WorldWideScience
 
 
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International physical protection standards: support for development and implementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Since 1972, the IAEA has been a recognized organization in promoting the development of international standards on the physical protection of nuclear materials. This responsibility has continued through the present in the 1999 publication of the fourth revision of INFCIRC/225, the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities and in being the repository for the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material which was originally published in 1980 as INFCIRC/274. The IAEA has also published other reference documents in support these two standards. With changing world events and greater concern for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities, IAEA member states have increased IAEA physical protection responsibilities. Currently, the IAEA is serving as the secretariat for drafting revisions to the physical protection convention. The proposed revisions will strengthen international physical protection standards through the incorporation of physical protection fundamentals that should apply to all nuclear materials in international or domestic use, storage and transport. Furthermore, the physical protection fundamentals would also extend to include nuclear facilities. Presently, the physical protection convention applies only to nuclear materials that are in international transport. To complement efforts to develop and promote international physical protection standards, the IAEA is actively involved in assisting member states with the implementation of the standards. This is accomplished through the delivery of training courses, workshops and hosting other international forums for the exchange of information. Through review services such as the international physical protection advisory service (IPPAS), the IAEA provides advice to member states on the application of international standards at national and facility-specific levels. These services can be followed up with technical support to implement the recommendations developed during the IPPAS review. (author)

2

IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological safety of the equipment. The main characteristics of IEC 62463 and IEC 62523 standards are presented and as well as the IEC methodology of standard development and approval.

Voytchev, M; Radev, R; Chiaro, P; Thomson, I; Dray, C; Li, J

2007-12-06

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Biobanking of CSF: international standardization to optimize biomarker development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reflects pathophysiological aspects of neurological diseases, where neuroprotective strategies and biomarkers are urgently needed. Therefore, biobanking is very relevant for biomarker discovery and evaluation of neurological diseases. Important and unique features of CSF biobanking are intensive collaboration in international networks and the tight application of standardized protocols. The current adoption of standardized protocols for CSF and blood collection as presented in this review enables biomarker studies in large cohorts of patients and controls. Another topic of this review is the selection of control groups, which influences the outcome of biomarker investigations. Control groups in CSF biobanks mainly consist of different disease controls. This is in part due to the fact that lumbar punctures are mostly performed for clinical indications and rarely for research purposes only, as it is a relatively invasive procedure. Moreover, there is a lack of homogenous criteria and definition of control groups. We therefore propose uniform consensus definitions for such control groups in biomarker research, i.e. Healthy controls (HC), Spinal anesthesia subjects (SAS), Symptomatic controls (SC), Inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (CINDC), Peripheral Inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (PINDC) and Non-inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (NINDC). Another important aspect of CSF biobanking is quality control. Systematic studies to address effects of pre-analytical and storage variation on a broad range of CSF proteins are needed. In conclusion, biomarker research in neurodegenerative diseases has entered a new era due to the collaborative and multicenter efforts of many groups. The streamlining of biobanking procedures, including quality control, and the selection of optimal control groups for investigating biomarkers are important improvements to perform high quality biomarker studies. PMID:24389077

Teunissen, Charlotte E; Tumani, Hayrettin; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Mollenhauer, Brit

2014-03-01

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The development of international safety standards on geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

safety case provides confidence in the feasibility of implementing the disposal system as designed, convincing estimates of the performance of the disposal system and a reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. (author)

5

The developments of international hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards and the response strategies in Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of hydrogen and fuel cells has expanded as the technology in international markets has improved. Leading countries have focused on establishing hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards. Both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) continuously release new hydrogen and fuel cell related standards. Although the government of Taiwan is promoting the development of a hydrogen and fuel cell industry, it may delay the commercialized schedule if there are no hydrogen and fuel cell related standards and regulations in place. Standards and regulations must be established as quickly as possible in order to accelerate the progress of the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. This presentation reviewed the international progress in hydrogen and fuel cell development and explained Taiwan's response strategies regarding the adoption of hydrogen and fuel cell products in niche Taiwanese markets

6

Commercial versus Internally Developed Standardized Tests: Lessons from a Small Regional School  

Science.gov (United States)

The author compares the efficacy of commercially available and internally developed standardized tests and evaluates their strengths and weakness in assessing student learning outcomes. The author shares the experience of a regional school in developing a standardized test to assess business knowledge. Data from a sample of 268 students were used…

Hadjicharalambous, Costas

2014-01-01

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International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

2011-10-29

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The role of the international radiation protection association in development and implementation of radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) is an affiliation of national and regional professional societies. Its individual membership is approaching some 20 000 professionals from 42 societies and covering 50 countries. Its primary objective is to provide a platform for collaboration between members of its affiliate societies to further radiation protection and safety. The IRPA is mandated to promote and facilitate the establishment of radiation protection societies, support international meetings and to encourage international publications, research and education and the establishment and review of standards. Through its membership base and its observer status on bodies such as the ICRP and the safety standards committees of the IAEA, the IRPA is in a position to provide valuable input to the safety standards development process. This factor has been increasingly recognised more recently within the IRPA and the various organisations involved in the development of safety standards. This paper addresses the mechanisms that have been established to enhance the input of the IRPA into the safety standards development process and for their subsequent implementation. (author)

9

Developing international safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme to create a corpus of internationally accepted Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS), focus is currently being placed on establishing standards for the 'geological disposal of radioactive waste'. This is a challenging task and to help the standards development process there is a need to stimulate discussion of some of the associated scientific and technical issues. A number of position papers developed in recent years by a subgroup of the Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal, address many of the relevant issues. These include a common safety based framework for radioactive waste disposal, appropriate time frames for safety assessment, different possible indicators of long-term safety, the safety implications of reversibility and retrievability, the assessment of possible human intrusion into the repository, the role and limitations of institutional control, establishing reference critical groups and biospheres for long-term assessment, and what is meant by 'compliance' with the standards. These papers will be discussed at a Specialists Meeting to be held at the IAEA in June 2001 as a means of establishing the extent to which they enjoy the general support of experts. In order to broaden that consensus, the conclusions reached at the Specialists Meeting on the issues listed above will be presented and discussed with participants at a number of international meetings. Later this year, a draft safety standard on the geological disposal of radioactive waste which takes account of the consensus positions reached through the various consultations will be submitted for the consideration of Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the officially approved body within the IAEA for the review and approval of waste safety standards. The Committee is made up of government appointed radioactive waste regulators. Subsequent steps include the provision of formal comments by governments, final approval by WASSC, and by the IAEA's Commission on Safety Standards (CSS) and finally by the IAEA's Board of Governors. (author)

10

Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'.

Voytchev, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DSU/SERAC/CTHIR), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Chiaro, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Radev, R. [LLNL, Livermore, CA (United States)

2006-07-01

11

International standards for nuclear technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of history, current status and possible future developments in the field of international nuclear standards, with emphasis on the relevant activities of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). After a brief history of standardization in general and description of the 'hierarchy' of legal and technical nuclear standars, the reasons for international nuclear standardization and the efforts of various international organizations in this field are described, in particular the Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' of ISO (with tables of its organization, output and projects); the TC 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC); the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Program, and some other international organizations. Finally, some problems in this important and difficult field which remain to be solved are being discussed. (orig.)

12

International standards for the exploration and production industry -- Their development and use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A single global market for procurement is of crucial importance to the E and P industry. The resulting benefits, including cost reductions and shorter delivery times, could even be the key to the economic development of marginal fields. International Standards that cater for the needs of users, manufacturers and the public at large can provide a common basis for companies to procure and provide goods and services that will deliver the required performance throughout the field life. The savings to industry could be billions of dollars per year. The E and P Forum, on behalf of the industry, has developed proposals to increase the efficiency of this managerial procedure and to speed up the ''internationalization'' of selected standards. Details are given at the end of the paper. It is argued that the E and P industry should rally to the cause of international standardization. Companies should lend their full support by committing their valuable expert resources. It is in the interests of the industry to do this for, without suitably skilled expert representation in ISO and the elimination of duplication as well as waste of resources through performing similar work at company or national level, the large potential benefits of international standardization will elude the E and P industry

13

The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

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Development and pilot of an internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management in European primary care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care can play an important role in providing cardiovascular risk management in patients with established Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD, patients with a known high risk of developing CVD, and potentially for individuals with a low risk of developing CVD, but who have unhealthy lifestyles. To describe and compare cardiovascular risk management, internationally valid quality indicators and standardized measures are needed. As part of a large project in 9 European countries (EPA-Cardio, we have developed and tested a set of standardized measures, linked to previously developed quality indicators. Methods A structured stepwise procedure was followed to develop measures. First, the research team allocated 106 validated quality indicators to one of the three target populations (established CVD, at high risk, at low risk and to different data-collection methods (data abstraction from the medical records, a patient survey, an interview with lead practice GP/a practice survey. Secondly, we selected a number of other validated measures to enrich the assessment. A pilot study was performed to test the feasibility. Finally, we revised the measures based on the findings. Results The EPA-Cardio measures consisted of abstraction forms from the medical-records data of established Coronary Heart Disease (CHD-patients - and high-risk groups, a patient questionnaire for each of the 3 groups, an interview questionnaire for the lead GP and a questionnaire for practice teams. The measures were feasible and accepted by general practices from different countries. Conclusions An internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management, linked to validated quality indicators and tested for feasibility in general practice, is now available. Careful development and pilot testing of the measures are crucial in international studies of quality of healthcare.

Szecsenyi Joachim

2011-04-01

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International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process. Fourth, sufficient program resources for program implementation and evaluation are critical to the effectiveness of standards and labeling programs and cost-sharing between national and local governments can help ensure adequate resources and uniform implementation. Lastly, check-testing and punitive measures are important forms of enforcement while the cancellation of registration or product sales-based fines have also proven effective in reducing non-compliance. The international comparative analysis also revealed the differing degree to which the level of government decentralization has influenced S&L programs and while no single country has best practices in all elements of standards and labeling development and implementation, national examples of best practices for specific elements do exist. For example, the U.S. has exemplified the use of rigorous analyses for standard-setting and robust data source with the RECS database while Japan?s Top Runner standard-setting principle has motivated manufacturers to exceed targets. In terms of standards implementation and enforcement, Australia has demonstrated success with enforcement given its long history of check-testing and enforcement initiatives while mandatory information-sharing between EU jurisdictions on compliance results is another important enforcement mechanism. These examples show that it is important to evaluate not only the drivers of different paths of standards and labeling development, but also the country-specific context for best practice examples in order to understand how and why certain elements of specific S&L programs have been effective.

Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

2012-02-28

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Advantages and difficulties of implementation of the international GNA standards in sustainable mining development. (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Conflicts in the development of mining projects are now common between the mining proponents, NGO's and communities. These conflicts can sometimes be alleviated by early development of modes of communication, and a formal discussion format that allows airing of concerns and potential resolution of problems. One of the methods that can formalize this process is to establish a Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA), which deals specifically with challenges in relationships between mining operations and the local communities. It is a new practice related to mining operations that are oriented toward social needs and concerns of local communities that arise during the normal life of a mine, which can achieve sustainable mining practices in both developing and developed countries. The GNA project being currently developed at the University of Nevada, Reno in cooperation with the Newmont Mining Corporation has a goal to create an open company/community dialog that is based on the international standards and that will help identify and address sociological and environmental concerns associated with mining, as well as find methods for communication and conflict resolution. GNA standards should be based on trust doctrine, open information access, and community involvement in the decision making process. It should include the following components: emergency response and community communications; environmental issues, including air and water quality standards; reclamation and recultivation; socio-economic issues: transportation, safety, training, and local hiring; and financial issues, particularly related to mitigation offsets and community needs. The GNA standards help identify and evaluate conflict criteria in mining/community relationships; determine the status of concerns; focus on the local political and government systems; separate the acute and the chronic concerns; determine the role and responsibilities of stakeholders; analyze problem resolution feasibility; maintain the community involvement and support through economic benefits and environmental safeguards; develop options for the concerns resolution; develop and manage short and long-term plans. Difficulties in establishing the GNA standards include identification of the full list of stakeholders, lack of responsible environmental protection practices, dependence on the government and political system, lack of will to disclose full information to the public. It is further complicated by the lack of insurance/bonding policies, and by the lack of audit and monitoring that could determine the level of exposure of the local community and the environment to the contaminants released at the mine sites. Since many problems of mines can occur during closure and post-closure, GNA's should address those issues also. Determined the process for the GNA implementation as a conflict prevention/resolution tool, analyzed conflict/concerns criteria associated with mining operations, determined the role of the stakeholders, worked out the process of stakeholders monitoring, carried out the sociological survey of the stakeholders and the community. Frequent conflicts between mining companies and surrounding communities that lead to work disruptions or even mine closures show the necessity of a less confrontational approach to environmental and social justice. Establishment of GNA standards for use in both developed and developing nations can decrease these conflicts.

Masaitis, A.

2013-12-01

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Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Developing Countries: The Case of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study focused on the adoption process of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS on adeveloping economy, with particular reference to Nigeria. The paper is based on the data obtained from literaturesurvey and archival sources in the context of the globalization of International Financial Reporting and theadoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS.Nigeria has embraced IFRS in order toparticipate in the benefits it offers, including attracting foreign direct investment, reduction of the cost of doingbusiness, and cross border listing. In implementing IFRS Nigeria will face challenges including the developmentof a legal and regulatory framework, awareness campaign, and training of personnel. Recommendations weremade to forestall such challenges which include strengthening education and training, establishment of anindependent body to monitor and enforce accounting and auditing standards.

Abdulkadir Madawaki

2012-01-01

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Protection of emergency workers and helpers: recent developments in international standards in emergency preparedness and response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in abstract form only. IAEA safety requirements in preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, were endorsed in 2002 in a joint sponsorship of seven international intergovernmental organizations. Building on experience from responses to actual emergencies, these safety requirements set common goals to be achieved and the common concepts and approaches to be taken for an adequate preparedness to effectively respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency irrespective of the cause. Ensuring an adequate protection of emergency workers is an important aspect of emergency arrangements considered in this publication. In 2011, a revision of these safety requirements was initiated in order to take into account past experience and developments since 2002 with due consideration (but not limited to) the experience gained in the emergency response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Protection of emergency workers got particular attention during this revision in the light of the lessons identified in past emergencies resulting in strengthened and more comprehensive, yet simple, system for protection of emergency workers of different organizations and services. The revised safety requirements are expected to be published in 2015 as Part 7 of the General Safety Requirements (GSR Part 7) within the IAEA Safety Standards Series. In this presentation, the latest updates and developments with regard to emergency workers in the light of the revision of the Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 are presented. Issues such as who are to be considered as emergency workers, the importance of their designation prior to an emergency, how to deal during an emergency response with those emergency workers not recognized as such at preparedness stage, protection aspects to be considered for all emergency workers and dose criteria to be used for restricting their further exposures in an emergency response are addressed. The specifics associated with the protection of female emergency workers are also highlighted. Moreover, the approach to dealing and protecting helpers on the part of the public willing to contribute to the emergency response on a voluntarily basis is covered in this presentation too. (author)

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Development of an evaluation methodology for triple bottom line reports using international standards on reporting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is twofold. First, evaluation scoring systems for triple bottom line (TBL) reports to date are examined and potential methodological weaknesses and problems are highlighted. In this context, a new assessment methodology is presented based explicitly on the most widely acknowledged standard on non-financial reporting worldwide, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The set of GRI topics and performance indicators was converted into scoring criteria while the generic scoring devise was set from 0 to 4 points. Secondly, the proposed benchmark tool was applied to the TBL reports published by Greek companies. Results reveal major gaps in reporting practices, stressing the need for the further development of internal systems and processes in order to collect essential non-financial performance data. A critical overview of the structure and rationale of the evaluation tool in conjunction with the Greek case study is discussed while recommendations for future research on the field of this relatively new form of reporting are suggested. PMID:19495861

Skouloudis, Antonis; Evangelinos, Konstantinos; Kourmousis, Fotis

2009-08-01

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Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Triple Bottom Line Reports Using International Standards on Reporting  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is twofold. First, evaluation scoring systems for triple bottom line (TBL) reports to date are examined and potential methodological weaknesses and problems are highlighted. In this context, a new assessment methodology is presented based explicitly on the most widely acknowledged standard on non-financial reporting worldwide, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The set of GRI topics and performance indicators was converted into scoring criteria while the generic scoring devise was set from 0 to 4 points. Secondly, the proposed benchmark tool was applied to the TBL reports published by Greek companies. Results reveal major gaps in reporting practices, stressing the need for the further development of internal systems and processes in order to collect essential non-financial performance data. A critical overview of the structure and rationale of the evaluation tool in conjunction with the Greek case study is discussed while recommendations for future research on the field of this relatively new form of reporting are suggested.

Skouloudis, Antonis; Evangelinos, Konstantinos; Kourmousis, Fotis

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
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Assay of HNS by liquid chromatography with the use of an internal standard. Process development endeavor No. 101  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved method for the assay of hexanitrostilbene (HNS) by liquid chromatography was developed using an internal standard of benzotrifuraxan (BTF). An eluant of 75% heptane, 5% acetonitrile and 20% glyme was found to give the highest resolution of those eluants investigated using a ..mu..Bondapak NH/sub 2/ column.

Schaffer, C.L.

1981-01-01

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The development and implementation of safety standards fostering international regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials - A status report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency has the responsibility to develop standards of safety for the transport of radioactive material, that serve as the model for international modal regulatory documents and for domestic regulations throughout the world. This paper reviews the various legal instruments that are used to regulate transport, and the manner in which the IAEA transport regulations fit into this legal framework. It also outlines the history of the development of the transport regulations, the current status and future plans for continually reviewing and, as necessary, revising the regulations, and summarises the other documents that are provided to assist in the application of the regulations. (author)

23

Criticality safety and international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There appears to be a worldwide increase in interest in international standards. Indications are that international standards will tend to replace or overshadow national standards. An illustration of this tendency was seen recently. During the recent (February 1996) meeting of the International Organization for Standardization Technical Committee 85 (ISO TC 85, Nuclear Energy) in Albuquerque, representatives from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) requested ISO TC 85 to accept responsibility for conversion of 19 ASTM high-level dosimetry standards to ISO standards using the open-quotes fasttrackclose quotes procedure. This unprecedented request was stimulated by a need to have these procedures in an ISO document to make them more useful to the international community. Recognizing the increased status that international standards enjoy today, TC 85 unanimously agreed to accept this responsibility

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INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO)  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently set up a Metadata Working Group to take responsibility for standards for specification and management of metadata. The scope of the Working Group includes metadata elements, classification and coding schemes, a...

25

ISO International Standards  

RFID) Standards are increasingly crucial to innovative new working methods in global supply chains.A number of recent standards ...These technologies are, for instance, applied to the new e-passport, using biometric facial imagery as its main

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[Development of national and international standards of population age distribution for medical statistics, health-demographic analysis and risk assessment].  

Science.gov (United States)

The current European standard (CES) and the World population age distribution standard is widely used in medical and demographic studies, performed by international (WHO, etc.) and national organizations. The Russian Federal Service of States Statistics (RosStat) uses CES in demographic yearbooks and other publications. The standard is applied in calculation of the standardized mortality rate (SMR) of the population in different countries and territories. Risk assessment is also used CES. In the basis of the standards there has been laid the idea to assess mortality according to uniform standard, so to get possibility to compare the mortality rate of the population in different countries and regions, different genders and different calendar years. Analysis of the results of test calculations of the values of the SMR for the population of Russia and other countries with the use of current standards has revealed serious shortcomings of the latters and set up the task of improving them. A new concept of the development of standards based on the use of the concept of stable equilibrium of the age distribution of the population and survivorship function is proposed. PMID:24624814

Demin, V F; Pal'tsev, M A; Chaban, E A

2013-01-01

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Development of a techniques of the performance test for a radiation protection devices and it's international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International Standardization in all technical area is gaining its momentum as its impact and implication over global trade is directly linked. The worldwide competition to secure a dominant position in the standardization process is ever growing over the years. In 2005, the International Technical Committee on nuclear instrumentation, which is a subunit of International Electro-technical Commission (IEC), was held in Korea under the auspices of MOST (Ministry Of Science and Technology). Korea has adopted its rule and regulation as the national standard. As a part of a link to national mid-and long-term atomic energy R and D program of MOST, the technical development of a performance test for the radiation monitors was carried out under mechanical environment and electromagnetic immunity conditions. The characteristics of the radiation fields were also evaluated under the conditions and introduced to a techniques of performance test for the radiation protection instrumentation adopted IEC61526 standards and it's results was analyzed. We would like to share the experience gained in these efforts, failure as well as success, and to discuss the problems encountered and serious consideration to be taken into account in the future endeavor

28

Study of International Standards of Risk Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management...

Dykan Volodymyr L.; Posokhov Igor M.

2014-01-01

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Importance of international standards on hydrogen technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation provided some basic information regarding standards and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It also explained the importance of standardization activities, particularly ISO/TC 197 which applies to hydrogen technologies. Standards are established by consensus. They define the minimum requirements that will ensure that products and services are reliable and effective. Standards contribute to the elimination of technical barriers to trade (TBT). The harmonization of standards around the world is desirable in a free trade environment. The influence of the TBT on international standardization was discussed with particular reference to the objectives of ISO/TC 197 hydrogen technologies. One of the priorities for ISO/TC 197 is a hydrogen fuel infrastructure which includes refuelling stations, fuelling connectors, and storage technologies for gaseous and liquid hydrogen. Other priorities include an agreement between the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the ISO, in particular the IEC/TC 105 and ISO/TC 197 for the development of fuel cell standards. The international standards that have been published thus far include ISO 13984:1999 for liquid hydrogen, land vehicle fuelling system interface, and ISO 14687:1999 for hydrogen fuel product specification. Standards are currently under development for: liquid hydrogen; airport hydrogen fuelling facilities; gaseous hydrogen blends; basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems; gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and gaseous hydrogen for land vehicle filling connectors. It was concluded that the widespread use of hydrogen is dependent on international standardization

30

78 FR 11793 - Minimum Internal Control Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY: National...proposes to amend its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming...Federal Register called Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64 FR 590....

2013-02-20

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Room to Groove? : Standards of Civilization in the Development of International Financial Orders  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of a `standard of civilization', a preferred form of socio-political organization, in global capital markets presents both constraints and opportunities for creditors and borrowers. When imposed, civilizing standards may change how a borrower would prefer to conduct their affairs. Creditors, after all, do not have the time and money to check every little detail and want clear performance benchmarks in economic life. At the same time, borrowers may present themselves as conforming to a civilizing standard to access capital and give themselves a greater capacity to conduct their own affairs. As long as they stay within the parameters of legitimate financial practice to signal institutional isomorphism, the `groove', creditors may well allow borrowers room for change in self-determined ways. This paper maps out the historical and conceptual terrain concerning civilizing ideas about the legitimacy of financial practices within global capital markets, and investigates relationships between Western `civilizers' and Emerging Market Economies during the last two periods of financial globalization, the late-nineteenth/ early-twentieth centuries and the late-twentieth century.

Seabrooke, Leonard

2005-01-01

32

Accounting Management by International Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards – their contribution to harmonization andglobalization by purposing and tasking for accounting management. Measuring in details their pros and conseffects on the division of labour, financial innovation, company transactions and cost of capital it could beauthor’s recommendation for the business management inside and outside of one country’s border. Especiallythe multinational companies whose subsidiaries had to report for some purposes (e.g. tax, local borrowing,benchmarking using national accounting rules convert and consolidate their different framework for unifiedfinancial statement where they were listed. With the growth of international business transactions by private andpublic entities, organizations the need to coordinate different investment decisions has increased. A suitableaccounting information system can help multinational enterprises accomplish their managerial functions on aglobal basis. In this viewpoint the adoption of international accounting standards can promote and support forthe business management.

Jeno Beke

2010-04-01

33

77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...GAMING COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards AGENCY: National...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming...

2012-07-24

34

International standards and agreements in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing

35

International standards and agreements in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing. (author)

36

Adoption determinants of the International Accounting Standards IAS/IFRS by the developing countries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: English Abstract in spanish El principal objetivo de este documento es identificar ciertos factores que probablemente esclarezcan la opción de aplicar IAS/IFRS adoptadas por los países en desarrollo hasta el año 2008. Basados en una muestra de 74 países en desarrollo, los resultados empíricos han demostrado que la mayoría de e [...] llos probablemente tienen un alto nivel de crecimiento económico, junto con un sistema jurídico de derecho consuetudinario y un nivel de educación avanzado. Abstract in english This paper’s main objective is to identify certain explanatory factors that likely clarify the choice of applying IAS/IFRS adopted by developing countries (DCs) up until the year 2008. Based on a sample consisting of 74 DCs, the empirical results have indicated that the DCs most likely to adopt IAS/ [...] IFRS have a high level of economic growth, along with a legal system of common law and an advanced educational level.

Fatma, Zehri; Jamel, Chouaibi.

2013-12-01

37

Adoption determinants of the International Accounting Standards IAS/IFRS by the developing countries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: English Abstract in spanish El principal objetivo de este documento es identificar ciertos factores que probablemente esclarezcan la opción de aplicar IAS/IFRS adoptadas por los países en desarrollo hasta el año 2008. Basados en una muestra de 74 países en desarrollo, los resultados empíricos han demostrado que la mayoría de e [...] llos probablemente tienen un alto nivel de crecimiento económico, junto con un sistema jurídico de derecho consuetudinario y un nivel de educación avanzado. Abstract in english This paper’s main objective is to identify certain explanatory factors that likely clarify the choice of applying IAS/IFRS adopted by developing countries (DCs) up until the year 2008. Based on a sample consisting of 74 DCs, the empirical results have indicated that the DCs most likely to adopt IAS/ [...] IFRS have a high level of economic growth, along with a legal system of common law and an advanced educational level.

Fatma, Zehri; Jamel, Chouaibi.

38

77 FR 32444 - Minimum Internal Control Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...the human environment and that...Office of Management and Budget...MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS...incorporated external standards, the external standards...accordance with management's general...documentation. (c) Internal audit....

2012-06-01

39

Accounting Management by International Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards – their contribution to harmonization andglobalization by purposing and tasking for accounting management. Measuring in details their pros and conseffects on the division of labour, financial innovation, company transactions and cost of capital it could beauthor’s recommendation for the business management inside and outside of one country’s border. Especiallythe multinational companies whose su...

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

40

International standardization in space systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts, and Objects Launched into Outer Space of 1968 (assistance agreement) is an international treaty that could become a legal testbed for the elaboration, strengthening, and expansion of the space law regime. A revised and expanded assistance agreement could be the result of a proactive stance to introduce standardization of human and machine rescue systems. It could also strengthen general attempts to reduce man made environmental hazards in the outer space environment.

Mardon, Austin Albert

 
 
 
 
41

Internal Standard Capillary Electrophoresis as a High-Throughput Method for pKa Determination in Drug Discovery and Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel high-throughput method for determining acidity constants (pKa) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) is developed. The method, based on the use of an internal standard (IS-CE), is implemented as a routine method for accurate experimental pKa determination of drugs undergoing physicochemical measurements in drug discovery laboratories. Just two electropherograms at 2 different pH values are needed to calculate an acidity constant. Several ISs can be used in the same buffer and run to enhance precision. With 3 ISs, for example, the pKa of the test compound (TC) can be obtained in triplicate in less than 3 min of electrophoresis. It has been demonstrated that the IS-CE method eliminates some systematic errors, maintaining, or even increasing the precision of the results compared with other methods. Furthermore, pH buffer instability during electrophoretic runs is not a problem in the IS-CE method. It is also proved that after 16 h of electroseparation using the same buffer vial, pH may change by around one unit; but the pKa calculated by the IS-CE method remains constant. Thus, IS-CE is a powerful high-throughput method for pKa determination in drug discovery and development. PMID:25170674

Cabot, Joan M; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí

2014-10-13

42

Nuclear standardization development study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

43

Developing a registration entry and query system within the scope of harmonizing of the orthophoto metadata with the international standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Increase in the number of satellites and the utilization of digital cameras in the aerial photography has spread the use of satellite image and oriented aerial photograph as real or near-real time resolution, accessible, cost effective spatial data. Co-registered images or aerial photos corrected for the height variations and orthogonality (scale) have become an essential input for geographical information systems and spatial decision making due to their integration with the other spatial data. Beyond that, images and photographs compose infrastructure for the other information in usage of spatial data with the help of the access and query facility web providing. Although the issue of the aerial photo ortho-rectification has been solved long ago, the problems related with the storage of huge amount of photos and images, their management, processes, and user accesses have been raised. These subjects concern the multitudinous private and governmental institutes. Some governmental organizations and private companies have gained the technical ability to perform these works in recent times. This situation has lead to significant increase in the amount of aerial photograph taking and processing in one year for whole country. General Command of Mapping has been using digital aerial camera since 2008 for the photograph taking. The total area covered by the satellite images, purchased for different purposes, and the aerial photographs, taken for some revision purposes or demands of governmental and private institutes, has reached up to 200.000 km². It is considered that, colored and high resolution orthophotos of the whole country can be achieved within four years; provided that the annual production would continue similarly without any increase in amount. From the numbers given above, it is clear and inevitable that the orthophoto production procedure must be improved in order to produce orthophotos in the same year just after the photograph takings. Necessary studies about the storage, management and presentation of the huge amounts of orthophoto images to the users must be started immediately. In this study; metadata components of the produced orthophotos compatible with the international standards have been defined, a relational database has been created to keep complete and accurate metadata, and a user interface has been developed to insert the metadata into the database. Through the developed software, some extra time has been saved while creating and querying the metadata.

?ahin, ?.; Alk??, Z.

2013-10-01

44

Study of International Standards of Risk Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management, are of general character and differ with the degree of detailing. Their undoubted value in development of risk management in Ukraine is identification of a general direction of building corporate systems of risk management in practice. The said approaches at the national and corporate levels of standardisation in Ukraine within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management would allow improvement of risk management in corporations and enterprises. The prospect of further studies of domestic specialists in the field of risk management is development of the domestic standard of risk management with consideration of modern domestic specific features of development of risk management in Ukraine and leading foreign experience.

Dykan Volodymyr L.

2014-01-01

45

Review of international standards for dosemeters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International standards for radiation protection dosemeters are published by the International Electrotechnical Commission and the International Organization for Standardization. Several standards exist side by side, although they treat the same measuring task, and specify different requirements, so that dosemeters of different quality result. In this paper, the quality of dosemeters is compared by calculating the uncertainty of dose measurements for dosemeters, which just basely fulfil the respective standard. The results are related to general yardsticks on uncertainty laid down by international organisations. Furthermore, technical differences are standards and addressed and a method to make them conform is presented. (authors)

46

Development of internal company standards of good management practice and a task-based risk assessment tool for offshore work-related stressors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes a project which developed a set of fourteen internal, company-specific management standards for common work-related stressors. A ''bottom-up'' stress risk assessment approach was used to identify work-related stressors affecting team members in two organisations, BP and East of Scotland Water. The final versions of the standards, and a description of the process used in their development, are provided. In addition, a set of human factors triggers for use during a task-based risk assessment was developed and implemented. Although the standards and human factors triggers were developed within specific industries, it is likely that they will be relevant and useful to many organisations who wish to adopt a preventative approach to work-related stress. (author)

Briner, R.B.; Amati, C.; Lardner, R.

2003-07-01

47

National and International Standardization (International Organization for Standardization and European Committee for Standardization Relevant for Sustainability in Construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainability in construction has a short history in terms of principles, standardizations and applications. From the Brundtland Report “Our Common Future”, a new vision of the resource deficits, climate impacts and the social responsibility gave growth to the idea of sustainability also in design and construction. Consequently, in around 2000, the international and national organizations for standardization started to develop standards for the application of sustainable principles. This paper gives an overview of existing and planned standards, and examples on how to use them as a framework for the development of methods and tools for assessment.

Renata Morbiducci

2010-12-01

48

Present status of international neutron standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe the summary of ISO 8529 mainly on the monoenergetic neutron fluence standard using electrostatic accelerators and the AIST activity on the neutron standardization together with the international key comparisons held under the auspices of CCRI. (author)

Kudo, Katsuhisa; Uritani, Akira [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, National Metrology Inst. of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

2003-03-01

49

Harmonising the international safety standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Eighth International Summer Symposium of the Association for Safety Science was held from the 6th to 8th July 1987 in Luxembourg and dealt with the subject 'An international comparison of safety and risks'. Approximately 150 participants discussed the legal, social and economic aspects covering the full range from ecological systems to highly technical systems such as power plants. (orig./HP)

50

The use of International Standards Organization ISO 9000 quality assurance standards in place of military standards  

Science.gov (United States)

The implementation of quality standards within the European Community by the creation of International Quality Standards 9000 is another step toward development of a global marketplace. It is in the interests of DoD to support this trend in order to help maintain the defense industrial base. The first part of this study performs a comparison of DoD quality standards to the ISO 9000 Standards. The second part of the study consists of a survey of U.S. firms that have become ISO 9000 registered. This survey is intended to provide an assessment of the current movement within the defense industrial base toward adoption of ISO 9000 Standards. The survey also attempts to identify potential implementation issues relating to adoption of ISO 9000 Standards in place of military standards. It is concluded that DoD should implement ISO 9000 and that the impact of this implementation will be favorable.

Beckerdite, Stanley M.

1992-06-01

51

Toward an international standard for PCR-based detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacters: Assay development and analytical validation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene were tested in all possible pairwise combinations, as well as two published primers targeting the 23S rRNA gene. A panel of 150 strains including target and nontarget strains was used in an in-house validation. Only one primer pair, OT1559 plus 18-1, was found to be selective. The inclusivity and exclusivity were 100 and 97%, respectively. In an attempt to find a thermostable DNA polymerase more resistant than Taq to PCR inhibitors present in chicken samples, three DNA polymerases were evaluated. The DNA polymerase Tth was not inhibited at a concentration of 2% (vol/vol) chicken carcass rinse, unlike both Taq DNA polymerase and DyNAzyme. Based on these results, Tth was selected as the most suitable enzymefor the assay. The standardized PCR test described shows potential for use in large-scale screening programs for food-borne Campylobacter species under the assay conditions specified.

Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Ahrens, Peter

2003-01-01

52

International Accounting Standards and their Use in Lithuania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The object of research: International accounting standards. Research aim: After analyzing international accounting standards use necessity and practical experience in Lithuania foresee the stages of international accounting standards and reveal standards impact for the accounting policy formation. Objectives: • evaluate international accounting standards importance and necessity; • to group international accounting standards according the essence of considered questions; • explore inter...

Vainora, Klanaite?

2007-01-01

53

International Business Accounting Standardization and Hungarian Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. This paper showed that both businesses earnings and stock returns effect on the management turnover. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to adopt international accounting standards. Sensitivity of CEO turnover to accounting earnings increased after the adoption of international system. Businesses with higher leverage and lagged sales growth have more frequent employee layoffs. Standards user enterprises’ employee layoffs are more response to accounting performance in the post-adoption period.

Jeno Beke

2010-11-01

54

International Business Accounting Standardization and Hungarian Practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this study is to describe and summarize the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. This paper showed that both business...

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

55

Business management by international accounting standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards - their contribution to harmonization and globalization by purposing and tasking for business management. The differences between the national accounting rules and the international standards are compared and valued inside and outside of the European Union. The empirical results of measuring and analyzing in details theirs pros and cons effects on the business environment by mathematical-statistical methods there could be ...

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

56

Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standard...

Jeno Beke

2011-01-01

57

Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standard...

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

58

International Standards of Corporate Social Responsibility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article deals with internationally acknowledged standards and norms in the sphere of corporate socialresponsibility. It introduces the concept of social responsibility, the so-called triple-bottom line, in terms ofwhich the company focuses not only on the economic growth but it also takes into account environmental andsocial aspects of its business activities. The article presents five norms and standards which stem from the triplebottomline concept. The norms and standards are in the art...

2010-01-01

59

Review international standards for grid connected photovoltaic systems in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grid connected PV is being applied on variety application including large centralised stations, commercial building and individual houses. There is a need for specific standard to address distinctive new issue created by grid connected PV power system. Internationally many countries are attempting to develop standards for building integration, Dc side issues and grid connection issues. This paper surveys the current development state of the major countries standards in this area, comparing and contrasting, standards and guideline under development, also addressing the need of standards for grid connected in Malaysia

60

Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. The results of applied regression model support that the greater demand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to performance evaluations at more widely held by businesses stimulating to adopt international accounting standards. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to follow accounting standardization.
Key words: Business practice; Accounting standards; Standardization process; Management performances; Comparable research; Hungary

Jeno Beke

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. The results of applied regression model support that the greater demand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to performance evaluations at more widely held by businesses stimulating to adopt international accounting standards. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to follow accounting standardization.Key words: Business practice; Accounting standards; Standardization process; Management performances; Comparable research; Hungary

Jeno Beke

2011-02-01

62

International thermal reactor development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The worldwide development of nuclear power plants is reviewed. Charts are presented which show the commitment to light-water reactor capacity construction with breakdown by region and country. Additional charts show the major nuclear research centers which have substantial scope in light water reactor development and extensive international activities

63

SHORT COMMUNICATION: Josephson Voltage Standard International Comparison  

Science.gov (United States)

An international voltage standard comparison has been carried out by six metrological laboratories using a Zener diode as the travelling voltage standard. The results show agreement within the uncertainty of the measurements: this is limited only by the stability of the Zener, which shows a very linear drift. The data present a residual standard deviation of 0,047 ?V from the linear regression fit for the 1,018 V output. This makes it possible to confirm the performance of the new 1V TPYCEA Josephson voltage standard.

López, M.; Camón, A.; Balmisa, J. M.; Coterón, M.; de la Court, P.; Erard, L.; Lo-Hive, J. P.; Genevès, G.; Grimm, L.; Lorenzo, L.; Pöpel, R.; Rillo, C.

1995-01-01

64

International Financial Reporting Standards : Expanding Standards, Expanding Geographically, Expanding Literature  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range of educational texts covering IFRS within the context of a review of the progress of IFRS themselves.

Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

2011-01-01

65

Developing standardized facility contingency plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Texaco consists of several operating departments that are, in effect, independent companies. Each of these departments is responsible for complying with all environmental laws and regulations. This includes the preparation by each facility to respond to an oil spill at that location. For larger spills, however, management of the response will rest with corporate regional response teams. Personnel from all departments make up the regional teams. In 1990, Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act. In 1991, the US Coast Guard began developing oil spill response contingency plan regulations, which they are still working on. Meanwhile, four of the five west coast states have also passed laws requiring contingency plans. (Only Hawaii has chosen to wait and see what the federal regulations will entail). Three of the states have already adopted regulations. Given these laws and regulations, along with its corporate structure, Texaco addressed the need to standardize local facility plans as well as its response organization. This paper discusses how, by working together, the Texaco corporate international oil spill response staff and the Texaco western region on-scene commander developed: A standard contingency plan format crossing corporate boundaries and meeting federal and state requirements. A response organization applicable to any size facility or spill. A strategy to sell the standard contingency plan and response organization to the operating unitse operating units

66

Advancements in internationally accepted standards for radiation processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subcommittees of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) are developing standards on various aspects of radiation processing. Nine standards on how to select and calibrate dosimeters, where to put them, how many to use, and how to use individual types of dosimeter systems have been published. The group is also developing standards on how to use gamma, electron beam, and X-ray facilities for radiation processing, and a standard on how to treat dose uncertainties. Efforts are underway to promote inclusion of these standards into procedures now being developed by government agencies and by international groups such as the United Nations' International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in order to harmonize regulations and help avoid trade barriers. Standards on good irradiation practices for meat and poultry and for fresh fruits, and for the irradiation of seafood and spices have been developed. These food-related standards are based on practices previously published by ICGFI. Standards for determining doses for radiation hardness testing of electronics have been developed. Standards on the Fricke and TLD dosimetry systems are equally useful in other radiation processing applications. (Author)

67

EPA STANDARDS NETWORK FACT SHEET: ISO 14000: INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS  

Science.gov (United States)

This flyer provides an overview of the ISO 14000 series of International standards, supplying a brief history, structure of the Technical Committee (TC) 207, structure of the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to ISO TC-207, status of the Standards development as of June 1997, w...

68

International Development Project Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This interdisciplinary classroom exercise from GreenApps at Red Rocks Community College presented by Mike Smith and Irina Strelnikova is designed for second year or experienced students in Water Quality technician programs. Each student is âÂÂgiven insight into the needs for planning for an International Development project in water, wastewater, collection system, distribution system, or solid waste management.â Students are then required to pick from a list of locations to find development need and create a planning project. This site contains materials required, prerequisite skills necessary, and a breakdown of the activity by role.

Smith, Mike; Strelnikova, Irina

2010-11-05

69

Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James\\'s Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents—Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups—Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media.

Mee, Blanaid

2013-02-19

70

Domestic and International Nuclear Energy Voluntary Consensus Standards Needs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report introduces the reader to the domestic and international standards development organizations (SDOs) and their structures and operations. It also identifies some of the support and subject matter needs for the development of standards on the subject of nuclear energy. The support needs are described with regard to organizational structure and subject-matter-expert (SME) participation that is required for producing voluntary consensus standards. The subject matter needs are described with regard to growing technologies and objectives that approach the boundaries of existing standards; implementation of knowledge; and safety of people, facilities, and the environment. Standards are proposed, developed, and produced by SMEs with the support of industry and government organizations. The voluntary consensus standards development process is, as its name implies, a voluntary effort. The problem in today's competitive market, impacted by global economic uncertainty, is that the voluntary participation is shifting from a collaborative industry and SME effort to a nearly SME-only one. This shift places a financial and/or time burden on the SMEs to the point that they are purposely withdrawing from the standards development process, both domestically and internationally. The standards development process desperately needs participation from more and younger SMEs. The report includes several suggestions on how this can be addressed.

71

Coordinate Standard Measurement Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Shelton Precision Interferometer Base, which is used for calibration of coordinate standards, was improved through hardware replacement, software geometry error correction, and reduction of vibration effects. Substantial increases in resolution and reliability, as well as reduction in sampling time, were achieved through hardware replacement; vibration effects were reduced substantially through modification of the machine component dampening and software routines; and the majority of the machine's geometry error was corrected through software geometry error correction. Because of these modifications, the uncertainty of coordinate standards calibrated on this device has been reduced dramatically.

Hanshaw, R.A.

2000-02-18

72

Selected major standards development bodies  

Science.gov (United States)

This interim report described the interviews the U.S. Metric Board staff conducted with the nine selected major standards developing bodies that historically have developed a predominant proportion of U.S. voluntary consensus standards, and details the findings from these interviews. The nine standards bodies were suggested by the American National Standards Institute and the American Society for Testing and Materials. The interviews were conducted in the period April 1981 through January 1982.

Tascher, J. M.

1982-05-01

73

International Standards of Corporate Social Responsibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with internationally acknowledged standards and norms in the sphere of corporate socialresponsibility. It introduces the concept of social responsibility, the so-called triple-bottom line, in terms ofwhich the company focuses not only on the economic growth but it also takes into account environmental andsocial aspects of its business activities. The article presents five norms and standards which stem from the triplebottomline concept. The norms and standards are in the article briefly characterised, which is followed by theircomparison based on four previously stated criteria. The results of the comparison show that there is no suchnorm which would meet current company requirements.This paper resulted from contribution to a research project IGA FEM CULS 201011140057 "ModernManagement Approaches in the Field of Higher Education in the Czech Republic"

L. Stanislavská

2010-12-01

74

International Economic Development Council  

Science.gov (United States)

Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the International Economic Development Council (IEDC), was created through the merger of existing economic development organizations, effectively creating the nation's largest association working in this realm of public policy. The IEDC's mission is "to provide leadership and excellence in economic development for our communities, members and partners to build economically strong, sustainable communities." While some of the online materials are available only to association members, there is a good deal of material that may be accessed by the general public. Through the online resource center, visitors may access such materials as the Economic Developer's Reference Guide (which provides an overview of such key topics as tourism, venture capital, and empowerment zones) and an overview of ongoing legislative matters that may impact the landscape of economic development. Finally, the site is rounded out by an excellent section dedicated to brownfields redevelopment, which includes a general manual of redevelopment techniques and links to external websites, such as those offered by the Environmental Protection Agency.

75

Vietnamese Accounting Reform and International Convergence of Vietnamese Accounting Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the economic globalization, the international convergence of accounting standards is inevitable. But thelevel of economic globalization in among of countries are not the same. There are some differences inaccounting environment in the countries. This paper studies international convergence of Vietnamese accountingstandards. Firstly, the paper summarizes of the process of Vietnam's accounting reform, second analysisdifferences between Vietnamese accounting standards and International accounting standards. Finally, proposedstrategy convergence of Vietnamese accounting standards and International accounting standards.

AnhTuan Nguyen

2012-05-01

76

An international effort towards developing standards for best practices in analysis, interpretation and reporting of clinical genome sequencing results in the CLARITY Challenge  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background : There is tremendous potential for genome sequencing to improve clinical diagnosis and care once it becomes routinely accessible, but this will require formalizing research methods into clinical best practices in the areas of sequence data generation, analysis, interpretation and reporting. The CLARITY Challenge was designed to spur convergence in methods for diagnosing genetic disease starting from clinical case history and genome sequencing data. DNA samples were obtained from three families with heritable genetic disorders and genomic sequence data were donated by sequencing platform vendors. The challenge was to analyze and interpret these data with the goals of identifying disease-causing variants and reporting the findings in a clinically useful format. Participating contestant groups were solicited broadly, and an independent panel of judges evaluated their performance. Results : A total of 30 international groups were engaged. The entries reveal a general convergence of practices on most elements of the analysis and interpretation process. However, even given this commonality of approach, only two groups identified the consensus candidate variants in all disease cases, demonstrating a need for consistent fine-tuning of the generally accepted methods. There was greater diversity of the final clinical report content and in the patient consenting process, demonstrating that these areas require additional exploration and standardization. Conclusions : The CLARITY Challenge provides a comprehensive assessment of current practices for using genome sequencing to diagnose and report genetic diseases. There is remarkable convergence in bioinformatic techniques, but medical interpretation and reporting are areas that require further development by many groups.

Brownstein, Catherine A; Beggs, Alan H

2014-01-01

77

Internal Standards For FTIR Analysis Of Isocyanurates  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentration of isocyanurate in polyurethane foam measured. Quantitative analysis important because concentration of isocyanurate affects chemical and physical properties of foam, and correlations between concentration and properties used to optimize foam formulations. Use of potassium ferricyanide as internal standard extended to other infrared spectral analyses of solids in which quantitative results required. Eliminates need to know thickness of sample. Synthesis of triphenylisocyanurate extended to production of pure compounds from substituted phenylisocyanates added to test foam formulations to determine improvements in thermal properties with pure or substituted triphenylisocyanurate.

Solomon, William C.; Pratz, Earl; Smith, Doris A.

1993-01-01

78

Radiation protection: Implementation of the new international basic safety standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO, were published early in 1996. The new Standards incorporate the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, including the new dose limit to apply to occupational exposure to radiation. The background and justification for the new Standards is described, together with an outline of their principal requirements. The IAEA has embarked on major programmes of work to develop practical guidance on implementing the requirements of the Standards and to assist a number of Member States to establish effective legislative frameworks for administering national regulations concerning radiation protection and radioactive waste safety. It is hoped to have this work substantially completed by the year 2000. A brief review of these programmes is presented. (author)

79

International breeder reactor development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For more than a decade, sodium cooled breeder reactors have now been in the focus of advanced nuclear power development in the major industrialized countries. In the sixties, a total of seven small experimental nuclear power stations were commissioned. Two of these have been shut down in the meantime, the others continue to work satisfactorily, their main purpose being the development of fuel elements. The years 1972-1974 saw the commissioning of the prototype power stations in the 300 MWe power category in France, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. Presently, other experimental reactors are under construction in the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the United States, plus another Soviet 600 MWe prototype reactor and the SNR 300 DeBeNeLux prototype at Kalkar. A comparison of the technological features either implemented or planned in the prototype and experimental power plants and of their fuel elements reveals a remarkable similarity in the basic concepts pursued in different countries. The two types of breeder reactors, viz. the loop and the pool types, show a closer resemblance to each other than do pressurized and boilling water reactors. The growing awareness of administrative problems emerging in the approaching phase of the introduction of large breeder power stations in a number of European countries has recently led to a streamlining effort in the structure of industries and to tentative steps towards international cooperation on a broad basisinternational cooperation on a broad basis. (orig.)

80

Internationally Standardized Cost Item Definitions for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) have agreed to jointly prepare and publish a standardized list of cost items and related definitions for decommissioning projects. Such a standardized list would facilitate communication, promote uniformity, and avoid inconsistency or contradiction of results or conclusions of cost evaluations for decommissioning projects carried out for specific purposes by different groups. Additionally, a standardized structure would also be a useful tool for more effective cost management. This paper describes actual work and result thus far

 
 
 
 
81

IRI, an International Standard for the Ionosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is a data-based model of the ionosphere that has been steadily improved and updated by a joint working group of the Committee on Space Research and the International Union of Radio Science. We will report about the most recent IRI workshops and the improvements and additions planned for the next version of the model. In particular new models will be included for the D-region electron density (Friedrich et al., 2002), and for the ion densities (Triskova et al., 2003) the latter based on Atmosphere Explorer C, D, E and Intercosmos 24 data. A correction term will be introduced in the topside electron density model to alleviate problems at high solar activities and high altitudes (Bilitza, 2002). A special IRI task groups is working on an occurrence probability model for spread-F (Abdu et al., 2003) for inclusion in IRI. A quantitative description of ionospheric variability (standard deviation from monthly mean) is the goal of a special IRI task force activity at the International Center for Theoretical Physics (Radicella 2002). We will also report about activities to update IRI with actual measurements and thus obtain a more accurate description of the actual ionosphere. A proposal to make the IRI model the ISO standard for the ionosphere is now pending before the International Standardization Organization (ISO). The IRI homepage is at http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/model/ionos/iri.html and a web-interface for computing and plotting IRI parameters can be found at http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/model/models/iri.html . Abdu, M. A., J. R de Souza, I. S. Batista, and J. H. A. Sobral, Equatorial Spread F statistics and their empirical modeling for the IRI: A regional model for the Brazilian longitude sector, Adv. Space Res., in press, 2003. Triskova, L., V. Truhlik and J. Smilauer, An empirical model of ion composition in the outer ionosphere, Adv. Space Res., in press, 2003 Bilitza, D., A Correction for the IRI Topside Model Based on Alouette/ISIS Data, World Space Congress, Houston, Texas, 2002. Friedrich, M., M. Harrich, R. Steiner, K. M. Torkar, and F.-J. Luebken, The quiet auroral ionosphere and its neutral background, World space congress, Houston, Texas, 2002.

Bilitza, D.; Reinisch, B.; Triskova, L.; Friedrich, M.

2003-04-01

82

International Standards on stability of digital prints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent uives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

83

25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.32 What are the minimum internal control standards for internal...

2010-04-01

84

25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.22 What are the minimum internal control standards for internal...

2010-04-01

85

25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.42 What are the minimum internal control standards for internal...

2010-04-01

86

International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography  

Science.gov (United States)

The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

2010-03-01

87

Science and International Development inquiry  

led by and involving researchers in developing countries and collaborations ... \\Sustainable Crop Production Research for International Development (SCPRID) \\- ... peer review and assessment processes that align the parallel requirements \\for ..... summer students and high school students, which attract attendees from \\all ...

88

The development of criticality accident alarm system standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief summary of the historical development of criticality accident alarm system standards since the 1966 meeting of the American Nuclear Society is presented. Technological developments and improvements in standard ANS 8.3 in recent years have lead to a national standard and an international standard providing similar and compatible guidance for the installation, maintenance, and use of criticality alarm systems, and an international standard providing guidance on specification and testing characteristics of equipment to be used in such systems. Suggestions for further improving the standard, specifically, clarification of the detection criteria and evacuation procedures, are discussed

89

International Migration and Human Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews the relationship between international migration and human development. First, it reviews what we know about the factors that drive migration from developing to developed countries. Second, it reviews existing knowledge about the impact of international migration and remittances on the economic and human development of migrants’ source countries. These first two sections of the paper are accompanied by an assessment of the gaps in our knowledge that need to...

Yang, Dean

2009-01-01

90

Development of plant assessment standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future of nuclear power in the United Kingdom depends on the building of new plant. In order to secure that future, nuclear power must gain public and political confidence in terms of both safety and cost. It is therefore important that Nuclear Electric plc (NE), who operates the majority of nuclear power plants in the UK, maintains its impeccable safety record. It is also very important in the current climate to drive down costs in order for the electricity produced by NE's existing power stations to be lower than that from fossil fuels. Therefore, in view of the pressure to demonstrate compliance with modern safety standards at existing nuclear power stations, it is important that any financial investments should be targeted at cost/safety benefit effective areas. The paper outlines the history of the development of plant safety assessment standards in the company and how the current framework is allowing NE to approach modern safety standards in an effective manner. NE operates 11 gas cooled nuclear power plants, with ages ranging from 6 to 31 years. Early reactors in the UK were not designed against detailed standards. Initially, this was not a problem, but, as more complex designs were introduced, the debate with the regulator over the adequacy of the design led to modifications and costly delays. Design safety guidelines were developed for later reactors and used as a contractual specification of the safety requirements. This has proved to be a successful apnts. This has proved to be a successful approach for the latest stations at Heysham 2 and Sizewell B. The standards that NE has developed for reviewing the safety of its operating stations are consistent with the standards of the regulatory authorities. These standards provide a systematic framework for targeting areas for any safety improvement and demonstrating that risk are as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), in a way that ensures that NE, and hence also the consumer, gets value for money. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs

91

46 CFR 108.503 - Relationship to international standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Relationship to international standards. 108.503 Section 108.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.503 Relationship to international...

2010-10-01

92

Development and validation of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy method for determination of prilocaine HCl in human plasma using internal standard methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accurate determination of prilocaine HCl levels in plasma is important in both clinical and pharmacological/toxicological studies. Prilocaine HCl is quickly hydrolyzed to o-toluidine, causing methemoglobinemia. For this, the present work describes the methodology and validation of a GC-MS assay for determination of prilocaine HCl with lidocaine HCl as internal standard in plasma. The validation parameters of linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantification were studied. The range of quantification for the GC-MS was 20-250 ng/mL in plasma. Within-day and between-day precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD) were less than 6.0%, and accuracy (relative error) was better than 9.0% (n = 6). The analytical recovery of prilocaine HCl and IS from plasma has averaged 94.79 and 96.8%, respectively. LOQ and LOD values for plasma were found to be 20 and 10 ng/mL, respectively. The GC-MS method can be used for determination from plasma of prilocaine HCl in routine measurement as well as in pharmacokinetic studies for clinical use. PMID:17583875

Kadioglu, Yucel; Atila, Alptug

2007-10-01

93

Constitutionalism Without Governance : International Standards in the Afghan Legal System  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There has been a lot of attention in recent years about improving the quality of legal systems in overseas jurisdictions. This is reflected in the growing proportion of rule of law components in development assistance and, especially, in post-conflict stabilisation missions. External actors endeavour to strengthen the role of international legal standards in the courts and, more broadly, the political life of societies emerging from violent conflict. Virtually all stabilisation missions contain today important rule of law components, a shift in emphasis that is mirrored in bilateral financial assistance. The international engagement in Afghanistan since December 2001 has been no exception, having placed a heavy emphasis on introducing international legal norms into the Afghan legal and political system.

Afsah, Ebrahim

2012-01-01

94

International standards activities in image data compression  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); coding for color TV, video conferencing, video conferencing/telephone, and still color images; ISO color image coding standard; and ISO still picture standard are briefly discussed. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

Haskell, Barry

1989-01-01

95

Development of an Internal Control for Evaluation and Standardization of a Quantitative PCR Assay for Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Drinking Water?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to metabolic and morphological changes that can prevent Helicobacter pylori cells in water from growing on conventional media, an H. pylori-specific TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was developed that uses a 6-carboxyfluorescein-labeled probe (A. E. McDaniels, L. Wymer, C. Rankin, and R. Haugland, Water Res. 39:4808-4816, 2005). However, proper internal controls are needed to provide an accurate estimate of low numbers of H. pylori in drinking water. In this study, the 135-bp amplicon...

Sen, Keya; Schable, Nancy A.; Lye, Dennis J.

2007-01-01

96

Standards-Based Assessment for Principal Interns  

Science.gov (United States)

The Framework for School Leaders, an architecture derived from the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Standards, is utilized in the design of the Principal Internship Mentor's Assessment (PIMA). PIMA outcomes are reported for average scores for each standard and investigated as a measure of ISLLC Standards achievement and for…

Koonce, Glenn; Causey, Ralph

2011-01-01

97

Standardized interventions in international health: Procrustes, where are you now?  

Science.gov (United States)

Two opposing views on implementing interventions in international health are represented on the one hand by 'one size doesn't fit all' and on the other by the promotion of standard approaches. Successes in scaling up access to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment and access to antiretroviral therapy provide examples of the benefits of a standardized approach to disease management. These benefits may be extended to the management of the emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. An enthusiastic advocate of standardization, Procrustes (a figure in Greek mythology) went to extreme lengths but his tendencies can be a useful reminder that one size may not fit all, but does fit enough. PMID:19708901

Maher, Dermot

2009-10-01

98

SOLVIT AND EU INTERNAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Even though we are in full crisis period, Europeans live in their countries in wonderful places in terms of security, health and wellbeing. As shown by the Human Development Index (HDI, conducted by UN Development Program (UNDP which includes indicators such as life expectancy, literacy, education and standard of living, Europeans have the highest standards on the planet. Six of the ten most developed countries in the world are in Europe. EU assistance and advice services are accessed by the European citizens to find concrete answers and solutions to the problems they face on the European internal market.

EMILIAN M. DOBRESCU

2014-05-01

99

Development of International Tourism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The total equivalent of exports, generated from the inbound tourism, including transportation of passengers, exceeded $ 1 trillion in 2010 or about $3 billion a day.Tourism and accompanying services for export are about 30 % of commercial services’ world export and 6 % of total goods and services’ export. Tourism as an export category, is ranked 4th in the world after the export of fuel, chemicals and automotive products. For many developing countries it is a major source of foreign curre...

Zima, A. G.

2011-01-01

100

On the Construction of China’s Accounting Standard System with International Convergence in Accounting Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the international convergence of accounting standards becoming an irresistible trend, China’s new businessaccounting standards have reached substantive convergence with International Financial Report Standards(IFRS. However, due to some factors including economy, law and culture, there is still a narrow gap betweenchina’s accounting standards and IFRS. In order to further keep up with IFRS, China should attach greaterimportance to learning from it to establish or implement its accounting standards.

Hongman Zhang

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

The new international standard ISO 14001: 2004 environmental management system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ISO 14001 is one standard in the ISO 14000 series of standards developed by International Organization of Standardization (ISO). Since it was published in 19096, it has rapidly become the most important environmental standard in the world. ISO 14001 is an environmental management system (EMS) that can be classified into environmental technologies provides a systematic procedure to all kind of organizations to prevent pollutions, protect environment and to improve their overall environmental performance. This new standard ISO 14001 2004 was published on November 15, 2004. It cancels and replaced the old ISO 14001-1996. Because the important of the previous standard for our local industries, firms, ...etc, this paper presents ISO 14001 concepts, issues, benefits and focuses on the stages of implementation to achieve ISO 14001-2004 certification which includes general requirements environmental policy, planning (objectives, targets ..), implementation and operations, checking and management review ...etc and presents how to apply isotop time saver software to design records, and to save time to implement ISO 14001 2004 and finally a conclusion is provided.(Author)

102

Development of strategies and sustainability standards for the certification of biomass for international trade. Sustainable bioenergy: current status and outlook; Entwicklung von Strategien und Nachhaltigkeitsstandards zur Zertifizierung von Biomasse fuer den internationalen Handel. Nachhaltige Bioenergie - Stand und Ausblick  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since Summer 2007, Oeko-Institut (Institute for Applied Ecology) and IFEU (Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, a non-profit limited liability company, Heidelberg) are carrying out the project ''Development of Strategies and Sustainability Standards for the Certification of Biomass for International Trade (Bio-global)'' on behalf of Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Agency). The study is based on the fact that the production of renewable raw materials (biomass) and their application range are significantly increasing at present as a result of ambitious growth objectives adopted in Germany, the EU, the U.S., as well as several developing countries. Low-cost imports from third countries are leading to a steady rise in global trade with biogenic resources and energy carriers. This development results in conflicts between ecological and social objectives which might counteract the political efforts to protect the climate, biodiversity and resources - not only in Europe, but also at the international level. For this reason, viable, internationally negotiable strategies and instruments have to be developed in order to avoid or at least significantly reduce potential conflicts of objectives of increasing biomass use. The project is based on current research and is aimed at working out concrete proposals for standards and certification systems and their implementation at the national, European and global level in a dialog with relevant stakeholders as an input to international processes. Furthermore, ongoing national policy consulting as well as participation in and organization of national, European and international conferences and workshops are issues covered by the project team. The present report summarizes the project results achieved so far in different subjectrelated chapters: - Which international strategy holds promise for globally sustainable biomass (Chapter 2)? - What is the balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from bioenergy with respect to possible land use changes (Chapter 3)? - How can negative effects of biomass cultivation on biodiversity be successfully reduced (Chapter 4)? - What are the effects of bioenergy on the resource of water (Chapter 5)? - What is the potential of unused areas (Chapter 6)? - How does global biomass trade develop, and what are legal framework conditions of such trade (Chapter 7)? - Are sustainability standards for bioenergy the right answer (Chapter 8)? Chapter 9 provides a short outlook on further work to be carried out until the end of 2009. The Annex gives important abbreviations, strategy issues and working hypotheses as well as information on international cooperation and representation of the project, and finally a list of available working papers. (orig.)

Fritsche, Uwe R.; Hennenberg, Klaus J.; Hermann, Andreas; Huenecke, Katja; Schulze, Falk; Wiegmann, Kirsten [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Darmstadt (Germany); Fehrenbach, Horst; Roth, Elvira; Hennecke, Anna; Giegrich, Juergen [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

2009-03-15

103

International standards, traceability and quality of safeguards accountability measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to be able to compare operators' and inspectors' measurements, it is necessary to demonstrate that they are performed in compliance with the International System of Units (SI). Several links still need to be developed for tracing effectively all these measurements back to the relevant base units and the derived SI units. The certified uranium isotopic reference materials recently issued by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) are an example of how organizations such as the IRMM assist measurement specialists in achieving international comparability of measurements for international safeguards. The paper describes briefly the ''1993 International Target Values (ITVs) for Uncertainty Components in Fissile Isotope and Element Accountancy for Effective Safeguards of Nuclear Materials'', based on the model of the 1987 and 1988 ESARDA Target Values, and issued by the IAEA. The IAEA intends to use the 1993 ITVs as the current international standards of measurements foreseen in the Safeguards Agreements concluded in the frame of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The quality currently achievable in safeguards measurements is illustrated by the results reported in the Regulator European Inter-laboratory Measurement Evaluation Programme of the IRMM and by the results of statistical evaluations of several tens of thousands of actual safeguards inspection data at the IAEA. The progress made in recent years and the need to enforce effective procedures of measurement quality control in order to obtain the full benefit of present analytical capabilities are pointed out. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

104

An international neutron cross section standards evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was recently completed. The results of this work became the standards for the new Endf/B-7 library. This evaluation was performed to include new experiments on the standards that have been made since the Endf/B-6 standards evaluation was completed and to improve the evaluation process. The evaluations include the H(n,n), 6Li(n,t), 10B(n,?), 10B(n,??), 197Au(n,?), 235U(n,f), and 238U(n,f) standard reactions. Evaluations were not done for the 3He(n,p) and C(n,n) standards which were carried over from Endf/B-6. The need for standards above 20 MeV led to the extension of the 235U(n,f) and 238U(n,f) cross sections to 200 MeV. In addition evaluations were produced for the non-standard 238U(n,?) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions. Results of this work and comparisons with previous evaluations are presented. (authors)

105

What States Should Know about International Standards in Science: Highlights from Achieve's Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Achieve, through support from the Noyce Foundation, examined ten sets of international standards with the intent of informing the development of both the conceptual framework and Next Generation Science Standards. Achieve selected countries based on their strong performance on international assessments and/or their economic, political, or cultural…

Achieve, Inc., 2010

2010-01-01

106

International Standard Numbering of Printed Music in Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with the international standard numbering system for printed music (ISMN as applied in Slovenia since 1999. Fundamental concepts are given explaining the purpose of the respective numbering system as related to other international standard numbering systems, the structure and coding, the choice of publications entitled to be given ISMN, management of the international and national agencies, and some data on the Slovenian ISMN Agency.

Alenka Kani?

1999-01-01

107

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

Ana Mihei

2010-12-01

108

Development of standard reference samples for diffractometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, samples of standard reference materials for diffractometry of polycrystals were developed. High-purity materials were submitted to mechanical and thermal treatments in order to present the adequate properties to be used as high-quality standard reference materials for powder diffraction, comparable to the internationally recognized produced by the USA National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST, but at lower costs. The characterization of the standard materials was performed by measurements in conventional X-ray diffraction diffractometers, high resolution neutron diffraction and high-resolution synchrotron diffraction. The lattice parameters were calculated by extrapolation of the values obtained from each X-ray reflection against cos2? by the Least-Squares Method. The adjustments were compared to the values obtained by the Rietveld Method, using program GSAS. The materials thus obtained were the ?-alumina, yttrium oxide, silicon, cerium oxide, lanthanum hexaboride and lithium fluoride. The standard reference materials produced present quality similar or, in some cases, superior to the standard reference materials produced and commercialized by the NIST. (author)

109

An international standard for observation data  

Science.gov (United States)

A generic information model for observations and related features supports data exchange both within and between different scientific and technical communities. Observations and Measurements (O&M) formalizes a neutral terminology for observation data and metadata. It was based on a model developed for medical observations, and draws on experience from geology and mineral exploration, in-situ monitoring, remote sensing, intelligence, biodiversity studies, ocean observations and climate simulations. Hundreds of current deployments of Sensor Observation Services (SOS), covering multiple disciplines, provide validation of the O&M model. A W3C Incubator group on 'Semantic Sensor Networks' is now using O&M as one of the bases for development of a formal ontology for sensor networks. O&M defines the information describing observation acts and their results, including the following key terms: observation, result, observed-property, feature-of-interest, procedure, phenomenon-time, and result-time. The model separates of the (meta-)data associated with the observation procedure, the observed feature, and the observation event itself. Observation results may take various forms, including scalar quantities, categories, vectors, grids, or any data structure required to represent the value of some property of some observed feature. O&M follows the ISO/TC 211 General Feature Model so non-geometric properties must be associated with typed feature instances. This requires formalization of information that may be trivial when working within some earth-science sub-disciplines (e.g. temperature, pressure etc. are associated with the atmosphere or ocean, and not just a location) but is critical to cross-disciplinary applications. It also allows the same structure and terminology to be used for in-situ, ex-situ and remote sensing observations, as well as for simulations. For example: a stream level observation is an in-situ monitoring application where the feature-of-interest is a reach, the observed property is water-level, and the result is a time-series of heights; stream quality is usually determined by ex-situ observation where the feature-of-interest is a specimen that is recovered from the stream, the observed property is water-quality, and the result is a set of measures of various parameters, or an assessment derived from these; on the other hand, distribution of surface temperature of a water body is typically determined through remote-sensing, where at observation time the procedure is located distant from the feature-of-interest, and the result is an image or grid. Observations usually involve sampling of an ultimate feature-of-interest. In the environmental sciences common sampling strategies are used. Spatial sampling is classified primarily by topological dimension (point, curve, surface, volume) and is supported by standard processing and visualisation tools. Specimens are used for ex-situ processing in most disciplines. Sampling features are often part of complexes (e.g. specimens are sub-divided; specimens are retrieved from points along a transect; sections are taken across tracts), so relationships between instances must be recorded. And observational campaigns involve collections of sampling features. The sampling feature model is a core part of O&M, and application experience has shown that describing the relationships between sampling features and observations is generally critical to successful use of the model. O&M was developed through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) as part of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative. Other SWE standards include SensorML, SOS, Sensor Planning Service (SPS). The OGC O&M standard (Version 1) had two parts: part 1 describes observation events, and part 2 provides a schema sampling features. A revised version of O&M (Version 2) is to be published in a single document as ISO 19156. O&M Version 1 included an XML encoding for data exchange, which is used as the payload for SOS responses. The new version will provide a UML model only. Since an XML

Cox, Simon

2010-05-01

110

Interrogating Identity: The International Standard School in Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the impact of the International Standard School (ISS) on the identity of Indonesia as a postcolonial nation. According to the Indonesian Ministry of National Education, an ISS is "a school which complies with the National Standard of Education and enriches its standards from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

Sakhiyya, Zulfa

2011-01-01

111

THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS IN FIELDS OF APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According International Classification for Standards (ICS Application of Information Technology is ranged in frame of group ICS=35.240, with 280 ISO or ISO/IEC and 45 IEC standards. In the paper is presented analysis of ISO, ISO/IEC and IEC standards for Application of Information Technology and structure Technical Committee (TC for fields of Information Technology

Predrag DASIC

2012-11-01

112

Nuclear Data Center International Standard Towards TSO Initiative  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear Data Center is the main facility for Nuclear Malaysia Agency IT infrastructure comprising of main critical servers, research and operational data storage, HPC-clusters system and vital network core equipment. In recent years, international body such as TIA-Telecommunication Industry Association and Up time Institute have came out with proper international data center standards in order to ensure data center operation on achieving maximum operational up time and minimal downtime. The standard are currently being rated as tier level ranging from Data Center tier I up to tier IV, differentiate by facility standard and up time/ downtime percentage ratio. This paper will discuss Nuclear Data Center adopting international standards in supporting Nuclear Malaysia TSO initiative thus ensuring the critical core component of agency IT services availability and further more International standard recognitions. (author)

113

Private donations for international development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Charitable donations by private individuals and firms can help fund the Millennium Development Goals. What are the prospects for increasing donations for international development, whether from small-scale donors, the super-rich (as in the recent gifts by Bill Gates and Ted Turner), or the corporate sector? The paper starts by reviewing how large are the sums currently given in OECD countries (including gifts of time) and the problems development has in competing with domestic causes. It then...

Micklewright, John; Wright, Anna

2003-01-01

114

CSNI International standard problems (ISP). Brief descriptions (1975-1999)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last twenty-five years the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored a considerable number of international activities to promote the exchange of experience between its Member countries in the use of nuclear safety codes and testing materials. A primary goal of these activities is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. International Standard Problems (ISPs) exercises are comparative exercises in which predictions or recalculations of a given physical problem with different best-estimate computer code are compared with each other and above all with the results of a carefully specified experimental study. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. In an open Standard Problem exercise the results of the experiment are available to the participants before performing the calculations, while in a blind Standard Problem exercise the experimental results are locked until the calculation results are made available for comparison. The CSNI-promoted ISP activity started in the early 70's and is still underway. Parallel to other national and international programs the CSNI has sponsored over more than 25 years forty-seven International Standard Problem exercises. This program has been focused mainly on the applicability of large thermal-hydraulic code systems simulating the behaviour of nuclear coolant and containment systems, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, hydrogen distribution, core-concrete interactions and fission product release and transport. One ISP exercise was organised in connection with a seismic ultimate dynamic response test. ISP exercises have proven to be very valuable to participating countries. They have been fruitful to identify code application problems and to amplify the contacts between the experimental and analytical working communities on an international level. Moreover, they enable code users to improve their ability, gain experience and demonstrate their competence. Technical proposals originating from laboratories in 13 countries were submitted and adopted serving as experimental background for the international activity. An activity complementary to the ISP programme but not directly related to it is the establishment of comprehensive sets of experimental data for use in validating proper code application by experts other than code developers. Known as a Code Validation Matrix, the results of such an extensive list of experiments are collected and stored in the NEA Data Bank for the purpose that they be made available to Member countries wishing to validate relevant codes. ISP tests are important elements of validation matrices for thermal-hydraulic codes. In the field of containment behaviour it has been recommended to preferably base a general code validation matrix on containment-related ISPs as well. The way of organizing ISP exercises has been described in CSNI Report No. 17, CSNI Standard Problem Procedures, revised for the third time in November 1989. The following report in some detail summarises the main objectives, the underlying experimental background and the main findings and conclusions of the ISPs to provide interested groups an overview on the accumulated experience in this matter. The document, which has been reviewed by members of CSNI's Principal Working on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2) and Principal Working on Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases (PWG4), summarises systematically the main features of all International Standard Problem exercises organised so far, from ISP-1 to ISP-43, namely: - Objectives of the ISP; - Brief Description of the Facility; - Scaling Information; - Parameters Offered for Comparison; - Dominating Experimental Uncertainties; - Findings; - Recommendations; - Total Duration of the ISP exercise; - Participation; - CSNI Report Reference

115

Standard Setting to an International Reference Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard setting theory has largely developed with reference to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with international reference frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…

Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.

2013-01-01

116

International Quality Standards For Human Blood Products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this study was to implement a quality system within the Institute for Transfusion Medicine at the Charité in 1995. In 1997, the institute became accredited by the international accreditation institute the College of American Pathologists (CAP). The implementation of good manufacturing practice (GMP), good laboratory practice (GLP), and a quality system are the main criteria for accreditation, and a complete consideration of national regulations is warranted by CAP. Thus, it was p...

Latza, Reinhard

2010-01-01

117

Primary standardization of cesium-137 for international intercomparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary standards of cesium-137 are of great importance for precise radiation measurements because, due to its simple decay-scheme and long half-life, it is widely used for the calibration of radiation detectors. Also 137Cs is used for the measurement of fission-yield and uranium burn-up in reactor engineering studies. In view of these, an international intercomparison was organised on a limited scale to correlate the standards established at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay(India) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), West Germany. The ''efficiency tracing technique'' was developed at BARC for the primary standardization of 137Cs for this intercomparison. Two tracers, namely 82Br and 60Co, were employed to trace the beta efficiency of the 4 ??-? coincidence counting system. It is shown that this technique offers high accuracy and inherent reliability. The ''tracing-technique'' for 137Cs standardization is briefly described. The gravimetric method of dilution and preparation of mixed sources of 137Cs - 82Br and 137Cs - 60Co are given. The various counting parameters and settings are included. Data reduction and the estimation of systematic and statistical errors are discussed. The results of the intercomparison, which are also included, show that the agreement between the measurments of BARC and PTB is within 0.5%. (author)

118

International Standardization of Pure Beta Emitters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the traditional methods of standardization of Pure Beta Emitters, their principal characteristics, advantage and drawbacks. It does comparisons between two metrological LSC methods: Triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method and the CIEMAT/NIST method and presents the result obtained with several Key Comparisons serving as practical test of both methods. Both of them represent the siferrit of methods of standardization of pure (and mixed decay) radionuclides. ESIR WG of CCRI(II) is to implement a reference exchange system for the permanent equivalence of ?, ? and electron capture nuclides, similar to traditional SIR gamma. ESIR project is currently testing a new XAN scintillator and operational tests of the whole system at BIPM are expected by the end of 2006 (test restricted to ESIR NMI members)

119

ISBD(M), International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographic Publications. First Standard Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monograph Publications [ISBD(M)] provides a format for the international communication on bibliographic information, so that records may be interchanged between sources, interpreted across language barriers, and converted to machine readable form. The ISBD(M) standards are limited to the…

International Federation of Library Associations, London (England). Committee on Cataloguing.

120

International evaluation of neutron cross-section standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron cross-section standards are important in the valid measurement and evaluation of all other neutron reaction cross-sections. Not many cross-sections can be defined as absolute - most cross-sections are measured relative to the cross-section standards for normalization to absolute values. Previous evaluations of the neutron cross-section standards were completed in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B standards. R matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least squares fits for the heavy elements were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross-sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The experimental database prepared by Poenitz included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. GMA is a least squares code developed by Poenitz to fit all types of cross section (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum averaged cross-sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. Unfortunately, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987.ase in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by experts for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross-section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise experimental data and developments in the methodology of analysis and evaluation. An IAEA consultants meeting was held in 2001 to consider the major tasks to be undertaken in order to improve the 1987 standards evaluation. The recommendation to formulate an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) entitled Improvement of Standards Cross-Sections for Light Elements was strongly endorsed by the International Nuclear Data Committee (technical advisory body to the IAEA), and this project was initiated in 2002. The main objective was to study and determine the reasons leading to the significant reduction in the uncertainties as derived by the R matrix model fits of the data. Three research coordination meetings were held between 2002 and 2004, and the scope of the CRP was substantially extended through debate in 2003 with the inclusion of tasks to evaluate the cross-section standards for heavy elements. The evaluations of the neutron cross-section standards were finalized in October 2005. Previous difficulties experienced with a data evaluation problem known as Peelle's pertinent puzzle create biases in the fit of correlated data, and have been addressed to reduce this phenomenon. The new evaluations of the cross-section standards also include covariance matrices of the uncertainties that contain fully justifiable values. Significant contributions to the experimental database were made by participants of Subgroup 7 of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation WPEC). Furthermore, the evaluations could not have been carried out without access to the original GMA database and related computer codes given to the IAEA by the US Cross Section Evaluation Working Group CSEWG). The IAEA officer responsible for this report was A.L. Nichols of the Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences

 
 
 
 
121

International standard for design basis threat (DBT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

e paper describes how a DBT is created within a state. This paper also explains the advantages and disadvantages of using this internationalized approach to the DBT. Each state may, of course, choose to modify their use of the DBT to better fit their culture, technical experience of the facilities and authorities, and strengths and weaknesses of their regulatory systems. The internationalized version of the creation and use of the DBT is a major milestone in the international effort of the United States and the IAEA, and this paper is a summary of that milestone. (author)

122

Open development networked innovations in international development  

CERN Document Server

The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. Open network structures allow people to come together to share information, organize, and collaborate. Open development harnesses this power, to create new organizational forms and improve people's lives; it is not only an agenda for research and practice but also a statement about how to approach international development. In this volume, experts explore a variety of applications of openness, addressing challenges as well as opportunities. Open development requires new theoretical tools that focus on real world problems, consider a variety of solutions, and recognize the complexity of local contexts. After exploring the new theoretical terrain, the book describes a range of cases in which open models address such specific development issues as biotechnology research, improving education, and access to scholarly publications. Contributors then examine tensions between open model...

Reilly, Katherine M A

2014-01-01

123

Internal standard versus external standard calibration: an uncertainty case study of a liquid chromatography analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally, in the cigarettes industry, the determination of ammonium ion in the mainstream smoke is performed by ion chromatography. This work studies this determination and compares the results of this technique with the use of external and internal standard calibration. A reference cigarette sample presented measurement uncertainty of 2.0 ?g/cigarette and 1.5 ?g/cigarette, with external and internal standard, respectively. It is observed that the greatest source of uncertainty is the bias correction factor and that it is even more significant when using external standard, confirming thus the importance of internal standardization for this correction.

Elcio Cruz de Oliveira

2010-01-01

124

Developing the Framed Standard Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The framed standard model (FSM) suggested earlier, which incorporates the Higgs field and three fermion generations as part of the framed gauge theory (FGT) structure, is here developed further to show that it gives both quarks and leptons hierarchical masses and mixing matrices akin to what is experimentally observed. Among its many distinguishing features which lead to the above results are (i) the vacuum is degenerate under a global su(3) symmetry which plays the role of fermion generations, (ii) the fermion mass matrix is "universal," rank-one and rotates (changes its orientation in generation space) with changing scale ?, (iii) the metric in generation space is scale-dependent too, and in general nonflat, (iv) the theta-angle term in the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) action of topological origin gets transformed into the CP-violating phase of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix for quarks, thus offering at the same time a solution to the strong CP problem.

Baker, Michael J.; Bordes, José; Chan, Hong-Mo; Tsun, Tsou Sheung

2012-07-01

125

Developing the Framed Standard Model  

CERN Document Server

The framed standard model (FSM) suggested earlier, which incorporates the Higgs field and 3 fermion generations as part of the framed gauge theory structure, is here developed further to show that it gives both quarks and leptons hierarchical masses and mixing matrices akin to what is experimentally observed. Among its many distinguishing features which lead to the above results are (i) the vacuum is degenerate under a global $su(3)$ symmetry which plays the role of fermion generations, (ii) the fermion mass matrix is "universal", rank-one and rotates (changes its orientation in generation space) with changing scale $\\mu$, (iii) the metric in generation space is scale-dependent too, and in general non-flat, (iv) the theta-angle term in the QCD action of topological origin gets transformed into the CP-violating phase of the CKM matrix for quarks, thus offering at the same time a solution to the strong CP problem.

Baker, Michael J; Chan, H M; Tsou, S T

2011-01-01

126

International Migration, Remittances and Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing remittance flows to the labor sending developing countries in recent years have generated huge optimism in the contemporary development discourse about the possibility of development at the grassroots levels which has been an overwhelming challenge for the development actors for decades. However, the realization of such potential proves difficult due to a lack of common understanding of the phenomenon of labor migration and its causes and consequences. This study focuses on the existing literature on international labor migration, its causes and consequences with a view to identify a common line of theorizing about the issue in question. 

Hasan Mahmud

2009-02-01

127

AUDIT OF FINANCIAL REPORTS, BASED ON INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article are given main notion about international standard of financial reporting, order of the auditing on the base of IFRS, scheduling the report of the auditor, auditor conclusions and are given analysis of reporting based on the auditor procedures. At the audit of financial reporting are taken into account international standard to financial reporting 29 "Financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies".

Islom Kuziev

2013-09-01

128

International Experience in Standards and Labeling Programs for Rice Cookers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China has had an active program on energy efficiency standards for household appliances since the mid-1990s. Rice cooker is among the first to be subject to such mandatory regulation, since it is one of the most prevalent electric appliances in Chinese households. Since first introduced in 1989, the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers has not been revised. Therefore, the potential for energy saving is considerable. Initial analysis from CNIS indicates that potential carbon savings is likely to reach 7.6 million tons of CO2 by the 10th year of the standard implementation. Since September 2007, CNIS has been working with various groups to develop the new standard for rice cookers. With The Energy Foundation's support, LBNL has assisted CNIS in the revision of the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers that is expected to be effective in 2009. Specifically, work has been in the following areas: assistance in developing consumer survey on usage pattern of rice cookers, review of international standards, review of international test procedures, comparison of the international standards and test procedures, and assessment of technical options of reducing energy use. This report particularly summarizes the findings of reviewing international standards and technical options of reducing energy consumption. The report consists of an overview of rice cooker standards and labeling programs and testing procedures in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Thailand, and Japan's case study in developing energy efficiency rice cooker technologies and rice cooker efficiency programs. The results from the analysis can be summarized as the follows: Hong Kong has a Voluntary Energy Efficiency Labeling scheme for electric rice cookers initiated in 2001, with revision implemented in 2007; South Korea has both MEPS and Mandatory Energy Efficiency Label targeting the same category of rice cookers as Hong Kong; Thailand's voluntary endorsement labeling program is similar to Hong Kong in program design but has 5 efficiency grades; Japan's program is distinct in its adoption of the 'Top Runner' approach, in which, the future efficiency standards is set based on the efficiency levels of the most efficient product in the current domestic market. Although the standards are voluntary, penalties can still be evoked if the average efficiency target is not met. Both Hong Kong and South Korea's tests involve pouring water into the inner pot equal to 80% of its rated volume; however, white rice is used as a load for its tests in Hong Kong whereas no rice is used for tests in South Korea. In Japan's case, water level specified by the manufactures is used and milled rice is used as a load only partially in the tests. Moreover, Japan does not conduct heat efficiency test but its energy consumption measurements tests are much more complex, with 4 different tests are conducted to determine the annual average energy consumption. Hong Kong and Thailand both set Minimum Allowable Heat Efficiency for different rated wattages. The energy efficiency requirements are identical except that the minimum heat efficiency in Thailand is 1 percentage point higher for all rated power categories. In South Korea, MEPS and label's energy efficiency grades are determined by the rice cooker's Rated Energy Efficiency for induction, non-induction, pressure, nonpressure rice cookers. Japan's target standard values are set for electromagnetic induction heating products and non-electromagnetic induction heating products by different size of rice cookers. Specific formulas are used by type and size depending on the mass of water evaporation of the rice cookers. Japan has been the leading country in technology development of various types of rice cookers, and developed concrete energy efficiency standards for rice cookers. However, as consumers in Japan emphasize the deliciousness of cooked rice over other factors, many types of models were developed to improve the taste of cooked rice. Nonetheless, the efficie

Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina

2008-05-01

129

Precise determination of uranium in spent reactor fuel by mass spectrometry utilizing internal standard techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The internal standard or double-spike technique has been used to some extent but, in general, has not seen wide-spread application. Possible reasons for the lack of utilization include the increased complexity of the analysis, lack of suitable quantities of separated isotopes, and the need in most applications to perform two analyses -- one to characterize the minor isotopy in the sample and a second to measure the major isotopes relative to the added internal standard. Procedures that simplify the method and reduce consumption of rare isotopes have been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. When a mixture of 234U and 236U is used as the internal standard, analysis of samples containing 233U, 235U, or 238U as major isotopes can be done with a single internal-standard spike. Mixing of the internal standard and sample, which need not be quantitative, is performed directly on the mass spectrometer filament. Direct filament spiking reduces the required amount of internal standard to less than 1 ?g per analysis and is a very simple procedure. For assay measurements by isotope dilution, a conventional nearly monoisotopic spike (233U, 235U, or 238U) is employed, and the internal standard is added to the spiked sample on the filament. Use of the internal standard for isotope dilution analyses involves no more effort than a conventional analysis since isotopic characterization of the unspiked sample is normally performed anyway

130

International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

131

Vietnamese Accounting Reform and International Convergence of Vietnamese Accounting Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the economic globalization, the international convergence of accounting standards is inevitable. But thelevel of economic globalization in among of countries are not the same. There are some differences inaccounting environment in the countries. This paper studies international convergence of Vietnamese accountingstandards. Firstly, the paper summarizes of the process of Vietnam's accounting reform, second analysisdifferences between Vietnamese accounting sta...

AnhTuan Nguyen; Guangming Gong

2012-01-01

132

The main requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main requirements of the new international basic safety standards are discussed, including such topics as health effects of ionizing radiations, the revision of basic safety standards, the requirements for radiation protection practices, the requirements for intervention,and the field of regulatory infrastructures. (A.K.)

133

Human Rights and Values Education: Using the International Standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asserts that, in teaching about human rights, the international standards should be the fundamental core of the content and values to be communicated. Recommends that teachers should use the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the standard by which the actions of individuals and governments should be compared. (CFR)

Reardon, Betty A.

1994-01-01

134

Study on a Threat-Countermeasure Model Based on International Standard Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many international standards exist in the field of IT security. This research is based on the ISO/IEC 15408, 15446, 19791, 13335 and 17799 standards. In this paper, we propose a knowledge base comprising a threat countermeasure model based on international standards for identifying and specifying threats which affect IT environments. In addition, the proposed knowledge base system aims at fusing similar security control policies and objectives in order to create effective security guidelines for specific IT environments. As a result, a knowledge base of security objectives was developed on the basis of the relationships inside the standards as well as the relationships between different standards. In addition, a web application was developed which displays details about the most common threats to information systems, and for each threat presents a set of related security control policies from different international standards, including ISO/IEC 27002.

Guillermo Horacio Ramirez Caceres

2008-12-01

135

The Operating Islamic Banks in Jordan Applying the International Internal Auditing Standards (IIA's  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aimed at identifying the operating Islamic banks in Jordan applying the international internal auditing standards, which are (4 banks. A questionnaire was designed for this purpose and distributed to internal auditors and un-executive board of directors members considered members of the Audit Committee in each bank, the number of questionnaires which were subjected to analysis were (35, resolution data was analyzed using (SPSS, and a number of statistical means through descriptive statistics, arithmetic means, standard deviations, and percentages. The study found that Islamic banks are applying international standards of internal audit in general. Qualities standards were the most applied, and then implementation standards in a high degree, while the performance standards do not apply in these banks, also there are some difficulties that limit the application, but moderately. The study recommends increasing the work on applying internal auditing standards on Islamic banks operating in Jordan, in particular standards of performance which brings together the efficiency and effectiveness of internal audit and contributes to improved risk management and creates additional value for those banks.

Jamal Adel Al-Sharairi

2012-01-01

136

International Developments of Food Irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

1997-12-31

137

International Developments of Food Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940's: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950's: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960's: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970's: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980's: establishment of national regulations; 1990's: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

138

25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

...standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? 542.32 Section 542.32 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? (a) Internal...

2010-04-01

139

25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

...standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? 542.42 Section 542.42 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? (a) Internal...

2010-04-01

140

25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

...standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? 542.22 Section 542.22 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? (a) Internal...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

De-boned beef - an example of a commodity for which specific standards could be developed to ensure an appropriate level of protection for international trade.  

Science.gov (United States)

De-boned beef from which lymph nodes and risk material associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy have been removed, is a product which can be produced for safe international trade irrespective of whether the locality of production is recognized as free from so-called transboundary diseases or not. Further processing of such beef provides an additional safety factor. However, this approach requires specific control measures being in place, supported by appropriate auditing and certification procedures. This document presents the arguments supporting this concept and details how safety in respect of both animal diseases and human food safety can be achieved using an integrated hazard analysis and critical control points approach. PMID:18990183

Thomson, G R; Leyland, T J; Donaldson, A I

2009-03-01

142

Developments in international bioenergy trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, imported biomass contributes already significantly (between 21% and 43%) to total biomass use. Wood pellets are currently exported by Canada, Finland and (to a small extent) Brazil and Norway, and imported by Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK. In the Netherlands and Belgium, pellet imports nowadays contribute to a major share to total renewable electricity production. Trade in bio-ethanol is another example of a rapidly growing international market. With the EU-wide target of 5.75% biofuels for transportation in 2010 (and 10% in 2020), exports from Brazil and other countries to Europe are likely to rise as well. Major drivers for international bioenergy trade in general are the large resource potentials and relatively low production costs in producing countries such as Canada and Brazil, and high fossil fuel prices and various policy incentives to stimulate biomass use in importing countries. However, the logistic infrastructure both in exporting and importing countries needs to be developed to access larger physical biomass volumes and to reach other (i.e. smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded that international bioenergy trade is growing rapidly, far beyond what was deemed possible only a few years ago, and may in the future in some Task 40 countries surpass domestic biomass use, especially for specific applications (e.g. transport fuels). (author)

143

78 FR 22263 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal...

2013-04-15

144

25 CFR 542.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for card games?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the minimum internal control standards for card games...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.9 What are the minimum internal control standards for card...

2010-04-01

145

25 CFR 542.10 - What are the minimum internal control standards for keno?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the minimum internal control standards for keno? 542...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.10 What are the minimum internal control standards for keno?...

2010-04-01

146

25 CFR 543.7 - What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo? 543...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.7 What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?...

2010-04-01

147

25 CFR 542.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage? 542...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.14 What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage?...

2010-04-01

148

25 CFR 542.16 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.16 What are the minimum internal control standards for information...

2010-04-01

149

25 CFR 542.8 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs? ...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.8 What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?...

2010-04-01

150

78 FR 40740 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government  

Science.gov (United States)

...Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY...to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...Council and the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...

2013-07-08

151

25 CFR 542.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for table games?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the minimum internal control standards for table games...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.12 What are the minimum internal control standards for table...

2010-04-01

152

25 CFR 542.13 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming machines?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming machines...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.13 What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming...

2010-04-01

153

25 CFR 542.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the minimum internal control standards for credit? 542...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.15 What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?...

2010-04-01

154

25 CFR 542.7 - What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo? 542...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.7 What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?...

2010-04-01

155

78 FR 52532 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government  

Science.gov (United States)

...Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY...revisions to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...update to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...

2013-08-23

156

78 FR 23940 - Use of International Standard ISO-10993, “Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2013-D-0350] Use of International Standard ISO-10993, ``Biological Evaluation of Medical...entitled ``Use of International Standard ISO-10993, `Biological Evaluation of Medical...entitled ``Use of International Standard ISO-10993, `Biological Evaluation of...

2013-04-23

157

International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury Revised 2011: Turkish Translation of Worksheet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Performing a standardized physical examination is useful in follow-up of the injury, monitorizing the effects of different treatments and to build a standard terminology among professionals dealing with the disease. The most common used method in assesment of spinal cord injured patient is International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury developed by American Spinal Cord Association (ASIA. The purpose of this report is to introduce the Turkish translation of worksheet in 2011 revision of International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. Turk J Phys Med Re­hab 2012;58 Suppl 1: 42-5.

Berrin GÜNDÜZ

2012-04-01

158

Enabling conformity to international standards within SeaDataNet  

Science.gov (United States)

SeaDataNet objective is to construct a standardized system for managing the large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the new automatic observation systems. The aim is to network and enhance the currently existing infrastructures, which are the national oceanographic data centres and satellite data centres of 36 countries, active in data collection. The networking of these professional data centres, in a unique virtual data management system will provide integrated data sets of standardized quality on-line. The Common Data Index (CDI) is the middleware service adopted by SeaDataNet for discovery and access of the available data. In order to develop an interoperable and effective system, the use of international de facto and de jure standards is required. In particular the new goal object of this presentation is to introduce and discuss the solutions for making SeaDataNet compliant with the European Union (EU) INSPIRE directive and in particular with its Implementing Rules (IR). The European INSPIRE directive aims to rule the creation of an European Spatial Data Infrastructure (ESDI). This will enable the sharing of environmental spatial information among public sector organisations and better facilitate public access to spatial information across Europe. To ensure that the spatial data infrastructures of the European Member States are compatible and usable in a community and transboundary context, the directive requires that common IRs are adopted in a number of specific areas (Metadata, Data Specifications, Network Services, Data and Service Sharing and Monitoring and Reporting). Often the use of already approved digital geographic information standards is mandated, drawing from international organizations like the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the latter by means of its Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211). In the context of geographic data discovery a set of mandatory metadata information is identified by INSPIRE metadata regulations and recommended implementations appear in IRs, in particular the use of ISO 19139 Application Profile (ISO AP) of OGC Catalogue Service for the Web 2.0.2 (CSW), as well as the use of ISO19139 XML schemas (along with additional constraints) to encode and distribute the required INSPIRE metadata. SeaDataNet started its work in 2006, basing its metadata schema upon the ISO 19115 DTD, the available schema at that time. Overtime this was replaced with the present CDI v.1 XML schema, based on ISO 19115 abstract model with community specific features and constraints. In order to assure the INSPIRE conformity a GI-cat based solution was developed. GI-cat is a broker service able to mediate from different metadata sources and publish them through a consistent and unified interface. In this case GI-cat is used as a front end to the SeaDataNet portal publishing the available data, based on CDI v.1, through a CSW AP ISO interface. The first step consisted in the precise definition of a community profile of ISO19115, containing both INSPIRE and CDI driven constraints and extensions. This abstract model is ready to be implemented both in CDI v.1 and in ISO 19139; to this aim, guidelines were drafted. Then a mapping from the CDI v.1 to the ISO 19139 implementation was ready to be produced. The work resulted in the creation of a new CDI accessor within GI-cat. These type of components play the role of data model mediators within the framework. While a replacement of the CDI v.1 format with the ISO 19139 solution is planned for SeaDataNet in the future, this front-end solution make data discovery readily effective by clients within the INSPIRE community.

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Boldrini, Enrico; de Korte, Arjen; Santoro, Mattia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

2010-05-01

159

Environmental Accounting and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As financial globalization proceeds, international financial reporting and auditing standards are increasinglybecoming important instruments of integration. This has been observed in both the London and Pittsburgsummits of the G20 leaders in 2009. The G20 leaders reinforced the influence of International FinancialReporting Standards (IFRS in that they called for the implementation of global accounting standards by 2011.By the end of 2008, there were over 100 countries that had adopted IFRS. Another parallel summit was theUnited Nations special summit on the environment which was held on 22 September 2009. The United Nations’summit underscored the link between environment and finance. This research paper makes a critical appraisal ofthe contemporary environmental accounting literature and examines the applicable and relevant paragraphs ofthe global financial reporting standards (IFRS. The relevant paragraphs for environmental accounting have beenanalyzed in relation to the environmental financial reporting.

CA Mohammad Firoz

2010-09-01

160

International Accounting Standards and Changes in Accounting Terminology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The language of accounting is subject to continuous change. One of the reasons for a change in terminology is the introduction of new legal requirements that bring about a change in the underlying concepts and therefore the need for new specific terms. Such a situation was created by the Regulation (EC) No. 1606/2002 on the application of international accounting standards (IAS). This regulation aims at harmonising ac-counting standards and procedures relating to the preparation and presentat...

Edelmann, Gerhard

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

5th international conference on certification and standardization in NDT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This CD-ROM contains 30 lectures (in form of manuscripts or abstracts) and 6 posters with the following topics: 1. Some Critical Remarks from German Chemical Industry on Certification and Accreditation in NDT. 2. Global Impact of International Standard ISO 9712. 3. Maintaining Concurrent Compliance with Multiple NDT Personnel Certification Standards. 4. The Revision of the New Approach. 5. Comparison between prEN 473 Currently Submitted to Formal Vote and ISO 9712:2005. 6. Accreditation and Certification - a Contradiction?. 7. The Way We Were. 8. EFNDT-Question-Data-Bank (QDB). 9. NDT Certification in Turkey as an European Country- How It Couldn't Work as the Only Example?. 10. Validation of Practical Examination Specimens. 11. Examination Bank Structure for Radiographic Testing (RT) - An Example. 12. About the New Classification of NDT Methods Based on Positions of Risks and Equipment Life Assessment. 13. Olympus NDT Training Academy. 14. Harmonisation of Personnel Certification Schemes for Non-destructive Testing in the Asia-Pacific Region. 15. How EFNDT Can Help in Accreditation or Recognition/Approval of NDT Certification Bodies? 16. SNT-TC-1A - 40 Years of Employer Certification for NDT Personnel. 17. The Same NDT Certification Scheme for Everybody: a Dream or a Need. 18. 19. Personnel Certification for Thermographers - Status and Trends. 20. Guided Wave Training and Certification. 21. Examination Radiographs and Master Reports for the Industrial Sectors 6 and 7.eports for the Industrial Sectors 6 and 7. 22. New Standards ISO 24497 on the Metal Magnetic Memory Method. The Program of Personnel Training and Certification. 23. The Use of the Psychometrics in NDT Certification Programs. 24. EFNDT Guidelines ''Overall NDT Quality System''. 25. The Role of the Forum for National Aerospace NDT Boards. 26. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 27. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 28. The Need for Standardization in NDT Personnel Certification. 29. NDT Certification for Railway Maintenance Personnel in France; 10 Years of the CFCM. 30. NDT Personnel Certification - Service for Industry. 31. Certification of Personnel Performing Automated Non-destructive Testing of Pipes and Flat Products. Problems and Solutions. 32. Stress Testing is a New NDT Type in the Russian Standard GOST R 52330-2005 and International Standard ISO-9712. 33. Accreditation of Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement Methods - Practical Aspects. 34. Results of Approval of Certification Body ''SPEKTRCert'' by Auditors of EFNDT. 35. The Program for Specialists Training and Certification in Stress-Strained State Determination and Residual Life Assesment of Technical Devices and Contructions. 36. NDT Personnel Certification System at Turkish Standards Instiution (TSE) and Developments in Turkey. 37. Nondestructive Testing Personnel Certification in Turkish Aerospace Industries and National Aerospace Nondestructive Testing Board in the Turkey

162

Status of international HTGR development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Programs for the development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology over the past 30 years in eight countries are briefly described. These programs have included both government sector and industrial sector participation. The programs have produced four electricity-producing prototype/demonstration reactors, two in the United States, and two in the Federal Republic of Germany. Key design parameters for these ractors are compared with the design parameters planned for follow-on commercial-scale HTGRs. The development of HTGR technology has been enhanced by numerous cooperative agreements over the years, involving both government-sponsored national laboratories and industrial participants. Current bilateral cooperative agreements are described. A relatively new component in the HTGR international cooperation is that of multinational industrial alliances focused on supplying commercial-scale HTGR power plants. Current industrial cooperative agreements are briefly discussed

163

International Fund for Agricultural Development  

Science.gov (United States)

As a special function and agency of the United Nations, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), which celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2003, "was created to mobilize resources on concessional terms for programmes that alleviate rural poverty and improve nutrition...to combat hunger and rural poverty in developing countries." To that end, the fund seeks to assist "the poorest of the world's poor" by offering long-term loans with exceptionally good terms of repayment (40 year loans with a 0.75% service charge per year). At this website, visitors can read about the fund's initiatives and its partners as well as perusing information supplied in the Rural Poverty Knowledgebase (including related links and an explanation of the grant programme offered by IFAD. Also of note are listings of upcoming events and meetings related to world hunger and links to several reports and documents available at the site.

164

International Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

International entrepreneurship is an important vehicle for firms to reap benefits from their high productivity levels and from economies of scale by reaching new customers. International enterprises tend to be larger and more innovative, but a key question of causality remains disputed in the international trade and international business studies literature. That is, does innovation and productivity drive firms towards international markets or does internationalization influence firm innovati...

Boermans, M. A.

2012-01-01

165

ASTEC participation in the international standard problem on KAEVER  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the International Standard Problem no 44 was aerosol depletion behaviour under severe accident conditions in a LWR containment examined in the KAEVER test facility of Battelle (Germany). Nine organisations participated with 5 different codes in the ISP44, including a joint participation of GRS and IPSN with the integral code ASTEC (and in particular the CPA module) they have commonly developed. Five tests were selected from the KAEVER test matrix: K123, K148, K186 and K188 as open standard problems and the three-component test K187 as blind standard problem. All these tests were performed in supersaturated conditions and with slight fog formation, which are the most ambitious conditions for the coupled problem of thermal hydraulics and aerosol processes. The comparison between calculation and test showed a good agreement for all the tests with respect to the thermal-hydraulic conditions in the vessel, i.e. total pressure, atmosphere temperature, sump water and nitrogen mass, etc.... As for aerosol depletion, the ASTEC results were in a good overall agreement with the measured data. The code in particular predicted well the fast depletion of the hygroscopic and mixed aerosols and the slow depletion of insoluble silver aerosol. The important effects of bulk condensation, solubility and the Kelvin effect on the aerosol depletion were well predicted. However the code overestimation of steam condensation on hygroscopic aerosols in supersaturated conditions indicates that some slight improvements of the appropriate ASTEC models are needed in the future. In the final ISP44 workshop, the deviations of the ASTEC results with respect to the experiments were considered to be small compared to those of most other codes. (authors)

166

Multilevel Linkages between State Standards, Teacher Standards, and Student Achievement: Testing External versus Internal Standards-Based Education Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on national and state assessment datasets in reading and math, this study tested "external" versus "internal" standards-based education models. The goal was to understand whether and how student performance standards work in multilayered school systems under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Under the…

Lee, Jaekyung; Liu, Xiaoyan; Amo, Laura Casey; Wang, Weichun Leilani

2014-01-01

167

Internal standard versus external standard calibration: an uncertainty case study of a liquid chromatography analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Traditionally, in the cigarettes industry, the determination of ammonium ion in the mainstream smoke is performed by ion chromatography. This work studies this determination and compares the results of this technique with the use of external and internal standard calibration. A reference cigarette s [...] ample presented measurement uncertainty of 2.0 ?g/cigarette and 1.5 ?g/cigarette, with external and internal standard, respectively. It is observed that the greatest source of uncertainty is the bias correction factor and that it is even more significant when using external standard, confirming thus the importance of internal standardization for this correction.

Elcio Cruz de, Oliveira; Edson I., Muller; Fernanda, Abad; Juliana, Dallarosa; Cristine, Adriano.

168

Sustainability and innovation - Leveraging International Standards (2012-11-16) - ISO  

...Sustainability and innovation - Leveraging International Standards (2012-11-16) - ISO International Organization for Standardization International Standards for Business, Government and Society Skip ...in action ISO Magazines Events Media kit News 2012 Sustainability and innovation - Leveraging International Standards News Sustainability and innovation - Leveraging International Standards by Elizabeth ... In today’s interconnected world, International Standards provide internationally harmonized solutions to global challenges that are too large for any one country to solve ...ideas were captured from the two break-out sessions addressing the expectations on international standardization and highlighting a number of exemplary achievements around the world....

169

International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury Revised 2011: Turkish Translation of Worksheet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Performing a standardized physical examination is useful in follow-up of the injury, monitorizing the effects of different treatments and to build a standard terminology among professionals dealing with the disease. The most common used method in assesment of spinal cord injured patient is International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury developed by American Spinal Cord Association (ASIA). The purpose of this report is to introduce the Turkish translation of work...

Gu?ndu?z, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin

2012-01-01

170

From international to France. The elaboration of radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A first article recalls the history of the creation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) with its five different committees. Above the ICPR is the UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). Then come the IAEA and Euratom. They have different roles regarding radiation protection: knowledge diffusion, proposition of principles and modalities for radiological risk management, standard definition. National specificities are outlined (some national standards may be clearer and stronger than international ones). The process of elaboration of radiation protection rules is described. The implication of the French IRSN in these international bodies is outlined. The evolution of radiation protection of patients or workers is discussed, and more particularly the risks associated with different radiological techniques, and the case of workers exposed to natural radioactivity

171

International financial markets and development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the ‘casino economy’. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new actors are surfacing, e.g. the institutional investor (hedge funds, private equity funds, etc., while new instruments are leading to highly leveraged and destabilising derivatives. The casino system has been promoted by governments and intergovernmental institutions to liberalise and deregulate financial markets. Although developing countries have not participated in the casino system, they have been suffering most from the spill-over into the real economy. The main lesson learnt is that the casino has to be closed.

How to cite this article: Wahl, P., 2009, ‘International financial markets and development’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 65(1, Art. #284, 4 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v65i1.284

Peter Wahl

2009-11-01

172

Review of IEC/ISO international standard related to HMI design for control rooms on NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished work wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards by IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) as international standard. On the other hand, ISO (International Standard Organization) issues ergonomic standards in HCI (Human Computer Interaction) for general industrial use. ISO11064 series are the process oriented standards specify procedures and processes to be followed. IEC60964 and supplemental standards have been effectively used and the design process required in IEC 60964 is the basis of the design process of ISO11064-1. However, IEC60964 is under revision, for example, to make technological update for taking into account the computerized control rooms, and to improve the human factor requirements. The revised version will consistent with the other IEC standards and similar standards or guidelines of another bodies. For hardware and software of computerized I and C system, a series of international standards have been systematically developed. In Japan, Japan electric association is developing industry association level guideline for the human-machine interface designs of the computerized main control rooms of nuclear power plants, as well as regulatory agencies of nuclear power plants in Japan are preparing technical basis for reviewers of control rooms of nuclear power plants. In this paper, we present the review of not only the state of international activities for revising IEC60964 and the state of ISO11064 series, but also the state and relationship to the related standards. (author)

173

International biological standards for coagulation factors and inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of international biological standards during the last 30 years has proved extremely successful in promoting global harmonization of estimates between laboratories and methods. Experience has led to the identification of physical criteria essential for standards to be suitable for long-term use. High precision of liquid filling coupled with low residual moisture and oxygen and the use of sealed glass ampoules have been found consistent with homogeneous and stable International Standards (ISs). Most plasma coagulation factors and inhibitors are calibrated in International Units (IU), which are defined as the amount of analyte in 1 mL of normal pooled plasma. Adoption of the IU has provided clarity in the definition of normal and abnormal states and has facilitated dose calculation for replacement therapy. The assay of like-versus-like materials (e.g., concentrate versus concentrate) has been found to improve interlaboratory agreement and there are now both plasma and concentrate ISs available for many coagulation factors and inhibitors. Studies into the assay of recombinant factor VIII have indicated that additional measures, such as modifications to assay methodology, are necessary to reduce interlaboratory variability. This experience may prove valuable in the future, when we have to deal increasingly with the challenges to standardization associated with the products of bioengineering. PMID:17427063

Hubbard, Anthony R

2007-04-01

174

Development of the Vacuum Comparison Standard Device  

Science.gov (United States)

The standard device of vacuum comparison is built compared the dynamic method, the static compared method and the static expansion method, this device combined three methods are to meet the wide range of calibrating vacuum gauge. It is used to calibrate 1×105?5×10-4 Pa within the scope of various types of vacuum gauge. The characteristic of this equipment is a simple in structure, easy to operate, high efficiency, practicability of the vacuum standard. Especially suitable for a large number of routine calibrations, the device consists of turbo-molecular pump, calibration container, the standard vacuum gauge and metal expansion valves and other components, and its main technical specifications in line with the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the domestic vacuum standards.

Shufeng, Zhang; Ruihai, Song; Ming, Gao; Huan, Wang; Junwei, Jia; Hulin, Tian

175

49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...conditions for the use of international standards and regulations. (a) Authorized international standards and regulations...the transportation in commerce of hazardous materials in accordance with the International Civil Aviation...

2010-10-01

176

75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming...on the final rule for Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming...operations to implement tribal internal controls found in Sec....

2010-09-10

177

International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

· Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials · Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

178

International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

{center_dot} Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials {center_dot} Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

2010-02-15

179

Internal irradiation standards from the ICRP Publication no. 30  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article considers the internal irradiation standards from the ICRP Publication No. 30, Part 1: Limits for intakes of radionuclides by workers. In this text metabolic data is presented for 21 elements and intake limits given for 187 associated isotopes. A comparison of the new standards with the previous ones from Publication No. 2 is tabulated for those nuclides often used in nuclear medicine. In general the limits have been increased by a factor of 3, though for transuranium isotopes it decreases and for 56Mn, 90Sr and 226Ra there is a higher increase. (C.F.)

180

Consequences of ICRP Publication 26 for internal contamination standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is given of the test for internal contamination standards, produced as a supplement to ICRP Publication 26 in August 1978. This consists of a general consideration of basic and deviating standards, an explanation of the models to be used for calculating radiation doses for various organs, metabolic data for 21 elements, and annual limits on intake (ALI's) and derived air concentrations (DAC's) for 10 elements (83 isotopes). An outline is given of the changes caused by these new models and calculation methods. (C.F.)

 
 
 
 
181

25 CFR 542.13 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming machines?  

Science.gov (United States)

...minimum internal control standards for gaming machines? 542.13 Section 542.13 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...minimum internal control standards for gaming machines? (a) Standards for...

2010-04-01

182

Playing Against China : Global Value Chains and Labour Standards in the International Sports Goods Industry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The rise of China as the global factory raises challenges for many developing countries and their producers. The football-manufacturing sector is a case in which China has emerged as a global player. It is also a sector where compliance with international labour standards is considered critical. Leading international brands dominate the industry and control the global value chain for sports goods. In this article, we explore the relationship between the rise of China and international labour standards and consider how labour standards have affected the geography and organization of global football production. We draw on evidence from three of the main production locations – China, Pakistan and India. It appears that compliance with labour standards not only has different implications for the three production locations, but also that compliance alone is an insufficient basis for competing against China

Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

2011-01-01

183

67Ga: a novel internal standard for LSC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The liquid scintillation spectrum of 67Ga exhibits two monoenergetic peaks that correspond to the average energies of 3H and 14C. This interesting feature prompted experiments designed to use 67Ga as an internal standard for either 3H or 14C or dual-labelled samples. A parameter based upon the ratio of the measured activity of the two 67Ga peaks was chosen to reflect the degree of sample quenching. As an example, a dual-labelled experiment was performed and the equations relating the counting efficiency to the 67Ga ratio are presented. The main advantages of this technique include the ability to recover the sample after the 67Ga has decayed, and the elimination of accurate pipetting of the internal standards as only the ratio of activity between the two peaks need to be considered

184

Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL's analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described

185

Regulatory practices and standards: the international scene and trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At national level, codification of standards governing the licensing and operation of nuclear installations is very different, ranging from criteria to regulations, according to the degree of the obligation imposed by national authorities; it also reflects the variety of national situations and the peculiarities of the legal and political systems. The need to agree upon a level of nuclear safety which is generally recognised as satisfactory and to exchange scientific and technological information in this field has greatly stimulated international co-operation, in particular within the framework of specialized international organisations such as IAEA, ISO, Euratom and OECD/NEA. Harmonization of such standards is particularly important from the viewpoint of public opinion in the countries concerned. In addition, the intrinsic safety of nuclear power plants, assurances as to the duration of plant life should increasingly be highlighted in future. (NEA)

186

Standardized monitoring of Rangifer health during International Polar Year  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} Monitoring of individual animal health indices in wildlife populations can be a powerful tool for evaluation of population health, detecting changes, and informing management decisions. Standardized monitoring allows robust comparisons within and across populations, and over time and vast geographic regions. As an International Polar Year Initiative, the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment network established field protocols for standardized monitoring of caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus health, which included body condition, contaminants, and pathogen exposure and abundance. To facilitate use of the protocols, training sessions were held, additional resources were developed, and language was translated where needed. From March 2007 to September 2010, at least 1206 animals from 16 circumpolar herds were sampled in the field using the protocols. Four main levels of sampling were done and ranged from basic to comprehensive sampling. Possible sources of sampling error were noted by network members early in the process and protocols were modified or supplemented with additional visual resources to improve clarity when needed. This is the first time that such broad and comprehensive circumpolar sampling of migratory caribou and wild reindeer, using standardized protocols covering both body condition and parasite disease status, has been done.

Susan Kutz

2013-06-01

187

Monitoring the International Standardization Process Theoretical Choices and Methodological Tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many organizations are in charge of global security management. This paper outlines and argues for the construction of a theoretical and methodological framework in order to critically assess the new technopolitics currently being developed in the field of global security and which are materialized in standards. The main purpose is to design both a methodology and specific text mining tools to investigate these standards. These tools will be implemented in a platform designed to provide cartographic representations of standards and to assist the navigation of an end-user through a corpus of standards.

Brigitte Juanals

2012-08-01

188

Austrian results at the international standard problem 19  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extended computer code BALO-2A and the thermal-hydraulic code RELAP IV/Mod 6 were applied to perform the International Standard Problem ISP-19. It was possible to model the system simply and to obtain the thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions for BALO-2A. The results are satisfying which is remarkable because loss of coolant accident analyses are performed usually with larger computer codes. (Author)

189

International Standards for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For a terminally sterilized medical device to be designated '' STERILE '', probability of finding the viable micro-organisms in the device shall be equal to or less than 1 x 10-6 (EN 556-1:2001: Sterilization of medical devices - Requirements for medical devices to be designated '' STERILE '' - Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices). Author presents the main legal aspects of the international standards for radiation sterilization of medical devices

190

Using XRF analysis results as internal standard for INAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: At the analysis of soil and sediment samples some of elements, which traditionally are determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis method (INAA), can be rather well determined with X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). These elements are Fe, Zn, Sr, Rb, Ba, La, Ce and some other. Determining the content of these elements and using these values at INAA carrying out it can be define the neutron flux and epithermal to thermal flux ratio for each of irradiated samples. The using of internal standard in INAA allows accounting for the matrix effects in a great degree, related with neutron flux degradation in the sample volume and its variation due to chemical composition material analyzed. Contrary to widely used flux neutron detectors (monitors) on basis of different alloys, such way allows to obtain the more accurate and stable analytical results, since the internal standard elements included in the sample material gives practically full required information about thermal and epithermal fluxes distortion. The most effective using of XRF analysis as internal standard for INAA is for analysis of samples, which have masses significant exceeding the traditionally used in activation analysis (2-4 g and more instead 200-500 mg)

191

Nuclear data standards - International Evaluation Co-operation volume 7  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The working party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank member countries) and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries is organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report was issued by Subgroup 7, which was in charge of producing new evaluated neutron cross-section standards. When starting the project, there was a general consensus on the need to update these standards, as significant improvements had been made to the experimental database since 1991 when the last evaluation of these standards was performed. The present work was accomplished through efficient collaboration between a task force of the US Cross-section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Subgroup 7 of the Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee. Work is reported on the results of an international effort to evaluate the neutron cross-section standards. The evaluations include the H(n,n), 6Li(n,t), 10B(n,?), 10B(n,?1?), 197Au(n,?), 235U(n,f) and 238U(n,f) standard reactions. Evaluations were also produced for the non-standard 238U(n,?) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions. This effort was performed so as to include new experiments in the standards that have been established since the ENDF/B-VI standard evaluation was completed, and to improve the evaluation process. Evaluations were not undertaken for the3He(n,p) and C(n,n) standards. These standards are carried over from ENDF/B-VI. The interest in standards above 20 MeV led to the extension of the 235U(n,f) and 238U(n,f) cross-sections to 200 MeV. The 239Pu(n,f) cross-section was also extended to 200 MeV. The general trend observed for the evaluations is an increase in the cross-sections for most of the reactions from fractions of a per cent to several per cent compared with the ENDF/B-VI results

192

Standards development for the nuclear industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ushering of nuclear era in the Philippines with the construction of the PNPP-I (Philippine Nuclear Power Plant) necessitates the evolvement and use of nuclear standards as a tool for safety evaluation in the licensing process. The Department of Nuclear Regulation and Safeguards under the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission has as one of its responsibilities the establishment of regulatory standards to ensure safe operation of nuclear facilities. This article points out the needs for nuclear standards and the steps in standard development which involve an enormous amount of resources in terms of manpower, expertise and money. The staff of the Department of Nuclear Regulations and Safeguards (DNRS) does not intend to engage in the original development of standards; rather, it reviews standards in use elsewhere, specifically in the U.S. and adopts to local conditions. (author)

193

International standards for the indoor environment. Where are we and do they apply to Asian countries?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

On the international level, ISO (International Organization for Standardization), CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) are writing and reviewing standards relating to the indoor environment on a regular basis. This presentation will focus on the development of standards for the indoor thermal environment and indoor air quality (ventilation). In the future, recommendations for acceptable indoor environments will be specified as classes. This allows for national differences in the requirements as well as for designing buildings for different quality levels. Several of these standards have been developed mainly by experts from Europe, North America and Japan. Are there, however, special considerations relating to South-East Asia (lifestyle, outdoor climate, economy) that are not dealt with in these standards and that will require the revision of existing standards? Critical issues are adaptation, the effect of increased air velocity, humidity, type of indoor pollutant sources, etc. The paper will present an overview of existing methods and discuss areas where revision of present standards or the development of new standards are needed, relating especially to conditions in Asia.

Olesen, Bjarne W.

2003-01-01

194

Preradba norme ISO 3297 Information and documentation - international standard serial number = Revision of the Standard ISO 3297 Information and documentation - international standard serial number  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prikazuje se rad na normizaciji u podru?ju identifikacije i opisa dokumenata. Opisana je redovita preradba norme ISO 3297 Information and documentation – International Standard Serial Number (ISSN. Prikazan je tijek rada i razli?ite faze preradbe teksta norme. Izneseni su glavni elementi preradbe i rješenja Radne skupine. Navode se novine u tekstu nacrta odbora u odnosu na teku?e izdanje.The paper gives an outline of the work on standardization in the area of identification and description of documents. The regular revision of the standard ISO 3297 Information and documentation – International Standard Serial Number (ISSN is described. Different phases of revision are enumerated. The main issues of the revision and the solutions proposed by the ISSN Standard Revision Working Group are presented. The new elements in the text of the committee draft are described.

Jasenka Zajec

2006-01-01

195

International standards for the oil and natural gas industries: A review paper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review paper describes the status of developments towards a complete set of international standards for the oil and natural gas industry. It builds on papers describing the intent of the program presented at the 1992 OTC by Thomas, Thorp and Denham; Wilson; and Arney. These papers state the objectives of developing a set of ISO standards predominantly within ISO/TC67. This paper places the development of the set of standards for the oil and natural gas industry in the context of the need for, and use of, standards by the industry. It describes the main standards organizations including their structure, procedures and relationships. It identifies ISO/TC67 as the key international standards committee for ''materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum and natural gas industries,'' and details its role and current work program. It concludes with a summary of the achievements to date. Significance: Common international standards should enable all stakeholders involved (users/suppliers/regulatory bodies) to conduct their business efficiently (lifecycle cost) with enhanced safety/integrity

196

A review of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) international standards for tissue banks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The IAEA International Standards for Tissue Banks published in 2003 were based on the Standards then currently in use in the USA and the European Union, among others, and reflect the best practices associated with the operation of a tissue bank. They cover legal, ethical and regulatory controls as well as requirements and procedures from donor selection and tissue retrieval to processing and distribution of finished tissue for clinical use. The application of these standards allows tissue banks to operate with the current good tissue practice, thereby providing grafts of high quality that satisfy the national and international demand for safe and biologically useful grafts. The objective of this article is to review the IAEA Standards and recommend new topics that could improve the current version. PMID:20714807

Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Lobo Gajiwala, Astrid; Martinez Pardo, María Esther

2012-03-01

197

Comparative study between external standard method and internal standard method for low-level tritium measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quenching is always present in water samples and the degree of quenching can vary from one sample to another even within the same batch. This means that quench correction should be carried out for each sample in order to determine the activity so that comparisons can be made between samples and other batches. In this paper, a comparative study of tritium measurements between two methods used to correct for quenching is presented. The methods used to determine counting efficiency in the presence of quenching are as follow: Spectral Quench Parameter of External standard method (SQP(E)) and Internal Standard Method. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation system detector (Quantulus 1220) is used to determine tritium activity concentration in heavy water with different concentration from 99,66 D/H+D% to 1,65 D/D+H %. A standard calibration curve for the SQP(E) technique has been carried out with 3H low level quenched PACKARD standard set that had an assayed value of 29,240 dpm/std + 1,6%. Quench correction for Internal Standard Method has been made for each sample of heavy water with Tritiated Water Internal Standard that had a tritium concentration of 2,51 x 106 dpm/g + 3,0%. A comparison between dilution factors, calculated both for D/(D+ H)% concentration and for tritium activity, measured by the two methods, is discussed in this paper. Internal Standard Method provides accurate results especially for lower D/(D+H)% concentration, which is the environmental samples case. Commercial standards set don't fulfill the exigency of an accurate environmental tritium measurement. It must consider the following problems: type of vial, type of scintillant, filled volume and counting geometry. Even if you make your own standard set for quenching calibration you must exceed another problem. The Compton electrons produced by external standard are energetic beta particles and do not have the same behavior of weak beta-particles in the sample itself. Hence a small amount quenching in tritium sample may remain undetected.(author)

198

FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of test/evaluation methods of telecommunication use fine ceramics; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Tsushin kikiyo fine ceramics no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As to high frequency/ultra-high frequency band use fine ceramics, the R and D were conducted with the aim of establishing the evaluation method of electric characteristics such as dielectric constants and dielectric losses, and at standardizing and internationally standardizing the principle of the measuring method, preparation method of equipment and test pieces, measuring procedures, etc. The FY 1999 results were summed up. As to the measuring method of electric characteristics, enhancement of measuring accuracy was made for the millimeter wave coaxial exciting cavity resonator method and the Fabry Perot method. Further, field survey was made of the developmental trend of the measuring method in Europe and the U.S. Concerning measuring use standard test pieces, candidate materials were trially manufactured, and the shape/dimension of a part of the candidate materials were determined. As to surface basic properties, effects of surface shape and convex/concave faces of test pieces on characteristic evaluation were studied, and it was made clear that convex/concave faces were greatly influential. In the technical committee, how to proceed with the development was discussed in the first meeting, and evaluation methods and candidate standard substances were selected in the second meeting. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

199

Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation's (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs

200

Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

1998-04-01

 
 
 
 
201

The role of international standards in managing business risks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Strategic standardization is an emerging management discipline which is gaining a slow but upward acceptance by many American business leaders. It is a management discipline widely followed by European business managers for a long time to ensure a strong competitive position in the global marketplace. American businesses are increasingly adapting this concept for effective management to open new markets, increase sales, reduce trade barriers, and ensure a competitive position both domestically as well as the international arena. Contrary to the view that standardization is only a technical strategy, there is a new reality that standardization is a critical business issue with implications for market access, anti-trust, product liability, patent policy and protection, occupational, health safety, environmental management, government acquisition reform, and even our quality of life. It is often stated, standards are like the air we breathe always accepted and taken for granted until there is a problem of supply or in the case of standards, when they are used as a trade barrier or competitive advantage for others or used to create substantial liabilities for businesses and for individuals.

Mazza, S.

1996-08-01

202

The Magazine of the International Organization for Standardization  

a new level with the recent proposal to establish a joint ISO/UN framework mechanism for the development of standards ...The proposed joint UN/ISO group would oversee the stand- ard development work, which ...desertifica- tion and the Global Terrestrial Observing System proposal for a joint working group with ISO (see World Scene)

203

Evaluation of mechanical properties of structural materials at cryogenic temperatures and international standardization for those methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Testing methods for mechanical properties of structural materials at cryogenic temperatures had been developed rapidly after 1980, however, until 1985 many researches on cryogenic structural materials have been reported using their own methods and new materials have been developed for ITER. Since 1986, a series of international inter-laboratory comparisons on the evaluation of mechanical properties of cryogenic structural materials have been performed among the participants of US-Japan cooperation project and VAMAS (the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) in order to establish unified test methods. Through these international collaborations and Round-Robin Tests, we have accumulated knowledge about mechanical tests at 4 K, and have prepared a draft of an international standard for tensile testing in liquid helium. After testing conditions, strain measurements and other technical points have been discussed, those drafts were submitted to ISO. The outline, development, and discussion of the documents so far, with the results of RRTs, were discussed.

Ogata, T.

2014-01-01

204

Mass fragmentographic analysis of total cholesterol in serum using a heptadeuterated internal standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mass fragmentographic method for the determination of total cholesterol in serum using heptadeuterated [25,26,26,26,27,27,27-2H]cholesterol as internal standard is presented. The results obtained are compared with a colorimetric and gas chromatographic method which were previously proposed as reference methods. Criteria for the development of absolute measurement by means of mass fragmentography and stable isotopically labelled internal standards are given. The conclusion is drawn that, at present, mass fragmentographic methods for the determination of total cholesterol in serum do not fulfil the criteria required for absolute methods. PMID:7398074

Wolthers, B G; Hindriks, F R; Muskiet, F A; Groen, A

1980-05-01

205

Introduction of International Quality Standards into the Practice of Domestic High-tech Enterprises ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????????????? ???????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of the article is to reflect urgency of issues of introduction of the principles of international quality standards into the practice of domestic high-tech enterprises, namely: telecommunication enterprises. Analysing, systemising and generalising scientific works of many scientists, statistical information and materials of enterprises, the article considers evolution of quality standards, their actuality and also the level of loyalty of domestic telecommunication companies towards the quality management system. In the result of the study the article identifies problems of adaptation of international principles of management on the basis of ISO 9000 standards into the practice of domestic high-tech companies. Prospects of studies in this direction are based on the study of specific features of perception of international practice of managing enterprises and personnel, development of methods of introduction of management systems and combination of the process and functional approaches to management.???? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????, ? ??????: ??????????? ???????????????????? ?????. ??????????, ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????????, ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ?? ????????????, ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????. ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ISO ????? 9000 ? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????. ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??????????.

Moiseyenko Tetyana Ye.

2013-10-01

206

Austrian contributions to fuel rod failure models shown at the International Standard Problem (ISP)-14  

Science.gov (United States)

The computer code BALON-2A was improved to perform the International Standard Problem ISP-14. The main extensions are the implementation of input-options and the development of a model to predict the pressure in the fuel rod gap. With these improvements and calculations for input values satisfactory results are obtained.

Sdouz, G.

1984-04-01

207

International developments on exemption from regulatory control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles for exemption from regulatory control which were the subject of an international consensus in 1988 have formed the basis for deriving quantitative guidance for use in the standards on radiation protection which have been jointly produced by the international organisations. The paper outlines the procedure adopted for deriving the exemption levels in the standards. The exemption levels will be used as the means for determining which radiation sources and practices do not need to be regulated. The principles have also been used as the basis for deriving a set of internationally agreed clearance levels for use in controlling the release of slightly contaminated materials from regulated facilities. The method used for deriving the clearance levels from the results of national and international studies is described and the values compared and contrasted with the exemption levels mentioned above. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

208

Use of internal standards for quantitative metatranscriptome and metagenome analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Next generation sequencing-enabled metatranscriptomic and metagenomic datasets are providing unprecedented insights into the functional diversity of microbial communities, allowing detection of the genes present in a community as well as differentiation of those being actively transcribed. An emerging challenge of meta-omics approaches is how to quantitatively compare metagenomes and metatranscriptomes collected across spatial and temporal scales, or among treatments in experimental manipulations. Here, we describe the use of internal DNA and mRNA standards in meta-omics methodologies, and highlight how data collected in an absolute framework (per L or per cell) provides increased comparative power and insight into underlying causes of differences between samples. PMID:24060124

Satinsky, Brandon M; Gifford, Scott M; Crump, Byron C; Moran, Mary Ann

2013-01-01

209

CSNI International Standard Problems (ISP). Brief descriptions (1975-1994)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 1975 and 1994 the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored some forty International Standard Problems (ISPs) in the fields of in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulics. ISPs are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of tools which are used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. Moreover, they enable code users to gain experience and demonstrate their competence. ISPs are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. In an open Standard Problem the results of the experiment are available to the participants before performing the calculations, while in a blind Standard Problem the results are locked until the calculational results are made available for comparison. Experiments selected to support ISP exercises are exceptionally well documented; they provide the framework for several code validation matrices. This report briefly describes 36 ISPs and 3 containment analysis standard problems (CASP)

210

International cooperation in detector research and development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The international collaboration dealing with the research and development (R and D) of detectors for TeV region physics is reported. In this report, it is attempted to analyze which and in what form interregional R and D on detectors may be suitable for the experiment at a hadron machine. Calorimetry was used as an example to illustrate the range of development required. An important and successful aspect of interregional collaboration concerns the definition of standard in the field of data acquisition. The reconstruction of the complete system is required, and this implies the measurement of all particles. This can be done only with calorimetric techniques. The methodical and technological development of calorimetry is presented. The role of the tracking and momentum analysis will require reassessment. Tracking will be essential for several auxiliary measurement. For the R and D, the collaboration between different groups has been made. For example, the ring-imaging Cherenkov tests, the uranium calorimeter tests and the test of a uranium-liquid argon hadron calorimeter were made by the collaboration of several groups. The collaboration with industry has been also made. (Kato, T.)

211

25 CFR 542.16 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology?  

Science.gov (United States)

...internal control standards for information technology? 542.16 Section 542...internal control standards for information technology? Link to an amendment...prevent error in general information technology procedures to go...

2010-04-01

212

25 CFR 542.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?  

Science.gov (United States)

...MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS ...minimum internal control standards for...the level of control described...extends credit to customers: (1) At least the following information shall be recorded...computerized system, and...

2010-04-01

213

77 FR 232 - Implementation of the 2010 Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training...  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification...Hours of Rest and Security-Related Training AGENCY...International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification...concerning hours of rest and security-related training...

2012-01-04

214

Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different languages and countries were discussed. Five steps to achieve optimal psychometric validation were proposed. In Step 1, test stimuli should be standardized for the target culture or language under consideration. In Step 2, examiner instructions must be standardized and translated, including all information from manuals necessary for administration and interpretation. In Step 3, samples of at least 65 healthy persons should be studied for normalization, matched to patients on demographics such as age, gender and education. The objective of Step 4 is test-retest reliability, which can be investigated in a small sample of MS and/or healthy volunteers over 1-3 weeks. Finally, in Step 5, criterion validity should be established by comparing MS and healthy controls. At this time, preliminary studies are underway in a number of countries as we move forward with this international assessment tool for cognition in MS. PMID:22799620

Benedict, Ralph H B; Amato, Maria Pia; Boringa, Jan; Brochet, Bruno; Foley, Fred; Fredrikson, Stan; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hartung, Hans; Krupp, Lauren; Penner, Iris; Reder, Anthony T; Langdon, Dawn

2012-01-01

215

International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies the requirements of international and national regulatory bodies for patient safety. A culture of quality assurance and the need for scientific exchange at the international level have extended the requirements for standardization to many other areas. These include radiotherapy with heavy charged particles, brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. A major advance in radiotherapy over the past few years has been the growing use of proton and heavy ion irradiation facilities for cancer therapy. The increased use of brachytherapy, including the new application of intravascular brachytherapy, has resulted in the development of new standards and codes of practice in this area. In diagnostic radiology, including computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional procedures, the awareness of the importance of dose reduction to the patient has also lead to the development of codes of practice. In the field of nuclear medicine there is a need to increase the dissemination of standards and the development of international recommendations for dosimetry procedures. Every year there are several regional or international meetings on radiation physics applied to medicine or related areas. A meeting focused exclusively on dosimetry gives the unique opportunity to review in depth the developments and trends in this continuously changing field. By organizing this Symposium the IAEA maintains its longstanding tradition of disseminating knowledge, promoting expertise and supporting international co-operation in radiation dosimetry. The Symposium provided a forum where advances in radiation dosimetry during the past decade, not only in external beam radiotherapy but also in other areas of radiation medicine, can be disseminated and scientific knowledge exchanged. It will include areas that have been developed recently (e.g. intravascular therapy and hadron dosimetry), together with classic areas where the standardization of dosimetry may not have reached a mature stage (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). It will also summarize the present status

216

Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO-as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS-the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as record keeping requirements, which pro as record keeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. (authors)

217

Padronização interna em espectrometria de absorção atômica Internal standardization in atomic absorption spectrometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a review on internal standardization in atomic absorption spectrometry with emphasis to the systematic and random errors in atomic absorption spectrometry and applications of internal standardization in flame atomic absorption spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The rules for selecting an element as internal standard, limitations of the method, and some comments about the application of internal standardization in atomic absorption spectrometry and the future of this compensation strategy are critically discussed.

Kelly G. Fernandes

2003-03-01

218

International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab

219

SPOTS project and development of a standard and reference material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ‘Standardization Project for Optical Techniques of Strain measurement’ (SPOTS was focused on the development of reference materials for calibrating optical systems for static strain measurement and standardized tests for evaluating the capabilities of such systems. The reference material consists of a beam in four-point bending within a monolithic frame that ensures reproducibility of the boundary and loading conditions. A procedure for the use of the reference material has been developed and leads to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties that allow the construction of confidence limits for the data obtained with the calibrated optical system. The design and methodology have been developed into a proposed draft standard which is being endorsed by VAMAS (Versailles Agreement on Materials And Standards for review by ISO (International Standards Organisation. An overview of philosophy underpinning the proposed draft standard is presented and serves as an introduction to the reference material and standardized test and their use in providing higher confidence in optical measurements of strain.

Patterson E.

2010-06-01

220

International reference ionosphere: Recent developments  

Science.gov (United States)

An introduction to the history and intentions of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is given and future plans are outlined. The description of the topside electron density profile in the IRI is based on Bent's summary of topside sounder measurements, mainly Alouette. Instead of Bent's tabular form, the IRI has the advantage of an analytical description. Our comparison with AEROS satellite data shows that the IRI model is inaccurate in its description of the latitudinal behavior of the electron density in the topside ionosphere close to the magnetic equator. An improved IRI formula is proposed that closely follows the experimental data. The present IRI is restricted to solar activities reached during the last solar cycle 20. Measurements during the present solar cycle indicate a saturation effect for very high solar activities.

Bilitza, Dieter

1986-05-01

 
 
 
 
221

Development of nano-roughness calibration standards  

Science.gov (United States)

At the Laboratory for Precise Measurements of Length, currently the Croatian National Laboratory for Length, unique nano-roughness calibration standards were developed, which have been physically implemented in cooperation with the company MikroMasch Trading OU and the Ru?er Boškovi? Institute. In this paper, a new design for a calibration standard with two measuring surfaces is presented. One of the surfaces is for the reproduction of roughness parameters, while the other is for the traceability of length units below 50 nm. The nominal values of the groove depths on these measuring surfaces are the same. Thus, a link between the measuring surfaces has been ensured, which makes these standards unique. Furthermore, the calibration standards available on the market are generally designed specifically for individual groups of measuring instrumentation, such as interferometric microscopes, stylus instruments, scanning electron microscopes (SEM) or scanning probe microscopes. In this paper, a new design for nano-roughness standards has been proposed for use in the calibration of optical instruments, as well as for stylus instruments, SEM, atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes. Therefore, the development of these new nano-roughness calibration standards greatly contributes to the reproducibility of the results of groove depth measurement as well as the 2D and 3D roughness parameters obtained by various measuring methods.

Barši?, Gorana; Mahovi?, Sanjin; Zorc, Hrvoje

2012-03-01

222

Standardization of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Developing countries should take food standardization seriously so that they do not become a dumping ground for foods that some developed countries refuse to admit for human consumption. Let us take saccharin for example. Whereas saccharin would normally not be allowed for use in flour preparations and ice-cream in certain developed countries, because saccharin is now known to be slightly carcinogenic, multinational companies from these same countries have been known to promote the use of saccharin in flour preparations and ice-cream in developing countries. When saccharin is used in soft drinks produced in developing countries, this is often not even declared on the label although manufacturers may be required by law in developed countries to declare the presence of saccharin in such drinks, which in any case must never exceed certain limits. It is against this background that the question of standardization of irradiated foods needs to be considered in developing countries. Like all food standardization questions, developing countries must have clearly defined guidelines and regulations for the consumption of irradiated foods and the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods.

223

Development of the standards for probabilistic analysis of security  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The standard of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) for Analysis Probability of Security (APS), for applications in nuclear plants, it was limited originally to an APS Level 1 of internal events. However, the recent efforts taken by the committee of administration of nuclear risk of the ASME, together with the committee for standards informed in risk of the American Nuclear Society (ANS), they have taken place an improved standard that the combines standard original ASME of APS Level internal events, fires inside the plant and external events, with a reserved place for events that happen to low powers and put out. This integrated standard will be used for the nuclear plants and the regulators to carry out applications informed in risk. The use of the APS has matured to the point that the programs of risk management have been developed that its is being used as part of the taking of decisions making in the nuclear facilities. The standard provides approaches to evaluate the technical capacities of an APS, relative to a matter in particular that allows them to the specialists in APS to determine if the elements of the APS are technically appropriate with regard to an application informed in particular risk. Informed applications in risk like inspection in service and technical specifications informed in risk they save time and resources, not alone to the plants, but to the regulator also. (Author)

224

Working group 2: regulatory and standards development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This second workshop explored regulatory standards and developments in the pipeline industry. New methods of improved damage prevention for regulators and pipelines to implement were presented. First, incident trends were discussed, using incident analysis to identify the possible causes and solutions of incidents. The determination of realistic goals was attempted. Next, leak detection was discussed with the presentation of current work in annex E which will form part of the new CSA Z662 standard in a few years time. New testing methods such as external methods of leak detection were studied. A third presentation showed the recent development in overpressure protection with reference to the new annex M incorporated in the CSA Z662-11 standard. The last presentation introduced the topic of public safety issues associated with CO2 pipelines with regard to different failure scenarios and the appropriate emergency responses.

Bunch, Chad; Lee, Shu; Peters, Mike; Parsonage, Kevin; Saad, Ziad

2011-07-01

225

Contribution from twenty two years of CSNI International Standard Problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a brief overview on the contribution of some CSNI International Standard Problems (ISPs) to nuclear reactor safety issues (41 ISPs performed over the last 22 years). This CSNI activity on ISPs has been one of the major activities of the Principal Working Group no.2 on Coolant System Behaviour. Its domain extended from thermal-hydraulics to several other accident domains following the main concerns of nuclear reactor safety, e.g., LOCA predictions fuel behaviour, operator procedures, containment thermal-hydraulics severe accidents, VVERs, etc. ISPs are providing unique material and benefits for some safety related issues. Clearly, all the technical findings and benefits provided by ISPs are still needed and contribute to advancement of nuclear safety. The report provides some overview on the general objectives of ISPs, content and types of ISPs, and technical domains covered by ISPs, followed by a synthesis of technical findings and benefits to the scientific community

226

Good clinical practice: International quality standard for clinical trials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A clinical trial is one of the most important examples of experimental studies. Clinical trials represent an indispensable tool for testing, in a rigorous scientific manner, the efficacy of new therapies. Good Clinical Practice is an international ethical and scientific quality standard for clinical trials, concerning the design, conduct, performance, monitoring auditing, recording, analysis and reporting. This is an assurance to the public that the rights, safety and well-being of trial subjects are protected, and that clinical trial data is credible. The above definitions are consistent with the principles that have their origin in the declaration of Helsinki. The objectives of Good Clinical Practice are to protect the rights of trial subjects, to enhance credibility of data and to improve the quality of science.

Radulovi? Siniša S.

2003-01-01

227

Community Colleges for International Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout the developing world, there is a debilitating lack of connection between tertiary education and economic growth. As a result, many tertiary institutions fail to address the particular human capital needs of the productive sector, thereby constraining economic growth, productivity and innovation. Existing employment opportunities go…

Hewitt, Martin J.; Lee, Ken

2006-01-01

228

CAMAC-an international standard for data machine instrumentation  

CERN Document Server

CAMAC is a standard for on-line computer instrumentation and control. Owing to the world-wide acceptance of CAMAC, standardized and mutually compatible equipment is now offered by a great number of manufacturers. CAMAC systems are modular, and with the range of modules commercially available, it is possible to build up flexible and complex data processing systems. Use of CAMAC requires a CAMAC- compatible entrance (interface) to the computer. Once established, users are later on completely independent of the type of computer used. General aspects, CAMAC systems for NORD-1 and NORD-10 are presented. The former is developed at Physics Institute, Oslo, and the latter is developed as a result of the CERN-contract gained by NORSK DATAELEKTRONIKK.

Johnsen, P J

1973-01-01

229

Breeder development in international cooperation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Federal Republic of Germany is gathering experience in operating the test power plant KNK II and in building the breeder prototype SNR 300. In this matter licensing- and financial problems have to be managed. For the further development planning studies also taking the French breeder concept into account are about to be effected. In France and the Soviet Union they are already passing over from breeder prototype power plants to larger demonstration breeders. The USA are making up for the delays they caused during the past years due to political reasons. Great Britain, Japan, India and Italy have their own breeding reactor projects, and Switzerland and some more countries do investigations concerning parts of the breeder development. (orig.)

230

Developing standard transmission system for radiology reporting including key images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of hospital information system and Picture Archiving Communication System is not new in the medical field, and the development of internet and information technology are also universal. In the course of such development, however, it is hard to share medical information without a refined standard format. Especially in the department of radiology, the role of PACS has become very important in interchanging information with other disparate hospital information systems. A specific system needs to be developed that radiological reports are archived into a database efficiently. This includes sharing of medical images. A model is suggested in this study in which an internal system is developed where radiologists store necessary images and transmit them is the standard international clinical format, Clinical Document Architecture, and share the information with hospitals. CDA document generator was made to generate a new file format and separate the existing storage system from the new system. This was to ensure the access to required data in XML documents. The model presented in this study added a process where crucial images in reading are inserted in the CDA radiological report generator. Therefore, this study suggests a storage and transmission model for CDA documents, which is different from the existing DICOM SR. Radiological reports could be better shared, when the application function for inserting images and the analysis of standard clinical terms are completed.

Kim, Seon Chil [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2007-03-15

231

Developing standard transmission system for radiology reporting including key images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of hospital information system and Picture Archiving Communication System is not new in the medical field, and the development of internet and information technology are also universal. In the course of such development, however, it is hard to share medical information without a refined standard format. Especially in the department of radiology, the role of PACS has become very important in interchanging information with other disparate hospital information systems. A specific system needs to be developed that radiological reports are archived into a database efficiently. This includes sharing of medical images. A model is suggested in this study in which an internal system is developed where radiologists store necessary images and transmit them is the standard international clinical format, Clinical Document Architecture, and share the information with hospitals. CDA document generator was made to generate a new file format and separate the existing storage system from the new system. This was to ensure the access to required data in XML documents. The model presented in this study added a process where crucial images in reading are inserted in the CDA radiological report generator. Therefore, this study suggests a storage and transmission model for CDA documents, which is different from the existing DICOM SR. Radiological reports could be better shared, when the application function for inserting images and the analysis of standard clinical terms are completed

232

CSNI International standard problems (ISP): brief descriptions (1975-1997)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last twenty years (1975-1999) the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored more than forty International Standard Problems (ISPs) in the fields of in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulic, and iodine behaviour in the containment. ISPs are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. The main characteristics of 41 ISPs completed between 1975 and 1999, and 3 containment analysis standard problems (CASPs) are briefly presented

233

International strategies for breeder development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper studies the perspectives of breeder reactors development. The near term context has led some experts to the conclusion that breeder reactor technology is too far ahead of its time. Some have compared breeders to the supersonic airplane, Concorde: good technical performance but failure in its economic dimensions. In this paper, the author points out the major shortcomings of such an assessment which may be valid in the short time. However, with a short-term market-dominated perspective that uses an 8% discount rate, one can neglect every thing that is going to happen in 50 years. 6 refs., 11 figs

234

Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances in scientific and engineering understanding. We present a draft outline that can be used as the basis for such a standard.

Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

235

International financial markets and development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the ‘casino economy’. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated [...] by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new actors are surfacing, e.g. the institutional investor (hedge funds, private equity funds, etc.), while new instruments are leading to highly leveraged and destabilising derivatives. The casino system has been promoted by governments and intergovernmental institutions to liberalise and deregulate financial markets. Although developing countries have not participated in the casino system, they have been suffering most from the spill-over into the real economy. The main lesson learnt is that the casino has to be closed.

Peter, Wahl.

236

Developing tendency of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) reflected by international open publications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the international open papers and technology standards on EMP, briefly introduce the subjects and works developed in the recent years by international relevant organizations, including the definitions of HPEM and IEMI, the classifications, hazards, protections and technology standardizations of EMP. The series standards developed by the Subcommittee 77 C (SC 77C) of IEC are introduced as an emphasis. Finally some proposals are presented for the civil development of EMP technologies. (authors)

237

Updating the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care. Entering the era of molecular diagnostics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care, first published in 2006 (Lancet Infect Dis 2006;6:710-725.) with a second edition in 2009 ( www.currytbcenter.ucsf.edu/international/istc_report ), was produced by an international coalition of organizations funded by the United States Agency for International Development. Development of the document was led jointly by the World Health Organization and the American Thoracic Society, with the aim of promoting engagement of all care providers, especially those in the private sector in low- and middle-income countries, in delivering high-quality services for tuberculosis. In keeping with World Health Organization recommendations regarding rapid molecular testing, as well as other pertinent new recommendations, the third edition of the Standards has been developed. After decades of dormancy, the technology available for tuberculosis care and control is now rapidly evolving. In particular, rapid molecular testing, using devices with excellent performance characteristics for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance, and that are practical and affordable for use in decentralized facilities in low-resource settings, is being widely deployed globally. Used appropriately, both within tuberculosis control programs and in private laboratories, these devices have the potential to revolutionize tuberculosis care and control, providing a confirmed diagnosis and a determination of rifampin resistance within a few hours, enabling appropriate treatment to be initiated promptly. Major changes have been made in the standards for diagnosis. Additional important changes include: emphasis on the recognition of groups at increased risk of tuberculosis; updating the standard on antiretroviral treatment in persons with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection; and revising the standard on treating multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:24673691

Hopewell, Philip C; Fair, Elizabeth L; Uplekar, Mukund

2014-03-01

238

25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...  

Science.gov (United States)

...these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a...

2010-04-01

239

International collaborative study to establish the 3rd International Standard for Streptokinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

An international collaborative study was organized to calibrate a replacement for the current (2nd) International Standard (IS) for Streptokinase, stocks of which are almost exhausted. Two candidate preparations were assayed against the 2nd IS in a study involving 16 laboratories in 12 countries: preparation 88/824 (coded B), and preparation 00/464 (C and D, coded duplicates). Laboratories could use two methods provided, either a fibrin clot lysis assay or a solution chromogenic method, or an in-house method. Laboratories were encouraged to perform more than one method if possible. With the exception of one laboratory which gave outlying results for preparation 00/464, there was good agreement within and between laboratories and no significant differences between potencies using the different methods employed. This study demonstrates that a solution chromogenic assay is an acceptable format for potency determination of the streptokinase preparations in this study and fibrin is not necessary. It has now been agreed that a solution chromogenic plasminogen activation assay replace the current euglobulin reference method for streptokinase activity determination in the European Pharmacopoeia. Study participants, SSC of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis and the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) at the World Health Organization approved preparation 00/464 (C,D in the study) as the 3rd IS for Streptokinase with a potency of 1030 IU per ampoule. PMID:15304048

Sands, D; Whitton, C M; Longstaff, C

2004-08-01

240

Development of a scatterometry reference standard  

Science.gov (United States)

Scatterometry is a common technique for dimensional characterisation of nanostructures in the semiconductor industry. Currently this technique is limited to relative measurements for process development and process control. Although the high sensitivity of scatterometry is well known, it is not yet applied for absolute measurements of critical dimensions (CD) and quality control due to the lack of traceability. Thus we aim to establish scatterometry as traceable and absolute metrological method for dimensional measurements. Suitable high quality calibrated scatterometry reference standard samples are currently developed as one important step to enable traceable absolute measurements in industrial applications. The reference standard materials will base either on Si or on Si3N4. A traceable calibration of these standards will be provided by applying and combining different scatterometric as well as imaging calibration methods. First Silicon test samples have been manufactured and characterised for this purpose. The etched Si gratings have periods down to 50 nm and contain areas of reduced density to enable AFM measurements for comparison. We present the current design and first characterisations of structure details and the grating quality based on AFM measurements, optical, EUV and X-Ray scatterometry as well as spectroscopic ellipsometry. Finally we discuss possible final designs and the aimed specifications of the standard samples to face the tough requirements for future technology nodes in lithography.

Bodermann, Bernd; Loechel, Bernd; Scholze, Frank; Dai, Gaoliang; Wernecke, Jan; Endres, Johannes; Probst, Juergen; Schoengen, Max; Krumrey, Michael; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Soltwisch, Victor

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Economic development standards. 598.615 Section 598...Empowerment Zone Grants § 598.615 Economic development standards. (a) Economic development standards. The project or...

2010-04-01

242

21 CFR 861.30 - Development of standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...30 Section 861.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... MEDICAL DEVICES PROCEDURES FOR PERFORMANCE STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT Procedures for Performance Standards Development and Publication...Development of standards. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), while...

2010-04-01

243

15 CFR 10.3 - Development of a proposed standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Development of a proposed standard... PROCEDURES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.3 Development of a proposed standard...test methods, testing equipment descriptions, and...

2010-01-01

244

Development And Standardization Of Leadership Behavior Scale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explains the procedure of developing and standardizing a leadership behavior scale constructed by the authors to measure the behavioral of the head of institution. After critical study related to institutional behavior of head, twenty four dimensions were selected for constructing the tool. The pilot study had 76 items, related to all the twenty four dimensions. The newly constructed scale which consists of 60 items had face validity, content validity, construct validity and reliability

S Srikanta Swamy

2012-10-01

245

Performance Standards for Teachers supporting Nursing Students’ Reflection Skills Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How can nursing teachers improve students’ reflection skills? In the study performance standards for teachers were developed and validated. A ten-step procedure was followed to ensure procedural and internal validity. National competences and specific content standards for supporting nursing reflection skills development formed the foundation of a preliminary rubric framework which was piloted. Forty participants from six nursing institutes judged the developed rubric framework of eight competences covering thirty rubric attributes. They also discussed the prerequisite minimum performance level and judgmental models. These judgments and discussions resulted in consensus on the rubric framework, a cut-off score, and a conjunctive judgmental model that is convenient for assessing nursing teachers’ competences. The rubrics can be used in a teacher training program. Also institutes of nursing education can employ the rubrics as a tool for preparing and formatively assessing reflection skills.

Agaath Dekker- Groen

2012-01-01

246

International labor standards and the political economy of child-labor regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child labor is a persistent phenomenon in many developing countries. In recent years, support has been growing among rich-country governments and consumer groups for the use of trade policies, such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards, to reduce child labor in poor countries. In this paper, we discuss research on the long-run implications of such policies. In particular, we demonstrate that such measures may have the unintended side effect of lowering dom...

Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

2009-01-01

247

Do international labor standards contribute to the persistence of the child labor problem?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, a number of governments and consumer groups in rich countries have tried to discourage the use of child labor in poor countries through measures such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards. The purported objective of such measures is to reduce the incidence of child labor in developing countries and thereby improve children's welfare. In this paper, we examine the effects of such policies from a political-economy perspective. We show that thes...

Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

2009-01-01

248

International labor standards and the political economy of child labor regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child labor is a persistent phenomenon in many developing countries. In recent years, support has been growing among rich-country governments and consumer groups for the use of trade policies, such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards, to reduce child labor in poor countries. In this paper, we discuss research on the long-run implications of such policies. In particular, we demonstrate that such measures may have the unintended side effect of lowering domest...

Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

2008-01-01

249

Do International Labor Standards Contribute to the Persistence of the Child Labor Problem?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, a number of governments and consumer groups in rich countries have tried to discourage the use of child labor in poor countries through measures such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards. The purported objective of such measures is to reduce the incidence of child labor in developing countries and thereby improve children’s welfare. In this paper, we examine the effects of such policies from a political-economy perspective. We show that th...

Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

2010-01-01

250

International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC). Rev. 3.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The international Standard Industrial Classification of all economic activities (ISIC) is the international reference classification of productive economic activities. Its main purpose is to provide a set of activity categories that can be used for the production of statistics according to such activities. Since the adoption of the original version of ISIC in 1948, the majority of countries around the world have used ISIC or developed national classifications derived from ISIC. ISIC has therefore been providing guidance for countries in developing national activity classifications and has become an important tool for comparing statistical data on economic activities at the international level. The final draft of revision 3.1 of ISIC was considered and welcomed by the Statistical Commission at its thirty-third session in March 2002. It now replace the third revision of the classification which has been in use since 1989

251

Upgrade of internal events PSA model using the AESJ level-1 PSA standard for operating state  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2003, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) started to develop the Level-1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) standard of internal events for operating state (AESJ standard). The AESJ standard has been finished to be asked for public comment. Using the AESJ standard (draft version), the authors have upgraded the PSA model for Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) BWR-5 plant not only to reflect latest knowledge but also to ensure high quality of PSA model (not yet peer-reviewed) for the purpose of better operation and maintenance management of TEPCO BWR plants. For example, the categorization of structures, systems and components (SSCs) will be performed to improve nuclear reactor safety using information of risk importance. (author)

252

Harvard Institute for International Development (HIID)  

Science.gov (United States)

Founded in 1974, the Harvard Institute for International Development (HIID) is an interdisciplinary center at Harvard University whose mission is to assist the economic growth of developing nations. Publications on-site include an extensive compilation of Development Discussion Papers (1974-present) with selected full text on agricultural and food policy, education, taxation, economic reform, and environmental issues (1995-present), as well as research stemming from the Consulting Assistance on Economic Reform project (CAER) and International Tax Program. Recent HIID book reviews are also available, and interested parties may examine compilations on the East Asian Financial Crisis and the External Debt Problem in Central America at the Research page.

Development., Harvard I.

1998-01-01

253

International Fund for Agricultural Development [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Profiles the International Fund for Agricultural Development, a specialized agency of the United Nations launched to assist the rural poor. Information about the agency, its mission, history, operations, events and meetings, international partners. Contains press releases and full-texts of official documents; photo and video gallery; contact information for the headquarters via mailing address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail; information on the Popular Coalition to Eradicate Hunger and Poverty.

254

INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS: A WAY FOR GLOBAL CONSISTENCY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reverberations of Wall Street had to be felt across the global banking system. Last September, the world economy seemed to be hurtling down in a way that had initially raised the spectre of the Great Depression in America of the late 1920s. This is based largely on the performance of stock markets which are supposed to reflect future trends in the real economy. However, such knowledge embedded in the markets can be imperfect, as we have learnt by now. In some ways, the global financial crisis and its fallout are forcing economic agents to acquire new knowledge in regard to what might happen in the future. It was difficult to explain rationally why the stock markets were furiously running up even as company balance sheets were still bleeding. A few years ago, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS were a distant possibility. Today, the reality is far different. We are in a dramatic shift that is fast making IFRS the most widely accepted accounting model in the world. As the business environment becomes increasingly global and companies routinely list on stock exchanges in many countries, the need for consistent worldwide reporting standards intensifies. IFRS clearly addresses this issue; its goal is to create comparable, reliable, and transparent financial statements that will facilitate greater cross-border capital raising, trade and better corporate governance practices. Thus acceptance of IFRS is gaining momentum across the globe. IFRS transition program for any organization will have multi –dimensional effect because of differences which exist between IFRS and Local GAAPs. The objectives of the paper is to highlight the nature of such differences with examples along with analysing the provisions of IFRS, comparative analysis of IFRS with Indian GAAP system, benefits, and major issues in first time adoption of IFRS in Indian companies with the help of case study of Indian corporate.

Ravindra Tripathi

2011-05-01

255

An International Marketing Curriculum - Development and Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the process of market-driven curriculum design in the development of an undergraduate International Marketing (IM) major at Duquesne University (Pennsylvania) School of Business Administration. Reports on a market study revealing profiles and IM curriculum design preferences of exporting companies. Discusses the curriculum development,…

Abboushi, Suhail; Lackman, Conway; Peace, A. Graham

1999-01-01

256

The quantitative analysis of Bowen's kale by PIXE using the internal standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The internal standard method was used for non-destructive quantitative determination of trace elements by PIXE. The uniform distribution of the internal standard element in the Bowen's kale powder sample was obtained by using homogenization technique. Eleven elements are determined quantitatively for the sample prepared into self-supporting targets having lower relative standard deviations than non-self-supporting targets. (author)

257

Final comparison report for international standard problem n.22 (SPES)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

OECD-CSNI International Standard Problem 22 is a 'Loss of Feedwater with EFW delayed' test, performed in the SPES facility (SIET-Piacenza). The purpose of 'LOFW-EFW delayed' experiment is to obtain in the primary system of the facility the thermal-hydraulic conditions similar to the reference plant in the incidental transient of main feedwater total loss, in all the three steam generators, with a delayed intervention of the emergency feedwater system. It is a double blind exercise, characterized by a large participation of non-OECD countries sponsored by IAEA. The ISP22 Comparison Report is based on two fundamental elements: the comparison between the single Participants predictions and the experimental data, and the overall comparison among all calculations and test results. The conclusions drawn from these analyses highlight the major contributions to the observed discrepancies deriving from code limitations, user errors, experimental uncertainties. From a macroscopic point of view, it is concluded that most of the phenomena occurring in ISP22 experiment were generally predicted by the double blind predictions. A more accurate analysis of the single phenomena can nevertheless reveal relevant discrepancies between calculations and data. The document also contains a description of ISP22 Participants and input decks, and a collection of their comments on the differences between calculations and test results

258

Development of American National Standard on External Event PRA Methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last ten years, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S. nuclear utilities have been developing methods and requirements for risk-informed applications making use of probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of nuclear power plants. Early in this process, it became clear that the existing PRAs were done with different objectives and methodologies by different analysts. For uniformity and consistency in future risk-informed applications, industry consensus standards on probabilistic risk assessments were deemed to be essential. Currently, the following standards have been published or under preparation: - ASME RA-S-2002: 'Standard for Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Nuclear Power Plant Applications', Addendum C, March 2005. - ANSI/ANS-58.21-2003 'External-Events PRA Methodology' March 2003. - ANS-58.22 'Low Power and Shutdown PRA Standard'. - ANS-58.23 'Fire PRA Methodology Standard'. - ANS Level 2 and Level 3 PRA Standards. The ASME Standard specifies the requirements for performing PRA for internal events under full power conditions. ANS 58.21 specifies the requirements for conducting PRA of external events under full power conditions. These standards have been published, whereas the other standards are under preparation. ANS 58.21 was prepared by a working group comprised of the following individuals: - Dr. R.J. Budnitz, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. - Dr. N.C. Chokshi, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. - W. Henries, Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company. - Dr. M.K. Ravindra, ABS Consulting, (Current Chair of Working Group). - Dr. J.D. Stevenson, J.D. Stevenson Consultants. - T. Yee, Southern California Edison Company. The development of this Standard was guided and approved by the Risk Informed Standards Committee (RISC) of American Nuclear Society. This committee has presently 22 members drawn from different sectors of the nuclear industry: utilities, reactor vendors, universities, research organizations, architect engineers, consultants and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In addition, the Working Group had sent early drafts of the Standard to a select group of peers in different elements of the external event PRA; this peer group included industry experts like Professor Allin Cornell, Dr. Robert Kennedy, and Mr. David Moore. The final requirements in the Standard hence represent the consensus of the industry. (author)

259

Structural integrity assessments - development of international procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The demonstration of Structural Integrity is an essential requirement before any critical engineering component can enter or continue in service. This paper reviews the current development of the International Structural Integrity assessment procedures and relates this to the philosophy adopted by design codes. The lack of a truly internationally accepted structural integrity code is noted and the role of initiatives by the IIW and BSI discussed. Finally the need for a standardised procedure to facilitate the derivation of inspection strategies incorporating Quality Assurance and fitness for purpose approaches is recognised. Without this, economic repair strategies are difficult to develop and safety case assessments will be very variable across industrial and national sectors. (author)

260

Analysis of International and National Hotel Chains Development in Ukraine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of the national hotel chains development in Ukraine and the sponsorship for the international hotel chains functioning are not only due to the country’s business and tourist attractiveness formation, taking into account Euro-2012, but also due to the necessity of high-quality expansion of dwelling and resort places choice for foreign and Ukrainian guests in accordance with their aims of arrival and individual preferences.In comparison with the international hotel chains, the national hotel chains have the following advantages: the local market adaptation; the country’s legislative base awareness; the best understanding of local traditions and customs; the standards development independence; the ability to react to the market changes quickly.The development of national hotel chains in Ukraine is in the initial stage. The formation of Ukrainian hotel chains is arising from the following objectives: support of increasing volumes of inbound tourism; service according to the international hotel service standards; employment in a services sector; enterprises support in the hotel business while developing hotel chains. The favorable geographic location of Ukraine, the low level of market saturation and the high hotel service demand favor the appearance of the international hotel chains in Ukraine.

G. Gorina

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Internal standard method for the measurement of choline and acetylcholine by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

An internal standard method has been developed for the determination of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and/or its metabolic precursor choline. This approach couples the high separation efficiency of capillary electrophoresis with the sensitivity and selectivity of electrochemical detection at an enzyme-modified electrode. Indirect electrochemical detection is accomplished at a 25 microm platinum electrode modified by cross-linking the enzymes choline oxidase and acetylcholinesterase with glutaraldehyde. Although in this simple form of electrode fabrication there is a gradual loss of response from the electrochemical detector with time, accurate quantitation is achieved by the addition of butyrylcholine, which is also a substrate for acetylcholinesterase, as an internal standard. A linear response is achieved between 0 and 125 microM with a limit of detection of 2 microM (25 fmol). The utility of this method was demonstrated by monitoring the kinetics of choline uptake in synaptosomal preparations. PMID:12101059

Wise, Dana D; Barkhimer, Tatyana V; Brault, Pierre-Alexandre; Kirchhoff, Jon R; Messer, William S; Hudson, Richard A

2002-07-25

262

A novel PCR method for quantification of buckwheat by using a unique internal standard material.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel quantitative and specific method for detection of buckwheat, a known food allergen, in diverse food materials was developed by using a unique internal standard to compensate for the variability in DNA extraction and amplification efficiencies. The method was based on a real-time PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer region of Fagopyrum spp. and was designed to detect both cultivated and wild buckwheat, because wild buckwheat might be potentially allergenic. As the internal standard material, ground seeds of statice (Limonium sinuatum) were added to food samples prior to DNA extraction, and the amount of statice DNA measured by real-time PCR was used to standardize the buckwheat content. Statice, an ornamental plant, was chosen as the internal standard material because it was readily available and was inferred to be least likely to be commingled in foods. The specificity of the PCR system was tested against commonly used food materials of plant origin. Quantitative results expressed in buckwheat protein concentrations (mean +/- standard deviation) for various food samples prepared to contain 10 ppm (wt/wt) of buckwheat flour (corresponding to 1.2-microg/g [ppm] buckwheat protein) ranged from 0.7 +/- 0.2 (rice) to 0.9 +/- 0.4 (wheat) and for 100-ppm (wt/wt) samples (12-microg/g [ppm] buckwheat protein) from 7.7 +/- 1.0 (pepper) to 9.8 +/- 0.5 (wheat) microg/g (ppm). The method's accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were considered sufficient for detection of buckwheat contamination at the level required for compliance with the Japanese Food Allergen Labeling Regulation. PMID:17066931

Hirao, Takashi; Hiramoto, Masayuki; Imai, Shinsuke; Kato, Hisanori

2006-10-01

263

76 FR 62714 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Organization for Standardization LSA Life-saving Appliance MSC Maritime Safety...International Life-saving Appliance Code'' (LSA Code), IMO Resolution MSC.48(66...incorporate by reference for the first time the LSA Code. Interim 46 CFR...

2011-10-11

264

Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures

265

Developing Global Perspectives through International Management Degrees  

Science.gov (United States)

Internationalisation has risen high on the agenda of many higher education institutions, and the need to develop graduates with global perspectives is well recognised. Much attention has been given to institutional strategies for internationalisation, international students, and dealing with culturally diverse learning styles. To date, however,…

Brookes, Maureen; Becket, Nina

2011-01-01

266

The international cooperation for sustainable development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article notices the importance of the environmental issue for the international cooperation and the legislative progress about it in Colombia. Also, it study the changes in the cooperation system, from one based in quotas to other based in the demand, and the adjustments required in developing countries to adapt to the new scheme

267

Recent developments in negotiating international petroleum agreements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent developments in negotiating international petroleum agreements are discussed. It is concluded that three major developments will influence future mineral licensing and negotiating practices. Firstly the large potential of the former USSR linked to the likely chaos there will be a major focus for the world's mineral industries. Secondly restructuring, privatization and internationalization of the most advanced state-owned oil companies is likely to continue. Finally, the environment will continue to dominate government policies. (UK)

268

Motor Development International: Compressed Air Technology Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

How does a car that boasts "zero pollution" and even "cleans the air it uses" work? This website provides information on the air compression cars developed by Motor Development International. Aside from the general overview of the mechanics of air compression, the FAQ section provides additional information on the air tanks, filter system, body frame, electric system and MDI's business model. A key target for this website seems to be potential buyers and investors.

269

Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012

270

Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012.

Koo, I. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, I. W.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, J. C. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-04-15

271

Global standard for the composition of infant formula: recommendations of an ESPGHAN coordinated international expert group.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) develops food standards, guidelines and related texts for protecting consumer health and ensuring fair trade practices globally. The major part of the world's population lives in more than 160 countries that are members of the Codex Alimentarius. The Codex Standard on Infant Formula was adopted in 1981 based on scientific knowledge available in the 1970s and is currently being revised. As part of this process, the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses asked the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition to initiate a consultation process with the international scientific community to provide a proposal on nutrient levels in infant formulae, based on scientific analysis and taking into account existing scientific reports on the subject. ESPGHAN accepted the request and, in collaboration with its sister societies in the Federation of International Societies on Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, invited highly qualified experts in the area of infant nutrition to form an International Expert Group (IEG) to review the issues raised. The group arrived at recommendations on the compositional requirements for a global infant formula standard which are reported here. PMID:16254515

Koletzko, Berthold; Baker, Susan; Cleghorn, Geoff; Neto, Ulysses Fagundes; Gopalan, Sarath; Hernell, Olle; Hock, Quak Seng; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Lonnerdal, Bo; Pencharz, Paul; Pzyrembel, Hildegard; Ramirez-Mayans, Jaime; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Zong-Yi, Ding

2005-11-01

272

25 CFR 542.13 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming machines?  

Science.gov (United States)

...standards apply. This standard is not applicable...shall develop adequate standards governing the security over the issuance...shall be encrypted for security reasons. (4...account generation standards. (i) A...

2010-04-01

273

The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article dealt with institutional aspects of auditing profession, mostly their impact on international harmonization concept of auditing services. The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services behavior and development, mostly in context of providing the auditing services. The authors mention on the IAASB priorities in this area set for period 2009 - 2011.

Ladislav Kareš

2008-12-01

274

Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Overall survey; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Sogo chosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper summed up the results of the survey of tackling with the international standardization by enterprises and organizations involved in the standardization in the U.S., Europe and Japan, the results of the R and D on 20 themes for the international standardization, and the development toward the international standardization. As the R and D themes, the following were selected: the development of chemical method to analyze/evaluate metallic coatings of surface treated steel coating sheets, R and D of the basic evaluation method of functional composite particles, international standards for computer/manikins, basic technology of color image management, study on optimizing design/evaluation technology using quality engineering, study of the international standardization by economic evaluation of environmental impacts, R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells, development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards, standard measuring methods of hormone effects of chemical substances, quantification of the sensory evaluation and international standardization in the paint field, experimental study on the international standardization for immunochemical measurement of chemical substances, etc. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

275

Globalization quickly increased need for moving from local to international standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

'Standardization' quickly changed in the past few years, due to the market's globalization that needs international standards as important instruments in eliminating technical barriers to trade. The 'Petroleum Sector' chose moving to international standards jointly processed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) that played the role of historical reference. Taking into account that oil industry wants only one Standard worldwide used, also Europe decided for adopting these ISO Standards as European Standards. The result is much better considering that also Russia and China seem to adopt these ISO documents as their national standards. It is so becoming much more significant the 'motto' that ISO TC 67 'Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries' adopted for its standardization activities: 'Do it once, do it right, do it internationally'. Examples of such international Standards worldwide used as National Standards are: ISO 11960:2004 - 'Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for wells' and; ISO/DIS 3183 - 'Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems' (under preparation). Standardization has so grown from technical to management tool and countries are also moving, including standards in more areas of its legislations. (author)

Cappelli, Cataldo

2005-07-01

276

New developments in international nuclear liability law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA Bord of Governors at its session in February 1990 entrusted its Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability under a new mandate with the preparatory work for the revision of the Vienna Convention. This Standing Committee has so far helt three sessions. The following four main items appeared on its agenda: 1. proposals for the revision of the Vienna Convention; 2. the question of supplementary funding for compensation of nuclear damage under the revised Vienna Convention; 3. procedure for the settlement of claims for nuclear damage under the revised Vienna Convention; and 4. International State liability for nuclear damage and its relationship to the international civil liability regime. A brief description is provided of these initiatives to improve the existing international nuclear liability regime. Also progress made with regard to each of them is reported. Because of the different legal character of these initiatives, belonging to international civil, international state law and sometimes a mixture, there is a serious risk that the new developments will not be formalized as soon as hoped for. (orig.)

277

Simultaneous determination of the intermediates of the citric acid cycle by gas chromatography--mass fragmentography using deuterated internal standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current developments in the use of gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy in studying the intermediates in the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle are outlined. The methods developed make use of deuterated internal standards and multiple-ion monitoring to obtain sensitivity comparable to that of the better fluorimetric enzymatic assays. The problems still remaining are indicated

278

International standards for tuberculosis care: Relevance and implications for laboratory professionals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On World Tuberculosis (TB Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are suspected of having, TB and is intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all healthcare providers in delivering high quality care for patients of all ages, including those with smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB, TB caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TB/HIV coinfection. In this article, we present the ISTC, with a special focus on the diagnostic standards and describe their implications and relevance for laboratory professionals in India and worldwide. Laboratory professionals play a critical role in ensuring that all the standards are actually met by providing high quality laboratory services for smear microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing and other services such as testing for HIV infection. In fact, if the ISTC is widely followed, it can be expected that there will be a greater need and demand for quality assured laboratory services and this will have obvious implications for all laboratories in terms of work load, requirement for resources and trained personnel and organization of quality assurance systems.

Pai M

2007-01-01

279

International Standard Problem No. 48 - containment capacity. Synthesis Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In June 2002, the OECD-NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) initiated an International Standard Problem on containment integrity (ISP 48) based on the NRC/NUPEC/Sandia test. The objectives of the ISP are to extend the understanding of capacities of actual containment structures based on results of the recent PCCV Model test and other previous research. From 1997 through 2001 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a Cooperative Containment Integrity Program under the joint sponsorship of the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan, and the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The purpose of the program was to investigate the response of representative models of nuclear containment structures to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions to measured behavior. A uniform 1:4-scale model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) was constructed and tested at SNL. This model was representative of the containment structure of an actual pressurized water reactor plant in Japan. The ISP consists of four phases over a period of 2 years: Phase 1: Data Collection and Identification. Phase 2: Calculation of the Limit State Test (LST), i.e. static pressure loading. Phase 3: Calculation of response to both Thermal and Mechanical Loadings. Phase 4: Reporting Workshop Eleven organizations (or teams) from nine OECD member countries accepted the invitation to participate in the ISP and perform calculations to predict the structural response of the PCCV model to static and transient pressure and thermal loading. Each participating organization was provided with the model and loading data and was asked to perform independent analyses to simulate the response of the PCCV model. The results of each team's calculations were compiled and the results presented at a final workshop in April 2005. The prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model is a uniform 1:4-scale model of the containment structure of Unit 3 of the Ohi Nuclear Power Station in Japan. The approach to designing the model was to scale the design of the Ohi-3 containment to the extent possible and include as many representative features of the prototype as practical: liner, penetrations, reinforcement steel and tendons. Fifty-five response parameters, referred to as standard output locations (SOLs), were selected to facilitate initial comparison of the Phase 2 calculations with the test results. The calculated responses match the test results and each other reasonably well up to the onset of global or general membrane, yielding where the results begin to diverge. Also, most of the analyses capture the loss of stiffness due to cracking of the concrete at approximately 1.5 times the design pressure. In addition to submitting response predictions at the SOLs, each participant was also asked to provide a best estimate of failure pressure and mechanisms of the PCCV model. It is interesting to note that the differences in failure predictions are much more significant than the differences in the calculated responses would seem to suggest. Phase 3 of ISP48 extends the results of the model tests and calculations by investigating the addition of temperature to the pressure loading. The ISP participants agreed to consider two thermal load cases for Phase 3: - Case 1: Saturated Steam Conditions (mandatory for all Phase 3 participants) - Monotonically increasing static pressure and temperature (saturated steam). - Case 2: Station Blackout Scenario - A representative severe-accident scenario for a four-loop PWR including vessel failure and hydrogen detonation

280

Developments in safety standards and regulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper explains, in broad terms, how regulatory control is exercised over licensed nuclear installations in the UK and how HSE has developed its safety standards to support its regulatory approach. It first sets out the scope of HSE's regulatory responsibilities, which NII exercises on its behalf, and briefly describes the licensing process and compliance monitoring through inspection over the life of a nuclear plant. It also refers to the role of assessment in NII's decision-making processes, and the part played in this by the consideration of costs and safety benefits. It then moves on to consider the challenges that HSE/NII are likely to face from the changing nuclear industry in the second half of the 1990s. (author)

 
 
 
 
281

25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?  

Science.gov (United States)

...SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.11...the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel...at least the level of control described by the standards...through the pari-mutuel satellite system. In case of...

2010-04-01

282

Knowledge sharing in international product development teams  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many companies are facing an increasing need to compete on a global scale. But as companies move into multiple markets, the process of developing new products becomes increasingly complex. Coping successfully with the increased internationalization forces companies to excel at collaboration and knowledge sharing, also across geographical distances. The capability to develop new transnational products depends largely on the multinational company's ability to transfer and deploy knowledge from its multiple country sources. The challenges of the transfer of knowledge between departments in the same company are far from trivial and the problems associated with transfer will increase with geographical and cultural difference (Bresman et al., 1999). Especially tacit knowledge is difficult to transport across national boarders (Kogut & Zander, 1992) and not much research exists on how companies overcome these barriers and harvest knowledge from geographical dispersed areas (Subramaniam & Venkatraman, 2001). The product development literature prescribes that knowledge sharing is desirable throughout the whole product development process (Craig & Hart, 1992; Hansen, 1999). Although this sharing is desirable, previous research found that it is the exception rather than the rule in most companies (Golder, 2000:329). Hence, it is relevant to research how companies can improve their ability to share knowledge in connection with international product development. One way to increase knowledge sharing in the product development process is by using teams. Teams are considered one of the best tools for exchanging especially tacit knowledge, since this kind of knowledge is transferred best through personal interaction and face-to-face meetings (Madhavan & Grover, 1998; Nonaka, 1994). In accordance with this, more and more multinational firms rely on international product development teams (McDonough et al., 2001) as a means to make the most effective use of the company's resources scattered around the world. While a substantial amount of research exists on groups in general, research into new product development teams is more limited and especially empirical research on global new product development teams is sparse (McDonough, et al., 2001). Findings from research on teams cannot automatically be generalized and applied to multinational product development teams, since these differ on a range of parameters from domestic teams. Multinational teams are often separated geographically and are culturally diverse, which affects their knowledge processes. Given the increased importance of multinational product development teams and the limited amount of research within this area, this therefore appears to be a topic worthy of further investigation. Hence the objective of the full paper is to discuss the challenges associated with knowledge sharing in international product development teams. A case study of a Danish international food company has been conducted and interviews with team members located in different geographical cites are currently being analyzed.

Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne

283

Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

In September, Human Rights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. This report, Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards, reports on nationwide repeated violations, across all levels of employment, of federal laws and international standards protecting workers's rights to organize, to bargain collectively, and to strike.

284

The Realization of Tibetan Code Conversion between National and International Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper has expatiated the mutual conversion between national and international standards (ISO/IEC 10646, and realized UNICODE operation based on MATLAB. It has made code conversion between national and international standards, in order to provide an effective method for further Tibetan small-character code processing based on MATLAB.

Qiang Ma

2012-04-01

285

Development in Danish international air traffic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper is describing the development in international air traffic made by Danes and for all travellers out of Denmark in the period 2002 - 2012. Development in passengers, destination countries and prices is illustrated. The person kilometres by Danes have increased 80% or 7.2% per year in mean during the 10 years. This increase has been analysed by a panel data model. The conclusion found by modelling is the increasing travel activity first of all is driven by increasing income and to less extent by decreasing prices. The paper is furthermore showing how the international air traffic has got more effective and to what extent Low Cost Carriers have taken over an important part of the travel market.

Christensen, Linda

286

International development perspectives for the 90s.  

Science.gov (United States)

Addressing the Pakistani Society of Development Economists during its 7th Annual General Meeting, Gamani Corea discusses the prospects for international development in the decade of the 90s. Corea served as a chairman of the UN General Assembly's committee in charge of drafting a Strategy for the 90s. He explains that the Strategy begins against the backdrop of failure. Regarded as the "decade of despair" or the "lost decade," the 80s witnessed the developing world move backwards in terms of development. Projections for the 90s are not very optimistic. East Asian countries are expected to continue rapid growth, and South East Asia may see modest growth. But for the remainder of the developing world -- especially Africa and Latin America -- the prospects are bleak. External indebtedness continues to stifle progress. A repetition of the 80s could have serious consequences, not only for developing countries but the world as a whole, warns Corea. Turmoil -- even revolution -- could easily break out. Migration, refugees, terrorism, and drug trafficking would affect developed countries. While developing countries must take the lead in confronting the obstacles to development, developed countries must not abandon them. The international community must address questions of external debt, the flow of resources, world trade, and market access. Furthermore, as the Strategy makes clear, 3 issues also require special attention: 1) The "knowledge gap." Science and technology have become a crucial element in economic progress, but the knowledge gap between North and South continues to increase. 2) Industrial and agricultural development. And 3) social development -- the alleviation of poverty, the improvement of human resources, and protection of the environment. PMID:12285363

Corea, G

1991-01-01

287

A systems process lifecycle standard for very small entities: development and pilot trials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Very small entities, organizations with up to 25 people, are very important to the worldwide economy. The products they develop are either developed specifically for a customer or are integrated into products made by larger enterprises. To address the needs of Very small entities, a set of standards and guides have been developed using the systems engineering lifecycle standard ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 as the main framework. The systems engineering handbook, developed by the International Council o...

Laporte, Claude; O Connor, Rory

2014-01-01

288

75 FR 31749 - International Standard-Setting Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...organization.'' The main organizations are Codex, the World Organisation for Animal Health, and the International Plant Protection...organizations within each region; exercise a general coordinating role for each of the regions; and promote the use of Codex...

2010-06-04

289

77 FR 36984 - International Standard-Setting Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...main organizations are Codex, the World Organisation for Animal Health, and the International...Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organisation (FAO/WHO) Trust Fund for Enhanced...region; exercise a general coordinating role...

2012-06-20

290

Detection and quantitation of HBV DNA in the WHO International Standard for HIV-1 RNA (NIBSC code: 97/656).  

Science.gov (United States)

Nucleic-acid amplification technology (NAT) assays have been implemented for HCV and HIV-1 in the United States, and many parts of Europe, Australia and Asia. Nucleic acid detection assays utilize many different technologies, and the WHO International Standards for nucleic acid tests are widely used to compare them. Currently, several laboratories are developing an assay for simultaneous detection of HCV RNA, HIV-1 RNA and HBV DNA. In the course of such development it was observed that the WHO International Standard for HIV-1 RNA (97/656) was positive for HBV DNA. In this report we confirm the presence of HBV DNA in the HIV-1 international standard through the qualitative Procleix-Ultrio assay. Further, using the TaqMan technology, through quantitative Bead Capture-TaqMan assay, we report that approximately 1000IU/ml dilution of HIV RNA contains approximately 4500IU/ml of HBV DNA. PMID:15158070

Shyamala, Venkatakrishna; Cottrell, Joshua; Arcangel, Phillip; Madriaga, Dennis; Linnen, Jeff; Phelps, Bruce; Chien, David

2004-06-01

291

Energy and international trade: toward sustainable development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper summarises the Meeting of Experts on Energy Service and International Trade: Consequences for Development. Energy is central to achieving the interrelated economic, social and environmental aims of sustainable human development and energy services play a crucial role in providing efficient access to energy in support of development. They also constitute the value added in the energy chain, from exploration to consumption. Developing countries are thus faced with the challenge, on the one hand, of achieving more reliable and efficient access to energy and, on the other hand, of obtaining a greater share of the energy 'business'. The pursuit of both goals requires access to knowledge, expertise, technology and managerial know-how. The Expert Meeting on Energy Services and International Trade: Consequences for Development, held in Geneva, Switzerland in July 2001, addressed the elements of an energy services sector strategy for development countries, with the following objectives: a) to ensure efficient access to energy by all segments of the population; b) to strengthen their competitive position in the supply of energy services at the various stages of the energy chain; and c) to negotiate commitments and additional provisions in the ongoing multilateral negotiations on trade in services supportive of these objectives. 3 photos.

Figueredo, R.

2002-03-01

292

Research and development for international safeguards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IAEA nuclear material safeguards are essentially a technical means of verifying the fulfillment of political obligations undertaken by States in concluding international agreements relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Their successful implementation depends heavily on, inter alia, the development of sound concepts and approaches and good methods and techniques for the verification of nuclear material in all its peaceful applications. The IAEA is strongly supported by several Member States in its effort to further improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its safeguards system. This paper reviews the present status of IAEA safeguards concepts and safeguards technologies, together with recent developments and current work in progress. (author)

293

International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), which documents the neurological examination of individuals with SCI. The Autonomic Standards Assessment Form is recommended to be completed during the evaluation of indiv...

Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William; Kennelly, Michael; Kirshblum, Steven; Krogh, Klaus; Alexander, Marca Sipski; Vogel, Lawrence; Wecht, Jill

2012-01-01

294

Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different langu...

Benedict, Ralph Hb; Boringa, Jan; Brochet, Bruno; Foley, Fred; Fredrikson, Stan; Hartung, Hans; Krupp, Lauren; Penner, Iris; Reder, Anthony T.; Langdon, Dawn

2012-01-01

295

Development of human exposure standards for radio frequency fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historical aspects of the problem of developing human exposure standards for radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields are discussed. It is shown that biological effects and health implications of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields have been a subject of scientific investigation for more than 50 years. It has become a focus of attention because of the expanded use of RF radiation in the frequency range between 300 MHz and 6 GHz for wireless communication over the past decade. Another cause for the attention is the uncertainty of some observed responses and lack of understanding of the mechanism of interaction of RF electromagnetic fields with biological systems. At present, considerable efforts are devoted to developing and revising RF exposure standards. Each of these efforts should aim to make explicit the philosophy and process by which they reason and decide guidelines for deeming exposure as safe. Furthermore, the reconciliation of philosophies of protection will definitely be an asset, in practice, to those interested in international harmonization of RF exposure standards

296

International standardization of nuclear reactor designs - the way forward  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

s to be done. The concept of deploying standardized reactor designs across a number of countries supposes an alignment and, if possible, harmonization of national safety standards; a streamlining of national licensing procedures, making them more efficient and predictable; and the willingness of national regulators to take into account licensing done in other countries. In the end, this should lead to a mutual acceptance of design approvals or, in a more distant future, even to a multinational design approval process. All in all, the concept of standardized reactor designs raises many challenges, but these will have to be tackled. (authors)

297

International development workshops. Final technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) began to act on their recognition of the importance of education in nuclear literacy, specifically in radioactive waste management (RWM), several years ago. To address this Goal for nuclear literacy, the US DOE; through the Information and Education Division of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and in cooperation with the OECD/NEA, organized an ''International Workshop on Education in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management'' in Engelberg, Switzerland in June of 1991. To this end, a grant to support nuclear literacy and RWM was written and funded by the OCRWM and the education division of the DOE Yucca Mountain Office in 1990. The over-riding Goal of that workshop and the DOE grant was to find ways of raising the level of nuclear literacy in the general public through educational programs in radioactive waste management (RWM). The two Main Objectives of the workshop were: first, to contribute to an information base for education systems, on global aspects of radioactive waste management; and second, to achieve international consensus on the basic tools and methods required to develop the information base. These two objectives also became the principal objectives of the DOE International Workshops grant. In other words, the global and local (Nevada) objectives were one and the same. Workshop overviews and accomplishments are summarized in this report

298

International development workshops. Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) began to act on their recognition of the importance of education in nuclear literacy, specifically in radioactive waste management (RWM), several years ago. To address this Goal for nuclear literacy, the US DOE; through the Information and Education Division of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and in cooperation with the OECD/NEA, organized an ``International Workshop on Education in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management`` in Engelberg, Switzerland in June of 1991. To this end, a grant to support nuclear literacy and RWM was written and funded by the OCRWM and the education division of the DOE Yucca Mountain Office in 1990. The over-riding Goal of that workshop and the DOE grant was to find ways of raising the level of nuclear literacy in the general public through educational programs in radioactive waste management (RWM). The two Main Objectives of the workshop were: first, to contribute to an information base for education systems, on global aspects of radioactive waste management; and second, to achieve international consensus on the basic tools and methods required to develop the information base. These two objectives also became the principal objectives of the DOE International Workshops grant. In other words, the global and local (Nevada) objectives were one and the same. Workshop overviews and accomplishments are summarized in this report.

NONE

1997-08-06

299

Evolution of Climate Science Modelling Language within international standards frameworks  

Science.gov (United States)

The Climate Science Modelling Language (CSML) was originally developed as part of the NERC Data Grid (NDG) project in the UK. It was one of the first Geography Markup Language (GML) application schemas describing complex feature types for the metocean domain. CSML feature types can be used to describe typical climate products such as model runs or atmospheric profiles. CSML has been successfully used within NDG to provide harmonised access to a number of different data sources. For example, meteorological observations held in heterogeneous databases by the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) and Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) were served uniformly as CSML features via Web Feature Service. CSML has now been substantially revised to harmonise it with the latest developments in OGC and ISO conceptual modelling for geographic information. In particular, CSML is now aligned with the near-final ISO 19156 Observations & Measurements (O&M) standard. CSML combines the O&M concept of 'sampling features' together with an observation result based on the coverage model (ISO 19123). This general pattern is specialised for particular data types of interest, classified on the basis of sampling geometry and topology. In parallel work, the OGC Met Ocean Domain Working Group has established a conceptual modelling activity. This is a cross-organisational effort aimed at reaching consensus on a common core data model that could be re-used in a number of met-related application areas: operational meteorology, aviation meteorology, climate studies, and the research community. It is significant to note that this group has also identified sampling geometry and topology as a key classification axis for data types. Using the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach as adopted by INSPIRE we demonstrate how the CSML application schema is derived from a formal UML conceptual model based on the ISO TC211 framework. By employing MDA tools which map consistently between UML and GML we can treat the formal UML model as the primary governed artefact and automatically produce the GML schema as a secondary output. Finally we describe how increased convergence between CSML and Scientific Feature Types in the Unidata Commmon Data Model may assist with bridging the implementation gap between OGC/ISO services and the CF-NetCDF binary data management community. This improved agreement at the conceptual (feature type) level is important to enable better interoperability at the data exchange and service levels.

Lowe, Dominic; Woolf, Andrew

2010-05-01

300

15 CFR 10.3 - Development of a proposed standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

...FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.3 Development...be obtained from the Office of Product Standards Policy, National...sizes, material specifications, product requirements, design stipulations, component...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Food packaging, international standards related to food safety and quality, and trade.  

Science.gov (United States)

International trade is subject to the Final Act of the Uruguay Round Multilateral Trade Negotiations' Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement) and Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (the TBT Agreement). These Agreements, the purpose of which is the freeing up of trade and the removal of restraints to the greatest extent possible, affect all countries that are members of the World Trade Organization, and have an impact upon all countries that are exporters. Trade in food is subject to these rules, which include provision for countries to apply safety and quality measures to protect the consumer. Such consumer protection measures extend to all aspects of food, including its packaging. The SPS and TBT Agreements press for 'harmonization' based upon the adoption of standards developed by international standards setting bodies and require countries to participate in their work. The relevant body with respect to food safety and quality measures is the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which is implemented by the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The work of the Codex Alimentarius Commission in harmonization within the context of food packaging and the rules applying to world trade is discussed. PMID:9373515

Lupien, J R

1997-01-01

302

76 FR 32933 - International Standard-Setting Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...main organizations are Codex, the World Organisation for Animal Health, and the International...Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organisation (FAO/WHO) Trust Fund for Enhanced...region; exercise a general coordinating role for the region and such other...

2011-06-07

303

Recently aspects regarding International Auditing Standard 200 „Overall Objectives of the Independent Auditor and the Conduct of an Audit in Accordance with International Standards on Auditing”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. This is achieved by the expression of an opinion by the auditor on whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with an applicable financial reporting framework. The International Standard on Auditing 200 (ISA 200 deals with the independent auditor’s overall responsibilities when conducting an audit of financial statements in accordance with International Standards on Auditing (ISAs.

Daniel Botez

2009-12-01

304

Technical developments in international satellite business services  

Science.gov (United States)

At the conception of International Satellite Business Services (ISBS), it was a primary objective to provide flexibility for accommodating a variety of service requirements which might be established by mutual agreement between users. The design guidelines are to ensure that the space segment is efficiently utilized, while other satellite services are protected from interference. Other considerations are related to an acceptable earth segment cost, maximum connectivity in worldwide services, the capability of growth and a reasonably smooth transition into future systems, and the maintenance of high performance objectives. Attention is given to a system overview, the characteristics of satellites for ISBS, and technological developments with some application possibilities for ISBS.

Tan, P. P.

305

Exemption from regulatory control - international developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For many years international groups have worked towards achieving a consensus on criteria for exemption of radiation sources and practices from regulatory control. A significant fraction of the wastes from the applications of radionuclides in industry, research and medicine, and from the nuclear fuel cycle is contaminated to such low activity levels that the associated risks to health are trivial and therefore that the application of regulatory processes seems to be unwarranted. A summary is given of a recent IAEA report on the progress made both in the development of the general principles for the exemption of radiation sources and in exercises aimed at evaluating their practical applicability. (UK)

306

Anthropometry and Standards for Wheeled Mobility: An International Comparison  

Science.gov (United States)

Space requirements for accommodating wheeled mobility devices and their users in the built environment are key components of standards for accessible design. These requirements typically include dimensions for clear floor areas, maneuvering clearances, seat and knee clearance heights, as well as some reference dimensions on wheeled mobility device…

Steinfeld, Edward; Maisel, Jordana; Feathers, David; D'Souza, Clive

2010-01-01

307

78 FR 37505 - International Standard-Setting Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...provisions in food category 14.2.3 (Grape wines), and on Note 161 of the GSFA...require a combination of components or use toxicity equivalent factors [cir] Applicable...Standard for Named Vegetable Oils: Sunflower Seed Oils Discussion paper on cold...

2013-06-21

308

Developments in SSR mode S standardization  

Science.gov (United States)

The secondary surveillance radar (SSR) concept's 'mode S' extension is presently discussed with a view to the problems thus far encountered in the standardization of data link features in the UK, as well as the solutions thus far devised. Attention is also given to the techniques used to limit the interference effects of the proposed Airborne Collision Avoidance System. Mode S adds intermode interrogations, mode S interrogations, and mode S replies to standard SSR.

Evans, A. J.

309

Development of secondary standards for 223Ra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ra-223 is a bone-seeking alpha emitter currently being evaluated as a radiopharmaceutical. Concurrent with the primary standardization, NIST established that calibration factors currently used for radionuclide calibrators in the clinical setting give readings 5.7-8.7% higher than the NIST calibrated activity. This work describes the determination of calibration factors specific to dose vials and syringes. Using the calibration factors derived with standard ampoules to measure syringe activities can give readings up to 3.6% too high.

310

Managing international migration in developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article summarizes the findings of 180 participants from 57 governments attending the UN's International Office of Migration's (IOM) Migration Seminar in April 1997 in Geneva. The teams of researchers represented the four developing world regions: sub-Saharan Africa; South Asia; the Arab Region; and Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. The seminar was part of IOM's research project on emigration dynamics in developing countries, which was begun in 1993. Researchers shared a common conceptual framework, which recognized the changing socioeconomic, sociopolitical, demographic, and ecological conditions in each country and subregion, the role of networks between people in sending and receiving countries, and the nature of entry restrictions. The research and workshop aimed to help policymakers in developed and developing countries. Conference delegates found the research framework acceptable despite the differences between regions and countries. Conference delegates agreed that the IOM research project was a unique forum for exchange of information and experience between sending and receiving countries. Many participants wanted IOM to provide technical assistance that would help countries manage migration. Delegates strongly desired international commitments to human rights for migrants. Delegates wanted better information exchanges, particularly interchanges of experience on policy measures among Governments, and the stronger inclusion of migrants in management. Returning migrants needed assistance with reintegration. The delegates made 12 recommendations about establishment of an effective system of information exchange, research on emigration dynamics and return migration, development of measures for managing flows that respect existing employment structures, new agreements, and reliable information for migrants on living conditions in host countries. PMID:12348081

Farrag, M

1997-01-01

311

THE BASES OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Capitalism started as a consequence of the urban phenomena development, as well as of the commercial activities development. Thus, over this period of time, the attitude towards business also changed. This change was based also on certain economic reasons. The term „business” is defined in numerous dictionaries released until the present day in a restrictive and subjective manner, both from the perspective of the totalitarian communist ideology, which happened up to the year 1989, and also from the perspective of the different categories of meanings that were taken into consideration when compiling dictionaries in different international circulation languages. If an enterprise conducts business at an international level, then it will take into consideration the performance of different types of activities which differ greatly from the activities conducted at a national level. All these elements must be carefully studied by the company's management, in order to be able to act with high economic efficiency. It must be said that, in contemporary times, that „invisible hand of the market” from the past is none other than competition. As a consequence of the competitive phenomenon's manifestation, the prices are lower, the services are of a better quality and they are increasingly more diverse. Because of these positive arguments, Adam Smith was named „the father of economy”.

DOBRIN IONEL GABRIEL

2014-05-01

312

Developing standards: the role of the OIE expert.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasingly global nature of animal trade, along with greater focus on improving the production and trading opportunities for emerging nations has highlighted the need for a more standardised, harmonised approach to standardisation of diagnostics and prophylaxis. This has driven a need, on the part of both the competent authorities of member countries and international agencies, for OIE itself to develop its role as the repository and source of expertise in these fields. With this role has emerged a strong demand to develop standardisation and harmonisation of diagnostic processes, along with an ever-expanding role played by the OIE Reference Expert in networking and consultancy. This expansion comes at a price, both in terms of the burden on Reference Laboratories and the financial cost of the activities themselves. Accordingly, the role of the Reference Expert is pivotal, both in improving standards and in assuring the viability of the Reference Laboratory they represent. At a higher level, the need for strategic changes are highlighted, involving establishment of networks to share the burden and increase efficiency of delivery, along with greater interaction among international agencies and assistance in providing project-based financial support. Closer collaboration with the diagnostics and vaccine industries is also foreseen, which, if managed properly, will provide benefits to OIE Reference Laboratories through income to support their activities, to national laboratories thorough advanced, reliable and validated tests and, ultimately, to animal health itself, at the global level. PMID:18084933

Drew, T W; Matthews, D

2007-01-01

313

International Institute for Environment and Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Since its founding in 1971, the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) has committed itself to âÂÂworking for more sustainable and equitable global developmentâÂÂ. Through a number of partnerships, the IIED continues to work in a cooperative fashion with national governments, regional non-governmental organizations, and other agencies. In terms of their thematic focuses, their work lies primarily in five areas, including climate change, human settlements, natural resources, and governance. New visitors to the site will want to explore these five areas through a series of clickable tabs featured prominently on the homepage. Within each area, visitors will find news updates on each topic, along with working papers and conference reports. For those looking for specific publications, a search engine offered here allows users to search by keyword, author, title, series, or region.

Development, International I.

314

Challenges associated with knowledge sharing in international product development teams  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Motivated by and accelerating the globalization process, product development is increasingly taking place in international firms with employees of various nationalities and aimed at international markets. This poses a number of new managerial challenges. This paper draws together literature on product development teams, knowledge sharing, and international product development management to form a conceptual framework of factors that influence knowledge sharing in international teams. Four in-depth case studies are used to explore and expand the understanding of the challenges associated with international product development teams. Results indicate that international product development might not be as international as would be expected and that even if many of the characteristics and problems associated with international product development in the literature are found, there are also a number of interesting underlying mechanisms that influence how well international product development teams function.

Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne

315

ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list…

Byrum, John D.

316

Development of quality assurance requirements - an international comparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total quality management strategy and the worldwide introduction of the DIN/ISO 9000 (EN 29 000) series of standards have given new impetus to traditional quality assurance. The most important change must surely be seen in the holistic approach of total quality management and its strict orientation towards customer requirements and satisfaction. International codes and standards for the nuclear industry will also have to be brought into line as part of the process of harmonizing quality assurance system standards. One possible approach is simply to specify a supplementary 'delta' of nuclear-specific requirements to be appended to the broad range of conventional requirements. It is a particular feature of quality-assured procedures in Germany that product and/or component related quality requirements and quality verifications are defined in the specifications of the architect engineer so that full implementation of the requirements from the design phase through to the manufacturing phase is assured. Looking at the development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) and the elaboration of 'Common Rules', it is to be anticipated that a major step will be made toward international harmonization of safety criteria. (orig.)

317

25 CFR 542.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for card games?  

Science.gov (United States)

...internal control standards for card games? (a) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate documentation...by the use of a lammer unless the exchange of chips, tokens, and/or cash takes place at the...

2010-04-01

318

Development of secondary standards for 223Ra.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ra-223 is a bone-seeking alpha emitter currently being evaluated as a radiopharmaceutical. Concurrent with the primary standardization, NIST established that calibration factors currently used for radionuclide calibrators in the clinical setting give readings 5.7-8.7% higher than the NIST calibrated activity. This work describes the determination of calibration factors specific to dose vials and syringes. Using the calibration factors derived with standard ampoules to measure syringe activities can give readings up to 3.6% too high. PMID:20005730

Bergeron, Denis E; Zimmerman, Brian E; Cessna, Jeffrey T

2010-01-01

319

Attributes and Dynamic Development Phases of ICT Standards Consortia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Standards consortia are private industry alliances that serve a certain purpose and gather likeminded companies that share the same interest to sponsor and develop technologies for standardization. Compared to formal standard setting, participation in consortia is less bureaucratic, more efficient in reacting to market needs and allows, in respect to the tiered membership structures, a strategic influence of standard setting outcomes. Formal standardization is in contrast an often protracted ...

Pohlmann, Tim

2010-01-01

320

Standards for PV Modules and Components -- Recent Developments and Challenges: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International standards play an important role in the Photovoltaic industry. Since PV is such a global industry it is critical that PV products be measured and qualified the same way everywhere in the world. IEC TC82 has developed and published a number of module and component measurement and qualification standards. These are continually being updated to take advantage of new techniques and equipment as well as better understanding of test requirements. Standards presently being updated include the third edition of IEC 61215, Crystalline Silicon Qualification and the second edition of IEC 61730, PV Module Safety Requirements. New standards under development include qualification of junction boxes, connectors, PV cables, and module integrated electronics as well as for testing the packaging used during transport of modules. After many years of effort, a draft standard on Module Energy Rating should be circulated for review soon. New activities have been undertaken to develop standards for the materials within a module and to develop tests that evaluate modules for wear-out in the field (International PV Module QA Task Force). This paper will discuss these efforts and indicate how the audience can participate in development of international standards.

Wohlgemuth, J. H.

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Standardization of negative controls in diagnostic immunohistochemistry: recommendations from the international ad hoc expert panel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide "best practice recommendations" for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on "fit-for-use" principles. PMID:24714041

Torlakovic, Emina E; Francis, Glenn; Garratt, John; Gilks, Blake; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Ibrahim, Merdol; Miller, Rodney; Nielsen, Søren; Petcu, Eugen B; Swanson, Paul E; Taylor, Clive R; Vyberg, Mogens

2014-04-01

322

Standardization of negative controls in diagnostic immunohistochemistry : recommendations from the international ad hoc expert panel  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide "best practice recommendations" for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on "fit-for-use" principles.

Torlakovic, Emina E; Francis, Glenn

2014-01-01

323

Standards application and development plan for solar thermal technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional and standards matrices, developed from input from ST users and from the industry that will be continually reviewed and updated as commercial aspects develop are presented. The matrices highlight codes, standards, test methods, functions and definitions that need to be developed. They will be submitted through ANSI for development by national consensus bodies. A contingency action is proposed for standards development if specific input is lacking at the committee level or if early development of a standard would hasten commercialization or gain needed jurisdictional acceptance.

Cobb, H. R. W.

1981-07-01

324

Selecting International Standards for Accrual-Based Accounting in the Public Sector : IPSAS or IFRS?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The article discusses the definition of a government business enterprise (GBE), as provided in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), as a determinant for applying IPSAS or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for a public sector entity. The work of the IPSASB is focused on the accounting and financial reporting needs of national, regional and local governments, and related governmental agencies, while the IFRS serves the private sector.

Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

2011-01-01

325

Developing a Standardized Letter of Recommendation  

Science.gov (United States)

The Standardized Letter of Recommendation (SLR) is a Web-based admission tool designed to replace traditional, narrative letters of recommendation with a more systematic and equitable source of information about applicants to institutions of higher education. The SLR includes a rating scale and open-ended response space that prompt evaluators to…

Walters, Alyssa M.; Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Plante, Janice W.

2006-01-01

326

Application of k0-based internal mono-standard PGNAA for compositional characterization of cement samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The k0-based internal mono-standard prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (IM-PGNAA) method was used for compositional analysis of a cement standard provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency as a part of inter-laboratory comparison exercise. The PGNAA was also applied to a local cement sample for comparison purpose. The concentration ratios of elements with respect Ca were determined using the internal mono-standard method. The concentration ratios were then converted to the absolute concentrations by determining concentration of Ca in the cement using relative method. Concentrations of 11 elements were determined in both sample and standard of cement. The results of cement standard are found to be in good agreement with the certified values. The uncertainties on the elemental concentrations were in the range of 5-10 %. (author)

327

Selection, Training, and Development for Female International Executives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interviews with 50 female expatriate managers addressed the lack of women in international management positions and focused on processes of selecting, training, and developing female executives for international assignments. Strategies for internationalizing female managers were developed. (Contains 28 references.) (JOW)

Linehan, Margaret; Scullion, Hugh

2001-01-01

328

Developing International Business Managers through International Study Visits to China  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalization is a key factor in the success of business organizations today, impacting many aspects of management performance. Understanding the global business environment has therefore become a key objective in the teaching of international business on Executive MBA programs. Drawing on the theory of experiential learning, this study examines…

Tang, Yiming; Rose, Susan

2014-01-01

329

Global standards and local knowledge building: Upgrading small producers in developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Local knowledge building is a crucial factor for upgrading small producers and improving their market competitiveness and livelihoods. The rise of global standards affecting food safety and environmental sustainability in agriculture sparks debates on the impact on smallholders in developing countries. This article presents a perspective on the links of international standards to knowledge and institution building for developing the capabilities of small producers. Interacting with global pra...

Perez-aleman, Paola

2012-01-01

330

Qualification of Programmable Electronic System (PES) equipment based on international nuclear I and C standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly faced with the challenge of qualifying procured equipment, sub-components, and systems that contain digital programmed electronics for use in safety-related applications. Referred to as a 'programmable electronic system' (PES), such equipment typically contains both complex logic that is vulnerable to systematic design faults, and low voltage electronics hardware that is subject to random faults. Procured PES products or components are often only commercial grade, yet can offer reliable cost effective alternatives to custom-designed or nuclear qualified equipment, provided they can be shown to meet the quality assurance, functional safety, environmental, and reliability requirements of a particular application. The process of confirming this is referred to as application-specific product qualification (ASPQ) and can be challenging and costly. This paper provides an overview of an approach that has been developed at Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and successfully applied to PES equipment intended for use in domestic Candu R 6 nuclear power plants and special purpose reactors at Chalk River Laboratories. The approach has evolved over the past decade and has recently been adapted to be consistent with, and take advantage of new standards that are applicable to nuclear safety-related I and C systems. Also discussed are how recognized third-party safety-certifications of PES equipment to International Electrotechnical Commint to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and the assessment methods employed, may be used to reduce ASPQ effort. (authors)

331

Internal standardization in atomic-emission spectrometry using inductively coupled plasma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principle of internal standardization has been used in quantitative analytical emission spectroscopy since 1925 to minimize the errors arising from fluctuations in sample preparation, excitation-source conditions, and detection parameters. Although modern spectroscopic excitation sources are far more stable and electronic detection methods are more precise than before, the system for the introduction of the sample in spectrometric analysis using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) introduces significant errors, and internal standardization can still play a useful role in improving the overall precision of the analytical results. The criteria for the selection of the elements to be used as internal standards in arc and spark spectrographic analysis apply to a much lesser extent in ICP-spectrometric analysis. Internal standardization is recommended for use in routine ICP-simultaneous spectrometric analysis to improve its accuracy and precision and to provide a monitor for the reassurance of the analyst. However, the selection of an unsuitable reference element can result in misuse of the principle of internal standardization and, although internal standardization can be applied when a sequential monochromator is used, the main sources of error will not be minimized

332

Standards and safety rules in an international comparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is seen that it is not the big existing differences in the basic requirements from nuclear power plants - such as the differing requirements relating to the degree of redundancy of safety systems - that causes difficulties, but mostly the regulations which are more detailed. The article shows that the international comparison of nuclear-technical regulations, with regard to the basic requirements, is possible; that it is, however, connected with extremely strong efforts with regard to the regulation of the details. It would be very helpful to those countries which have relatively small nuclear programmes and are not able or willing to establish their own regulations if there were a delineation based on the IAEA-codes and guides of the NUSS-programme which systematically refers to those parts of the German regulations which have to be added as necessary completion. (orig./HP)

333

Comparison report for CSNI International Standard Problem 12 (ROSA-III Run 912)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ROSA-III Run 912 was identified as International Standard Problem 12 by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations. Run 912 simulated a 5% split break LOCA condition in a BWR at the pump suction in the recirculation line with the HPCS failure. Comparisons between the test data and the calculations by eight international participants were made and discussed. (author)

334

The Successful Scientific Publication: The Bulgarian Practice Against the International Standards [In Bulgarian  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper describes the world system of indexing, abstracting and evaluation of the primary scholarly journals. The international standards of academic publishing are listed and commented. The particularities of the Bulgarian publication practice are discussed. The harmonization of both systems, Bulgarian and international, will facilitate the process of inclusion of Bulgaria in the common European research and education area.

B.V. Toshev

2008-12-01

335

Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China first adopted minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in 1989. Today, there are standards for a wide range of domestic, commercial and selected industrial equipment. In 1999, China launched a voluntary endorsement label, which has grown to cover over 40 products including water-saving products (See Figure 1). Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label (also referred to as the 'Energy Label'). Today, the Energy Label is applied to four products including: air conditioners; household refrigerators; clothes washers; and unitary air conditioners (See Figure 2). MEPS and the voluntary endorsement labeling specifications have been updated and revised in order to reflect technology improvements to those products in the market. These programs have had an important impact in reducing energy consumption of appliances in China. Indeed, China has built up a strong infrastructure to develop and implement product standards. Historically, however, the government's primary focus has been on the technical requirements for efficiency performance. Less attention has been paid to monitoring and enforcement with a minimal commitment of resources and little expansion of administrative capacity in this area. Thus, market compliance with both mandatory standards and labeling programs has been questionable and actual energy savings may have been undermined as a result. The establishment of a regularized monitoring system for tracking compliance with the mandatory standard and energy information label in China is a major area for program improvement. Over the years, the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) has partnered with several Chinese institutions to promote energy-efficient products in China. CLASP, together with its implementing partner Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), has assisted China in developing and updating the above-mentioned standards and labeling programs. Because of the increasing need for the development of a monitoring system to track compliance with standards and labeling, CLASP, with support from Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), has expanded its ongoing collaboration with the China National Institute of Standards (CNIS) to include enforcement and monitoring. CNIS has already begun working on the issue of compliance. CNIS has conducted modest sample testing in 2006 for refrigerators, freezers and room air-conditioners, and repeated the same task in 2007 with a similar sample size for three products (refrigerators, freezers, air-conditioners and clothes washers). And, CNIS, with technical support from LBNL, has analyzed the data collected through testing. At the same time, parallel effort has also been paid to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. In conjunction with CNIS, CLASP technical experts reviewed the standards development timeline of the four products currently subject to the mandatory energy information label. CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing: technical input to the process; comment and advice on particular technical issues; as well as evaluation of the results. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. This short report summarizes the status of Standards and Labeling program, current enforcement and monitoring mechanism in China, and states the importance of international collaborations.

Zhou, Nan

2008-03-01

336

International Conference on Population and Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) attracted delegates from many walks of life and from all over the world. The main thrust of the meeting was to contain world population growth by making family planning universally available and by giving women the power to make decisions about their own lives. The UN estimates that if the ICPD meets its goals, world population will be 7.27 billion in the year 2015 instead of 7.92 billion. The ICPD generated a great deal of controversy, especially as the Vatican and some Muslim countries protested against abortion and some methods of birth control. The anti-abortion stance was embodied by Mother Theresa who likened abortion to war and violence. It was unfortunate that India did not make a strong showing at the ICPD. India seemed to react rather than pro-act to ICPD issues. Since India is projected to become the most populous country in the world by the year 2035, India could have assumed a leading role at the ICPD. India may have been able to lead a developing country initiative to link population control with sustainable social and economic development. Instead, debate centered on the meaning of certain terms such as fertility regulation, family planning, and reproductive health. Despite these disagreements, however, the ICPD ended on an optimistic note. How much the ICPD resolutions will influence the behavior of individual countries remains to be seen. PMID:12179181

1994-09-30

337

Economic Development and Population Growth. International Evidence Economic Development and Population Growth. International Evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic Development and Population Growth. International Evidence The paper usses Granger causality tests on economic development and population growth for 44 countries to discriminate among several alternative hypotheses. The time series evidence does not provide an unambiguous picture as to the exact nature of the relationship. Therefore, previous attempts to generalize such relationship based on simple cross-section data are strongly suspect.

Munir Quddus

1986-03-01

338

On the Challenge of Accounting Standards for Enterprise towards Enterprise Internal Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With arrival of the information age, as well as the ever-changing and complicated capital and financial markets and financial instruments, the policy –making requirements of the enterprises on the faithful, accurate, reasonable, and effective financial and accounting information become more demanding. Enterprise internal control proves to be the basic safeguard to ensure the regular and reliable operation of the accounting information system. At the same time, the Ministry of Finance issued the Internal Control Standards - the Basic Norms and opinion-open drafts for 17 norms. The promulgation of accounting standards for enterprise has brought tougher internal control challenges.

Wenjun Chen

2009-02-01

339

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis by deconvolution of internal standard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR is a collection of methods for estimating the number of copies of a specific DNA template in a sample, but one that is not universally accepted because it can lead to highly inaccurate (albeit precise results. The fundamental problem is that qPCR methods use mathematical models that explicitly or implicitly apply an estimate of amplification efficiency, the error of which is compounded in the analysis to unacceptable levels. Results We present a new method of qPCR analysis that is efficiency-independent and yields accurate and precise results in controlled experiments. The method depends on a computer-assisted deconvolution that finds the point of concordant amplification behavior between the "unknown" template and an admixed amplicon standard. We apply the method to demonstrate dexamethasone-induced changes in gene expression in lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines. Conclusions This method of qPCR analysis does not use any explicit or implicit measure of efficiency, and may therefore be immune to problems inherent in other qPCR approaches. It yields an estimate of absolute initial copy number of template, and controlled tests show it generates accurate results.

Metzenberg Stan

2010-04-01

340

The USL NASA PC R and D development environment standards  

Science.gov (United States)

The development environment standards which have been established in order to control usage of the IBM PC/XT development systems and to prevent interference between projects being currently developed on the PC's are discussed. The standards address the following areas: scheduling PC resources; login/logout procedures; training; file naming conventions; hard disk organization; diskette care; backup procedures; and copying policies.

Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Study and development of methodologies for qualification of waste products in repositories according to international standards; Estudo e desenvolvimento de metodologias para a qualificacao de produtos de rejeito em repositorios conforme padroes internacionais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the processes to treat dangerous wastes is to immobilise them in cement. At CDTN/CNEN some researches are carried out on cementation in order to establish process parameters, materials, and equipment, aiming at the safe disposal of these wastes, protecting of the human being and the environment of possible risks. To establish the compressive strength of cemented products is important because it implies in its suitability for handling, transportation and storage without risks for the human bodies or environment. It is urgent to obtain the certification of the compressive strength test providing reproducible, trustful and suitable results, mainly to assure its traceability. At Cementation Laboratory (LABCIM/CDTN) the certification process of the compressive strength was begun in the year 2000. It was completed the necessary adequacies, the staff training, and the first internal audit. It is previewed for the current year another internal audit, the external audit, and the certification request. (author)

Seles, Sandro Rogerio Novaes; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Gerencia de Rejeitos]. E-mail: seless@cdtn.br; tellocc@cdtn.br

2005-07-01

342

Auditors Compliance with International Standards on Auditing (ISAs: Evidence form Jordan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The continuous new amendments of the International Standards on Auditing (ISAs in the beginning of 2007 formed a pressure on auditors to follow up and comply with them. The present study attempted to examine to what extent auditors complied with ISA according to the last pronouncement by the International Auditing and Assurance Standard Board (IAASB. Data was collected through a questionnaire administered to a random sample of external auditors in Jordan. The study revealed that Jordanian auditors complied with all auditing standards with some variance in the degree of compliance among them. The results indicated that further measures and steps could be taken to improve the ISA compliance.

Ahmad N. Obaidat

2007-01-01

343

International wind energy development. Offshore report 2013  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

BTM Consult, a part of Navigant's global Energy Practice and a premier forecaster of the international wind industry, brings its experience and expertise to a comprehensive look at the offshore wind energy industry, as well as the impacted supply chain in this expanding but challenging market. Offshore Report 2013 is BTM Consult's most comprehensive overview of the offshore wind market to date. The report highlights developments in the international offshore wind market over the past two years, as well as industry growth trends as projected in the report's near-term forecast to 2016 and medium-term predictions to 2021. Offshore Report 2013 provides an assessment of all major offshore wind markets and incentives from across the world, and a detailed analysis of both the demand and supply sides of the offshore wind market in 2012. Key findings are included from the latest update of the ''balance of plant'' supply situation and from BTM's analyses of offshore wind financing, including future CAPEX and OPEX requirements. The report also includes a special focus on the current shipping and logistics situation for offshore wind farm construction. Offshore Report 2013 includes data from global offshore wind markets through autumn 2012 and is based on data collected from more than 350 suppliers. The 250+ page report also includes a CD-rom with all charts, tables, and graphs from the report. The report reviews ten key components, two key materials, eight groups of key suppliers to ''balance of plant'', and two for the key infrastructure. (Author)

NONE

2012-11-15

344

21 CFR 861.20 - Summary of standards development process.  

Science.gov (United States)

...861.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... MEDICAL DEVICES PROCEDURES FOR PERFORMANCE STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT Procedures...device, including a draft or proposed performance standard, for consideration by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs. (2) A notice of proposed rulemaking for the revocation of a performance standard......

2010-04-01

345

A Study on the Development of Service Quality Index for Incheon International Airport  

Science.gov (United States)

The main purpose of this study is located at developing Ominibus Monitors System(OMS) for internal management, which will enable to establish standards, finding out matters to be improved, and appreciation for its treatment in a systematic way. It is through developing subjective or objective estimation tool with use importance, perceived level, and complex index at international airport by each principal service items. The direction of this study came towards for the purpose of developing a metric analysis tool, utilizing the Quantitative Second Data, Analysing Perceived Data through airport user surveys, systemizing the data collection-input-analysis process, making data image according to graph of results, planning Service Encounter and endowing control attribution, and ensuring competitiveness at the minimal international standards. It is much important to set up a pre-investigation plan on the base of existent foreign literature and actual inspection to international airport. Two tasks have been executed together on the base of this pre-investigation; one is developing subjective estimation standards for departing party, entering party, and airport residence and the other is developing objective standards as complementary methods. The study has processed for the purpose of monitoring services at airports regularly and irregularly through developing software system for operating standards after ensuring credibility and feasibility of estimation standards with substantial and statistical way.

Lee, Kang Seok; Lee, Seung Chang; Hong, Soon Kil

2003-01-01

346

Constructing uniformity: The standardization of international electromagnetic measures, 1860-1912  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metrology gained much attention from electrical scientists and practitioners in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Spurred by the expanding telegraph industries, they considered the construction and acceptance of a universal system of electromagnetic measures essential for the growth of science and technology. The task was not easy. Scientists and practitioners, having different concerns and needs, often found themselves at odds. National rivalries further obstructed the attainment of uniform measures. Under the auspices of a series of international electrical congresses and conferences between 1881 and 1908, the systembuilders succeeded in establishing an international system of practical electrical units and standards-the ohm, volt, ampere, coulomb, farad, joule, and watt-based on the centimeter-gram-second (CGS) system of measures. They had less success, however, with practical magnetic units. They had designed the system of electrical units to meet the needs of telegraphy. But the rise of the technologies of electrical power in the late nineteenth century made it difficult to define magnetic units that were both practical for the new technologies and coherent with the existing system of units. The international congress, as an institution, also gave them trouble. It lacked authority and stability and, in some cases, hindered the development of the system of units. More credit for the success of the systembuilders must go, paradoxically, to the national physical laboratoires that arose in Germany, France, Great Britain, and the United States circa 1900. They enabled the standarization of international electromagnetic measures by narrowing the community of systembuilders to a small circle of elite experts. This historical process illustrates important aspects of the ways and means of standarization, of the technical and social construction of uniformity.

Lagerstrom, L.R.

1992-01-01

347

Posttest analysis of international standard problem 10 using RELAP4/MOD7  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RELAP4/MOD7, a best estimate computer code for the calculation of thermal and hydraulic phenomena in a nuclear reactor or related system, is the latest version in the RELAP4 code development series. This paper evaluates the capability of RELAP4/MOD7 to calculate refill/reflood phenomena. This evaluation uses the data of International Standard Problem 10, which is based on West Germany's KWU PKL refill/reflood experiment K9A. The PKL test facility represents a typical West German four-loop, 1300 MW pressurized water reactor (PWR) in reduced scale while maintaining prototypical volume-to-power ratio. The PKL facility was designed to specifically simulate the refill/reflood phase of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident

348

Development and analysis of an International Speech Test Signal (ISTS).  

Science.gov (United States)

For analysing the processing of speech by a hearing instrument, a standard test signal is necessary which allows for reproducible measurement conditions, and which features as many of the most relevant properties of natural speech as possible, e.g. the average speech spectrum, the modulation spectrum, the variation of the fundamental frequency together with its appropriate harmonics, and the comodulation in different frequency bands. Existing artificial signals do not adequately fulfill these requirements. Moreover, recordings from natural speakers represent only one language and are therefore not internationally acceptable. For this reason, an International Speech Test Signal (ISTS) was developed. It is based on natural recordings but is largely non-intelligible because of segmentation and remixing. When using the signal for hearing aid measurements, the gain of a device can be described at different percentiles of the speech level distribution. The primary intention is to include this test signal with a new measurement method for a new hearing aid standard (IEC 60118-15). PMID:21070124

Holube, Inga; Fredelake, Stefan; Vlaming, Marcel; Kollmeier, Birger

2010-12-01

349

ISBD (CR: International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials and Other Continuing Resources: Revised from the ISBD(S: International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the new concept of continuing resources, covering serial publications and integrating resources, and describes important, international decisions which derive from the expansion of standard coverage, especially as the consequence of the inclusion of online resources.New and changed provisions included in ISBD(CR – in comparison with ISBD(S -and required by the nature of the new resources are described.

Irena Kav?i?

2005-01-01

350

Quantification of rhodium in a series of inorganic and organometallic compounds using cobalt as internal standard  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english An analytical method for the quantification of rhodium using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cobalt as internal standard was developed. Rhodium recovery was determined in different samples, which included a certified reference material (CRM), pure rhodium metal [...] , inorganic RhCl.3H2O salt as well as different organometallic compounds. Excellent rhodium recoveries of 100,100, 99.0 and 99.7 % with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.0,1.0, 0.3 and 0.4 % were obtained for the CRM, rhodium metal sample, RhCl3·3H2O and [Rh(cupf)(PPh3)(CO)(CH3)(I)], respectively. The accurate recovery of rhodium was, however, affected by the presence of easily ionized elements (EIE) and unmatched acid matrixes with a decrease in rhodium recovery of up to 16 %. Validation parameters such as accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and robustness were all investigated to confirm the suitability of this newly developed analytical procedure for rhodium determination.

Trevor T., Chiweshe; Walter, Purcell; Johan A., Venter.

2013-08-01

351

Acting globally: potential carbon emissions mitigation impacts from an international standards and labelling program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union, India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37% of global residential electricity and 29% of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850 Mt of CO{sub 2} could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.; Rue du Can, Stephane de la (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)); Egan, Christine (Collaborative Labelling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) (United States))

2009-07-01

352

Quantification of rhodium in a series of inorganic and organometallic compounds using cobalt as internal standard  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english An analytical method for the quantification of rhodium using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cobalt as internal standard was developed. Rhodium recovery was determined in different samples, which included a certified reference material (CRM), pure rhodium metal [...] , inorganic RhCl.3H2O salt as well as different organometallic compounds. Excellent rhodium recoveries of 100,100, 99.0 and 99.7 % with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.0,1.0, 0.3 and 0.4 % were obtained for the CRM, rhodium metal sample, RhCl3·3H2O and [Rh(cupf)(PPh3)(CO)(CH3)(I)], respectively. The accurate recovery of rhodium was, however, affected by the presence of easily ionized elements (EIE) and unmatched acid matrixes with a decrease in rhodium recovery of up to 16 %. Validation parameters such as accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and robustness were all investigated to confirm the suitability of this newly developed analytical procedure for rhodium determination.

Trevor T., Chiweshe; Walter, Purcell; Johan A., Venter.

353

Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

2009-05-29

354

2009 review and revisions of the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI were also reviewed. The last citable reference for the ISNCSCI's methodology is the ISNCSCI Reference Manual, published in 2003 by ASIA. The Standards Committee recommended that the numerous items that were revised should be published and a precedent established for a routine published review of the ISNCSCI. The Standards Committee also noted that, although the 2008 reprint pocket booklet is current, the reference manual should be revised after proposals to modify/revise the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS as modified from Frankel) are considered. In addition, the Standards Committee adopted a process for thorough and transparent review of requests to revise the ISNCSCI.

Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin

2010-01-01

355

International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), which documents the neurological examination of individuals with SCI. The Autonomic Standards Assessment Form is recommended to be completed during the evaluation of individuals with SCI, but is not a part of the ISNCSCI. A web-based training course (Autonomic Standards Training E Program (ASTeP)) is available to assist clinicians with understanding autonomic dysfunctions following SCI and with completion of the Autonomic Standards Assessment Form (www.ASIAlearningcenter.com).

Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-SØrensen, Fin

2012-01-01

356

_ 2009 review and revisions of the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI were also reviewed. The last citable reference for the ISNCSCI's methodology is the ISNCSCI Reference Manual, published in 2003 by ASIA. The Standards Committee recommended that the numerous items that were revised should be published and a precedent established for a routine published review of the ISNCSCI. The Standards Committee also noted that, although the 2008 reprint pocket booklet is current, the reference manual should be revised after proposals to modify/revise the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS as modified from Frankel) are considered. In addition, the Standards Committee adopted a process for thorough and transparent review of requests to revise the ISNCSCI. PMID:21061894

Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Burns, Stephen; Donovan, William; Graves, Daniel; Jha, Amitabh; Jones, Linda; Kirshblum, Steven; Marino, Ralph; Mulcahey, M J; Reeves, Ronald; Scelza, William M; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Stein, Adam

2010-01-01

357

ACCOUNTING STANDARD SETTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL ARENA: UPDATE ON THE CONVERGENCE PROJECT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our paper contributes to the literature on international accounting by focusing on the standard setting process. As documented by research literature, accounting regulation can enhance corporate governance (Melis and Carta, 2010, corporate reporting being expected to reduce information asymmetry. Based on accounting research and trade literature we first synthesize recent evolutions in the international accounting arena. We therefore position our study within current realities significantly marked by uncertainty in relation to the world wide globalization process. The objective of our paper is to perform an analysis that would help assess further developments of the convergence project. This is done by looking at the current status of the projects being developed under the IASB –FASB collaboration, as well as by developing a comparison between IFRS and US GAAP. The employed research methodology relies on analyzing data provided through the IASB and the FASB’s websites, as well as other official documents being issued by the two Boards. The assessment of the projects was done by reviewing exposure documents and monitoring the Boards’ deliberations, while the developed comparison requires accounting regulations content analysis. Concluding upon the Boards’ ongoing projects, we might identify areas in which convergence seems to be quite close (such as revenue recognition and leasing, but also areas in which convergence becomes even more challenging (such as financial instruments or the particular case of offsetting. Similar to other studies being developed within accounting research and trade literature (SEC 2011: 8 we may conclude that, generally, US GAAP present more detailed, specific requirements than IFRS.

Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana

2012-07-01

358

Developing Successful International Faculty Led Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Faculty Led Programs are study abroad experiences led by university professors. Faculty Led Programs are considered as an opportunity for college students, especially in the United States to attend a short-term international experience (Mills, 2010). Faculty Led Program is an international experience which is different from the traditional…

Fabregas Janeiro, Maria G.; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Rosete, Rodrigo Tello

2012-01-01

359

Diesel engine development in view of reduced emission standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diesel engine development for use in light-, medium- and heavy-duty road vehicles is mainly driven by more and more stringent emission standards. Apart from air quality related emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulates, also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to become of more and more importance. Furthermore, oil-based fuel availability might become a problem due to limited reserves or due to political influences which leads to significantly increased fuel costs. Based on the above aspects, advanced engine technologies become essential and are discussed. Fuel injection with rate shaping capability and elevated injection pressures, air handling systems to increase the brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) and specific power with a downsizing approach, while retaining a good dynamic response using possibly two-stage turbocharging. Heterogeneous and near-homogeneous combustion processes where the latter could possibly reduce the requirements on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Improvement and further development of engine management and control systems, exhaust gas aftertreatment for a reduction of nitrogen oxides and especially particulates and last but not least, energy recovery from the exhaust gas. Furthermore, alternative fuel usage in road vehicles is becoming important and their application in internal combustion engines is discussed

360

Development of the standard inhalation chamber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various designs of inhalation chambers developed since the Manhattan Project are discussed. Essential features of current inhalation chambers are illustrated. It is stated that technology is available to control almost any variable in inhalation studies, although cost factors must be taken into consideration when experiments are designed

 
 
 
 
361

A unified international risk management standard as a response to the challenges of globalization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article an international standard of risk-management ISO 31000:2009 is investigated, particulary interconnection between principles, system and process of risk management and changes in a terminology base are considered. The comparative analysis of ISO 31000:2009 standard with Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4360:2004 and the standard of the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO is conducted. The basic directions of application of ISO 31000:2009 in Ukraine are detected.

Strelbitska, Natalya Yevhenivna

2011-11-01

362

25 CFR 542.41 - What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and count for Tier C gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and count...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.41 What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and...

2010-04-01

363

25 CFR 542.31 - What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and count for Tier B gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and count...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.31 What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and...

2010-04-01

364

25 CFR 542.21 - What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and count for Tier A gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and count...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.21 What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and...

2010-04-01

365

Development of standard testing methods for nuclear-waste forms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Standard test methods for waste package component development and design, safety analyses, and licensing are being developed for the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. This paper describes mainly the testing methods for obtaining waste form materials data

366

Comparative study of Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures on radiation and nuclear safety with international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents the results of the critical reviews, analysis, and comparison of the regulatory infrastructures for radiation and nuclear safety of Malaysis and the Philippines usi ng the IAEA safety requirements, GSR Part 1, Government, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety'' as the main basis and in part, the GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. The scope of the comparison includes the elements of the relevant legislations, the regulatory system and processes including the core functions of the regulatory body (authorization, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, development of regulations and guides); and the staffing and training of regulatory body. The respective availabe data of the Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures and current practices were gathered and analyzed. Recommendations to fill the gaps and strengthen the existing regulatory infrastructure of each country was given using as bases relevant IAEA safety guides. Based on the analysis made, the main findings are: the legislations of both countries do not contain al the elements of teh national policy and strategy for safety as well as those of teh framework for safety in GR Part I. Among the provision that need to be included in the legislations are: emergency planning and response; decommissioning of facilities safe management of radioactive wastes and spent fuel; competence for safety; and technical sevices. Provisions on coordination of different authorities with safety responsibilities within the regulatory framework for safety as well as liaison with advisory bodies and support organizations need to be enhanced. The Philippines needs to establish an independent regulatory body, ie. separate from organizations charged with promotion of nuclear technologies and responsible for facilitiesand activities. Graded approach on the system of notification and authorization by registration and licensing needs to be considered in the regulatory system and processes of both countries. Enforcement policy of AELB and PNRI needs to be enhanced taking into account the factors in GS-G-1.5. Examples of key learning areas and good practices identified are: AELB's e-learning system represents an innovative means of its regulatory processes; the style and language used in the code of PNRI Regulations is in acordance with international standards, i.e. use of shall statements. The results of this study could be used by both countries in revisiting or further reviewing and updating their respective legislations in order to be consistent and coherent with international standards. (author)

367

Development of a Consensus Standard for School Equipment: NSF/NSSEA 380  

Science.gov (United States)

For many years, the school supplies and equipment industry has investigated methods to ensure product safety and compliance across all its product categories. In early 2010, NSF International and the National School Supply and Equipment Association (NSSEA) came together to develop quality standards for products and equipment designed for use in…

Breitner, Ashlee

2011-01-01

368

Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International basic safety standards. General safety requirements. Pt. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

369

Development of the National Bureau of Standards low-energy-photon-emission-rate radioactivity standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Bureau of Standards has recently developed point source low-energy-photon-emission-rate standards of 55Fe, 85Sr, 109Cd and 125I. The standardizations were performed using a defined solid angle, NaI(Tl) spectrometer that can be operated with gas fillings at atmospheric and reduced pressure. The corrections applicable to such a spectrometer have been discussed by W. B. Bambynek

370

Developing pipeline reclamation standards in Alberta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of Alberta's oil and gas industry has led to a proliferation of pipelines in the province. All Alberta pipelines require a reclamation certificate before the proponent is released of reclamation liabilities. This has led to much discussion of how to assess oil and gas wellsites and pipeline reclamation success since the early 1980s. The requirement for reclamation certification is that land have equivalent capability to that which existed prior to the disturbance. The approach that has been used for wellsite reclamation success evaluation is a parameter by parameter comparison and pass/fail system. In this case each parameter must pass or the site fails. NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd. undertook, in late 1996, to put together a group of government regulatory and non-regulatory personnel, industry and third party individuals to develop a more integrated capability based evaluation system. Various approaches were field tested in 1997 and 1998. This paper reports on the process used, the field results and current status of the project

371

Development of international law concerning nuclear liability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A short overview is given of the most important international conventions relating to civil liability for damage to, or loss of, life of persons or property, caused by nuclear incidents during the operation of stationary and non-stationary nuclear installations or transport of nuclear material. In accord with the international provisions, in the German Democratic Republic too, nuclear operators are exclusively liable for such damage unless it has been caused intentionally by the injury party. (author)

372

Analysis of alloy composition by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using liquid and thin layer techniques with an internal standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) spectrometric method for determination of high concentrations of elements (main constituents) in copper/nickel/manganese alloy samples was developed. The method uses samples taken in the form of chips that were dissolved in nitric acid and analyzed as a solution and thin layer after evaporating. The high level of uncertainty caused by sample preparation imprecision was reduced using strontium K? line as an internal standard for all tested elements. We compared XRF calibration curves and results from samples prepared as solid materials (disks), alloy chip solutions in special cups, alloy chip solutions evaporated from filter disks, and alloy chips that had been milled with abrasive and then pelletized. The results were compared with those from standard wet titration and gravimetric methods recommended for the samples. The thin layer method was found suitable for control of alloy compositions. Sample preparation involved: preparing alloy solution 1 g/100 mL with 0.2 g of IS, dropping 50 ?L of the solution onto the filter disk and evaporation The calibration curves obtained using IS were characterized with residual standard deviation 0.13–0.25% m/m (less than 1% relative) that was required for this application. - Highlights: ? Thin layer WD-XRF method for analyzing high concentration of elements. ? Analysis of CuMnNi alloys using WD-XRF thin layer technique. ? Analysis of liquids using internal standard WD-XRFs using internal standard WD-XRF thin layer technique. ? Imprecision correction in WD-XRF thin layer technique using internal standard.

373

Qualification of Programmable Electronic System (PES) equipment based on international nuclear I and C standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly faced with the challenge of qualifying procured equipment, sub-components, and systems that contain digital programmed electronics for use in safety-related applications. Referred to as a 'programmable electronic system' (PES), such equipment typically contains both complex logic that is vulnerable to systematic design faults, and low voltage electronics hardware that is subject to random faults. Procured PES products or components are often only commercial grade, yet can offer reliable cost effective alternatives to custom-designed or nuclear qualified equipment, provided they can be shown to meet the quality assurance, functional safety, environmental, and reliability requirements of a particular application. The process of confirming this is referred to as application-specific product qualification (ASPQ) and can be challenging and costly. This paper provides an overview of an approach that has been developed at Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and successfully applied to PES equipment intended for use in domestic Candu R 6 nuclear power plants and special purpose reactors at Chalk River Laboratories. The approach has evolved over the past decade and has recently been adapted to be consistent with, and take advantage of new standards that are applicable to nuclear safety-related I and C systems. Also discussed are how recognized third-party safety-certifications of PES equipment to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and the assessment methods employed, may be used to reduce ASPQ effort. (authors)

De Grosbois, J.; Hepburn, G. A.; Olmstead, R. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ont. L5K 1B2 (Canada); Goble, W. [Exida, 64 N. Main St., Sellersville, PA 18960 (United States); Kumar, V. [Carleton Univ., 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ont. K1S 5B6 (Canada)

2006-07-01

374

Adjustment of the Brazilian radioprotection standards to the safety principles of the International Atomic Energy Agency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a recommendation with 10 basic safety principles (Fundamental Safety Principles Safety Fundamentals series, number SF-1), which are: 1) Responsibility for safety; 2) Role for government; 3) Leadership and management for safety; 4) Justification of facilities and activities; 5) Optimization of protection; 6) Limitation of risk to individuals; 7) Protection of present and futures generations; 8) Prevention of accidents; 9) Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protection actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiations risk. The aim of this study is to verify that the Brazilian standards of radiation protection meet the principles described above and how well suited to them. The analysis of the national radiation protection regulatory system, developed and deployed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), showed that out of the ten items, two are covered partially, the number 2 and 10. The others are fully met. The item 2 the fact that the regulatory body (CNEN) be stock controller of a large company in the sector put in check its independence as a regulatory body. In item 10 the Brazilian standard of radiation protection does not provide explicit resolution of environmental liabilities

375

Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of plasma selegiline using a deuterated internal standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method is described for the determination of plasma selegiline. Tetradeuteroselegiline was synthesized and served as the internal standard. Human plasma samples (1 ml) containing 1-6 ng of selegiline were acidified, washed with diethyl ether-hexane, then alkalinized and extracted with heptane-isoamyl alcohol. Analytical separations were performed on a dimethylsilicone capillary column. Detection was by selected ion monitoring of the electron impact generated m/z 96 and 100 alpha-cleavage fragments of drug and internal standard, respectively. PMID:1478990

Patrick, K S; Nguyen, B L; McCallister, J D

1992-12-01

376

The Effects of International Accounting Standardization on Business Performance: Evidence from Hungary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the differences between national rules and the international standards,evaluating and analyzing their effects on the shifting business environment. The unified business informationsystem will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicatorsfrom the business environment of certain countries. The results show that those businesses which have adoptedinternational standards achieved higher and statistically significant positive coefficients than those followinglocal accounting rules. Companies which had adopted accounting standards also provided higher quality andvalue relevant accounting information systems. As a further consequence of international accounting standardsadoption, corporate policy and requirements became gradually more clear and transparent – in the same way asthe application and implementation of the standards became more user-friendly.

Gyorgy Csebfalvi

2012-04-01

377

The role of food standards in international trade: assessing the brazilian beef chain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this [...] study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challenges facing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

Luciana Marques, Vieira.

378

The role of food standards in international trade: assessing the brazilian beef chain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this [...] study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challenges facing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

Luciana Marques, Vieira.

2006-06-01

379

The emergence of international food safety standards and guidelines: understanding the current landscape through a historical approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the Second World War, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) teamed up to construct an International Codex Alimentarius (or 'food code') which emerged in 1963. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) was charged with the task of developing microbial hygiene standards, although it found itself embroiled in debate with the WHO over the nature these standards should take. The WHO was increasingly relying upon the input of biometricians and especially the International Commission on Microbial Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) which had developed statistical sampling plans for determining the microbial counts in the final end products. The CCFH, however, was initially more focused on a qualitative approach which looked at the entire food production system and developed codes of practice as well as more descriptive end-product specifications which the WHO argued were 'not scientifically correct'. Drawing upon historical archival material (correspondence and reports) from the WHO and FAO, this article examines this debate over microbial hygiene standards and suggests that there are many lessons from history which could shed light upon current debates and efforts in international food safety management systems and approaches. PMID:24990138

Ramsingh, Brigit

2014-07-01

380

Determination of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste by spectrophotometry using neodymium as an internal standard for safeguards analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A spectrophotometric determination using neodymium as an internal standard has been developed for safeguards verification analysis of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste which is produced by the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The method offers reduced sample preparation and analysis time compared to isotope dilution mass spectrometry. It uses neodymium as an internal standard, which allows for determining an index for the authentication of the analytical operation and the instrument conditions. The sample was mixed with a known amount of neodymium as an internal standard. Subsequently, plutonium was quantitatively oxidized to Pu(IV) by the addition of Ce(IV). Plutonium concentration was calculated from a relation between Nd(III)/Pu(IV) molar extinction coefficient ratio and their absorbance ratio. The expanded uncertainty of the repeated analysis of plutonium (n=5) was found to be ±15 mg L-1 (confidence interval 95%) for a highly radioactive liquid waste sample (173 mg L-1). The determination limit was calculated to be 6 mg L-1 (ten fold's the standard deviation). This method was validated through comparison experiments with isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The analytical results of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste using this method were agree well with values obtained using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The proposed method was successfully applied for the independent on-site safeguards analysis at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. (author)

 
 
 
 
381

Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

1996-12-31

382

Developing the Internal Service Quality in Organisation Y  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this thesis was to analyze the quality of internal service at Organization Y by researching internal customer relationships. The objectives were to identify areas for development and strengths, as well as to make employees aware of the importance of the internal customers. The research problem concerned the extent to which internal service quality should be improved, and if so, the ways in which this could be achieved. Solutions were researched by determining the expectations a...

Ja?rvi, Susanna

2012-01-01

383

Regularities in the dynamics and development of the International System  

CERN Document Server

A finite-time singularity accompanied by log-periodic oscillations shaped the war dynamics and development of the International System during the period 1495 - 1945. The identification of this singularity provides us with a perspective to penetrate and decode the dynamics of the International System. Various regularities in the dynamics of the International System can be identified. These regularities are remarkably consistent, and can be attributed to the connectivity and the growth of connectivity of the International System.

Piepers, Ingo

2014-01-01

384

Help for the Developers of Control System Cyber Security Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Catalog of Control Systems Security: Recommendations for Standards Developers (Catalog), aimed at assisting organizations to facilitate the development and implementation of control system cyber security standards, has been developed. This catalog contains requirements that can help protect control systems from cyber attacks and can be applied to the Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources of the United States and other nations. The requirements contained in the catalog are a compilation of practices or various industry bodies used to increase the security of control systems from both physical and cyber attacks. They should be viewed as a collection of recommendations to be considered and judiciously employed, as appropriate, when reviewing and developing cyber security standards for control systems. The recommendations in the Catalog are intended to be broad enough to provide any industry using control systems the flexibility needed to develop sound cyber security standards specific to their individual security requirements.

Robert P. Evans

2008-05-01

385

Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of piperaquine in plasma stable isotope labeled internal standard does not always compensate for matrix effects.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A bioanalytical method for the analysis of piperaquine in human plasma using off-line solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to positive tandem mass spectroscopy has been developed and validated. It was found that a mobile phase with high pH (i.e. 10) led to better sensitivity than mobile phase combinations with low pH (i.e. 2.5-4.5) despite the use of positive electrospray and a basic analyte. The method was validated according to published FDA guidelines and showed excelle...

Lindegardh, N.; Annerberg, A.; White, Nj; Day, Np

2008-01-01

386

Opinions on development of China nuclear power standard system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to meet fast development of nuclear power, China should establish its own nuclear power standards system. This paper gives some opinions on establishment of Chinese nuclear island systems and components design and construction standards. It is suggested to draft 'Chinese Nuclear Power Utility Requirements Document'. (author)

387

Standards of Care for Juvenile Sexual Offenders of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Offenders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Minimal standards for treatment of adult sexual offenders were adopted by the membership of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Offenders (IATSO at its first membership General Assembly in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in May 2000 (Coleman, Dwyer, Abel, Berner, Breiling, Eher, et al., 2000; 2003. These standards, initially developed in 1990 with input from attendees at the Second International Conference on Sexual Offender Treatment held in Minneapolis, Minnesota (Coleman & Dwyer, 1990; Coleman, Dwyer, Abel, Berner, Breiling, Hindman, et al. 1996, were refined by a committee of professionals at the Fifth International Conference on Sexual Offender Treatment (Coleman et al., 2000.With these standards in place, the Governing Board of IATSO designated a committee in summer 2004 to develop similar standards for treatment of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. This committee consisted of representatives from a number of countries with differing traditions of sexual offender treatment and juvenile justice, including Austria, Germany, Norway, South Africa, Switzerland, and the United States. Developing standards of care for juvenile populations can be a challenging endeavor. Adolescence is a time of rapid change, and thus, there is great heterogeneity in those youths who commit acts that can be defined as sexual offenses. These differences are influenced by the developmental stage of the youth, which may roughly parallel age, and multiple environmental factors. Additionally, studies conducted outside North America find higher base rates of re-offense than those within North America (e.g. Nisbet, Wilson, & Smallbone, 2004; Langstrom & Grann, 2000. This is likely the case because definitions of who is a juvenile offender, what behaviors are sexual crimes, and how the juvenile justice system is organized can differ substantially across countries. These Standards of Care, which were adopted by the membership at the General Assembly of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Offenders in Hamburg, Germany, September 7, 2006, are designed to be minimal guidelines for those developing and implementing treatment interventions for Juvenile Sexual Offenders. These Standards are based on the current state of knowledge on adolescents who commit sexual offences. Most of the available data are from adolescent males and the state of science in this field is still evolving. Thus, the Committee avoided making specific recommendations about particular procedures, techniques, or instrumentation.

Michael Miner

2006-12-01

388

ISO 14000 - the International Environmental Management Standard: Potential impacts on environmental management and auditing in the electric power generation industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of environmental management, the concept of voluntary environmental compliance auditing is not in itself a new development. Environmentally conscious firms have for more than a decade, undertaken voluntary audits to help achieve and maintain compliance with environmental regulations and to help identify and correct unregulated or poorly regulated environmental hazard. The firms undertaking the audits were motivated by a desire to mitigate legal and financial risks and/or the desire to be a highly responsible member of the corporate community. Much of the early attention to environmental auditing was in the chemical process industries. Today, there are four current trends affecting environmental auditing: (1) the practice is becoming widespread in all industry groups in both large and small firms; (2) environmental management and audit methodolgies and approaches are being codified in the form of written national and International standards; (3) environmental management programs and in-house audits are increasingly being certified by independent auditors (who are not associated with regulatory agencies); and (4) the certifications are being viewed as marketing and public relations tools. The adoption of ISO 14000 is destined to become the most significant development in international environmental management and auditing. International standards for the development of Environmental Management Systems and the execution of environmental audits do not currently exist. Individual countries, such as England and France, have national standards. One multi-national standard currently exists--the European Economic Community's Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). The United States does not have a national environmental management and auditing standard

389

International standards on working postures and movements ISO 11226 and EN 1005-4.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standards organizations have given considerable attention to the problem of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The publication of international standards for evaluating working postures and movements, ISO 11,226 in 2000 and EN 1,005-4 in 2005, may be considered as a support for those involved in preventing and controlling these disorders. The first one is a tool for evaluation of existing work situations, whereas the latter one is a tool for evaluation during a design/engineering process. Key publications and considerations that led to the content of the standards are presented, followed by examples of application. PMID:17972203

Delleman, N J; Dul, J

2007-11-01

390

The Truman Commission: International Developments for Colleges  

Science.gov (United States)

Research briefly details the purpose of the Harry S. Truman administration's Commission on Higher Education for Democracy to support community colleges. Contrary to histories that define later origins in the 1960s, this paper makes an argument that the historical foundations of ideation for international education in community colleges originate…

Burke, Kenneth M.

2008-01-01

391

Energy standards and model codes development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides an overview of the energy standards and model codes process for the voluntary sector within the United States. The report was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Building Energy Standards Program and is intended to be used as a primer or reference on this process. Building standards and model codes that address energy have been developed by organizations in the voluntary sector since the early 1970s. These standards and model codes provide minimum energy-efficient design and construction requirements for new buildings and, in some instances, existing buildings. The first step in the process is developing new or revising existing standards or codes. There are two overall differences between standards and codes. Energy standards are developed by a consensus process and are revised as needed. Model codes are revised on a regular annual cycle through a public hearing process. In addition to these overall differences, the specific steps in developing/revising energy standards differ from model codes. These energy standards or model codes are then available for adoption by states and local governments. Typically, energy standards are adopted by or adopted into model codes. Model codes are in turn adopted by states through either legislation or regulation. Enforcement is essential to the implementation of energy standards and model codes. Low-rise residential construction is generally evaluated for compliance at the local level, whereas state agencies tend to be more involved with other types of buildings. Low-rise residential buildings also may be more easily evaluated for compliance because the governing requirements tend to be less complex than for commercial buildings.

Conover, D.R.

1994-08-01

392

An international standard conceptual model for sharing references to hydrologic features  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryConcepts such as catchment, basin, watershed and river are commonly understood in many fields of discourse, but are described differently according to the focus on various aspects of the hydrology phenomenon. The effective exchange of hydrologic data containing references to hydrologic features requires standardised semantics of the concepts that allow identification of these features. Here, the scope of common approaches to information modelling of hydrologic features is examined, and is compared to the requirements for feature identification in multiple contexts. A conceptual model is presented that reconciles the underlying differences in representation of hydrologic features and levels of detail in typical datasets. By providing a stable and common referencing system for hydrologic features, the model will assist in the organization of observation and modelling of such features, and in the aggregation of generated data on a global, regional, national or basin scale. The model encompasses a number of approaches used in different contexts to identify and model hydrologic features and enforce the semantics of relationships between different levels of detail. Thus, it provides a semantic framework for common feature identifiers to be developed and embedded in individual data products, while providing the flexibility to model complex hydrological processes at fine detail. The common identifiers can be used in aggregating data generated using high-detail models of processes, and in partitioning large and complex hydrologic feature datasets into local study areas. Different local models can be applied according to the dominant hydrologic processes and the amount of hydrometric monitoring available for each region. The model is intended to form the basis for standard practices under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization Commission for Hydrology. It is presented here to invite further testing, feedback and engagement in the process of its acceptance and implementation as an international standard for hydrologic feature identification. Based on the accepted International Organization for Standardization General Feature Model, it will be possible to realise, in a standardised way, the semantics of feature identification in tools for managing metadata documenting hydrologic datasets and products.

Atkinson, Robert; Dornblut, Irina; Smith, Darren

2012-03-01

393

Development of a standard for indoor radon measurements in Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A standard covering methodologies for the measurement of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations in air in Australian buildings is currently under preparation as part of a set of standards covering total indoor air quality. This paper outlines the suggested methodology for radon and discusses some of the problems associated with the development of the standard. The draft standard recommends measurement of the radon concentration in air using scintillation cells, charcoal cups and solid state nuclear track detectors, and measurement of radon progeny concentration in air using the Rolle method or the Nazaroff method. 14 refs., 1 tab

394

Use of an improved internal-standard method in the quantitative sterol analyses of phytoplankton and oysters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most work reporting the sterol composition of living organisms has not been done quantitatively, although good quantitative data are available for fatty acids and many other cellular components using an internal-standard method that compensates for errors during gas chromatographic analysis. In this paper, we report on the use of 7-stigmastenyl acetate as an internal standard for sterol analysis in two species of phytoplankton and oysters produced with two different diets. This internal-standard method provides an internal standard for this entire process of analysis, not just the gas chromatographic analysis. When analyzing 50-microgram samples of cholesterol acetate after hydrolysis and acetylation, about 30% of the sample was lost, resulting in a 30% error using the older external-standard method. Using the internal-standard method, the analysis error was less than 2%. Losses of sterol during analysis apparently are greater with plant and animal samples than with pure sterol standards. This internal-standard method was shown to be extremely useful, especially for samples with less than 500 micrograms of sterol. Finally, the standard error in sterol analysis is much lower when the internal-standard method is used, allowing statistical distinctions that are not possible otherwise. Use of 7-stigmastenyl acetate as an internal standard offers several advantages over the use of cholestane. PMID:9307944

Ghosh, P; Patterson, G W; Wikfors, G H

1997-09-01

395

25 CFR 542.13 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming machines?  

Science.gov (United States)

...minimum internal control standards for gaming...only, credit or customer credit means...or redeemed by a customer. (2) Coins...computerized gaming machine systems, a personnel access...least the level of control described by the...include the following information: (i) Date...

2010-04-01

396

25 CFR 542.10 - What are the minimum internal control standards for keno?  

Science.gov (United States)

...minimum internal control standards for keno...least the level of control described by the...The computerized customer ticket shall include... (2) The information on the ticket...generated). (5) Controls shall exist to...Rabbit ear or wheel system. (1) The...

2010-04-01

397

An Illustrated Guide to the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Illustrations are provided for descriptive cataloging of monographs in the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) format. Sample cards, mostly from the Library of Congress, illustrate the cataloging rules of the newly revised Chapter 6 of the "Anglo-American Cataloging Rules." Arranged in the same order as in Chapter 6, the…

Sayre, John L., Comp.; Hamburger, Roberta, Comp.

398

Reduction of Internal Standard Signals in Quantitative MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The advantages of combining qualitative and quantitative analysis on a single analytical technique have further extended the applications of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS to the quantitation of various biomolecules. To achieve absolute quantitation, it is necessary to perform a calibration with standard dilutions. For the purpose of measuring DNA samples, a pure DNA oligonucleotide at different concentrations was chosen as a standard to perform the calibration of MALDI-TOF MS. In order to overcome the variation of signal intensity from repeated measurements of each DNA standard dilution, fixed amount of an internal standard was added into each DNA standard dilution. Instead of maintaining at a constant level, the signals of fixed amount of internal standard were decreased 73% from its initial level while the signals of DNA standard continued to increase within a linear dynamic range for quantitation from 0.20 ?M to 12.5 ?M of DNA. Attempts to identify the cause of signal reduction were systematically carried out. This is the first report on the extent of signal reduction in quantitative MALDI-TOF MS. These results represent a limitation on using MALDI-TOF MS to monitor the changes in concentration of two different compounds within a chemical or biological system.

Walter B. Wilson

2012-09-01

399

The standard of healthcare accreditation standards: a review of empirical research underpinning their development and impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare accreditation standards are advocated as an important means of improving clinical practice and organisational performance. Standard development agencies have documented m