed corn oil or coconut oil. The degree of reduction varied according to age and vitamin E status. Old mice fed fish oil and 30 mg vitamin E/kg diet had the lowest plasma vitamin E concentration and the highest TXB2:PGI2 ratio. The TXB2:PGI2 ratio was significantly reduced in old mice fed coconut oil or fish oil by vitamin E supplementation. Vitamin E supplementation (100 mg/kg) significantly increased PGI2 concentration in young mice fed coconut oil. Thus, significant changes in the capacity of lung to synthesize eicosanoids occur with age and are influenced by dietary fat type and vitamin E. J. Nutr.

Meydani SN; Shapiro AC; Meydani M; Blumberg JB

1992-08-01

256

Metabolism and secretory function of white adipose tissue: effect of dietary fat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Aproximadamente 40% do total de energia consumida pela população ocidental é representada pelos lipídios, a maioria dela sendo ingerida na forma de triglicerídeos e fosfolipídios. O foco desta revisão foi analisar o efeito dos tipos de gordura da dieta sobre o metabolismo e função secretora do tecido adiposo branco, principalmente, sobre a secreção de haptoglobina, TNF-?, inibidor do ativador de plasminogênio-1 e adiponectina. Estudos prévios demonstrara (more) m que durante a exposição de dietas hiperlipídicas, a quantidade e o tipo de ácidos graxos presentes na dieta podem ou não ter um efeito significante sobre o metabolismo do tecido adiposo. Entretanto, o tratamento a curto ou longo prazo com dieta hiperlipídica, especialmente rica em ácidos graxos saturados, provavelmente por ativar receptores toll-like, estimula a expressão de adipocinas pró-inflamatórias e inibe a expressão de adiponectina. Estudos adicionais são necessários para investigar os mecanismos celulares pelos quais os ácidos graxos da dieta afetam a função secretória e metabólica do tecido adiposo branco. Abstract in english Approximately 40% of the total energy consumed by western populations is represented by lipids, most of them being ingested as triacylglycerols and phospholipids. The focus of this review is to analyze the effect of the type of dietary fat on white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory function, particularly on haptoglobin, TNF-?, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and adiponectin secretion. Previous studies have demonstrated that the duration of the exposure to the (more) high-fat feeding, amount of fatty acid present in the diet and the type of fatty acid may or may not have a significant effect on adipose tissue metabolism. However, the long-term or short-term high fat diets, especially rich in saturated fatty acids, probably by activation of toll-like receptors, stimulated the expression of proinflammatory adipokines and inhibited adiponectin expression. Further studies are needed to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids affect white adipose tissue metabolism and secretory functions.

Nascimento, Cláudia M. Oller do; Ribeiro, Eliane B.; Oyama, Lila M.

2009-09-01

257

Endogenous n 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFAs mitigate ovariectomy-induced bone loss by attenuating bone marrow adipogenesis in FAT1 transgenic mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tian-yu Chen,1,2,* Zhong-min Zhang,1,2,* Xiao-chen Zheng,1,2 Liang Wang,1,2 Min-jun Huang,1,2 Si Qin,3 Jian Chen,1,2 Ping-lin Lai,4 Cheng-liang Yang,1,2 Jia Liu,1,2 Yi-fan Dai,5 Da-di Jin,1,2 Xiao-chun Bai1,2,4 1Department of Orthopaedic, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China; 2Academy of Orthopaedics, Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Dermatology and STD, Guangdong No.2 Provincial People's Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China; 4Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Science, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China; 5Center of Metabolic Disease Research, Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: To investigate the effect of endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on bone marrow adipogenesis under osteoporosis conditions. Methods: A mouse osteoporosis model overexpressing the FAT1 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans and converting n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs endogenously was used. Results: The mice presented significantly lower bone marrow adiposity (adipocyte volume/tissue volume, mean adipocyte number) but increased the bone parameters (bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone volume/total volume) in the distal femoral metaphysis. Conclusion: Endogenous n-3 PUFAs protect bone marrow adipogenesis, which provides a novel drug target. Keywords: antiosteoporosis, n-3 PUFAs, bone marrow, adipogenesis

Chen TY; Zhang ZM; Zheng XC; Wang L; Huang MJ; Qin S; Chen J; Lai PL; Yang CL; Liu J; Dai YF; Jin DD; Bai XC

2013-01-01

258

Dietary (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit ischemia and reperfusion arrhythmias and infarction in rat heart not enhanced by ischemic preconditioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and (n-3) PUFA are both cardioprotective. This study compared effects of dietary fish oil, IPC, and their interactions on heart function and injury during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Male Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10% wt:wt fat comprising either 7% high-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [22:6(n-3)] tuna fish oil + 3% olive oil [(n-3) PUFA]; 5% sunflower seed oil + 5% olive oil [(n-6) PUFA]; or 7% beef tallow + 3% olive oil [saturated fat (SF)] for 6 wk. In control experiments, isolated perfused hearts were subjected to 30-min regional ischemia and reperfused for 120 min. The IPC hearts were subjected to 3 cycles of 5-min global ischemia before the ischemia and reperfusion. Control (n-3) PUFA hearts had significantly lower heart rate, coronary flow, end diastolic pressure, maximum relaxation rate, and ischemic and reperfusion arrhythmias. In reperfusion, they had greater developed pressure and maximum relaxation rate and smaller infarct (10.9 +/- 0.6% ischemic zone, n = 6) than (n-6) PUFA (47.4 +/- 0.3%, n = 6) or SF (50.3 +/- 0.3%, n = 6). Compared with control, IPC significantly improved heart function and reduced infarct in (n-6) PUFA (11.8 +/- 0.4%, n = 6) and SF hearts (13.1 +/- 0.1%, n = 6). Heart function and infarct [(n-3) PUFA 9.6 +/- 0.1%, n = 6] did not differ among dietary IPC groups. Arrhythmias, significantly reduced by IPC in (n-6) PUFA and SF hearts, were significantly lower in (n-3) PUFA IPC hearts. Dietary fish oil induces a form of preconditioning, nutritional preconditioning, limiting ischemic cardiac injury, and myocardial infarction and endows cardioprotection as powerful as IPC, which provides no additional protection in (n-3) PUFA hearts. PMID:18806099

Abdukeyum, Grace G; Owen, Alice J; McLennan, Peter L

2008-10-01

259

Interactions of dietary fat intake and the hepatic lipase -480C->T polymorphism in determining hepatic lipase activity: the Hoorn Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Gene-nutrient interactions affecting hepatic lipase (HL) activity may contribute to the interindividual variability of the cardiovascular disease risk associated with dietary fat intake. OBJECTIVE: We determined the associations of dietary fat intake with postheparin HL activity and the ...

Bos, G.; Dekker, J.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Ocke, M.C.; Nijpels, M.G.A.A.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Bouter, L.M.; Heine, R.J.

260

Influence of dietary saturated fat content on adiposity, macrophage behavior, inflammation, and metabolism: composition matters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the effects of three high-fat diets (HFD), differing in the percentage of total calories from saturated fat (SF) (6%, 12%, and 24%) but identical in total fat (40%), on body composition, macrophage behavior, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction in mice. Diets were administered for 16 weeks. Body composition and metabolism [glucose, insulin, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC)] were examined monthly. Adipose tissue (AT) expression of marker genes for M1 and M2 macrophages and inflammatory mediators [Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4, MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1, IFN-?] was measured along with activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF?B), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38- mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). AT macrophage infiltration was examined using immunohistochemistry. Circulating MCP-1, IL-6, adiponectin, and leptin were also measured. SF content, independent of total fat, can profoundly affect adiposity, macrophage behavior, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction. In general, the 12%-SF diet, most closely mimicking the standard American diet, led to the greatest adiposity, macrophage infiltration, and insulin resistance (IR), whereas the 6%-SF and 24%-SF diets produced lower levels of these variables, with the 24%-SF diet resulting in the least degree of IR and the highest TC/HDL-C ratio. Macrophage behavior, inflammation, and IR following HFD are heavily influenced by dietary SF content; however, these responses are not necessarily proportional to the SF percentage.

Enos RT; Davis JM; Velázquez KT; McClellan JL; Day SD; Carnevale KA; Murphy EA

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Influence of dietary saturated fat content on adiposity, macrophage behavior, inflammation, and metabolism: composition matters.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the effects of three high-fat diets (HFD), differing in the percentage of total calories from saturated fat (SF) (6%, 12%, and 24%) but identical in total fat (40%), on body composition, macrophage behavior, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction in mice. Diets were administered for 16 weeks. Body composition and metabolism [glucose, insulin, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC)] were examined monthly. Adipose tissue (AT) expression of marker genes for M1 and M2 macrophages and inflammatory mediators [Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4, MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1, IFN-?] was measured along with activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF?B), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38- mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). AT macrophage infiltration was examined using immunohistochemistry. Circulating MCP-1, IL-6, adiponectin, and leptin were also measured. SF content, independent of total fat, can profoundly affect adiposity, macrophage behavior, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction. In general, the 12%-SF diet, most closely mimicking the standard American diet, led to the greatest adiposity, macrophage infiltration, and insulin resistance (IR), whereas the 6%-SF and 24%-SF diets produced lower levels of these variables, with the 24%-SF diet resulting in the least degree of IR and the highest TC/HDL-C ratio. Macrophage behavior, inflammation, and IR following HFD are heavily influenced by dietary SF content; however, these responses are not necessarily proportional to the SF percentage. PMID:23103474

Enos, Reilly T; Davis, J Mark; Velázquez, Kandy T; McClellan, Jamie L; Day, Stani D; Carnevale, Kevin A; Murphy, E Angela

2012-10-28

262

Procedure to obtain a product consisting in a partially low-fat flour with a high content of stabilized, polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially Omega  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A procedure which comprises a second step of pressing of the Salvia Hispanica L. seeds with temperature control modifying the ratio between the polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants contained as well as obtaining an expeller.

NUNEZ DANIEL ALFONSO; LAURIA MARIANO GUSTAVO

263

Dietary fats and 16-year coronary heart disease mortality in a cohort of men and women in Great Britain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The paper aims to investigate the relationships of dietary fats to subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in men and women while taking account of other CHD-related behaviours. Design: A cohort of randomly selected men and women were interviewed in 1984-85 and monitored subseq...

Boniface, D.R.; Tefft, M.E.

264

Dietary fats and 16-year coronary heart diseasemortality in a cohort of men and women in GreatBritain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The paper aims to investigate the relationships of dietary fats to subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in men and women while taking account of other CHD-related behaviours. Design: A cohort of randomly selected men and women were interviewed in 1984-85 and monitored subseq...

Boniface, D.R.; Tefft, M.E.

265

Quality of Raw, Frozen and Cooked Duck Meat as Affected by Dietary Fat and ?-Tocopheryl Acetate Supplementation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poultry meat, particularly that of duck, has relatively high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and low levels of antioxidants. Ducks consume twice as much feed as broilers during growth, therefore, duck meat is more likely to be influenced by diet than chicken meat. The effects of dietary fat differ...

E.A. Russell; A. Lynch; K. Galvin; P.B. Lynch; J.P. Kerry

266

Dietary fat, abdominal obesity and smoking modulate the relationship between plasma complement component 3 concentrations and metabolic syndrome risk  

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Chronic inflammation plays a role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Complement component 3 (C3) is a novel cardiometabolic risk factor. Whether dietary fat intake modulates MetS risk conferred by elevated C3 concentrations is unknown. Our o...

MC MANUS, ROSS

267

Effect of dietary fat, carbohydrate, and protein on branched-chain amino acid catabolism during caloric restriction.  

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To assess the effect of each dietary caloric source on the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids, we investigated the rate of leucine oxidation before and after obese volunteers consumed one of the following diets for one week: (a) starvation, (b) 300 or 500 cal of fat/d, (c) 300 or 500 cal of ca...

Vazquez, J A; Morse, E L; Adibi, S A

268

Evaluation of the Impact of Dietary Petroselinic Acid on the Growth Performance, Fatty Acid Composition, and Efficacy of Long Chain-Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis of Farmed Nile Tilapia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to investigate the potential role of dietary petroselinic acid (PSA) in enhancing the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content in fish tissues. Three isolipidic casein-based diets were formulated to comprise graded levels of PSA (0, 10, or 20% of total fatty acid) with the incremented inclusion of coriander seed oil. Fish growth and nutrient digestibility were not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by dietary PSA level. In general, dietary PSA affected the fatty acid composition of tilapia tissues and whole-body, which reflected dietary fatty acid ratios. Dietary PSA significantly (P < 0.05) increased ?-oxidation, particularly on ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6). This study provided evidence that PSA, a pseudoproduct mimicking the structure of 18:3n-6, did reduce ?-6 desaturation on 18:2n-6 but, contrary to popular speculation, did not stimulate more ?-6 desaturase activity on 18:3n-3. The overall ?-6 desaturase enzyme activity may be suppressed at high dietary levels of PSA. Nevertheless, the n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA biosynthesis was not significantly inhibited by dietary PSA, indicating that the bioconversion efficiency is not modulated only by ?-6 desaturase. The deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in liver and fillet lipids was higher in fish fed PSA-supplemented diets. PMID:23718861

Teoh, Chaiw-Yee; Ng, Wing-Keong

2013-06-13

269

Evaluation on the impact of dietary petroselinic acid on the growth performance, fatty acid composition and efficacy of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis of farmed Nile tilapia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study aimed to investigate the potential role of dietary petroselinic acid (PSA) in enhancing the n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content in fish tissues. Three isolipidic casein-based diets were formulated to comprise graded levels of PSA (0, 10 or 20% of total fatty acid) with the incremented inclusion of coriander seed oil. Fish growth and nutrient digestibility were not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by dietary PSA level. In general, dietary PSA affected the fatty acid composition of tilapia tissues and whole-body, which reflected dietary fatty acid ratios. Dietary PSA significantly (P < 0.05) increased ?-oxidation, particularly on ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6). This study provided evidence that PSA, a pseudo-product mimicking the structure of 18:3n-6, did reduce ?-6 desaturation on 18:2n-6 but contrary to popular speculation, did not stimulate more ?-6 desaturase activity on 18:3n-3. The overall ?-6 desaturase enzyme activity may be suppressed at high dietary levels of PSA. Nevertheless, the n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA biosynthesis was not significantly inhibited by dietary PSA, indicating that the bioconversion efficiency is not only modulated by ?-6 desaturase. The deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in liver and fillet lipids was higher in fish fed PSA-supplemented diets.

Teoh CY; Ng WK

2013-05-01

270

Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed high fat diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1). Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam vigorously for 3 h and the results were compared with unexercised groups. Fish receiving 1,000 mg carnitine accumulated 2- to 3-fold more carnitine than fish receiving 15 mg carnitine. Plasma acyl-carnitine level was affected by an interaction between dietary treatment and exercise (P < 0.05). Adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine concentrations were higher in the white muscle (WM) of exercised fish fed the high-carnitine supplements, compared with the low-carnitine fed fish (P < 0.05). Adenilate energy charge indexes were higher and ammonia concentrations were lower in WM of fish fed high-carnitine and high-fat diets. Dietary carnitine supplements may be needed in growing fish when dietary lipid level is high. In that case extra dietary carnitine can maintain the body energy reserves at adequate level when fish is exposed to a short-term, exhaustive exercise, a physiologic stress common both in nature and in intensive aquaculture systems.

Ozório Rodrigo; Van Ginneken Vincent; van den Thillart Guido; Verstegen Martin; Verreth Johan

2005-01-01

271

Association between dietary fat and skin cancer in an Australian population using case-control and cohort study designs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Human studies of dietary fat as a possible risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) – principally basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) – have produced inconsistent results. We had the opportunity to examine the association concurrently for all three types of skin cancer in a population-based study in Tasmania, Australia, involving 652 cases of CMM, BCC and SCC and a common set of 471 controls. Methods Histopathologically-confirmed cases of CMM, BCC and SCC were ascertained from the Tasmanian Cancer Registry (TCR), and controls were selected at random from the state's electoral roll. We compared subjects categorised by thirds of dietary fat intake score measured by the 'Dobson short fat questionnaire', with logistic regression models that adjusted for age, sex, skin type and usual sun exposure. We then followed all subjects for 56–80 months until 31 August, 2004 for a new NMSC using record linkage with both the TCR and the Births, Deaths, and Marriages registry. Incidence rates were calculated and ratios of rates were estimated using Poisson models. Results Relative to subjects in the lowest fat intake category, the odds ratios (OR) comparing cases and controls were OR = 0.76 (95% CI: 0.56–1.03) for medium fat intake, and OR = 0.62 (95% CI: 0.45–0.85) for high fat intake, with a significant (p p = 0.30). Conclusion Using the same dietary instrument with two study designs in the same Caucasian population, we found no evidence that high fat intake increases the risk of developing melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancers. Instead, our results suggest a risk reduction for high fat intake.

Granger Robert H; Blizzard Leigh; Fryer Jayne L; Dwyer Terence

2006-01-01

272

Quality of Raw, Frozen and Cooked Duck Meat as Affected by Dietary Fat and ?-Tocopheryl Acetate Supplementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poultry meat, particularly that of duck, has relatively high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and low levels of antioxidants. Ducks consume twice as much feed as broilers during growth, therefore, duck meat is more likely to be influenced by diet than chicken meat. The effects of dietary fat differing in unsaturation level (2.5% tallow or olive, sunflower or linseed oils) together with ?-tocopheryl acetate ( ?-TA) at either a control (20 mg ?-TA/kg feed) or a supplemented level (400 mg ?-TA/kg feed) on ?-tocopherol content, fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation of duck muscle in 7 week old birds were investigated. Fat source influenced fatty acid composition of duck meat. Ducks fed tallow had a higher percentage saturated fats, while ducks fed olive oil had a higher percentage monounsaturated fats than other dietary groups. In the absence of supplemental ?-TA, duck muscle stability to lipid oxidation was greatest for those receiving diets containing sunflower oil and lowest for those receiving tallow. ?-Tocopherol content and oxidative stability of duck muscle were increased (p < 0.05) by ?-TA supplementation irrespective of fat source. Interestingly oxidative changes were much more extensive in duck breast meat than corresponding thigh meat for all treatment groups. This finding is in contrast when compared with similar dietary trials for chicken and turkey. Therefore, oxidative stability of duck meat differs from that of other poultry meats.

E.A. Russell; A. Lynch; K. Galvin; P.B. Lynch; J.P. Kerry

2003-01-01

273

Diet quality, nutrient intake, weight status, and feeding environments of girls meeting or exceeding the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for total dietary fat  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that children consume no more than 30% but no less than 20% of energy as dietary fat intake, and tills recommendation, is accompanied by suggestions that fat calories should be replaced by eating more grain products, fruits, vegetables, low fat datiy products, beans, lean meat, poultry, fish, and other protein rich foods. In comparing diets of girls meeting this AAP recommendation with girls who consumed diets higher in fat, we noted that girls meeting recommendations had diets that came closer to meeting other dietary recommendations for several food groups and had higher Intake of several key micronutrfents. Dietary fat was also associated with body fat and weight status. Children’s fat Intake was also related to mothers’ dietary fat intake, and nutrient Intake patterns were similar for mothers and daughters. Finally, mothers of girls consuming higher fat diets reported using more restriction and pressure to eat in feeding their daughters. These findings provide additional support for the AAP recommendation to limit total dietary fat Findings reveal that mothers’ use of controlling feeding practices are not effective in fostering healthier diets among cluldren, and that mothers’ own eating may be more influential than their attempts to control children’s intake.

LEE, Y.; BIRCH, L. L.

2008-01-01

274

Dietary fat modulation of mammary tumor growth and metabolism demonstrated by 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship of dietary fat concentration and saturation on the growth and metabolic activity of line 168 was studied using syngeneic mice fed 6 experimental diets before and during tumor growth. Tumor latency was significantly greater for mice fed a diet containing the minimum of essential fatty acids (EFA, 0.5% corn oil) or 8% coconut oil (SF) than for mice fed 8 or 20% safflower oil (PUF) or 20% SF. Changes in dietary fat resulted in alterations of tumor cell and serum fatty acid composition but not the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor. 31P-surface coil NMR was used to measure possible changes in tumor metabolism in vivo. Although pH decreased from 7.2 to 6.6 as the tumor volume increased, there was no difference in pH among dietary groups. There was an inverse relationship between both sugar phosphate (SP)/Pi and ATP/Pi ratios and tumor volume; those ratios for mice fed an EFA deficient or minimal EFA diet decreased at a different rate than ratios for mice fed diets with additional fat. Tumors of mice fed diets containing no or a low level (0.3%) of 18:2 had higher SP/ATP ratios than mice fed diets containing a moderate level (? 4%) of 18:2. Thus, high levels of dietary fat had a significant effect on promotion of mammary tumors during early stages of tumor growth. Differences in tumor volume associated with dietary fat may be related to changes in the levels of high energy phosphate metabolites

1986-03-05

275

Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and direct renin inhibition improve electrical remodeling in a model of high human renin hypertension.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We compared the effect n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with direct renin inhibition on electrophysiological remodeling in angiotensin II-induced cardiac injury. We treated double-transgenic rats expressing the human renin and angiotensinogen genes (dTGRs) from week 4 to 7 with n-3 PUFA ethyl-esters (Omacor; 25-g/kg diet) or a direct renin inhibitor (aliskiren; 3 mg/kg per day). Sprague-Dawley rats were controls. We performed electrocardiographic, magnetocardiographic, and programmed electrical stimulation. Dietary n-3 PUFAs increased the cardiac content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. At week 7, mortality in dTGRs was 31%, whereas none of the n-3 PUFA- or aliskiren-treated dTGRs died. Systolic blood pressure was modestly reduced in n-3 PUFA-treated (180+/-3 mm Hg) compared with dTGRs (208+/-5 mm Hg). Aliskiren-treated dTGRs and Sprague-Dawley rats were normotensive (110+/-3 and 119+/-6 mm Hg, respectively). Both n-3 PUFA-treated and untreated dTGRs showed cardiac hypertrophy and increased atrial natriuretic peptide levels. Prolonged QRS and QT(c) intervals and increased T-wave dispersion in dTGRs were reduced by n-3 PUFAs or aliskiren. Both treatments reduced arrhythmia induction from 75% in dTGRs to 17% versus 0% in Sprague-Dawley rats. Macrophage infiltration and fibrosis were reduced by n-3 PUFAs and aliskiren. Connexin 43, a mediator of intermyocyte conduction, was redistributed to the lateral cell membranes in dTGRs. n-3 PUFAs and aliskiren restored normal localization to the intercalated disks. Thus, n-3 PUFAs and aliskiren improved electrical remodeling, arrhythmia induction, and connexin 43 expression, despite a 70-mm Hg difference in blood pressure and the development of cardiac hypertrophy.

Fischer R; Dechend R; Qadri F; Markovic M; Feldt S; Herse F; Park JK; Gapelyuk A; Schwarz I; Zacharzowsky UB; Plehm R; Safak E; Heuser A; Schirdewan A; Luft FC; Schunck WH; Muller DN

2008-02-01

276

Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and direct renin inhibition improve electrical remodeling in a model of high human renin hypertension.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared the effect n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with direct renin inhibition on electrophysiological remodeling in angiotensin II-induced cardiac injury. We treated double-transgenic rats expressing the human renin and angiotensinogen genes (dTGRs) from week 4 to 7 with n-3 PUFA ethyl-esters (Omacor; 25-g/kg diet) or a direct renin inhibitor (aliskiren; 3 mg/kg per day). Sprague-Dawley rats were controls. We performed electrocardiographic, magnetocardiographic, and programmed electrical stimulation. Dietary n-3 PUFAs increased the cardiac content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. At week 7, mortality in dTGRs was 31%, whereas none of the n-3 PUFA- or aliskiren-treated dTGRs died. Systolic blood pressure was modestly reduced in n-3 PUFA-treated (180+/-3 mm Hg) compared with dTGRs (208+/-5 mm Hg). Aliskiren-treated dTGRs and Sprague-Dawley rats were normotensive (110+/-3 and 119+/-6 mm Hg, respectively). Both n-3 PUFA-treated and untreated dTGRs showed cardiac hypertrophy and increased atrial natriuretic peptide levels. Prolonged QRS and QT(c) intervals and increased T-wave dispersion in dTGRs were reduced by n-3 PUFAs or aliskiren. Both treatments reduced arrhythmia induction from 75% in dTGRs to 17% versus 0% in Sprague-Dawley rats. Macrophage infiltration and fibrosis were reduced by n-3 PUFAs and aliskiren. Connexin 43, a mediator of intermyocyte conduction, was redistributed to the lateral cell membranes in dTGRs. n-3 PUFAs and aliskiren restored normal localization to the intercalated disks. Thus, n-3 PUFAs and aliskiren improved electrical remodeling, arrhythmia induction, and connexin 43 expression, despite a 70-mm Hg difference in blood pressure and the development of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:18158339

Fischer, Robert; Dechend, Ralf; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Markovic, Marija; Feldt, Sandra; Herse, Florian; Park, Joon-Keun; Gapelyuk, Andrej; Schwarz, Ines; Zacharzowsky, Udo B; Plehm, Ralph; Safak, Erdal; Heuser, Arnd; Schirdewan, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen; Muller, Dominik N

2007-12-24

277

Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improve the neurolipidome and restore the DHA status while promoting functional recovery after experimental spinal cord injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3 PUFAs) confer multiple health benefits and decrease the risk of neurological disorders. Studies are needed, however, to identify promising cellular targets and to assess their prophylactic value against neurodegeneration. The present study (1) examined the efficacy of a preventive diet enriched with ?-3 PUFAs to reduce dysfunction in a well-established spinal cord injury (SCI) animal model and (2) used a novel metabolomics data analysis to identify potential neurolipidomic targets. Rats were fed with either control chow or chow enriched with ?-3 PUFAs (750?mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks before being subjected to a sham or a contusion SCI operation. We report new evidence showing that rats subjected to SCI after being pre-treated with a diet enriched with ?-3 PUFAs exhibit significantly better functional outcomes. Pre-treated animals exhibited lower sensory deficits, autonomic bladder recovery, and early improvements in locomotion that persisted for at least 8 weeks after trauma. We found that SCI triggers a robust alteration in the cord PUFA neurolipidome, which was characterized by a marked docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) deficiency. This DHA deficiency was associated with dysfunction and corrected with the ?-3 PUFA-enriched diet. Multivariate data analyses revealed that the spinal cord of animals consuming the ?-3 PUFA-enriched diet had a fundamentally distinct neurolipidome, particularly increasing the levels of essential and long chain ?-3 fatty acids and lysolipids at the expense of ?-6 fatty acids and its metabolites. Altogether, dietary ?-3 PUFAs prophylaxis confers resiliency to SCI mediated, at least in part, by generating a neuroprotective and restorative neurolipidome.

Figueroa JD; Cordero K; Llán MS; De Leon M

2013-05-01

278

Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improve the neurolipidome and restore the DHA status while promoting functional recovery after experimental spinal cord injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3 PUFAs) confer multiple health benefits and decrease the risk of neurological disorders. Studies are needed, however, to identify promising cellular targets and to assess their prophylactic value against neurodegeneration. The present study (1) examined the efficacy of a preventive diet enriched with ?-3 PUFAs to reduce dysfunction in a well-established spinal cord injury (SCI) animal model and (2) used a novel metabolomics data analysis to identify potential neurolipidomic targets. Rats were fed with either control chow or chow enriched with ?-3 PUFAs (750?mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks before being subjected to a sham or a contusion SCI operation. We report new evidence showing that rats subjected to SCI after being pre-treated with a diet enriched with ?-3 PUFAs exhibit significantly better functional outcomes. Pre-treated animals exhibited lower sensory deficits, autonomic bladder recovery, and early improvements in locomotion that persisted for at least 8 weeks after trauma. We found that SCI triggers a robust alteration in the cord PUFA neurolipidome, which was characterized by a marked docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) deficiency. This DHA deficiency was associated with dysfunction and corrected with the ?-3 PUFA-enriched diet. Multivariate data analyses revealed that the spinal cord of animals consuming the ?-3 PUFA-enriched diet had a fundamentally distinct neurolipidome, particularly increasing the levels of essential and long chain ?-3 fatty acids and lysolipids at the expense of ?-6 fatty acids and its metabolites. Altogether, dietary ?-3 PUFAs prophylaxis confers resiliency to SCI mediated, at least in part, by generating a neuroprotective and restorative neurolipidome. PMID:23294084

Figueroa, Johnny D; Cordero, Kathia; Llán, Miguel S; De Leon, Marino

2013-02-06

279

Egg quality and yolk polyunsaturated fatty acid status in relation to broiler breeder hen age and dietary n-3 oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of broiler breeder hen age and dietary n-3 oils on yolk n-3 and n-6 fatty acid composition, egg quality, fertility, and hatchability were investigated. A total of 2,200 eggs were collected from wk 26 through 62 from Cobb breeder hens fed diets containing 1.75% fish oil + 1.75% yellow grease (low n-3) or 3.5% fish oil (high n-3). Eggs obtained from a commercial source were used as the control for n-6 and n-3 fatty acid composition and hatchability studies. A significant decrease in egg weight, yolk weight, shell weight, and yolk color was observed for high n-3 when compared with low n-3 eggs (P 18-C) n-6 PUFA (AA+ 22:4 n-6+22:5 n-6) constituted over 0.3 g per commercial egg when compared with 0.09 and 0.07 g in low and high n-3 eggs, respectively. The content of DHA in commercial eggs was negligible ( 0.05). The overall fertility was 96%, and hatchability of fertile eggs was 80% for commercial eggs. PMID:18493002

Cherian, G

2008-06-01

280

Health claims and observational human data: relation between dietary fat and cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The US Food and Drug Administration review that provided the basis for authorizing a food-label health claim linking the risk of cancer to dietary fat intake illustrated several considerations in the use of epidemiologic data, and observational data in particular, to support dietary recommendations. The review suggested the need for clear and established criteria for judging the quality of observational human data as well as the importance of making the evaluation process for individual studies transparent and organized. The review, which provided for a claim in the absence of controlled human studies, also suggested that observational data may play a greater role when the nature of the relation to be described by a health-claim statement is broad and general rather than targeted and specific. Of particular importance was the relevance of available data to the questions inherent in showing a diet-disease relation, the need to consider the totality of the evidence, and the key role that existing authoritative reports must play in establishing the basis for relation.

Lewis CJ; Yetley EA

1999-06-01

 
 
 
 
281

Nutrient signaling: evolutionary origins of the immune-modulating effects of dietary fat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many dietary fatty acids (FA) have potent effects on inflammation, which is not only energetically costly, but also contributes to a range of chronic diseases. This presents an evolutionary paradox: Why should the host initiate a costly and damaging response to commonly encountered nutrients? We propose that the immune system has evolved a capacity to modify expenditure on inflammation to compensate for the effects of dietary FA on gut microorganisms. In a comprehensive literature review, we show that the body preferentially upregulates inflammation in response to saturated FA that promote harmful microbes. In contrast, the host opften reduces inflammation in response to the many unsaturated FA with antimicrobial properties. Our model is supported by contrasts involving shorter-chain FA and omega-3 FA, but with less consistent evidence for trans fats, which are a recent addition to the human diet. Our findings support the idea that the vertebrate immune system has evolved a capacity to detect diet-driven shipfts in the composition of gut microbiota from the profile of FA consumed and to calibrate the costs of inflammation in response to these cues. We conclude by extending the nutrient signaling model to other nutrients, and consider implications for drug discovery and public health.

Alcock J; Franklin ML; Kuzawa CW

2012-09-01

282

The effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation of rams on semen quality and subsequent quality of liquid stored semen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation of rams on semen quality and subsequent sperm function of liquid stored semen. Mature rams of proven fertility were individually housed and were blocked according to breed, body weight, and body condition score and randomly allocated within block to one of two dietary treatments (N = 7 per treatment). Rams were offered a base diet of hay and concentrate, with the concentrate enriched with either: (1) saturated palmitic acid (CON) or (2) high n-3 PUFA fish oil (FO) supplements. Both lipid supplements were added at 2% (wt/wt) of the total diet as fed and both were partially rumen-protected. The animals were fed their respective diets for a total of 9 weeks and blood samples were collected on weeks 0 (pre-experimental), 4, and 9, relative to initial allocation of diet (week 0), for measurement of plasma concentration of fatty acids, metabolites, insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin. Semen was collected from each ram (on 1 day in each week) in weeks 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9, and each ejaculate was assessed for volume, wave motion, and concentration of sperm, after which it was diluted in a skim milk-based extender and stored at 4 °C. A second ejaculate was collected on weeks 4, 7, and 9, centrifuged, and the sperm frozen for subsequent lipid analysis. A sample of semen from each ram was assessed at 24, 48, and 72 hours after collection for sperm progressive linear motion, ability to penetrate artificial mucus, and the ability to resist lipid peroxidation (at 24 and 48 hours only) using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay. There was no effect of diet on plasma insulin concentrations or on any of the metabolites measured, however, there was a diet by week interaction for plasma IGF-1 concentration (P < 0.05). This was manifested as the FO supplemented rams having higher IGF-1 concentrations on week 9 compared with the control treatment (P < 0.05), but not at the earlier sampling dates. Compared with the pre-experimental values, supplementation with FO increased plasma concentrations of total n-3 PUFAs by 3.1-fold and decreased n-6 PUFA concentrations by 1.84-fold. Consequently, the ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFA was decreased in the FO-supplemented rams (P < 0.001). Dietary supplementation with FO increased the concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid in sperm from week 4 to 9 by 2.7-fold (P < 0.05) leading to a 1.5-fold increase in total n-3 PUFA in the same period. Ejaculates collected from rams supplemented with FO yielded a higher semen concentration (P < 0.05), however, there was no difference between diets on any of the other semen quality parameters including semen volume, wave motion, progressive linear motion, ability to penetrate artificial mucus, or ability to resist lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of rams with n-3 PUFA successfully increased the n-3 PUFA content of plasma and sperm but has limited effects on the quality of liquid stored semen.

Fair S; Doyle DN; Diskin MG; Hennessy AA; Kenny DA

2013-10-01

283

Fat and Diabetes  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and " unhealthy fats ." To lower you risk of heart disease, try to eat less of the unhealthy ... At the same time, you can protect your heart by eating the healthy fats—monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and ...

284

Evaluation of Dietary Calcium Level and Fat Source on Growth Performance and Mineral Utilization of Heat-distressed Broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Male broilers (commercial strain) were used to evaluate the effects of diets differing in fat source on performance of heat-distressed broilers. Dietary treatments included corn oil (CO), animal fat (AF), fish oil (FO) and a dry blended (animal and vegetable) fat product (DB) at either 0.9 or 1.5 % calcium. Diets were isocaloric with each containing an equal number of calories from fats. Birds were reared in floor brooder pens and fed experimental diets from Day 1 to 21 and then assigned the same dietary treatments in one of two environmentally controlled chambers. One chamber was maintained at 23.9 °C, whereas birds in the second chamber were exposed to 8 hours of 23.9 °C, 4 hours of 23.9 to 35 °C, 4 hours of 35 °C and 8 hours of 35 to 23.9 °C. At 42 days of age, plasma concentration of calcium and magnesium were higher (p > 0.01) in heat distressed (HD) birds than in their thermoneutral (TN) counterparts. Dietary calcium level, but not fat source, affected plasma calcium concentration. Temperature significantly (p < 0.05) affected the relative mineral retention (feed minus fecal mineral content) of magnesium while relative mineral retention of copper was affected by fat source. There was no effect of calcium level on performance but HD birds gained 31 % less weight than TN. Birds fed AF gained 10 % more than FO and 14 % more than DB. Data suggest that both fat source and environmental temperature influence mineral utilization and body weight gain.

M. O. Smith; K. Soisuvan; L. C. Miller

2003-01-01

285

Dietary fat, body weight, and cancer: contributions of studies in rodents to understanding these cancer risk factors in humans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding diet and energy balance as risk factors for breast, colon, and other cancers requires information on the contribution of each factor and of interactions among factors to cancer risk. Rodent models for breast cancer provide extensive data on effects of dietary fat and calories, energy balance, body weight gain, and physical activity on tumor development. Analyses of the combined data from many studies have shown clearly that quality and quantity of dietary fat and energy balance contribute independently to increased mammary gland tumorigenesis. These findings were seen in female rats fed diets high in fat (35-40% of calories) compared to rats fed control diets, with approximately 10% of calories as fat (Fay and Freedman, 1997, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 46, 215-223). The methods used permit comparison of experimental and epidemiological data, and they may be useful in extrapolating between species and developing public health recommendations. In addition to the contributions of lifetime-diet composition, intake, energy balance, and physical activity to cancer risk, there are questions about the timing and duration of alterations in these factors and about the "dose-response" characteristics of cancer risk to the factors. Endocrine mechanisms may be significant in mammary gland tumor risk, but experimental and epidemiological data indicate that cancers at other sites, such as colon and liver, also are influenced by the factors listed. Other diet and lifestyle factors that influence energy, or specifically fat, metabolism may also affect risk for cancers that are promoted by increased intake of fat and calories. Studies of separate and interactive effects of dietary fat, black tea, weight gain, and mammary gland tumorigenesis (Rogers, et al, 1998, Carcinogenesis 19, 1269-1273) have been analyzed. Using adjustment of carcinogenesis endpoints for body weight, tumor burden, and latency, they were found to be related to weight gain within treatment groups in 2 of 3 experiments.

Rogers AE; Sullivan LM; Hafer LJ

1999-12-01

286

Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children. METHODS: In the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood birth cohort, breast milk fatty acid profile was determined in 281 mothers and BMI development was prospectively followed up to the age of 7 y in 222 children. Age and BMI at adiposity rebound were registered. Furthermore, fat mass determination by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed in 207 children at 6-9 y of age. RESULTS: There was a significant association between breast milk DHA and BMI from 2 to 7 y, fat mass, and, for the girls, age at adiposity rebound. No associations were found between the breast milk n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio and body composition. CONCLUSION: Early intake of DHA may have an effect on body composition. Dietary habits of lactating mothers could contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in Western societies.

Pedersen L; Lauritzen L; Brasholt M; Buhl T; Bisgaard H

2012-12-01

287

Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control), a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day) (Flax drink), and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day) (Flax bread). Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004

Kristensen Mette; Jensen Morten G; Aarestrup Julie; Petersen Kristina EN; Søndergaard Lise; Mikkelsen Mette S; Astrup Arne

2012-01-01

288

Nutrient intake and blood pressure in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Delineating the role that diet plays in blood pressure levels in children is important for guiding dietary recommendations for the prevention of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between dietary nutrients and blood pressure in children. Data were analyzed from 662 participants in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children who had elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and were aged 8 to 11 years at baseline. Three 24-hour dietary recalls, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, height, and weight were obtained at baseline, 1 year, and 3 years. Nutrients analyzed were the micronutrients calcium, magnesium, and potassium; the macronutrients protein, carbohydrates, total fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and monounsaturated fat; dietary cholesterol; and total dietary fiber. Baseline and 3-year longitudinal relationships were examined through multivariate models on diastolic and systolic pressures separately, controlling for height, weight, sex, and total caloric intake. The following associations were found in longitudinal analyses: analyzing each nutrient separately, for systolic pressure, inverse associations with calcium (P < .05); magnesium, potassium, and protein (all P < .01); and fiber (P < .05), and direct associations with total fat and monounsaturated fat (both P < .05); for diastolic pressure, inverse associations with calcium (P < .01); magnesium and potassium (both P < .05), protein (P < .01); and carbohydrates and fiber (both P < .05), and direct associations with polyunsaturated fat (P < .01) and monounsaturated fat (P < .05). Analyzing all nutrients simultaneously, for systolic pressure, direct association with total fat (P < .01); for diastolic pressure, inverse associations with calcium (P < .01) and fiber (P < .05), and direct association with total and monounsaturated fats (both P < .05). Results from this sample of children with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol indicate that dietary calcium, fiber, and fat may be important determinants of blood pressure level in children.

Simons-Morton DG; Hunsberger SA; Van Horn L; Barton BA; Robson AM; McMahon RP; Muhonen LE; Kwiterovich PO; Lasser NL; Kimm SY; Greenlick MR

1997-04-01

289

Effect of dietary fat on hepatic liver X receptor expression in P-glycoprotein deficient mice: implications for cholesterol metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Pgp (P-glycoprotein, MDR1, ABCB1) is an energy-dependent drug efflux pump that is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of proteins. Preliminary studies have reported that nonspecific inhibitors of Pgp affect synthesis and esterification of cholesterol, putatively by blocking trafficking of cholesterol from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum, and that relative increases in Pgp within a given cell type are associated with increased accumulation of cholesterol. Several key efflux proteins involved in the cholesterol metabolic pathway are transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear hormone liver X receptor (LXR). Therefore, to examine the interplay between P-glycoprotein and the cholesterol metabolic pathway, we utilized a high fat, normal cholesterol diet to upregulate LXR? without affecting dietary cholesterol. Our research has demonstrated that mice lacking in P-glycoprotein do not exhibit alterations in hepatic total cholesterol storage, circulating plasma total cholesterol levels, or total cholesterol concentration in the bile when compared to control animals on either a normal (25% calories from dietary fat) or high fat (45% calories from dietary fat) diet. However, p-glycoprotein deficient mice (Mdr1a-/-/1b-/-) exhibit increased hepatic LXR? protein expression and an elevation in fecal cholesterol concentration when compared to controls.

Thornton Sheila J; Wong Evelyn; Lee Stephen D; Wasan Kishor M

2008-01-01

290

Dietary fat-dependent transcriptional architecture and copy number alterations associated with modifiers of mammary cancer metastasis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Breast cancer is a complex disease resulting from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among environmental factors, body composition and intake of specific dietary components like total fat are associated with increased incidence of breast cancer and metastasis. We previously showed that mice fed a high-fat diet have shorter mammary cancer latency, increased tumor growth and more pulmonary metastases than mice fed a standard diet. Subsequent genetic analysis identified several modifiers of metastatic mammary cancer along with widespread interactions between cancer modifiers and dietary fat. To elucidate diet-dependent genetic modifiers of mammary cancer and metastasis risk, global gene expression profiles and copy number alterations from mammary cancers were measured and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) identified. Functional candidate genes that colocalized with previously detected metastasis modifiers were identified. Additional analyses, such as eQTL by dietary fat interaction analysis, causality and database evaluations, helped to further refine the candidate loci to produce an enriched list of genes potentially involved in the pathogenesis of metastatic mammary cancer Udgivelsesdato: May 2010

Gordon, Ryan A; Merrill, Michele La

2010-01-01

291

Influence of dietary protein and recombinant porcine somatotropin administration in young pigs: II. Accretion rates of protein, collagen, and fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary protein levels and recombinant porcine somatotropin (rpST) administration on deposition rates of protein, fat, water, ash, and collagen in pigs. Ten groups of six barrows (30 kg BW) were restrictively fed (80% of ad libitum) one of five diets containing 11, 15, 19, 23, or 27% CP. Diets were isoenergetic and all contained equivalent amounts of lysine. Thirty barrows were treated daily with rpST (100 micrograms/kg) by i.m. injection; remaining pigs were treated with diluent for 42 d. At all levels of dietary protein intake, carcass and empty body accretion rates of protein, water, and ash were greater in rpST-treated pigs than in respective controls. The magnitude of change elicited by rpST was lowest in pigs consuming 11% CP. Administration of rpST resulted in a 34% decrease in the accretion rate of fat; increasing protein intake resulted in a linear decrease in fat accretion in control and rpST-treated pigs. Accretion rates of protein, water, ash, and fat were increased in viscera of rpST-treated pigs compared with respective controls; rates of visceral protein and water accretion were increased as dietary protein was increased, whereas deposition of fat was decreased in control and rpST-treated pigs. Administration of rpST resulted in an overall 66% increase in the utilization efficiency of dietary protein for empty body protein deposition. Protein intake had minimal effect on the concentration of collagen in the carcass; however, rpST treatment increased concentrations of total and soluble collagen by 30 and 33%, respectively. Recombinant pST had little influence on collagen crosslinking or maturation. Deposition rate of carcass collagen was increased 63% in rpST-treated pigs compared with respective controls. PMID:1778815

Caperna, T J; Komarek, D R; Gavelek, D; Steele, N C

1991-10-01

292

Influence of different dietary fat intake on liver metastasis and hepatic lipid peroxidation in BOP-induced pancreatic cancer in Syrian hamsters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on carcinogenesis are discussed controversially. Thus, tumor growth seems to be influenced by type and composition of fat dietary; however, the pathomechanism is still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the impact of different PUFAs on liver metastasis and hepatic lipid peroxidation in a solid model of ductal pancreatic cancer in Syrian hamsters. METHODS: 90 male hamsters were randomized into 6 groups (n = 15). Accordingly groups 2, 4 and 6 received 10 mg N-nitrosobis-2-oxopropylamine (BOP)/kg body weight weekly by subcutaneous injection for 12 weeks in order to induce ductal pancreatic cancer, while groups 1, 3 and 5 were treated with 0.5 ml 0.9% sodium chloride. All hamsters received a standard fat diet (SFD) rich in n-6 PUFA for 16 weeks (2.9% fat). Afterwards, groups 1 and 2 had free access to SFD, while groups 3 and 4 were given a diet enriched with n-3, n-6 and n-9 PUFA (SMOF) and groups 5 and 6 were fed a diet high in n-3 PUFA (FISH-OIL). After 32 weeks all hamsters were sacrificed in order to determine incidence of pancreatic carcinoma and liver metastasis. Furthermore hepatic activities of glutathionperoxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxiddismutase (SOD) as well as levels of lipidperoxidation were analyzed intra- and extrametastatically. RESULTS: The incidence of liver metastasis was decreased in the FISH-OIL tumor group compared to the SFD and SMOF groups. However, GSH-Px activity was not influenced by different diets. Extrametastatic hepatic SOD activity did not differ between all groups, while intrametastatic hepatic SOD activity in the SFD-BOP group was increased. In the FISH-OIL-BOP and the SMOF-BOP group intrametastatic SOD activity was lower than in non-metastatic hepatic tissue. Furthermore levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation were decreased in the tumor groups treated with fish oil and SMOF compared to the SFD group. Comparing intra- and extrametastatic TBARS concentration there was no difference in the SFD-BOP and the SMOF-BOP groups, while in the FISH-OIL-BOP group intrametastatic TBARS concentration was increased. CONCLUSION: Conclusively, fish oil reduced the incidence of liver metastasis in experimental ductal pancreatic cancer. Maybe this effect is caused by an increase of intrametastatic hepatic lipid peroxidation.

Heukamp I; Gregor JI; Kilian M; Kiewert C; Jacobi CA; Schimke I; Walz MK; Guski H; Wenger FA

2006-01-01

293

EGFR is required for Colonic Tumor Promotion by Dietary Fat in the Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium Model: Roles of TGF-? and PTGS2  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Colon cancer is a major cause of cancer-deaths. Dietary factors contribute substantially to the risk of this malignancy. Western style diets promote development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer. While we showed that epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) controlled AOM tumorigenesis in standard fat conditions, the role of EGFR in tumor promotion by high dietary fat has not been examined. Experimental Design A/JxC57BL6/J mice with wild type Egfr (Egfrwt) or loss-of-function waved-2 Egfr (Egfrwa2) received AOM followed by standard (std 5% fat) or Western style (20% fat) diet. As F1 mice were resistant to AOM, we treated mice with AOM followed by one cycle of inflammation-inducing dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce tumorigenesis. Mice were sacrificed 12 wks after DSS. Tumors were graded for histology and assessed for EGFR ligands and proto-oncogenes by immunostaining, Western blotting and real time PCR. Results Egfrwt mice gained significantly more weight and had exaggerated insulin resistance compared to Egfrwa2 mice on high fat diet. Dietary fat promoted tumor (71.2% vs. 36.7%, p<0.05) and cancer incidence (43.9% vs. 16.7%, p<0.05) only in Egfrwt mice. The lipid-rich diet also significantly increased tumor and cancer multiplicity only in Egfrwt mice. In tumors, dietary fat and Egfrwt up-regulated TGF??, amphiregulin, CTNNB1, MYC, and CCND1, whereas PTGS2 was only increased in Egfrwt mice and further up-regulated by dietary fat. Notably, dietary fat increased TGF-? in normal colon. Conclusions EGFR is required for dietary fat-induced weight gain and tumor promotion. EGFR-dependent increases in receptor ligands and PTGS2 likely drive diet-related tumor promotion.

Dougherty, Urszula; Cerasi, Dario; Taylor, Ieva; Kocherginsky, Masha; Tekin, Ummuhan; Badal, Shamiram; Aluri, Lata; Sehdev, Amikar; Cerda, Sonia; Mustafi, Reba; Delgado, Jorge; Joseph, Loren; Zhu, Hongyan; Hart, John; Threadgill, David; Fichera, Alessandro; Bissonnette, Marc

2009-01-01

294

Effect of added dietary fat on performance, rumen characteristics, and plasma metabolites of midlactation dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effects of supplemental Jet-Sploded canola seed in the diets of dairy cows on milk yield and composition and blood metabolite concentrations were investigated. Twenty multiparous and 5 primiparous midlactation Holstein cows were assigned to treatments following a 3-wk covariate period; cows were then on the treatments for 70 d. Ten of the cows had previously been fitted with rumen cannulas. Five concentrate mixtures containing 0, 7.5, 15, 22, or 29% Jet-Sploded canola seed (Simons Feed Co., Quimby, IA) (equivalent to 0, 2.66, 5.33, 7.81, and 10.30% added fat, respectively) were formulated by substituting Jet-Sploded canola seed for barley and canola meal. Diets consisted of 25% alfalfa silage, 25% whole-crop oat silage, and 50% of one of the concentrate mixtures (dry matter basis). An increase in the amount of dietary fat from Jet-Sploded canola seed did not influence feed intake, milk yield or composition, or milk component yields. The inclusion of Jet-Sploded canola seed in the diet increased long-chain fatty acids and inhibited de novo synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids in milk. Mean total volatile fatty acids in the rumen and propionate concentration were reduced in a linear fashion by treatment. The inclusion of Jet-Sploded canola seed in the diets of mid-lactation cows altered rumen and blood metabolite concentrations; however, these changes had minimal effects on yield responses with the exception of milk fatty acid composition and milk protein content.

Khorasani GR; Kennelly JJ

1998-09-01

295

Effect of dietary fat type on the fatty acids composition of irradiated and frozen storage japanese quails meat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of substitution of dietary cotton seed oil (CSO) by used restaurant oil (URO) with different percentages 25% group 2 (G2), 50% group 3 (G3) and 100% group 4 (G4) in Japanese quail diets on the fatty acids composition of their meat especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The effect of gamma irradiation doses (1.5, 3 and 5 kGy) at frozen storage -18 C (degree) for 2 and 4 months in comparison with unirradiated and un storage were studied. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in quail meat fed G4 diet (100% URO) increased significantly in comparison with SFA in G2 (25% URO) and G3 (50% URO) but there is no significant effect with G2 and G3 in comparison with G1 (100% CSO).The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were not affected by G2 and G3 diet. Also, linoleic acid (C 18:2, n-6) had the same trend in those groups with range (32.75% to 33.35%). It is concluded that feeding a diet with URO 25% and 50% conserve the content of linoleic acid and the content of PUFA in quail meat. The irradiation doses and storage periods had no significant effect on the linoleic acid, MUFA and PUFA content.

2009-01-01

296

Dietary Echium oil increases tissue (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids without elevating hepatic lipid concentrations in premature neonatal rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Echium oil (EO) contains notable quantities of both (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA and has not, to our knowledge, been studied in neonates. We compared growth, tissue PUFA concentrations, and liver lipid profiles in premature neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats that were fed an EO diet with those that were dam-fed (DF) or fed rat milk substitute (RMS) or a fish oil (FO) diet. EO or FO comprised 10% of dietary fat. Rats were delivered prematurely at d 21 of gestation by caesarean section and then DF or fed one of the diets for 6 d. Rats were killed and the fatty acid (FA) concentrations in brain, liver, ileum, and serum and liver lipid profiles were analyzed. All diet-fed rats had similar weight gain and tissue protein concentrations. Compared with DF rats, EO-fed rats had similar brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels, similar brain and liver arachidonic acid (ARA) levels, higher liver and ileal eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels (P < 0.05), and similar ARA:(EPA+DHA) ratios in brain, liver, and serum. Compared with RMS-fed rats, EO-fed rats had lower liver triglyceride FA and cholesterol ester concentrations (P < 0.05), higher EPA and DHA levels in liver, ileum, and serum, a higher DHA level in brain, and lower tissue and serum ratios of total (n-6):(n-3) PUFA and ARA:(EPA + DHA) (P < 0.05). Compared with FO-fed rats, EO-fed rats had higher ARA levels in brain, liver, ileum, and serum. In conclusion, dietary EO increases tissue EPA and DHA without reducing ARA in brain and liver and without elevating hepatic lipid concentrations of premature neonatal rats. PMID:19439463

Yang, Qing; O'Shea, T Michael

2009-05-13

297

Dietary Echium oil increases tissue (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids without elevating hepatic lipid concentrations in premature neonatal rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Echium oil (EO) contains notable quantities of both (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA and has not, to our knowledge, been studied in neonates. We compared growth, tissue PUFA concentrations, and liver lipid profiles in premature neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats that were fed an EO diet with those that were dam-fed (DF) or fed rat milk substitute (RMS) or a fish oil (FO) diet. EO or FO comprised 10% of dietary fat. Rats were delivered prematurely at d 21 of gestation by caesarean section and then DF or fed one of the diets for 6 d. Rats were killed and the fatty acid (FA) concentrations in brain, liver, ileum, and serum and liver lipid profiles were analyzed. All diet-fed rats had similar weight gain and tissue protein concentrations. Compared with DF rats, EO-fed rats had similar brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels, similar brain and liver arachidonic acid (ARA) levels, higher liver and ileal eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels (P < 0.05), and similar ARA:(EPA+DHA) ratios in brain, liver, and serum. Compared with RMS-fed rats, EO-fed rats had lower liver triglyceride FA and cholesterol ester concentrations (P < 0.05), higher EPA and DHA levels in liver, ileum, and serum, a higher DHA level in brain, and lower tissue and serum ratios of total (n-6):(n-3) PUFA and ARA:(EPA + DHA) (P < 0.05). Compared with FO-fed rats, EO-fed rats had higher ARA levels in brain, liver, ileum, and serum. In conclusion, dietary EO increases tissue EPA and DHA without reducing ARA in brain and liver and without elevating hepatic lipid concentrations of premature neonatal rats.

Yang Q; O'Shea TM

2009-07-01

298

The Effects on Saturated Fat Purchases of Providing Internet Shoppers with Purchase- Specific Dietary Advice: A Randomised Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: The supermarket industry now services many customers through online food shopping over the Internet. The Internet shopping process offers a novel opportunity for the modification of dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on consumers' purchases of saturated fat of a fully automated computerised system that provided real-time advice tailored to the consumers' specific purchases recommending foods lower in saturated fat. Design: This study was a blinded, randomised controlled trial. Setting: The study was conducted in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Participants: The participants were consumers using a commercial online Internet shopping site between February and June 2004. Interventions: Individuals assigned to intervention received fully automated advice that recommended specific switches from selected products higher in saturated fat to alternate similar products lower in saturated fat. Participants assigned to control received general non-specific advice about how to eat a diet lower in saturated fat. Outcome Measures: The outcome measure was the difference in saturated fat (grams per 100 g of food) in shopping baskets between the intervention and control groups. Results: There were 497 randomised participants, mean age 40 y, each shopping for an average of about three people. The amount of saturated fat in the foods purchased by the intervention group was 0.66% lower (95% confidence interval 0.48–0.84, p shopping episodes, and there was no difference in the average cost of the food bought by each group. Conclusions: Fully automated, purchase-specific dietary advice offered to customers during Internet shopping can bring about changes in food purchasing habits that are likely to have significant public health implications. Because implementation is simple to initiate and maintain, this strategy would likely be highly cost-effective.

Huang, Amy; Barzi, Federica; Huxley, Rachel; Denyer, Gareth; Rohrlach, Beth; Jayne, Kathy; Neal, Bruce

2006-01-01

299

Dietary n-3 fats as adjunctive therapy in a prototypic inflammatory disease: issues and obstacles for use in rheumatoid arthritis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eicosanoids derived from the n-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid, and the cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha are involved in the signs and symptoms of inflammatory joint disease, as well as the cartilage degradation seen in established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Then n-3 fatty acids in fish and fish oil can inhibit production of both eicosanoid and cytokine inflammatory mediators and therefore, have the potential to modify RA pathology. Epidemiological studies suggest that fish intake may be preventive for RA and double-blind placebo-controlled studies demonstrate that dietary fish oil can alleviate the signs and symptoms of RA. The implementation of these findings will require among other things, a range of n-3 fat enriched foods, as well as physician awareness of the possibilities for dietary n-3 fat increases to be used as adjunctive therapy in RA.

James MJ; Proudman SM; Cleland LG

2003-06-01

300

Increasing the Percentage of Energy from Dietary Sugar, Fats, and Alcohol in Adults Is Associated with Increased Energy Intake but Has Minimal Association with Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Risk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The optimal diet composition to prevent obesity and its complications is unknown. Study aims were to determine the association of diet composition with energy intake, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Data were from the NHANES for eligible adults aged 20-74 y from 2005 to 2006 (n = 3073). Energy intake and diet composition were obtained by dietary recall. HOMA-IR was calculated from fasting insulin and glucose concentrations, and CRP was measured directly. Changes for a 1-point increase in percentage of sugar, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and alcohol were determined across their means in exchange for a 1-point decrease in percentage of nonsugar carbohydrates. Regression analyses were performed, and means ± SEs were estimated. Increasing the percentage of sugar was associated with increased energy intake in men (23 ± 5 kcal; P < 0.001) and women (12 ± 3 kcal; P = 0.002). In men, increasing percentages of SFAs (58 ± 13 kcal; P = 0.001) and PUFAs (66 ± 19 kcal; P < 0.001) were associated with increased energy intake. In women, increasing percentages of SFAs (27 ± 10 kcal; P = 0.02), PUFAs (43 ± 6 kcal; P < 0.001), and MUFAs (36 ± 13 kcal; P = 0.01) were associated with increased energy intake. Increasing the percentage of alcohol was associated with increased energy intake in men (38 ± 7 kcal; P < 0.001) and women (25 ± 8 kcal; P = 0.001). Obesity was associated with increased HOMA-IR and CRP in both genders (all P ? 0.001). Increasing PUFAs was associated with decreasing CRP in men (P = 0.02). In conclusion, increasing the percentage of calories from sugar, fats, and alcohol was associated with substantially increased energy intake but had minimal association with HOMA-IR and CRP.

Austin GL; Krueger PM

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
301

Increasing the percentage of energy from dietary sugar, fats, and alcohol in adults is associated with increased energy intake but has minimal association with biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The optimal diet composition to prevent obesity and its complications is unknown. Study aims were to determine the association of diet composition with energy intake, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Data were from the NHANES for eligible adults aged 20-74 y from 2005 to 2006 (n = 3073). Energy intake and diet composition were obtained by dietary recall. HOMA-IR was calculated from fasting insulin and glucose concentrations, and CRP was measured directly. Changes for a 1-point increase in percentage of sugar, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and alcohol were determined across their means in exchange for a 1-point decrease in percentage of nonsugar carbohydrates. Regression analyses were performed, and means ± SEs were estimated. Increasing the percentage of sugar was associated with increased energy intake in men (23 ± 5 kcal; P < 0.001) and women (12 ± 3 kcal; P = 0.002). In men, increasing percentages of SFAs (58 ± 13 kcal; P = 0.001) and PUFAs (66 ± 19 kcal; P < 0.001) were associated with increased energy intake. In women, increasing percentages of SFAs (27 ± 10 kcal; P = 0.02), PUFAs (43 ± 6 kcal; P < 0.001), and MUFAs (36 ± 13 kcal; P = 0.01) were associated with increased energy intake. Increasing the percentage of alcohol was associated with increased energy intake in men (38 ± 7 kcal; P < 0.001) and women (25 ± 8 kcal; P = 0.001). Obesity was associated with increased HOMA-IR and CRP in both genders (all P ? 0.001). Increasing PUFAs was associated with decreasing CRP in men (P = 0.02). In conclusion, increasing the percentage of calories from sugar, fats, and alcohol was associated with substantially increased energy intake but had minimal association with HOMA-IR and CRP.

Austin GL; Krueger PM

2013-10-01

302

Effects of dietary forage-to-concentrate ratios on performance and carcass characteristics of growing fat-tailed lambs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of using different dietary forage-to-concentrate ratios on growth performance and carcass characteristics of eighty Chall male fat-tailed lambs, averaging 165±15 (SD) days of age and body weight of 38.4±4.8 (SD) kg, randomly assigned to four diets containing alfalfa hay-to-concentrate ratios (DM basis) of 70:30 (C30), 50:50 (C50), 30:70 (C70), 10:90 (C90). Metabolizable energy (ME) contents were, 9.12. 9.96, 10.67, and 11.34MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) contents were 143, 152, 161, and 174g/kg for the C30, C50, C70, and C90 diets, respectively. Sixteen lambs (4 lambs/treatment) were slaughtered at the end of feeding period (84 days). Dry matter intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (i.e., kgDM/kggain) decreased linearly (P<0.001) as concentrate level increased in the diet. However, a linear increase (P<0.001) for ME intake and a quadratic increase for average daily gain (ADG, P<0.001) and final body weight (P<0.01) were observed with increasing dietary concentrate. Slaughter weight, eye muscle area, and weights of lean, bone, neck, shoulder, rack-loin, leg, skin, head, lung, and spleen were not affected by the experimental diets. However, as dietary concentrate increased, a linear increase for dressing percentage, feet weight (P<0.001), and backfat thickness (P<0.02), a quadratic increase for empty body weight (EBW, P<0.02), weights of hot and cold carcass (P<0.001), subcutaneous fat (P<0.02), total fat (P<0.01), brisket-flank (P<0.04), and tail fat (P<0.001), a linear decrease for weights of liver (P<0.01), and heart (P<0.05), and a quadratic decrease for lean-to-fat ratio (P<0.02) were observed. This study indicates that in Chall fat-tailed lambs the increase of dietary concentrate (up to 700g/kg) improves growth rate, FCR and dressing percentage with negative effect on carcass lean-to-fat ratio.

Papi N; Mostafa-Tehrani A; Amanlou H; Memarian M

2011-02-01

303

Serum lipids in rats as related to modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recommendations to modify dietary intake to attenuate risk of cardiovascular disease have been released by numerous governmental and health organizations. Since magnesium is associated with lipid metabolism and normal cardiovascular function, this study was designed to determine the effect of modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency on serum lipids and tissue minerals. The control (C) diet was based upon the AIN-76 diet formulation; the American (A) diet included average fat, fiber, and sodium levels in the US; and the recommended (R) diet was lower in fat and sodium and higher in fiber. Diets contained either 1,000 or 150 (L) mg Mg/kg diet. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of the diets (C, CL, A, Al, R, RL) for six weeks. Levels of tissue Mg, Ca, Zn, and P were determined. Neither initial nor final body weights varied between groups. Serum levels of triglyceride were higher in the C and Cl groups than in the others. Serum cholesterol was lower in the R and Rl groups than in the Cl and A groups. Animals which were fed the diet modified with regard to fat, fiber, and sodium had lower serum cholesterol levels than did those fed the American diet. Magnesium deficiency was not consistently related to serum lipid levels.

Howe, C.A.; Kubena, K.S. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1991-03-11

304

Cholesterol kinetic effects of dietary fat in CBA/J and C57BR/cdJ mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small differences in dietary fats cause marked differences in cholesterol metabolism in different strains of mice. CBA/J mice adjust HMGCOA reductase activity and C57BR/cdJ mice change fecal excretion of cholesterol. Phenomenological compartmental modeling of movement of 4{sup 14}C-cholesterol in the two strains of mice fed 40 en % fat, P/S = 0.24 (SFA) or 30 en % fat, P/S = 1 (PUFA) was used to analyze rates of movement between serum, liver, heart, and carcass. The C57 mice had slower movement between all compartments than CBA. Residence times in tissues were longer in mice fed SFA than those fed PUFA diet. The kinetic results are in agreement with the organ concentrations and enzyme activities measured.

Stewart, J.; Kuan, Soniu; Seagrave, R.; Patterson, L.; Koschorreck, R.; Dupont, J. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

1990-02-26

305

Effect of Dietary Fats on Glucose Tolerance, Insulin Sensitivity and Membrane Free Fatty Acids in Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present work was designed to assess the possible effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) as fish oil, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) as olive oil (OO), saturated fatty acid (SFA) as butter oil (BO) and their combinations on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and membrane free...

Mohammed Abdullah Alsaif

306

Body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile in response to a novel hydroxycitric acid-based dietary supplement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a global public health problem, with about 315 million people worldwide estimated to fall into the WHO-defined obesity categories. Traditional herbal medicines may have some potential in managing obesity. Botanical dietary supplements often contain complex mixtures of phytochemicals that have additive or synergistic interactions. The dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, also known as Malabar tamarind, is a unique source of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which exhibits a distinct sour taste and has been safely used for centuries in Southeastern Asia to make meals more filling. Recently it has been demonstrated that HCA-SX or Super Citrimax, a novel derivative of HCA, is safe when taken orally and that HCA-SX is bioavailable in the human plasma as studied by GC-MS. Although HCA-SX has been observed to be conditionally effective in weight management in experimental animals as well as in humans, its mechanism of action remains to be understood. We sought to determine the effects of low-dose oral HCA-SX on the body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. We observed that at doses relevant for human consumption dietary HCA-SX significantly contained body weight growth. This response was associated with lowered abdominal fat leptin expression while plasma leptin levels remained unaffected. Repeated high-density microarray analysis of 9960 genes and ESTs present in the fat tissue identified a small set (approximately 1% of all genes screened) of specific genes sensitive to dietary HCA-SX. Other genes, including vital genes transcribing for mitochondrial/nuclear proteins and which are necessary for fundamental support of the tissue, were not affected by HCA-SX. Under the current experimental conditions, HCA-SX proved to be effective in restricting body weight gain in adult rats. Functional characterization of HCA-SX-sensitive genes revealed that upregulation of genes encoding serotonin receptors represent a distinct effect of dietary HCA-SX supplementation. PMID:15200237

Roy, Sashwati; Rink, Cameron; Khanna, Savita; Phillips, Christina; Bagchi, Debasis; Bagchi, Manashi; Sen, Chandan K

2004-01-01

307

Body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile in response to a novel hydroxycitric acid-based dietary supplement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity is a global public health problem, with about 315 million people worldwide estimated to fall into the WHO-defined obesity categories. Traditional herbal medicines may have some potential in managing obesity. Botanical dietary supplements often contain complex mixtures of phytochemicals that have additive or synergistic interactions. The dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, also known as Malabar tamarind, is a unique source of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which exhibits a distinct sour taste and has been safely used for centuries in Southeastern Asia to make meals more filling. Recently it has been demonstrated that HCA-SX or Super Citrimax, a novel derivative of HCA, is safe when taken orally and that HCA-SX is bioavailable in the human plasma as studied by GC-MS. Although HCA-SX has been observed to be conditionally effective in weight management in experimental animals as well as in humans, its mechanism of action remains to be understood. We sought to determine the effects of low-dose oral HCA-SX on the body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. We observed that at doses relevant for human consumption dietary HCA-SX significantly contained body weight growth. This response was associated with lowered abdominal fat leptin expression while plasma leptin levels remained unaffected. Repeated high-density microarray analysis of 9960 genes and ESTs present in the fat tissue identified a small set (approximately 1% of all genes screened) of specific genes sensitive to dietary HCA-SX. Other genes, including vital genes transcribing for mitochondrial/nuclear proteins and which are necessary for fundamental support of the tissue, were not affected by HCA-SX. Under the current experimental conditions, HCA-SX proved to be effective in restricting body weight gain in adult rats. Functional characterization of HCA-SX-sensitive genes revealed that upregulation of genes encoding serotonin receptors represent a distinct effect of dietary HCA-SX supplementation.

Roy S; Rink C; Khanna S; Phillips C; Bagchi D; Bagchi M; Sen CK

2004-01-01

308

Dietary fat interacts with PCBs to induce changes in lipid metabolism in mice deficient in low-density lipoprotein receptor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is evidence that dietary fat can modify the cytotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and that coplanar PCBs can induce inflammatory processes critical in the pathology of vascular diseases. To test the hypothesis that the interaction of PCBs with dietary fat is dependent on the type of fat, low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDL-R(-/-)) mice were fed diets enriched with either olive oil or corn oil for 4 weeks. Half of the animals from each group were injected with PCB-77. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in aortic arches was nondetectable in the olive-oil-fed mice but was highly expressed in the presence of PCB-77. PCB treatment increased liver neutral lipids and decreased serum fatty acid levels only in mice fed the corn-oil-enriched diet. PCB treatment increased mRNA expression of genes involved in inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress in all mice. Upon PCB treatment, mice in both olive- and corn-oil-diet groups showed induction of genes involved in fatty acid degradation but with up-regulation of different key enzymes. Genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were reduced only upon PCB treatment in corn-oil-fed mice, whereas lipid transport/export genes were altered in olive-oil-fed mice. These data suggest that dietary fat can modify changes in lipid metabolism induced by PCBs in serum and tissues. These findings have implications for understanding the interactions of nutrients with environmental contaminants on the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.

Hennig B; Reiterer G; Toborek M; Matveev SV; Daugherty A; Smart E; Robertson LW

2005-01-01

309

Dietary hydroxypropyl methylcellulose increases excretion of saturated and trans fats by hamsters fed fast food diets  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic nonfermentable soluble dietary fiber, are well established. However, effects of HPMC on dietary saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids are largely unknown. This study investigated the eff...

310

Effects of Skip a Day Feeding and Dietary Fat Type on Abdominal Fat Pad and Blood Lipids in Broiler Chickens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This experiment carried out to study the effects of skip a day feeding and different dietary unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and carcass traits. A total of 720 10-days-old male Ross chicks were fed diets with Unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ra...

M. Nosrati; A. Qutbi; B. Navidshad; Z. Mirhoseini; A. Jafari Sayadi; M. Royan

311

Effect of dietary monosodium glutamate on HFCS-induced hepatic steatosis: expression profiles in the liver and visceral fat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has previously been shown that patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) exhibit alterations in both hepatic and adipose tissue metabolism, and the dietary factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD are likely to be multifactorial. Using C57BL/6J mice, we examined whether chronic exposure to low-dose dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG), high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), or a combination of the two, vs. control would affect metabolism and hepatic and visceral fat gene expression in adult male progeny. A maternal diet containing 20% HFCS and/or dietary MSG (97.2 +/- 6.3 mg/kg body weight (bw), provided in the drinking water) was offered ad libitum from 3 weeks before mating, and continued throughout gestation and weaning until the progeny reached 32 weeks of age. Liver and abdominal fat gene expression was compared with control animals fed isocaloric standard chow under identical conditions. HFCS induced hepatic steatosis and increased the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Conversely, dietary MSG elevated serum free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and insulin, together with the expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism and bile synthesis. The HFCS+MSG combination elevated hepatic TGs, serum FFAs, and TG levels. In visceral white adipose tissue, both MSG and HFCS diets increased the expression of transcription factor Srebf2 and decreased expression of Ppargc1a, while downregulating the expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain components. MSG increased the expression of several genes implicated in adipocytes differentiation. We hypothesize that HFCS may promote hepatic steatosis, whereas dietary MSG induces dyslipidemia and markers of insulin resistance.

Collison KS; Maqbool ZM; Inglis AL; Makhoul NJ; Saleh SM; Bakheet RH; Al-Johi MA; Al-Rabiah RK; Zaidi MZ; Al-Mohanna FA

2010-06-01

312

Lower fat and better quality diet therapy for children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ketogenic diet (KD) is an established, effective, nonpharmacologic treatment for children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Although the KD is the most well-established dietary therapy for epilepsy, it is too restrictive and is associated with serious complications; therefore, alternative lower-fat diets, including a modified Atkins diet and low-glycemic index diet, have been developed. Recent ongoing clinical evidence suggests that other dietary therapies have an efficacy almost comparable to that of the KD. In addition, a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids appears to increase the efficacy of diet therapy and reduce the complications of a high-fat diet. Here, we review the systematic information about lower-fat diets and better-quality dietary therapies and the current clinical status of each of these dietary approaches.

Yoon JR; Kim HD; Kang HC

2013-08-01

313

Long-Lasting Improvements in Liver Fat and Metabolism Despite Body Weight Regain After Dietary Weight Loss.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVEWeight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWe analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m(2); women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance.RESULTSBody weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline.CONCLUSIONSA 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions.

Haufe S; Haas V; Utz W; Birkenfeld AL; Jeran S; Böhnke J; Mähler A; Luft FC; Schulz-Menger J; Boschmann M; Jordan J; Engeli S

2013-08-01

314

Dietary D-psicose reduced visceral fat mass in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: D-Psicose, a C-3 epimer of D-fructose, has shown promise in reducing body fat accumulation in normal rats and plasma glucose level in genetic diabetic mice. Effects of D-psicose on diet-induced obesity are not clearly elucidated, and we investigated food intake, body weight, and fat accumulation in rats fed high-fat (HF) diet. Sprague-Dawley rats became obese by feeding HF diet for 4 wk, and were assigned either to normal or HF diet supplemented with or without D-psicose, sucrose, or erythritol for 8 wk. Changing HF to normal diet gained less body weight and adipose tissue due to different energy intake. D-psicose-fed rats exhibited lower weight gain, food efficiency ratio, and fat accumulation than erythritol- and sucrose-fed rats. This effect was more prominent in D-psicose-fed rats with normal diet than with HF diet, suggesting combination of psicose and calorie restriction further reduced obesity. There was no difference in serum cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C/HDL-C ratios between D-psicose group and other groups. Liver weight in 5% psicose group with normal diet was higher than in other groups, but histopathological examination did not reveal any psicose-related change. D-Psicose inhibited the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) to adipose tissue in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that D-psicose produces a marked decrease, greater than erythritol, in weight gain and visceral fat in an established obesity model by inhibiting MSC differentiation to adipocyte. Thus, D-psicose can be useful in preventing and reducing obesity as a sugar substitute and food ingredient. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: We can develop D-psicose as a sugar substitute and food ingredient since it can prevent obesity in normal people, but also suppress adiposity as a sugar substitute or food ingredients with antiobesity effect in obese people. D-psicose can be unique functional sweetener because of its function of reducing visceral fat mass and weight gain.

Chung YM; Hyun Lee J; Youl Kim D; Hwang SH; Hong YH; Kim SB; Jin Lee S; Hye Park C

2012-02-01

315

Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in relation to food and nutrient intake and indices of body fatness in British children and adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The diversity of the associations of dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) with dietary intake and body fatness observed in epidemiological studies may be partly due to the differences in underlying dietary intake patterns. We examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary GI and GL with food and nutrient intakes and indices of body fatness in 818 children aged 4-10 years and 818 adolescents aged 11-18 years in Britain, based on the data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7 d weighed dietary record. Overweight was defined as BMI ? 85th percentile of the age- and sex-specific British growth reference data. Central obesity was defined as waist:height ratio (WHtR) ? 0·5 (adolescents only). Breads, breakfast cereals and potatoes were the positive predictive food groups for dietary GI, while dairy products, fruit juice, other cereals and fruit were the negative predictors. Dietary GL was closely correlated with carbohydrate intake. Dietary GI showed no associations with overweight or central obesity. Conversely, dietary GL showed an independent association with a higher risk of overweight in children and a higher risk of central obesity (but not overweight) in adolescents. However, dietary GI and GL were not associated with BMI z-score in children and adolescents or WHtR in adolescents. In conclusion, the present study showed that dietary GL was independently associated with overweight in children and with central obesity in adolescents. Nevertheless, given no associations when body fatness measures were treated as continuous variables, the results must be interpreted cautiously.

Murakami K; McCaffrey TA; Livingstone MB

2013-03-01

316

Low-fat, increased fruit, vegetable, and grain dietary pattern, fractures, and bone mineral density: the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The effects of dietary changes on osteoporosis, low bone density, and frequent falls are unestablished. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification low-fat and increased fruit, vegetable, and grain intervention on incident hip, total, and site-specific fractures and self-reported falls, and, in a subset, on bone mineral density (BMD). DESIGN: Postmenopausal women (n = 48,835) aged 50-79 y (18.6% of minority race-ethnicity) were randomly assigned to receive the Dietary Modification intervention (40%, n = 19,541) (daily goal: < or =20% of energy as fat, > or =5 servings of vegetables and fruit, and > or =6 servings of grains) or to a comparison group that received no dietary changes (60%; n = 29,294). RESULTS: After a mean 8.1 y of follow-up, 215 women in the intervention group and 285 women in the comparison group (annualized rate: 0.14% and 0.12%, respectively) experienced a hip fracture (hazard ratio: 1.12; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.34; P = 0.21). The intervention group (n = 5423; annualized rate: 3.44%) had a lower rate of reporting > or =2 falls than did the comparison group (n = 8695; annualized rate: 3.67%) (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.96; P < 0.01). There was a significant interaction according to hormone therapy use; those in the comparison group receiving hormone therapy had the lowest incidence of hip fracture. In a subset of 3951 women, hip BMD at years 3, 6, and 9 was 0.4-0.5% lower in the intervention group than in the comparison group (P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: A low-fat and increased fruit, vegetable, and grain diet intervention modestly reduced the risk of multiple falls and slightly lowered hip BMD but did not change the risk of osteoporotic fractures. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.

McTiernan A; Wactawski-Wende J; Wu L; Rodabough RJ; Watts NB; Tylavsky F; Freeman R; Hendrix S; Jackson R

2009-06-01

317

Health Significance of Fat Quality in the Diet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper summarizes three presentations on the global and Latin American perspectives on the health significance of fat quality in the diet given at the 16th Congress of the Society of Latin American Nutrition in Havana, Cuba, November 11-16, 2012. Dietary fat quality contributes to the risk of the leading chronic diseases and is more important than fat quantity in reducing the risk of chronic disease mortality, especially from cardiovascular disease (CVD). In many countries, the consumption of saturated fats exceeds the recommended limit of 10% energy (%E) and intakes of polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) are often below the recommended range of 6-11%E. Consumption of long-chain ?-3 PUFAs is especially low. In many Latin American countries, high consumption of carbohydrates, especially sugars, contributes to obesity, diabetes, hypertension and CVD, while intakes of total fat and PUFAs may be low. Thus, dietary fat recommendations must consider the dietary fat patterns of each country. Nutrition counseling can be effective in teaching individuals and families to modify their food intake patterns and control the major risk factors for chronic disease.

Nettleton JA; Villalpando S; Cassani RS; Elmadfa I

2013-08-01

318

Effects of dietary fat and a vegetable-fruit mixture on the development of intestinal neoplasia in the ApcMin mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The variation in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence worldwide strongly suggests a role for dietary influences. Based on epidemiological data, protective effects of vegetables and fruit intake on CRC are widely claimed, while other data indicate a possible increased CRC risk from (higher) dietary fat intake. Therefore, we have investigated single and interactive effects of dietary fat and a vegetable-fruit mixture (VFM) in the ApcMin mouse, a mouse model for multiple intestinal neoplasia. In this study, four different diets (A-D) were compared, which were either low in fat (20% energy diets A/B) or high in fat (40% energy diets C/D). In addition, 19.5% (wt/wt) of the carbohydrates in diets B and D were replaced by a freeze-dried VFM. The diets were balanced so that they only differed among each other in fat/carbohydrate content and the presence of specific plant-constituents. Because the initiation of intestinal tumors in ApcMin mice occurs relatively early in life, exposure to the diets was started in utero. Without the addition of VFM, mice maintained at a high-fat diet did not develop significantly higher numbers of small or large intestinal adenomas than mice maintained at a low-fat diet. VFM added to a low-fat diet significantly lowered multiplicity of small intestinal polyps (from 16.2 to 10.2/mouse, 15 animals/group), but not of colon tumors in male ApcMin mice only. Strikingly, addition of VFM to female mice maintained on a low-fat diet and to both sexes maintained on a high-fat diet significantly enhanced intestinal polyp multiplicity (from 16.5 to 26.7 polyps/mouse). In conclusion, our results indicate that neither a lower fat intake nor consumption of VFM included in a high-fat diet decreases the development of polyps in mice genetically predisposed to intestinal tumor development. PMID:9771930

van Kranen, H J; van Iersel, P W; Rijnkels, J M; Beems, D B; Alink, G M; van Kreijl, C F

1998-09-01

319

Effects of dietary fat and a vegetable-fruit mixture on the development of intestinal neoplasia in the ApcMin mouse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The variation in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence worldwide strongly suggests a role for dietary influences. Based on epidemiological data, protective effects of vegetables and fruit intake on CRC are widely claimed, while other data indicate a possible increased CRC risk from (higher) dietary fat intake. Therefore, we have investigated single and interactive effects of dietary fat and a vegetable-fruit mixture (VFM) in the ApcMin mouse, a mouse model for multiple intestinal neoplasia. In this study, four different diets (A-D) were compared, which were either low in fat (20% energy diets A/B) or high in fat (40% energy diets C/D). In addition, 19.5% (wt/wt) of the carbohydrates in diets B and D were replaced by a freeze-dried VFM. The diets were balanced so that they only differed among each other in fat/carbohydrate content and the presence of specific plant-constituents. Because the initiation of intestinal tumors in ApcMin mice occurs relatively early in life, exposure to the diets was started in utero. Without the addition of VFM, mice maintained at a high-fat diet did not develop significantly higher numbers of small or large intestinal adenomas than mice maintained at a low-fat diet. VFM added to a low-fat diet significantly lowered multiplicity of small intestinal polyps (from 16.2 to 10.2/mouse, 15 animals/group), but not of colon tumors in male ApcMin mice only. Strikingly, addition of VFM to female mice maintained on a low-fat diet and to both sexes maintained on a high-fat diet significantly enhanced intestinal polyp multiplicity (from 16.5 to 26.7 polyps/mouse). In conclusion, our results indicate that neither a lower fat intake nor consumption of VFM included in a high-fat diet decreases the development of polyps in mice genetically predisposed to intestinal tumor development.

van Kranen HJ; van Iersel PW; Rijnkels JM; Beems DB; Alink GM; van Kreijl CF

1998-09-01

320

Diet Quality, Nutrient Intake, Weight Status, and Feeding Environments of Girls Meeting or Exceeding Recommendations for Total Dietary Fat of the American Academy of Pediatrics  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To compare the diet quality and weight status of girls consuming diets meeting the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics for dietary fat with those of girls consuming >30% of energy from fat and to examine relationships between girls’ dietary fat intake, mothers’ nutrient intakes, and mothers’ child-feeding practices. Design Participants were 192 white girls and their mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: >30% of energy from fat (high fat [HF]) or ?30% of energy from fat (low fat [LF]), based on girls’ 3-day dietary recalls. Girls’ food group and nutrient intakes, Healthy Eating Index, body mass index, and mothers’ nutrient intakes and child-feeding practices were compared. Results Girls with HF diets consumed fewer fruits, more meat, and more fats and sweets and had lower Healthy Eating Index scores than did the girls in the LF group. Mothers of girls in the HF group had higher fat intakes than did those in the LF group. Girls and mothers in the HF group had lower intakes of fiber and vitamins A, C, B6, folate, and riboflavin. Mothers in the HF group reported using more restriction and pressure to eat in feeding their daughters. Girls in the HF group showed greater increase in body mass index and skinfold thickness from age 5 to 7 years. Conclusion These findings provide additional support for the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics to limit total dietary fat. Findings reveal that mothers’ use of controlling feeding practices are not effective in fostering healthier diets among girls and that mothers’ own eating may be more influential than their attempts to control the intake of their daughters.

Lee, Yoonna; Mitchell, Diane C.; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Subtype of dietary fat in relation to risk of Hodgkin lymphoma: a population-based case-control study in Connecticut and Massachusetts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Few epidemiological studies have examined the relationship between dietary fat, which may affect immune function and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that high dietary intake of fat and specific subtypes of fat is associated with the risk of HL among 486 HL cases and 630 population-based controls recruited between 1997 and 2000 in Connecticut and Massachusetts. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) stratified by age and gender. Among younger adults, HL risk was significantly and positively associated with higher intake of saturated fat [ORs for increasing quartiles = 1.3, 1.8, and 2.1; p trend = 0.04] and negatively associated with higher intake of monounsaturated fat [ORs for increasing quartiles = 0.5, 0.5, and 0.4; p trend = 0.03), after adjustment for potential confounders including lifestyle and other dietary factors. The associations with saturated fat (ORs for increasing quartile = 2.4, 3.2, and 4.4; p trend < 0.01] and monounsaturated fat (ORs for increasing quartile = 0.3, 0.6, and 0.3; p trend = 0.04) were most apparent in younger women, whereas there was no significant association between intake of total fat or any type of fat and risk of HL in older females or younger or older males. These findings show that the associations between dietary fat and risk of HL may vary by gender and age and require confirmation in other populations.

Gao Y; Li Q; Bassig BA; Chang ET; Dai M; Qin Q; Zhang Y; Zheng T

2013-03-01

322

The effects of dietary saturated fat on basal hypothalamic neuroinflammation in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent evidence has demonstrated that consumption of high fat diets can trigger brain inflammation and subsequent injury in the absence of any peripheral inflammatory signaling. Here we sought to investigate whether a link exists between the concentration of highly saturated fats in the diet and the development of inflammation in the brain of rats and, whether the source of the saturated fat was an important factor in this process. Adult male rats had access to diets with a moderate level of total fat (32% of calories as fat) varying in level of saturated fat [low (20%) vs high (>60%)] and its source (butter or coconut oil). After 8weeks of diet exposure peripheral and central tissues were collected for analysis of inflammatory signals. Neither blood nor white adipose tissue exhibited any changes in inflammatory mediators regardless of the saturated fat content or the source. In the brain however, we observed significant hypothalamic upregulation of the expression of markers of glial activation as well as of interleukin (IL)-1,6 and nuclear factor (NF)-IL-6, which were highest in the group fed the butter-based diets. The increase in these inflammatory mediators had no effect on basal body temperature or the temperature response to a systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The present results indicate that hypothalamic inflammation associated with consumption of diets high in fat is directly linked to the saturated fat content as well as the source of that fat. These effects are likely linked to other pathophysiological changes in the regulation of metabolism.

Maric T; Woodside B; Luheshi GN

2013-09-01

323

Effects of isoprothiolane and phytosterol on lipogenesis and lipolysis in adipocytes from rats of dietary fat necrosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To study effects of isoprothiolane and phytosterol on dietary fat necrosis, 3 groups of rats were fed hardened-tallow (HT) diet. Two groups of rats received either isoprothiolane (50 mg/kg) or phytosterol (20 mg/kg) orally once a day consecutively for 10 weeks. One group of rats received standard diet (CE-2) as a control. Fat necrotic lesions were observed in epididymal and perirenal adipose tissues from all rats in the 3 groups fed HT diet. Rats with fat necrosis were characterized by visceral type obesity and saturation in fatty acid composition of triglyceride in adipose tissue. The highest glucose conversion to total lipids was seen in adipocytes from the rats given phytosterol. There was no lipolytic response to epinephrine stimulation (1-100 microM) in adipocytes from the rats given only HT diet, while similar response of adipocytes from the 2 groups treated with either drug to those from the rats fed standard diet was observed. The levels of total saturated fatty acids of phospholipid in adipose tissue from the rats given either drug were lower than that of the rats given only HT diet. These data suggest that either drug alters fatty acid composition of phospholipid in fat cell membrane and enhances lipolysis of the cells.

Katamoto H; Kurihara S; Shimada Y

1990-12-01

324

Effects of isoprothiolane and phytosterol on lipogenesis and lipolysis in adipocytes from rats of dietary fat necrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study effects of isoprothiolane and phytosterol on dietary fat necrosis, 3 groups of rats were fed hardened-tallow (HT) diet. Two groups of rats received either isoprothiolane (50 mg/kg) or phytosterol (20 mg/kg) orally once a day consecutively for 10 weeks. One group of rats received standard diet (CE-2) as a control. Fat necrotic lesions were observed in epididymal and perirenal adipose tissues from all rats in the 3 groups fed HT diet. Rats with fat necrosis were characterized by visceral type obesity and saturation in fatty acid composition of triglyceride in adipose tissue. The highest glucose conversion to total lipids was seen in adipocytes from the rats given phytosterol. There was no lipolytic response to epinephrine stimulation (1-100 microM) in adipocytes from the rats given only HT diet, while similar response of adipocytes from the 2 groups treated with either drug to those from the rats fed standard diet was observed. The levels of total saturated fatty acids of phospholipid in adipose tissue from the rats given either drug were lower than that of the rats given only HT diet. These data suggest that either drug alters fatty acid composition of phospholipid in fat cell membrane and enhances lipolysis of the cells. PMID:2287126

Katamoto, H; Kurihara, S; Shimada, Y

1990-12-01

325

Phytosterol intake and dietary fat reduction are independent and additive in their ability to reduce plasma LDL cholesterol.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the interrelationship of diet and plant sterols (PS) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and carotenoids. Mildly hypercholesterolemic men (n = 13) and postmenopausal women (n = 9) underwent four randomized, crossover, double-blind, controlled feeding periods of 23 days each. The design consisted of two levels of PS (0 and 3.3 g/day) and two background diets having fat content either typical of the American diet (total and saturated fat at 33.5 and 13.2% of energy, respectively), or a Step 1 type of diet (total and saturated fat at 26.4 and 7.7% of energy, respectively). Plasma total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, Apo A1 and Apo B were 4.3, 5.3, 4.5, 2.8 and 2.5% lower, respectively (P American diet. Diet had no effect on TC/HDL cholesterol (P = 0.1062). Plant sterol intake lowered TC, LDL cholesterol, and Apo B by 9.0, 12.4 and 6.1% and TC/HDLC by 9.6% (P dietary fat reduction. Responses of plasma carotenoids to PS intake were consistent with the literature. PMID:19145455

Chen, Shirley C; Judd, Joseph T; Kramer, Matthew; Meijer, Gert W; Clevidence, Beverly A; Baer, David J

2009-01-15

326

Ergogenic effect of dietary L-carnitine and fat supplementation against exercise induced physical fatigue in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

L-carnitine (LC) plays a central role in fatty acid metabolism and in skeletal muscle bioenergetics. LC supplementation is known to improve physical performance and has become widespread in recent years without any unequivocal support to this practice. A scientific-based knowledge is needed, to understand the implications of LC supplementation on physical fatigue. In current study, we have explored synergistic effects of dietary LC and fat content against physical fatigue in rats. Ninety male Wistar rats were supplemented with different concentrations of LC (0.15, 0.3, and 0.5 %) and fat content (5, 10, and 15 %) through diet in different combinations. Our results elucidated that LC (0.5 %) along with 10 and 15 % fat diet supplemented rats showed significant ergogenic effect. The swimming time until exhaustion was increased by ~2- and ~1.5-fold in rats fed with 10 and 15 % fat diet containing LC (0.5 %). LC supplementation improved the energy charge by increasing the levels of ATP, tissue glycogen, reduced GSH, plasma triglyceride, plasma glucose levels, and enzymatic antioxidant status, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. LC supplementation also significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, lactic acid, plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatinekinase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels in various tissues compared to its respective control group. Thus the present study indicates that LC ameliorates the various impairments associated with physical endurance in rats. PMID:23661316

Pandareesh, M D; Anand, T

2013-05-10

327

Hepatic and biochemical repercussions of a polyunsaturated fat-rich hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet in Wistar rats Repercussões hepáticas e bioquímicas da dieta hipercalórica e hiperlipídica rica em gordura poliinsaturada em ratos Wistar  

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Full Text Available CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by lipid deposits in the hepatocytes and has been associated with obesity, dyslipidemia and type-2 diabetes. It is considered a hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, of which the main component is insulin resistance leading to hyperinsulinemia and increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Saturated fat promotes hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia, reduces levels of high-density cholesterol and increases levels of low-density cholesterol, while polyunsaturated fat is associated with hypolipidemic, antiinflammatory and imunoregulating action. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hepatic and biochemical repercussions of a polyunsaturated fat-rich diet in Wistar rats. METHODS: Twenty-two rats were distributed equally in two groups: GI - standard diet (Biobase Bio-tec Ratos e Camundongos®) providing 3.000 kcal/kg and GII - hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet providing 4.250 kcal/kg (?-6:?-3 = 3:1). The animals were euthanized after 23 weeks of experiment. The weight, biochemical parameters and hepatohistological changes were registered. RESULTS: Findings were submitted to variance analysis with the level of statistical significance at 5%. The average weight did not differ significantly between the groups at baseline (P = 0.711), but was greater in Group II by the end of the experiment (P = 0.000). The levels of triglycerides (P = 0.039), total cholesterol (P = 0.015) and HDL (P = 0.005) were higher in Group I than in Group II. Macrovesicular steatosis was significantly more common in Group II than in Group I (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet rich in polyunsaturated fat promotes weight gain and favors the development of hepatic steatosis while reducing serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL.CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica caracteriza-se por depósito de lipídios nos hepatócitos. Desperta grande interesse por sua associação com obesidade, dislipidemias e diabetes mellitus tipo 2. É considerada a manifestação hepática da síndrome metabólica, cujo principal componente é a resistência à insulina, com consequente hiperinsulinemia e produção aumentada de citocinas inflamatórias. Dietas ricas em gorduras saturadas promovem hipertrigliceridemia, diminuição do colesterol de alta densidade, aumento do colesterol de baixa densidade e hiperinsulinemia, enquanto dietas ricas em gordura poliinsaturada podem apresentar efeitos hipolipidêmicos, antiinflamatórios e imunorreguladores. OBJETIVO: Investigar as repercussões hepáticas e bioquímicas da dieta rica em gordura poliinsaturada em ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Os animais (22) foram distribuidos nos grupos GI-dieta padrao (Biobase Bio-tec Ratos e Camundongos®) com 3000 kcal/kg e GII-dieta hipercalorica e hiperlipidica, com 4250 kcal/kg, relação ?-6: ?-3 = 3:1. Foram mortos apos 23 semanas de administração das dietas. Avaliaram-se peso, exames bioquimicos e alteracoes histológicas do fígado. RESULTADOS: Foram utilizados testes de análise de variância com nível de significância de 5% (P<0,05). Não houve diferença significante na média de peso entre os grupos (P = 0,711) no início, entretanto GII apresentou maior média que GI ao final do experimento (P = 0,000). GI mostrou níveis significantemente mais elevados de triglicerídeos (P = 0,03), colesterol total (P = 0,039) e HDL (P = 0,015) do que GII. O GII apresentou maior média de esteatose macrovesicular do que GI (P = 0,005). CONCLUSÃO: A dieta hipercalórica e hiperlipídica, rica em gordura poliinsaturada, promove esteatose hepática e incremento de peso, contudo reduz os níveis séricos de triglicerídeos, colesterol total e HDL.

Idália M. B. Burlamaqui; Conceição A. Dornelas; José Telmo Valença Jr; Francisco J. C. Mesquita; Lara B. Veras; Lusmar Veras Rodrigues

2011-01-01

328

Associations between toenail arsenic concentration and dietary factors in a New Hampshire population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary factors such as folate, vitamin B12, protein, and methionine are important for the excretion of arsenic via one-carbon metabolism in undernourished populations exposed to high levels of arsenic via drinking water. However, the effects of dietary factors on toenail arsenic concentrations in well-nourished populations exposed to relatively low levels of water arsenic are unknown. Methods As part of a population-based case–control study of skin and bladder cancer from the USA, we evaluated relationships between consumption of dietary factors and arsenic concentrations in toenail clippings. Consumption of each dietary factor was determined from a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used general linear models to examine the associations between toenail arsenic and each dietary factor, taking into account potentially confounding effects. Results As expected, we found an inverse association between ln-transformed toenail arsenic and consumption of vitamin B12 (excluding supplements) and animal protein. Unexpectedly, there were also inverse associations with numerous dietary lipids (e.g., total fat, total animal fat, total vegetable fat, total monounsaturated fat, total polyunsaturated fat, and total saturated fat). Finally, increased toenail arsenic concentrations were associated with increased consumption of long chain n-3 fatty acids. Conclusion In a relatively well-nourished population exposed to relatively low levels of arsenic via water, consumption of certain dietary lipids may decrease toenail arsenic concentration, while long chain n-3 fatty acids may increase toenail arsenic concentration, possibly due to their association with arsenolipids in fish tissue.

Gruber Joann F; Karagas Margaret R; Gilbert-Diamond Diane; Bagley Pamela J; Zens M; Sayarath Vicki; Punshon Tracy; Morris J; Cottingham Kathryn L

2012-01-01

329

Dietary macronutrient and energy intake and urinary incontinence in women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Weight loss involving diet modification improves urinary incontinence (UI) in women, but little is known about dietary correlates of UI. The authors examined intakes of total energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fats in relation to UI in a cross-sectional sample of 2,060 women in the population-based Boston Area Community Health Survey (2002-2005). Data were collected from in-person home interviews and food frequency questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the presence of moderate-to-severe UI; a severity index was analyzed in secondary analysis of 597 women with urine leakage. Greater total energy intake was associated with UI (P(trend) = 0.0001; highest quintile vs. lowest: adjusted odds ratio = 2.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.56, 5.23) and increased severity. No associations were observed with intake of carbohydrates, protein, or total fat. However, the ratio of saturated fat intake to polyunsaturated fat intake was positively associated with UI (highest quintile vs. lowest: adjusted odds ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.22, 5.06) and was strongly associated with severity (P(trend) < 0.0001). Results suggest that dietary changes, particularly decreasing saturated fat relative to polyunsaturated fat and decreasing total calories, could independently account for some of the benefits of weight loss in women with UI.

Maserejian NN; Giovannucci EL; McVary KT; McGrother C; McKinlay JB

2010-05-01

330

Exercise affects memory acquisition, anxiety-like symptoms and activity of membrane-bound enzyme in brain of rats fed with different dietary fats: impairments of trans fat.  

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Here we evaluated the influence of physical exercise on behavior parameters and enzymatic status of rats supplemented with different dietary fatty acids (FA). Male Wistar rats fed diets enriched with soybean oil (SO), lard (L), or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) for 48 weeks were submitted to swimming (30 min/d, five times per week) for 90 days. Dietary FA per se did not cause anxiety-like symptoms in the animals, but after physical exercise, SO group showed a better behavioral performance than L and the HVF groups in elevated plus maze (EPM). In Barnes maze, HVF group showed impaired memory acquisition as compared to L group, and exercise reversed this effect. SO-fed rats showed an improvement in memory acquisition after 1 day of training, whereas lard caused an improvement of memory only from day 4. HVF-fed rats showed no improvement of memory acquisition, but this effect was reversed by exercise in all training days. A lower activity of the Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in brain cortex of rats fed lard and HVF was observed, and this effect was maintained after exercise. Similarly, the HVF diet was related to lower activity of hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, and exercise reduced activity of this enzyme in the SO and L groups. Our findings show influences of dietary FA on memory acquisition, whereas regular exercise improved this function and was beneficial on anxiety-like symptoms. As FA are present in neuronal membrane phospholipids and play a critical role in brain function, our results suggest that low incorporation of trans FA in neuronal membranes may act on cortical and hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, but this change appears to be unrelated to the behavioral parameters primarily harmed by consumption of trans and less so by saturated FA, which were reversed by exercise. PMID:21893165

Teixeira, A M; Pase, C S; Boufleur, N; Roversi, K; Barcelos, R C S; Benvegnú, D M; Segat, H J; Dias, V T; Reckziegel, P; Trevizol, F; Dolci, G S; Carvalho, N R; Soares, F A A; Rocha, J B T; Emanuelli, T; Bürger, M E

2011-08-27

331

Exercise affects memory acquisition, anxiety-like symptoms and activity of membrane-bound enzyme in brain of rats fed with different dietary fats: impairments of trans fat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Here we evaluated the influence of physical exercise on behavior parameters and enzymatic status of rats supplemented with different dietary fatty acids (FA). Male Wistar rats fed diets enriched with soybean oil (SO), lard (L), or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) for 48 weeks were submitted to swimming (30 min/d, five times per week) for 90 days. Dietary FA per se did not cause anxiety-like symptoms in the animals, but after physical exercise, SO group showed a better behavioral performance than L and the HVF groups in elevated plus maze (EPM). In Barnes maze, HVF group showed impaired memory acquisition as compared to L group, and exercise reversed this effect. SO-fed rats showed an improvement in memory acquisition after 1 day of training, whereas lard caused an improvement of memory only from day 4. HVF-fed rats showed no improvement of memory acquisition, but this effect was reversed by exercise in all training days. A lower activity of the Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in brain cortex of rats fed lard and HVF was observed, and this effect was maintained after exercise. Similarly, the HVF diet was related to lower activity of hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, and exercise reduced activity of this enzyme in the SO and L groups. Our findings show influences of dietary FA on memory acquisition, whereas regular exercise improved this function and was beneficial on anxiety-like symptoms. As FA are present in neuronal membrane phospholipids and play a critical role in brain function, our results suggest that low incorporation of trans FA in neuronal membranes may act on cortical and hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, but this change appears to be unrelated to the behavioral parameters primarily harmed by consumption of trans and less so by saturated FA, which were reversed by exercise.

Teixeira AM; Pase CS; Boufleur N; Roversi K; Barcelos RC; Benvegnú DM; Segat HJ; Dias VT; Reckziegel P; Trevizol F; Dolci GS; Carvalho NR; Soares FA; Rocha JB; Emanuelli T; Bürger ME

2011-11-01

332

Dietary fat types differently modulate the activity and expression of mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase in rat liver.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT), an integral protein of the mitochondrial inner membrane, belongs to the carnitine-dependent system of fatty acid transport into mitochondria, where beta-oxidation occurs. CACT exchanges cytosolic acylcarnitine or free carnitine for carnitine in the mitochondrial matrix. The object of this study was to investigate in rat liver the effect, if any, of diets enriched with saturated fatty acids (beef tallow, BT, the control), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (fish oil, FO), n-6 PUFA (safflower oil, SO), and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (olive oil, OO) on the activity and expression of CACT. Translocase exchange rates increased, in parallel with CACT mRNA abundance, upon FO-feeding, whereas OO-dietary treatment induced a decrease in both CACT activity and expression. No changes were observed upon SO-feeding. Nuclear run-on assay revealed that FO-treatment increased the transcriptional rate of CACT mRNA. On the other hand, only in the nuclei of hepatocytes from OO-fed rats splicing of the last intron of CACT pre-mRNA and the rate of formation of the 3'-end were affected. Overall, these findings suggest that compared to the BT-enriched diet, the SO-enriched diet did not influence CACT activity and expression, whereas FO- and OO-feeding alters CACT activity in an opposite fashion, i.e. modulating its expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, respectively.

Priore P; Stanca E; Gnoni GV; Siculella L

2012-10-01

333

Maternal dietary fat affects milk fatty acid profile and impacts on weight gain and thermogenic capacity of suckling rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

We aimed to assess the effects of maternal supplementation with the main fat sources used in the human Western diet (olive oil, butter, margarine) on milk FA composition and on plasma FA profile of offspring, and to determine whether it may influence body-weight-gain (BWG) and adiposity of offspring during the suckling period. Wistar rats were supplemented with the different fat sources from day 14 of gestation and throughout lactation. Olive oil-supplemented dams showed the highest proportion of oleic-acid in milk, with no changes in plasma. Their offspring also showed the highest proportion of this FA in plasma, lower BWG during the suckling period, and higher levels of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) at weaning. Margarine-supplemented dams showed the highest percentage of PUFA in milk, and a similar tendency was found in plasma of their offspring. Butter-supplemented dams displayed higher proportion of saturated FA (SFA) in milk compared to other fat-supplemented dams, but lower than controls. Control offspring also showed higher proportion of SFA in plasma and greater BWG during the suckling period than fat-supplemented groups. Significant correlations were found between the relative content of some milk FA and BWG of offspring, in particular, oleic-acid levels correlated negatively with BWG and positively with UCP1 levels. These results show that maternal dietary source of fat affects milk FA composition and circulating FA profile, as could be expected, but also BWG and thermogenic capacity of offspring during the suckling period. An effect of oleic-acid stimulating BAT thermogenic capacity of suckling pups is proposed. PMID:23417844

Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; García, Ana Paula; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

2013-02-16

334

Dietary intake of protein is positively associated with percent body fat in middle-aged and older adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Data on associations between dietary intake of macronutrients and body composition in the general population are sparse. This population-based, cross-sectional study of 4478 middle-aged (47-49 y) and elderly (71-74 y) men and women from the Hordaland Health Study in western Norway was conducted using a validated FFQ and measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The relation between macronutrient intake [percentage of total energy intake (E%)] and percent body fat was investigated in the total population and in a subgroup with intermediate BMI and stable weight (BMI within the 25th-75th percentile and weight change <5% during the last 6 y; n = 975). In the total population, protein intake (E%) was associated with higher percent body fat (partial r = 0.11; P < 0.001) in multivariate linear regression analysis. In the subgroup with intermediate BMI and stable weight, there was no association between protein intake (E%) and percent body fat. Fat intake (E%) was positively associated (partial r = 0.07) whereas carbohydrate intake (E%) was inversely associated (partial r = -0.07) with percent body fat (P = 0.042 for both) in the subgroup with intermediate BMI and stable weight. Both in the total population and in the stable weight group, physical activity was inversely related to adiposity (partial r = -0.15 and -0.12, respectively; P < 0.001). Our results may explain some of the conflicting data on the effects of macronutrients in different populations and suggest the potential importance of protein intake as a factor in obesity.

Vinknes KJ; de Vogel S; Elshorbagy AK; Nurk E; Drevon CA; Gjesdal CG; Tell GS; Vollset SE; Refsum H

2011-03-01

335

Maternal dietary fat affects milk fatty acid profile and impacts on weight gain and thermogenic capacity of suckling rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We aimed to assess the effects of maternal supplementation with the main fat sources used in the human Western diet (olive oil, butter, margarine) on milk FA composition and on plasma FA profile of offspring, and to determine whether it may influence body-weight-gain (BWG) and adiposity of offspring during the suckling period. Wistar rats were supplemented with the different fat sources from day 14 of gestation and throughout lactation. Olive oil-supplemented dams showed the highest proportion of oleic-acid in milk, with no changes in plasma. Their offspring also showed the highest proportion of this FA in plasma, lower BWG during the suckling period, and higher levels of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) at weaning. Margarine-supplemented dams showed the highest percentage of PUFA in milk, and a similar tendency was found in plasma of their offspring. Butter-supplemented dams displayed higher proportion of saturated FA (SFA) in milk compared to other fat-supplemented dams, but lower than controls. Control offspring also showed higher proportion of SFA in plasma and greater BWG during the suckling period than fat-supplemented groups. Significant correlations were found between the relative content of some milk FA and BWG of offspring, in particular, oleic-acid levels correlated negatively with BWG and positively with UCP1 levels. These results show that maternal dietary source of fat affects milk FA composition and circulating FA profile, as could be expected, but also BWG and thermogenic capacity of offspring during the suckling period. An effect of oleic-acid stimulating BAT thermogenic capacity of suckling pups is proposed.

Priego T; Sánchez J; García AP; Palou A; Picó C

2013-05-01

336

FAT CONTAINING PRODUCTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fat based product in particular food products are taught. The products contain oil in water and water in oil emulsions and in addition contain isoflavones and preferably petroselinic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

RAWLINGS Anthony V.; CHEN Mandy K.; PATRICK Matthew

337

Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA, gut microbiota and fat mass in early postnatal piglet development—exploring a potential interplay  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dietary n-3PUFA and gut bacteria, particularly Bacteroidetes, have been suggested to be related to adiposity. We investigated if n-3PUFA affected fat storage and cecal bacteria in piglets. Twenty-four 4-day-old piglets were allocated to formula rich in n-3PUFA (?3E%) from fish oil (FO) or n-6PUFA from sunflower oil (SO) for 14 days. We assessed body weight, fat accumulation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and microbial molecular fingerprints. Dietary PUFA-composition was reflected in higher erythrocyte n-3PUFA in the FO- than the SO-group (P

Andersen, A.D.; MØlbak, Lars

2011-01-01

338

TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.

Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars

2012-01-01

339

Fish oil slows prostate cancer xenograft growth relative to other dietary fats and is associated with decreased mitochondrial and insulin pathway gene expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND:Previous mouse studies suggest that decreasing dietary fat content can slow prostate cancer (PCa) growth. To our knowledge, no study has yet compared the effect of multiple different fats on PCa progression. We sought to systematically compare the effect of fish oil, olive oil, corn oil and animal fat on PCa progression.METHODS:A total of 96 male severe combined immunodeficient mice were injected with LAPC-4 human PCa cells. Two weeks following injection, mice were randomized to a Western diet based on fish oil, olive oil, corn oil or animal fat (35% kilocalories from fat). Animals were euthanized when tumor volumes reached 1000?mm(3). Serum was collected at death and assayed for PSA, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-1-binding protein-3 and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) levels. Tumors were also assayed for PGE-2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels, and global gene expression was analyzed using Affymetrix microarrays.RESULTS:Mice weights and tumor volumes were equivalent across groups at randomization. Overall, fish oil consumption was associated with improved survival relative to other dietary groups (P=0.014). On gene expression analyses, the fish oil group had decreased signal in pathways related to mitochondrial physiology and insulin synthesis/secretion.CONCLUSIONS:In this xenograft model, we found that consuming a diet in which fish oil was the only fat source slowed tumor growth and improved survival compared with that in mice consuming diets