WorldWideScience
1

IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological safety of the equipment. The main characteristics of IEC 62463 and IEC 62523 standards are presented and as well as the IEC methodology of standard development and approval

2

IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological safety of the equipment. The main characteristics of IEC 62463 and IEC 62523 standards are presented and as well as the IEC methodology of standard development and approval.

Voytchev, M; Radev, R; Chiaro, P; Thomson, I; Dray, C; Li, J

2007-12-06

3

THE ADOPTION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES- The Case of Ghana  

OpenAIRE

Most countries in the world have revolutionized their accounting practices especially during the last few decades of the 21st century. Such revolutions encompass the adoption and adaptation of local accounting practices and harmonizing it with that of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) – formerly International Accounting Standards (IAS). The study seeks to analyze how developing countries and in particular Ghana adopted the International Financial Reporting Standards. Th...

Antwi, Kofi

2010-01-01

4

The development of international safety standards on geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA is developing a set of safety requirements for geologic disposal to be used by both developers and regulators for planning, designing, operating, and closing a geologic disposal facility. Safety requirements would include quantitative criteria for assessing safety of geological disposal facilities as well as requirements for development of the facility and the safety strategy including the safety case. Geological disposal facilities are anticipated to be developed over a period of at least a few decades. Key decisions, e.g. on the disposal concept, siting, design, operational management and closure, are expected to be made in a series of steps. Decisions will be made based on the information available at each step and the confidence that can be placed in that information. A safety strategy is important for ensuring that at each step during the development of the disposal facility, an adequate understanding of the safety implications of the available options is developed such that the ultimate goal of providing an acceptable level of operational and post closure safety will be met. A safety case for a geological disposal facility would present all the safety relevant aspects of the site, the facility design and the managerial and regulatory controls. The safety case and its supporting assessments illustrates the level of protection provided and shall give reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. Overall, the safety case provides confidence in th the safety case provides confidence in the feasibility of implementing the disposal system as designed, convincing estimates of the performance of the disposal system and a reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. (author)

5

International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

NONE

2007-07-01

6

The developments of international hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards and the response strategies in Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of hydrogen and fuel cells has expanded as the technology in international markets has improved. Leading countries have focused on establishing hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards. Both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) continuously release new hydrogen and fuel cell related standards. Although the government of Taiwan is promoting the development of a hydrogen and fuel cell industry, it may delay the commercialized schedule if there are no hydrogen and fuel cell related standards and regulations in place. Standards and regulations must be established as quickly as possible in order to accelerate the progress of the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. This presentation reviewed the international progress in hydrogen and fuel cell development and explained Taiwan's response strategies regarding the adoption of hydrogen and fuel cell products in niche Taiwanese markets

7

The upstream oil and gas industry's initiative in the development of international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the international work of the oil industry to formalize as International Standards many of the industry standards used world-wide. It also describes how matters have been developing in Europe. E and P Forum, representing the international exploration and production oil and gas industry, provides a forum for coordinating industry standardization, to ensure that the necessary standards are maintained by the appropriate technical body. The paper discusses the development of the standardization program in ISO/TC67, the Technical Committee directing the transformation of some 70 API Standards into ISO Standards and the relationship to CEN (the European standardization body). The objective of the upstream industry is to operate worldwide to consistent international standards. Company standards can then concentrate on functional and performance requirements. This will facilitate international trade and communication, open competition and the global market. For a practical realization of this objective the oil industry must foster a special relationship between the relevant US bodies, ISO and CEN. The sustained support of all sides of industry is required

8

Development of an international standard for electromagnetic interference (EMI)/radio frequency interference (RFI)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper covers the development of an international standard that establishes the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility testing of instrumentation and control equipment supplied for use in systems important to safety at nuclear power plants. The standard lists the applicable IEC standards (principally the IEC 61000 series) which define the general test methods, and provides the necessary application-specific parameters and criteria to ensure that nuclear safety requirements are met. This standard was prepared with the leadership by the Russian National Committee representatives to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). (authors)

9

Development of an international standard on instruments setpoints based on ISA S67.04 - 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a summary of the application for and development of an international standard on instrument setpoints, based on the Instrument Society of America (ISA) Standard S67.04 - 1994. The forum this new standard was proposed in is the International Electrotechnique Commission (IEC), based in Geneva, Switzerland, which is the international commission which oversees electrical and instrumentation standards for all applications around the world. The Instrument Society of America (ISA) is a United States based Society for the advancement of instrumentation and controls related science and technology and has 30,000 members. A division within the ISA is the Standard and Practices board which has over 5000 members actively involved in standards development and approval. In 1994, the ISA SP67, Nuclear Power Plant Standards Committee authorized that the IEC be approached to develop and issue an IEC standard on Instrument Setpoints. This application was formally submitted in January, 1995 to the IEC and approved for ballot to member countries in June, 1995. Approval for standard development by IEC was received in October, 1995 and the first draft vas issued in February, 1996, and is currently under review by the IEC working group. It is very important to focus on the approach that the U.S. and other countries are taking toward development of IEC standards that can apply to all nuclear instrumentation applications around the world. By referencing IEC standards in design specification, vendors can be solicited from many different countries, thereby ensuring that the highest quality products can be used. This also offsets the need to specify individual standards in the specification, based on the country that each vendor solicited, represents. In summary, this standard development process, with support from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) will assist U.S. suppliers in competing in the global market for products and services into the next century. (author)

10

Standardising through concepts: scientific experts and the international development of the HACCP Food Safety Standard  

OpenAIRE

This paper deals with international standard-setting. Using the HACCP food safety standard as the basis of discussion, this paper considers the influence of scientific experts on the regulatory process. What is usually referred to as the diffusion or dissemination of soft or voluntary standards is here explained in terms of transferability of a regulatory concept. It is the ability of scientific experts to transform practices into a universal concept and, conversely, to develop technologies f...

Demortain, David

2007-01-01

11

Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'

12

Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subcommittee 45B Radiation Protection Instrumentation of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three IEC standards are published. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: IEC 62327 Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation , IEC 62401 Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material and IEC 62244 Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders .

Chiaro Jr, Peter John [ORNL

2009-01-01

13

Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three IEC standards are published. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: IEC 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', IEC 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and IEC 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'.

Voytchev, M. [IRSN/DSU/SERAC/BIREN-CTHIR, B.P. 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: miroslav.voytchev@irsn.fr; Chiaro, P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Radev, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-384, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

2009-01-15

14

Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three IEC standards are published. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: IEC 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', IEC 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and IEC 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'

15

Open System Interconnection - NASA program communications of the future. [developed by International aorganization for Standardization  

Science.gov (United States)

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standards are being developed by the ISO and the Consultative Committee on International Telephone and Telegraph with the support of industry. These standards are being developed to allow the interconnecting of computer systems and the interworking of applications such that the applications can be independent of any equipment manufacturer. Significant progress has been made, and the establishment of government OSI standards is being considered. There is considerable interest within NASA in the potential benefits of OSI and in communications standards in general. The OSI standards are being considered for possible application in the Space Station onboard data management system. The OSI standards have reached a high level of maturity, and it is now imperative that NASA plan for future migration to OSI where appropriate.

Brady, Charles D.

1987-01-01

16

Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

17

Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc.

Powell, C.J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Surface and Microanalysis Science Division

1999-12-01

18

Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'.

Voytchev, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DSU/SERAC/CTHIR), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Chiaro, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Radev, R. [LLNL, Livermore, CA (United States)

2006-07-01

19

International standards for nuclear technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of history, current status and possible future developments in the field of international nuclear standards, with emphasis on the relevant activities of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). After a brief history of standardization in general and description of the 'hierarchy' of legal and technical nuclear standars, the reasons for international nuclear standardization and the efforts of various international organizations in this field are described, in particular the Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' of ISO (with tables of its organization, output and projects); the TC 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC); the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Program, and some other international organizations. Finally, some problems in this important and difficult field which remain to be solved are being discussed. (orig.)

20

Development Of International Data Standards For The COSMOS/PEER-LL Virtual Data Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The COSMOS -PEER Lifelines Project 2L02 completed a Pilot Geotechnical Virtual Data Center (GVDC) system capable of both archiving geotechnical data and of disseminating data from multiple linked geotechnical databases. The Pilot GVDC system links geotechnical databases of four organizations: the California Geological Survey, Caltrans, PG&E, and the U. S. Geological Survey The System was presented and reviewed in the COSMOS-PEER Lifelines workshop on June 21 - 23, 2004, which was co-sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and included participation by the United Kingdom Highways Agency (UKHA) , the Association of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Specialists in the United Kingdom (AGS), the United States Army Corp of Engineers (USACOE), Caltrans, United States Geological Survey (USGS), California Geological Survey (CGS), a number of state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), county building code officials, and representatives of academic institutions and private sector geotechnical companies. As of February 2005 COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Project 2L03 is currently funded to accomplish the following tasks: 1) expand the Pilot GVDC Geotechnical Data Dictionary and XML Schema to include data definitions and structures to describe in-situ measurements such as shear wave velocity profiles, and additional laboratory geotechnical test types; 2) participate in an international cooperative working group developing a single geotechnical data exchange standard that has broad international acceptance; and 3) upgrade the GVDC system to support corresponding exchange standard data dictionary and schema improvements. The new geophysical data structures being developed will include PS-logs, downhole geophysical logs, cross-hole velocity data, and velocity profiles derived using surface waves. A COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Geophysical Data Dictionary Working Committee constituted of experts in the development of data dictionary standards and experts in the specific data to be captured are presently working on this task. The international geotechnical data dictionary and schema development is a highly collaborative effort funded by a pooled fund study coordinated by state DOTs and FHWA. The technical development of the standards called DIGGS (Data Interchange for Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Specialists) is lead by a team consisting of representatives from the University of Florida, Department of Civil Engineering (UF), AGS, Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA), UKHA, Ohio DOT, and COSMOS. The first draft of DIGGS is currently in preparation. A Geotechnical Management System Group (GMS group), composed of representatives from 13 State DOTs, FHWA, US EPA, USACOE, USGS and UKHA, oversees and approves the development of the standards. The ultimate goal of both COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Project 2L03 and the international GMS working group is to produce open and flexible, GML-compliant XML schema-based data structures and data dictionaries for review and approval by DOTs, other public agencies, and the international engineering and geoenvironmental community at large, leading to adoption of internationally accepted geotechnical and geophysical data transfer standards. Establishment of these standards is intended to significantly facilitate the accessibility and exchange of geotechnical information world wide.

Swift, J. N.

2005-12-01

21

International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process. Fourth, sufficient program resources for program implementation and evaluation are critical to the effectiveness of standards and labeling programs and cost-sharing between national and local governments can help ensure adequate resources and uniform implementation. Lastly, check-testing and punitive measures are important forms of enforcement while the cancellation of registration or product sales-based fines have also proven effective in reducing non-compliance. The international comparative analysis also revealed the differing degree to which the level of government decentralization has influenced S&L programs and while no single country has best practices in all elements of standards and labeling development and implementation, national examples of best practices for specific elements do exist. For example, the U.S. has exemplified the use of rigorous analyses for standard-setting and robust data source with the RECS database while Japan?s Top Runner standard-setting principle has motivated manufacturers to exceed targets. In terms of standards implementation and enforcement, Australia has demonstrated success with enforcement given its long history of check-testing and enforcement initiatives while mandatory information-sharing between EU jurisdictions on compliance results is another important enforcement mechanism. These examples show that it is important to evaluate not only the drivers of different paths of standards and labeling development, but also the country-specific context for best practice examples in order to understand how and why certain elements of specific S&L programs have been effective.

Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

2012-02-28

22

International hearing protector standardization  

OpenAIRE

Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4...

Poulsen, Torben

2010-01-01

23

International hearing protector standardization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance in impulse noise, protectors with active noise reduction). Furthermore, an overview of the present European standards (CEN) and the relation to American and Australian/New Zealand standards will be discussed.

Poulsen, Torben

2002-01-01

24

International radiofrequency standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of the various radiofrequency standards in use around the world, many are based on or similar to the Guidelines published by ICNIRP (The International Commission on Non-ionising Radiation Protection). This organisation is a working group operating in co-operation with the Environmental Health division of the World Health Organisation (WHO). This paper presents a very brief overview of current international standards, beginning with a summary of the salient points of the ICNIRP Guidelines. It should be remembered that these are guidelines only and do not exist as a separate standard. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

25

Safety practices and standards, developments and incentives for international co-operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some main points arising during the safety assessments carried out on a consultative basis by the CEC are explained. The authors stress the importance of studies of depressurization accidents and the appearance of probabilistic analysis methods in safety assessments. They indicate whether these safety evaluations, by the Commission's own experts as well as by external experts, bring up possible pragmatic approaches to improving the harmonization of the safety rules and practices at the European level. Some major safety concerns and activities systematically considered by the CEC are surveyed and how they relate to the initiatives in other international organizations and in industrially developed third countries. Emphasis is placed on the efforts towards a gradual harmonization of the many different techniques and standards applied on a world scale and within the European Community, in particular for reactors of the industrially developed type. Comparative information is provided on some national practices for technico-administrative authorization procedures (with examples) and on national work on the development of regulatory and voluntary standards. Of the technical issues that influence the health and safety aspects of nuclear power, the following are dealt with more specifically in the scope of a more harmonized approach: measures to prevent or mitigate accident conditions of internal or external origin; the application of the regulatory 'strictly radiological' andthe regulatory 'strictly radiological' and 'as low as reasonably achievable' population dose limits for normal effluent releases; and the validity of the permissible doses for occupational exposure. Finally, the various possibilities and limitations of probabilistic risk analysis methods in systems design, in regulatory requirements, in operational requirements, and in the definition of safety research programmes are discussed. Some implications of such methods, e.g. in the matter of equipment failure rate data collection, are examined. (author)

26

Radiation protection instrumentation standards developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' of the IEC produces International Standards defining the requirements to which the instrumentation used for the radiation protection must satisfy. The compliance to these requirements is a guaranty of the quality of the instrument, of its good performance in the nuclear environment. Type testing equipment to the recommendations and requirements of the standards also provides the equipment user with reliable and internationally acceptable performance data which they can use for the accurate interpretation and comparisons of their operational measurements. The list of the published SC 45B standards is given in this paper. (author)

27

Radiation safety: New international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article highlights an important result of this work for the international harmonization of radiation safety: specifically, it present an overview of the forthcoming International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - the so-called BSS. They have been jointly developed by six organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

28

Advantages and difficulties of implementation of the international GNA standards in sustainable mining development. (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Conflicts in the development of mining projects are now common between the mining proponents, NGO's and communities. These conflicts can sometimes be alleviated by early development of modes of communication, and a formal discussion format that allows airing of concerns and potential resolution of problems. One of the methods that can formalize this process is to establish a Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA), which deals specifically with challenges in relationships between mining operations and the local communities. It is a new practice related to mining operations that are oriented toward social needs and concerns of local communities that arise during the normal life of a mine, which can achieve sustainable mining practices in both developing and developed countries. The GNA project being currently developed at the University of Nevada, Reno in cooperation with the Newmont Mining Corporation has a goal to create an open company/community dialog that is based on the international standards and that will help identify and address sociological and environmental concerns associated with mining, as well as find methods for communication and conflict resolution. GNA standards should be based on trust doctrine, open information access, and community involvement in the decision making process. It should include the following components: emergency response and community communications; environmental issues, including air and water quality standards; reclamation and recultivation; socio-economic issues: transportation, safety, training, and local hiring; and financial issues, particularly related to mitigation offsets and community needs. The GNA standards help identify and evaluate conflict criteria in mining/community relationships; determine the status of concerns; focus on the local political and government systems; separate the acute and the chronic concerns; determine the role and responsibilities of stakeholders; analyze problem resolution feasibility; maintain the community involvement and support through economic benefits and environmental safeguards; develop options for the concerns resolution; develop and manage short and long-term plans. Difficulties in establishing the GNA standards include identification of the full list of stakeholders, lack of responsible environmental protection practices, dependence on the government and political system, lack of will to disclose full information to the public. It is further complicated by the lack of insurance/bonding policies, and by the lack of audit and monitoring that could determine the level of exposure of the local community and the environment to the contaminants released at the mine sites. Since many problems of mines can occur during closure and post-closure, GNA's should address those issues also. Determined the process for the GNA implementation as a conflict prevention/resolution tool, analyzed conflict/concerns criteria associated with mining operations, determined the role of the stakeholders, worked out the process of stakeholders monitoring, carried out the sociological survey of the stakeholders and the community. Frequent conflicts between mining companies and surrounding communities that lead to work disruptions or even mine closures show the necessity of a less confrontational approach to environmental and social justice. Establishment of GNA standards for use in both developed and developing nations can decrease these conflicts.

Masaitis, A.

2013-12-01

29

Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Developing Countries: The Case of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study focused on the adoption process of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS on adeveloping economy, with particular reference to Nigeria. The paper is based on the data obtained from literaturesurvey and archival sources in the context of the globalization of International Financial Reporting and theadoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS.Nigeria has embraced IFRS in order toparticipate in the benefits it offers, including attracting foreign direct investment, reduction of the cost of doingbusiness, and cross border listing. In implementing IFRS Nigeria will face challenges including the developmentof a legal and regulatory framework, awareness campaign, and training of personnel. Recommendations weremade to forestall such challenges which include strengthening education and training, establishment of anindependent body to monitor and enforce accounting and auditing standards.

Abdulkadir Madawaki

2012-01-01

30

Protection of emergency workers and helpers: recent developments in international standards in emergency preparedness and response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in abstract form only. IAEA safety requirements in preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, were endorsed in 2002 in a joint sponsorship of seven international intergovernmental organizations. Building on experience from responses to actual emergencies, these safety requirements set common goals to be achieved and the common concepts and approaches to be taken for an adequate preparedness to effectively respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency irrespective of the cause. Ensuring an adequate protection of emergency workers is an important aspect of emergency arrangements considered in this publication. In 2011, a revision of these safety requirements was initiated in order to take into account past experience and developments since 2002 with due consideration (but not limited to) the experience gained in the emergency response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Protection of emergency workers got particular attention during this revision in the light of the lessons identified in past emergencies resulting in strengthened and more comprehensive, yet simple, system for protection of emergency workers of different organizations and services. The revised safety requirements are expected to be published in 2015 as Part 7 of the General Safety Requirements (GSR Part 7) within the IAEA Safety Standards Series. In this presentation, the latest updates and developments with regard to emergency workers in the light of the revision of the Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 are presented. Issues such as who are to be considered as emergency workers, the importance of their designation prior to an emergency, how to deal during an emergency response with those emergency workers not recognized as such at preparedness stage, protection aspects to be considered for all emergency workers and dose criteria to be used for restricting their further exposures in an emergency response are addressed. The specifics associated with the protection of female emergency workers are also highlighted. Moreover, the approach to dealing and protecting helpers on the part of the public willing to contribute to the emergency response on a voluntarily basis is covered in this presentation too. (author)

31

Development of an evaluation methodology for triple bottom line reports using international standards on reporting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is twofold. First, evaluation scoring systems for triple bottom line (TBL) reports to date are examined and potential methodological weaknesses and problems are highlighted. In this context, a new assessment methodology is presented based explicitly on the most widely acknowledged standard on non-financial reporting worldwide, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The set of GRI topics and performance indicators was converted into scoring criteria while the generic scoring devise was set from 0 to 4 points. Secondly, the proposed benchmark tool was applied to the TBL reports published by Greek companies. Results reveal major gaps in reporting practices, stressing the need for the further development of internal systems and processes in order to collect essential non-financial performance data. A critical overview of the structure and rationale of the evaluation tool in conjunction with the Greek case study is discussed while recommendations for future research on the field of this relatively new form of reporting are suggested. PMID:19495861

Skouloudis, Antonis; Evangelinos, Konstantinos; Kourmousis, Fotis

2009-08-01

32

On the International Convergence of Accounting Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The international convergence of accounting standards has become a hot topic in the international accounting field.The convergence is an irreversible developing trend of accounting internationalization development that began many years ago.Accounting,as a world-wide accepted business language,should naturally move towards internationalization.This paper discusses the international convergence of accounting standards focusing on its development stages,necessity and analyse the international status.

Boka Moussa

2010-03-01

33

On the International Convergence of Accounting Standards  

OpenAIRE

The international convergence of accounting standards has become a hot topic in the international accounting field.The convergence is an irreversible developing trend of accounting internationalization development that began many years ago.Accounting,as a world-wide accepted business language,should naturally move towards internationalization.This paper discusses the international convergence of accounting standards focusing on its development stages,necessity and analyse the international st...

Boka Moussa

2010-01-01

34

The development of international standards for the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been an increasing awareness over recent years of the need to develop an approach that specifically addresses the protection of non-human species from the effects of ionizing radiation, largely in response to national and international environmental legal instruments. The IAEA has a long history of involvement in assessing the impact of ionizing radiation on non-human species and has, in recent years, established a programme of work to address the development of safety standards on this issue, in co-operation with other relevant international organizations. This paper provides an overview of the status of international work in this regard, paying particular attention to the work of the IAEA, and the relevant task groups of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It includes a discussion of the ethics and principles of environmental protection, and issues related to the development of a practical framework for environmental assessment and decision-making. The future development of international safety standards for the control of releases of radionuclides to the environment will depend upon the findings and recommendations of the International Conference on Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation, held in Stockholm, Sweden, 6-10 October 2003. The main issues arising at that conference are summarised. (author)

35

International organization for standardization (ISO) 9000 and chemical agent standard analytical reference material (SASARM) quality system development and implementation. Phase 1. Final report, April 1993-June 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is in the process of developing an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 quality assurance (QA) system and a Chemical Agent Standard Analytical Reference Material (CASARM) QA program. Phase I of this process consisted of analyzing the current DPG QA system, defining the structure of the new QA system, determine how the ISO 9000 and the CASARM systems will interact, develop the new QA system and implementation plan, and develop the CASARM program and begin implementation. The initial phases of the system design and synthesis met the objectives established for Phase I of this methodology project. Phase II will complete the functional analysis, system design, and prototype implementation. The prototype will be analyzed for weaknesses in operation, personnel and equipment requirements, software, and cost effectiveness. The system will be modified, if needed, and implemented across the Materiel Test Directorate. The final stage of this methodology will be to achieve ISO 9000 registration. International Organization for Standardization(ISO) 9000, Chemical Agent Standard Analytical Reference Material(CASARM), Standardized Quality Assurance(QA), QA/Quality Control(QC).

Turley, S.D.

1994-09-01

36

Criticality safety and international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There appears to be a worldwide increase in interest in international standards. Indications are that international standards will tend to replace or overshadow national standards. An illustration of this tendency was seen recently. During the recent (February 1996) meeting of the International Organization for Standardization Technical Committee 85 (ISO TC 85, Nuclear Energy) in Albuquerque, representatives from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) requested ISO TC 85 to accept responsibility for conversion of 19 ASTM high-level dosimetry standards to ISO standards using the open-quotes fasttrackclose quotes procedure. This unprecedented request was stimulated by a need to have these procedures in an ISO document to make them more useful to the international community. Recognizing the increased status that international standards enjoy today, TC 85 unanimously agreed to accept this responsibility

37

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO)  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently set up a Metadata Working Group to take responsibility for standards for specification and management of metadata. The scope of the Working Group includes metadata elements, classification and coding schemes, a...

38

TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR EDUCATION AND  

OpenAIRE

The Forum Orthopaedic Educational Programs from the Netherlands and Belgium (Flanders)took the initiative to promote the developement of international standards for education and training in the field of orthopaedic shoe technology.

Vries, Wolter; Holtkamp, Fred

2009-01-01

39

Importance of international standards on hydrogen technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation provided some basic information regarding standards and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It also explained the importance of standardization activities, particularly ISO/TC 197 which applies to hydrogen technologies. Standards are established by consensus. They define the minimum requirements that will ensure that products and services are reliable and effective. Standards contribute to the elimination of technical barriers to trade (TBT). The harmonization of standards around the world is desirable in a free trade environment. The influence of the TBT on international standardization was discussed with particular reference to the objectives of ISO/TC 197 hydrogen technologies. One of the priorities for ISO/TC 197 is a hydrogen fuel infrastructure which includes refuelling stations, fuelling connectors, and storage technologies for gaseous and liquid hydrogen. Other priorities include an agreement between the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the ISO, in particular the IEC/TC 105 and ISO/TC 197 for the development of fuel cell standards. The international standards that have been published thus far include ISO 13984:1999 for liquid hydrogen, land vehicle fuelling system interface, and ISO 14687:1999 for hydrogen fuel product specification. Standards are currently under development for: liquid hydrogen; airport hydrogen fuelling facilities; gaseous hydrogen blends; basic considerations for the safety of hydrosic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems; gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and gaseous hydrogen for land vehicle filling connectors. It was concluded that the widespread use of hydrogen is dependent on international standardization

40

International aerospace standards - An overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors to be considered in adopting and extending international standards in the U.S. aerospace industry are reviewed. Cost-related advantages and disadvantages of standardization are weighed, and further obstacles are identified in the English/metric rivalry and the pacing of metrification. The problem of standard duplication is examined, and the issue of revenues from the sale of copyrighted documents describing standards is addressed. It is recommended that international metric-system standards be introduced, with proper timing, wherever possible, and that prompt negotiations be undertaken to prevent or resolve document-sales disagreements. The continuation of English-system standards for safety-related cockpit readouts and communications systems is suggested.

Mason, J. L.

1983-10-01

41

ISO-standards for marine fuels. [ISO = International Standardization Organization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors are reporting about the developments in the energy market where, on account of changes in refinery operations and processes, a change in future Marine Fuel qualities will be relevant. The logical consequences were initiatives for the introduction of standards for Marine Fuels. The report is about the work which international groups have performed in respect to these standardization efforts and about the consequences this work has on the future market for Marine Fuels. Furthermore, prospects are being discussed about the finalization and the implementation of these standards and the possible consequences that will arise regarding availability and quality of standardized Marine Fuels in future.

Thornton, R.H.; Breyer, H.

1983-10-01

42

International standards and agreements in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing

43

International standards and agreements in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing. (author)

44

Adoption determinants of the International Accounting Standards IAS/IFRS by the developing countries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este documento es identificar ciertos factores que probablemente esclarezcan la opción de aplicar IAS/IFRS adoptadas por los países en desarrollo hasta el año 2008. Basados en una muestra de 74 países en desarrollo, los resultados empíricos han demostrado que la mayoría de e [...] llos probablemente tienen un alto nivel de crecimiento económico, junto con un sistema jurídico de derecho consuetudinario y un nivel de educación avanzado. Abstract in english This paper’s main objective is to identify certain explanatory factors that likely clarify the choice of applying IAS/IFRS adopted by developing countries (DCs) up until the year 2008. Based on a sample consisting of 74 DCs, the empirical results have indicated that the DCs most likely to adopt IAS/ [...] IFRS have a high level of economic growth, along with a legal system of common law and an advanced educational level.

Fatma, Zehri; Jamel, Chouaibi.

2013-12-01

45

Internal emitter research and standard setting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The history of the use of data from internal emitter research in the derivation of safety standards is reviewed. At first, observed biological effects were correlated with body burdens or exposure levels. This direct approach is illustrated by detailed accounts of the cases of uranium and plutonium. In the 1950's, when it was decided to provide standards for over 200 isotopes, the direct approach was replaced by a system of calculations. This necessitated changes in internal emitter research programs to provide metabolic data, and the development of models such as Reference Man and the Lung and Gastrointestinal Tract models. The continuing contribution of internal emitter research to standard setting can be seen in the references quoted in the metabolic data section of the new ICRP report (ICRP Publication 30). Present trends suggest a possible return to the direct use of internal emitter effects data for obtaining risk estimates. (U.K.)

46

National Standards and International Trade  

OpenAIRE

Standards and technical regulations which govern the admissibility of imported goods into an economy raise costs of exporters entering new markets, and may have a particularly high impact on firms seeking to export from developing countries. Yet standards may also have a positive side, such as certifying product quality and safety for the consumer. This paper analyzes potential conflicts of interest between consumers and firms in a developed and a developing country under different assumption...

Ganslandt, Mattias; Markusen, James R.

2001-01-01

47

77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical...will allow interested persons additional time to analyze...543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for...tribes to establish controls and implement...

2012-07-24

48

Accounting Management by International Standards  

OpenAIRE

This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards – their contribution to harmonization andglobalization by purposing and tasking for accounting management. Measuring in details their pros and conseffects on the division of labour, financial innovation, company transactions and cost of capital it could beauthor’s recommendation for the business management inside and outside of one country’s border. Especiallythe multinational companies whose subsidiaries had to report...

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

49

International implications of nuclear quality assurance standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International activity in the field of quality assurance standards is briefly reviewed. Work of the IAEA is aimed at preparing a Code of Practice covering recommendations on safety procedure only, to be backed up by a series of safety guides. A proposed ISO draft standard on 'Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants', is in mandatory language and will cover operating as well as safety aspects. The reasons for the development of these codes, rather than reference to the ANSI N4512 standard, are discussed. (U.K.)

50

NDTA narcotics standard development  

Science.gov (United States)

The Narcotics Detection Technology Assessment (NDTA) program is a series of studies conducted to evaluate illicit substance detection devices. The ability to effectively detect cocaine and heroin particles is directly related to the efficiency of a detection device's sample collection design. The NDTA tests are therefore structured to require sampling of narcotics from a surface. Tests standards are required which permit subnanogram to microgram quantities of narcotic to be dispensed onto a target surface for sampling. Optimally, the standard should not adversely affect the performance of the device under test. The NDTA test team has developed and experimentally characterized solution- deposited substrate standards, solution-deposited substrate- free standards, vapor-deposited standards, suspension standards, and dry mix standards, and dry mix standards. A variety of substrates and dry-mix fillers have been evaluated, including sand, fullerenes, copper powder, nickel powder, pulverized paper, and aluminum. Suspension standards were explored with a variety of liquids. The narcotic standards with the best performance were found to be dry mixes of cocaine with silver-coated nickel powder, and dry mixes of heroin with silanized glass beads.

Ulvick, Sydney J.; Cui, Jing; Kunz, Terry D.; Hoglund, David E.; Pilon, Pierre; Lawrence, Andre H.; Drolet, Gerry; Su, Chih-Wu; Rigdon, Stephen W.; Demirgian, Jack C.; Shier, Patrick

1997-01-01

51

National and international standards on nuclear waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses on non-regulatory voluntary international standards developed in the area of radiation protection related nuclear waste problems by the International Standards Organization's Technical Committee 'Nuclear Energy' (ISO/TC 85), in particular its SC 5/WG 5 dealing with solid and solidified waste, relevant national standards in various countries, and the interaction between these categories, with an increasing trend towards internationalization. Together with examples for the progress which has been made so far, possible future trends and problems will also be briefly outlined. One of the key problems which appear to require attention is the cost level of nuclear waste programs, which is closely associated with the current, highly questionable assumptions about the risks associated with very low radiation doses. (orig.)

52

International Electrotechnical Commission standards - their use in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Sub-Committee (SC45B) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) was formed in 1966 and has since produced internationally agreed standards on a wide range of health physics instruments. A brief article describes the nature of the IEC standards, the procedure for the development of a new standard, the value of the standards in radiological protection and details of those standards issued so far by SC45B and also those under preparation. (U.K.)

53

IAEA safety standards and international legal instruments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA safety standards constitute a comprehensive and consistent framework of reference for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks. As such, they are of fundamental importance for both regulators and technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) in their duties related to nuclear safety and radiation protection. International cooperation is also favoured by the IAEA safety standards, permitting the identification of final objectives and the steps necessary to achieve them in very different national and regional contexts. The fact that groups of experts, widely representing the Member States, developed the safety standards is an additional guarantee of their applicability in different situations. Nevertheless, it should be taken into account that nuclear and radiation safety and their regulation are national competencies, and hence the safety standards should be adopted and suitably modified by the States to become a national safety reference. The clear advantages of the technical assistance that some nations can receive from the IAEA in nuclear and radiation safety favour the adoption of the safety standards. In addition, the explicit mention of the IAEA safety standards in international conventions and codes of conduct signed by several countries also helps their implementation from a legal point of view. Unfortunately, from a practical point of view, the difficulties do not disappear by officially adopting the safety standardby officially adopting the safety standards. Problems related to insufficient resources, shortcomings in the technical infrastructure and/or the limited experience of TSO staff are real problems that require additional efforts in order to effectively implement the safety standards. Renewed efforts to facilitate international cooperation among regional TSOs are necessary, for example, to promote specific harmonization of national situations. (author)

54

Toward an International Standard for PCR-Based Detection of Food-Borne Thermotolerant Campylobacters: Assay Development and Analytical Validation  

OpenAIRE

As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene were tested in all possible pairwise combinations, as well as two published primers targeting the 23S rRNA gene. A panel of 150 strains including target an...

Lu?beck, P. S.; Wolffs, P.; On, S. L. W.; Ahrens, P.; Ra?dstro?m, P.; Hoorfar, J.

2003-01-01

55

Present status of international neutron standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe the summary of ISO 8529 mainly on the monoenergetic neutron fluence standard using electrostatic accelerators and the AIST activity on the neutron standardization together with the international key comparisons held under the auspices of CCRI. (author)

Kudo, Katsuhisa; Uritani, Akira [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, National Metrology Inst. of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

2003-03-01

56

International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, hase obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise experimental data and improved developments in the methodology of analysis and evaluation. Initial efforts to produce a new evaluation were made by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group which formed a Task Force. It was realized that international cooperation would be needed to produce the evaluation. The Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee formed a Subgroup, and the International Atomic Energy Agency formed a Coordinated Research Project (CRP). These groups worked cooperatively to improve the evaluation process. The major effort in producing the evaluation was through the CRP. The evaluations of the neutron cross section standards were finalized in October 2005. Previous difficulties experienced with a data evaluation problem known as 'Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle' create biases in the fit of correlated data, and they have been addressed to reduce this phenomenon. The new evaluations of the cross section standards also include covariance matrices of the uncertainties that contain fully justifiable values. The product of this international effort has been adopted as the neutron standards for ENDF/B-VII.0.

57

Status and Value of International Standards for Nuclear Criticality Safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation provides an update to the author's standards report provided at the ICNC-2007 meeting. It includes a discussion about the difference between, and the value of participating in, the development of international 'consensus' standards as opposed to nonconsensus standards. Standards are developed for a myriad of reasons. Generally, standards represent an agreed upon, repeatable way of doing something as defined by an individual or group of people. They come in various types. Examples include personal, family, business, industrial, commercial, and regulatory such as military, community, state, federal, and international standards. Typically, national and international 'consensus' standards are developed by individuals and organizations of diverse backgrounds representing the subject matter users and developers of a service or product and other interested parties or organizations. Within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Technical Committee 85 (TC85) on nuclear energy, Subcommittee 5 (SC5) on nuclear fuel technology, there is a Working Group 8 (WG8) on standardization of calculations, procedures, and practices related to criticality safety. WG8 has developed, and is developing, ISO standards within the category of nuclear criticality safety of fissionable materials outside of reactors (i.e., nonreactor fissionable material nuclear fuel cycle facilities). Since the presentation of the ICNC-2007 report, WG8 has issued three new finalized international standards and is developing two more new standards. Nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards. The progression of consensus standards development among international partners in a collegial environment establishes a synergy of different concepts that broadens the perspectives of the members. This breadth of perspectives benefits the working group members in their considerations of consensus standards developments in their own countries. A testament to the value of the international standards efforts is that nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards and are mainly consistent with international ISO member domestic standards.

Hopper, Calvin Mitchell [ORNL

2011-01-01

58

Toward an international standard for PCR-based detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacters: Assay development and analytical validation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene were tested in all possible pairwise combinations, as well as two published primers targeting the 23S rRNA gene. A panel of 150 strains including target and nontarget strains was used in an in-house validation. Only one primer pair, OT1559 plus 18-1, was found to be selective. The inclusivity and exclusivity were 100 and 97%, respectively. In an attempt to find a thermostable DNA polymerase more resistant than Taq to PCR inhibitors present in chicken samples, three DNA polymerases were evaluated. The DNA polymerase Tth was not inhibited at a concentration of 2% (vol/vol) chicken carcass rinse, unlike both Taq DNA polymerase and DyNAzyme. Based on these results, Tth was selected as the most suitable enzymefor the assay. The standardized PCR test described shows potential for use in large-scale screening programs for food-borne Campylobacter species under the assay conditions specified.

Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Wolffs, P.

2003-01-01

59

International standards: their increased importance to the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent approval of the Multilateral Trade Negotiations Standards Code and subsequent U.S. Trade Agreements Act of 1979 have caused international standards to assume an increasingly important role in many countries. A review of these recent initiatives, and an explanation of how they will impact on the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, are presented here so that pathologists will understand the developments that are taking place on the national and international scenes. PMID:10246974

Edgerly, D E

1980-06-01

60

Toward an international standard for PCR-based detection of Escherichia coli O157 - Part 1. Assay development and multi-center validation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As part of a major European research project, a diagnostic PCR assay, including an internal amplification control, was developed and validated in a collaborative trial for the detection of Escherichia coli O157. The assay is based on amplification of sequences of the rJbE O157 gene. The collaborative trial, including 12 international laboratories, was carried out in two phases: phase (a) was performed with identical PCR reagents, including the internal control, provided by the sending laboratory; phase (b) was performed on the same samples and internal control but using in-house PCR reagents of own choice. Phase (a) showed an inclusivity (detection of target strains) of 96.8% and the exclusivity (negative response from nontarget strains) was 100%. The overall performance resulted of phase (a) in an accordance of 98.8, concordance of 98.6, and a concordance odds ratio of 1.11. Phase (b) results showed an accuracy of 100% with all partners and by using different polymerase types and thermocycler models. This indicates that the assay, under consideration as an international standard, was just as reproducible between laboratories, as repeatable within a laboratory. The assay is taken further for validation on carcass-rinse samples.

Abdulmawjood, A.; Bulte, M.

2003-01-01

61

National and international standards on nuclear waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on non-regulatory voluntary international standards developed in the area of radiation protection related nuclear waste problems by the International Standards Organization`s Technical Committee `Nuclear Energy` (ISO/TC 85), in particular its SC 5/WG 5 dealing with solid and solidified waste, relevant national standards in various countries, and the interaction between these categories, with an increasing trend towards internationalization. Together with examples for the progress which has been made so far, possible future trends and problems will also be briefly outlined. One of the key problems which appear to require attention is the cost level of nuclear waste programs, which is closely associated with the current, highly questionable assumptions about the risks associated with very low radiation doses. (orig.) [Deutsch] Angesichts der grossen wirtschaftlichen und politischen Bedeutung, welche die Fragen im Umfeld des radioaktiven Abfalls im Zusammenhang mit Rueckbau- und Sanierungsprojekten, Castortransporten oder Endlagern gewonnen haben, ueberrascht die relativ kleine Anzahl einschlaegiger Normen. Ohne auf das Radwass-Programm der IAEO einzugehen, gibt der Beitrag einen kurzen Ueberblick ueber die in den unterschiedlichen Laendern erarbeiteten Normen auf diesem Gebiet. Im Zusammenhang mit der Uebergabe der deutschen Sekretariatsfuehrung an Frankreich wird besonders auf die internationale Normung eingegangen, z.B. ISO/TC 85/SC 5/WC 5 `Radioaktive Abfaelle`, sowie die Wechselwirkungen zwischen nationalen und globalen Bemuehungen. Die Probleme und Tendenzen in Richtung Internationalisierung zeigen, dass als ein Hauptproblem die hohen volkswirtschaftlichen Kosten auf diesem Gebiet erkannt werden. (orig.)

Becker, K. [RSH Inc., Berlin (Germany)

1998-02-01

62

International Electrotechnical Commission standards and French material control standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are reported the international standards incorporated into the IEC Subcommitee 45 A (Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation) and the national standards elaborated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA, Group of normalized control equipment, the degree of application of those being reported on the base design, call of bids and exploitation of nuclear power plants. (J.E. de C)

63

Smart radiation monitors as per international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Nuclear Reactors and accelerators, a large number of radiation monitors, typically 50 or more networked Area gamma monitors and Neutron Monitors indicating ambient dose rate equivalent H(10) and Fluence are required for Health physics and radiation protection. ECIL has developed (with BARC support) and supplied various Monitors like Neutron REM Monitors (NRM100, NRM 200) to RRMD BARC, Area Gamma Monitor, Neutron Flux Monitor, to VECC for accelerator radiation safety and. Radiological protection cannot be assured without adhering to regulatory requirements and international standards relating to radiological protection instrumentation. NRM 200 has been developed as per guidelines mentioned in IEC 61005 complying with calibration requirements, EMC/EMI requirements, Statistical fluctuation in firmware, Environmental tests and seismic qualification. The NRM 100 is a Battery Powered portable version of the NRM200. The Instruments consist of BF3 Neutron Detector, mounted within the moderator and associated electronics consisting of Charge sensitive Pre-Amplifier and Amplifier circuit, Processing unit, Low Voltage Supply and High Voltage supply. The Dose Equivalent Rate is presented on Analog meter as well as on LCD in digital format. NRMs are featured to display Accumulated Dose, Settable Dose Equivalent Rate Alarm level, Isolated 4-20mA Current Output, and Isolated RS485 Communication. These Units are planned for accreditation at International labs also. (auteditation at International labs also. (author)

64

Developing standardized facility contingency plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Texaco consists of several operating departments that are, in effect, independent companies. Each of these departments is responsible for complying with all environmental laws and regulations. This includes the preparation by each facility to respond to an oil spill at that location. For larger spills, however, management of the response will rest with corporate regional response teams. Personnel from all departments make up the regional teams. In 1990, Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act. In 1991, the US Coast Guard began developing oil spill response contingency plan regulations, which they are still working on. Meanwhile, four of the five west coast states have also passed laws requiring contingency plans. (Only Hawaii has chosen to wait and see what the federal regulations will entail). Three of the states have already adopted regulations. Given these laws and regulations, along with its corporate structure, Texaco addressed the need to standardize local facility plans as well as its response organization. This paper discusses how, by working together, the Texaco corporate international oil spill response staff and the Texaco western region on-scene commander developed: A standard contingency plan format crossing corporate boundaries and meeting federal and state requirements. A response organization applicable to any size facility or spill. A strategy to sell the standard contingency plan and response organization to the operating unitse operating units

65

International environmental management standards (ISO 9000`s less tractable siblings)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Before the advent of ISO 9000 Quality Management standards, the International Organization for Standardization`s (ISO) nearly exclusive focus was on international technical and safety standards. Then, some ten years ago, this staid, Geneva based world standards harmonizer took a fateful step into a more exciting, through considerably less solid realm by impaneling a new technical committee (TC 176) to develop Quality Management standards for organizations. With that, it entered the relatively soft science of organizational management. This initial gamble paid off and resulted in the ISO 9000 series of Quality standards which have won adherents throughout the world and have (in some regions) become requirements of trade. Now, ISO has launched its second sally into the organizational management field by forming Technical Committee 207 to develop yet another set of management standards, this time focusing on the considerably less tractable subject of environmental protection activities within organizations.

Cascio, J.

1994-12-31

66

International Business Accounting Standardization and Hungarian Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. This paper showed that both businesses earnings and stock returns effect on the management turnover. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to adopt international accounting standards. Sensitivity of CEO turnover to accounting earnings increased after the adoption of international system. Businesses with higher leverage and lagged sales growth have more frequent employee layoffs. Standards user enterprises’ employee layoffs are more response to accounting performance in the post-adoption period.

Jeno Beke

2010-11-01

67

Business management by international accounting standards  

OpenAIRE

This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards - their contribution to harmonization and globalization by purposing and tasking for business management. The differences between the national accounting rules and the international standards are compared and valued inside and outside of the European Union. The empirical results of measuring and analyzing in details theirs pros and cons effects on the business environment by mathematical-statistical methods there could be ...

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

68

International Business Accounting Standardization and Hungarian Practice  

OpenAIRE

The goal of this study is to describe and summarize the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. This paper showed that both businesses ...

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

69

Standards: An international framework for nuclear safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA, uniquely among international organizations concerned with the use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy, has statutory functions to establish safety standards and to provide for their application in Member States. The IAEA also contributes towards another major element of the 'global safety culture', namely the establishment of legally binding international agreements on safety related issues. (author)

70

Radiation protection for personnel in international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Electrotechnical Commission' (IEC) Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' of the IEC produces International Standards defining the requirements to which the instrumentation used for the radiation protection must satisfy. The compliance to these requirements is a guaranty of the quality of the instrument, of its good performance in the nuclear environment. Type testing equipment to the recommendations and requirements of the standards also provides the equipment user with reliable and internationally acceptable performance data which they can use for the accurate interpretation and comparisons of their operational measurements

71

Improved nuclear safety through international standards  

Science.gov (United States)

In this shrinking world, what happens in an industry in one country can significantly affect the same industry elsewhere around the globe. In April 1986, a nuclear accident destroyed Unit 4 of Ukraine's Chernobyl nuclear power plant, focusing worldwide attention on the dozens of Soviet-designed reactors still in operation. The Chemobyl accident led to public concerns about all operating nuclear power plants and, in some countries (e.g., Italy and Sweden), to proposals for nationwide plant closures or moratoriums on new construction. However, for most former Soviet Union countries, plant shutdown was and still is not a viable option—the plants produce a significant percentage of each nation's total electricity, and those countries do not have sufficient economic resources to develop alternative power sources. In cooperation with similar programs initiated in Canada, Japan, and western European countries, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive effort to reduce risks at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants until they can be shut down or brought into compliance with international standards. This paper describes DOE-supported initiatives with participating host countries to: • improve reliability and accuracy of nondestructive evaluation equipment used for in-service inspection • transfer technologies and infrastructure to improve in-service inspections • enhance management systems for training and certifying host-country in-service inspection personnel The goal of these initiatives to enhance the use of international standards (ASME, ASNT, European Standards EN, and ISO) in operating and regulatory practices at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants.

Doctor, S. R.; Moffitt, R. L.; Taylor, T. T.; Trosman, G.

2000-05-01

72

Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization  

OpenAIRE

The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standard...

Jeno Beke

2011-01-01

73

Individualization: Future of Standardized School Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Standardized school development plays an important role in narrowing school gap and offering equal access to education. During implementation, however, educational authorities tend to fall into the trap of equal distribution of educational resources, centralized management and homogeneous education. It is essential and viable to individualize standardized schools with the benefits of favorable national policies and international precedents. Individualized school features flexible development, self-management, diversified evaluation system, and school structure where differentiation and equilibrium coexist.

Yuan ZOU

2014-12-01

74

Coordinate Standard Measurement Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Shelton Precision Interferometer Base, which is used for calibration of coordinate standards, was improved through hardware replacement, software geometry error correction, and reduction of vibration effects. Substantial increases in resolution and reliability, as well as reduction in sampling time, were achieved through hardware replacement; vibration effects were reduced substantially through modification of the machine component dampening and software routines; and the majority of the machine's geometry error was corrected through software geometry error correction. Because of these modifications, the uncertainty of coordinate standards calibrated on this device has been reduced dramatically.

Hanshaw, R.A.

2000-02-18

75

Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. The results of applied regression model support that the greater demand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to performance evaluations at more widely held by businesses stimulating to adopt international accounting standards. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to follow accounting standardization.
Key words: Business practice; Accounting standards; Standardization process; Management performances; Comparable research; Hungary

Jeno Beke

2010-12-01

76

International Financial Reporting Standards : Expanding Standards, Expanding Geographically, Expanding Literature  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range of educational texts covering IFRS within the context of a review of the progress of IFRS themselves.

Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

2011-01-01

77

The international development challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Markets are opening up to international competition and new opportunities will arise for companies. The first part of this international round table of the French gas association's annual conference was devoted to whether they have all necessary assets, especially in terms of know-how and new technologies. In the second part of this round table, gas industry leaders presented their ambitions and strategies on the international scene. The questions discussed related to the main areas of development from both business and geographic viewpoints; to the underlying factors such as expertise, technological know-how, market risks and potential, strategic alliances. (authors)

78

Renewal Through Internal Development  

OpenAIRE

The product portfolios of the west European and US economies are aging as their firms have not been able to develop new business in growth areas fast enough. This has lowered the growth rate of the Western economies. This is a study of major Swedish companies that have renewed their product portfolios by internal development. Some of the ventures have been developed into successful business areas, which have guaranteed the survival of the company, others have failed. The book include case stu...

Segelod, Esbjo?rn

1995-01-01

79

EPA STANDARDS NETWORK FACT SHEET: ISO 14000: INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS  

Science.gov (United States)

This flyer provides an overview of the ISO 14000 series of International standards, supplying a brief history, structure of the Technical Committee (TC) 207, structure of the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to ISO TC-207, status of the Standards development as of June 1997, w...

80

Standards development status. Summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Standards Development Status Summary Report is designed for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the process by which Regulatory Standards, Guides, Reports, Petitions, and Environmental Statements are written. It is a summary of the current schedule plans for development of the above products

81

Using Standards to Develop Student Learning Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical step in the professionalization of the field of leadership education (Komives, 2011) and the evolution of leadership as a field of study (International Leadership Association [ILA], 2009) is the development of best practices, standards of practice, and guidelines for assessment of quality in program delivery and accomplishment of…

Komives, Susan R.; Smedick, William

2012-01-01

82

Advancements in internationally accepted standards for radiation processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subcommittees of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) are developing standards on various aspects of radiation processing. Nine standards on how to select and calibrate dosimeters, where to put them, how many to use, and how to use individual types of dosimeter systems have been published. The group is also developing standards on how to use gamma, electron beam, and X-ray facilities for radiation processing, and a standard on how to treat dose uncertainties. Efforts are underway to promote inclusion of these standards into procedures now being developed by government agencies and by international groups such as the United Nations' International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in order to harmonize regulations and help avoid trade barriers. Standards on good irradiation practices for meat and poultry and for fresh fruits, and for the irradiation of seafood and spices have been developed. These food-related standards are based on practices previously published by ICGFI. Standards for determining doses for radiation hardness testing of electronics have been developed. Standards on the Fricke and TLD dosimetry systems are equally useful in other radiation processing applications. (Author)

83

Development and progress of Ireland's biobank network: Ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI), standardized documentation, sample and data release, and international perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James's Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents-Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups-Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media. PMID:24845249

Mee, Blanaid; Gaffney, Eoin; Glynn, Sharon A; Donatello, Simona; Carroll, Paul; Connolly, Elizabeth; Garrigle, Sarah Mc; Boyle, Terry; Flannery, Delia; Sullivan, Francis J; McCormick, Paul; Griffin, Mairead; Muldoon, Cian; Fay, Joanna; O'Grady, Tony; Kay, Elaine; Eustace, Joe; Burke, Louise; Sheikh, Asim A; Finn, Stephen; Flavin, Richard; Giles, Francis J

2013-02-01

84

Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James\\'s Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents—Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups—Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media.

Mee, Blanaid

2013-02-19

85

Contributions of non-governmental international organizations to nuclear standardization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of over 4700 nuclear and radiation protection standards, laws, regulations, recommendations, etc., which have been issued by 52 countries and several governmental international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (OECD/NEA) or the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), or non-governmental organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International Commission on Radiation Units (ICRU), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), more than 90% are national, and more than one-half of those of a non-regulatory nature. Both the number and importance of international standards are, however, increasing. The two most important non-governmental international standards organizations are the ISO, which founded the Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'' with several subcommittees in 1957, and the closely associated IEC with its TC 45 ''Nuclear Instrumentation'' formed in 1966. There are over 20 member countries actively participating in the work in each of them, with additional observer countries and liaisons to the other relevant international organizations such as the IAEA. A brief review is given of some of the experience which has been gained by ISO/TC 85 and IEC/TC 45, and its work programme and accomplishments, considering, in particular, recent developments during the October r, recent developments during the October 1988 Plenary Meetings of both IEC/TC 45 and ISO/TC 85. The paper covers nuclear safety and instrumentation, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as interface issues including definitions and terminology, interaction of the activities with the work of other national and international organizations, etc. Some problem areas are also briefly discussed. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

86

Thirty years of international nuclear standards in ISO and IEC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Of over 4700 nuclear and radiation protection standards, laws, regulations, recommendations, etc., which have been issued by 52 countries and several governmental international organizations such as IAEA, or non-government organizations such as ICRP, ICRU, ISO and IEC, more than 90% are national, and more than half of those of a non-regulatory nature. Both number and importance of international standards are, however, increasing. The two most important non-governmental international standards organizations are the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which founded a Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' with several Sub-Committees in 1957, and the closely associated International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) with its TC 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' formed in 1960. There are over 20 member countries actively participating in the work in each of them, with additional observer countries and liaison to the relevant other international organizations. A brief review is given on some of the experience which has been gained by ISO/TC 85 and IEC/TC 45, and its work program and accomplishments, considering in particular recent developments. It covers nuclear safety and instrumentation, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as interface issues including definitions and terminology, interaction of the activities with the work of other national and international bodies, etc. Some problem areas are also briefly discussed. (orig.).

Becker, K. (DIN German Nuclear Standard Committee, Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

1991-06-01

87

Thirty years of international nuclear standards in ISO and IEC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of over 4700 nuclear and radiation protection standards, laws, regulations, recommendations, etc., which have been issued by 52 countries and several governmental international organizations such as IAEA, or non-government organizations such as ICRP, ICRU, ISO and IEC, more than 90% are national, and more than half of those of a non-regulatory nature. Both number and importance of international standards are, however, increasing. The two most important non-governmental international standards organizations are the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which founded a Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' with several Sub-Committees in 1957, and the closely associated International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) with its TC 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' formed in 1960. There are over 20 member countries actively participating in the work in each of them, with additional observer countries and liaison to the relevant other international organizations. A brief review is given on some of the experience which has been gained by ISO/TC 85 and IEC/TC 45, and its work program and accomplishments, considering in particular recent developments. It covers nuclear safety and instrumentation, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as interface issues including definitions and terminology, interaction of the activities with the work of other national and international bodies, etc. Some problem areas are also briefly discussed. (orig.)as are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

88

The relationship between the new IIA Standards and the internal auditing profession  

OpenAIRE

The Institute of Internal Auditors is in the process of developing new standards for the internal auditing profession. The first set of these standards will be implemented with effect from 1 January 2002. The purpose of professional standards is to lay down the minimum requirements to be maintained for acceptable practice. In June 1999, a new formal definition of internal auditing was adopted to address relevant issues with which internal auditing is currently faced. Existing standards, when ...

Coetzee, G. P.; Du Bruyn, Rudrik

2001-01-01

89

Minimum quality standards and international trade  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which a domestic and a foreign firm are identical except that the foreign firm faces positive transport costs. Asymmetric information generates a market failure, which the government attempts to alleviate with a MQS. It is found that although firms face the exact same costs of compliance, they will generally prefer different levels of regulation. As a result, international trade disputes are likely to arise even when regulation is non-discriminating.

Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

2011-01-01

90

Recoilless fraction determination by internal standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Novel method of determination recoilless fraction in the transmission geometry is proposed. To avoid difficult problem of extraction of the non-resonant radiation, the ?-Fe reference was used as an internal standard for the intensity scale. In order to reduce correlations between parameters fitted to measured spectra, at least three standard measurements have to be carried out. The results of measurements performed on FeSi absorbers with thicknesses varying by more than one order of magnitude demonstrate that proposed procedure correctly reconstructs non-linear dependence of the intensity on the sample thickness.

91

Recoilless fraction determination by internal standard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Novel method of determination recoilless fraction in the transmission geometry is proposed. To avoid difficult problem of extraction of the non-resonant radiation, the {alpha}-Fe reference was used as an internal standard for the intensity scale. In order to reduce correlations between parameters fitted to measured spectra, at least three standard measurements have to be carried out. The results of measurements performed on FeSi absorbers with thicknesses varying by more than one order of magnitude demonstrate that proposed procedure correctly reconstructs non-linear dependence of the intensity on the sample thickness.

Szymanski, K., E-mail: kszym@alpha.uwb.edu.p [University of Bialystok, Faculty of Physics, Lipowa 41, 15-424 Bialystok (Poland); Dobrzynski, L. [University of Bialystok, Faculty of Physics, Lipowa 41, 15-424 Bialystok (Poland); The Soltan Institute of Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Satula, D.; Olszewski, W. [University of Bialystok, Faculty of Physics, Lipowa 41, 15-424 Bialystok (Poland)

2010-09-15

92

National and international radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

National and international technical codes and standards reflect the current state of teh art in technology. They are the result of careful work carried out jointly by experts of various bodies and organisations (as for instance public authorities, industry, research institutions, technical control boards, etc.), and are agreed upon after a complicated and well-proven procedure of consensus finding. This procedure is explained using as an example the following institutions: The DIN Deutsches Institut fuer Normung e.V., which has several standardization committees (for radiology, nuclear engineering, electrical engineering, etc.) and hitherto has set up some 120 radiation protection standards. The ISO Technical Committee 85, 'Nuclear Engineering', of which the sub-committee 2, 'Radiation Protection', consists of eight working groups including members of the Federal Republic of Germany. About 15 standardization projects are placed under the responsibility of this sub-committee. The Technical Committee 45 of IEC, which the sub-committee 45 B is elaborating standards for radiation protection measuring equipment. Most of these standards have been adopted as national DIN standards in the FRG. (orig./HP)

93

International Development Project Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This interdisciplinary classroom exercise from GreenApps at Red Rocks Community College presented by Mike Smith and Irina Strelnikova is designed for second year or experienced students in Water Quality technician programs. Each student is â??given insight into the needs for planning for an International Development project in water, wastewater, collection system, distribution system, or solid waste management.â?? Students are then required to pick from a list of locations to find development need and create a planning project. This site contains materials required, prerequisite skills necessary, and a breakdown of the activity by role.

Smith, Mike

94

The international basic safety standards (the BSS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA Safety Standard SS115: International Basic Safety Standards for the Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources was published in 1996. Following a review of the BSS in 2005-2006, the revision of SS115 started in 2007. The revision of the BSS was coordinated by a BSS Secretariat consisting of representatives of the IAEA, FAO, EC, ILO, UNEP, PAHO, WHO and NEA/OECD. The BSS takes into account the findings of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the 2007 recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP), the ICRP Statement on Radon that was issued in November 2009, and the ICRP Statement on Tissue Reactions that was released in May 2011. A draft of the revised BSS was submitted to the Member States of the IAEA and of the potential cosponsoring organizations in early 2010 for comment. More than 1500 comments were received. The BSS was approved by the IAEA Safety Standards Committees in late 2010, by the Commission on Safety Standards in May 2011, and by the IAEA Board of Governors on 12 September 2011. The presentation will focus on the main changes to the BSS from the 1996 edition, and on the key issues encountered during the revision of the BSS.

95

Standard English and the International Corpus of English.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the development and progress of an international corpus of English (ICE) containing a regional corpora sampling of the standard varieties of English in countries where it is a first language, and the national varieties in countries where it is an official additional language. (GLR)

Greenbaum, Sidney

1990-01-01

96

International Standards of Corporate Social Responsibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with internationally acknowledged standards and norms in the sphere of corporate socialresponsibility. It introduces the concept of social responsibility, the so-called triple-bottom line, in terms ofwhich the company focuses not only on the economic growth but it also takes into account environmental andsocial aspects of its business activities. The article presents five norms and standards which stem from the triplebottomline concept. The norms and standards are in the article briefly characterised, which is followed by theircomparison based on four previously stated criteria. The results of the comparison show that there is no suchnorm which would meet current company requirements.This paper resulted from contribution to a research project IGA FEM CULS 201011140057 "ModernManagement Approaches in the Field of Higher Education in the Czech Republic"

L. Stanislavská

2010-12-01

97

1998 Annual Study Report. New industry supporting type international standard development program (Comprehensive survey); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo (sogo chosa)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Summarized herein are results of the survey on a total of 13 themes for international standardization. These themes are for standardization of (1) color control, (2) securing interoperability between optical disk systems, (3) digital image processing for home digital electronic appliances, (4) securing interconnectability between home electronic information appliances, (5) production process systems, (6) testing and evaluation methods for fine ceramic materials for communications, (7) evaluation methods for high-temperature properties of new glass melts, (8) corrosion testing and evaluation methods for surface-treated steel plates, (9) testing and evaluation methods for high-purity titanium, (10) testing and evaluation methods for plastic optical fibers, (11) evaluation methods for high-strength, large-size steel pipe characteristics for superhigh-pressure natural gas pipelines, (12) methods for measuring mileage of hybrid electric vehicles, and (13) methods for determining recycle ratios of automobile components. This comprehensive survey also includes overseas trends for the standardization, establishment/expansion of the international standardization processes, and standardization for determining recycle ratios of home electric appliances. (NEDO)

NONE

1999-03-01

98

Internationally Standardized Cost Item Definitions for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) have agreed to jointly prepare and publish a standardized list of cost items and related definitions for decommissioning projects. Such a standardized list would facilitate communication, promote uniformity, and avoid inconsistency or contradiction of results or conclusions of cost evaluations for decommissioning projects carried out for specific purposes by different groups. Additionally, a standardized structure would also be a useful tool for more effective cost management. This paper describes actual work and result thus far

99

International standardization of instruments for neutron irradiation tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JMTR in JAEA and HANARO in KAERI are the foremost testing/research reactors in the world and these are expected to contribute to many nuclear fields. As a part of instrument development in irradiation field, information exchange of instruments started from 2010 under the cooperation agreements between KAERI and JAEA. The instruments developed in JMTR and HANARO are introduced and cooperation experiments as future plan are discussed for international standardization. (author)

100

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE  

OpenAIRE

Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports s...

Ana Mihei

2010-01-01

101

Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Non halogen nannen cable no shiken hoho kaihatsu narabini cable kikaku no kento  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As for halogen-free flame-retardant cables with high recyclability and safety (HFFR cables), the development is being promoted in many countries as a next generation cable. The standard of HFFR cables has been set up by some countries and groups in the U.S. and Europe, but the international standard has not yet been established independently. The purpose of this R and D is the development of a test method to appropriately evaluate the performance of HFFR cables and its standardization, and the proposal of the international standardization on common items of the cable standard. A study group was sent to the U.S. and Europe to investigate the development, application status and test methods of the HFFR cable overseas. The ion chromatography and FT-IR method were studied as methods to evaluate corrosivity/toxicity of the gases emitted in combustion. The performance of HFFR cables in Japan and abroad was also evaluated mainly by IEC standards. Further, considering the results of the overseas surveys, the structure and details of the international standard plan on HFFR cables were studied, and approaches to the international standardization were studied. 32 refs., 31 figs., 54 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

102

Standardization of information systems development processes and banking industry adaptations  

CERN Document Server

This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms of compliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards to determine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into system development and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected. Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classical Waterfall life cycle model. Each question is made up of guidance and suggestions from the international system development standards. To collect data, people from the information technology departments of three major banks in Turkey were interviewed. Results have been aggregated by examining the current process status of the three banks together. Problematic issues were identified using the international system development standards.

Tanrikulu, Zuhal

2011-01-01

103

International Standards on stability of digital prints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent uives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

104

International Development Association  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Development Association (IDA) is a program of the World bank, and since 1960 has aimed to help the very poorest countries, by "help[ing] people help themselves and their environment by providing resources, sharing knowledge, building capacity and forging partnerships in the public and private sectors." At the same time, the World Bank is working to engage in development that produces results, reform unsuccessful ways of operating, and secure capital resources. The most recent project, which visitors can find under "Projects & Operations" on the bottom half of the page, is additional funding of $326.775USD for construction of state feeder roads in Brazil. The project description, terms of the loan, and the contact at the World Bank are given. A recent project involving "Economic & Sector Work" is "Zambia - Impact Assessment of the Fertilizer Support Program: Analysis of Effectiveness and Efficiency". An official 87-page report on the project is available as a pdf file; related documents can also be found under the "Related Links" heading.

105

International breeder reactor development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For more than a decade, sodium cooled breeder reactors have now been in the focus of advanced nuclear power development in the major industrialized countries. In the sixties, a total of seven small experimental nuclear power stations were commissioned. Two of these have been shut down in the meantime, the others continue to work satisfactorily, their main purpose being the development of fuel elements. The years 1972-1974 saw the commissioning of the prototype power stations in the 300 MWe power category in France, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. Presently, other experimental reactors are under construction in the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the United States, plus another Soviet 600 MWe prototype reactor and the SNR 300 DeBeNeLux prototype at Kalkar. A comparison of the technological features either implemented or planned in the prototype and experimental power plants and of their fuel elements reveals a remarkable similarity in the basic concepts pursued in different countries. The two types of breeder reactors, viz. the loop and the pool types, show a closer resemblance to each other than do pressurized and boilling water reactors. The growing awareness of administrative problems emerging in the approaching phase of the introduction of large breeder power stations in a number of European countries has recently led to a streamlining effort in the structure of industries and to tentative steps towards international cooperation on a broad basisinternational cooperation on a broad basis. (orig.)

106

A perspective on the recent developments in international financial reporting  

OpenAIRE

The objective of the present paper is to provide a synopsis of the recent international financial reporting developments as well as to identify some of the related worldwide implications. The unprecedented joint activity of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and US Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has caused, in the last decade, a series of debates on whether or not International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) represent what is best of the international acco...

Dima, Stefana Maria; David, Delia

2010-01-01

107

International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography  

Science.gov (United States)

The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

2010-03-01

108

International standardization of nuclear reactor designs - the way forward  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of 'International Standardization of Nuclear Reactor Designs' means that vendors could build their designs in every country without having to adapt it specifically to national safety requirements. Such standardization would have two main effects. It would greatly facilitate nuclear new build worldwide by giving greater efficiency and certainty to the national licensing procedures; by taking into account the fact that vendors, and nowadays also utilities, are active across borders; by helping developing countries to establish their nuclear new build programmes; and by reducing the strain on human resources on both the regulators' and the industry's side. The second valuable effect of standardization would be to further enhance safety by improving the exchange of construction and operating experience among a number of reactors belonging to fleets of the same design. The World Nuclear Association's CORDEL (Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing) Group has developed a concept for implementation of international standardization of reactor designs. It has defined a number of steps to be taken by industry. At the same time, possibilities offered by national and international regulatory mechanisms would have to be fully made use of, and some changes in regulatory frameworks might be necessary. Some steps especially towards greater cooperation of regulators have already been taken; however, much still remains to be done. The concept of deploying stas to be done. The concept of deploying standardized reactor designs across a number of countries supposes an alignment and, if possible, harmonization of national safety standards; a streamlining of national licensing procedures, making them more efficient and predictable; and the willingness of national regulators to take into account licensing done in other countries. In the end, this should lead to a mutual acceptance of design approvals or, in a more distant future, even to a multinational design approval process. All in all, the concept of standardized reactor designs raises many challenges, but these will have to be tackled. (authors)

109

Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)  

Science.gov (United States)

A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

2011-01-01

110

Development of standard reference samples for diffractometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, samples of standard reference materials for diffractometry of polycrystals were developed. High-purity materials were submitted to mechanical and thermal treatments in order to present the adequate properties to be used as high-quality standard reference materials for powder diffraction, comparable to the internationally recognized produced by the USA National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST, but at lower costs. The characterization of the standard materials was performed by measurements in conventional X-ray diffraction diffractometers, high resolution neutron diffraction and high-resolution synchrotron diffraction. The lattice parameters were calculated by extrapolation of the values obtained from each X-ray reflection against cos2? by the Least-Squares Method. The adjustments were compared to the values obtained by the Rietveld Method, using program GSAS. The materials thus obtained were the ?-alumina, yttrium oxide, silicon, cerium oxide, lanthanum hexaboride and lithium fluoride. The standard reference materials produced present quality similar or, in some cases, superior to the standard reference materials produced and commercialized by the NIST. (author)

111

Vietnamese Accounting Reform and International Convergence of Vietnamese Accounting Standards  

OpenAIRE

Due to the economic globalization, the international convergence of accounting standards is inevitable. But thelevel of economic globalization in among of countries are not the same. There are some differences inaccounting environment in the countries. This paper studies international convergence of Vietnamese accountingstandards. Firstly, the paper summarizes of the process of Vietnam's accounting reform, second analysisdifferences between Vietnamese accounting standards and International ac...

AnhTuan Nguyen; Guangming Gong

2012-01-01

112

Updated comparison of international standards for polymer piping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Responding to a request by ASME B31 Committee, Code for Pressure Piping, to assist in the development of guidelines for establishing uniform manufacturing and design requirements for plastic piping, the Committee on Polymers for Pressure Components of the Pressure Vessel Research Council, initiated a literature survey and interpretive study on plastic piping. This paper discusses existing methods used for designing plastic piping systems and their components by comparing major international codes and standards. The study recognizes that thermoplastic and reinforces thermosetting resins require different design criteria. ASME standards reviewed include ASME B31.3, B31.1, RTP-1 and Section X of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes. Particular emphasis was given to ASME B31.3 Code for Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping. Chapter VII of the ASME B31.3 Code covers non-metallic piping and metallic piping lined with non-metals and establishes much of the design basis for non-metallic piping design covered in other Sections of the B31 Code. ASTM documents discussed are limited to those referenced in ASME B31. British Standard Code for glass reinforced plastics piping system, BS7159, as well as, the German standard for thermoplastic piping systems DVS2210 were used for comparison to U.S. Standards. A cursory review of other standards is also included for the development of a uniform industry standard for plastic piping systems. (authors). (authors)

113

The natural gas trade and international quality standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The natural gas trade will not become easier to understand in the years to come. The number of suppliers inside and outside Europe is increasing rapidly. In order to guarantee the reliability of the gas supply, good quality standards and standardized measuring methods are indispensable. Collaborating with organizations in many countries, the International Standardization Organization (ISO) has been working on a set of international standards in this field since 1989. The most important standards are nearly finished

114

Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective  

OpenAIRE

Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James's Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents—Patient Consent Policy, P...

Mee, Blanaid; Gaffney, Eoin; Glynn, Sharon A.; Donatello, Simona; Carroll, Paul; Connolly, Elizabeth; Mc Garrigle, Sarah; Boyle, Terry; Flannery, Delia; Sullivan, Francis J.; Mccormick, Paul; Griffin, Mairead; Muldoon, Cian; Fay, Joanna; O Grady, Tony

2013-01-01

115

Development and Validation of an Internationally-Standardized, High-Resolution Capillary Gel-Based Electrophoresis PCR-Ribotyping Protocol for Clostridium difficile  

Science.gov (United States)

PCR-ribotyping has been adopted in many laboratories as the method of choice for C. difficile typing and surveillance. However, issues with the conventional agarose gel-based technique, including inter-laboratory variation and interpretation of banding patterns have impeded progress. The method has recently been adapted to incorporate high-resolution capillary gel-based electrophoresis (CE-ribotyping), so improving discrimination, accuracy and reproducibility. However, reports to date have all represented single-centre studies and inter-laboratory variability has not been formally measured or assessed. Here, we achieved in a multi-centre setting a high level of reproducibility, accuracy and portability associated with a consensus CE-ribotyping protocol. Local databases were built at four participating laboratories using a distributed set of 70 known PCR-ribotypes. A panel of 50 isolates and 60 electronic profiles (blinded and randomized) were distributed to each testing centre for PCR-ribotype identification based on local databases generated using the standard set of 70 PCR-ribotypes, and the performance of the consensus protocol assessed. A maximum standard deviation of only ±3.8bp was recorded in individual fragment sizes, and PCR-ribotypes from 98.2% of anonymised strains were successfully discriminated across four ribotyping centres spanning Europe and North America (98.8% after analysing discrepancies). Consensus CE-ribotyping increases comparability of typing data between centres and thereby facilitates the rapid and accurate transfer of standardized typing data to support future national and international C. difficile surveillance programs. PMID:25679978

Fawley, Warren N.; Knetsch, C. W.; MacCannell, Duncan R.; Harmanus, Celine; Du, Tim; Mulvey, Michael R.; Paulick, Ashley; Anderson, Lydia; Kuijper, E. J.; Wilcox, Mark H.

2015-01-01

116

International implications of nuclear Q.A. standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work of the International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) in the field of Quality Assurance is aimed at preparing a Code of Practice covering recommendations on safety aspects only which is designed to be usable by all nations. This Code is followed up by a series of Safety Guides as aids to developing nations faced with the need to regulate and assure safety, reliability and quality. The I.A.E.A. Code is not written as a mandatory document and it can only recommend and therefore the term 'should' is used throughout. The International Organization for Standardization (I.S.O.) is concerned with producing standards and as such the proposed I.S.O. draft standard on 'Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants' is written in mandatory language, it uses the word 'shall'. The I.S.O. standard will also cover not only safety aspects but also those of a successfully operating nuclear power plant. The I.S.O. Working Group is charged with producing standards on quality assurance covering the design, procurement, fabrication, construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning of structure, systems and components of nuclear power plants. The work of both organizations is discussed briefly. (author)

117

Constitutionalism Without Governance : International Standards in the Afghan Legal System  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There has been a lot of attention in recent years about improving the quality of legal systems in overseas jurisdictions. This is reflected in the growing proportion of rule of law components in development assistance and, especially, in post-conflict stabilisation missions. External actors endeavour to strengthen the role of international legal standards in the courts and, more broadly, the political life of societies emerging from violent conflict. Virtually all stabilisation missions contain today important rule of law components, a shift in emphasis that is mirrored in bilateral financial assistance. The international engagement in Afghanistan since December 2001 has been no exception, having placed a heavy emphasis on introducing international legal norms into the Afghan legal and political system.

Afsah, Ebrahim

2012-01-01

118

Pioneering of Schools with International Standard to Respond the Globalization  

OpenAIRE

In order to meet respond the challenges of globalization Indonesia Government held a Pioneering of Schools with International Standard (RSBI). As an international standard schools pilot, these schools prepared gradually through the guidance by government and stakeholders. Within a certain period of four years it is expected that the schools is able to fulfill and meet the criteria of Schools with International Standard (SBI). Actually, in it’s implementation, RSBI faces many challenges, amo...

Ipnugraha Ipnugraha

2013-01-01

119

Development of an Internal Control for Evaluation and Standardization of a Quantitative PCR Assay for Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Drinking Water?  

OpenAIRE

Due to metabolic and morphological changes that can prevent Helicobacter pylori cells in water from growing on conventional media, an H. pylori-specific TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was developed that uses a 6-carboxyfluorescein-labeled probe (A. E. McDaniels, L. Wymer, C. Rankin, and R. Haugland, Water Res. 39:4808-4816, 2005). However, proper internal controls are needed to provide an accurate estimate of low numbers of H. pylori in drinking water. In this study, the 135-bp amplicon...

Sen, Keya; Schable, Nancy A.; Lye, Dennis J.

2007-01-01

120

International Migration and Human Development  

OpenAIRE

This paper reviews the relationship between international migration and human development. First, it reviews what we know about the factors that drive migration from developing to developed countries. Second, it reviews existing knowledge about the impact of international migration and remittances on the economic and human development of migrants’ source countries. These first two sections of the paper are accompanied by an assessment of the gaps in our knowledge that need to...

Yang, Dean

2009-01-01

121

International safety standards for radioactive waste management and decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (the Agency) is mandated to develop safety standards for nuclear, radiation, waste and transport safety. With the entry into force of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, internationally endorsed safety standards for waste management safety and decommissioning take on a more significant role. The safety standards are made up of fundamental principles, applicable to all waste management activities and facilities, safety requirements for particular facilities and activities and safety guides on compliance with the requirements. Radioactive waste from all types of nuclear activities or applications needs to be managed safely in the period before it is finally disposed of. Experience exists in this area, and procedures for safe pre-disposal management are well established in most areas. Nevertheless, there are a number of safety related issues that require attention, namely, the processing of legacy waste, the safety implications of longer storage of radioactive waste when repositories are not available or are built in a way that allows waste retrieval, the need for improved characterization and quality assurance of waste, the adoption of holistic national strategies for waste management and the assessment and demonstration of safety of predisposal waste management activities and facilities. The Agency is establishing safety standards covering the activities and fty standards covering the activities and facilities of pre-disposal radioactive waste management in which these safety issues are being addressed. Recognising the developments taking place around the world in the area of geological disposal, the Member States of the Agency agreed that the process of developing safety standards for these facilities should be accelerated. The safety requirements for geological disposal are now published and guidance on compliance is under development. Effluent discharges have the potential to cause national and transboundary impacts on people and the environment, and it is therefore important that internationally agreed standards and procedures are in place to control them - guidance on radioactive discharge control, e.g. setting discharge limits and continuing review of national and international trends is under implementation. IAEA safety standards provide guidance reflecting prevailing best practice and coherent with contemporary radiation protection principles and IAEA safety requirements, on the strategy of monitoring in relation to: (a) control of radionuclide discharges under practice conditions, and (b) intervention. IAEA Standards on monitoring cover three categories of monitoring: monitoring at the source of the discharge (source monitoring), monitoring in the environment (environmental monitoring) and monitoring of individual exposure in emergencies (individual monitoring). General guidance is also provided on assessment of the doses to critical groups of the population due to the presence of radioactive materials or radiation fields in the environment both from practice and from intervention activities. Decommissioning of a wide range of facilities using radioactive material (from nuclear power plants to small research laboratories) is increasing worldwide. In view of the increasing importance of decommissioning in Member States, a specific high level safety standard (a Safety Requirement) has been developed on the safety of decommissioning that provides a focal point for the subject. Existing guidance is under review to ensure consistency with the new Safety Requirements. The paper elaborates on the safety standards for waste management and decommissioning, their development process and their role in the global nuclear safety regime. (author)

122

Development of strategies and sustainability standards for the certification of biomass for international trade. Sustainable bioenergy: current status and outlook; Entwicklung von Strategien und Nachhaltigkeitsstandards zur Zertifizierung von Biomasse fuer den internationalen Handel. Nachhaltige Bioenergie - Stand und Ausblick  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since Summer 2007, Oeko-Institut (Institute for Applied Ecology) and IFEU (Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, a non-profit limited liability company, Heidelberg) are carrying out the project ''Development of Strategies and Sustainability Standards for the Certification of Biomass for International Trade (Bio-global)'' on behalf of Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Agency). The study is based on the fact that the production of renewable raw materials (biomass) and their application range are significantly increasing at present as a result of ambitious growth objectives adopted in Germany, the EU, the U.S., as well as several developing countries. Low-cost imports from third countries are leading to a steady rise in global trade with biogenic resources and energy carriers. This development results in conflicts between ecological and social objectives which might counteract the political efforts to protect the climate, biodiversity and resources - not only in Europe, but also at the international level. For this reason, viable, internationally negotiable strategies and instruments have to be developed in order to avoid or at least significantly reduce potential conflicts of objectives of increasing biomass use. The project is based on current research and is aimed at working out concrete proposals for standards and certification systems and their implementation at the national, European and global level in a dialog with relevant stakeholders as an input to international processes. Furthermore, ongoing national policy consulting as well as participation in and organization of national, European and international conferences and workshops are issues covered by the project team. The present report summarizes the project results achieved so far in different subjectrelated chapters: - Which international strategy holds promise for globally sustainable biomass (Chapter 2)? - What is the balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from bioenergy with respect to possible land use changes (Chapter 3)? - How can negative effects of biomass cultivation on biodiversity be successfully reduced (Chapter 4)? - What are the effects of bioenergy on the resource of water (Chapter 5)? - What is the potential of unused areas (Chapter 6)? - How does global biomass trade develop, and what are legal framework conditions of such trade (Chapter 7)? - Are sustainability standards for bioenergy the right answer (Chapter 8)? Chapter 9 provides a short outlook on further work to be carried out until the end of 2009. The Annex gives important abbreviations, strategy issues and working hypotheses as well as information on international cooperation and representation of the project, and finally a list of available working papers. (orig.)

Fritsche, Uwe R.; Hennenberg, Klaus J.; Hermann, Andreas; Huenecke, Katja; Schulze, Falk; Wiegmann, Kirsten [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Darmstadt (Germany); Fehrenbach, Horst; Roth, Elvira; Hennecke, Anna; Giegrich, Juergen [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

2009-03-15

123

International standardization of nuclear reactor designs: the way forward  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of international standardization of nuclear reactor designs means that vendors could built their designs in every country without having to adapt it specifically to national safety requirements. Such standardization would have 2 main effects: first it would ease the construction of new plants and secondly it would enhance safety by improving feedback experience on reactors belonging to fleets of the same design. The world nuclear association's CORDEL (Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing) group has developed a concept for the implementation of an international standardization of reactor designs. CORDEL proposes a three-phase approach. In the first phase, regulators when reviewing an application, have to make use of the assessment work already performed by another regulator. The second phase aims at taking over a design approval issued by a foreign regulator. This taking-over procedure could be considered as a validation. The third phase, there would be a comprehensive international design certification, issued by a team of regulators and this certification would be immediately applicable in all participating countries. (A.C.)

124

On the Construction of China’s Accounting Standard System with International Convergence in Accounting Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the international convergence of accounting standards becoming an irresistible trend, China’s new businessaccounting standards have reached substantive convergence with International Financial Report Standards(IFRS. However, due to some factors including economy, law and culture, there is still a narrow gap betweenchina’s accounting standards and IFRS. In order to further keep up with IFRS, China should attach greaterimportance to learning from it to establish or implement its accounting standards.

Hongman Zhang

2010-03-01

125

SOLVIT AND EU INTERNAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Even though we are in full crisis period, Europeans live in their countries in wonderful places in terms of security, health and wellbeing. As shown by the Human Development Index (HDI, conducted by UN Development Program (UNDP which includes indicators such as life expectancy, literacy, education and standard of living, Europeans have the highest standards on the planet. Six of the ten most developed countries in the world are in Europe. EU assistance and advice services are accessed by the European citizens to find concrete answers and solutions to the problems they face on the European internal market.

EMILIAN M. DOBRESCU

2014-05-01

126

[Development of the HbA1c international standardization of HbA1c measurement in Japan Diabetes Society].  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Expert Committee recommends the use of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in diagnosing diabetes mellitus based on updated evidence indicating that HbA1c has several advantages as a marker of chronic hyperglycemia. The Japan Diabetes Society (JDS) has also decided to use HbA1c as one of the criteria of diabetes mellitus after extensive discussion. In this case, however, JDS values are about 0.4% lower than those of NGSP values, which are the global standard, although measurements of HbAlc in Japan are well calibrated with certified serial reference materials from Lot 1 to Lot 4 using a high resolution ion-exchange HPLC method (KO500) and designated comparison method (DCM). The new diagnosis criteria of diabetes mellitus using HbA1c (JDS) > or = 6.1%, which is comparable to NGSP 6.5% was introduced on July 1, 2010. On October 1, 2011, the Reference Material Institute for Clinical Chemistry Standards (ReCCS, Kanagawa, Japan) became certified as an Asian Secondary Reference Laboratory (ASRL) using the KO500 method and the reference materials JCCRM411-2 (JDS Lot 4) after successful completion of NGSP network laboratory certification. Thus, on April 1, 2012, we officially started to use NGSP instead ofJDS values, although the expressions of both NGSP and JDS are used to prevent misunderstanding of the results, for at least certain duration. Finally, on April 1, 2013, HbA1c began to be expressed as NGSP (%) in not only clinical practice but also national specified health checkup systems, and NGSP (%) or IFCC (mmol/mol) or both are used in publications. PMID:24205699

Kashiwagi, Atsunori

2013-07-01

127

The new international standard ISO 14001: 2004 environmental management system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ISO 14001 is one standard in the ISO 14000 series of standards developed by International Organization of Standardization (ISO). Since it was published in 19096, it has rapidly become the most important environmental standard in the world. ISO 14001 is an environmental management system (EMS) that can be classified into environmental technologies provides a systematic procedure to all kind of organizations to prevent pollutions, protect environment and to improve their overall environmental performance. This new standard ISO 14001 2004 was published on November 15, 2004. It cancels and replaced the old ISO 14001-1996. Because the important of the previous standard for our local industries, firms, ...etc, this paper presents ISO 14001 concepts, issues, benefits and focuses on the stages of implementation to achieve ISO 14001-2004 certification which includes general requirements environmental policy, planning (objectives, targets ..), implementation and operations, checking and management review ...etc and presents how to apply isotop time saver software to design records, and to save time to implement ISO 14001 2004 and finally a conclusion is provided.(Author)

128

Development of standards for practical superconductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The program to develop standard measurement practices for practical superconductors includes the generation of uniform definitions of terms, the development of standard measurement techniques, and comparisons of these measurements using standard reference materials. The initial sets of definitions have been published and their development is described. The progress in the development of standard measurement techniques for critical current, transient losses and critical temperature is discussed. The different techniques are compared, and the experimental parameters which may be carefully controlled are enumerated

129

Performance standards for teachers supporting nursing students' reflection skills development  

OpenAIRE

How can nursing teachers improve students’ reflection skills? In the study performance standards for teachers were developed and validated. A ten-step procedure was followed to ensure procedural and internal validity. National competences and specific content standards for supporting nursing reflection skills development formed the foundation of a preliminary rubric framework which was piloted. Forty participants from six nursing institutes judged the developed rubric framework of eight com...

Agaath Dekker- Groen

2012-01-01

130

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

Ana Mihei

2010-12-01

131

On the Construction of China’s Accounting Standard System with International Convergence in Accounting Standards  

OpenAIRE

With the international convergence of accounting standards becoming an irresistible trend, China’s new businessaccounting standards have reached substantive convergence with International Financial Report Standards(IFRS). However, due to some factors including economy, law and culture, there is still a narrow gap betweenchina’s accounting standards and IFRS. In order to further keep up with IFRS, China should attach greaterimportance to learning from it to establish or implement its accou...

Hongman Zhang; Xianfeng Liu

2010-01-01

132

Variable and constant internal standard in X-ray spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The addition of an internal standard to the standards and unknown samples is a well known method of reduction of the interelement effects. Two equations for variable and constant internal standards are theoretically derived and successfully tested with measuring results. They are valid for net and gross intensities. A comparison with a formerly published equation for net intensities resulted in nearly the same efficiency of both equations. (orig.)

133

Environmental Accounting and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)  

OpenAIRE

As financial globalization proceeds, international financial reporting and auditing standards are increasinglybecoming important instruments of integration. This has been observed in both the London and Pittsburgsummits of the G20 leaders in 2009. The G20 leaders reinforced the influence of International FinancialReporting Standards (IFRS) in that they called for the implementation of global accounting standards by 2011.By the end of 2008, there were over 100 countries that had adopted IFRS. ...

Ca, Mohammad Firoz; Aziz Ansari, A.

2010-01-01

134

International comparison of standard-materials. 4. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present manual the metallic materials standardized in the highly developed industrial countries of the world and by regional and international standards bodies are compared with the German materials standardized in DIN or the Steel Iron Material Sheets (StEWb1.). The indication of chemical composition and mechanical properties also allows to compare materials of other countries with one another, even if the categories of equivalence indicated only refer to the basis of the German materials. Through a comprehensive list of all short designations or steel grades indicating the corresponding pages and the relevant standards, a quik identificatin of material indications in the drawings is possible. Where the information contained in this manual about the individual materials is not sufficient, it will be possible to procure the corresponding material standard. This issue contains the material groups steel and iron for the applications in automobile, machinery, equipment and vessel production, in the electrical and chemical industries. Boiler plates (plates and strips in heat-resisting steel) according to DIN 17155 have not been dealt with, because the comparability does not dependend on the physical properties e.g. tensile strength, welding performance, bending strength brittle fracture behaviour etc., but additional instructions for equipment to be supervised have to be observed (in Germany, these are TRD, TRG and TRB). (orig./MM)rig./MM)

135

Standard Setting to an International Reference Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard setting theory has largely developed with reference to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with international reference frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…

Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.

2013-01-01

136

THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS IN FIELDS OF APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY  

OpenAIRE

According International Classification for Standards (ICS) Application of Information Technology is ranged in frame of group ICS=35.240, with 280 ISO or ISO/IEC and 45 IEC standards. In the paper is presented analysis of ISO, ISO/IEC and IEC standards for Application of Information Technology and structure Technical Committee (TC) for fields of Information Technology

Dasic, Predrag; Micic, Zivadin

2012-01-01

137

National and international standards and calibration of thermoluminescence dosimetry systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection for radiation workers, the public, and the environment is of international concern. The use of thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) is an acceptable method for dose recording in most countries. For reasons of consistency and data gathering (research) it is important that a Sievert (Sv) in one part of the world equals an Sv on the other side of the globe. To this end, much work has gone into the development of standards and calibration practices for TLD systems so that they compare not only with similar systems, but also with other forms of radiation measurement. While most national laboratories provide calibration services for these systems some, as in the United States, depend on services of secondary calibration laboratories that are traceable to the national laboratories through accreditation programmes. The purpose of this paper is to explain how TLD measurements are traceable to their respective national standards for both personnel and environmental dosimetry. (author)

138

Nuclear standards programme of ISO. [International Organization for Standardization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article contains a short presentation of the ISO, with emphasis on the programme of its Technical Committee 85 ''Nuclear Energy'', which is responsible for world-wide standardization in the nuclear field. The five sub-committees (Terminology, definitions, units and symbols; Radiation Protection; Power Reactor Technology; Radioactive Sources; Nuclear Fuel Technology) and their most important achievements are presented. The cooperation with IAEA is also emphasized.

Becker, K. (International Organization for Standardization, Nuclear Energy Committee, Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

1983-09-01

139

Pioneering of Schools with International Standard to Respond the Globalization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to meet respond the challenges of globalization Indonesia Government held a Pioneering of Schools with International Standard (RSBI. As an international standard schools pilot, these schools prepared gradually through the guidance by government and stakeholders. Within a certain period of four years it is expected that the schools is able to fulfill and meet the criteria of Schools with International Standard (SBI. Actually, in it’s implementation, RSBI faces many challenges, among others, were expensive anda require modern infrastructure, require a qualified teacher, SBI criteria and English implementation in education not yet possessed constitutional base. With RSBI it will form a national school with national education standards that have international quality and its graduates are able to compete internationally

Ipnugraha Ipnugraha

2013-01-01

140

Nuclear Data Center International Standard Towards TSO Initiative  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear Data Center is the main facility for Nuclear Malaysia Agency IT infrastructure comprising of main critical servers, research and operational data storage, HPC-clusters system and vital network core equipment. In recent years, international body such as TIA-Telecommunication Industry Association and Up time Institute have came out with proper international data center standards in order to ensure data center operation on achieving maximum operational up time and minimal downtime. The standard are currently being rated as tier level ranging from Data Center tier I up to tier IV, differentiate by facility standard and up time/ downtime percentage ratio. This paper will discuss Nuclear Data Center adopting international standards in supporting Nuclear Malaysia TSO initiative thus ensuring the critical core component of agency IT services availability and further more International standard recognitions. (author)

141

An international standard for observation data  

Science.gov (United States)

A generic information model for observations and related features supports data exchange both within and between different scientific and technical communities. Observations and Measurements (O&M) formalizes a neutral terminology for observation data and metadata. It was based on a model developed for medical observations, and draws on experience from geology and mineral exploration, in-situ monitoring, remote sensing, intelligence, biodiversity studies, ocean observations and climate simulations. Hundreds of current deployments of Sensor Observation Services (SOS), covering multiple disciplines, provide validation of the O&M model. A W3C Incubator group on 'Semantic Sensor Networks' is now using O&M as one of the bases for development of a formal ontology for sensor networks. O&M defines the information describing observation acts and their results, including the following key terms: observation, result, observed-property, feature-of-interest, procedure, phenomenon-time, and result-time. The model separates of the (meta-)data associated with the observation procedure, the observed feature, and the observation event itself. Observation results may take various forms, including scalar quantities, categories, vectors, grids, or any data structure required to represent the value of some property of some observed feature. O&M follows the ISO/TC 211 General Feature Model so non-geometric properties must be associated with typed feature instances. This requires formalization of information that may be trivial when working within some earth-science sub-disciplines (e.g. temperature, pressure etc. are associated with the atmosphere or ocean, and not just a location) but is critical to cross-disciplinary applications. It also allows the same structure and terminology to be used for in-situ, ex-situ and remote sensing observations, as well as for simulations. For example: a stream level observation is an in-situ monitoring application where the feature-of-interest is a reach, the observed property is water-level, and the result is a time-series of heights; stream quality is usually determined by ex-situ observation where the feature-of-interest is a specimen that is recovered from the stream, the observed property is water-quality, and the result is a set of measures of various parameters, or an assessment derived from these; on the other hand, distribution of surface temperature of a water body is typically determined through remote-sensing, where at observation time the procedure is located distant from the feature-of-interest, and the result is an image or grid. Observations usually involve sampling of an ultimate feature-of-interest. In the environmental sciences common sampling strategies are used. Spatial sampling is classified primarily by topological dimension (point, curve, surface, volume) and is supported by standard processing and visualisation tools. Specimens are used for ex-situ processing in most disciplines. Sampling features are often part of complexes (e.g. specimens are sub-divided; specimens are retrieved from points along a transect; sections are taken across tracts), so relationships between instances must be recorded. And observational campaigns involve collections of sampling features. The sampling feature model is a core part of O&M, and application experience has shown that describing the relationships between sampling features and observations is generally critical to successful use of the model. O&M was developed through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) as part of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative. Other SWE standards include SensorML, SOS, Sensor Planning Service (SPS). The OGC O&M standard (Version 1) had two parts: part 1 describes observation events, and part 2 provides a schema sampling features. A revised version of O&M (Version 2) is to be published in a single document as ISO 19156. O&M Version 1 included an XML encoding for data exchange, which is used as the payload for SOS responses. The new version will provide a UML model only. Since an XML

Cox, Simon

2010-05-01

142

CSNI International standard problems (ISP). Brief descriptions (1975-1999)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last twenty-five years the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored a considerable number of international activities to promote the exchange of experience between its Member countries in the use of nuclear safety codes and testing materials. A primary goal of these activities is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. International Standard Problems (ISPs) exercises are comparative exercises in which predictions or recalculations of a given physical problem with different best-estimate computer code are compared with each other and above all with the results of a carefully specified experimental study. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. In an open Standard Problem exercise the results of the experiment are available to the participants before performing the calculations, while in a blind Standard Problem exercise the experimental results are locked until the calculation results are made available for comparison. The CSNI-promoted ISP activity started in the early 70's and is still underway. Parallel to other national and international programs the CSNI has sponsored over more than 25 years forty-seven International Standard Problem exercises. This program has been focused mainly on the applicability of large thermal-hydraulic code systems simulating the behaviour of nuclear coolant and containment systems, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, hydrogen distribution, core-concrete interactions and fission product release and transport. One ISP exercise was organised in connection with a seismic ultimate dynamic response test. ISP exercises have proven to be very valuable to participating countries. They have been fruitful to identify code application problems and to amplify the contacts between the experimental and analytical working communities on an international level. Moreover, they enable code users to improve their ability, gain experience and demonstrate their competence. Technical proposals originating from laboratories in 13 countries were submitted and adopted serving as experimental background for the international activity. An activity complementary to the ISP programme but not directly related to it is the establishment of comprehensive sets of experimental data for use in validating proper code application by experts other than code developers. Known as a Code Validation Matrix, the results of such an extensive list of experiments are collected and stored in the NEA Data Bank for the purpose that they be made available to Member countries wishing to validate relevant codes. ISP tests are important elements of validation matrices for thermal-hydraulic codes. In the field of containment behaviour it has been recommended to preferably base a general code validation matrix on containment-related ISPs as well. The way of organizing ISP exercises has been described in CSNI Report No. 17, CSNI Standard Problem Procedures, revised for the third time in November 1989. The following report in some detail summarises the main objectives, the underlying experimental background and the main findings and conclusions of the ISPs to provide interested groups an overview on the accumulated experience in this matter. The document, which has been reviewed by members of CSNI's Principal Working on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2) and Principal Working on Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases (PWG4), summarises systematically the main features of all International Standard Problem exercises organised so far, from ISP-1 to ISP-43, namely: - Objectives of the ISP; - Brief Description of the Facility; - Scaling Information; - Parameters Offered for Comparison; - Dominating Experimental Uncertainties; - Findings; - Recommendations; - Total Duration of the ISP exercise; - Participation; - CSNI Report Reference

143

FY 1999 Report on the technical results. Research and development project for quick-effect type international standards for creating new industries (Standardization of quality and testing methods of automobile fuels and lubricants); 1999 nendo sokkogata kokusai hyojun sosei kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Jidoshayo nenryo nado no seihin hinshitsu shiken hoho no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research and development project is conducted for the method of evaluating the effects of fuel oils on automobile engines (combustion chamber deposit), testing of valve trains of diesel engines, and testing the effects of gasoline engine oil on oil seal rubber (oil seal compatibility), with the objective to propose the international standards. In the study of the combustion chamber deposit, the combustion chamber deposit method is applied to the road running mode, to clarify that this method is well correlated with the market conditions. In the study of wear of the valve train of diesel engines, the two diesel engine oils, now adopted by the European valve train wear testing method, are applied to the JASO testing method, to clarify that the JASO method is internationally applicable. It is concluded that these two methods can contribute to the international standardization. In the study of the oil seal compatibility, the effects of testing period and engine oil type are investigated, to clarify that this method should be further developed to serve as the international standard. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

144

Development of clinical practice standards for nurses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing, with leadership from the American Nurses Association (ANA), has a long-standing commitment to the development of standards. The first nursing practice standards were published in 1973. Since that time, both the ANA and specialty nursing organizations have developed standards. However, the proliferation of standards, reflecting a wide divergence of intent, format, and scope, has limited their usefulness. In 1989, the ANA appointed a Task Force (now a Committee) to address this issue. The Committee, working with representatives of the specialty nursing organizations, has developed a framework for development of both nursing practice standards and guidelines. Standards and guidelines are defined and differentiated. The relationship of standard and guidelines development to the federal government's effectiveness initiative is discussed. PMID:1824446

Taylor, J W

1991-01-01

145

International evaluation of neutron cross-section standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron cross-section standards are important in the valid measurement and evaluation of all other neutron reaction cross-sections. Not many cross-sections can be defined as absolute - most cross-sections are measured relative to the cross-section standards for normalization to absolute values. Previous evaluations of the neutron cross-section standards were completed in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B standards. R matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least squares fits for the heavy elements were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross-sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The experimental database prepared by Poenitz included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. GMA is a least squares code developed by Poenitz to fit all types of cross section (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum averaged cross-sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. Unfortunately, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987.ase in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by experts for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross-section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise experimental data and developments in the methodology of analysis and evaluation. An IAEA consultants meeting was held in 2001 to consider the major tasks to be undertaken in order to improve the 1987 standards evaluation. The recommendation to formulate an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) entitled Improvement of Standards Cross-Sections for Light Elements was strongly endorsed by the International Nuclear Data Committee (technical advisory body to the IAEA), and this project was initiated in 2002. The main objective was to study and determine the reasons leading to the significant reduction in the uncertainties as derived by the R matrix model fits of the data. Three research coordination meetings were held between 2002 and 2004, and the scope of the CRP was substantially extended through debate in 2003 with the inclusion of tasks to evaluate the cross-section standards for heavy elements. The evaluations of the neutron cross-section standards were finalized in October 2005. Previous difficulties experienced with a data evaluation problem known as Peelle's pertinent puzzle create biases in the fit of correlated data, and have been addressed to reduce this phenomenon. The new evaluations of the cross-section standards also include covariance matrices of the uncertainties that contain fully justifiable values. Significant contributions to the experimental database were made by participants of Subgroup 7 of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation WPEC). Furthermore, the evaluations could not have been carried out without access to the original GMA database and related computer codes given to the IAEA by the US Cross Section Evaluation Working Group CSEWG). The IAEA officer responsible for this report was A.L. Nichols of the Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences

146

International accounting standardization : the institutional legitimacy of a private standards setters  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this paper is to analyse the sources of legitimacy of the producing organizations of accounting standards. Firstly, we examine the need for harmonisation of accounting standards in particular to maintain the confidence of investors and savers in the financial and economic system. Secondly, the paper presents the internal and external sources of legitimacy and analyses the legitimacy of the International Standard Accounting Board (IASB).

Heem, Gregory

2007-01-01

147

78 FR 8431 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR)  

Science.gov (United States)

...Administration 49 CFR Part 172 [Docket Nos. PHMSA-2012-0027 (HM-215L)] RIN 2137-AE87 Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR) Correction In rule document 2012-31243 appearing on pages 988 through 1100 in...

2013-02-06

148

International Experience in Standards and Labeling Programs for Rice Cookers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China has had an active program on energy efficiency standards for household appliances since the mid-1990s. Rice cooker is among the first to be subject to such mandatory regulation, since it is one of the most prevalent electric appliances in Chinese households. Since first introduced in 1989, the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers has not been revised. Therefore, the potential for energy saving is considerable. Initial analysis from CNIS indicates that potential carbon savings is likely to reach 7.6 million tons of CO2 by the 10th year of the standard implementation. Since September 2007, CNIS has been working with various groups to develop the new standard for rice cookers. With The Energy Foundation's support, LBNL has assisted CNIS in the revision of the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers that is expected to be effective in 2009. Specifically, work has been in the following areas: assistance in developing consumer survey on usage pattern of rice cookers, review of international standards, review of international test procedures, comparison of the international standards and test procedures, and assessment of technical options of reducing energy use. This report particularly summarizes the findings of reviewing international standards and technical options of reducing energy consumption. The report consists of an overview of rice cooker standards and labeling programs and testing procedures in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Thailand, and Japan's case study in developing energy efficiency rice cooker technologies and rice cooker efficiency programs. The results from the analysis can be summarized as the follows: Hong Kong has a Voluntary Energy Efficiency Labeling scheme for electric rice cookers initiated in 2001, with revision implemented in 2007; South Korea has both MEPS and Mandatory Energy Efficiency Label targeting the same category of rice cookers as Hong Kong; Thailand's voluntary endorsement labeling program is similar to Hong Kong in program design but has 5 efficiency grades; Japan's program is distinct in its adoption of the 'Top Runner' approach, in which, the future efficiency standards is set based on the efficiency levels of the most efficient product in the current domestic market. Although the standards are voluntary, penalties can still be evoked if the average efficiency target is not met. Both Hong Kong and South Korea's tests involve pouring water into the inner pot equal to 80% of its rated volume; however, white rice is used as a load for its tests in Hong Kong whereas no rice is used for tests in South Korea. In Japan's case, water level specified by the manufactures is used and milled rice is used as a load only partially in the tests. Moreover, Japan does not conduct heat efficiency test but its energy consumption measurements tests are much more complex, with 4 different tests are conducted to determine the annual average energy consumption. Hong Kong and Thailand both set Minimum Allowable Heat Efficiency for different rated wattages. The energy efficiency requirements are identical except that the minimum heat efficiency in Thailand is 1 percentage point higher for all rated power categories. In South Korea, MEPS and label's energy efficiency grades are determined by the rice cooker's Rated Energy Efficiency for induction, non-induction, pressure, nonpressure rice cookers. Japan's target standard values are set for electromagnetic induction heating products and non-electromagnetic induction heating products by different size of rice cookers. Specific formulas are used by type and size depending on the mass of water evaporation of the rice cookers. Japan has been the leading country in technology development of various types of rice cookers, and developed concrete energy efficiency standards for rice cookers. However, as consumers in Japan emphasize the deliciousness of cooked rice over other factors, many types of models were developed to improve the taste of cooked rice. Nonetheless, the efficie

Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina

2008-05-01

149

Study on a Threat-Countermeasure Model Based on International Standard Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many international standards exist in the field of IT security. This research is based on the ISO/IEC 15408, 15446, 19791, 13335 and 17799 standards. In this paper, we propose a knowledge base comprising a threat countermeasure model based on international standards for identifying and specifying threats which affect IT environments. In addition, the proposed knowledge base system aims at fusing similar security control policies and objectives in order to create effective security guidelines for specific IT environments. As a result, a knowledge base of security objectives was developed on the basis of the relationships inside the standards as well as the relationships between different standards. In addition, a web application was developed which displays details about the most common threats to information systems, and for each threat presents a set of related security control policies from different international standards, including ISO/IEC 27002.

Guillermo Horacio Ramirez Caceres

2008-12-01

150

International standards, traceability and quality of safeguards accountability measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to be able to compare operators' and inspectors' measurements, it is necessary to demonstrate that they are performed in compliance with the International System of Units (SI). Several links still need to be developed for tracing effectively all these measurements back to the relevant base units and the derived SI units. The certified uranium isotopic reference materials recently issued by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) are an example of how organizations such as the IRMM assist measurement specialists in achieving international comparability of measurements for international safeguards. The paper describes briefly the ''1993 International Target Values (ITVs) for Uncertainty Components in Fissile Isotope and Element Accountancy for Effective Safeguards of Nuclear Materials'', based on the model of the 1987 and 1988 ESARDA Target Values, and issued by the IAEA. The IAEA intends to use the 1993 ITVs as the current international standards of measurements foreseen in the Safeguards Agreements concluded in the frame of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The quality currently achievable in safeguards measurements is illustrated by the results reported in the Regulator European Inter-laboratory Measurement Evaluation Programme of the IRMM and by the results of statistical evaluations of several tens of thousands of actual safeguards inspection data at the IAEA. The progress made in recent years and the need to enfs made in recent years and the need to enforce effective procedures of measurement quality control in order to obtain the full benefit of present analytical capabilities are pointed out. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

151

International labour standards and product differentiation  

OpenAIRE

Ces dernières années, la relation entre normes du travail et commerce international s'est intensifiée. Nous utilisons une approche basée sur les incitations pour évaluer l'efficacité des instruments de politiques commerciales et des mécanismes privés pour la promotion des normes internationales du travail dans les firmes du Sud. Nous montrons que les instruments de politiques commerciales peuvent appliquer les normes minimales. Cependant, nous trouvons que les mecanismes privés peuve...

Limardi, Michela

2008-01-01

152

Development of strategies and sustainability standards for the certification of internationally traded biomass. Final report; Entwicklung von Strategien und Nachhaltigkeitsstandards zur Zertifizierung von Biomasse fuer den internationalen Handel. Zusammenfassender Endbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increased production of renewable raw materials for bioenergy and bio-materials needed to meet the ambitious targets of Germany, the EU and other countries implies tradeoffs which could oppose sustainability requirements. The project worked out the scientific base of and developed proposals for sustainability requirements for biomass and their implementation on national, European and global levels, in dialogue with relevant actors and provided inputs into respective processes. For that, discussions with experts from more than 20 countries were held, international networks created and extended, and political decision-makers supported. Besides answers to strategic questions, the issues focused on were greenhouse gas balances (calculation of GHG emissions from direct and indirect land use changes), biodiversity (a globally applicable risk minimization strategy was developed and tested in Brazil, China and South Africa for degraded lands), water scarcity and water quality (requirements for biomass cultivation were developed). The majority of project results was successfully implemented in legal and standardization processes (e.g., German Sustainability Ordinances for bioenergy, EU renewable energy directive, European Committee for Standardization, Global Bioenergy Partnership) and both scientific and environmental and development questions were discussed with - not only governmental - actors. The next steps should be the extension of the approaches developed to other biomass (especially for material use) and the critical review of the further implementation. (orig.)

Fritsche, Uwe R.; Hennenberg, Klaus J.; Hermann, Andreas; Huenecke, Katja; Herrera, Rocio [Oeko-Institut (Institut fuer angewandte Oekologie e.V.), Darmstadt (Germany); Fehrenbach, Horst; Roth, Elvira; Hennecke, Anna; Giegrich, Juergen [IFEU (Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung) gGmbh, Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-11-15

153

International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

154

International Standard for a Linguistic Annotation Framework  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes the Linguistic Annotation Framework under development within ISO TC37 SC4 WG1. The Linguistic Annotation Framework is intended to serve as a basis for harmonizing existing language resources as well as developing new ones.

Romary, Laurent; Ide, Nancy

2007-01-01

155

The International Urban Development Association  

Science.gov (United States)

Established in 1974 in Paris, The International Urban Development Association (INTA) is an international network that "encourages the exchange of information, experiences and best practices on urban development and renewal across the world." The site's homepage offers access to the three sections that will be of greatest interest to most visitors, namely "Forum", "Services", and "Institute". In the "Forum" area, visitors can review documents from various meetings and congresses that have looked at the redevelopment of public urban spaces, heritage development, and cross-border cooperation in the Caucasian region. The "Services" area contains commentaries by urban experts on proposed urban development plans, such as the proposed master plan for two sport sites in northeastern Paris and a regeneration scheme for the city of Nador in Morocco. Finally, the "Institute" section brings together documents from seminars and conferences held by INTA, such as those that have dealt with urban-based sports complexes and the competitive advantages of urban regions.

156

Product Development and International Trade  

OpenAIRE

We develop a multicountry, dynamic general equilibrium model of product innovation and international trade to study the creation of comparative advantage through research and development and the evolution of world trade over time. In our model, firms must incur resource costs to introduce new products, and forward-looking potential producers conduct R & D and enter the product market whenever profit opportunities exist. Trade has both intraindustry and interindustry components, and the differ...

Grossman, Gene M.; Helpman, Elhanan

1989-01-01

157

Development of a quantitative risk standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IEEE Working Group SC-5.4 is developing a quantitative risk standard for LWR plant design and operation. The paper describes the Working Group's conclusions on significant issues, including the scope of the standard, the need to define the process (i.e., PRA calculation) for meeting risk criteria, the need for PRA quality requirements and the importance of distinguishing standards from goals. The paper also describes the Working Group's approach to writing this standard

158

Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

Popescu, Denisa

2010-01-01

159

International standard problem for consequence modeling: results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The standard problem consists of a series of calculations designed to allow a step-by-step comparison of individual model components as well as consequence and risk estimates. Detailed data describing a hypothetical site and several hypothetical accident releases were provided. Seven problems were defined to compare submodels for atmospheric dispersion, dosimetry, health effects and land contamination, and the consequence frequency distributions calculated for a specific site both with and without emergency response. Examples of results and preliminary observations from the study are presented

160

Kazakhstan and international energy development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The government of Kazakhstan is weighing its options on the export route for Tengiz oil. It could decide of postpone decision. There are a number of possible routes. Aside from the route to Xijiang, the principle possibilities are 1. The Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) line projecting across southern Russia; 2. undersea to Baku and out through Ceyhan, 3. south through Iran. All that is certain is that Kazakhstan would like to, and needs to, sell much as possible. In this situation the author of the article suggests to form a kind of forum or an association (Euro-Asian Oil and Gas Association (EAOGA)) to coordinate coming issues. By helping to integrate the International energy agenda with International environmental agenda, an association like EAOGA could be put in a framework of sustainable development. Presented in this manner, it could even find political and economic support among the United Nations and International financial institutes

161

DEVELOPING STANDARDS TO JUDGE FLAX FIBRE QUALITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike cotton, flax and other bast fibres do not have objective standards for testing or classification. Flax fibres are evaluated and graded within countries or individual companies, but only one test method (ISO 2370 for flax fibre fineness) is recognized on an international level. Marketing of ...

162

International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury Revised 2011: Turkish Translation of Worksheet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Performing a standardized physical examination is useful in follow-up of the injury, monitorizing the effects of different treatments and to build a standard terminology among professionals dealing with the disease. The most common used method in assesment of spinal cord injured patient is International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury developed by American Spinal Cord Association (ASIA. The purpose of this report is to introduce the Turkish translation of worksheet in 2011 revision of International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. Turk J Phys Med Re­hab 2012;58 Suppl 1: 42-5.

Berrin GÜNDÜZ

2012-04-01

163

78 FR 52532 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government  

Science.gov (United States)

...Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY...revisions to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...update to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...

2013-08-23

164

78 FR 40740 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government  

Science.gov (United States)

...Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY...to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...Council and the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...

2013-07-08

165

78 FR 22263 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal...

2013-04-15

166

78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government  

Science.gov (United States)

...Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY...revisions to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...update to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...

2013-11-14

167

78 FR 23940 - Use of International Standard ISO-10993, “Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FDA-2013-D-0350] Use of International Standard ISO-10993, ``Biological Evaluation of Medical...entitled ``Use of International Standard ISO-10993, `Biological Evaluation of Medical...entitled ``Use of International Standard ISO-10993, `Biological Evaluation of...

2013-04-23

168

A scientific view of radiation standards development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the early development and history of radiation protection standards, and examines the current status and circumstances of present standards. The author discusses the problems in the standards area which must be dealt with effectively, and presents several suggestions which should be beneficial in achieving further progress in standard's development. Problems or needs are discussed which require attention in order to improve radiation protection standards. Some of these include: the analytical definition of ALARA with particular attention paid to ''reasonable''; the introduction and application of de minimis values into radiation protection to limit control actions on a practical basis; and a decision to handle radiation protection standards on a holistic basis at the Federal level and to apportion the basic standard based on major categories of use

169

De-boned beef - an example of a commodity for which specific standards could be developed to ensure an appropriate level of protection for international trade.  

Science.gov (United States)

De-boned beef from which lymph nodes and risk material associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy have been removed, is a product which can be produced for safe international trade irrespective of whether the locality of production is recognized as free from so-called transboundary diseases or not. Further processing of such beef provides an additional safety factor. However, this approach requires specific control measures being in place, supported by appropriate auditing and certification procedures. This document presents the arguments supporting this concept and details how safety in respect of both animal diseases and human food safety can be achieved using an integrated hazard analysis and critical control points approach. PMID:18990183

Thomson, G R; Leyland, T J; Donaldson, A I

2009-03-01

170

The Operating Islamic Banks in Jordan Applying the International Internal Auditing Standards (IIA's  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aimed at identifying the operating Islamic banks in Jordan applying the international internal auditing standards, which are (4 banks. A questionnaire was designed for this purpose and distributed to internal auditors and un-executive board of directors members considered members of the Audit Committee in each bank, the number of questionnaires which were subjected to analysis were (35, resolution data was analyzed using (SPSS, and a number of statistical means through descriptive statistics, arithmetic means, standard deviations, and percentages. The study found that Islamic banks are applying international standards of internal audit in general. Qualities standards were the most applied, and then implementation standards in a high degree, while the performance standards do not apply in these banks, also there are some difficulties that limit the application, but moderately. The study recommends increasing the work on applying internal auditing standards on Islamic banks operating in Jordan, in particular standards of performance which brings together the efficiency and effectiveness of internal audit and contributes to improved risk management and creates additional value for those banks.

Jamal Adel Al-Sharairi

2012-01-01

171

CONVERGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL AUDIT STANDARDS AND AMERICAN AUDIT STANDARDS REGARDING SAMPLING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Sampling is widely used in market research, scientific analysis, market analysis, opinion polls and not least in the financial statement audit. We wonder what is actually sampling and how did it appear? Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Nowadays the technique is indispensable, the economic entities operating with sophisticated computer systems and large amounts of data. Economic globalization and complexity of capital markets has made possible not only the harmonization of international accounting standards with the national ones, but also the convergence of international accounting and auditing standards with the American regulations. International Standard on Auditing 530 and Statement on Auditing Standard 39 are the two main international and American normalized referentials referring to audit sampling. This article discusses the origin of audit sampling, mentioning a brief history of the method and different definitions from literature review. The two standards are studied using Jaccard indicators in terms of the degree of similarity and dissimilarity concerning different issues. The Jaccard coefficient measures the degree of convergence of international auditing standards (ISA 530 and U.S. auditing standards (SAS 39. International auditing standards and American auditing standards, study the sampling problem, both regulations presenting common points with regard to accepted sampling techniques, factors influencing the audit sample, treatment of identified misstatements and the circumstances in which sampling is appropriate. The study shows that both standards agree on application of statistical and non-statistical sampling in auditing, that sampling is appropriate for tests of details and controls, the factors affecting audit sampling being audit risk, audit objectives and population\\'s characteristics.

Chis Anca Oana

2013-07-01

172

78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...Institute of Standards and Technology International Code Council...Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION...in the construction industry as well as the general...Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on behalf of...the Sheraton Dallas Hotel. This will be...

2013-03-26

173

75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...Institute of Standards and Technology International Code Council...Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION...in the construction industry as well as the general...Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on behalf of...the Sheraton Dallas Hotel. Completion of...

2010-04-16

174

Development of standard methods with special reference to Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

For a long time, many different microbiological methods were used around the world in order to enumerate or detect contaminants in foods. The development of commercial, but also scientific and technical exchanges between countries has stimulated new developments and a desire to harmonize methods. The example of AFNOR (French Association for Standardization) is first presented. Then, the new developments under CEN (European Committee for Standardization) are described, emphasizing a Measurements and Testing project. The MicroVal project, now integrated as a task force within CEN Technical Committee 275/Working Group 6 is described. Finally, the possibility of working towards an international consensus through the Codex Alimentarius is discussed. PMID:9923619

Lahellec, C

1998-11-24

175

Constructing Harmonious Development between International Trade and Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many disharmonies with the development of international trade, which concentrates on trade comparative advantages, lagged trade standards, processing trade and international industry transferring. The disharmonies result from conflicts between endless demands of economic resources and limited natural resources. In addition, low environment cost and lagged environment standards deteriorate the nature. China should remove the over-consuming resources and environmental damage in the course of international trade by advancing the environmental standards, counting the environmental costs and optimizing the trade structure.

Xin Zhao

2009-06-01

176

International Developments of Food Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940's: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950's: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960's: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970's: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980's: establishment of national regulations; 1990's: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

177

International Developments of Food Irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

1997-12-31

178

Enabling conformity to international standards within SeaDataNet  

Science.gov (United States)

SeaDataNet objective is to construct a standardized system for managing the large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the new automatic observation systems. The aim is to network and enhance the currently existing infrastructures, which are the national oceanographic data centres and satellite data centres of 36 countries, active in data collection. The networking of these professional data centres, in a unique virtual data management system will provide integrated data sets of standardized quality on-line. The Common Data Index (CDI) is the middleware service adopted by SeaDataNet for discovery and access of the available data. In order to develop an interoperable and effective system, the use of international de facto and de jure standards is required. In particular the new goal object of this presentation is to introduce and discuss the solutions for making SeaDataNet compliant with the European Union (EU) INSPIRE directive and in particular with its Implementing Rules (IR). The European INSPIRE directive aims to rule the creation of an European Spatial Data Infrastructure (ESDI). This will enable the sharing of environmental spatial information among public sector organisations and better facilitate public access to spatial information across Europe. To ensure that the spatial data infrastructures of the European Member States are compatible and usable in a community and transboundary context, the directive requires that common IRs are adopted in a number of specific areas (Metadata, Data Specifications, Network Services, Data and Service Sharing and Monitoring and Reporting). Often the use of already approved digital geographic information standards is mandated, drawing from international organizations like the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the latter by means of its Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211). In the context of geographic data discovery a set of mandatory metadata information is identified by INSPIRE metadata regulations and recommended implementations appear in IRs, in particular the use of ISO 19139 Application Profile (ISO AP) of OGC Catalogue Service for the Web 2.0.2 (CSW), as well as the use of ISO19139 XML schemas (along with additional constraints) to encode and distribute the required INSPIRE metadata. SeaDataNet started its work in 2006, basing its metadata schema upon the ISO 19115 DTD, the available schema at that time. Overtime this was replaced with the present CDI v.1 XML schema, based on ISO 19115 abstract model with community specific features and constraints. In order to assure the INSPIRE conformity a GI-cat based solution was developed. GI-cat is a broker service able to mediate from different metadata sources and publish them through a consistent and unified interface. In this case GI-cat is used as a front end to the SeaDataNet portal publishing the available data, based on CDI v.1, through a CSW AP ISO interface. The first step consisted in the precise definition of a community profile of ISO19115, containing both INSPIRE and CDI driven constraints and extensions. This abstract model is ready to be implemented both in CDI v.1 and in ISO 19139; to this aim, guidelines were drafted. Then a mapping from the CDI v.1 to the ISO 19139 implementation was ready to be produced. The work resulted in the creation of a new CDI accessor within GI-cat. These type of components play the role of data model mediators within the framework. While a replacement of the CDI v.1 format with the ISO 19139 solution is planned for SeaDataNet in the future, this front-end solution make data discovery readily effective by clients within the INSPIRE community.

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Boldrini, Enrico; de Korte, Arjen; Santoro, Mattia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

2010-05-01

179

Development of internal pump systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the reactor recirculation system of ABWRs, internal pump system has been adopted. This pump is of submerged motor type, and is directly installed on the bottom of a pressure vessel. It is an important machine to forcibly circulate core coolant. Also the power source and control facilities for driving this pump are the important equipment for adjusting the thermal output of a reactor by changing the rotating speed of the pump. In Hitachi Ltd., the examination of the design of ABWRs has been carried out jointly with GE in USA and Toshiba Corp., on the other hand, the components of the internal pump system, that is, the pump, motor, power source and control facilities, and pump and motor operating equipment, were developed and manufactured by its independent techniques. As for the individual machinery and equipment, various tests were carried out for grasping the performance of structures and materials, the characteristics of limiting the range of application and endurance of respective component elements. Also the synthetic test was carried out by combining respective components, and the well balanced function and performance were confirmed. The technical base for applying the internal pump system to ABWR plants was established by the general development and home manufacture using the independent techniques. (Kako, I.)

180

International standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM), publication No. 15  

CERN Multimedia

GUIDELINES FOR REGULATING WOOD PACKAGING MATERIAL IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE SCOPE This standard describes phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests associated with wood packaging material (including dunnage), made of coniferous and non-coniferous raw wood, in use in international trade. For more information, contact the Shipping Service (FI-LS-SH) at 79947. Table of guidelines

Tom Wegelius

2006-01-01

181

The Inclusion of Standard Terms in International Sales Contracts  

OpenAIRE

The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG) does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international...

Eiselen, S.

2011-01-01

182

Internal standard versus external standard calibration: an uncertainty case study of a liquid chromatography analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Traditionally, in the cigarettes industry, the determination of ammonium ion in the mainstream smoke is performed by ion chromatography. This work studies this determination and compares the results of this technique with the use of external and internal standard calibration. A reference cigarette s [...] ample presented measurement uncertainty of 2.0 ?g/cigarette and 1.5 ?g/cigarette, with external and internal standard, respectively. It is observed that the greatest source of uncertainty is the bias correction factor and that it is even more significant when using external standard, confirming thus the importance of internal standardization for this correction.

Elcio Cruz de, Oliveira; Edson I., Muller; Fernanda, Abad; Juliana, Dallarosa; Cristine, Adriano.

183

International Accreditation of ASME Codes and Standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ASME established a Boiler Code Committee to develop rules for the design, fabrication and inspection of boilers. This year we recognize 75 years of that Code and will publish a history of that 75 years. The first Code and subsequent editions provided for a Code Symbol Stamp or mark which could be affixed by a manufacturer to a newly constructed product to certify that the manufacturer had designed, fabricated and had inspected it in accordance with Code requirements. The purpose of the ASME Mark is to identify those boilers that meet ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements. Through thousands of updates over the years, the Code has been revised to reflect technological advances and changing safety needs. Its scope has been broadened from boilers to include pressure vessels, nuclear components and systems. Proposed revisions to the Code are published for public review and comment four times per year and revisions and interpretations are published annually; it's a living and constantly evolving Code. You and your organizations are a vital part of the feedback system that keeps the Code alive. Because of this dynamic Code, we no longer have columns in newspapers listing boiler explosions. Nevertheless, it has been argued recently that ASME should go further in internationalizing its Code. Specifically, representatives of several countries, have suggested that ASME delegate to them responsibility for Code implementation within their national boundaries. The questithin their national boundaries. The question is, thus, posed: Has the time come to franchise responsibility for administration of ASME's Code accreditation programs to foreign entities or, perhaps, 'institutes.' And if so, how should this be accomplished?

184

Introduction to the ISO 14000 international environmental management standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International standards for environmental management are being drafted through a consensus process by hundreds of technical experts from over forty nations. The first are expected to be finalized by mid-year 1996. They are being drafted in an attempt to stem the proliferation of national and regional environmental management standards, the perhaps unintentional side-effect of which is restraint of trade. The ISO 14000 series of standards may be grouped into two categories: {open_quotes}product evaluation{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}organization evaluation{close_quotes} standards. This paper deals primarily with the latter category, because the organizationally related standards are expected to have a more profound effect thorughout the organizations that adopt them. This paper will also describe some of the commercial, economic and performance benefits which organizations may derive thorugh adoption and use of the standards.

McVaugh, J. [Environmental Technology & Management, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

185

International Accounting Standards and Changes in Accounting Terminology  

OpenAIRE

The language of accounting is subject to continuous change. One of the reasons for a change in terminology is the introduction of new legal requirements that bring about a change in the underlying concepts and therefore the need for new specific terms. Such a situation was created by the Regulation (EC) No. 1606/2002 on the application of international accounting standards (IAS). This regulation aims at harmonising ac-counting standards and procedures relating to the preparation and presentat...

Edelmann, Gerhard

2010-01-01

186

Constructing Harmonious Development between International Trade and Environment  

OpenAIRE

There are many disharmonies with the development of international trade, which concentrates on trade comparative advantages, lagged trade standards, processing trade and international industry transferring. The disharmonies result from conflicts between endless demands of economic resources and limited natural resources. In addition, low environment cost and lagged environment standards deteriorate the nature. China should remove the over-consuming resources and environmental damage in the co...

Xin Zhao; Suxia Liu; Xiaoyin He

2009-01-01

187

5th international conference on certification and standardization in NDT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This CD-ROM contains 30 lectures (in form of manuscripts or abstracts) and 6 posters with the following topics: 1. Some Critical Remarks from German Chemical Industry on Certification and Accreditation in NDT. 2. Global Impact of International Standard ISO 9712. 3. Maintaining Concurrent Compliance with Multiple NDT Personnel Certification Standards. 4. The Revision of the New Approach. 5. Comparison between prEN 473 Currently Submitted to Formal Vote and ISO 9712:2005. 6. Accreditation and Certification - a Contradiction?. 7. The Way We Were. 8. EFNDT-Question-Data-Bank (QDB). 9. NDT Certification in Turkey as an European Country- How It Couldn't Work as the Only Example?. 10. Validation of Practical Examination Specimens. 11. Examination Bank Structure for Radiographic Testing (RT) - An Example. 12. About the New Classification of NDT Methods Based on Positions of Risks and Equipment Life Assessment. 13. Olympus NDT Training Academy. 14. Harmonisation of Personnel Certification Schemes for Non-destructive Testing in the Asia-Pacific Region. 15. How EFNDT Can Help in Accreditation or Recognition/Approval of NDT Certification Bodies? 16. SNT-TC-1A - 40 Years of Employer Certification for NDT Personnel. 17. The Same NDT Certification Scheme for Everybody: a Dream or a Need. 18. 19. Personnel Certification for Thermographers - Status and Trends. 20. Guided Wave Training and Certification. 21. Examination Radiographs and Master Reports for the Industrial Sectors 6 and 7.eports for the Industrial Sectors 6 and 7. 22. New Standards ISO 24497 on the Metal Magnetic Memory Method. The Program of Personnel Training and Certification. 23. The Use of the Psychometrics in NDT Certification Programs. 24. EFNDT Guidelines ''Overall NDT Quality System''. 25. The Role of the Forum for National Aerospace NDT Boards. 26. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 27. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 28. The Need for Standardization in NDT Personnel Certification. 29. NDT Certification for Railway Maintenance Personnel in France; 10 Years of the CFCM. 30. NDT Personnel Certification - Service for Industry. 31. Certification of Personnel Performing Automated Non-destructive Testing of Pipes and Flat Products. Problems and Solutions. 32. Stress Testing is a New NDT Type in the Russian Standard GOST R 52330-2005 and International Standard ISO-9712. 33. Accreditation of Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement Methods - Practical Aspects. 34. Results of Approval of Certification Body ''SPEKTRCert'' by Auditors of EFNDT. 35. The Program for Specialists Training and Certification in Stress-Strained State Determination and Residual Life Assesment of Technical Devices and Contructions. 36. NDT Personnel Certification System at Turkish Standards Instiution (TSE) and Developments in Turkey. 37. Nondestructive Testing Personnel Certification in Turkish Aerospace Industries and National Aerospace Nondestructive Testing Board in the Turkey

188

ASTEC participation in the international standard problem on KAEVER  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the International Standard Problem no 44 was aerosol depletion behaviour under severe accident conditions in a LWR containment examined in the KAEVER test facility of Battelle (Germany). Nine organisations participated with 5 different codes in the ISP44, including a joint participation of GRS and IPSN with the integral code ASTEC (and in particular the CPA module) they have commonly developed. Five tests were selected from the KAEVER test matrix: K123, K148, K186 and K188 as open standard problems and the three-component test K187 as blind standard problem. All these tests were performed in supersaturated conditions and with slight fog formation, which are the most ambitious conditions for the coupled problem of thermal hydraulics and aerosol processes. The comparison between calculation and test showed a good agreement for all the tests with respect to the thermal-hydraulic conditions in the vessel, i.e. total pressure, atmosphere temperature, sump water and nitrogen mass, etc.... As for aerosol depletion, the ASTEC results were in a good overall agreement with the measured data. The code in particular predicted well the fast depletion of the hygroscopic and mixed aerosols and the slow depletion of insoluble silver aerosol. The important effects of bulk condensation, solubility and the Kelvin effect on the aerosol depletion were well predicted. However the code overestimation of steam condensation on hygroscopic aerosols in supersaturated conditions indicates that some slight improvements of the appropriate ASTEC models are needed in the future. In the final ISP44 workshop, the deviations of the ASTEC results with respect to the experiments were considered to be small compared to those of most other codes. (authors)

189

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR NEUTRAL TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.25)  

Science.gov (United States)

This standard operating procedure describes the method used for preparing internal standard, surrogate recovery standard and calibration standard solutions for neutral analytes used for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis....

190

Review of IEC/ISO international standard related to HMI design for control rooms on NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished work wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards by IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) as international standard. On the other hand, ISO (International Standard Organization) issues ergonomic standards in HCI (Human Computer Interaction) for general industrial use. ISO11064 series are the process oriented standards specify procedures and processes to be followed. IEC60964 and supplemental standards have been effectively used and the design process required in IEC 60964 is the basis of the design process of ISO11064-1. However, IEC60964 is under revision, for example, to make technological update for taking into account the computerized control rooms, and to improve the human factor requirements. The revised version will consistent with the other IEC standards and similar standards or guidelines of another bodies. For hardware and software of computerized I and C system, a series of international standards have been systematically developed. In Japan, Japan electric association is developing industry association level guideline for the human-machine interface designs of the computerized main control rooms of nuclear power plants, as well as regulatory agencies of nuclear power plants in Japan are preparing technical basis for reviewers of controng technical basis for reviewers of control rooms of nuclear power plants. In this paper, we present the review of not only the state of international activities for revising IEC60964 and the state of ISO11064 series, but also the state and relationship to the related standards. (author)

191

Development of an organically bound tritium standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-concentration factors between seawater and marine organisms have been observed for organically bound tritium (OBT). The absence of an available OBT standard impedes the validation of an analytical method for environmental samples. This paper describes the secondary standardisation of tritiated thymidine, which was chosen to act as an OBT standard, using liquid scintillation counting. Traceability was provided by using internal standards of tritiated water (HTO). The assumption that the counting efficiencies for tritiated thymidine and HTO were identical was tested with separate quench curves. The rate of self-decomposition for tritiated thymidine, which resulted in an activity concentration of tritiated thymidine lower than the total tritium activity concentration, was determined. PMID:15177376

Harms, A V; Jerome, S M

2004-01-01

192

Low-voltage switchgear (European and international standards)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the European and international standards for automatic switches, and their applications in low-voltage power installations. For a wide variety of switches, a thorough assessment is made of the conformance of materials, design, fabrication techniques and performance ratings to current normatives.

Bellato, G.; Buccianti, R.

1987-04-01

193

International standardization and classification of human papillomavirus types.  

Science.gov (United States)

Established Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types, up to HPV202, belong to 49 species in five genera. International standardization in classification and quality standards for HPV type designation and detection is ensured by the International HPV Reference Center. The center i) receives clones of potentially novel HPV types, re-clones and re-sequences them. If confirmed, an HPV type number is assigned and posted on www.hpvcenter.se. ii) distributes reference clone samples, for academic research, under Material Transfer Agreements agreed with the originator. iii) provides preliminary checking of whether new sequences represent novel types iv) issues international proficiency panels for HPV genotyping. The rate of HPV type discovery is increasing, probably because of metagenomic sequencing. ?-genus today contains 79HPV types and 27 species, surpassing ? and ? genera with 65 and 51HPV types, respectively. Regular issuing of proficiency panels based on HPV reference clones has resulted in global improvement of HPV genotyping services. PMID:25577151

Bzhalava, Davit; Eklund, Carina; Dillner, Joakim

2015-02-01

194

Standard development at the Human Variome Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The Human Variome Project (HVP) is a world organization working towards facilitating the collection, curation, interpretation and free and open sharing of genetic variation information. A key component of HVP activities is the development of standards and guidelines. HVP Standards are systems, procedures and technologies that the HVP Consortium has determined must be used by HVP-affiliated data sharing infrastructure and should be used by the broader community. HVP guidelines are considered to be beneficial for HVP affiliated data sharing infrastructure and the broader community to adopt. The HVP also maintains a process for assessing systems, processes and tools that implement HVP Standards and Guidelines. Recommended System Status is an accreditation process designed to encourage the adoption of HVP Standards and Guidelines. Here, we describe the HVP standards development process and discuss the accepted standards, guidelines and recommended systems as well as those under acceptance. Certain HVP Standards and Guidelines are already widely adopted by the community and there are committed users for the others. PMID:25818894

Smith, Timothy D.; Vihinen, Mauno

2015-01-01

195

Dutch developments in setting radiation standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present article sketches the developments in setting radiation standards within the general context of environmental protection in the Netherlands. The Dutch basis for radiation protection is the Nuclear Energy Act, promulgated by the Parliament in 1963 and in force since 1970. Several other sectoral environmental laws such as the Air Pollution Act, Surface Waters Pollution Act and more recently the Soil Protection Act have followed. To harmonize the divergent procedures stipulated in the sectoral laws, the so-called General Environmental Provisions Act was put into force in 1979. This law codifies general regulations in connection with rules and permits for installations, environmental quality standards and financial provisions. In addition to the procedural integration, it was felt necessary to develop a common basis for protection standards in the seperate sectors. To this end, a general policy has been announced which distinguishes between effect-oriented standards (environmental quality standards) and source-oriented standards (such as emission and product standards). 2 refs., 2 tabs

196

To recognize the use of international standards for making harmonized regulation of medical devices in Asia-pacific.  

Science.gov (United States)

'Medical Devices' include everything from highly sophisticated, computerized, medical equipment, right down to simple wooden tongue depressors. Regulations embody the public expectations for how buildings and facilities are expected to perform and as such represent public policy. Regulators, who develop and enforce regulations, are empowered to act in the public's interest to set this policy and are ultimately responsible to the public in this regard. Standardization contributes to the basic infrastructure that underpins society including health and environment, while promoting sustainability and good regulatory practice. The international organizations that produce International Standards are the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). With the increasing globalization of markets, International Standards (as opposed to regional or national standards) have become critical to the trading process, ensuring a level playing field for exports, and ensuring that imports meet the internationally recognized levels of performance and safety. The development of standards is done in response to sectors and stakeholders that express a clearly established need for them. An industry sector or other stakeholder group typically communicates its requirement for standards to one of the national members. To be accepted for development, a proposed work item must receive a majority support of the participating members, who verify the global relevance of the proposed item. The regulatory authority (RA) should provide a method for the recognition of international voluntary standards and for public notification of such recognition. The process of recognition may vary from country to country. Recognition may occur by periodic publication of lists of standards that a regulatory authority has found will meet the Essential Principles. In conclusion, International standards, such as, basic standards, group standards, and product standards, are a tool for harmonizing regulatory processes, to assure the safety, quality, and performance of medical devices. Standards represent the opinion of experts from all interested parties, including industry, regulators, users, and others. PMID:21042494

Anand, K; Saini, Ks; Chopra, Y; Binod, Sk

2010-07-01

197

CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY MEAUSREMENT SCHEDULE: DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION*  

OpenAIRE

Development and standardization of an instrument Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) to assess psychopathology in children is reported. CPMS is standardized on Indian population and is applicable to children of both sexes in the age range of 4-14 years. It measures overall psychopathology in the form of a total scores and also the type of psychopathology in the form of eight factorially derived syndromes which have satisfactory reliability and validity. CPMS is proposed to b...

Malhotra, Savita; Varma, V. K.; Verma, S. K.; Malhotra, Anil

1988-01-01

198

Development and validation of a HPLC method for simultaneous quantitation of gatifloxacin, sparfloxacin and moxifloxacin using levofloxacin as internal standard in human plasma: application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly selective, sensitive and accurate HPLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of three fluoroquinolones (FQs) viz., gatifloxacin (GFC), sparfloxacin (SFC) and moxifloxacin (MFC) with 500 microL human plasma using levofloxacin (LFC) as an internal standard (IS). The sample preparation involved simple liquid-liquid extraction of GFC, SFC, MFC and IS from human plasma with ethyl acetate. The resolution of peaks was achieved with phosphate buffer (pH 2.5)-acetonitrile (80:20, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min on a Kromasil C(18) column. The total chromatographic run time was 18.0 min and the simultaneous elution of GFC, SFC, MFC and IS occurred at approximately 10.8, 12.8, 17.0 and 6.0 min, respectively. The method proved to be accurate and precise at linearity range of 100-10,000 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient (r) of > or =0.999. The limit of quantitation for each of the FQs studied was 100 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy values found to be within the assay variability limits as per the FDA guidelines. The developed assay method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study in human volunteers following oral administration of 400 mg GFC tablet. PMID:18655224

Srinivas, Nimmagadda; Narasu, Lakshmi; Shankar, B Prabha; Mullangi, Ramesh

2008-11-01

199

MEASUREMENT OF NEED FOR HARMONIZATION BETWEEN NATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS  

OpenAIRE

This study analyzes the quantification methods of the harmonization degree between the national accounting settlements and the international accounting standards. Starting from the presentation of the main methods used for this purpose such as - Euclidean distances, Jaccard’s coefficients, Spearman’s coefficients and other nonparametric methods for rank correlation analysis – we suggest a method of quantification for the need of harmonization between the national accounting standards an...

Mustata, Razvan V.; Matis, Dumitru

2007-01-01

200

Contributions of the ISO and IEC to international standardization in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of the world's total of about 2,600 radiation protection standards, only approximately ten per cent are international. The recommendations of international bodies such as the IAEA and the ICRP on the principles of radiation protection are supplemented by numerous detailed international technical standards. These deal with requirements for radiation monitoring instruments and methods as well as many other aspects of practical radiation protection. These standards are developed in working bodies by leading experts and represent highly condensed technical know-how. They are valuable sources of information and also serve as an instrument of technology transfer to developing countries. The main bodies devoted to the development of such international technical standards are: in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Subcommittee 2 ''Radiation Protection'' of its Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'', and in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), its TC 45B ''Radiation Protection Instrumentation''. Standards published so far include: the basic ionizing radiation symbol; nuclear energy glossary; requirements, classification and leakage testing of sealed radioactive sources; principles of criticality safety; personal photographic dosimeters; direct and indirect reading pocket dosimeters; leakage testing of radioactive materials, packaging, unsealed radioactive sources; different reference radiations for calibrating dosimeters and dose tions for calibrating dosimeters and dose rate meters and determining their energy response; testing of exposure meters; sampling of airborne radioactive materials; and lead shielding. Standards published so far by the IEC include surface contamination meters and monitors, portable exposure rate meters and monitors, hand and foot contamination monitors, installed exposure rate meters, radioactive aerosol contamination meters and equipment for the measurement of airborne tritium and the continuous monitoring of radioactivity in gaseous effluents. Work on a large number of additional projects is currently in progress. (author). 7 refs, 9 tabs

201

International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

{center_dot} Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials {center_dot} Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

2010-02-15

202

International standards for the oil and natural gas industries: A review paper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review paper describes the status of developments towards a complete set of international standards for the oil and natural gas industry. It builds on papers describing the intent of the program presented at the 1992 OTC by Thomas, Thorp and Denham; Wilson; and Arney. These papers state the objectives of developing a set of ISO standards predominantly within ISO/TC67. This paper places the development of the set of standards for the oil and natural gas industry in the context of the need for, and use of, standards by the industry. It describes the main standards organizations including their structure, procedures and relationships. It identifies ISO/TC67 as the key international standards committee for ''materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum and natural gas industries,'' and details its role and current work program. It concludes with a summary of the achievements to date. Significance: Common international standards should enable all stakeholders involved (users/suppliers/regulatory bodies) to conduct their business efficiently (lifecycle cost) with enhanced safety/integrity

203

International standards for the indoor environment. Where are we and do they apply to Asian countries?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

On the international level, ISO (International Organization for Standardization), CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) are writing and reviewing standards relating to the indoor environment on a regular basis. This presentation will focus on the development of standards for the indoor thermal environment and indoor air quality (ventilation). In the future, recommendations for acceptable indoor environments will be specified as classes. This allows for national differences in the requirements as well as for designing buildings for different quality levels. Several of these standards have been developed mainly by experts from Europe, North America and Japan. Are there, however, special considerations relating to South-East Asia (lifestyle, outdoor climate, economy) that are not dealt with in these standards and that will require the revision of existing standards? Critical issues are adaptation, the effect of increased air velocity, humidity, type of indoor pollutant sources, etc. The paper will present an overview of existing methods and discuss areas where revision of present standards or the development of new standards are needed, relating especially to conditions in Asia.

Olesen, Bjarne W.

2003-01-01

204

Multiplicative effects model with internal standard in mobile phase for quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assays suffer from signal instability caused by the gradual fouling of the ion source, vacuum instability, aging of the ion multiplier, etc. To address this issue, in this contribution, an internal standard was added into the mobile phase. The internal standard was therefore ionized and detected together with the analytes of interest by the mass spectrometer to ensure that variations in measurement conditions and/or instrument have similar effects on the signal contributions of both the analytes of interest and the internal standard. Subsequently, based on the unique strategy of adding internal standard in mobile phase, a multiplicative effects model was developed for quantitative LC-MS assays and tested on a proof of concept model system: the determination of amino acids in water by LC-MS. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently mitigate the detrimental effects of continuous signal variation, and achieved quantitative results with average relative predictive error values in the range of 8.0-15.0%, which were much more accurate than the corresponding results of conventional internal standard method based on the peak height ratio and partial least squares method (their average relative predictive error values were as high as 66.3% and 64.8%, respectively). Therefore, it is expected that the proposed method can be developed and extended in quantitative LC-MS analysis of more complex systems. PMID:24840455

Song, Mi; Chen, Zeng-Ping; Chen, Yao; Jin, Jing-Wen

2014-07-01

205

International financial markets and development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the ‘casino economy’. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new actors are surfacing, e.g. the institutional investor (hedge funds, private equity funds, etc., while new instruments are leading to highly leveraged and destabilising derivatives. The casino system has been promoted by governments and intergovernmental institutions to liberalise and deregulate financial markets. Although developing countries have not participated in the casino system, they have been suffering most from the spill-over into the real economy. The main lesson learnt is that the casino has to be closed.

How to cite this article: Wahl, P., 2009, ‘International financial markets and development’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 65(1, Art. #284, 4 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v65i1.284

Peter Wahl

2009-11-01

206

Development of nano-roughness calibration standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Laboratory for Precise Measurements of Length, currently the Croatian National Laboratory for Length, unique nano-roughness calibration standards were developed, which have been physically implemented in cooperation with the company MikroMasch Trading OU and the Ru?er Boškovi? Institute. In this paper, a new design for a calibration standard with two measuring surfaces is presented. One of the surfaces is for the reproduction of roughness parameters, while the other is for the traceability of length units below 50 nm. The nominal values of the groove depths on these measuring surfaces are the same. Thus, a link between the measuring surfaces has been ensured, which makes these standards unique. Furthermore, the calibration standards available on the market are generally designed specifically for individual groups of measuring instrumentation, such as interferometric microscopes, stylus instruments, scanning electron microscopes (SEM) or scanning probe microscopes. In this paper, a new design for nano-roughness standards has been proposed for use in the calibration of optical instruments, as well as for stylus instruments, SEM, atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes. Therefore, the development of these new nano-roughness calibration standards greatly contributes to the reproducibility of the results of groove depth measurement as well as the 2D and 3D roughness parameters obtained by various measuring methods. (paper)

207

Standardization of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Developing countries should take food standardization seriously so that they do not become a dumping ground for foods that some developed countries refuse to admit for human consumption. Let us take saccharin for example. Whereas saccharin would normally not be allowed for use in flour preparations and ice-cream in certain developed countries, because saccharin is now known to be slightly carcinogenic, multinational companies from these same countries have been known to promote the use of saccharin in flour preparations and ice-cream in developing countries. When saccharin is used in soft drinks produced in developing countries, this is often not even declared on the label although manufacturers may be required by law in developed countries to declare the presence of saccharin in such drinks, which in any case must never exceed certain limits. It is against this background that the question of standardization of irradiated foods needs to be considered in developing countries. Like all food standardization questions, developing countries must have clearly defined guidelines and regulations for the consumption of irradiated foods and the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods.

208

Strategies towards enterprising development and application of external events PRA standards in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discussed the background and development of PRA standards (Levels 1, 2 and 3) in Japan with the focus on external hazards PRA standards. A standard for procedures of seismic PRA was issued in September 2007, implementation standards for tsunami in February 2012 and the standard for internal flooding in November 2012. The development of standards is ongoing, including new standards for fires and quality of PRA, and additional revisions of the existing standards to cover consequential events and shutdown states. Japanese experts strongly emphasize the importance of the assessment of external hazards

209

Development of the standards for probabilistic analysis of security  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The standard of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) for Analysis Probability of Security (APS), for applications in nuclear plants, it was limited originally to an APS Level 1 of internal events. However, the recent efforts taken by the committee of administration of nuclear risk of the ASME, together with the committee for standards informed in risk of the American Nuclear Society (ANS), they have taken place an improved standard that the combines standard original ASME of APS Level internal events, fires inside the plant and external events, with a reserved place for events that happen to low powers and put out. This integrated standard will be used for the nuclear plants and the regulators to carry out applications informed in risk. The use of the APS has matured to the point that the programs of risk management have been developed that its is being used as part of the taking of decisions making in the nuclear facilities. The standard provides approaches to evaluate the technical capacities of an APS, relative to a matter in particular that allows them to the specialists in APS to determine if the elements of the APS are technically appropriate with regard to an application informed in particular risk. Informed applications in risk like inspection in service and technical specifications informed in risk they save time and resources, not alone to the plants, but to the regulator also. (Author)

210

Applying consensus standards to cask development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is procuring cask systems for transporting commercial spent nuclear fuel and is encouraging development of innovative cask designs and materials to improve system efficiency. New designs and innovative materials require that consensus standards be established so that cask designers and regulators have criteria for determining acceptability. Recent DOE experience in certifying three spent fuel shipping casks, NUPAC-125B, TN-BRP, and TN-REG, is discussed. Certification of the NUPAC-125B was expedited because it was made of conventional American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) materials and complied with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guides. The TN-BRP and TN-REG cask designs are still being reviewed because baskets included in the casks are made of borated stainless steel, which has no ASTM Specification or ASME Code approval. The process of developing and approving consensus standards is discussed, including the role of ANSI and ANSI N14. Specific procedures for ASTM and ASME are described. A draft specification or standard must be prepared and then approved by the appropriate body. For new material applications to the ASME Code, an existing ASTM Specification is needed. These processes may require several years. The status of activities currently in progress to develop consensus standards for spent fuel caslop consensus standards for spent fuel casks is discussed, including (1) ASME NUPAC, and (2) ASTM Specifications for ductile cast iron and borated stainless steel

211

Monitoring the International Standardization Process Theoretical Choices and Methodological Tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many organizations are in charge of global security management. This paper outlines and argues for the construction of a theoretical and methodological framework in order to critically assess the new technopolitics currently being developed in the field of global security and which are materialized in standards. The main purpose is to design both a methodology and specific text mining tools to investigate these standards. These tools will be implemented in a platform designed to provide cartographic representations of standards and to assist the navigation of an end-user through a corpus of standards.

Brigitte Juanals

2012-08-01

212

Preradba norme ISO 3297 Information and documentation - international standard serial number = Revision of the Standard ISO 3297 Information and documentation - international standard serial number  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prikazuje se rad na normizaciji u podru?ju identifikacije i opisa dokumenata. Opisana je redovita preradba norme ISO 3297 Information and documentation – International Standard Serial Number (ISSN. Prikazan je tijek rada i razli?ite faze preradbe teksta norme. Izneseni su glavni elementi preradbe i rješenja Radne skupine. Navode se novine u tekstu nacrta odbora u odnosu na teku?e izdanje.The paper gives an outline of the work on standardization in the area of identification and description of documents. The regular revision of the standard ISO 3297 Information and documentation – International Standard Serial Number (ISSN is described. Different phases of revision are enumerated. The main issues of the revision and the solutions proposed by the ISSN Standard Revision Working Group are presented. The new elements in the text of the committee draft are described.

Jasenka Zajec

2006-01-01

213

Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL's analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described

214

Measurement of left-ventricular volumes using an internal standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When performing equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography with two successive acquisition views, absolute left-ventricular volumes can be calculated using an ''internal standard'' generated by a computer in the left-ventricular cavity. The method is based on the computed ratio of maximum to global activity in the 400-left-anterior-oblique view after background correction and on the measured depth of the left ventricle in almost-orthogonal, 300-left-posterior-oblique Fourier first-harmonic images. The method does not require blood sampling or correction for self attenuation. The intra- and interobserver reproducibility is excellent, even in patients with severe impairment of the ventricular-contractility pattern. When compared with a classical method requiring venous-blood counting and an attenuation correction factor, the accuracy of the internal-standard method was fairly good, with a regression coefficient of 0.90. (orig.)

215

Regulatory practices and standards: the international scene and trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At national level, codification of standards governing the licensing and operation of nuclear installations is very different, ranging from criteria to regulations, according to the degree of the obligation imposed by national authorities; it also reflects the variety of national situations and the peculiarities of the legal and political systems. The need to agree upon a level of nuclear safety which is generally recognised as satisfactory and to exchange scientific and technological information in this field has greatly stimulated international co-operation, in particular within the framework of specialized international organisations such as IAEA, ISO, Euratom and OECD/NEA. Harmonization of such standards is particularly important from the viewpoint of public opinion in the countries concerned. In addition, the intrinsic safety of nuclear power plants, assurances as to the duration of plant life should increasingly be highlighted in future. (NEA)

216

Efficiency of Management Systems, Based on International Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers major trends of management systems standardization development and efficiency. The authors determine possible structure of effects in the process of integrated management systems implementation.

Elena B. Gafforova

2012-03-01

217

International Standards for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For a terminally sterilized medical device to be designated '' STERILE '', probability of finding the viable micro-organisms in the device shall be equal to or less than 1 x 10-6 (EN 556-1:2001: Sterilization of medical devices - Requirements for medical devices to be designated '' STERILE '' - Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices). Author presents the main legal aspects of the international standards for radiation sterilization of medical devices

218

Secondary standard dosimetry laboratories: Development and trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication describes the work of the IAEA and the WHO in the establishment of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. Membership in the SSDL network has now risen to about 50 laboratories, of which 36 are in developing countries

219

Beyond The InternationalAccounting Standards Towards a Global Age of Accounting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the birth of the European Union the way people make business has changed. Globalization is no longer a key concept in economic development, but it has become a necessity. Accounting provides useful information to decision makers in companies and large corporations, therefore it has to keep pace with the International Accounting Standards. The European countries members of the EU and other countries are still in the process of implementing these standards.

TATIANA DANESCU

2011-09-01

220

CODE OF ETHICS FOR INTERNAL AUDITORS HARMONISED WITH THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR INTERNAL AUDIT  

OpenAIRE

The Code of Ethics is binding for the internal auditor profession, since, at the end of the internal audit activity, the internal auditors, based on the tests and analyses carried out, express their opinion on the quality of the internal control system of the audited activity. The Code of Ethics stipulates four fundamental principles, as follows: integrity, constitutes the base for the trust granted to internal auditors; objectivity, directly related to independence; confidentiality, absolute...

GEORGE CALOT?

2008-01-01

221

Nuclear data standards - International Evaluation Co-operation volume 7  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The working party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank member countries) and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries is organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report was issued by Subgroup 7, which was in charge of producing new evaluated neutron cross-section standards. When starting the project, there was a general consensus on the need to update these standards, as significant improvements had been made to the experimental database since 1991 when the last evaluation of these standards was performed. The present work was accomplished through efficient collaboration between a task force of the US Cross-section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Subgroup 7 of the Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee. Work is reported on the results of an international effort to evaluate the neutron cross-section standards. The evaluations include the H(n,n), 6Li(n,t), 10B(n,?), 10B(n,?1?), 197Au(n,?), 235U(n,f) and 238U(n,f) standard reactions. Evaluations were also produced for the non-standard 238U(n,?) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions. This effort was performed so as to include new experiments in the standards that have been established since the ENDF/B-VI standard evaluation was completed, and to improve the evaluation process. Evaluations were not undertaken for the3He(n,p) and C(n,n) standards. These standards are carried over from ENDF/B-VI. The interest in standards above 20 MeV led to the extension of the 235U(n,f) and 238U(n,f) cross-sections to 200 MeV. The 239Pu(n,f) cross-section was also extended to 200 MeV. The general trend observed for the evaluations is an increase in the cross-sections for most of the reactions from fractions of a per cent to several per cent compared with the ENDF/B-VI results

222

Comparative study between external standard method and internal standard method for low-level tritium measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quenching is always present in water samples and the degree of quenching can vary from one sample to another even within the same batch. This means that quench correction should be carried out for each sample in order to determine the activity so that comparisons can be made between samples and other batches. In this paper, a comparative study of tritium measurements between two methods used to correct for quenching is presented. The methods used to determine counting efficiency in the presence of quenching are as follow: Spectral Quench Parameter of External standard method (SQP(E)) and Internal Standard Method. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation system detector (Quantulus 1220) is used to determine tritium activity concentration in heavy water with different concentration from 99,66 D/H+D% to 1,65 D/D+H %. A standard calibration curve for the SQP(E) technique has been carried out with 3H low level quenched PACKARD standard set that had an assayed value of 29,240 dpm/std + 1,6%. Quench correction for Internal Standard Method has been made for each sample of heavy water with Tritiated Water Internal Standard that had a tritium concentration of 2,51 x 106 dpm/g + 3,0%. A comparison between dilution factors, calculated both for D/(D+ H)% concentration and for tritium activity, measured by the two methods, is discussed in this paper. Internal Standard Method provides accurate results especially for lower D/(D+H)% concentration, which is the environmental samples case. Commercial standards set don't fulfill the exigency of an accurate environmental tritium measurement. It must consider the following problems: type of vial, type of scintillant, filled volume and counting geometry. Even if you make your own standard set for quenching calibration you must exceed another problem. The Compton electrons produced by external standard are energetic beta particles and do not have the same behavior of weak beta-particles in the sample itself. Hence a small amount quenching in tritium sample may remain undetected.(author)

223

Comparative study between external standard method and internal standard method for low-level tritium measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quenching is always present in coal samples and the degree of quenching can vary from one sample to another even within the same batch. This means that quench correction should be carried out for each sample in order to determine the activity so that comparisons can be done between samples and other batches. In this paper, a comparative study of tritium measurements between two methods used to correct for quenching is presented. The methods used to determine counting efficiency in the presence of quenching are as follows: Spectral Quench Parameter of External standard method (SQP(e)) and Internal Standard Method (ISM). In this work, a low background liquid scintillation system detector (Quantulus 1220) is used to determine tritium activity concentration in heavy water with different concentration from 99.66 D/H+D% to 1.65 D/D+H %. Standard calibration curve for the SQP(e) technique was carried out with 3 H low level quenched PACKARD standard set that had an assayed value of 29.240 dpm/std ±1.6%. Quench correction for Internal Standard Method was done for each sample of heavy water with Tritiated Water Internal Standard that had a tritium concentration of 2.51 x 106 dpm/g ± 3.0%. A comparison between dilution factors calculated for D/D+ H% concentration and dilution factors calculated for tritium activity measured by the two methods are presented in the paper. Internal Standard Method provides accurate results especially for lower D/D+H% concentults especially for lower D/D+H% concentrations, which are similar with the environmental sample. Commercial standards set do not fulfill the exigency of an accurate environmental tritium measurement. One must take into account the following problem: type of vial, type of scintillator, filled volume and counting geometry. Even if one makes his own standard set for quenching calibration one must cope to another problem. The Compton electrons produced by external standard are energetic beta particles in the sample itself. Hence a small amount of quenching in tritium sample may remain undetected. (authors)

224

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF CERTIFICATION PROCESS OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SA 8000 ON SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work is devoted to the development of general tool for determining the direction and priority of consideration and study of accumulated experience results in the world practice, obtained when development, implementation, and certification of the management systems according to the requirements of international standard SA 8000. To solve this problem, in this article, it was suggested to use input data presented by international organization SAAS (Social Accountability Accreditation Services, statistical and graphical methods of data processing and analysis, and “Pareto analysis” methodology. As a result of the conducted research, the general tool was developed, that allows to systematize the accumulated experience of management systems implementation and certification in the world practice, which is developed on the basis of international standard SA 8000. It was suggested to classify the accumulated experience according to such indicators as “quantity of organizations”, “quantity of personnel”, “industry”, and “continent”. It was shown that the most quantity of organizations having certified management system in conformity with the requirements of international standard SA 8000, and the most quantity of personnel in certified organizations was concentrated in Asia. It was found that the most widespread branches of industry in regard to the certification of their management systems in conformity with the requirements of this standard are such branches as “construction”, “apparel”, and “textiles” industries.

Morteza RAJABZADEH

2013-01-01

225

International standardization of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee in vitro experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to improve and standardize cage systems for maintaining adult honey bee workers under in vitro laboratory conditions. To achieve this goal, we experimentally evaluated the impact of different cages, developed by scientists of the international research network COLOSS (Preve...

226

Changing international health policy and changing international development goals  

OpenAIRE

The World Health Organisation (WHO) was founded in 1948 with a remit to promote public health around the world. The WHO’s constitution sets out its objective as ‘the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health’ (WHO, 1948). The paper raises broad questions over the aspirations and practice of international health policy in its international political and development context. The paper explores how international health policy has been informed by evolving internatio...

Pupavac, Vanessa

2008-01-01

227

Research and standardization in Alzheimer's trials: reaching international consensus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an epidemic facing the entire world. Increased knowledge gained during the past 25 years indicates that AD falls along a clinical and neuropathological spectrum represented as a continuum that extends from preclinical disease in which there are no symptoms, through early symptomatic phases, and finally to AD dementia. The Alzheimer's research community recognizes that imaging, body fluids, and cognitive biomarkers contribute to enhanced diagnostic confidence for AD. There has also been emerging consensus regarding the use of AD biomarkers in clinical trials. The use of biomarkers in clinical trials and practice is hampered by the lack of standardization. In response to the emerging need for standardization, an international meeting of AD researchers was held in Melbourne, Australia, in March 2012 to bring together key researchers, clinicians, industry, and regulatory stakeholders with the aim of generating consensus on standardization and validation of cognitive, imaging, and fluid biomarkers, as well as lifestyle parameters used in research centers worldwide. PMID:23266004

Carrillo, Maria C; Rowe, Christopher C; Szoeke, Cassandra; Masters, Colin L; Ames, David; O'Meara, Tim; Macaulay, S Lance; Milner, Andrew; Ellis, Kathryn A; Maruff, Paul; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Martins, Ralph N; Bain, Lisa J; Head, Richard J

2013-03-01

228

Introduction of International Quality Standards into the Practice of Domestic High-tech Enterprises ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????????????? ???????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of the article is to reflect urgency of issues of introduction of the principles of international quality standards into the practice of domestic high-tech enterprises, namely: telecommunication enterprises. Analysing, systemising and generalising scientific works of many scientists, statistical information and materials of enterprises, the article considers evolution of quality standards, their actuality and also the level of loyalty of domestic telecommunication companies towards the quality management system. In the result of the study the article identifies problems of adaptation of international principles of management on the basis of ISO 9000 standards into the practice of domestic high-tech companies. Prospects of studies in this direction are based on the study of specific features of perception of international practice of managing enterprises and personnel, development of methods of introduction of management systems and combination of the process and functional approaches to management.???? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????, ? ??????: ??????????? ???????????????????? ?????. ??????????, ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????????, ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ?? ????????????, ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????. ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ISO ????? 9000 ? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????. ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??????????.

Moiseyenko Tetyana Ye.

2013-10-01

229

24 CFR 971.3 - Standards for identifying developments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Standards for identifying developments. 971...3 Standards for identifying developments. ...following standards for identifying developments or...as reported on the Form HUD-51234 (Report...PHAs will meet the test for assuring...

2010-04-01

230

The Development Status Quo and Counter measures of Logistics Informationization Standards of China  

OpenAIRE

The construction of logistics informationization standard system is related to the long-term development of the logistics industry. The domestic standard construction of logistics informationization is fairly lagged behind; problems such as few standards, incomplete systems, and low level of international conventions still exist. This paper studies the constitution of a logistics informationization standard system, differentiates ten categories of logistics informationization standards, and t...

Xu, Qian

2011-01-01

231

A comparison of internal standards for plant cytophotometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant cell nuclei were compared with chicken erythrocyte nuclei for use as internal standards for microspectrophotometry. The amount of DNA per nucleus and the coefficient of variation for measurement of individual nuclei were determined for cells from dormant embryos of Pinus taeda and Pinus coulteri, from onion root tips and from chicken erythrocytes. The chicken erythrocytes had the least variability and thus were best suited for use as a standard. Onion root tips were least suitable, with a coefficient of variation 2 1/2 times that of erythrocytes. Although onion root tips have been used as an internal standard in other studies, their mitotic activity, in contrast with the nonreplication of DNA of mature erythrocytes, is reflected in a broad distribution of nuclei with values in the 2C-4C range. Coulter pine mature embryos were at the 3C level, whether dry or hydrated, while loblolly pine embryos were in the 2C state. This confirms previous reports. The coefficient of variability for the pine embryo cells was 1 1/2 times that of erythrocytes for nonhydrated seeds and twice the erythrocyte value for hydrated seeds. The larger 2C values for pine (26 pg for P. taeda and 17 pg for P. coulteri) are closer to values expected for many plant species than the 3 pg level of the chicken erythrocytes. Dormant P. taeda embryo cells (2C) are suggested as an alternative where the experimental material has large DNA values and/or chicken erythrocytes are difficult to procure. Large sample size is recommended for the plant materials if they are to be used as internal standards in Feulgen cytophotometry. PMID:3787672

Berlyn, G P; Berlyn, M K; Beck, R C

1986-09-01

232

Packaging in the New Product Development Process : An International Perspective  

OpenAIRE

The thesis is conducted to investigate how packaging is taken into consideration within the new product development process and in which stages of the new product development process packaging actually is taken into consideration. Further we want to investigate if packaging has increased in importance within the activities of the new product development process, and how organizations deal with standardization of packaging for international markets in the new product development process. The p...

Nilsson, Pauline; Hult, Malin

2005-01-01

233

Developing Carbon Nanotube Standards at NASA  

Science.gov (United States)

Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are currently being produced and processed by several methods. Many researchers are continuously modifying existing methods and developing new methods to incorporate carbon nanotubes into other materials and utilize the phenomenal properties of SWCNTs. These applications require availability of SWCNTs with known properties and there is a need to characterize these materials in a consistent manner. In order to monitor such progress, it is critical to establish a means by which to define the quality of SWCNT material and develop characterization standards to evaluate of nanotube quality across the board. Such characterization standards should be applicable to as-produced materials as well as processed SWCNT materials. In order to address this issue, NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a protocol for purity and dispersion characterization of SWCNTs. The NASA JSC group is currently working with NIST, ANSI and ISO to establish purity and dispersion standards for SWCNT material. A practice guide for nanotube characterization is being developed in cooperation with NIST. Furthermore, work is in progress to incorporate additional characterization methods for electrical, mechanical, thermal, optical and other properties of SWCNTs.

Nikolaev, Pasha; Arepalli, Sivaram; Sosa, Edward; Gorelik, Olga; Yowell, Leonard

2007-01-01

234

Performance Standards for Teachers supporting Nursing Students’ Reflection Skills Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How can nursing teachers improve students’ reflection skills? In the study performance standards for teachers were developed and validated. A ten-step procedure was followed to ensure procedural and internal validity. National competences and specific content standards for supporting nursing reflection skills development formed the foundation of a preliminary rubric framework which was piloted. Forty participants from six nursing institutes judged the developed rubric framework of eight competences covering thirty rubric attributes. They also discussed the prerequisite minimum performance level and judgmental models. These judgments and discussions resulted in consensus on the rubric framework, a cut-off score, and a conjunctive judgmental model that is convenient for assessing nursing teachers’ competences. The rubrics can be used in a teacher training program. Also institutes of nursing education can employ the rubrics as a tool for preparing and formatively assessing reflection skills.

Agaath Dekker- Groen

2012-01-01

235

The Development Status Quo and Counter measures of Logistics Informationization Standards of China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The construction of logistics informationization standard system is related to the long-term development of the logistics industry. The domestic standard construction of logistics informationization is fairly lagged behind; problems such as few standards, incomplete systems, and low level of international conventions still exist. This paper studies the constitution of a logistics informationization standard system, differentiates ten categories of logistics informationization standards, and then elaborates on how to establish and improve various standards. Finally, this paper studies the countermeasures to promote the implementation of logistics informationization standards.
Key words: Logistics informationization; Standards; Status Quo; Countermeasures

Qian XU

2011-09-01

236

International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies the requirements of international and national regulatory bodies for patient safety. A culture of quality assurance and the need for scientific exchange at the international level have extended the requirements for standardization to many other areas. These include radiotherapy with heavy charged particles, brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. A major advance in radiotherapy over the past few years has been the growing use of proton and heavy ion irradiation facilities for cancer therapy. The increased use of brachytherapy, including the new application of intravascular brachytherapy, has resulted in the development of new standards and codes of practice in this area. In diagnostic radiology, including computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional procedures, the awareness of the importance of dose reduction to the patient has also lead to the development of codes of practice. In the field of nuclear medicine there is a need to increase the dissemination of standards and the development of international recommendations for dosimetry procedures. Every year there are several regional or international meetings on radiation physics applied to medicine or related areas. A meeting focused exclusively on dosimetry gives the unique opportunity to review in depth the developments and trends in this continuously changing field. By organizing this Symposium the IAEA maintains its longstanding tradition of disseminating knowledge, promoting expertise and supporting international co-operation in radiation dosimetry. The Symposium provided a forum where advances in radiation dosimetry during the past decade, not only in external beam radiotherapy but also in other areas of radiation medicine, can be disseminated and scientific knowledge exchanged. It will include areas that have been developed recently (e.g. intravascular therapy and hadron dosimetry), together with classic areas where the standardization of dosimetry may not have reached a mature stage (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). It will also summarize the present status

237

To standardize or not standardize international marketing : is it still a question?  

OpenAIRE

The standardization versus adaptation argument has been raging for years and international marketing research about it has spanned some four decades, attesting to its far reaching theoretical and practical relevance. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on this debate. Major theoretical and empirical contributions from companies’ and consumers’ points of view are presented. The importance of resolving this issue cannot be underestimated as it as an impact on segmentati...

Soares, Ana Maria; Farhangmehr, Minoo; Shoham, Aviv

2003-01-01

238

25 CFR 542.16 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology?  

Science.gov (United States)

...internal control standards for information technology? 542.16 Section 542...internal control standards for information technology? Link to an amendment...prevent error in general information technology procedures to go...

2010-04-01

239

25 CFR 542.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.15 What are the minimum internal control standards for credit? (a...Documentation of authorization by a person designated by management to...

2010-04-01

240

Center for International Development at Harvard University  

Science.gov (United States)

Established in 1998 by the Harvard Institute for International Development and the Kennedy School of Government, the Center for International Development (CID) is Harvard's primary center for research on sustainable international development. The CID is currently headed by Professor Dani Rodrik, who provides oversight and direction for the Center. On the site, visitors can learn about upcoming international development conferences sponsored by the Center, read about the various persons working at the Center, learn about various research programs, along with reading various reports associated with each area of inquiry. The site also contains a host of links to online research data sets for persons working in the field of international development, and to the Center's working papers and special reports. Some of the more compelling working papers address the situation of sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa and the rise and fall of the Indonesian economy.

241

EFFECTS OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS CONCERNING THE FINANCIAL CONTROL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the "normalization accounting practices" specific anglo-saxon countries, it is devoid of normative reference systems being influenced by operational practice. Accounting rules that define economic evaluation procedures for recording and best practices resulting from active and fully recognized by professional accountants that are encoded by authoritative professional bodies, respecting the best financial and economic doctrines. Yet another object of the work is to show the effects of international standards of financial reporting on financial audit and financial control then the accountant.

Gheorghe MOROSAN

2014-02-01

242

Development of American National Standard on External Event PRA Methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last ten years, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S. nuclear utilities have been developing methods and requirements for risk-informed applications making use of probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of nuclear power plants. Early in this process, it became clear that the existing PRAs were done with different objectives and methodologies by different analysts. For uniformity and consistency in future risk-informed applications, industry consensus standards on probabilistic risk assessments were deemed to be essential. Currently, the following standards have been published or under preparation: - ASME RA-S-2002: 'Standard for Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Nuclear Power Plant Applications', Addendum C, March 2005. - ANSI/ANS-58.21-2003 'External-Events PRA Methodology' March 2003. - ANS-58.22 'Low Power and Shutdown PRA Standard'. - ANS-58.23 'Fire PRA Methodology Standard'. - ANS Level 2 and Level 3 PRA Standards. The ASME Standard specifies the requirements for performing PRA for internal events under full power conditions. ANS 58.21 specifies the requirements for conducting PRA of external events under full power conditions. These standards have been published, whereas the other standards are under preparation. ANS 58.21 was prepared by a working group comprised of the following individuals: - Dr. R.J. Budnitz, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. - Dr. N.C. Chokshi, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. - W. Henries, Maine Yankee Atomimmission. - W. Henries, Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company. - Dr. M.K. Ravindra, ABS Consulting, (Current Chair of Working Group). - Dr. J.D. Stevenson, J.D. Stevenson Consultants. - T. Yee, Southern California Edison Company. The development of this Standard was guided and approved by the Risk Informed Standards Committee (RISC) of American Nuclear Society. This committee has presently 22 members drawn from different sectors of the nuclear industry: utilities, reactor vendors, universities, research organizations, architect engineers, consultants and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In addition, the Working Group had sent early drafts of the Standard to a select group of peers in different elements of the external event PRA; this peer group included industry experts like Professor Allin Cornell, Dr. Robert Kennedy, and Mr. David Moore. The final requirements in the Standard hence represent the consensus of the industry. (author)

243

CSNI International Standard Problems (ISP). Brief descriptions (1975-1994)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 1975 and 1994 the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored some forty International Standard Problems (ISPs) in the fields of in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulics. ISPs are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of tools which are used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. Moreover, they enable code users to gain experience and demonstrate their competence. ISPs are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. In an open Standard Problem the results of the experiment are available to the participants before performing the calculations, while in a blind Standard Problem the results are locked until the calculational results are made available for comparison. Experiments selected to support ISP exercises are exceptionally well documented; they provide the framework for several code validation matrices. This report briefly describes 36 ISPs and 3 containment analysis standard problems (CASP)

244

Comparison of international standards for digital safety system verification and validation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was performed to evaluate different international standards for software verification and validation of digital safety systems suitable for nuclear power plant applications. Since the verification and validation of the digital safety system should be considered from the entire digital system life-cycle point of view, the standards for each phase of the life cycle of the safety system were compared. The major phases of the digital system life cycle considered are system requirements, system test-bed requirements, design and construction, system hardware and software specifications, designs, test, integration, plant implementation, and maintenance phases. Some of the conclusions are: 1) there are too many standards; 2) none of the existing standards provide complete guidance to the developer, regulator, and managers for consistently and practically applying the standards at each phase of the life-cycle; 3) there is no uniformity among the international standards concerning the level of depth and details to be followed by the users; 4) inconsistencies among the standards and their interpretations have led to practical difficulties among developers and regulators; 5) practical guidance on how to handle verification and validation issues such as how to identify and test unintended functions, how to handle common cause failures, what are the qualitative and quantitative reliability measures to use, how much testing is good enough is either missing or not addressed. nough is either missing or not addressed. The authors recommend that a uniform international standard and a practical framework for the digital safety system verification and validation should be developed and the efforts in this direction should start now. (Author) 37 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

245

The Global Career Development Facilitator Credential: An International Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

The Global Career Development Facilitator (GCDF) credential was established to provide professional training and standards for individuals working in the career field. GCDF programs are now available in the United States and 10 other countries. The authors highlight the first international GCDF program in New Zealand, new online GCDF training in…

Furbish, Dale; Neault, Roberta A.; Pickerell, Deirdre

2009-01-01

246

Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy to Teach the Internal Standard Method  

Science.gov (United States)

The internal standard method is widely applied in quantitative analyses. However, most analytical chemistry textbooks either omit this topic or only provide examples of a single-point internal standardization. An experiment designed to teach students how to prepare an internal standard calibration curve is described. The experiment is a modified…

Bellamy, Michael K.

2010-01-01

247

Recent developments in turbine blade internal cooling.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on turbine blade internal cooling. Internal cooling is achieved by passing the coolant through several rib-enhanced serpentine passages inside the blade and extracting the heat from the outside of the blades. Both jet impingement and pin-fin-cooling are also used as a method of internal cooling. In the past number of years there has been considerable progress in turbine blade internal cooling research and this paper is limited to reviewing a few selected publications to reflect recent developments in turbine blade internal cooling. PMID:11460626

Han, J C; Dutta, S

2001-05-01

248

International cooperation in detector research and development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The international collaboration dealing with the research and development (R and D) of detectors for TeV region physics is reported. In this report, it is attempted to analyze which and in what form interregional R and D on detectors may be suitable for the experiment at a hadron machine. Calorimetry was used as an example to illustrate the range of development required. An important and successful aspect of interregional collaboration concerns the definition of standard in the field of data acquisition. The reconstruction of the complete system is required, and this implies the measurement of all particles. This can be done only with calorimetric techniques. The methodical and technological development of calorimetry is presented. The role of the tracking and momentum analysis will require reassessment. Tracking will be essential for several auxiliary measurement. For the R and D, the collaboration between different groups has been made. For example, the ring-imaging Cherenkov tests, the uranium calorimeter tests and the test of a uranium-liquid argon hadron calorimeter were made by the collaboration of several groups. The collaboration with industry has been also made. (Kato, T.)

249

The role of international standards in the design of modern I ampersand C systems for nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper begins with a historical perspective on the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and their technical committees IEC TC 45 and ISO TC 85, which have developed mutual agreements to avoid duplication of effort in standardization development for reactor instrumentation. In 1976 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published safety standards and guides. In early 1981 agreements were reached between IAEA and IEC to avoid duplication of effort in regard to instrumentation and control systems used for protection, control, and monitoring nuclear power plants. Following these agreements, the IEC has made major efforts directed at development of I ampersand C standards for nuclear power plants. The paper then reviews standards work relevant to NPP I ampersand C systems. This has covered areas such as the application of digital computer control systems, classification and graded requirements for I ampersand C systems important to safety, design efforts for the main control room, and advanced measurement and monitoring systems

250

78 FR 50259 - Derivatives Clearing Organizations and International Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...milestone in the global development of...in creating a global, unified set...standards for financial market infrastructures...2008 financial crisis and the experience...competition in the global markets. Proposed...with enhanced financial and liquidity...and accordingly avoid an...

2013-08-16

251

Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures

252

Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures.

1992-05-01

253

Diagnosis of moyamoya disease: international standard and regional differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Moyamoya disease is a chronic, occlusive cerebrovascular disease with unknown etiology characterized by bilateral steno-occlusive changes at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. These diagnostic criteria of the moyamoya disease, stated by the Research Committee on Spontaneous Occlusion of the Circle of Willis (moyamoya disease) in Japan, are well established and generally accepted as the definition of this rare entity. On the contrary to the diagnosis of definitive moyamoya disease, there is some confusion in the terminology and understanding of quasi-moyamoya disease; moyamoya disease in association with various disease entities, such as atherosclerosis, autoimmune diseases, Down syndrome, etc. Although the clinical management is not affected by these semantic distinctions, terminological confusion may interfere with the international collaboration of the clinical investigation of these rare conditions. In this article, we sought to review the international standard and regional differences in the diagnosis of moyamoya disease and quasi-moyamoya disease. PMID:25739428

Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji

2015-03-15

254

Developments in standards and other guidance for individual monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years there has been a huge increase in the development and publication of standards, documents of relevance and other guidance for individual monitoring (IM), particularly for external radiation. An extensive list of the main documents published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), International Organisation for Standardization (ISO), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), CEN/CENELEC, European Council (EC) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) can be found elsewhere [Fantuzzi, E., Alves, J.G., Ambrosi, P., Janzekovic, H., Vartiainen, E., 2004. Implementation of standards for individual monitoring in Europe. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 112 (1), 3-44; Fantuzzi, E., 2007. Standards, documents of relevance and directives in individual monitoring: is European individual monitoring in compliance with standards? Radiat. Prot. Dosim., doi: (10.1093/rpd/ncl568)]. In March 2007 ICRP approved a new set of fundamental recommendations that will replace ICRP Publication 60. Similarly to what has happened in the past with previous ICRP Publications 26 and 60, it is expected that this document will inspire the revision of the Basic Safety Standards of the IAEA [Safety Series 115, 1996. International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. IAEA, Vienna] and of the European Union (EC Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM) and consequently of national legislation in the respective member states. In order to implement the radiation protection principles laid down in the BSS both the IAEA and EC have regularly published guidance documents. EC published in 1994 EUR 14852 entitled Technical recommendations for monitoring individuals occupationally exposed to external radiation that was a powerful tool for all the participants to the field of IM (radiation protection authorities, individual monitoring services and users) summarizing concepts and contributing to the improvement of quality and the reliability of results. Particularly over the last decade, EURADOS WG2 has actively contributed to harmonization of IM in Europe, publishing reports (, ), organizing an intercomparison in 1999. A 'series' of workshops on IM to disseminate WG activity star, organizing an intercomparison in 1999. A 'series' of workshops on IM to disseminate WG activity started: IM-2000 was held in Helsinki organized by STUK, IM-2005 was held in Vienna organized by ARCS, EURADOS and IAEA (Radiat. Prot. Dosim. advance access). Recent WG2 actions included the review of EUR 14852 and the preparation of a proposal to organize self-sustained intercomparisons. In September 2006, EC issued a call for a tender on the establishment of European technical recommendations. A consortium comprising GAEC and EURADOS prepared and presented a proposal. Following the evaluation procedure EC awarded a contract to the consortium: the EU-Trimer project. This paper will cover the main ICRP and ICRU quantities and requirements, standards and other guidance documents recently published or in course of development in order to achieve harmonization of practices and procedures for IM of external radiation. The main aspects of the EU-Trimer project will also be addressed.

Alves, Joao G. [Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: jgalves@itn.pt

2008-02-15

255

Developments in standards and other guidance for individual monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years there has been a huge increase in the development and publication of standards, documents of relevance and other guidance for individual monitoring (IM), particularly for external radiation. An extensive list of the main documents published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), International Organisation for Standardization (ISO), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), CEN/CENELEC, European Council (EC) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) can be found elsewhere [Fantuzzi, E., Alves, J.G., Ambrosi, P., Janzekovic, H., Vartiainen, E., 2004. Implementation of standards for individual monitoring in Europe. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 112 (1), 3-44; Fantuzzi, E., 2007. Standards, documents of relevance and directives in individual monitoring: is European individual monitoring in compliance with standards? Radiat. Prot. Dosim., doi: (10.1093/rpd/ncl568)]. In March 2007 ICRP approved a new set of fundamental recommendations that will replace ICRP Publication 60. Similarly to what has happened in the past with previous ICRP Publications 26 and 60, it is expected that this document will inspire the revision of the Basic Safety Standards of the IAEA [Safety Series 115, 1996. International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. IAEA, Vienna] and of the European Union (EC Council Directivef the European Union (EC Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM) and consequently of national legislation in the respective member states. In order to implement the radiation protection principles laid down in the BSS both the IAEA and EC have regularly published guidance documents. EC published in 1994 EUR 14852 entitled Technical recommendations for monitoring individuals occupationally exposed to external radiation that was a powerful tool for all the participants to the field of IM (radiation protection authorities, individual monitoring services and users) summarizing concepts and contributing to the improvement of quality and the reliability of results. Particularly over the last decade, EURADOS WG2 has actively contributed to harmonization of IM in Europe, publishing reports (, ), organizing an intercomparison in 1999. A 'series' of workshops on IM to disseminate WG activity star, organizing an intercomparison in 1999. A 'series' of workshops on IM to disseminate WG activity started: IM-2000 was held in Helsinki organized by STUK, IM-2005 was held in Vienna organized by ARCS, EURADOS and IAEA (Radiat. Prot. Dosim. advance access). Recent WG2 actions included the review of EUR 14852 and the preparation of a proposal to organize self-sustained intercomparisons. In September 2006, EC issued a call for a tender on the establishment of European technical recommendations. A consortium comprising GAEC and EURADOS prepared and presented a proposal. Following the evaluation procedure EC awarded a contract to the consortium: the EU-Trimer project. This paper will cover the main ICRP and ICRU quantities and requirements, standards and other guidance documents recently published or in course of development in order to achieve harmonization of practices and procedures for IM of external radiation. The main aspects of the EU-Trimer project will also be addressed

256

Developing tendency of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) reflected by international open publications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the international open papers and technology standards on EMP, briefly introduce the subjects and works developed in the recent years by international relevant organizations, including the definitions of HPEM and IEMI, the classifications, hazards, protections and technology standardizations of EMP. The series standards developed by the Subcommittee 77 C (SC 77C) of IEC are introduced as an emphasis. Finally some proposals are presented for the civil development of EMP technologies. (authors)

257

ASTM international workshop on standards and measurements for tissue engineering scaffolds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds" was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN, and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active "guide" documents for educational purposes, but few standard "test methods" or "practices." Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition, and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Workshop participants emphasized the need to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization. Finally, participants noted that standards would be more broadly accepted if their impact in the TEMPs community could be quantified. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus is turning to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014. PMID:25220952

Simon, Carl G; Yaszemski, Michael J; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A

2014-09-15

258

Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances in scientific and engineering understanding. We present a draft outline that can be used as the basis for such a standard.

Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

259

25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...  

Science.gov (United States)

...these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a...

2010-04-01

260

Standards of Care for Juvenile Sexual Offenders of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Offenders  

OpenAIRE

Minimal standards for treatment of adult sexual offenders were adopted by the membership of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Offenders (IATSO) at its first membership General Assembly in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in May 2000 (Coleman, Dwyer, Abel, Berner, Breiling, Eher, et al., 2000; 2003). These standards, initially developed in 1990 with input from attendees at the Second International Conference on Sexual Offender Treatment held in Minneapolis, Minnesota (Coleman ...

Michael Miner; Charles Borduin; David Prescott; Helle Bovensmann; Renate Schepker; Reinmar Du Bois; Joann Schladale; Reinhard Eher; Klaus Schmeck; Thore Langfeldt; Arina Smit; Friedemann Pfäfflin

2006-01-01

261

Some aspects of international nuclear standardization in the International Electrotechnical Commission and related bodies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some reasons for international standardisation in the nuclear industry are put forward and the work being done in the IEC and ISO is outlined. The structure of the IEC, methods of working in standards technical committees and sub-committees and the way in which national committees interface with them are described. Methods by which projects can be put forward and progressed are noted and some of the liaisons between IEC/TC45 and other bodies are mentioned. (author)

262

Current state of development of radioactivity standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The range of radioactivity standards (according to UVVVR Catalogue of Standards) comprises 60 different radionuclides and is completed or changed as required by the needs of the national economy. The basic type is the ER Standard, the aqueous solution of a suitable chemical form of the radionuclide. Newly introduced standards called type EFS, are produced containing the radionuclides 57Co, 139Ce, 203Hg, 85Sr, 137Cs, 54Mn, 60Co, 88Y, 133Ba, 152Eu, 56Co. Other standards being introduced include carrier-free standard solutions of radionuclides, alpha, beta, X and gamma standard foils, standards of the gaseous forms of 3H, 85Kr, 131I, 133Xe, a set of large-area standards with 90(Sr+Y) and large-area standards of beta series radionuclides of high metrological value. (H.S.)

263

The protection of the accused in international criminal law according to the Human Rights Law Standard  

OpenAIRE

The presented paper discusses the influence of international human rights law on international criminal law. It tries to give an answer to the question of whether rules protecting the accused in international criminal proceedings meet the human rights law standard provided by international declarations and covenants. Meaning, if the proceedings before the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and International Criminal ...

Karolina Kremens

2011-01-01

264

QUALITY CONTROL ACTIVITIES OF AUDIT ORGANIZATIONS: RELATIV ANALYSIS OF FEDERAL STANDARDS ON AUDITING (FSAD AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON AUDITING (ISA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the results of the comparison of the provisions of the Federal standards on auditing and international auditing standards in terms of quality control of work audit organizations; we have also identified the pros and cons of these standards

Kucherenko S. A.

2014-12-01

265

International comparison of calibration standards for exposure and absorbed dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison was performed of the primary calibration standards for 60Co gamma radiation dose from Czechoslovakia (UDZ CSAV, Prague), Austria (OEFZS/BEV Seibersdorf) and Hungary (OMH Budapest) using ND 1005 (absolute measurement) and V-415 (by means of Nx) graphite ionization chambers. BEV achieved agreement better than 0.1%, OMH 0.35%. Good agreement was also achieved for the values of exposure obtained in absolute values and those obtained via Nx, this for the ND 1005/8105 chamber. The first ever international comparison involving Czechoslovakia was also performed of the unit of absorbed gamma radiation in a water and/or graphite phantom. The participants included Czechoslovakia (UDZ CSAV Prague), the USSR (VNIIFTRI Moscow) and Austria (OEFZS/BEV Seibersdorf). In all measurements, the agreement was better than 1%, which, in view of the differences in methodologies (VNIIFTRI, BEV: calorimetry, UDZ, UVVVR: ionometry) and the overall inaccuracies in determining the absorbed dose values, is a good result. (author)

266

Contribution from twenty two years of CSNI International Standard Problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a brief overview on the contribution of some CSNI International Standard Problems (ISPs) to nuclear reactor safety issues (41 ISPs performed over the last 22 years). This CSNI activity on ISPs has been one of the major activities of the Principal Working Group no.2 on Coolant System Behaviour. Its domain extended from thermal-hydraulics to several other accident domains following the main concerns of nuclear reactor safety, e.g., LOCA predictions fuel behaviour, operator procedures, containment thermal-hydraulics severe accidents, VVERs, etc. ISPs are providing unique material and benefits for some safety related issues. Clearly, all the technical findings and benefits provided by ISPs are still needed and contribute to advancement of nuclear safety. The report provides some overview on the general objectives of ISPs, content and types of ISPs, and technical domains covered by ISPs, followed by a synthesis of technical findings and benefits to the scientific community

267

Good clinical practice: International quality standard for clinical trials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A clinical trial is one of the most important examples of experimental studies. Clinical trials represent an indispensable tool for testing, in a rigorous scientific manner, the efficacy of new therapies. Good Clinical Practice is an international ethical and scientific quality standard for clinical trials, concerning the design, conduct, performance, monitoring auditing, recording, analysis and reporting. This is an assurance to the public that the rights, safety and well-being of trial subjects are protected, and that clinical trial data is credible. The above definitions are consistent with the principles that have their origin in the declaration of Helsinki. The objectives of Good Clinical Practice are to protect the rights of trial subjects, to enhance credibility of data and to improve the quality of science.

Radulovi? Siniša S.

2003-01-01

268

Standards of radium-226: from Marie Curie to the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the early part of the 20th century, the pioneers of radioactivity research, led by Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford and Stefan Meyer, formed a Commission internationale des étalons de radium. The Commission made arrangements for the preparation and intercomparisons of the international standards of radium, which were identified as the Paris standard and the Vienna standard. Otto Hönigschmid from Vienna prepared a first set of international secondary standards in 1912 and a second set in 1934. In both instances, these secondary standards were compared by gamma-ray measurements with the Paris and Vienna standards. The usage of these international standards of radium in the 20th century is described. PMID:11839059

Coursey, B M; Collé, R; Coursey, J S

2002-01-01

269

Standards of radium-226: from Marie Curie to the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early part of the 20th century, the pioneers of radioactivity research, led by Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford and Stefan Meyer, formed a Commission internationale des etalons de radium. The Commission made arrangements for the preparation and intercomparisons of the international standards of radium, which were identified as the Paris standard and the Vienna standard. Otto Hoenigschmid from Vienna prepared a first set of international secondary standards in 1912 and a second set in 1934. In both instances, these secondary standards were compared by gamma-ray measurements with the Paris and Vienna standards. The usage of these international standards of radium in the 20th century is described

270

A systems process lifecycle standard for very small entities: development and pilot trials  

OpenAIRE

Very small entities, organizations with up to 25 people, are very important to the worldwide economy. The products they develop are either developed specifically for a customer or are integrated into products made by larger enterprises. To address the needs of Very small entities, a set of standards and guides have been developed using the systems engineering lifecycle standard ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 as the main framework. The systems engineering handbook, developed by the International Council o...

Laporte, Claude; O Connor, Rory

2014-01-01

271

White Paper: functionality and efficacy of wrist protectors in snowboarding—towards a harmonized international standard  

OpenAIRE

The wrist is the most frequently injured body region among snowboarders. Studies have shown that the risk of sustaining a wrist injury can be reduced by wearing wrist protection. Currently, there are a wide variety of wrist protection products for snowboarding on the market that offer a range of protective features. However, there are no minimum performance standards for snowboarding wrist protectors worldwide. The International Society for Skiing Safety convened a task force to develop a Whi...

Michel, Frank I.; Schmitt, Kai-uwe; Greenwald, Richard M.; Russell, Kelly; Simpson, Frank I.; Schulz, David; Langran, Mike

2013-01-01

272

AGRARIAN ACCOUNTANCY IN THE VISUAL CONE OF INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After a long period during which agriculture did not have a standard of its own and applied for that matter the IAS 2 rules regarding inventories; IAS 16 regarding property, plant and equipment and IAS 18 regarding revenues, one last standard is being born – IAS 41. The late appearance of this standard is compensated by the great attention granted from the IASC, as agriculture is very important for those countries in course of development. IAS 41 is operative for those financial statements starting with the 1 of January 2003. The current standard is applied to account those elements regarding agricultural activities. IAS 41 is does not deal: with genuine exploiting activities, with harvested agricultural products, which are non biological products, or with the agricultural production, which is incorporated in the processing process. The activity will follow the financial reporting guidelines imposed by IAS 41 if: (athe plants or animals, that represent the object of the activities, are living and suitable for transformation; (b the change must be controlled, a fact which implies a range of activities like ground fertilizing and crop cultivation, feeding and medical assistance while breeding animals;(cthere have to exist fundamentals for evaluating changes like: the degree at which plants ripen, the animals weight, the trees circumference. The most important feature of this standard is the request for evaluating the biological assets at each balance sheet date at its fair value. Taking into consideration the limited framework of the current standard, beside of the explicit exceptions, all IAS must also be applied in agriculture.

Daniela SIMTION

2014-04-01

273

Developments in safety standards and regulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper explains, in broad terms, how regulatory control is exercised over licensed nuclear installations in the UK and how HSE has developed its safety standards to support its regulatory approach. It first sets out the scope of HSE's regulatory responsibilities, which NII exercises on its behalf, and briefly describes the licensing process and compliance monitoring through inspection over the life of a nuclear plant. It also refers to the role of assessment in NII's decision-making processes, and the part played in this by the consideration of costs and safety benefits. It then moves on to consider the challenges that HSE/NII are likely to face from the changing nuclear industry in the second half of the 1990s. (author)

274

International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC). Rev. 3.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The international Standard Industrial Classification of all economic activities (ISIC) is the international reference classification of productive economic activities. Its main purpose is to provide a set of activity categories that can be used for the production of statistics according to such activities. Since the adoption of the original version of ISIC in 1948, the majority of countries around the world have used ISIC or developed national classifications derived from ISIC. ISIC has therefore been providing guidance for countries in developing national activity classifications and has become an important tool for comparing statistical data on economic activities at the international level. The final draft of revision 3.1 of ISIC was considered and welcomed by the Statistical Commission at its thirty-third session in March 2002. It now replace the third revision of the classification which has been in use since 1989

275

CSNI International standard problems (ISP): brief descriptions (1975-1997)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last twenty years (1975-1999) the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored more than forty International Standard Problems (ISPs) in the fields of in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulic, and iodine behaviour in the containment. ISPs are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. The main characteristics of 41 ISPs completed between 1975 and 1999, and 3 containment analysis standard problems (CASPs) are briefly presented

276

Upgrade of internal events PSA model using the AESJ level-1 PSA standard for operating state  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2003, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) started to develop the Level-1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) standard of internal events for operating state (AESJ standard). The AESJ standard has been finished to be asked for public comment. Using the AESJ standard (draft version), the authors have upgraded the PSA model for Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) BWR-5 plant not only to reflect latest knowledge but also to ensure high quality of PSA model (not yet peer-reviewed) for the purpose of better operation and maintenance management of TEPCO BWR plants. For example, the categorization of structures, systems and components (SSCs) will be performed to improve nuclear reactor safety using information of risk importance. (author)

277

Convergence towards higher standards in international dental education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper emanates from the findings of "DentEd" and "DentEdEvolves," two sequential European Union-funded Thematic Network Projects on Dental Education. Despite the existence of EU Directives and Guidelines, which were devised to assure comparable and acceptable standards of dental education and competence gained from training programs, there are serious differences among countries. The differences are greater in those countries about to join an expanding EU, where the stomatological approach to education predominates. Both projects had considerable support and advice from the Association from Dental Education in Europe, the American Dental Education Association and the International Federation of Dental Education Associations. An international effort is now proposed to converge towards higher standards in dental education by agreeing to broad principles for the "Profile of an International Dentist" (see www.dented.org/dresden.php3). The UK's General Dental Council recently adopted its profile of a dentist, which is compatible with and related to the EU's Dental Directives and Guidelines (see www.gdc-uk.org/pdfs/first_five_years_2002.pdf). An agreed profile provides a basis on which to structure a pan-European approach and could be more widely adopted. Dental schools throughout the world might be asked to verify those elements with which their graduates actually comply. It is also intended to use the profile as a basis for a modularized approach that would facilitate students studying elements of their course in different universities as part of an EU drive towards convergence in third- level education. It is not intended to promote a single educational approach. Unfortunately, at this stage, it will have little impact on global ill health, mainly associated with poverty and more recently the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The University of Columbia's Earth Centre has made enormous strides in focusing attention on global health and deprivation. Almost one-sixth of the world's population is starving. In sub-Saharan Africa, where poverty is exacting its greatest toll, the HIV/AIDS pandemic is devastating populations, including health care workers. Realistically, our impact as dental educators on global health will be limited. Nevertheless, a better educated and understanding profession is more likely to apply the benefits of knowledge, science and affluence to help those most in need. PMID:15457978

Shanley, Diarmuid B

2004-01-01

278

Using a Flat Structure in a Hierarchical World: The Development of English Standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the three-year development of the Standards Project for English Language Arts. Discusses the context-centered framework, "bad news" from the Department of Education, funding from the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association, working with a more linear structure, and uncertainties in the standards

Milner, Joseph O.

1997-01-01

279

Community Colleges for International Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout the developing world, there is a debilitating lack of connection between tertiary education and economic growth. As a result, many tertiary institutions fail to address the particular human capital needs of the productive sector, thereby constraining economic growth, productivity and innovation. Existing employment opportunities go…

Hewitt, Martin J.; Lee, Ken

2006-01-01

280

Some issues with the international basic safety standards. A time for reflection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency has statutory functions for the development of radiation safety standards. Its basic safety standards have, for many years, been based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, taking account of the information on the biological effects of radiation exposure provided by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The latest version, the International Basic Safety Standards, was published in its final form in 1996, and, since then the Agency has been assisting with their implementation in a large number of States. The experience gained, combined with a more general reflection on these Standards, has led to the identification of a number of issues that will need to be considered in any future revision. A number of these issues arise largely through an insufficient recognition of the problems associated with turning the principles of protection into regulatory style requirements, which, out of necessity, need to be legally precise, but at the same time, enforceable. Some of these issues are discussed here. (author)

281

Some issues with the international basic safety standards - a time for reflection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency has statutory functions for the development of radiation safety standards. Its basic safety standards have, for many years, been based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, taking account of the information on the biological effects of radiation exposure provided by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The latest version - the International Basic Safety Standards - was published in its final form in 1996, and, since then the Agency has been assisting with their implementation in a large number of States. The experience gained, combined with a more general reflection on these Standards, has led to the identification of a number of issues that will need to be considered in any future revision. A number of these issues arise largely through an insufficient recognition of the problems associated with turning the principles of protection into regulatory style requirements, which, out of necessity, need to be legally precise, but at the same time, enforceable. Some of these issues are discussed here. (orig.)

282

Developing Ethics and Standards in Action Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a globalizing world, what role can social science research – particularly action research – play in order to address the risks of exclusion, poverty, social and physical insecurity and environmental deprivation? More specifically, how can this type of research be conducted in a participatory, responsible, transparent and scientific way? In other words: what about the ethics and standards in action research? This was the main focus of the World Congress on Action Research and Action Learning (August 2006 organized by the University of Groningen and the Higher Education Group of the Northern Netherlands. We begin by discussing the core characteristics of action research with reference to theory and practice. Reflection and action are key constituents of the process through the enactment of action research. The middle section draws upon the research findings presented at the congress and published in a book [B. Boog, J. Preece, M. Slagter and J. Zeelen (Eds. (2008 Towards Quality Improvement of Action Research. Developing Ethics and Standards, Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers]. Citing authors who contributed chapters to the book mentioned above, we analyze four important subthemes: ‘participation, power and rapport’; ‘quality of research and quality management’; ‘learning to solve your own problems in complex responsive social systems, and ‘heuristics (rules of thumb for action research practice’. Finally, we comment on possible quality improvements for action research. Our remarks relate to the problems of implementing the concept of participation, the ambition of action research to contribute to both knowledge production and social change and the need for systematic reconstruction (scientific validation of action research.

Ben Boog

2009-01-01

283

Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of method for evaluating mechanical stress of composite structures for aerospace use; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Koku uchuyo sentan fukugozai no kyodo hyoka hoho no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

R and D has been performed on methods to repair composite structures used in aerospace application, and on stress evaluation on repaired portions, targeting at establishment of international standardization. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. The current fiscal year has executed surveys on repair methods, selection of the repair methods, evaluation on the repairing processes, and compression strength evaluation on test samples given repairs. The method for repairing the sandwich-structure composite members was selected as a result surveys and discussions on published literatures. For the evaluation test on the repairing processes, specific repairing processes were established with reference to the result of surveys on the repair methods, which were applied to test samples having been given damages. In addition, discussions were given also on non-destructive inspection methods for sandwich panels. Regarding the strength test for repaired portions, a compression strength test was performed on test samples repaired by using adhesive after having been given damages, wherein data related to compression strength were obtained. Furthermore, a system was developed to analyze the scarf-like adhesive-repaired potions by using the two-dimensional finite element method model. (NEDO)

NONE

2001-03-01

284

Breeder development in international cooperation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Federal Republic of Germany is gathering experience in operating the test power plant KNK II and in building the breeder prototype SNR 300. In this matter licensing- and financial problems have to be managed. For the further development planning studies also taking the French breeder concept into account are about to be effected. In France and the Soviet Union they are already passing over from breeder prototype power plants to larger demonstration breeders. The USA are making up for the delays they caused during the past years due to political reasons. Great Britain, Japan, India and Italy have their own breeding reactor projects, and Switzerland and some more countries do investigations concerning parts of the breeder development. (orig.)

285

Application of a powdered-internal-standard method to plant and seaweed samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preparation method making use of liquid nitrogen combined with a powdered-internal-standard method has been established for seaweed and plant samples, whose elemental concentration has been attracting attention in various research fields. It is found that a powdered-internal-standard method developed by us in applicable to the powdered samples treated with liquid nitrogen with good accuracy and reproducibility. The results were compared with those obtained by direct-powder method and by chemical-ashing method and good agreement was obtained. In addition, it is found that the whole sample of large quantities was almost uniformized by this preparation method. Moreover, it becomes possible to obtain concentrations of all the concerned elements including iodine, chlorine and bromine, which are essential elements in the fields of life-sciences and are difficult to be analyzed by the chemical-ashing method. It is expected that the application to other biological samples is also promising. (author)

286

International financial markets and development  

OpenAIRE

The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the ‘casino economy’. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new...

Peter Wahl

2009-01-01

287

A novel PCR method for quantification of buckwheat by using a unique internal standard material.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel quantitative and specific method for detection of buckwheat, a known food allergen, in diverse food materials was developed by using a unique internal standard to compensate for the variability in DNA extraction and amplification efficiencies. The method was based on a real-time PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer region of Fagopyrum spp. and was designed to detect both cultivated and wild buckwheat, because wild buckwheat might be potentially allergenic. As the internal standard material, ground seeds of statice (Limonium sinuatum) were added to food samples prior to DNA extraction, and the amount of statice DNA measured by real-time PCR was used to standardize the buckwheat content. Statice, an ornamental plant, was chosen as the internal standard material because it was readily available and was inferred to be least likely to be commingled in foods. The specificity of the PCR system was tested against commonly used food materials of plant origin. Quantitative results expressed in buckwheat protein concentrations (mean +/- standard deviation) for various food samples prepared to contain 10 ppm (wt/wt) of buckwheat flour (corresponding to 1.2-microg/g [ppm] buckwheat protein) ranged from 0.7 +/- 0.2 (rice) to 0.9 +/- 0.4 (wheat) and for 100-ppm (wt/wt) samples (12-microg/g [ppm] buckwheat protein) from 7.7 +/- 1.0 (pepper) to 9.8 +/- 0.5 (wheat) microg/g (ppm). The method's accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were considered sufficient for detection of buckwheat contamination at the level required for compliance with the Japanese Food Allergen Labeling Regulation. PMID:17066931

Hirao, Takashi; Hiramoto, Masayuki; Imai, Shinsuke; Kato, Hisanori

2006-10-01

288

US agency for international development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author addresses the following questions in his presentation: what is USAID; where does the money go and who makes the decisions; where does USAID fund energy programs, and especially renewable energy; who are their `partners`; what is the approach to renewable energy; what in summary, has USAID funded that is relevant to village power. USAID is the foreign aid agency of the US Government. Approximately 75 countries receive regular assistance. The fiscal year 97 budget for the agency is approximately $5.8 billion. About half of the total budget goes to Israel, Egypt, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. These budgeting decisions are geopolitical. Congress earmarks total budgets for a few sectors or subjects, such as family planning. The goal of USAID`s renewable energy programs is simple: They are interested in accelerating the market penetration of commercial technologies. They do not engage in technology R&D. Developing countries have energy needs now, and commercial technologies are available now. USAID has taken note of the interest taken by subsidiaries of US utilities in the past couple of years in bringing their expertise and resources to bear on meeting the challenge of rural energy needs in developing countries. They believe that the entry into the market of these players could be one of the most important catalysts for making the rural energy revolution happen.

Pumfrey, R.

1997-12-01

289

International financial markets and development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the ‘casino economy’. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated [...] by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new actors are surfacing, e.g. the institutional investor (hedge funds, private equity funds, etc.), while new instruments are leading to highly leveraged and destabilising derivatives. The casino system has been promoted by governments and intergovernmental institutions to liberalise and deregulate financial markets. Although developing countries have not participated in the casino system, they have been suffering most from the spill-over into the real economy. The main lesson learnt is that the casino has to be closed.

Peter, Wahl.

290

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR POLAR TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.26)  

Science.gov (United States)

This SOP describes the method used for preparing surrogate recovery standard and internal standard solutions for the analysis of polar target analytes. It also describes the method for preparing calibration standard solutions for polar analytes used for gas chromatography/mass sp...

291

Harvard Institute for International Development (HIID)  

Science.gov (United States)

Founded in 1974, the Harvard Institute for International Development (HIID) is an interdisciplinary center at Harvard University whose mission is to assist the economic growth of developing nations. Publications on-site include an extensive compilation of Development Discussion Papers (1974-present) with selected full text on agricultural and food policy, education, taxation, economic reform, and environmental issues (1995-present), as well as research stemming from the Consulting Assistance on Economic Reform project (CAER) and International Tax Program. Recent HIID book reviews are also available, and interested parties may examine compilations on the East Asian Financial Crisis and the External Debt Problem in Central America at the Research page.

Harvard Institute for International Development.

1998-01-01

292

Analysis of International and National Hotel Chains Development in Ukraine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of the national hotel chains development in Ukraine and the sponsorship for the international hotel chains functioning are not only due to the country’s business and tourist attractiveness formation, taking into account Euro-2012, but also due to the necessity of high-quality expansion of dwelling and resort places choice for foreign and Ukrainian guests in accordance with their aims of arrival and individual preferences.In comparison with the international hotel chains, the national hotel chains have the following advantages: the local market adaptation; the country’s legislative base awareness; the best understanding of local traditions and customs; the standards development independence; the ability to react to the market changes quickly.The development of national hotel chains in Ukraine is in the initial stage. The formation of Ukrainian hotel chains is arising from the following objectives: support of increasing volumes of inbound tourism; service according to the international hotel service standards; employment in a services sector; enterprises support in the hotel business while developing hotel chains. The favorable geographic location of Ukraine, the low level of market saturation and the high hotel service demand favor the appearance of the international hotel chains in Ukraine.

G. Gorina

2011-03-01

293

An International Marketing Curriculum - Development and Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the process of market-driven curriculum design in the development of an undergraduate International Marketing (IM) major at Duquesne University (Pennsylvania) School of Business Administration. Reports on a market study revealing profiles and IM curriculum design preferences of exporting companies. Discusses the curriculum development,…

Abboushi, Suhail; Lackman, Conway; Peace, A. Graham

1999-01-01

294

INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS: A WAY FOR GLOBAL CONSISTENCY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reverberations of Wall Street had to be felt across the global banking system. Last September, the world economy seemed to be hurtling down in a way that had initially raised the spectre of the Great Depression in America of the late 1920s. This is based largely on the performance of stock markets which are supposed to reflect future trends in the real economy. However, such knowledge embedded in the markets can be imperfect, as we have learnt by now. In some ways, the global financial crisis and its fallout are forcing economic agents to acquire new knowledge in regard to what might happen in the future. It was difficult to explain rationally why the stock markets were furiously running up even as company balance sheets were still bleeding. A few years ago, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS were a distant possibility. Today, the reality is far different. We are in a dramatic shift that is fast making IFRS the most widely accepted accounting model in the world. As the business environment becomes increasingly global and companies routinely list on stock exchanges in many countries, the need for consistent worldwide reporting standards intensifies. IFRS clearly addresses this issue; its goal is to create comparable, reliable, and transparent financial statements that will facilitate greater cross-border capital raising, trade and better corporate governance practices. Thus acceptance of IFRS is gaining momentum across the globe. IFRS transition program for any organization will have multi –dimensional effect because of differences which exist between IFRS and Local GAAPs. The objectives of the paper is to highlight the nature of such differences with examples along with analysing the provisions of IFRS, comparative analysis of IFRS with Indian GAAP system, benefits, and major issues in first time adoption of IFRS in Indian companies with the help of case study of Indian corporate.

Ravindra Tripathi

2011-05-01

295

Further development of international safeguards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A promising area for technical development, leading to new safeguards approaches, is the further use of unattended instruments to make more effective use of inspector resources and to reduce intrusiveness. An unattended liquid-level monitor for reprocessing-plant accountability tanks was tested under the TASTEX program. With secure data recording, it can provide continuous coverage while the resident inspector is engaged in other tasks. Another development is for monitoring the feed and withdrawal streams at centrifuge enrichment plants. Unattended and protected instruments to measure enrichment of the feed, product, and tails streams, and the identification, gross and tare weights of cyclinders can provide a continuous record with only intermittent inspector presence. To reduce the number of interim inspections at LWR's, we are studying collection of surveillance information in secure, detachable TV data packages and having the operator send them to the Agency for review to detect any changes in the spent-fuel inventory. If it could not be verified that there had been no changes, an interim inspection would be made within the present three-month limit. Otherwise, the inspection could be deferred, with the annual inspection performed on schedule. We are looking at the hardware feasibility and tamper-resistance aspects, and the expected savings of inspector effort. After we have a clearer understanding of what might be done, the questions of adequacy and acceptability e questions of adequacy and acceptability can be addressed by the proper authorities. These examples demonstrate how innovation by the technical community can open new safeguards approaches for consideration by the Agency

296

Final comparison report for international standard problem n.22 (SPES)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

OECD-CSNI International Standard Problem 22 is a 'Loss of Feedwater with EFW delayed' test, performed in the SPES facility (SIET-Piacenza). The purpose of 'LOFW-EFW delayed' experiment is to obtain in the primary system of the facility the thermal-hydraulic conditions similar to the reference plant in the incidental transient of main feedwater total loss, in all the three steam generators, with a delayed intervention of the emergency feedwater system. It is a double blind exercise, characterized by a large participation of non-OECD countries sponsored by IAEA. The ISP22 Comparison Report is based on two fundamental elements: the comparison between the single Participants predictions and the experimental data, and the overall comparison among all calculations and test results. The conclusions drawn from these analyses highlight the major contributions to the observed discrepancies deriving from code limitations, user errors, experimental uncertainties. From a macroscopic point of view, it is concluded that most of the phenomena occurring in ISP22 experiment were generally predicted by the double blind predictions. A more accurate analysis of the single phenomena can nevertheless reveal relevant discrepancies between calculations and data. The document also contains a description of ISP22 Participants and input decks, and a collection of their comments on the differences between calculations and test results

297

International Standard Problem No. 43: Results and Lessons Learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1997, OECD/CSNI approved testing the mixing associated with inadvertent injection of a boron-dilute slug in a PWR primary system as International Standard Problem No. 43. The tests were performed in the UM 2 x 4 Loop, a reduced-height, reduced-pressure scale model of the TMI 2 reactor system. The experimental program consisted of four test series, which increased in realism from separate effect to integral facility. Participants collaborated with the UM 2 x 4 Loop staff in establishing key aspects of the experiment such as figures of merit and the simulation boundary. The facility description included CAD drawings of the system. The nominal test of series A was repeated 18 times to establish an experimental uncertainty band. It became clear that, while these tests agreed with respect to the global figure of merit, the flow patterns fell in two distinct groups. Small variations in initial/boundary conditions caused a change in Fr number that induced the different flow patterns. (author)

298

Development and legal nature of environmental standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author regards the environmental standards as a means to simplify decisions in the field of tension between law and natural sciences. The environmental standards should make ambiguous legal terms more tangible. The two most important simplifications of the environmental standards are: the generalization of the statement and its reduction to measurable magnitudes. The reliability of environmental standards is determined by the soundness of knowledge and experience, the critical point of permissible reduction and the mastering of measurement and evaluation problems. The liability of environmental standards is a difficult question, and also the scope of evaluation of the executive authority is a controversial question. The author mentions various aspects which might enrich the discussion. (HSCH)

299

Overweight and Obesity among Children (10-13 years) in Bahrain:A comparison between Two International Standards  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Obesity has become one of the main public health problems worldwide. Childhood obesity rate is growing very fast in both developed and developing countries. This paper aimed to explore the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children aged 10-13 years in Bahrain, and to find out the difference in this prevalence when using two international standards.

O Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Al-mannai, Mariam; Al-marzog, Qazi

2014-01-01

300

D.1.2.1 Assessment of methodologies, normative, standards and guidelines for sustainability of buildings at national, European and International level: Grant agreement no.: 244130; Revision  

OpenAIRE

The D1.2.1 Assessment of methodologies, normative, standards and guidelines for sustainability of buildings at national, European and International level is a public document delivered in the context of WP1, Task 1.2: Analysis of existing methodologies, normative, standards and guidelines related to the sustainability of buildings with regard to develop the OPEN HOUSE methodology's baseline. This document is about the review of the current status of the development of international standards ...

Eberl, S.; Eßig, N.; Fischer, M.; Peyramale, V.

2012-01-01

301

Application of ISO standard 27048: Dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future. (authors) in the very near future. (authors)

302

Comparison requirements of national and international standards for stainless steel pipes of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents review of standards and specification for stainless steel of X18H10T series used in NPP structures. The article is aimed at displaying mismatches between pipes under different standards. National standards should be put in compliance with European regulations. Therefore, requirements for national NPP pipes should be put in compliance with international standards, rules and regulations

303

The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services  

OpenAIRE

The article dealt with institutional aspects of auditing profession, mostly their impact on international harmonization concept of auditing services. The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services behavior and development, mostly in context of providing the auditing services. The authors mention on the IAASB priorities in this area set for period...

Ladislav Kareš; Petra Krišková

2008-01-01

304

Harmonizing the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) sound level meter specification standards  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been over 20 years since the last major revision of the American National Standard Specification for Sound Level Meters, S1.4-1983 (R2002). This is the most extensively referenced ANSI acoustical standard, with wide application to architectural acoustics, soundscapes, environmental noise, and hearing conservation. A new revision is proposed that conforms as closely as possible to the recently developed International Electrotechnical Commission Standard for Electroacoustics-Sound Level Meters Part 1: Specifications, IEC 61672-1 (2002-05). This proposed revision represents an improvement over ANSI S1.4-1983, particularly in its frequency response tolerance limits at high frequencies, and impulse (toneburst) response. Also, it incorporates the high-frequency electrical design goals and tolerance limits for A-weighted response that were specified in Amendment S1.4A-1985, and it maintains the more restrictive low-frequency tolerance limits of the earlier (1983) specification, compared to IEC 61672-1. The proposed revision maintains the laboratory precision Type 0 specification, which is absent in IEC 61672-1, while incorporating the specifications for integrating-averaging sound level meters previously given in ANSI S1.43-1997. Sound level meters which meet the Type 1 and Type 2 specification requirements, respectively, in this S1.4 revision will also meet the Class 1 and Class 2 specification requirements of 61672-1.

Brooks, Bennett M.

2005-09-01

305

CSA's update on development of Canadian codes and standards for solar energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) is accredited by the Standards Council of Canada (SCC) which oversees Canada's national standards systems. The CSA is the administrator to the Canadian subcommittee on the IEC Technical Committee 82 for solar PV energy systems. Standards and codes are tools used by government policy makers to protect public health, safety and the environment. They also influence technology development and trade. The SCC also accredits organizations that provide conformity assessment services based on Canadian and international standards. The distinct operating units within the CSA include CSA International which conducts certification testing; OnSpex which conducts product evaluation; and, QMI which performs quality and environmental management registration. The CSA administers the census building process, approval processes and conformance to SCC approved standardization guidelines. This paper described the CSA standards development process from the preliminary evaluation stage, the proposal stage and preparatory stage in which a working draft is prepared and a project schedule is established. This is followed by the committee stage, enquiry stage, approval stage, publication stage and the maintenance stage in which the standard is subjected to a systematic five year review. The CSA Renewable Energy Committee develops standards for safety and performance of specific specialized energy conversion equipment and systems. The CSA solar energy codeent and systems. The CSA solar energy codes and standards in the Canadian Electrical Code refer to solar domestic hot water systems; seasonal use solar domestic hot water systems; the installation code for solar domestic hot water systems; and solar collectors. New editions of these codes and standards that are currently under development were also listed. Some codes are being modified to harmonize with American and international standards. A new standard has been proposed for the installation of non-packaged solar hot water systems

306

Aid for development of international trade  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of international trade was very impressive in the second half of 20th century. But even with these great development opportunities that growth of international trade can bring the small number of developed economies had succeeded to ripe benefits from it in order to develop their economies and reduce poverty. Even with the establishment of the World Trade Organization it was apparent that developing countries need assistance in order to integrate fully in international trade system. The Aid for Trade, which is a part of Official Development Assistance focusing on trade, has an aim to help developing countries build their trade capacity and the transport infrastructure so they can use trade as a powerful engine for economic growth. This paper set out to describe this new programme of trade aid developed under the auspices of WTO, as a multilateral project, to point out the readiness of donor countries and aims of beneficiary countries. But we will explore the linkages of Aid for Trade programme with bilateral and regional aid initiatives in the area of trade. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179029: Srbija u savremenim me?unarodnim odnosima: Strateški pravci razvoja i u?vrš?ivanja položaja Srbije u me?unarodnim integrativnim procesima - spoljnopoliti?ki, me?unarodni ekonomski, pravni i bezbedonosni aspekti

Bjeli? Predrag

2012-01-01

307

Framework for English Language Proficiency Development Standards Corresponding to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Many states have begun the process of developing or adapting English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards to align with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and the forthcoming Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). This need stems not only from a desire to ensure that "all" students receive the rigorous and systematic education they need to…

Council of Chief State School Officers, 2012

2012-01-01

308

Standards for PV Modules and Components -- Recent Developments and Challenges: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International standards play an important role in the Photovoltaic industry. Since PV is such a global industry it is critical that PV products be measured and qualified the same way everywhere in the world. IEC TC82 has developed and published a number of module and component measurement and qualification standards. These are continually being updated to take advantage of new techniques and equipment as well as better understanding of test requirements. Standards presently being updated include the third edition of IEC 61215, Crystalline Silicon Qualification and the second edition of IEC 61730, PV Module Safety Requirements. New standards under development include qualification of junction boxes, connectors, PV cables, and module integrated electronics as well as for testing the packaging used during transport of modules. After many years of effort, a draft standard on Module Energy Rating should be circulated for review soon. New activities have been undertaken to develop standards for the materials within a module and to develop tests that evaluate modules for wear-out in the field (International PV Module QA Task Force). This paper will discuss these efforts and indicate how the audience can participate in development of international standards.

Wohlgemuth, J. H.

2012-10-01

309

25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?  

Science.gov (United States)

...MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.11 What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering...g) Computer reports standards. (1) Adequate documentation...maintained evidencing the performance of all parimutuel...

2010-04-01

310

The development of internal fixation: Historical overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the ancient times, man was faced with the problem of fracture treatment, which is first described in the records from ancient Egypt. Ever since, many treatment methods have been developed, but the real revolution in the fracture treatment was achieved by internal fixation. Since it was described for the first time, at the end of the 18th century, this method has continuously developed, but sterilization, radiographies, anaesthesiology, antibiotics made this surgery modern and safe. The great ideas and practical solutions of the new methods were done by Albin Lambotte, William Arbuthnot Lane, Robert Danis, William Hey Groves. They lead to the expansion of this method and truly made the principles for the future AO school. New methods, biological internal fixation, minimally invasive procedures, new technologies and devices for internal fixation are introduced in the surgical practice daily. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175095 i br. 45005

Leši? Aleksandar R.

2012-01-01

311

The International Reference Ionosphere - Climatological Standard for the Ionosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) a joint project of URSI and COSPAR is the defacto standard for a climatological specification of ionospheric parameters. IRI is based on a wide range of ground and space data and has been steadily improved since its inception in 1969 with the ever-increasing volume of ionospheric data and with better mathematical descriptions of the observed global and temporal variation patterns. The IRI model has been validated with a large amount of data including data from the most recent ionospheric satellites (KOMPSAT, ROCSAT and TIMED) and data from global network of ionosondes. Several IRI teams are working on specific aspects of the IRI modeling effort including an improved representation of the topside ionosphere with a seamless transition to the plasmasphere, a new effort to represent the global variation of F2 peak parameters using the Neural Network (NN) technique, and the inclusion of several additional parameters in IRI, e.g., spread-F probability and ionospheric variability. Annual IRI workshops are the forum for discussions of these efforts and for all science activities related to IRI as well as applications of the IRI model in engineering and education. In this paper I will present a status report about the IRI effort with special emphasis on the presentations and results from the most recent IRI Workshops (Paris, 2004; Tortosa, 2005) and on the most important ongoing IRI activities. I will discuss the latest version of the IRI model, IRI-2006, highlighting the most recent changes and additions. Finally, the talk will review some of the applications of the IRI model with special emphasis on the use for radiowave propagation studies and communication purposes.

Bilitza, Dieter

2006-01-01

312

International standards for tuberculosis care: Relevance and implications for laboratory professionals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On World Tuberculosis (TB Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are suspected of having, TB and is intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all healthcare providers in delivering high quality care for patients of all ages, including those with smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB, TB caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TB/HIV coinfection. In this article, we present the ISTC, with a special focus on the diagnostic standards and describe their implications and relevance for laboratory professionals in India and worldwide. Laboratory professionals play a critical role in ensuring that all the standards are actually met by providing high quality laboratory services for smear microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing and other services such as testing for HIV infection. In fact, if the ISTC is widely followed, it can be expected that there will be a greater need and demand for quality assured laboratory services and this will have obvious implications for all laboratories in terms of work load, requirement for resources and trained personnel and organization of quality assurance systems.

Pai M

2007-01-01

313

Globalization quickly increased need for moving from local to international standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

'Standardization' quickly changed in the past few years, due to the market's globalization that needs international standards as important instruments in eliminating technical barriers to trade. The 'Petroleum Sector' chose moving to international standards jointly processed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) that played the role of historical reference. Taking into account that oil industry wants only one Standard worldwide used, also Europe decided for adopting these ISO Standards as European Standards. The result is much better considering that also Russia and China seem to adopt these ISO documents as their national standards. It is so becoming much more significant the 'motto' that ISO TC 67 'Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries' adopted for its standardization activities: 'Do it once, do it right, do it internationally'. Examples of such international Standards worldwide used as National Standards are: ISO 11960:2004 - 'Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for wells' and; ISO/DIS 3183 - 'Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems' (under preparation). Standardization has so grown from technical to management tool and countries are also moving, including standards in more areas of its legislations. (author)

Cappelli, Cataldo

2005-07-01

314

A Culture of compliance: developing standards for fighting corruption  

OpenAIRE

Abstract.Over the past decade, a new global regime of anti-corruption has taken shape. Pushed by NGOs such as Transparency International, and with coalitions of international organizations, Western governments, and private business circles, we now have a framework of conventions and regulations that impel governments and international firms to act with integrity and to prevent corruption in business and international development. New anti-bribery laws reward whistleblowers and penalize firms ...

Sampson, Steven

2012-01-01

315

FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of evaluation method of the genetic testing system; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojunka kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Idenshi kensa system no hyoka hoho no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aiming at applying standards as international standards, an experimental study was conducted on the standardization of the genetic testing system in Japan and abroad. The FY 1999 results were summarized. As to the unification of testing data processing, analysis of the present state and experimental study were made on the following: sampling method for appropriate testing, selection of anti-coagulants, method to preserve specimens, method to transport them, description of clinical observations in test request paper, method to evaluate performance of test reagents including restriction enzyme, temperature calibration method for equipment, sterilization method, incineration method of specimens, long-term storage of DNA samples, etc. The results were proposed as standard operation procedures after study/discussion at the comprehensive survey committee. Concerning the setting of criteria values in data analysis and the standardization of report form, survey/study were conducted also on ethical/legal/social problems from an aspect of privacy protection of patients. As a result, a total system from the reception of genetic testing to the report making was prepared. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

316

Financial development, International Trade and welfare  

OpenAIRE

Differences between domestic financial systems can lead to international trade. A country with relatively developed or decentralized financial systems will export innovative commodities while a country with less developed and centralized financial systems will export traditional commodities. Trade is always welfare improving before the resolution of uncertainty but the country with the more risk averse financial system and the world as a whole can be worse off with trade after ...

Blanchard, Michel; Peltrault, Frederic

2009-01-01

317

Motor Development International: Compressed Air Technology Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

How does a car that boasts "zero pollution" and even "cleans the air it uses" work? This website provides information on the air compression cars developed by Motor Development International. Aside from the general overview of the mechanics of air compression, the FAQ section provides additional information on the air tanks, filter system, body frame, electric system and MDI's business model. A key target for this website seems to be potential buyers and investors.

318

International trade, minimum quality standards and the prisoners' dilemma  

OpenAIRE

Unilateral minimum quality standards are endogenously determined as the outcome of a non-cooperative standard-setting game between the governments of two countries. Cross-country externalities from the implementation of minimum quality standards are shown to give rise to a Prisoners' Dilemma structure in the incentives of policy-makers leading to inefficient policy outcomes. The role of minimum quality standards as non-tariff barriers is examined and the scope for mutual gains from reciprocal...

Petropoulou, Dimitra

2008-01-01

319

The Role of Planetary Data System Archive Standards in International Planetary Data Archives  

Science.gov (United States)

A major objective of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) is to efficiently archive and make accessible digital data produced by NASA's planetary missions, research programs, and data analysis programs. The PDS is comprised of a federation of groups known as nodes, with each node focused on archiving and managing planetary data from a given science discipline. PDS nodes include Atmospheres, Geosciences, Small Bodies (asteroids, comets, and dust), Rings, Planetary Plasma Interactions, and Imaging. There are also support nodes for engineering, radio science, and ancillary data, such as geometry information. The PDS archives include space-borne, ground-based, and laboratory experiment data from several decades of NASA exploration of comets, asteroids, moons, and planets. PDS archives are peer-reviewed, welldocumented, and accessible online via web sites, catalogs, and other user-interfaces that provide search and retrieval capabilities. Current holdings within the PDS online repositories total approximately 50 TB of data. Over the next few years, the PDS is planning for a rapid expansion in the volume of data being delivered to its archives. The archive standards developed by the PDS are crucial elements for producing planetary data archives that are consistent across missions and planetary science disciplines and that yield archives that are useable by the planetary research community. These standards encompass the full range of archiving needs. They include standards for the format of data products and the metadata needed to detail how observations were made. They also specify how data products and ancillary information such as documentation, calibration, and geometric information are packaged into data sets. The PDS standards are documented in its Planetary Science Data Dictionary and in its Standards Reference Document and Archive Preparation Guide. The PDS standards are being used to design and implement data archives for current and future NASA planetary missions. Over the next several years, there will be additional planetary missions to the Moon and Mars led by countries such as Japan, China, India, and Russia, along with the European Space Agency (ESA). Planetary missions are also beginning to involve more international collaboration. Thus, it is important that the archives produced by these missions have some common standards so that the data can be readily used in research by the international planetary science community. In addition, the adoption of common archive standards would save time and effort for agencies in terms of data archive design and development. ESA has successfully adopted PDS standards for archives from a suite of missions that includes Mars Express, Venus Express, Cassini-Huygens, and Rosetta. An approach for advancing the use of a common set of archiving standards for planetary data was the creation of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA). Representatives from the PDS are active participants in the IPDA. One of the PDS contributions to the IPDA is to work on IPDA projects that seek to develop a core set of archiving standards for use by the international space agencies.

Guinness, Edward; Slavney, Susan; Beebe, Reta; Crichton, Daniel

320

Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

In September, Human Rights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. This report, Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards, reports on nationwide repeated violations, across all levels of employment, of federal laws and international standards protecting workers's rights to organize, to bargain collectively, and to strike.

321

Precise determination of bromine in PP resin pellet by instrumental neutron activation analysis using internal standardization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis with the internal standardization was applied the precise determination of bromine in PP resin. Gold was used as an internal standard. The analytical results of Br were in excellent agreement with the values obtained by ID-ICPMS. The relative expanded uncertainty (k=2) was 1.9 %, and it was comparable to that of ID-ICP-MS. (author)

322

Mathematics Teacher TPACK Standards and Development Model  

Science.gov (United States)

What knowledge is needed to teach mathematics with digital technologies? The overarching construct, called technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK), has been proposed as the interconnection and intersection of technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge. Mathematics Teacher TPACK Standards offer guidelines for thinking about this…

Niess, Margaret L.; Ronau, Robert N.; Shafer, Kathryn G.; Driskell, Shannon O.; Harper, Suzanne R.; Johnston, Christopher; Browning, Christine; Ozgun-Koca, S. Asli; Kersaint, Gladis

2009-01-01

323

Draft I.E.C. standard for monitoring PWR internal structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EDF has proposed to the I.E.C. (International Electrotechnical Commission) a draft standard for monitoring the vessel internal structures of PWRs. The standard applies to systems used for monitoring the vibratory behavior of the internal structures of PWRs (core barrel, thermal shield, fuel assemblies) on the basis of neutron fluctuations observed outside the vessel as well as of vessel vibrations. It covers the systems characteristics and the monitoring procedures. It should facilitate standardization of monitoring and comparisons on an international level. (author)

324

Exemption from regulatory control - International developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency has been involved in attempts to develop international guidance on criteria for exemption from regulatory control for many years. In 1984 a new programme of international meetings was started and resulted in the publication of interim guidance on principles for exemption from regulatory control in 1987. In March 1988 a final meeting was held to review the interim guidance in the light of the comments and criticisms received. The new guidance accommodates most of the criticisms made on the original document. A distinction is made between radiation sources which would normally be excluded from regulations because they are naturally occurring and those which would normally be under regulatory control but which can be exempted when certain criteria are met. Essentially the principles for exempting the latter category are that exemption should be allowed if it is the option which optimizes radiation protection and if individual risks are appropriately low. (author). 7 refs

325

Vitamin D status as an international issue: national surveys and the problem of standardization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wide spread variation in measurement results of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) confounds international efforts to develop evidence-based clinical guidelines. Accordingly, NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) in collaboration with CDC National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Ghent University established the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) in November 2010. VDSP objectives include: (1) standardize 25(OH)D concentration measurements in national health surveys around the world, (2) evaluate survey differences, (3) extend standardization efforts to assay manufacturers, and to clinical, commercial, and research laboratories, (4) promote standardization of emerging metabolites of vitamin D status, and (5) enable the use of standardized data in patient care and public health. An interlaboratory comparison study is being conducted to assess measurement variability among current assays. Participants include national health surveys from Australia, Canada, Germany, Ireland, Mexico, South Korea, UK and USA, 15 assay manufacturers, and two external quality assurance programs. CDC will implement a formal laboratory certification program. Standardization activities will use single-donor, fresh-frozen serum collected using the CLSI C37 protocol. Initial assay performance criteria, based on biological variability data, are ? 10 % imprecision and ? 5 % bias in relation to the reference values. An ancillary study on commutability of NIST SRM 972a, external quality assurance testing materials is included. To increase the comparability of existing data from different national surveys, master equations will be developed to facilitate the conversion of already existing national survey data to the NIST-Ghent University reference measurement procedures. PMID:22536760

Sempos, Christopher T; Vesper, Hubert W; Phinney, Karen W; Thienpont, Linda M; Coates, Paul M

2012-01-01

326

HARMONIZATION OF NATIONAL REGULATION AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS – PARTICULAR CASE OF NONCURRENT ASSETS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the scientific literature, accounting harmonization is a top topic because it helps to increase the comparability of financial statements. Also in Romania in the last 10 years becames a topic that is very often debated. The harmonization is trying to reduce differences of financial reporting statements between countries or, in the other words, it is trying to bring to a common denominator of existing rules when appear conflicts of comparability between them. The purpose of this paper is to measure the harmonisation between national and international regulation for a significant element of financial position statement, such as noncurrent assets. This paper provides an empirical research of information that must be presented by entities which apply national accounting standards or international ones when financial statements are prepared, trying to measure the harmonization between the two referential. Thus, in trying to determine the harmonisation, we use the Jaccard coefficient in order to provide an overview of the degree of harmonization of accounting practice. When measuring the degree of comparability of Romanian accounting regulations with International Accounting Standards we analyzed noncurrent assets and impairment of assets using the Jaccard coefficient for accounting treatments and we calculated an average of similarities between the two regulations. Further, the results suggest that there is an average level of harmonization for the accounting treatment of noncurrent assets and for determining the impairment of the assets, the methods are the same. The study contributes to the development of accounting literature about the harmonisation between national regulation and international standards regarding the noncurrent assets and impairment of the assets, which together with the other elements define the activity of the business. In addition, the study provides an analysis of how the regulations treats noncurrent assets, during the life of the asset, namely: the recognition phase, the evaluation and the depreciation.

Coste Andreea Ioana

2013-07-01

327

Developing Ethics and Standards in Action Research  

OpenAIRE

In a globalizing world, what role can social science research – particularly action research – play in order to address the risks of exclusion, poverty, social and physical insecurity and environmental deprivation? More specifically, how can this type of research be conducted in a participatory, responsible, transparent and scientific way? In other words: what about the ethics and standards in action research? This was the main focus of the World Congress on Action Research and Action Lea...

Ben Boog; Meindert Slagter; Jacques Zeelen

2009-01-01

328

Developments in CANDU standard plant licensing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AECL is continuing with its goal of completing the standard plant design for the CANDU 3 power reactor. The standard design has been chosen to accommodate the characteristics of a wide variety of sites in Canada and around the world. It is a key objective to ensure that the standard plant design is capable of being licensed in Canada. Consultative Document C-6 'Requirements for the Safety Analysis of CANDU Nuclear Power Plants' was previously used on a trial basis in the licensing of Darlington. For CANDU 3, the traditional single/dual failures licensing approach has been abandoned by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). Discussions on the CANDU 3 provide the first opportunity for the AECB and the industry to explore what full implementation of the Consultative Document C-6 as the sole basis for judging the acceptability of the safety analysis entails. Clarifications of the draft requirements utilized in the Darlington licensing process have been discussed, and these have resulted in the production of unique licensing documents such as the systematic plant review. In this paper, the authors review the issues discussed in the licensing process, and outline their resolution. 8 refs., 4 tabs

329

Knowledge sharing in international product development teams  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many companies are facing an increasing need to compete on a global scale. But as companies move into multiple markets, the process of developing new products becomes increasingly complex. Coping successfully with the increased internationalization forces companies to excel at collaboration and knowledge sharing, also across geographical distances. The capability to develop new transnational products depends largely on the multinational company's ability to transfer and deploy knowledge from its multiple country sources. The challenges of the transfer of knowledge between departments in the same company are far from trivial and the problems associated with transfer will increase with geographical and cultural difference (Bresman et al., 1999). Especially tacit knowledge is difficult to transport across national boarders (Kogut & Zander, 1992) and not much research exists on how companies overcome these barriers and harvest knowledge from geographical dispersed areas (Subramaniam & Venkatraman, 2001). The product development literature prescribes that knowledge sharing is desirable throughout the whole product development process (Craig & Hart, 1992; Hansen, 1999). Although this sharing is desirable, previous research found that it is the exception rather than the rule in most companies (Golder, 2000:329). Hence, it is relevant to research how companies can improve their ability to share knowledge in connection with international product development. One way to increase knowledge sharing in the product development process is by using teams. Teams are considered one of the best tools for exchanging especially tacit knowledge, since this kind of knowledge is transferred best through personal interaction and face-to-face meetings (Madhavan & Grover, 1998; Nonaka, 1994). In accordance with this, more and more multinational firms rely on international product development teams (McDonough et al., 2001) as a means to make the most effective use of the company's resources scattered around the world. While a substantial amount of research exists on groups in general, research into new product development teams is more limited and especially empirical research on global new product development teams is sparse (McDonough, et al., 2001). Findings from research on teams cannot automatically be generalized and applied to multinational product development teams, since these differ on a range of parameters from domestic teams. Multinational teams are often separated geographically and are culturally diverse, which affects their knowledge processes. Given the increased importance of multinational product development teams and the limited amount of research within this area, this therefore appears to be a topic worthy of further investigation. Hence the objective of the full paper is to discuss the challenges associated with knowledge sharing in international product development teams. A case study of a Danish international food company has been conducted and interviews with team members located in different geographical cites are currently being analyzed.

Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne

330

International Coordination of Quality Standards and Vertical Product Differentiation  

OpenAIRE

I study the influence of minimum quality standards in a partial-equilibrium model of vertical product differentiation and trade in which duopolistic firms face quality-dependent costs and compete in quality and price in two segmented markets. Three alternative standard setting arrangements are Full Harmonization, National Treatment and Mutual Recognition. Under either alternative, standards can be found that increase welfare in both regions. The analysis integrates the choice of a particular ...

Lutz, Stefan

2003-01-01

331

National and international standards and recommendations on fire protection and fire safety assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience feedback from events in nuclear facilities worldwide has shown that fire can represent a safety significant hazard. Thus, the primary objectives of fire protection programmes are to minimize both the probability of occurrence and the consequences of a fire. The regulator body expects that the licensees justify their arrangements for identifying how fires can occur and spread, assess the vulnerability of plant equipment and structures, determine how the safe operation of a plant is affected, and introduce measures to prevent a fire hazard from developing and propagating as well as to mitigate its effects in case the fire cannot be prevented. For that purpose usually a comprehensive regulatory framework for fire protection has been elaborated, based on national industrial regulations, nuclear specific regulations as well as international recommendations or requirements. Examples of such national and international standards and recommendations on fire protection and fire safety assessment as well as ongoing activities in this field are described. (orig.)

332

The protection of the accused in international criminal law according to the Human Rights Law Standard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presented paper discusses the influence of international human rights law on international criminal law. It tries to give an answer to the question of whether rules protecting the accused in international criminal proceedings meet the human rights law standard provided by international declarations and covenants. Meaning, if the proceedings before the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (ICTY, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR and International Criminal Court (ICC meet the standard provided by international human rights law, in particular the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The paper proves that international human rights law has affected international criminal law tremendously. Moreover, it is argued that the protection of the accused in the law of the international courts and tribunals with regard to his rights has improved when compared to the international human rights law standard. In particular the Rome Statute of the ICC provides the accused with the most comprehensive protection. This is especially visible in the case of such rights as the presumption of innocence, right to an interpreter and right to remain silent. Nevertheless, some shortcomings in the law of the ad hoc tribunals and ICC can be observed, in particular when it comes to identifying the commencement of protection of the accused.

Karolina Kremens

2011-12-01

333

Implications of international standards (BSI, CEN, ISO) for regulatory monitoring of emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper illustrates the importance of international emissions measurement standards to national regimes established for regulation of industrial processes. Different types of standards pertinent to regulatory monitoring of industrial process emissions are identified. Advantages of operating to standard techniques and implications for process operators and regulators are noted. Different approaches adopted in standards to provide measurement data quality assurance are indicated. The most relevant British Standards Institution (BSI) committees and their work are reviewed. The relative priorities of BSI, CEN and ISO standards are noted. The targeting of UK input into compilation of the standards is discussed. The enabling roles of the Environment Agency and the Source Testing Association in ensuring standards are fit for UK requirements and in promoting their use are outlined. The paper concludes with brief acknowledgement of the important of international standards to the Environment Agency`s plans for a Monitoring Certification Scheme (MCERTS). 41 refs.

Gemmill, R.; Woodfield, M. [Environment Agency, Bristol (United Kingdom). National Compliance Assessment Service

1998-04-01

334

Food packaging, international standards related to food safety and quality, and trade.  

Science.gov (United States)

International trade is subject to the Final Act of the Uruguay Round Multilateral Trade Negotiations' Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement) and Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (the TBT Agreement). These Agreements, the purpose of which is the freeing up of trade and the removal of restraints to the greatest extent possible, affect all countries that are members of the World Trade Organization, and have an impact upon all countries that are exporters. Trade in food is subject to these rules, which include provision for countries to apply safety and quality measures to protect the consumer. Such consumer protection measures extend to all aspects of food, including its packaging. The SPS and TBT Agreements press for 'harmonization' based upon the adoption of standards developed by international standards setting bodies and require countries to participate in their work. The relevant body with respect to food safety and quality measures is the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which is implemented by the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The work of the Codex Alimentarius Commission in harmonization within the context of food packaging and the rules applying to world trade is discussed. PMID:9373515

Lupien, J R

1997-01-01

335

Development of thermodynamic potentials for fluid water, ice and seawater: a new standard for oceanography  

OpenAIRE

A new seawater standard has been developed for oceanographic and engineering applications that consists of three independent thermodynamic potential functions, derived from extended distinct sets of very accurate experimental data. The results have been formulated as Releases of the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS (1996, 2006, 2008) and are to be adopted internationally by other organizations in subsequent years. In order to successfully perform computat...

Feistel, R.; Wright, D. G.; Miyagawa, K.; Hruby, J.; Jackett, D. R.; Mcdougall, T. J.; Wagner, W.

2008-01-01

336

NACE International standard practice SP0169 : control of external corrosion on underground or submerged metallic piping systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviewed a standard practice developed by NACE International to control external corrosion on underground or submerged metallic piping systems. The review was conducted by a task group formed by the NACE International technical coordination committee to address ambiguities and discrepancies noted in a previous study of the standard and to provide guidance for cathodic protection (CP) criteria for controlling micro-biologically influenced corrosion and corrosion at elevated temperatures. The review also discussed the development of upper limits on CP criteria for coating damage for high strength steels. A series of 8 questions and answered was developed to provide further guidance to industry members. The results of a voting pool conducted with 110 commentators to revisions and proposed changes to various sections of the standard were also presented. 1 tab.

Chmilar, J.F. [Chmilar and Associates Consulting Ltd., Cochrane, AB (Canada)

2010-07-01

337

Normalization method for metabolomics data using optimal selection of multiple internal standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Success of metabolomics as the phenotyping platform largely depends on its ability to detect various sources of biological variability. Removal of platform-specific sources of variability such as systematic error is therefore one of the foremost priorities in data preprocessing. However, chemical diversity of molecular species included in typical metabolic profiling experiments leads to different responses to variations in experimental conditions, making normalization a very demanding task. Results With the aim to remove unwanted systematic variation, we present an approach that utilizes variability information from multiple internal standard compounds to find optimal normalization factor for each individual molecular species detected by metabolomics approach (NOMIS. We demonstrate the method on mouse liver lipidomic profiles using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compare its performance to two commonly utilized normalization methods: normalization by l2 norm and by retention time region specific standard compound profiles. The NOMIS method proved superior in its ability to reduce the effect of systematic error across the full spectrum of metabolite peaks. We also demonstrate that the method can be used to select best combinations of standard compounds for normalization. Conclusion Depending on experiment design and biological matrix, the NOMIS method is applicable either as a one-step normalization method or as a two-step method where the normalization parameters, influenced by variabilities of internal standard compounds and their correlation to metabolites, are first calculated from a study conducted in repeatability conditions. The method can also be used in analytical development of metabolomics methods by helping to select best combinations of standard compounds for a particular biological matrix and analytical platform.

Yetukuri Laxman

2007-03-01

338

International harmonization of radiation protection and safety standards. The role of the United Nations system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As we enter the 21st century, the vast amount of new information accumulated on the levels and effects of exposures to ionizing radiation and on the safety of radiation sources and a number of developments have brought radiation protection to the attention of the public and its political representatives. New radio epidemiological and radiobiological findings roughly corroborate previous estimates of the risks attributable to radiation exposure. A number of events have had a lasting effect on public perception of the potential danger from radiation exposure. These were primarily the nuclear accidents at Three Mile Island in 1979 and at Chernobyl in 1986 with its unprecedented transboundary contamination. In some countries, the public were concerned about the safe transport of radioactive materials. The safe management of radioactive waste also developed into an issue of public debate and the disposal of high level radioactive waste came to a standstill because of concern over potential radiation exposure. Accidents with radiation sources used in medicine and industry also attracted widespread attention from the public and governments. Furthermore, the 1980s saw the rediscovery of natural radiation as a cause of concern for health: some dwellings were found to have surprisingly high levels of radon in air; natural radiation exposure of some non-radiation-related workers were discovered to be at levels much higher than the occupational limits specified in radiation protetional limits specified in radiation protection standards. In line with these developments, a number of significant scientific strides were taken in the 1990s at the international level. On the one hand, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) reviewed the global levels and effects of radiation exposure. This highly respected body is responsible for keeping the highest UN body, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), informed about these levels and effects. In 1993, UNSCEAR presented its extensive 928-page report, and in 1994 its supplementary 272-page report, to the UNGA. A new UNSCEAR report is expected by the end of 2000. On the other hand, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which in 1990 had revised its standing recommendations, has now issued a number of documents to apply these recommendations in specific situations. In 1991 six organizations - FAO, ILO, NEA/OECD, PAHO, WHO, and IAEA - created a Joint Secretariat coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Organization (IAEA) with the purpose of establishing the International Basic Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and the Safety of Radiation Sources (the so-called BSS). This was the peak of decades of work and marked an unprecedented international co-operation that involved hundreds of experts from the Member States of the sponsoring organizations establishing the BSS. Within this framework, the objective of this paper is to present the significant role that the United Nations system of international organizations could play to achieve a genuine international consensus on radiation protection and safety standards. Not surprisingly, the paper will concentrate on the role and functions of the IAEA. The IAEA, is the only organization in the UN family with specific statutory functions, duties and responsibilities in the establishing international standards for radiation protection and safety. By analysing the functions and roles of UNSCEAR and the IAEA, it is clear how the UN policy on this matter has been built up and where it now stands. It should be emphasized that both UNSCEAR and the IAEA are not free 'think tanks'. They are governmental organizations. Their policies therefore reflect those of their constituencies, namely their Member States. Thus, the paper summarizes the status of UN policies on the health effects of radiation exposure, particularly on the controversial issue of the effects of low level radiation, as well as on the approach for protecting individuals and society against radiation expo

339

Energy and international trade: toward sustainable development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper summarises the Meeting of Experts on Energy Service and International Trade: Consequences for Development. Energy is central to achieving the interrelated economic, social and environmental aims of sustainable human development and energy services play a crucial role in providing efficient access to energy in support of development. They also constitute the value added in the energy chain, from exploration to consumption. Developing countries are thus faced with the challenge, on the one hand, of achieving more reliable and efficient access to energy and, on the other hand, of obtaining a greater share of the energy 'business'. The pursuit of both goals requires access to knowledge, expertise, technology and managerial know-how. The Expert Meeting on Energy Services and International Trade: Consequences for Development, held in Geneva, Switzerland in July 2001, addressed the elements of an energy services sector strategy for development countries, with the following objectives: a) to ensure efficient access to energy by all segments of the population; b) to strengthen their competitive position in the supply of energy services at the various stages of the energy chain; and c) to negotiate commitments and additional provisions in the ongoing multilateral negotiations on trade in services supportive of these objectives. 3 photos.

Figueredo, R.

2002-03-01

340

The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise

341

Pollutant Emissions and Energy Efficiency under Controlled Conditions for Household Biomass Cookstoves and Implications for Metrics Useful in Setting International Test Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Realistic metrics and methods for testing household biomass cookstoves are required to develop standards needed by international policy makers, donors, and investors. Application of consistent test practices allows emissions and energy efficiency performance to be benchmarked and...

342

COOPERATION BETWEEN AACC AND ICC FOR STANDARD METHODS DEVELOPMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) Standard Methods and International Association for Cereal Science and Technology (ICC) are cooperating to harmonize certain of their methods. The harmonized methods will employ the same procedures so that the analytical results of either method (such a...

343

Instrumental neutron activation analysis of hafnium in zirconium metal using internal standardization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis with the internal standard correction was applied to determination Hf in high purity Zr metal. Zirconium, which was a matrix element, was used as an internal standard to compensate for inhomogeneity of the neutron flux through an irradiation capsule and to improve the gamma ray measurement uncertainty. It was found that the linearity of the calibration curves of Hf was improved with using an internal standard. The analytical result of Hf in Zr metal was in good agreement with that obtained by ICP-SFMS. The relative expanded uncertainty (k = 2) was 2.1%, and it was comparable to that of ICP-SFMS. (author)

344

Business and Management Aspects of International Accounting Standardization  

OpenAIRE

The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerialdecisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system willlead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from thebusiness management of certain countries. The results of applied regression model support that the greaterdemand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to pe...

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

345

International development workshops. Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) began to act on their recognition of the importance of education in nuclear literacy, specifically in radioactive waste management (RWM), several years ago. To address this Goal for nuclear literacy, the US DOE; through the Information and Education Division of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and in cooperation with the OECD/NEA, organized an ``International Workshop on Education in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management`` in Engelberg, Switzerland in June of 1991. To this end, a grant to support nuclear literacy and RWM was written and funded by the OCRWM and the education division of the DOE Yucca Mountain Office in 1990. The over-riding Goal of that workshop and the DOE grant was to find ways of raising the level of nuclear literacy in the general public through educational programs in radioactive waste management (RWM). The two Main Objectives of the workshop were: first, to contribute to an information base for education systems, on global aspects of radioactive waste management; and second, to achieve international consensus on the basic tools and methods required to develop the information base. These two objectives also became the principal objectives of the DOE International Workshops grant. In other words, the global and local (Nevada) objectives were one and the same. Workshop overviews and accomplishments are summarized in this report.

NONE

1997-08-06

346

New trends in the field of nuclear standardization on national, European and international level with the background of the German 'Energiewende'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Participation in standardization in the nuclear energy field in Germany is still very high, because the involved parties have recognized that standards in the context of the energy transition in Germany will remain very important. However, in the last few years, international standardization has been carried out without German participation. Existing international bodies are currently greatly influenced by the leadership of France, which is also reflected in the content of international standards. In addition, on French initiative, a European body (CEN/TC 430 'Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection') has been set up with the remit to replace all national standards in Europe with international standards. The present article summarizes this development and offers an overview for German experts on how they can respond to this trend. (orig.)

347

Internal fabric development in complex lava domes  

Science.gov (United States)

Viscous lava extrusions were modeled using plaster of Paris with admixed magnetite dust which served as a tracer of the internal anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility fabric in model lava domes. Used analogue material showed pseudoplastic behavior and yield strength level proportional to increasing mixing ratio of plaster powder and water. A series of models ranging from simple gravity flows to complex lava domes showing combined endogenous and exogenous growth were created by intrusion of plaster into a sandbox. The similarity of model bodies is compared with natural lava domes on the basis of dynamic scaling analysis. Growth dynamics, exogenous growth and internal fabric development in natural lava domes is critically discussed using the experimental results.

Závada, Prokop; Kratinová, Zuzana; Kusbach, Vladimír; Schulmann, Karel

2009-03-01

348

International Space Station Radiation Shielding Model Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The projected radiation levels within the International Space Station (ISS) have been criticized by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in their report to the NASA Administrator. Methods for optimal reconfiguration and augmentation of the ISS shielding are now being developed. The initial steps are to develop reconfigurable and realistic radiation shield models of the ISS modules, develop computational procedures for the highly anisotropic radiation environment, and implement parametric and organizational optimization procedures. The targets of the redesign process are the crew quarters where the astronauts sleep and determining the effects of ISS shadow shielding of an astronaut in a spacesuit. The ISS model as developed will be reconfigurable to follow the ISS. Swapping internal equipment rack assemblies via location mapping tables will be one option for shield optimization. Lightweight shield augmentation materials will be optimally fit to crew quarter areas using parametric optimization procedures to minimize the augmentation shield mass. The optimization process is being integrated into the Intelligence Synthesis Environment s (ISE s) immersive simulation facility at the Langley Research Center and will rely on High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) for rapid evaluation of shield parameter gradients.

Qualls, G. D.; Wilson, J. W.; Sandridge, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Nealy, J. E.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Hugger, C. P.; Verhage, J.; Anderson, B. M.; Atwell, W.

2001-01-01

349

A New International Standard for "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures"  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is going to issue a new standard concerning "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures," which becomes the first international standard in coastal engineering. It is composed of a normative part (29 pages), an informative part (80 pages) and Bibliography ( 17 pages). The normative part describes what is considered as the norm of the matters in concern, while the informative part provides the information on recommended practice. The paper introduces the main points of the normative part and discusses the influence of the new standard on coastal engineering practice.

TØrum, Alf; Burcharth, Hans F.

2007-01-01

350

Standards development in the assessment of radiological contamination of soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present standards available on sampling, measuring, analyzing, and assessing the presence of radionuclides in soil are reviewed. The review includes the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Environmental Methods Task Group's standards on soil sampling, sample preparation, and radionanalysis; US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radiological contamination at formerly utilized sites and remedial action programs; the Health Physics draft guide for assessment of radiation doses from plutonium and americium in soils; and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) guidelines for residual radiological contamination assessment. Draft standards under development and personel observations concerning the need for further standard development are also discussed

351

Development and calibration of standards for PNAA assay of coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new set of large coal standards is discussed so as to develop and calibrate these to be used in future PNAA field systems. This set has to cover a broad range of different types of coals, taking into account physical characteristics and elemental compositions. Twenty-one different coal samples were used and calibration curves for sulfur and chlorine are charted. These samples establish the standard linear calibration curves and thus form a set of coal standards developed for practical application of the PNAA method. The coal standards are now used for calibration of the Nucoalyzer-Sulfurmeter and CONAC being built by Science Applications, Inc

352

Standardization of negative controls in diagnostic immunohistochemistry : recommendations from the international ad hoc expert panel  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide "best practice recommendations" for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on "fit-for-use" principles.

Torlakovic, Emina E; Francis, Glenn

2014-01-01

353

76 FR 53817 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION: Final...

2011-08-30

354

75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37...Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Delay of effective...

2010-09-10

355

76 FR 70062 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...Parts 160, 180, and 199 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0048] RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards Correction In rule document 2011-25035, appearing on pages 62962-63015 in the issue...

2011-11-10

356

76 FR 68829 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline...ACTION: Notice of public meeting...PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation...Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous...

2011-11-07

357

77 FR 33019 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline...ACTION: Notice of public meeting...PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation...Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous...

2012-06-04

358

75 FR 19671 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline...ACTION: Notice of public meeting...PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation...Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous...

2010-04-15

359

75 FR 63534 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline...ACTION: Notice of public meeting...PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation...Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous...

2010-10-15

360

76 FR 25774 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline...ACTION: Notice of public meeting...PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation...Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous...

2011-05-05

361

77 FR 69927 - International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Standards on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; Public Meeting AGENCY: Pipeline...ACTION: Notice of public meeting...PHMSA will conduct a public meeting in preparation...Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous...

2012-11-21

362

A new internal standard for HPLC assay of conjugated linoleic acid in animal tissues and milk.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 56, ?. 1 (2011), s. 23-29. ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : sorbic acid * internal standard * CLA isomers Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2011

Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan; Michalski, J. P.; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, A. J.; Krajewska, K. A.

2011-01-01

363

Integration of the International Standards Evaluation into a Global Data Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review the methods employed in the GANDR system to perform a global assessment of nuclear data. We then describe the integration of the International Standards Evaluation into a recently initiated global data assessment

364

Standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Proceedings of an international symposium. Vol. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In technologically advanced societies, there are many applications and processes that employ ionizing radiation. In order to use radiation safely and effectively, it is necessary to be able to measure radiation properly. Dosimetry is the science of radiation measurement. Knowledge of dosimetry enables nuclear technology to be applied to meet the needs of society. Medical radiation dosimetry deals with those applications in which patients are irradiated for either diagnosis or therapy. These Proceedings present a refereed selection of papers that were presented at the International Symposium on Standards and Codes of Practice in Medical Radiation Dosimetry, held in Vienna from 25 to 28 November 2002. Over 250 scientists from 62 countries attended the meeting, at which 140 presentations were delivered covering a broad range of topics in medical radiation dosimetry. Since the last IAEA meeting on dosimetry (Measurement Assurance in Dosimetry, held in Vienna from 24 to 27 May 1993), three major activities have affected progress in medical radiation dosimetry. Firstly, in terms of measurement technology, much work has gone into perfecting calorimetric methods for the determination of absorbed dose to water, and so one entire session of the symposium was devoted to that topic. Secondly, since several primary standards dosimetry laboratories have developed the capability to provide instrument calibrations based on their newly refined standards of absorbed dose to water, the standards of absorbed dose to water, the IAEA and other organizations developed new dosimetry codes of practice using these standards. In the opening session, one talk focused on the development of dosimetry codes of practice, in particular the international code of practice published by the IAEA in Technical Reports Series No. 398, Absorbed Dose Determination in External Beam Radiotherapy. The third major activity in dosimetry relates to the mutual recognition arrangement (MRA) of the Comite international des poids et mesures, which was signed by the laboratories, including the IAEA's, responsible for metrology in the field of ionizing radiation standards. One of the talks in the opening session dealt with the MRA explicitly, but several of the sessions on comparisons were motivated by the need to establish degrees of equivalence between the dosimetry standards of different laboratories. The new standards, the dosimetry protocols that use them and the MRA, which encourages comparisons, have together raised dosimetry to a new level.Of course, the requirement for accuracy in dosimetry is driven primarily by the demands for cancer therapy - too low a dose leaves the patient to die from cancer and too high a dose may result in a dramatic increase in complication rates. An overt attempt was made during the symposium to highlight the link between accuracy in dosimetry and cancer therapy. For example, a plenary session focused on the impending crisis in cancer management, and regular scientific sessions dealt with clinical radiotherapy dosimetry and with radiotherapy dosimetry auditing. In addition, scientific sessions were dedicated to dosimetry issues in brachytherapy, proton and hadron therapy and diagnostic radiology. One session was devoted to nuclear medicine, in an attempt to bridge the gap between the experts who measure radioactivity and those who deal with quality assurance in nuclear medicine. The symposium programme comprised 14 scientific sessions, and at the end of each session there was a brief discussion arising from the material that had been presented

365

ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list…

Byrum, John D.

366

Toward a Standard for Community Participation in Terminology Development  

OpenAIRE

This paper is intended to stimulate discussion about the creation of a standard for a community participation model of terminology development. It begins with a discussion of why the current state of terminology development in Africa brings forth the need for such a standard process. The paper then presents the outcome of an experiment in the development of ICT terminology for Swahili, as well as a subsequent project to incorporate the experiment’s results in the creation of terminology set...

Benjamin, Martin

2011-01-01

367

Development of quality assurance requirements - an international comparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total quality management strategy and the worldwide introduction of the DIN/ISO 9000 (EN 29 000) series of standards have given new impetus to traditional quality assurance. The most important change must surely be seen in the holistic approach of total quality management and its strict orientation towards customer requirements and satisfaction. International codes and standards for the nuclear industry will also have to be brought into line as part of the process of harmonizing quality assurance system standards. One possible approach is simply to specify a supplementary 'delta' of nuclear-specific requirements to be appended to the broad range of conventional requirements. It is a particular feature of quality-assured procedures in Germany that product and/or component related quality requirements and quality verifications are defined in the specifications of the architect engineer so that full implementation of the requirements from the design phase through to the manufacturing phase is assured. Looking at the development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) and the elaboration of 'Common Rules', it is to be anticipated that a major step will be made toward international harmonization of safety criteria. (orig.)

368

Auditors Compliance with International Standards on Auditing (ISAs): Evidence form Jordan  

OpenAIRE

The continuous new amendments of the International Standards on Auditing (ISAs) in the beginning of 2007 formed a pressure on auditors to follow up and comply with them. The present study attempted to examine to what extent auditors complied with ISA according to the last pronouncement by the International Auditing and Assurance Standard Board (IAASB). Data was collected through a questionnaire administered to a random sample of external auditors in Jordan. The study revealed that Jordanian a...

Obaidat, Ahmad N.

2007-01-01

369

Selecting International Standards for Accrual-Based Accounting in the Public Sector : IPSAS or IFRS?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The article discusses the definition of a government business enterprise (GBE), as provided in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), as a determinant for applying IPSAS or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for a public sector entity. The work of the IPSASB is focused on the accounting and financial reporting needs of national, regional and local governments, and related governmental agencies, while the IFRS serves the private sector.

Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

2011-01-01

370

Selection, Training, and Development for Female International Executives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interviews with 50 female expatriate managers addressed the lack of women in international management positions and focused on processes of selecting, training, and developing female executives for international assignments. Strategies for internationalizing female managers were developed. (Contains 28 references.) (JOW)

Linehan, Margaret; Scullion, Hugh

2001-01-01

371

Application of k0-based internal mono-standard PGNAA for compositional characterization of cement samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The k0-based internal mono-standard prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (IM-PGNAA) method was used for compositional analysis of a cement standard provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency as a part of inter-laboratory comparison exercise. The PGNAA was also applied to a local cement sample for comparison purpose. The concentration ratios of elements with respect Ca were determined using the internal mono-standard method. The concentration ratios were then converted to the absolute concentrations by determining concentration of Ca in the cement using relative method. Concentrations of 11 elements were determined in both sample and standard of cement. The results of cement standard are found to be in good agreement with the certified values. The uncertainties on the elemental concentrations were in the range of 5-10 %. (author)

372

Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China first adopted minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in 1989. Today, there are standards for a wide range of domestic, commercial and selected industrial equipment. In 1999, China launched a voluntary endorsement label, which has grown to cover over 40 products including water-saving products (See Figure 1). Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label (also referred to as the 'Energy Label'). Today, the Energy Label is applied to four products including: air conditioners; household refrigerators; clothes washers; and unitary air conditioners (See Figure 2). MEPS and the voluntary endorsement labeling specifications have been updated and revised in order to reflect technology improvements to those products in the market. These programs have had an important impact in reducing energy consumption of appliances in China. Indeed, China has built up a strong infrastructure to develop and implement product standards. Historically, however, the government's primary focus has been on the technical requirements for efficiency performance. Less attention has been paid to monitoring and enforcement with a minimal commitment of resources and little expansion of administrative capacity in this area. Thus, market compliance with both mandatory standards and labeling programs has been questionable and actual energy savings may have been undermined as a result. The establishment of a regularized monitoring system for tracking compliance with the mandatory standard and energy information label in China is a major area for program improvement. Over the years, the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) has partnered with several Chinese institutions to promote energy-efficient products in China. CLASP, together with its implementing partner Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), has assisted China in developing and updating the above-mentioned standards and labeling programs. Because of the increasing need for the development of a monitoring system to track compliance with standards and labeling, CLASP, with support from Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), has expanded its ongoing collaboration with the China National Institute of Standards (CNIS) to include enforcement and monitoring. CNIS has already begun working on the issue of compliance. CNIS has conducted modest sample testing in 2006 for refrigerators, freezers and room air-conditioners, and repeated the same task in 2007 with a similar sample size for three products (refrigerators, freezers, air-conditioners and clothes washers). And, CNIS, with technical support from LBNL, has analyzed the data collected through testing. At the same time, parallel effort has also been paid to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. In conjunction with CNIS, CLASP technical experts reviewed the standards development timeline of the four products currently subject to the mandatory energy information label. CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing: technical input to the process; comment and advice on particular technical issues; as well as evaluation of the results. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. This short report summarizes the status of Standards and Labeling program, current enforcement and monitoring mechanism in China, and states the importance of international collaborations.

Zhou, Nan

2008-03-01

373

Internal standardization in atomic-emission spectrometry using inductively coupled plasma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principle of internal standardization has been used in quantitative analytical emission spectroscopy since 1925 to minimize the errors arising from fluctuations in sample preparation, excitation-source conditions, and detection parameters. Although modern spectroscopic excitation sources are far more stable and electronic detection methods are more precise than before, the system for the introduction of the sample in spectrometric analysis using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) introduces significant errors, and internal standardization can still play a useful role in improving the overall precision of the analytical results. The criteria for the selection of the elements to be used as internal standards in arc and spark spectrographic analysis apply to a much lesser extent in ICP-spectrometric analysis. Internal standardization is recommended for use in routine ICP-simultaneous spectrometric analysis to improve its accuracy and precision and to provide a monitor for the reassurance of the analyst. However, the selection of an unsuitable reference element can result in misuse of the principle of internal standardization and, although internal standardization can be applied when a sequential monochromator is used, the main sources of error will not be minimized

374

Help for the Developers of Control System Cyber Security Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Catalog of Control Systems Security: Recommendations for Standards Developers (Catalog), aimed at assisting organizations to facilitate the development and implementation of control system cyber security standards, has been developed. This catalog contains requirements that can help protect control systems from cyber attacks and can be applied to the Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources of the United States and other nations. The requirements contained in the catalog are a compilation of practices or various industry bodies used to increase the security of control systems from both physical and cyber attacks. They should be viewed as a collection of recommendations to be considered and judiciously employed, as appropriate, when reviewing and developing cyber security standards for control systems. The recommendations in the Catalog are intended to be broad enough to provide any industry using control systems the flexibility needed to develop sound cyber security standards specific to their individual security requirements.

Robert P. Evans

2008-05-01

375

Comparison report for CSNI International Standard Problem 12 (ROSA-III Run 912)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ROSA-III Run 912 was identified as International Standard Problem 12 by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations. Run 912 simulated a 5% split break LOCA condition in a BWR at the pump suction in the recirculation line with the HPCS failure. Comparisons between the test data and the calculations by eight international participants were made and discussed. (author)

376

Use of an internal standard for measuring Moessbauer spectrasquare  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background of both high-energy radiation component and characteristical radiation of substrate should be necessarily taken into account when measuring square of Moessbauer spectra by means of 57Co sources in Pd. Technique for measuring the square based on application of additional resonance absorber and possibilities of modern multichannel analyzers is suggested. The technique is based on comparison of spectrum line squares of an analyzed object and the standard measured simultaneously

377

Assessing the Quality of Decision Support Technologies Using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards instrument (IPDASi)  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To describe the development, validation and inter-rater reliability of an instrument to measure the quality of patient decision support technologies (decision aids). Design Scale development study, involving construct, item and scale development, validation and reliability testing. Setting There has been increasing use of decision support technologies – adjuncts to the discussions clinicians have with patients about difficult decisions. A global interest in developing these interventions exists among both for-profit and not-for-profit organisations. It is therefore essential to have internationally accepted standards to assess the quality of their development, process, content, potential bias and method of field testing and evaluation. Methods Scale development study, involving construct, item and scale development, validation and reliability testing. Participants Twenty-five researcher-members of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards Collaboration worked together to develop the instrument (IPDASi). In the fourth Stage (reliability study), eight raters assessed thirty randomly selected decision support technologies. Results IPDASi measures quality in 10 dimensions, using 47 items, and provides an overall quality score (scaled from 0 to 100) for each intervention. Overall IPDASi scores ranged from 33 to 82 across the decision support technologies sampled (n?=?30), enabling discrimination. The inter-rater intraclass correlation for the overall quality score was 0.80. Correlations of dimension scores with the overall score were all positive (0.31 to 0.68). Cronbach's alpha values for the 8 raters ranged from 0.72 to 0.93. Cronbach's alphas based on the dimension means ranged from 0.50 to 0.81, indicating that the dimensions, although well correlated, measure different aspects of decision support technology quality. A short version (19 items) was also developed that had very similar mean scores to IPDASi and high correlation between short score and overall score 0.87 (CI 0.79 to 0.92). Conclusions This work demonstrates that IPDASi has the ability to assess the quality of decision support technologies. The existing IPDASi provides an assessment of the quality of a DST's components and will be used as a tool to provide formative advice to DSTs developers and summative assessments for those who want to compare their tools against an existing benchmark. PMID:19259269

Elwyn, Glyn; O'Connor, Annette M.; Bennett, Carol; Newcombe, Robert G.; Politi, Mary; Durand, Marie-Anne; Drake, Elizabeth; Joseph-Williams, Natalie; Khangura, Sara; Saarimaki, Anton; Sivell, Stephanie; Stiel, Mareike; Bernstein, Steven J.; Col, Nananda; Coulter, Angela; Eden, Karen; Härter, Martin; Rovner, Margaret Holmes; Moumjid, Nora; Stacey, Dawn; Thomson, Richard; Whelan, Tim; van der Weijden, Trudy; Edwards, Adrian

2009-01-01

378

THE BASES OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Capitalism started as a consequence of the urban phenomena development, as well as of the commercial activities development. Thus, over this period of time, the attitude towards business also changed. This change was based also on certain economic reasons. The term „business” is defined in numerous dictionaries released until the present day in a restrictive and subjective manner, both from the perspective of the totalitarian communist ideology, which happened up to the year 1989, and also from the perspective of the different categories of meanings that were taken into consideration when compiling dictionaries in different international circulation languages. If an enterprise conducts business at an international level, then it will take into consideration the performance of different types of activities which differ greatly from the activities conducted at a national level. All these elements must be carefully studied by the company's management, in order to be able to act with high economic efficiency. It must be said that, in contemporary times, that „invisible hand of the market” from the past is none other than competition. As a consequence of the competitive phenomenon's manifestation, the prices are lower, the services are of a better quality and they are increasingly more diverse. Because of these positive arguments, Adam Smith was named „the father of economy”.

DOBRIN IONEL GABRIEL

2014-05-01

379

Why Kansas Is Developing Standards for Its Adult Education Leaders  

Science.gov (United States)

In Kansas, local and state adult education leaders realized that leadership standards cannot be ignored if adult education is to be perceived as a professional discipline within the state's larger educational community. The perfect opportunity to study and develop leadership standards for adult education directors and coordinators presented itself…

Zacharakis, Jeff; Glass, Dianne S.

2010-01-01

380

Development of Best practices document for Peptide Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

The Assay Development Working Group (ADWG) of the CPTAC Program is currently drafting a document to propose best practices for generation, quantification, storage, and handling of peptide standards used for mass spectrometry-based assays, as well as interpretation of quantitative proteomic data based on peptide standards.

381

International and national radiation protection standards and recommendations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and their basis are discussed with particular emphasis on the extensive review of its earlier recommendations undertaken by the ICRP during the 1970s. The new recommendations issued in 1977 after this review are described. The dose limits for various organs and tissues before and after 1977 are compared. The optimization principle contained in the 1977 recommendations is assessed. The implementation of the 1977 recommendations, the subsequent changes to them and the ICRP's 1987 statement on cancer risk assessments are discussed. The National Radiological Protection Board's October 1987 radiation protection recommendations are outlined. 8 refs., 1 fig

382

International seminar on selection and implementation of safety standards for a nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All aspects of safety standards for a nuclear power plant were presented in the international seminar on selection and standards for nuclear power plants. Statistics on nuclear power plants show that there is no death as yet ever caused by the operation of about 2000 nuclear reactors. (SMN)

383

78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary...and the standards of performance for stationary internal...public comment on three issues raised in the petitions...does not have tribal implications, as specified in Executive...solely on technology performance and not on health...

2013-09-05

384

Energy standards and model codes development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides an overview of the energy standards and model codes process for the voluntary sector within the United States. The report was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Building Energy Standards Program and is intended to be used as a primer or reference on this process. Building standards and model codes that address energy have been developed by organizations in the voluntary sector since the early 1970s. These standards and model codes provide minimum energy-efficient design and construction requirements for new buildings and, in some instances, existing buildings. The first step in the process is developing new or revising existing standards or codes. There are two overall differences between standards and codes. Energy standards are developed by a consensus process and are revised as needed. Model codes are revised on a regular annual cycle through a public hearing process. In addition to these overall differences, the specific steps in developing/revising energy standards differ from model codes. These energy standards or model codes are then available for adoption by states and local governments. Typically, energy standards are adopted by or adopted into model codes. Model codes are in turn adopted by states through either legislation or regulation. Enforcement is essential to the implementation of energy standards and model codes. Low-rise residential construction is generally evaluated for compliance at the local level, whereas state agencies tend to be more involved with other types of buildings. Low-rise residential buildings also may be more easily evaluated for compliance because the governing requirements tend to be less complex than for commercial buildings.

Conover, D.R.

1994-08-01

385

A Study on the Development of Service Quality Index for Incheon International Airport  

Science.gov (United States)

The main purpose of this study is located at developing Ominibus Monitors System(OMS) for internal management, which will enable to establish standards, finding out matters to be improved, and appreciation for its treatment in a systematic way. It is through developing subjective or objective estimation tool with use importance, perceived level, and complex index at international airport by each principal service items. The direction of this study came towards for the purpose of developing a metric analysis tool, utilizing the Quantitative Second Data, Analysing Perceived Data through airport user surveys, systemizing the data collection-input-analysis process, making data image according to graph of results, planning Service Encounter and endowing control attribution, and ensuring competitiveness at the minimal international standards. It is much important to set up a pre-investigation plan on the base of existent foreign literature and actual inspection to international airport. Two tasks have been executed together on the base of this pre-investigation; one is developing subjective estimation standards for departing party, entering party, and airport residence and the other is developing objective standards as complementary methods. The study has processed for the purpose of monitoring services at airports regularly and irregularly through developing software system for operating standards after ensuring credibility and feasibility of estimation standards with substantial and statistical way.

Lee, Kang Seok; Lee, Seung Chang; Hong, Soon Kil

2003-01-01

386

Conservation and human rights: the need for international standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conservation doesn't happen in a vacuum. In recent years, awareness has grown of the relationship of international conservation practice to indigenous peoples and local communities, and especially the links between conservation and human rights. The impacts protected areas can have on rural communities – such as evictions and lost access to natural resources – are now under particular scrutiny. Concern is meanwhile rising over the human rights implications of some climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. But awareness is also growing of the positive contributions of nature conservation to the rights of people to secure their livelihoods, enjoy healthy and productive environments, and live with dignity. International NGOs can play a central role in supporting and promoting conservation actions that respect the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, and help sustain their livelihoods. Many conservation organisations have long worked towards this. It is vital that they hold to consistent principles and implement measures that ensure their application, so their action on conservation remains accountable, transparent and sustainable.

Oviedo, Gonzalo [International Union for the Conservation of Nature (International organizations without location); Pabon, Luis [The Nature Conservancy (United States); Painter, Michael; Redford, Kent [The Wildlife Conservation Society (United States); Siegele, Linda [Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (United Kingdom); Springer, Jenny [WWF-US (United States); Thomas, David [Birdlife International (International organizations without location); Painemilla, Kristen Walker [Conservation International (United States); Roe, Dilys

2010-05-15

387

Development of a standard for indoor radon measurements in Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A standard covering methodologies for the measurement of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations in air in Australian buildings is currently under preparation as part of a set of standards covering total indoor air quality. This paper outlines the suggested methodology for radon and discusses some of the problems associated with the development of the standard. The draft standard recommends measurement of the radon concentration in air using scintillation cells, charcoal cups and solid state nuclear track detectors, and measurement of radon progeny concentration in air using the Rolle method or the Nazaroff method. 14 refs., 1 tab

388

Persian Agricultural Journals and Standard: Degree of Compatibility of Persian Scientific Agricultural Journals with International Standard Organization (ISO Publishing standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Standard is a collection of recipes, guidelines or recommendations which use in production, creating or making of goods, products, documents or special resources. Extent of adaptation of Persian Agricultural scientific journals which are publishing in Iran with ISO publishing standards was evaluated in this research. The information items which were necessary to be presented in different sections of Agricultural scientific journals were examined. Items which were needed to be present in cover page, content, title page, running title, and endnote, abstract, first page of an article, references and its structure were among the information items. 47 Agricultural scientific journals were publishing until February 2009 consisted of the research population. Descriptive survey method is used. Results showed the adaption rate with ISO standards in research population was 53.47 percent. There was no private publisher which publishes agricultural scientific journals. The extent of adaptation with ISO standards was high in journal sections such as abstracts and keywords.

Abbas Gilvari

2011-10-01

389

The standard of healthcare accreditation standards: a review of empirical research underpinning their development and impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare accreditation standards are advocated as an important means of improving clinical practice and organisational performance. Standard development agencies have documented methodologies to promote open, transparent, inclusive development processes where standards are developed by members. They assert that their methodologies are effective and efficient at producing standards appropriate for the health industry. However, the evidence to support these claims requires scrutiny. The study’s purpose was to examine the empirical research that grounds the development methods and application of healthcare accreditation standards. Methods A multi-method strategy was employed over the period March 2010 to August 2011. Five academic health research databases (Medline, Psych INFO, Embase, Social work abstracts, and CINAHL were interrogated, the websites of 36 agencies associated with the study topic were investigated, and a snowball search was undertaken. Search criteria included accreditation research studies, in English, addressing standards and their impact. Searching in stage 1 initially selected 9386 abstracts. In stage 2, this selection was refined against the inclusion criteria; empirical studies (n?=?2111 were identified and refined to a selection of 140 papers with the exclusion of clinical or biomedical and commentary pieces. These were independently reviewed by two researchers and reduced to 13 articles that met the study criteria. Results The 13 articles were analysed according to four categories: overall findings; standards development; implementation issues; and impact of standards. Studies have only occurred in the acute care setting, predominately in 2003 (n?=?5 and 2009 (n?=?4, and in the United States (n?=?8. A multidisciplinary focus (n?=?9 and mixed method approach (n?=?11 are common characteristics. Three interventional studies were identified, with the remaining 10 studies having research designs to investigate clinical or organisational impacts. No study directly examined standards development or other issues associated with their progression. Only one study noted implementation issues, identifying several enablers and barriers. Standards were reported to improve organisational efficiency and staff circumstances. However, the impact on clinical quality was mixed, with both improvements and a lack of measurable effects recorded. Conclusion Standards are ubiquitous within healthcare and are generally considered to be an important means by which to improve clinical practice and organisational performance. However, there is a lack of robust empirical evidence examining the development, writing, implementation and impacts of healthcare accreditation standards.

Greenfield David

2012-09-01

390

The internal consistency of the standard gamble: tests after adjusting for prospect theory  

OpenAIRE

This article reports a study that tests whether the internal consistency of the standard gamble can be improved upon by incorporating loss weighting and probability transformation parameters in the standard gamble valuation procedure. Five alternatives to the standard EU formulation are considered: (1) probability transformation within an EU framework; and, within a prospect theory framework, (2) loss weighting and full probability transformation, (3) no loss weighting and full probability tr...

Oliver, Adam

2003-01-01

391

Draft I.E.C. standard for monitoring PWR internal structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EDF has proposed to the International Electrotechnical Commission a draft standard for monitoring the vessel internal structures of PWRs. The standard applies to systems used for monitoring the vibratory behavior of the internal structures of PWRs (core barrel, thermal shield, fuel assemblies) on the basis of neutron fluctuations observed outside the vessel as well as of vessel vibrations. It covers the systems characteristics and the monitoring procedures. It should facilitate standardization of monitoring and comparisons on an international level. This paper presents the main features of the draft standard: -principles of measurement: correlation between movements of internals and ex core neutron noise on the one hand, forced vibrations of the vessel on the other hand; -sampling and conditioning of the signals; -monitoring equipment and in particular spectral analysis device; -functions of the monitoring software used for spectral analysis, peak detection and calculation of structure displacement; -studies preliminary to setting up the monitoring (calculation of internal vibratory modes, defect simulation on mockup, qualification on reactor during hot test...); -monitoring procedures (periodicity of analysis and what to do in case of anomaly); -documentation necessary to the monitoring. A diagnostic procedure is given as an example. The draft standard, written in 1994, will be presented in Frankfurt (Germany) in February 1995. (author). 1 annexe

392

Auditors Compliance with International Standards on Auditing (ISAs: Evidence form Jordan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The continuous new amendments of the International Standards on Auditing (ISAs in the beginning of 2007 formed a pressure on auditors to follow up and comply with them. The present study attempted to examine to what extent auditors complied with ISA according to the last pronouncement by the International Auditing and Assurance Standard Board (IAASB. Data was collected through a questionnaire administered to a random sample of external auditors in Jordan. The study revealed that Jordanian auditors complied with all auditing standards with some variance in the degree of compliance among them. The results indicated that further measures and steps could be taken to improve the ISA compliance.

Ahmad N. Obaidat

2007-01-01

393

Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography  

CERN Document Server

The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

2012-01-01

394

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 41 (IAS 41 – IMPLICATION FOR REPORTING CROP ASSETS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A series of articles were written regarding International Accounting Standard 41 (IAS 41 – Agriculture in order to outpost the the implication of this standard over valuating the different biological assets. Valuation of crop assets are also a part of the IAS 41 objective.  Anyway,  this paper investigates the implications of International Accounting Standard 41 for European Union (EU entities reporting on holdings of crop asset from thre  points of view: implication of production forecast over the accurate accounting, the impact over cash flow and the possibility like companies to use acoounting methodology on own interests.

Petru ?tefea

2013-05-01

395

Teaching optical dimensional metrology of surfaces and international standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Dimensional metrology is a demanding subject that requires an in-depth knowledge not only of the characteristics of the object of the measurement and the method and system to be used to perform the measurement but also of the standards to followed and strictly respected. This is especially true for surface metrology. The definition of surface, particularly when using optical methods in the measuring process, is a first problem to be understood. From this definition discussion, in our pedagogical approach, we move to the study of the characteristics of light and light/matter/surface interaction. Surface characterization parameters and the main ISO standards are studied. Particular attention is given within the study of the sensing/measuring processes to the definition of uncertainty of a measurement. ISO' Guide of Expression of Uncertainty of a Measurement, GUM, is studied (as well as the VIM). A review of the main optical surface inspection system is made. We believe on the importance of an active student centred learning and on the resource to hands-on experimental practice and therefore all this teaching approach evolves from practical examples and actual experiments and observations.

Costa, Manuel F. M.

2014-07-01

396

Standards and safety rules in an international comparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is seen that it is not the big existing differences in the basic requirements from nuclear power plants - such as the differing requirements relating to the degree of redundancy of safety systems - that causes difficulties, but mostly the regulations which are more detailed. The article shows that the international comparison of nuclear-technical regulations, with regard to the basic requirements, is possible; that it is, however, connected with extremely strong efforts with regard to the regulation of the details. It would be very helpful to those countries which have relatively small nuclear programmes and are not able or willing to establish their own regulations if there were a delineation based on the IAEA-codes and guides of the NUSS-programme which systematically refers to those parts of the German regulations which have to be added as necessary completion. (orig./HP)

397

A review of international underground laboratory developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Underground laboratories are essential for various important physics areas such as the search for dark matter, double beta decay, neutrino oscillation, and proton decay. At the same time, they are also a very important location for studying rock mechanics, earth structure evolution,and ecology. It is essential for a nation's basic research capability to construct and develop underground laboratories. In the past, China had no high-quality underground laboratory,in particular no deep underground laboratory,so her scientists could not work independently in major fields such as the search for dark matter,but had to collaborate with foreign scientists and share the space of foreign underground laboratories. In 2009, Tsinghua university collaborated with the Ertan Hydropower Development Company to construct an extremely deep underground laboratory, the first in China and currently the deepest in the world, in the Jinping traffic tunnel which was built to develop hydropower from the Yalong River in Sichuan province. This laboratory is named the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and formally opened on December 12, 2010. It is now a major independent platform in China and can host various leading basic research projects. We present a brief review of the development of various international underground laboratories,and especially describe CJPL in detail. (authors)

398

Accredited Standards Committee N15 Developments And Future Directions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) N15, Methods of Nuclear Material Control, is sponsored by the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) to develop standards for protection, control and accounting of special nuclear materials in all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, including analytical procedures where necessary and special to this purpose, except that physical protection of special nuclear material within a nuclear power plant is not included. Voluntary consensus standards complement federal regulations and technical standards and fulfill an important role for the nuclear regulatory agencies. This paper describes the N15 standards development process, with INMM as the Standards Developing Organization (SDO) and the N15 Committee responsible for implementation. Key components of the N15 standards development process include ANSI accreditation; compliance with the ANSI Essential Requirements (ER), coordination with other SDOs, communication with stakeholders, maintenance of balance between interest categories, and ANSI periodic audits. Recent and future ASC N15 activities are discussed, with a particular focus on new directions in anticipation of renewed growth in nuclear power.

399

International Education and Development: Histories, Parallels, Crossroads  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Education has been a priority sector when considering foreign aid allocationsince the 1970s. The stated objective has been to ensure universal access to basic education, with a more recent emphasis on quality and outcomes. Aware that these goals will not be met universally, the major actors involved in the post-2015 debate are turning back to the concept of learning. In this chapter, we briefly review major scholarly work and strategic papers that have shaped the discourse and policies of international development organisations and national actors over the past four decades. We discuss how the central notions of skills, learning, and both formal and non-formal education have evolved in conjunction with ideological shifts. We examine the tensions between public and private education as well as between individualised and standardised delivery modes. We further look at (big data and online education promises. To conclude, we question the current focus of major stakeholders on post-2015, post-EFA agendas. As several articles in this special issue underscore, national policies and local practices are largely driven by persistent political economy dynamics while the influence of ‘the global agenda’ tends to remain confined to the international cooperation community itself.

Gilles Carbonnier

2014-11-01

400

The Application of International Accounting Standard’s Requirements No. (20) in Jordanian Chemical Detergents Industry Companies  

OpenAIRE

The study aimed at identifying the extent to which Jordanian chemical detergents industry companies applying the requirements of international accounting standard No. (20). A questionnaire has been designed for this purpose and distributed to the external auditors of these companies of (50) auditors / questionnaire, (30) questionnaires were recovered and were suitable for analysis, with recovery rate reached to (60%). Resolution data was analyzed using (SPSS), and a number of statistical tech...

Jamal Adel Al-Sharairi; Alsharayri, Majed A.

2012-01-01

401

Prediction of ROSA-III test RUN 912 (International Standard Problem-12)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ROSA-III test RUN 912 is conducted at JAERI for ISP-12 (International Standard Problem-12) of CSNI (Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations). RUN 912 simulates a 5% split break at the recirculation pump inlet side of a BWR with the assumption of HPCS single failure. Prediction of the ROSA-III test RUN 912 was performed by using RELAP4J, RELAP4/MOD6 and RELAP5/MOD0 computer codes developed to analyze thermal hydraulic phenomena during loss of coolant accidents and transients of a light water reactor. Both RELAP4J and RELAP4/MOD6 are codes based on a one-dimensional homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow model, whereas RELAP5/MOD0 is an advanced code based on a one-dimensional nonhomogeneous nonequilibrium two-phase flow model. The present prediction is useful to evaluate the predictability of LOCA analysis codes and for a better understanding of the codes. (author)

402

International standards for fetal growth based on serial ultrasound measurements: the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: In 2006, WHO produced international growth standards for infants and children up to age 5 years on the basis of recommendations from a WHO expert committee. Using the same methods and conceptual approach, the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS), part of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, aimed to develop international growth and size standards for fetuses. METHODS: The multicentre, population-based FGLS assessed fetal growth in geographically defined urban populations in eight cou...

Papageorghiou, At; Ohuma, Eo; Altman, Dg; Todros, T.; Cheikh Ismail, L.; Lambert, A.; Jaffer, Ya; Bertino, E.; Gravett, Mg; Purwar, M.; Noble, Ja; Pang, R.; Victora, CG; Barros, Fc; Carvalho, M.

2014-01-01

403

Quantification of rhodium in a series of inorganic and organometallic compounds using cobalt as internal standard  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english An analytical method for the quantification of rhodium using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cobalt as internal standard was developed. Rhodium recovery was determined in different samples, which included a certified reference material (CRM), pure rhodium metal [...] , inorganic RhCl.3H2O salt as well as different organometallic compounds. Excellent rhodium recoveries of 100,100, 99.0 and 99.7 % with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.0,1.0, 0.3 and 0.4 % were obtained for the CRM, rhodium metal sample, RhCl3·3H2O and [Rh(cupf)(PPh3)(CO)(CH3)(I)], respectively. The accurate recovery of rhodium was, however, affected by the presence of easily ionized elements (EIE) and unmatched acid matrixes with a decrease in rhodium recovery of up to 16 %. Validation parameters such as accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and robustness were all investigated to confirm the suitability of this newly developed analytical procedure for rhodium determination.

Trevor T., Chiweshe; Walter, Purcell; Johan A., Venter.

2013-08-01

404

Using Collaborative Course Development to Achieve Online Course Quality Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of quality is becoming front and centre as online and distance education moves into the mainstream of higher education. Many believe collaborative course development is the best way to design quality online courses. This research uses a case study approach to probe into the collaborative course development process and the implementation of quality standards at a Canadian university. Four cases are presented to discuss the effects of the faculty member/instructional designer relationship on course quality, as well as the issues surrounding the use of quality standards as a development tool. Findings from the study indicate that the extent of collaboration depends on the degree of course development and revision required, the nature of the established relationship between the faculty member and designer, and the level of experience of the faculty member. Recommendations for the effective use of quality standards using collaborative development processes are provided.

Ining Tracy Chao

2010-10-01

405

Research and development strategy and maintenance engineering to strengthen the basis of ageing management. International activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Systematic development of information basis for database and knowledge-base has been performed in addition to the development of codes and standards by academic societies, regulatory bodies and industries through the intensive domestic safety research collaborations and international collaboration, through the continuous revision of Strategy Maps for Ageing Management and Safe Long Term Operation. Important international activities in IAEA and OECD/NEA especially for knowledge-base and extraction of commendable practices in ageing management are discussed. (author)

406

International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), which documents the neurological examination of individuals with SCI. The Autonomic Standards Assessment Form is recommended to be completed during the evaluation of individuals with SCI, but is not a part of the ISNCSCI. A web-based training course (Autonomic Standards Training E Program (ASTeP)) is available to assist clinicians with understanding autonomic dysfunctions following SCI and with completion of the Autonomic Standards Assessment Form (www.ASIAlearningcenter.com).

Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-SØrensen, Fin

2012-01-01

407

2009 review and revisions of the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI were also reviewed. The last citable reference for the ISNCSCI's methodology is the ISNCSCI Reference Manual, published in 2003 by ASIA. The Standards Committee recommended that the numerous items that were revised should be published and a precedent established for a routine published review of the ISNCSCI. The Standards Committee also noted that, although the 2008 reprint pocket booklet is current, the reference manual should be revised after proposals to modify/revise the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS as modified from Frankel) are considered. In addition, the Standards Committee adopted a process for thorough and transparent review of requests to revise the ISNCSCI.

Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin

2010-01-01

408

Assisting member states to achieve international analytical standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For more than forty years the IAEA has been assisting laboratories in its Member States to maintain and improve the quality and reliability of analytical data. This is achieved by organising worldwide and regional intercomparison studies and proficiency tests and by providing appropriate reference materials. Participation in proficiency testing schemes ensures an objective means of assessing and demonstrating the quality of the obtained laboratory data and reinforces the confidence of end users in the reliability of the reported analytical results. The External Quality Assurance (EQA) programme currently operated by the Soil Science Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria encompasses: 1. training on the implementation of basic Quality Systems in isotope laboratories; 2. production and provision of purposely tailored information materials, standard operating procedures and handbooks on quality assurance; 3. production and provision of liquid and natural matrix reference materials; 4. organisation of annual proficiency tests on isotope abundance determination of 15N and 13C, the most common stable isotope tracers in agricultural research; 5. continuous technical advice to participating laboratories on analytical issues, including online troubleshooting and direct communication

409

Recently aspects regarding International Auditing Standard 200 „Overall Objectives of the Independent Auditor and the Conduct of an Audit in Accordance with International Standards on Auditing”  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. This is achieved by the expression of an opinion by the auditor on whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with an applicable financial reporting framework. The International Standard on Auditing 200 (ISA 200) deals with the independent auditor’s overall responsibilities when conducting an audit of financial statements in accordance wit...

Daniel Botez

2009-01-01

410

Personnel involved in nuclear standards development: 1980 directory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of nuclear standards is an active and necessary endeavor that is concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of nuclear potential. There are almost 4100 people from the teachnical community who are presently involved either in writing nuclear standards, including codes, or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document identifies the current participation of each individual as member, chairman, cochairman (vice-chairman), or secretary of about 700 standards development committees and groups. The standards committees and groups are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. This directory includes four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a Key-Word-in-Context (KWIC) Index of committee titles. It can also be used to identify the participation of employers as well as to recognize the contributions of individuals to the often interdisciplinary activity of standards development

411

Analysis of Belgian Public Accounting and Its Compliance with International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) 1, 6 and 22  

OpenAIRE

Belgian public accounting, which is continuously evolving, has to meet international standards. The aim of thispaper is to describe the current Belgian public accounting systems and to analyze their compliance with IPSAS1, 6 and 22, key points of modern accounting.We first describe the development of Belgian public accounting since 1846. We then focus on the 2003accounting reform, and more specifically its content and its triggering factors. The level of implementation ofthis reform in the di...

Sabrina Bellanca; Julien Vandernoot

2013-01-01

412

Rapid and Sensitive HPLC Method for the Determination of Sirolimus with Ketoconazole as Internal Standard and Its Further Applications  

OpenAIRE

Sirolimus and Ketoconazole are used in organ transplantation regimen and potential metabolic interactions of these drugs were reported when administered concomitantly. An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photo diode array (PDA) detection was developed for quantification of sirolimus using ketoconazole as internal standard. Extraction was performed using dichloromethane under nitrogen atmosphere and the separation of sirolimus and ketoconazole was a...

Anil Kumar, A.; Srinivas, P.; Spandana, K.; Rama, N.; Vidya Sagar, J.

2012-01-01

413

Developing International Business Managers through International Study Visits to China  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalization is a key factor in the success of business organizations today, impacting many aspects of management performance. Understanding the global business environment has therefore become a key objective in the teaching of international business on Executive MBA programs. Drawing on the theory of experiential learning, this study examines…

Tang, Yiming; Rose, Susan

2014-01-01