WorldWideScience

Sample records for developing international standards

  1. ISO: international standards development for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of internationally recognized standards for nuclear technology and safety is rapidly increasing for technical as well as economical and political reasons such as public acceptance and nuclear technology transfer to developing countries. The need for such standards is also evident because of the large number of nuclear installations sited close to international borders, and the export of nuclear installations from relatively few supplier countries to a large number of user countries. It is the purpose of this report to describe briefly the history, organizational structures and procedures, goals, accomplishments, problems, and future needs of the relevant activities of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO is composed of the partly governmental, partly non-governmental national standards bodies of 86 countries including China. The work of its Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' is mostly concerned with industrial applications, contractual aspects and international communication, for the benefit of both developed and developing countries. It works in close liaison with IAEA, which develops Codes and Guides addressed mainly to the regulatory aspects of nuclear power plants in developing countries. ISO/TC 85 has four sub-committees dealing with: (a) Terminology, Definitions, Units and Symbols (Secretariat USA, four working groups (WGs)); (b) Radiation Protection (Secretariat France, ten WGs); (c) Power Reactor Technology (Secretariat Sweden, nine WGs); (d) Nuclear Fuel Technology (Secretariat F.R. Germany, seven WGs). (author)

  2. IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological safety of the equipment. The main characteristics of IEC 62463 and IEC 62523 standards are presented and as well as the IEC methodology of standard development and approval

  3. Probabilistic safety assessment and development of international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The questions discussed are taken from Section 5 of Topical Issue Paper: Risk Informed Decision Making. Is there sufficient guidance for the preparation of high quality PSAs? Is there a need for an international standard for PSAs? Is PSA methodology sufficiently developed to support 'risk informed' regulation, e.g. treatment of rare events, modelling of human failure, severe accident management, organizational factors? Is PSA methodology sufficiently developed to model new reactor designs that are more dependent on passive safety features? How is it possible to ensure that operators are in a position to develop, use and maintain living PSAs and risk/safety monitors to support risk informed' decisions? What actions should be taken by the IAEA to support the introduction of 'risk informed' decision making, e.g. as related to the areas of the development of international standards, harmonization of criteria, compilation and dissemination of experience, and education and training?

  4. The development of international standards for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety for human consumption of irradiated food items has been exhaustively studied on a large scale for at least two decades. It is thought to establish internationally accepted standards on irradiated foods within the framework of Codex Alimentarius as set up by the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme

  5. Recent international developments regarding standardization of food irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recommendations of the Joint Expert Committee on Food Irradiation at its 1976 and 1979 meetings, published by WHO/FAO/IAEA in 1977 and 1980 are discussed in relation to the Recommended Codex International General Standard for Irradiated Food and the Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods, which are based on them. The texts of these documents are appended. The problem of labelling irradiated foods is discussed

  6. Development of Proliferation Resistance Assessment Methodology Based on International Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proliferation resistance is one of the requirement to be met in GEN IV and INPRO for next generation nuclear energy system. Internationally, the evaluation methodology on PR had been already initiated from 1980, but the systematic development was started at 2000s. In Korea, for the export of nuclear energy system and the increase of international credibility and transparence of domestic nuclear system and fuel cycle development, the independent development of PR evaluation methodology was started in 2007 as a nuclear long term R and D project and the development is being performed for the model of PR evaluation methodology. In 1st year, comparative study of GEN-IV/INPRO, PR indicator development, quantification of indicator and evaluation model development, analysis of technology system and international technology development trend had been performed. In 2nd year, feasibility study of indicator, allowable limit of indicator, review of technical requirement of indicator were done. The results of PR evaluation must be applied in the beginning of conceptual design of nuclear system. Through the technology development of PR evaluation methodology, the methodology will be applied in the regulatory requirement for authorization and permission to be developed

  7. Development of proliferation resistance assessment methodology based on international standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonproliferation is one of the main requirements to be satisfied by the advanced future nuclear energy systems that have been developed in the Generation IV and INPRO studies. The methodologies to evaluate proliferation resistance has been developed since 1980s, however, the systematic evaluation approach has begun from around 2000. Domestically a study to develop national method to evaluate proliferation resistance (PR) of advanced future nuclear energy systems has started in 2007 as one of the long-term nuclear R and D subjects in order to promote export and international credibility and transparency of national nuclear energy systems and nuclear fuel cycle technology development program. In the first phase (2007-2010) development and improvement of intrinsic evaluation parameters for the evaluation of proliferation resistance, quantification of evaluation parameters, development of evaluation models, and development of permissible ranges of evaluation parameters have been carried out. In the second phase (2010-2012) generic principle of to evaluate PR was established, and techincal guidelines, nuclear material diversion pathway analysis method, and a method to integrate evaluation parameters have been developed. which were applied to 5 alternative nuclear fuel cycles to estimate their appicability and objectivity. In addition, measures to enhance PR of advanced future nuclear energy systems and technical guidelines of PR assessment using intrinsic PR evaluation parameters were developed. Lastly, requlatory requirements to secure nonproliferation requirements of nuclear energy systems from the early design stage, operation and to decommissioning which will support the export of newly developed advanced future nuclear energy system

  8. International Standardization and Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz

    1991-01-01

    The paper develops a two country overlapping generations model of product improvement innovation to analyze the evolution of incompatible standards among countries. The paper emphasizes the welfare tradeoff between international standardization of products and the frequency of product improvement innovations. The paper classifies and evaluates various government standardization policies according to their objectives.

  9. THE ADOPTION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES- The Case of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Antwi, Kofi

    2010-01-01

    Most countries in the world have revolutionized their accounting practices especially during the last few decades of the 21st century. Such revolutions encompass the adoption and adaptation of local accounting practices and harmonizing it with that of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) – formerly International Accounting Standards (IAS). The study seeks to analyze how developing countries and in particular Ghana adopted the International Financial Reporting Standards. The ...

  10. An innovative approach in developing standard professionals by involving software engineering students in implementing and improving international standards

    OpenAIRE

    Laporte, C.Y.; O'Connor, Rory; Garcia Paucar, L.; Gerancon, B.

    2014-01-01

    One way to develop standards professionals is by having professional graduate students involved in the application and improvement of international standards. At the École de technologie supérieure (ÉTS), a 7,500-student engineering school of Montréal, International Software Engineering Standards are introduced and used in Software Quality Assurance and Software Process Improvement courses and industrial projects conducted by graduate professional software engineering and IT students. The...

  11. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  12. The developments of international hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards and the response strategies in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of hydrogen and fuel cells has expanded as the technology in international markets has improved. Leading countries have focused on establishing hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards. Both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) continuously release new hydrogen and fuel cell related standards. Although the government of Taiwan is promoting the development of a hydrogen and fuel cell industry, it may delay the commercialized schedule if there are no hydrogen and fuel cell related standards and regulations in place. Standards and regulations must be established as quickly as possible in order to accelerate the progress of the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. This presentation reviewed the international progress in hydrogen and fuel cell development and explained Taiwan's response strategies regarding the adoption of hydrogen and fuel cell products in niche Taiwanese markets

  13. The upstream oil and gas industry's initiative in the development of international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the international work of the oil industry to formalize as International Standards many of the industry standards used world-wide. It also describes how matters have been developing in Europe. E and P Forum, representing the international exploration and production oil and gas industry, provides a forum for coordinating industry standardization, to ensure that the necessary standards are maintained by the appropriate technical body. The paper discusses the development of the standardization program in ISO/TC67, the Technical Committee directing the transformation of some 70 API Standards into ISO Standards and the relationship to CEN (the European standardization body). The objective of the upstream industry is to operate worldwide to consistent international standards. Company standards can then concentrate on functional and performance requirements. This will facilitate international trade and communication, open competition and the global market. For a practical realization of this objective the oil industry must foster a special relationship between the relevant US bodies, ISO and CEN. The sustained support of all sides of industry is required

  14. Experience with nuclear safety standards development in non-governmental international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides the IAEA as a 'governmental' organization dealing with basic safety recommendations addressed primarily to the national regulatory bodies in developing countries, two closely related non-governmental international standards organizations have gained extensive experience in the field of nuclear standardization. Over more than 25 years since their formation, both (a) the International Organization for Standardization's (ISO) Technical Committee 85 'Nuclear Energy', in particular in its Sub-Committee 3 'Reactor Technology and Safety' and (b) the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) Technical Committee 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' have published numerous standards. A brief review is given of these, draft standards, and other documents planned to become international standards. Many of them deal with rather specialized topics typical for 'industrial' standards such as standardized procedures, instruments, methods, materials, test methods, terminology, and signs and symbols, but others are directly related to more basic safety issues. In some areas such as quality assurance, seismic aspects of siting and terminology, there has been in the past occasional overlap in the activities of the NUSS programme, IEC and ISO. Letters of Understanding have since 1981 contributed to clarifying the borderlines and to avoiding redundant efforts. Also, some experiences and problems are described arising, for example, from the harmonization of different national safety philosophies and traditions into universally accepted international standards, and the transfer of international standards into national standards systems. Finally, based on a recent comprehensive compilation of some 3300 nuclear standards and standards projects, an attempt is made to present a cost/benefit analysis and an outlook on future developments. (author)

  15. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  16. Development of an international standard for electromagnetic interference (EMI)/radio frequency interference (RFI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the development of an international standard that establishes the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility testing of instrumentation and control equipment supplied for use in systems important to safety at nuclear power plants. The standard lists the applicable IEC standards (principally the IEC 61000 series) which define the general test methods, and provides the necessary application-specific parameters and criteria to ensure that nuclear safety requirements are met. This standard was prepared with the leadership by the Russian National Committee representatives to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). (authors)

  17. International radiation safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of international safety standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is described with explanations as to the purpose of each level of the hierarchy. There is a system of committees that advise the IAEA and approve the safety standards and one of these committees is the Radiation Safety Standards Committee (RASSC). The Committee meets twice a year (the last meeting was 24-27 March 2003) and this note outlines the current situation with respect to published safety standards documents at the fundamentals, requirements and guides levels and the status of documents under development. Guidance on how to find more information and to keep up to date on the development of documents is provided. The forward plans of the IAEA in this area are discussed briefly. (note)

  18. Development of an international standard on instruments setpoints based on ISA S67.04 - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a summary of the application for and development of an international standard on instrument setpoints, based on the Instrument Society of America (ISA) Standard S67.04 - 1994. The forum this new standard was proposed in is the International Electrotechnique Commission (IEC), based in Geneva, Switzerland, which is the international commission which oversees electrical and instrumentation standards for all applications around the world. The Instrument Society of America (ISA) is a United States based Society for the advancement of instrumentation and controls related science and technology and has 30,000 members. A division within the ISA is the Standard and Practices board which has over 5000 members actively involved in standards development and approval. In 1994, the ISA SP67, Nuclear Power Plant Standards Committee authorized that the IEC be approached to develop and issue an IEC standard on Instrument Setpoints. This application was formally submitted in January, 1995 to the IEC and approved for ballot to member countries in June, 1995. Approval for standard development by IEC was received in October, 1995 and the first draft vas issued in February, 1996, and is currently under review by the IEC working group. It is very important to focus on the approach that the U.S. and other countries are taking toward development of IEC standards that can apply to all nuclear instrumentation applications around the world. By referencing IEC standards in design specification, vendors can be solicited from many different countries, thereby ensuring that the highest quality products can be used. This also offsets the need to specify individual standards in the specification, based on the country that each vendor solicited, represents. In summary, this standard development process, with support from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) will assist U.S. suppliers in competing in the global market for products and services into the next century. (author)

  19. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'

  20. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytchev, M. [IRSN/DSU/SERAC/BIREN-CTHIR, B.P. 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: miroslav.voytchev@irsn.fr; Chiaro, P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Radev, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-384, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three IEC standards are published. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: IEC 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', IEC 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and IEC 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'.

  1. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three IEC standards are published. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: IEC 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', IEC 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and IEC 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'

  2. Activity trends of the international organizations involved in the development of the radiological protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the development of the radiological protection standards, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) play important roles by summarizing latest knowledge on radiation effects, by developing the principles of radiological protection, and by providing the international basic safety standard for national legislations, respectively. Recently, large number of international organizations, communities and networks are recognized as key stakeholders, and are involved in the activities of evolving the radiological protection standards. As these international bodies are mainly originated from European counties which have been leading discussions in terms of radiological protection so far, and it is also envisaged that they will strongly be engaged in its development in the future, it will be worthwhile to regard their activity trends for getting research results and considerations reflected into the radiological protection standards, i.e. the ICRP fundamental recommendations. In this study, the backgrounds and current activities of those international bodies were collected and analyzed to identify their exact interests and targets in the radiological protection area. Their comments on the recent ICRP publication drafts were also referred. (author)

  3. Development and pilot of an internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management in European primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Szecsenyi Joachim; Grol Richard; van Lieshout Jan; Campbell Stephen M; Ludt Sabine; Wensing Michel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary care can play an important role in providing cardiovascular risk management in patients with established Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD), patients with a known high risk of developing CVD, and potentially for individuals with a low risk of developing CVD, but who have unhealthy lifestyles. To describe and compare cardiovascular risk management, internationally valid quality indicators and standardized measures are needed. As part of a large project in 9 European coun...

  4. International standards for the exploration and production industry -- Their development and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single global market for procurement is of crucial importance to the E and P industry. The resulting benefits, including cost reductions and shorter delivery times, could even be the key to the economic development of marginal fields. International Standards that cater for the needs of users, manufacturers and the public at large can provide a common basis for companies to procure and provide goods and services that will deliver the required performance throughout the field life. The savings to industry could be billions of dollars per year. The E and P Forum, on behalf of the industry, has developed proposals to increase the efficiency of this managerial procedure and to speed up the ''internationalization'' of selected standards. Details are given at the end of the paper. It is argued that the E and P industry should rally to the cause of international standardization. Companies should lend their full support by committing their valuable expert resources. It is in the interests of the industry to do this for, without suitably skilled expert representation in ISO and the elimination of duplication as well as waste of resources through performing similar work at company or national level, the large potential benefits of international standardization will elude the E and P industry

  5. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  6. Development and pilot of an internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management in European primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szecsenyi Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care can play an important role in providing cardiovascular risk management in patients with established Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD, patients with a known high risk of developing CVD, and potentially for individuals with a low risk of developing CVD, but who have unhealthy lifestyles. To describe and compare cardiovascular risk management, internationally valid quality indicators and standardized measures are needed. As part of a large project in 9 European countries (EPA-Cardio, we have developed and tested a set of standardized measures, linked to previously developed quality indicators. Methods A structured stepwise procedure was followed to develop measures. First, the research team allocated 106 validated quality indicators to one of the three target populations (established CVD, at high risk, at low risk and to different data-collection methods (data abstraction from the medical records, a patient survey, an interview with lead practice GP/a practice survey. Secondly, we selected a number of other validated measures to enrich the assessment. A pilot study was performed to test the feasibility. Finally, we revised the measures based on the findings. Results The EPA-Cardio measures consisted of abstraction forms from the medical-records data of established Coronary Heart Disease (CHD-patients - and high-risk groups, a patient questionnaire for each of the 3 groups, an interview questionnaire for the lead GP and a questionnaire for practice teams. The measures were feasible and accepted by general practices from different countries. Conclusions An internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management, linked to validated quality indicators and tested for feasibility in general practice, is now available. Careful development and pilot testing of the measures are crucial in international studies of quality of healthcare.

  7. Competitiveness and international standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Robert E.

    1992-05-01

    There are two main points to be covered in this paper; one deals with the question of why we should be interested in standardization in the first place. The second point considers why we should be more interested in international standards than domestic standards, assuming we have an interest at all. We argue that we should be interested in standards for optical goods for the same reason we believe in logic and scientific principles -- that no amount of charisma is going to change the fact that 2 plus 2 is 4. Regarding the second point, if one concludes that standards are worthwhile, why settle for half the loaf? We are now in a truly global market, even more so with recent events in Eastern Europe and the USSR, and the only way to take full advantage of that market is through international standards.

  8. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    , Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance in......Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics...... impulse noise, protectors with active noise reduction). Furthermore, an overview of the present European standards (CEN) and the relation to American and Australian/New Zealand standards will be discussed....

  9. International standard problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing the safety of a nuclear installation requires the use of a number of highly specialized tools, including computer codes, experimental facilities and their instrumentation, special measurement techniques, and methods for testing materials and components. Tools of the same type may nonetheless vary to some extent among the different countries. They can also be extremely complex and costly to produce and use, and in such cases, assessing their validity can also be difficult. The OECD countries have developed an effective method to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of such tools by the use of International Standard Problem (ISP) exercises. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the history of the ISP program, and to point out specific examples of its contributions to the nuclear energy field

  10. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process. Fourth, sufficient program resources for program implementation and evaluation are critical to the effectiveness of standards and labeling programs and cost-sharing between national and local governments can help ensure adequate resources and uniform implementation. Lastly, check-testing and punitive measures are important forms of enforcement while the cancellation of registration or product sales-based fines have also proven effective in reducing non-compliance. The international comparative analysis also revealed the differing degree to which the level of government decentralization has influenced S&L programs and while no single country has best practices in all elements of standards and labeling development and implementation, national examples of best practices for specific elements do exist. For example, the U.S. has exemplified the use of rigorous analyses for standard-setting and robust data source with the RECS database while Japan?s Top Runner standard-setting principle has motivated manufacturers to exceed targets. In terms of standards implementation and enforcement, Australia has demonstrated success with enforcement given its long history of check-testing and enforcement initiatives while mandatory information-sharing between EU jurisdictions on compliance results is another important enforcement mechanism. These examples show that it is important to evaluate not only the drivers of different paths of standards and labeling development, but also the country-specific context for best practice examples in order to understand how and why certain elements of specific S&L programs have been effective.

  11. Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Developing Countries: The Case of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkadir Madawaki

    2012-01-01

    The study focused on the adoption process of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on adeveloping economy, with particular reference to Nigeria. The paper is based on the data obtained from literaturesurvey and archival sources in the context of the globalization of International Financial Reporting and theadoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).Nigeria has embraced IFRS in order toparticipate in the benefits it offers, including attracting foreign direct i...

  12. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  13. Radiation safety: New international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article highlights an important result of this work for the international harmonization of radiation safety: specifically, it present an overview of the forthcoming International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - the so-called BSS. They have been jointly developed by six organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

  14. Radiation protection instrumentation standards developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' of the IEC produces International Standards defining the requirements to which the instrumentation used for the radiation protection must satisfy. The compliance to these requirements is a guaranty of the quality of the instrument, of its good performance in the nuclear environment. Type testing equipment to the recommendations and requirements of the standards also provides the equipment user with reliable and internationally acceptable performance data which they can use for the accurate interpretation and comparisons of their operational measurements. The list of the published SC 45B standards is given in this paper. (author)

  15. Advantages and difficulties of implementation of the international GNA standards in sustainable mining development. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Conflicts in the development of mining projects are now common between the mining proponents, NGO's and communities. These conflicts can sometimes be alleviated by early development of modes of communication, and a formal discussion format that allows airing of concerns and potential resolution of problems. One of the methods that can formalize this process is to establish a Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA), which deals specifically with challenges in relationships between mining operations and the local communities. It is a new practice related to mining operations that are oriented toward social needs and concerns of local communities that arise during the normal life of a mine, which can achieve sustainable mining practices in both developing and developed countries. The GNA project being currently developed at the University of Nevada, Reno in cooperation with the Newmont Mining Corporation has a goal to create an open company/community dialog that is based on the international standards and that will help identify and address sociological and environmental concerns associated with mining, as well as find methods for communication and conflict resolution. GNA standards should be based on trust doctrine, open information access, and community involvement in the decision making process. It should include the following components: emergency response and community communications; environmental issues, including air and water quality standards; reclamation and recultivation; socio-economic issues: transportation, safety, training, and local hiring; and financial issues, particularly related to mitigation offsets and community needs. The GNA standards help identify and evaluate conflict criteria in mining/community relationships; determine the status of concerns; focus on the local political and government systems; separate the acute and the chronic concerns; determine the role and responsibilities of stakeholders; analyze problem resolution feasibility; maintain the community involvement and support through economic benefits and environmental safeguards; develop options for the concerns resolution; develop and manage short and long-term plans. Difficulties in establishing the GNA standards include identification of the full list of stakeholders, lack of responsible environmental protection practices, dependence on the government and political system, lack of will to disclose full information to the public. It is further complicated by the lack of insurance/bonding policies, and by the lack of audit and monitoring that could determine the level of exposure of the local community and the environment to the contaminants released at the mine sites. Since many problems of mines can occur during closure and post-closure, GNA's should address those issues also. Determined the process for the GNA implementation as a conflict prevention/resolution tool, analyzed conflict/concerns criteria associated with mining operations, determined the role of the stakeholders, worked out the process of stakeholders monitoring, carried out the sociological survey of the stakeholders and the community. Frequent conflicts between mining companies and surrounding communities that lead to work disruptions or even mine closures show the necessity of a less confrontational approach to environmental and social justice. Establishment of GNA standards for use in both developed and developing nations can decrease these conflicts.

  16. Protection of emergency workers and helpers: recent developments in international standards in emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. IAEA safety requirements in preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, were endorsed in 2002 in a joint sponsorship of seven international intergovernmental organizations. Building on experience from responses to actual emergencies, these safety requirements set common goals to be achieved and the common concepts and approaches to be taken for an adequate preparedness to effectively respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency irrespective of the cause. Ensuring an adequate protection of emergency workers is an important aspect of emergency arrangements considered in this publication. In 2011, a revision of these safety requirements was initiated in order to take into account past experience and developments since 2002 with due consideration (but not limited to) the experience gained in the emergency response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Protection of emergency workers got particular attention during this revision in the light of the lessons identified in past emergencies resulting in strengthened and more comprehensive, yet simple, system for protection of emergency workers of different organizations and services. The revised safety requirements are expected to be published in 2015 as Part 7 of the General Safety Requirements (GSR Part 7) within the IAEA Safety Standards Series. In this presentation, the latest updates and developments with regard to emergency workers in the light of the revision of the Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 are presented. Issues such as who are to be considered as emergency workers, the importance of their designation prior to an emergency, how to deal during an emergency response with those emergency workers not recognized as such at preparedness stage, protection aspects to be considered for all emergency workers and dose criteria to be used for restricting their further exposures in an emergency response are addressed. The specifics associated with the protection of female emergency workers are also highlighted. Moreover, the approach to dealing and protecting helpers on the part of the public willing to contribute to the emergency response on a voluntarily basis is covered in this presentation too. (author)

  17. Significance and Role of International Standards in Development of Croatian Nautical Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Favro, Sre?ko; Kova?i?, Mirjana; GRETI?, Zvonko

    2009-01-01

    The authors of this paper have systematically studied the trends of increasing demand in nautical tourism. The increasing demand is followed by a significant increase of threats to the environment, but also to boaters and their vessels participating in nautical activities. The authors emphasise the obligation to observe safety requirements through defined and controlled procedures in marinas and at sea and implementation of international standards during the stages of organisation of nautical...

  18. On the International Convergence of Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Boka Moussa

    2010-01-01

    The international convergence of accounting standards has become a hot topic in the international accounting field.The convergence is an irreversible developing trend of accounting internationalization development that began many years ago.Accounting,as a world-wide accepted business language,should naturally move towards internationalization.This paper discusses the international convergence of accounting standards focusing on its development stages,necessity and analyse the international st...

  19. Standard Setting for Next Generation TOEFL Academic Speaking Test (TAST): Reflections on the ETS Panel of International Teaching Assistant Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papajohn, Dean

    2006-01-01

    While many institutions have utilized TOEFL scores for international admissions for many years, a speaking section has never before been a required part of TOEFL until the development of the iBT/Next Generation TOEFL. So institutions will need to determine how to set standards for the speaking section of TOEFL, also known as TOEFL Academic

  20. Criticality safety and international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There appears to be a worldwide increase in interest in international standards. Indications are that international standards will tend to replace or overshadow national standards. An illustration of this tendency was seen recently. During the recent (February 1996) meeting of the International Organization for Standardization Technical Committee 85 (ISO TC 85, Nuclear Energy) in Albuquerque, representatives from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) requested ISO TC 85 to accept responsibility for conversion of 19 ASTM high-level dosimetry standards to ISO standards using the open-quotes fasttrackclose quotes procedure. This unprecedented request was stimulated by a need to have these procedures in an ISO document to make them more useful to the international community. Recognizing the increased status that international standards enjoy today, TC 85 unanimously agreed to accept this responsibility

  1. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently set up a Metadata Working Group to take responsibility for standards for specification and management of metadata. The scope of the Working Group includes metadata elements, classification and coding schemes, a...

  2. Development of a techniques of the performance test for a radiation protection devices and it's international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Standardization in all technical area is gaining its momentum as its impact and implication over global trade is directly linked. The worldwide competition to secure a dominant position in the standardization process is ever growing over the years. In 2005, the International Technical Committee on nuclear instrumentation, which is a subunit of International Electro-technical Commission (IEC), was held in Korea under the auspices of MOST (Ministry Of Science and Technology). Korea has adopted its rule and regulation as the national standard. As a part of a link to national mid-and long-term atomic energy R and D program of MOST, the technical development of a performance test for the radiation monitors was carried out under mechanical environment and electromagnetic immunity conditions. The characteristics of the radiation fields were also evaluated under the conditions and introduced to a techniques of performance test for the radiation protection instrumentation adopted IEC61526 standards and it's results was analyzed. We would like to share the experience gained in these efforts, failure as well as success, and to discuss the problems encountered and serious consideration to be taken into account in the future endeavor

  3. The International harmonisation process of Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Susanne; Lmmle, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Background: Growth in international trade and capital flows has triggered a rising economic integration. Because of these developments there has been an international homogenising effect upon many customs, practices and institutions. In business life it led among other things to a desire to harmonise Accounting Standards among countries. Purpose: Our purpose is to answer the question: What is the international harmonisation process of Accounting Standards, what is its status quo and how impo...

  4. Accounting Management by International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards their contribution to harmoniz- ation and globalization by purposing and tasking for accounting management. Measuring in details theirs pros and cons effects on the division of labour, financial innovation, company transactions and cost of capital. According to the business practice it is obvious that the usage of international accounting standards leads to reduction of the information asymmetry between the owners and the ...

  5. Importance of international standards on hydrogen technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provided some basic information regarding standards and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It also explained the importance of standardization activities, particularly ISO/TC 197 which applies to hydrogen technologies. Standards are established by consensus. They define the minimum requirements that will ensure that products and services are reliable and effective. Standards contribute to the elimination of technical barriers to trade (TBT). The harmonization of standards around the world is desirable in a free trade environment. The influence of the TBT on international standardization was discussed with particular reference to the objectives of ISO/TC 197 hydrogen technologies. One of the priorities for ISO/TC 197 is a hydrogen fuel infrastructure which includes refuelling stations, fuelling connectors, and storage technologies for gaseous and liquid hydrogen. Other priorities include an agreement between the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the ISO, in particular the IEC/TC 105 and ISO/TC 197 for the development of fuel cell standards. The international standards that have been published thus far include ISO 13984:1999 for liquid hydrogen, land vehicle fuelling system interface, and ISO 14687:1999 for hydrogen fuel product specification. Standards are currently under development for: liquid hydrogen; airport hydrogen fuelling facilities; gaseous hydrogen blends; basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems; gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and gaseous hydrogen for land vehicle filling connectors. It was concluded that the widespread use of hydrogen is dependent on international standardization

  6. TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR EDUCATION AND

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, Wolter de; Holtkamp, Fred

    2009-01-01

    The Forum Orthopaedic Educational Programs from the Netherlands and Belgium (Flanders)took the initiative to promote the developement of international standards for education and training in the field of orthopaedic shoe technology.

  7. Contribution to the panel discussion on 'International developments in standards, rules and codes for pressure vessels'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution to the discussion describes the legal system for technical installations in its existing form in the Federal Republic of Germany. The standardization of technical requirements to meet EC Directives and European Standards requires an adjustment, to a limited extent, of the appurtenant legal prerequisites. Given the trend away from tried and tested control mechanisms in the form of third party inspection, there is imminent danger of a reduction in quality. This compels us to consider how to maintain nonetheless the level of safety that has already been reached. (orig.)

  8. Standardizing products for the international NSSS market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse has responded to international differences in nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) design requirements by developing generic designs that meet particular national requirements to varying degrees. These standardized products represent a composite of the most common safety requirements in the international market. The way in which Westinghouse has coped with some of the obstacles to supplying nuclear equipment to meet the requirements of an international market with many national differences is discussed. (author)

  9. Adoption determinants of the International Accounting Standards IAS/IFRS by the developing countries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fatma, Zehri; Jamel, Chouaibi.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este documento es identificar ciertos factores que probablemente esclarezcan la opcin de aplicar IAS/IFRS adoptadas por los pases en desarrollo hasta el ao 2008. Basados en una muestra de 74 pases en desarrollo, los resultados empricos han demostrado que la mayora de e [...] llos probablemente tienen un alto nivel de crecimiento econmico, junto con un sistema jurdico de derecho consuetudinario y un nivel de educacin avanzado. Abstract in english This papers main objective is to identify certain explanatory factors that likely clarify the choice of applying IAS/IFRS adopted by developing countries (DCs) up until the year 2008. Based on a sample consisting of 74 DCs, the empirical results have indicated that the DCs most likely to adopt IAS/ [...] IFRS have a high level of economic growth, along with a legal system of common law and an advanced educational level.

  10. National Standards and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Ganslandt, Mattias; Markusen, James R.

    2001-01-01

    Standards and technical regulations which govern the admissibility of imported goods into an economy raise costs of exporters entering new markets, and may have a particularly high impact on firms seeking to export from developing countries. Yet standards may also have a positive side, such as certifying product quality and safety for the consumer. This paper analyzes potential conflicts of interest between consumers and firms in a developed and a developing country under different assumption...

  11. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing. (author)

  12. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing

  13. Accounting Management by International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards their contribution to harmonization andglobalization by purposing and tasking for accounting management. Measuring in details their pros and conseffects on the division of labour, financial innovation, company transactions and cost of capital it could beauthors recommendation for the business management inside and outside of one countrys border. Especiallythe multinational companies whose subsidiaries had to report for s...

  14. National and international standardization of radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deliberations of this conference mainly dealt with the following topics: standardization in primary standardizing laboratories, standardization in in Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), standardization in personnel dosimetry, basic physical data and international activities including dose intercomparisons

  15. SETTING INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS IN HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu-George BOCEAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of globalization, more organizations are expanding internationally, which makes human resources increasingly mobile and global. In this context, managing workforce governed by a global culture is becoming increasingly difficult for the organization's human resources departments from the country of origin. Harmonization of human resource management practices and procedures through development of standards in this area is essential to ensure processes effectiveness and quality improvement. In this paper, we review standardization efforts in human resources management and we propose the development of a general standard for this area in order to enable multinational organizations to successfully manage human resources in countries with different cultures.

  16. Development of Accounting and Financial Reporting For Small and Medium-Sized Businesses in Accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Klychova; E. N. Fakhretdinova; A. S. Klychova; N. V. Antonova

    2015-01-01

    This publication considers accounting procedures and financial data reporting by small and medium sizebusinesses in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). It studies different IFRSinfluence zones in small and medium size businesses. The present study offers the following information: adefinition for small and medium sized business; a model of financial accounting and reporting proceduralguidelines for Russian small and medium sized businesses; approaches to crea...

  17. International Accounting Standards/International Financial Reporting Standards versus Vietnamese Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Thuy

    2014-01-01

    International Accounting Standards/International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS) have increasingly achieved global acceptance in recent years. In the face of globalisation process, it is critical for Vietnam to direct its current accounting system in order to improve its competitiveness regarding financial services and capital markets on the globally coordinated market. This thesis aims at comparing IAS/IFRS and Vietnamese Accounting Standards (VAS) in terms of accounting standa...

  18. Nuclear standardization development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  19. Status and Value of International Standards for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provides an update to the author's standards report provided at the ICNC-2007 meeting. It includes a discussion about the difference between, and the value of participating in, the development of international 'consensus' standards as opposed to nonconsensus standards. Standards are developed for a myriad of reasons. Generally, standards represent an agreed upon, repeatable way of doing something as defined by an individual or group of people. They come in various types. Examples include personal, family, business, industrial, commercial, and regulatory such as military, community, state, federal, and international standards. Typically, national and international 'consensus' standards are developed by individuals and organizations of diverse backgrounds representing the subject matter users and developers of a service or product and other interested parties or organizations. Within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Technical Committee 85 (TC85) on nuclear energy, Subcommittee 5 (SC5) on nuclear fuel technology, there is a Working Group 8 (WG8) on standardization of calculations, procedures, and practices related to criticality safety. WG8 has developed, and is developing, ISO standards within the category of nuclear criticality safety of fissionable materials outside of reactors (i.e., nonreactor fissionable material nuclear fuel cycle facilities). Since the presentation of the ICNC-2007 report, WG8 has issued three new finalized international standards and is developing two more new standards. Nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards. The progression of consensus standards development among international partners in a collegial environment establishes a synergy of different concepts that broadens the perspectives of the members. This breadth of perspectives benefits the working group members in their considerations of consensus standards developments in their own countries. A testament to the value of the international standards efforts is that nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards and are mainly consistent with international ISO member domestic standards.

  20. National and international standards on nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on non-regulatory voluntary international standards developed in the area of radiation protection related nuclear waste problems by the International Standards Organization's Technical Committee 'Nuclear Energy' (ISO/TC 85), in particular its SC 5/WG 5 dealing with solid and solidified waste, relevant national standards in various countries, and the interaction between these categories, with an increasing trend towards internationalization. Together with examples for the progress which has been made so far, possible future trends and problems will also be briefly outlined. One of the key problems which appear to require attention is the cost level of nuclear waste programs, which is closely associated with the current, highly questionable assumptions about the risks associated with very low radiation doses. (orig.)

  1. IAEA safety standards and international legal instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA safety standards constitute a comprehensive and consistent framework of reference for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks. As such, they are of fundamental importance for both regulators and technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) in their duties related to nuclear safety and radiation protection. International cooperation is also favoured by the IAEA safety standards, permitting the identification of final objectives and the steps necessary to achieve them in very different national and regional contexts. The fact that groups of experts, widely representing the Member States, developed the safety standards is an additional guarantee of their applicability in different situations. Nevertheless, it should be taken into account that nuclear and radiation safety and their regulation are national competencies, and hence the safety standards should be adopted and suitably modified by the States to become a national safety reference. The clear advantages of the technical assistance that some nations can receive from the IAEA in nuclear and radiation safety favour the adoption of the safety standards. In addition, the explicit mention of the IAEA safety standards in international conventions and codes of conduct signed by several countries also helps their implementation from a legal point of view. Unfortunately, from a practical point of view, the difficulties do not disappear by officially adopting the safety standards. Problems related to insufficient resources, shortcomings in the technical infrastructure and/or the limited experience of TSO staff are real problems that require additional efforts in order to effectively implement the safety standards. Renewed efforts to facilitate international cooperation among regional TSOs are necessary, for example, to promote specific harmonization of national situations. (author)

  2. Developing a registration entry and query system within the scope of harmonizing of the orthophoto metadata with the international standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?ahin, ?.; Alk??, Z.

    2013-10-01

    Increase in the number of satellites and the utilization of digital cameras in the aerial photography has spread the use of satellite image and oriented aerial photograph as real or near-real time resolution, accessible, cost effective spatial data. Co-registered images or aerial photos corrected for the height variations and orthogonality (scale) have become an essential input for geographical information systems and spatial decision making due to their integration with the other spatial data. Beyond that, images and photographs compose infrastructure for the other information in usage of spatial data with the help of the access and query facility web providing. Although the issue of the aerial photo ortho-rectification has been solved long ago, the problems related with the storage of huge amount of photos and images, their management, processes, and user accesses have been raised. These subjects concern the multitudinous private and governmental institutes. Some governmental organizations and private companies have gained the technical ability to perform these works in recent times. This situation has lead to significant increase in the amount of aerial photograph taking and processing in one year for whole country. General Command of Mapping has been using digital aerial camera since 2008 for the photograph taking. The total area covered by the satellite images, purchased for different purposes, and the aerial photographs, taken for some revision purposes or demands of governmental and private institutes, has reached up to 200.000 km. It is considered that, colored and high resolution orthophotos of the whole country can be achieved within four years; provided that the annual production would continue similarly without any increase in amount. From the numbers given above, it is clear and inevitable that the orthophoto production procedure must be improved in order to produce orthophotos in the same year just after the photograph takings. Necessary studies about the storage, management and presentation of the huge amounts of orthophoto images to the users must be started immediately. In this study; metadata components of the produced orthophotos compatible with the international standards have been defined, a relational database has been created to keep complete and accurate metadata, and a user interface has been developed to insert the metadata into the database. Through the developed software, some extra time has been saved while creating and querying the metadata.

  3. Study of International Standards of Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykan Volodymyr L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management, are of general character and differ with the degree of detailing. Their undoubted value in development of risk management in Ukraine is identification of a general direction of building corporate systems of risk management in practice. The said approaches at the national and corporate levels of standardisation in Ukraine within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management would allow improvement of risk management in corporations and enterprises. The prospect of further studies of domestic specialists in the field of risk management is development of the domestic standard of risk management with consideration of modern domestic specific features of development of risk management in Ukraine and leading foreign experience.

  4. 77 FR 58707 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64 FR 590. The rule added a new part to the Commission's regulations..., commenters also questioned the Commission's authority to require a System of Internal Controls (SICS) and the... and player tracking systems? 543.13 What are the minimum internal control standards for...

  5. Toward an international standard for PCR-based detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacters: Assay development and analytical validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Wolffs, P.; On, Stephen L.W.; Ahrens, Peter; Radstrom, P.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S...... carcass rinse, unlike both Taq DNA polymerase and DyNAzyme. Based on these results, Tth was selected as the most suitable enzyme for the assay. The standardized PCR test described shows potential for use in large-scale screening programs for food-borne Campylobacter species under the assay conditions...

  6. Present status of international neutron standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, Katsuhisa; Uritani, Akira [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, National Metrology Inst. of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    We describe the summary of ISO 8529 mainly on the monoenergetic neutron fluence standard using electrostatic accelerators and the AIST activity on the neutron standardization together with the international key comparisons held under the auspices of CCRI. (author)

  7. National and international standardization of radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a short report of the International Symposium on National and International Standardization of Radiation Dosimetry held in Atlanta from 5 to 9 December 1977. The topics treated at the conference were the following: a) the calibration work at the National Standardization Laboratories, b) the standardization and the calibration in radiation protection, radioactive sources, c) basic physical aspects related with the topics studied, d) the determination of the standards for absorbed doses

  8. International standards for mine blowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskin, I.A.

    1985-04-01

    The Standing Committee for Standardization of the COMECON has issued 2 new standards for mine blowers used in underground coal mining. The standards have been worked out by Dongiprouglemash in the USSR. Standard ST SEhV 3830-82 Blowers for main ventilation systems, types and basic parameters should be introduced in 1985. Standard ST SEhV 4284-84 Mine blowers for local ventilation, types, basic parameters and technical requirements will be introduced in 1986. The new standards form the basis for standardization of mine blowers in all COMECON member countries. According to the new standards capacity of main blowers should range from 25 to 630 m/sup 3//s, local blowers from 1 to 20 m/sup 3//s, pressure produced by the blowers ranges from 2.5 to 12.5 kPa, the maximum dust content in the air in the case of main blowers should be not higher than 150 mg/m/sup 3/, and in the case of the local blowers not higher than 50 mg/m/sup 3/. The main blowers are used at temperatures from 323 to 228 K, local blowers at 308 to 253 K. Diameter of main blowers ranges from 1500 to 6000 mm, local blowers from 315 to 1200 mm. The minimum blower efficiency for main blowers and local blowers, axial-flow and centrifugal flow is given.

  9. Toward an international standard for PCR-based detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacters: Assay development and analytical validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lbeck, Peter Stephensen; Wolffs, P.; On, Stephen L.W.; Ahrens, Peter; Radstrom, P.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene were tested in all possible pairwise combinations, as well as two published primers targeting the 23S rRNA gene. A panel of 150 strains including target and nontarget strains was used in an ...

  10. Progress of international basic safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes main points of 'International Basic safety Standards for Protection against ionizing Radiation and for the safety of radiation Sources' sponsored by International Atomic Energy Agency and relevant international organizations. The standards are primarily based on the recommendations of the ICRP-60. In relation to safety , the standards take account of the principles recommended by the International nuclear safety advisory group. The Contents include not only radiation protection but also safety of radiation sources. On the basis of world experiences in radiation protection and safety, the standards comprise the basic requirements to be met in all activities associated with radiation exposure, including potential exposure, medical exposure, waste management, exemptions, emergency exposure, chronic exposure, natural exposure, health surveillance, etc. It is needed to carefully study the contents, combining our situations, to revise present standards. This paper presents some aspects to be studied if our country adopt this standards

  11. EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON MEDICAL DEVICES FOR DENTISTRY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Deliversky

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Standards are produced for many different products and services, and may be created for company, national, regional or global application. In Europe there are three different categories of standard: International standard – a standard adopted by an international standardization organization; European standard – a standard adopted by a European standardization body; National standard – a standard adopted by a national standardization body and made available to the public. Harmonized standards play a special role in the EU. A harmonised standard is a European standard elaborated on the basis of a request from the European Commission to a recognised European Standards Organisation to develop a European standard that provides solutions for compliance with a legal provision. Most standards for dental materials have been harmonized through a so-called cumulative standard (EN 1641:2009 - Dentistry - Medical devices for dentistry - Materials. This European Standard specifies general requirements for materials used in the practice of dentistry for the restoration of the form and function of the dentition and which are medical devices. A multiplicity of laws, standards, and recommendations regulate the marketing of medical devices. The medical doctor and the dentist should be informed about the European and international standards concerning medical devices and use only those for which appropriate information is available. The manufacturer/importer is responsible for its products and is potentially liable for damages.

  12. 77 FR 32444 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... after removal from the kiosk in accordance with procedures approved by the TGRA. G. Card Games The card games section contains standards for both promotional tournament play and regular card room operations... standards for card games? 543.11 543.12 What are the minimum internal control standards for...

  13. EPR meeting international safety standards with margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification in with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

  14. International Electrotechnical Commission standards and French material control standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are reported the international standards incorporated into the IEC Subcommitee 45 A (Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation) and the national standards elaborated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA, Group of normalized control equipment, the degree of application of those being reported on the base design, call of bids and exploitation of nuclear power plants. (J.E. de C)

  15. Business management by international accounting standards

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards - their contribution to harmonization and globalization by purposing and tasking for business management. The differences between the national accounting rules and the international standards are compared and valued inside and outside of the European Union. The empirical results of measuring and analyzing in details theirs pros and cons effects on the business environment by mathematical-statistical methods there could be ...

  16. International Business Accounting Standardization and Hungarian Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe and summarize the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. This paper showed that both businesses ...

  17. International Financial Standards: Assessing Effectiveness from the Private Sector Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    MOSCHELLA, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates market participants endorsement of international financial standards. While the most part of scholarship works has focused on market incentives for states to comply, we shift the focus of the analysis to the incentives for market participants. Why do markets participants choose to follow through the standard and to incorporate states compliance with international standards in their investment decisions? In answering this question, the paper develops two hypotheses and...

  18. Geoscientists for international development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, David A.

    1980-01-01

    Professional societies are usually concerned with the advancement of scientific knowledge, but a relative newcomer to the international scene has a different focus - geoscience development in the Third World. David Hastings, a member of AGID, explains.

  19. International standards pertaining to thermography practices, training and certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    West kerblom, Lisa

    2008-03-01

    American, European and International societies establish standards for individuals and companies within the field of infrared thermography. Historically addressing non-destructive testing (NDT) applications and personnel, standards exist and are being developed within the fields of condition monitoring (CM) and building diagnostics. Incorrect reference to or application of standards and guidelines create widespread market confusion. What type of claim can be made against which standards? Does the standard apply to a company or an individual? To what or whom is the standard intended? Does reference to a standard guarantee compliance or imply quality? How does one become educated or involved in standards? An overview of international standards within the field of thermography (with brief reference to recognizable guidelines and standards such as ASNT SNT-TC-1A and CEN 473), their status and application will be presented.

  20. Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standard...

  1. FY 1999 Report on the technical results. Research and development project for creation of the quick-effect type international standards (Comprehensive surveys); 1999 nendo sokkogata kokusai hyojun sosei kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Sogo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Safety, environment protection and internationality are most important product qualities, and international standardization of product qualities and testing methods are essential for strengthening international competitiveness. Viewed from this angle, the R and D project is conducted to propose the international standards for the following 5 areas related to environment and safety, selected in expectation that the results could be obtained in short time for preparation of the international proposals; (1) standardization of the wireless IC tags for logistics management, (2) standardization of quality and testing methods of automobile fuels and lubricants, (3) research and development for international standards in the field of safety of machinery, (4) standardization of evaluation methods for electronic data security system, and (5) standardization for the safety of light emitting diodes. The results are obtained for preparation of the international standard drafts, interim or final. The activities are directed to promotion of international interchangeability of radio frequency identification (RFID) systems for area (1); to standardization of the systems for emergency stopping/controlling machines for the area (3), to improvement of security evaluation standards of existing information systems for the area (4), and to unification of the ISO/IEC safety standards for the area (5). (NEDO)

  2. Improved nuclear safety through international standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, S. R.; Moffitt, R. L.; Taylor, T. T.; Trosman, G.

    2000-05-01

    In this shrinking world, what happens in an industry in one country can significantly affect the same industry elsewhere around the globe. In April 1986, a nuclear accident destroyed Unit 4 of Ukraine's Chernobyl nuclear power plant, focusing worldwide attention on the dozens of Soviet-designed reactors still in operation. The Chemobyl accident led to public concerns about all operating nuclear power plants and, in some countries (e.g., Italy and Sweden), to proposals for nationwide plant closures or moratoriums on new construction. However, for most former Soviet Union countries, plant shutdown was and still is not a viable optionthe plants produce a significant percentage of each nation's total electricity, and those countries do not have sufficient economic resources to develop alternative power sources. In cooperation with similar programs initiated in Canada, Japan, and western European countries, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive effort to reduce risks at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants until they can be shut down or brought into compliance with international standards. This paper describes DOE-supported initiatives with participating host countries to: improve reliability and accuracy of nondestructive evaluation equipment used for in-service inspection transfer technologies and infrastructure to improve in-service inspections enhance management systems for training and certifying host-country in-service inspection personnel The goal of these initiatives to enhance the use of international standards (ASME, ASNT, European Standards EN, and ISO) in operating and regulatory practices at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants.

  3. Smart radiation monitors as per international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nuclear Reactors and accelerators, a large number of radiation monitors, typically 50 or more networked Area gamma monitors and Neutron Monitors indicating ambient dose rate equivalent H(10) and Fluence are required for Health physics and radiation protection. ECIL has developed (with BARC support) and supplied various Monitors like Neutron REM Monitors (NRM100, NRM 200) to RRMD BARC, Area Gamma Monitor, Neutron Flux Monitor, to VECC for accelerator radiation safety and. Radiological protection cannot be assured without adhering to regulatory requirements and international standards relating to radiological protection instrumentation. NRM 200 has been developed as per guidelines mentioned in IEC 61005 complying with calibration requirements, EMC/EMI requirements, Statistical fluctuation in firmware, Environmental tests and seismic qualification. The NRM 100 is a Battery Powered portable version of the NRM200. The Instruments consist of BF3 Neutron Detector, mounted within the moderator and associated electronics consisting of Charge sensitive Pre-Amplifier and Amplifier circuit, Processing unit, Low Voltage Supply and High Voltage supply. The Dose Equivalent Rate is presented on Analog meter as well as on LCD in digital format. NRMs are featured to display Accumulated Dose, Settable Dose Equivalent Rate Alarm level, Isolated 4-20mA Current Output, and Isolated RS485 Communication. These Units are planned for accreditation at International labs also. (author)

  4. European and International Standards on health and safety in welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes- Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone - Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

  5. The international development challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markets are opening up to international competition and new opportunities will arise for companies. The first part of this international round table of the French gas association's annual conference was devoted to whether they have all necessary assets, especially in terms of know-how and new technologies. In the second part of this round table, gas industry leaders presented their ambitions and strategies on the international scene. The questions discussed related to the main areas of development from both business and geographic viewpoints; to the underlying factors such as expertise, technological know-how, market risks and potential, strategic alliances. (authors)

  6. Impact of international voluntary standards on smallholders’ market participation in developing countries: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Loconto, Allison Marie; Dankers, Cora

    2014-01-01

    The study found that the empirical evidence is limited to the analysis of mainly three standards: GlobalGAP, fair trade and organic. Moreover, most studies focus on two commodities: coffee and horticulture products. While there is a decent range of geographic cover, the majority of studies focus on a handful of countries: Mexico, Kenya, Peru, Costa Rica and Uganda. This study adopts an impacts pathway model to organize and analyze the trends found in the empirical evidence. The results can be...

  7. Review international standards for grid connected photovoltaic systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grid connected PV is being applied on variety application including large centralised stations, commercial building and individual houses. There is a need for specific standard to address distinctive new issue created by grid connected PV power system. Internationally many countries are attempting to develop standards for building integration, Dc side issues and grid connection issues. This paper surveys the current development state of the major countries standards in this area, comparing and contrasting, standards and guideline under development, also addressing the need of standards for grid connected in Malaysia

  8. Ensuring good governance to address emerging and re-emerging animal disease threats: supporting the veterinary services of developing countries to meet OIE international standards on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, B; Mallet, E

    2006-04-01

    As an effect of increased globalisation, animal diseases, in particular those transmissible to man, have an immediate global economic and social impact. This fact, dramatically illustrated by the current avian influenza epizootic in South-East Asia and Eastern Europe, clearly demonstrates the crucial importance of the national Veterinary Services (VS) for the prevention, early detection and response for the efficient control of animal diseases. Complying with this mission for the VS presupposes the existence of appropriate governance and legislation and of an official system to control their quality and reliability- an obvious weakness in many developing and in transition countries. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has therefore developed a project aiming at strengthening the VS in those countries facing the greatest animal health threats and to bring them into line with OIE international standards already adopted by the same countries. Based on the evaluation of the VS and subsequent actions at the global, regional and national levels, the project will have a significant beneficial impact on the targeted countries as well as the international community as a whole, not only in the fields of agriculture, food security and production, and food safety, but also for the local and global prevention of emerging and re-emerging diseases of veterinary and public health importance. The project will be implemented in strong collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization. The actions proposed must be considered eligible for the concept of International Public Good. PMID:16796063

  9. Minimum quality standards and international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which a...... prefer different levels of regulation. As a result, international trade disputes are likely to arise even when regulation is non-discriminating....

  10. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the International Codes...

  11. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the International Codes...

  12. International standards in the fight against terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankovi? Dijana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism as a phenomenon of the modern society threatens to jeopardize the most important achievements of the modern society. The international community devotes much attention to the fight against terrorism and a number of legal instruments and standards that illustrate the basic message have been formulated in international documents - and the message is that it is possible to fight against terrorism effectively only if principal standards of internationally protected human rights are fulfilled. The fight against terrorism must never lead to the abolition of values and freedoms that are imperiled by terrorist acts. Even if the need to impose certain restrictions for protection of legitimate interests arouses they must be controlled, while they should protect basic human rights and freedoms. Regulating formal conditions for human rights limitation is the way to control the fight against terrorism and prevent the unlimited space for violation of the established and guaranteed freedom standards. The paper refers to the provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which provide some limitations to the guaranteed human rights as well as the limitation to their usage also exploring to what extent these restrictions are applied in the fight against terrorism.

  13. Developing international personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Personas have become a well-known method for IT-designers when developing new products. However, the vast majority of personas constructed are created from a mono-cultural (Western) perspective, representing users from a single national culture at a time. Due to the growing global market...... companies’ strategies when going abroad to new markets. Third, inspired by practice theory, the article discusses whether the persona method could benefit from creating narratives related to practices enacted by international users....

  14. Minimum quality standards and international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which a domestic and a foreign firm are identical except that the foreign firm faces positive transport costs. Asymmetric information generates a market failure, which the government attempts to alleviate with a MQS....

  15. Advancements in internationally accepted standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcommittees of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) are developing standards on various aspects of radiation processing. Nine standards on how to select and calibrate dosimeters, where to put them, how many to use, and how to use individual types of dosimeter systems have been published. The group is also developing standards on how to use gamma, electron beam, and X-ray facilities for radiation processing, and a standard on how to treat dose uncertainties. Efforts are underway to promote inclusion of these standards into procedures now being developed by government agencies and by international groups such as the United Nations' International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in order to harmonize regulations and help avoid trade barriers. Standards on good irradiation practices for meat and poultry and for fresh fruits, and for the irradiation of seafood and spices have been developed. These food-related standards are based on practices previously published by ICGFI. Standards for determining doses for radiation hardness testing of electronics have been developed. Standards on the Fricke and TLD dosimetry systems are equally useful in other radiation processing applications. (Author)

  16. Development and progress of Ireland's biobank network: Ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI), standardized documentation, sample and data release, and international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Blanaid; Gaffney, Eoin; Glynn, Sharon A; Donatello, Simona; Carroll, Paul; Connolly, Elizabeth; Garrigle, Sarah Mc; Boyle, Terry; Flannery, Delia; Sullivan, Francis J; McCormick, Paul; Griffin, Mairead; Muldoon, Cian; Fay, Joanna; O'Grady, Tony; Kay, Elaine; Eustace, Joe; Burke, Louise; Sheikh, Asim A; Finn, Stephen; Flavin, Richard; Giles, Francis J

    2013-02-01

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James's Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents-Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups-Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media. PMID:24845249

  17. Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mee, Blanaid

    2013-02-19

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James\\'s Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents—Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups—Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media.

  18. Developing standardized facility contingency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texaco consists of several operating departments that are, in effect, independent companies. Each of these departments is responsible for complying with all environmental laws and regulations. This includes the preparation by each facility to respond to an oil spill at that location. For larger spills, however, management of the response will rest with corporate regional response teams. Personnel from all departments make up the regional teams. In 1990, Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act. In 1991, the US Coast Guard began developing oil spill response contingency plan regulations, which they are still working on. Meanwhile, four of the five west coast states have also passed laws requiring contingency plans. (Only Hawaii has chosen to wait and see what the federal regulations will entail). Three of the states have already adopted regulations. Given these laws and regulations, along with its corporate structure, Texaco addressed the need to standardize local facility plans as well as its response organization. This paper discusses how, by working together, the Texaco corporate international oil spill response staff and the Texaco western region on-scene commander developed: A standard contingency plan format crossing corporate boundaries and meeting federal and state requirements. A response organization applicable to any size facility or spill. A strategy to sell the standard contingency plan and response organization to the operating units

  19. EPA STANDARDS NETWORK FACT SHEET: ISO 14000: INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This flyer provides an overview of the ISO 14000 series of International standards, supplying a brief history, structure of the Technical Committee (TC) 207, structure of the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to ISO TC-207, status of the Standards development as of June 1997, w...

  20. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  1. Thirty years of international nuclear standards in ISO and IEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of over 4700 nuclear and radiation protection standards, laws, regulations, recommendations, etc., which have been issued by 52 countries and several governmental international organizations such as IAEA, or non-government organizations such as ICRP, ICRU, ISO and IEC, more than 90% are national, and more than half of those of a non-regulatory nature. Both number and importance of international standards are, however, increasing. The two most important non-governmental international standards organizations are the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which founded a Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' with several Sub-Committees in 1957, and the closely associated International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) with its TC 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' formed in 1960. There are over 20 member countries actively participating in the work in each of them, with additional observer countries and liaison to the relevant other international organizations. A brief review is given on some of the experience which has been gained by ISO/TC 85 and IEC/TC 45, and its work program and accomplishments, considering in particular recent developments. It covers nuclear safety and instrumentation, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as interface issues including definitions and terminology, interaction of the activities with the work of other national and international bodies, etc. Some problem areas are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  2. Towards an international standard on occupational health and safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Jess; Mondelo, Pedro R; Llimona, Josep

    2002-01-01

    As a result of the need for companies to manage occupational health and safety, as well as the absence of a globally accepted international standard, numerous organisations have developed their own models in the shape of guides, standards, or guidelines. However, the resultant dispersion is creating confusion among companies, rather than making life easier for them. In this article, we look at the current situation as far as available European management systems are concerned, and the emergent trends in the development of an international standard. Moreover, we present the special case of Spain, whose broad legislation on occupational health and safety might hinder the adoption of an international model by Spanish companies. PMID:12189102

  3. An Approach to Establishing International Quality Standards for Medical Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kcha, Ond?ej; Kovcs, Beta E.; McCarthy, Cormac; Schuurmans, Angela A. T.; Dobyns, Christopher; Haller, Elisa; Hinrichs, Saba; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals traveling abroad is increasing annually. The rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently call for the development of international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this study is to identify the key domains in medical travel where quality standards should be established. Drawing from the evidence-based OECD framework and an extensive literature review, this study proposes three critical areas for consideration: minimum standards of health-care facilities and third-party agencies, financial responsibility, and patient centeredness. Several cultural challenges have been introduced that may pose a barrier to development of the guidelines and should be taken into consideration. Establishing international quality standards in medical travel enhances benefits to patients and providers, which is an urgent necessity given the rapid growth in this industry.

  4. Contributions of non-governmental international organizations to nuclear standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of over 4700 nuclear and radiation protection standards, laws, regulations, recommendations, etc., which have been issued by 52 countries and several governmental international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (OECD/NEA) or the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), or non-governmental organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International Commission on Radiation Units (ICRU), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), more than 90% are national, and more than one-half of those of a non-regulatory nature. Both the number and importance of international standards are, however, increasing. The two most important non-governmental international standards organizations are the ISO, which founded the Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'' with several subcommittees in 1957, and the closely associated IEC with its TC 45 ''Nuclear Instrumentation'' formed in 1966. There are over 20 member countries actively participating in the work in each of them, with additional observer countries and liaisons to the other relevant international organizations such as the IAEA. A brief review is given of some of the experience which has been gained by ISO/TC 85 and IEC/TC 45, and its work programme and accomplishments, considering, in particular, recent developments during the October 1988 Plenary Meetings of both IEC/TC 45 and ISO/TC 85. The paper covers nuclear safety and instrumentation, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as interface issues including definitions and terminology, interaction of the activities with the work of other national and international organizations, etc. Some problem areas are also briefly discussed. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  5. An international effort towards developing standards for best practices in analysis, interpretation and reporting of clinical genome sequencing results in the CLARITY Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownstein, Catherine A; Beggs, Alan H

    2014-01-01

    Background : There is tremendous potential for genome sequencing to improve clinical diagnosis and care once it becomes routinely accessible, but this will require formalizing research methods into clinical best practices in the areas of sequence data generation, analysis, interpretation and reporting. The CLARITY Challenge was designed to spur convergence in methods for diagnosing genetic disease starting from clinical case history and genome sequencing data. DNA samples were obtained from three families with heritable genetic disorders and genomic sequence data were donated by sequencing platform vendors. The challenge was to analyze and interpret these data with the goals of identifying disease-causing variants and reporting the findings in a clinically useful format. Participating contestant groups were solicited broadly, and an independent panel of judges evaluated their performance. Results : A total of 30 international groups were engaged. The entries reveal a general convergence of practices on most elements of the analysis and interpretation process. However, even given this commonality of approach, only two groups identified the consensus candidate variants in all disease cases, demonstrating a need for consistent fine-tuning of the generally accepted methods. There was greater diversity of the final clinical report content and in the patient consenting process, demonstrating that these areas require additional exploration and standardization. Conclusions : The CLARITY Challenge provides a comprehensive assessment of current practices for using genome sequencing to diagnose and report genetic diseases. There is remarkable convergence in bioinformatic techniques, but medical interpretation and reporting are areas that require further development by many groups.

  6. International standards for the control of avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J E

    2003-01-01

    The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) has developed international standards to reduce the risk of the spread of high-pathogenicity avian influenza though international trade. These standards include providing a definition of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), procedures for prompt reporting of HPAI outbreaks, requirements that must be met for a country or zone to be defined as free of HPAI, requirements that should be met to import live birds and avian products into a HPAI-free country or zone, and the general provisions that countries should meet to reduce the risk of spread of HPAI through trade. The goal of these standards is to facilitate trade while minimizing the risk of the introduction of HPAI. PMID:14575096

  7. European and international standards regarding radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to identify the way in which the international community, through organizations set up by it, contributes to the development of a satisfactory solution for the disposal of radioactive waste, by regulating its various aspects. Our underlying intention is to demonstrate that the adoption of international standards and agreements enables safety and security obligations to be incorporated into technical solutions, and, above all, that the State's common declared intention to guarantee the protection of man and his environment helps to promote public confidence. First the main international organizations within the sphere of nuclear energy in general will be listed. Secondly the standards and agreements formulated under the auspices of these organizations, which directly or indirectly refer to the issue of disposal, will be identified and briefly commented on. Our point of view on the extent of this international legislative activity and its influence on the general public is contained in the conclusions of this study. (orig.)

  8. The relationship between the new IIA Standards and the internal auditing profession

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, G.P.; Du Bruyn, Rudrik

    2001-01-01

    The Institute of Internal Auditors is in the process of developing new standards for the internal auditing profession. The first set of these standards will be implemented with effect from 1 January 2002. The purpose of professional standards is to lay down the minimum requirements to be maintained for acceptable practice. In June 1999, a new formal definition of internal auditing was adopted to address relevant issues with which internal auditing is currently faced. Existing standards, when ...

  9. Individualization: Future of Standardized School Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan ZOU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Standardized school development plays an important role in narrowing school gap and offering equal access to education. During implementation, however, educational authorities tend to fall into the trap of equal distribution of educational resources, centralized management and homogeneous education. It is essential and viable to individualize standardized schools with the benefits of favorable national policies and international precedents. Individualized school features flexible development, self-management, diversified evaluation system, and school structure where differentiation and equilibrium coexist.

  10. International Standards on stability of digital prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Peter Z.

    2010-06-01

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

  11. International Standards on stability of digital prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

  12. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute...SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the...

  13. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ...of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute...SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the...

  14. Internationally Standardized Cost Item Definitions for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) have agreed to jointly prepare and publish a standardized list of cost items and related definitions for decommissioning projects. Such a standardized list would facilitate communication, promote uniformity, and avoid inconsistency or contradiction of results or conclusions of cost evaluations for decommissioning projects carried out for specific purposes by different groups. Additionally, a standardized structure would also be a useful tool for more effective cost management. This paper describes actual work and result thus far

  15. 76 FR 65166 - International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ...biological control strategies for the Emerald Ash...organize a second international workshop on citrus...on forest-related international standards being developed...proposed standard on the international movement of wood...panel will develop a strategy to mitigate the...

  16. Standards development status. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Standards Development Status Summary Report is designed for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the process by which Regulatory Standards, Guides, Reports, Petitions, and Environmental Statements are written. It is a summary of the current schedule plans for development of the above products

  17. Recommended International General Standard for Irradiated Food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several (at present 22) countries have permitted the irradiation of one or more (altogether 39) foods for trade and human consumption. The clearances of these foods by the respective health authorities have generally been based on extensive wholesomeness studies. Many governments have been reluctant, however, to permit irradiation of food for human consumption and to permit trade of irradiated foods within their jurisdiction. Many individuals have felt that these restrictions were unreasonable hindrances to the free trade of wholesome food, and obstacles to the advancement of useful technology and the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Scientists, by their recommendations at scientific meetings, persuaded the international agencies, i.e. the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to consider these matters. These organizations have stimulated exchange of scientific results, and have organized meetings dealing with these matters. Since 1971 they have sponsored, together with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and 27 participating countries, the International Food Irradiation Project (IFIP).

  18. Complete Genome Sequences of Dengue Virus Type 1 to 4 Strains Used for the Development of CBER/FDA RNA Reference Reagents and WHO International Standard Candidates for Nucleic Acid Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aez, Germn; Heisey, Daniel A.; Volkova, Evgeniya

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is the most common and clinically significant arbovirus in the world and is endemic in more than 100 countries. Here, we report the complete sequences of four DENV serotypes used in the development of the CBER/FDA RNA reference reagents and WHO International Standard candidates for nucleic acid testing. PMID:26868382

  19. Project Management for International Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Valija M.; Magisos, Joel H.

    A project developed a content model for international project management training. It also compiled a bibliography of project management references, identified specific project management training needs based upon a survey of international sponsors and contractor personnel, and documented the training needs of international project managers. Data

  20. International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

    2010-03-01

    The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

  1. International standardization of nuclear reactor designs - the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of 'International Standardization of Nuclear Reactor Designs' means that vendors could build their designs in every country without having to adapt it specifically to national safety requirements. Such standardization would have two main effects. It would greatly facilitate nuclear new build worldwide by giving greater efficiency and certainty to the national licensing procedures; by taking into account the fact that vendors, and nowadays also utilities, are active across borders; by helping developing countries to establish their nuclear new build programmes; and by reducing the strain on human resources on both the regulators' and the industry's side. The second valuable effect of standardization would be to further enhance safety by improving the exchange of construction and operating experience among a number of reactors belonging to fleets of the same design. The World Nuclear Association's CORDEL (Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing) Group has developed a concept for implementation of international standardization of reactor designs. It has defined a number of steps to be taken by industry. At the same time, possibilities offered by national and international regulatory mechanisms would have to be fully made use of, and some changes in regulatory frameworks might be necessary. Some steps especially towards greater cooperation of regulators have already been taken; however, much still remains to be done. The concept of deploying standardized reactor designs across a number of countries supposes an alignment and, if possible, harmonization of national safety standards; a streamlining of national licensing procedures, making them more efficient and predictable; and the willingness of national regulators to take into account licensing done in other countries. In the end, this should lead to a mutual acceptance of design approvals or, in a more distant future, even to a multinational design approval process. All in all, the concept of standardized reactor designs raises many challenges, but these will have to be tackled. (authors)

  2. Vietnamese Accounting Reform and International Convergence of Vietnamese Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    AnhTuan Nguyen; Guangming Gong

    2012-01-01

    Due to the economic globalization, the international convergence of accounting standards is inevitable. But thelevel of economic globalization in among of countries are not the same. There are some differences inaccounting environment in the countries. This paper studies international convergence of Vietnamese accountingstandards. Firstly, the paper summarizes of the process of Vietnam's accounting reform, second analysisdifferences between Vietnamese accounting standards and International ac...

  3. The natural gas trade and international quality standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural gas trade will not become easier to understand in the years to come. The number of suppliers inside and outside Europe is increasing rapidly. In order to guarantee the reliability of the gas supply, good quality standards and standardized measuring methods are indispensable. Collaborating with organizations in many countries, the International Standardization Organization (ISO) has been working on a set of international standards in this field since 1989. The most important standards are nearly finished

  4. Views on the applicability of the internal audit standards and competencies for internal auditors : an African perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Steyn, B.; Barac, Karin; Motubatse, Kgobalale Nebbel; Plant, Kato

    2013-01-01

    Through its Research Foundation, the Institute of Internal Auditors has engaged in various studies to develop a common body of knowledge for internal auditors. These results were reported on from a global perspective; however, local context also has an influence, and there are country-specific forces that influence the application of the International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing and the core competencies needed by internal auditors. Views expressed...

  5. Updated comparison of international standards for polymer piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Responding to a request by ASME B31 Committee, Code for Pressure Piping, to assist in the development of guidelines for establishing uniform manufacturing and design requirements for plastic piping, the Committee on Polymers for Pressure Components of the Pressure Vessel Research Council, initiated a literature survey and interpretive study on plastic piping. This paper discusses existing methods used for designing plastic piping systems and their components by comparing major international codes and standards. The study recognizes that thermoplastic and reinforces thermosetting resins require different design criteria. ASME standards reviewed include ASME B31.3, B31.1, RTP-1 and Section X of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes. Particular emphasis was given to ASME B31.3 Code for Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping. Chapter VII of the ASME B31.3 Code covers non-metallic piping and metallic piping lined with non-metals and establishes much of the design basis for non-metallic piping design covered in other Sections of the B31 Code. ASTM documents discussed are limited to those referenced in ASME B31. British Standard Code for glass reinforced plastics piping system, BS7159, as well as, the German standard for thermoplastic piping systems DVS2210 were used for comparison to U.S. Standards. A cursory review of other standards is also included for the development of a uniform industry standard for plastic piping systems. (authors)

  6. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Non halogen nannen cable no shiken hoho kaihatsu narabini cable kikaku no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As for halogen-free flame-retardant cables with high recyclability and safety (HFFR cables), the development is being promoted in many countries as a next generation cable. The standard of HFFR cables has been set up by some countries and groups in the U.S. and Europe, but the international standard has not yet been established independently. The purpose of this R and D is the development of a test method to appropriately evaluate the performance of HFFR cables and its standardization, and the proposal of the international standardization on common items of the cable standard. A study group was sent to the U.S. and Europe to investigate the development, application status and test methods of the HFFR cable overseas. The ion chromatography and FT-IR method were studied as methods to evaluate corrosivity/toxicity of the gases emitted in combustion. The performance of HFFR cables in Japan and abroad was also evaluated mainly by IEC standards. Further, considering the results of the overseas surveys, the structure and details of the international standard plan on HFFR cables were studied, and approaches to the international standardization were studied. 32 refs., 31 figs., 54 tabs.

  7. Standards-Based Assessment for Principal Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonce, Glenn; Causey, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The Framework for School Leaders, an architecture derived from the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Standards, is utilized in the design of the Principal Internship Mentor's Assessment (PIMA). PIMA outcomes are reported for average scores for each standard and investigated as a measure of ISLLC Standards achievement and for

  8. A perspective on the recent developments in international financial reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Dima (Cristea), Stefana Maria; Delia DAVID; P?iu?an, Lumini?a

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to provide a synopsis of the recent international financial reporting developments as well as to identify some of the related worldwide implications. The unprecedented joint activity of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and US Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has caused, in the last decade, a series of debates on whether or not International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) represent what is best of the international acco...

  9. Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mee, Blanaid, (Thesis); Gaffney, Eoin; Glynn, Sharon A.; Donatello, Simona; Carroll, Paul; CONNOLLY, ELIZABETH; Mc Garrigle, Sarah; Boyle, Terry; Flannery, Delia; Sullivan, Francis J; McCormick, Paul; Griffin, Mairead; Muldoon, Cian; Fay, Joanna, (Thesis); O'Grady, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James's Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documentsPatient Consent Policy, Pat...

  10. Pioneering of Schools with International Standard to Respond the Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Ipnugraha Ipnugraha

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet respond the challenges of globalization Indonesia Government held a Pioneering of Schools with International Standard (RSBI). As an international standard schools pilot, these schools prepared gradually through the guidance by government and stakeholders. Within a certain period of four years it is expected that the schools is able to fulfill and meet the criteria of Schools with International Standard (SBI). Actually, in its implementation, RSBI faces many challenges, among...

  11. International standardization of radiation sterilization of health care products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Standards Organizations/Technical Committee has prepared a draft International Standard (DIS 11137.2), for the radiation sterilization of health care products. The revised Draft International Standard is contained in the first 16 pages of the document. The remaining 68 pages of the document consists of informative annexes on device and materials qualification, dose-setting methods of radiation sterilization and dosimetry and equipment control. (Author)

  12. Development and validation of an internationally-standardized, high-resolution capillary gel-based electrophoresis PCR-ribotyping protocol for Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawley, Warren N; Knetsch, C W; MacCannell, Duncan R; Harmanus, Celine; Du, Tim; Mulvey, Michael R; Paulick, Ashley; Anderson, Lydia; Kuijper, E J; Wilcox, Mark H

    2015-01-01

    PCR-ribotyping has been adopted in many laboratories as the method of choice for C. difficile typing and surveillance. However, issues with the conventional agarose gel-based technique, including inter-laboratory variation and interpretation of banding patterns have impeded progress. The method has recently been adapted to incorporate high-resolution capillary gel-based electrophoresis (CE-ribotyping), so improving discrimination, accuracy and reproducibility. However, reports to date have all represented single-centre studies and inter-laboratory variability has not been formally measured or assessed. Here, we achieved in a multi-centre setting a high level of reproducibility, accuracy and portability associated with a consensus CE-ribotyping protocol. Local databases were built at four participating laboratories using a distributed set of 70 known PCR-ribotypes. A panel of 50 isolates and 60 electronic profiles (blinded and randomized) were distributed to each testing centre for PCR-ribotype identification based on local databases generated using the standard set of 70 PCR-ribotypes, and the performance of the consensus protocol assessed. A maximum standard deviation of only 3.8bp was recorded in individual fragment sizes, and PCR-ribotypes from 98.2% of anonymised strains were successfully discriminated across four ribotyping centres spanning Europe and North America (98.8% after analysing discrepancies). Consensus CE-ribotyping increases comparability of typing data between centres and thereby facilitates the rapid and accurate transfer of standardized typing data to support future national and international C. difficile surveillance programs. PMID:25679978

  13. Development of International Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Zima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The total equivalent of exports, generated from the inbound tourism, including transportation of passengers, exceeded $ 1 trillion in 2010 or about $3 billion a day.Tourism and accompanying services for export are about 30 % of commercial services world export and 6 % of total goods and services export. Tourism as an export category, is ranked 4th in the world after the export of fuel, chemicals and automotive products. For many developing countries it is a major source of foreign currency earnings and is ranked 1st among export gaining that creates many job placements and opportunities for further economic development.

  14. International evaluation of radiation measuring standards at the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory of Iran (SSDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SSDL have the responsibility to provide the radiation users, in particular at therapy and protection levels, with the radiation standards traceable to the international measurement system. The IAEA dosimetry laboratory has developed two measurement assurance programmes, TLD Postal Dose International and Ionization Chamber Calibration Factors Intercomparison, to monitor the quality of therapy level standards disseminated by the members of the IAEA/WHO Network of SSDL s. This paper describes the performance of Dosimetry and calibration intercomparisons in Co-60 and high energy X-ray beams at the SSDL of Iran, and represents the capability of this laboratory in maintaining and issuing therapy level radiation standards according to the results of the IAEA quality assurance programmes during 1987-1997

  15. Standardized interventions in international health: Procrustes, where are you now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Dermot

    2009-10-01

    Two opposing views on implementing interventions in international health are represented on the one hand by 'one size doesn't fit all' and on the other by the promotion of standard approaches. Successes in scaling up access to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment and access to antiretroviral therapy provide examples of the benefits of a standardized approach to disease management. These benefits may be extended to the management of the emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. An enthusiastic advocate of standardization, Procrustes (a figure in Greek mythology) went to extreme lengths but his tendencies can be a useful reminder that one size may not fit all, but does fit enough. PMID:19708901

  16. The Inclusion of Standard Terms in International Sales Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Eiselen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it isnecessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be madeavailable to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems, namely that a clear incorporation clause in the contract is sufficient for the effective incorporation of standard terms. The author critically examines the case law, the various approaches and the underlying arguments on which they are based, before reaching the conclusion that the two extreme approaches should be rejected in favour of the more moderate approach. This approach is founded on aproper interpretation of the provisions of the CISG as well as being in step with international trade practice.

  17. Development of plant assessment standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future of nuclear power in the United Kingdom depends on the building of new plant. In order to secure that future, nuclear power must gain public and political confidence in terms of both safety and cost. It is therefore important that Nuclear Electric plc (NE), who operates the majority of nuclear power plants in the UK, maintains its impeccable safety record. It is also very important in the current climate to drive down costs in order for the electricity produced by NE's existing power stations to be lower than that from fossil fuels. Therefore, in view of the pressure to demonstrate compliance with modern safety standards at existing nuclear power stations, it is important that any financial investments should be targeted at cost/safety benefit effective areas. The paper outlines the history of the development of plant safety assessment standards in the company and how the current framework is allowing NE to approach modern safety standards in an effective manner. NE operates 11 gas cooled nuclear power plants, with ages ranging from 6 to 31 years. Early reactors in the UK were not designed against detailed standards. Initially, this was not a problem, but, as more complex designs were introduced, the debate with the regulator over the adequacy of the design led to modifications and costly delays. Design safety guidelines were developed for later reactors and used as a contractual specification of the safety requirements. This has proved to be a successful approach for the latest stations at Heysham 2 and Sizewell B. The standards that NE has developed for reviewing the safety of its operating stations are consistent with the standards of the regulatory authorities. These standards provide a systematic framework for targeting areas for any safety improvement and demonstrating that risk are as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), in a way that ensures that NE, and hence also the consumer, gets value for money. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs

  18. The new international standard ISO 14001: 2004 environmental management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISO 14001 is one standard in the ISO 14000 series of standards developed by International Organization of Standardization (ISO). Since it was published in 19096, it has rapidly become the most important environmental standard in the world. ISO 14001 is an environmental management system (EMS) that can be classified into environmental technologies provides a systematic procedure to all kind of organizations to prevent pollutions, protect environment and to improve their overall environmental performance. This new standard ISO 14001 2004 was published on November 15, 2004. It cancels and replaced the old ISO 14001-1996. Because the important of the previous standard for our local industries, firms, ...etc, this paper presents ISO 14001 concepts, issues, benefits and focuses on the stages of implementation to achieve ISO 14001-2004 certification which includes general requirements environmental policy, planning (objectives, targets ..), implementation and operations, checking and management review ...etc and presents how to apply isotop time saver software to design records, and to save time to implement ISO 14001 2004 and finally a conclusion is provided.(Author)

  19. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Srensen, Fin; Betz, R; Burns, S; Donovan, W; Graves, D E; Johansen, M; Jones, L; Mulcahey, M J; Rodriguez, G M; Schmidt-Read, M; Steeves, J D; Tansey, K; Waring, W

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association...

  20. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sorensen, F; Betz, R; Burns, S; Donovan, W; Graves, D E; Johansen, M; Jones, L; Mulcahey, M J; Rodriguez, G M; Schmidt-Read, M; Steeves, J D; Tansey, K; Waring, W

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury...

  1. An international standard for observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    A generic information model for observations and related features supports data exchange both within and between different scientific and technical communities. Observations and Measurements (O&M) formalizes a neutral terminology for observation data and metadata. It was based on a model developed for medical observations, and draws on experience from geology and mineral exploration, in-situ monitoring, remote sensing, intelligence, biodiversity studies, ocean observations and climate simulations. Hundreds of current deployments of Sensor Observation Services (SOS), covering multiple disciplines, provide validation of the O&M model. A W3C Incubator group on 'Semantic Sensor Networks' is now using O&M as one of the bases for development of a formal ontology for sensor networks. O&M defines the information describing observation acts and their results, including the following key terms: observation, result, observed-property, feature-of-interest, procedure, phenomenon-time, and result-time. The model separates of the (meta-)data associated with the observation procedure, the observed feature, and the observation event itself. Observation results may take various forms, including scalar quantities, categories, vectors, grids, or any data structure required to represent the value of some property of some observed feature. O&M follows the ISO/TC 211 General Feature Model so non-geometric properties must be associated with typed feature instances. This requires formalization of information that may be trivial when working within some earth-science sub-disciplines (e.g. temperature, pressure etc. are associated with the atmosphere or ocean, and not just a location) but is critical to cross-disciplinary applications. It also allows the same structure and terminology to be used for in-situ, ex-situ and remote sensing observations, as well as for simulations. For example: a stream level observation is an in-situ monitoring application where the feature-of-interest is a reach, the observed property is water-level, and the result is a time-series of heights; stream quality is usually determined by ex-situ observation where the feature-of-interest is a specimen that is recovered from the stream, the observed property is water-quality, and the result is a set of measures of various parameters, or an assessment derived from these; on the other hand, distribution of surface temperature of a water body is typically determined through remote-sensing, where at observation time the procedure is located distant from the feature-of-interest, and the result is an image or grid. Observations usually involve sampling of an ultimate feature-of-interest. In the environmental sciences common sampling strategies are used. Spatial sampling is classified primarily by topological dimension (point, curve, surface, volume) and is supported by standard processing and visualisation tools. Specimens are used for ex-situ processing in most disciplines. Sampling features are often part of complexes (e.g. specimens are sub-divided; specimens are retrieved from points along a transect; sections are taken across tracts), so relationships between instances must be recorded. And observational campaigns involve collections of sampling features. The sampling feature model is a core part of O&M, and application experience has shown that describing the relationships between sampling features and observations is generally critical to successful use of the model. O&M was developed through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) as part of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative. Other SWE standards include SensorML, SOS, Sensor Planning Service (SPS). The OGC O&M standard (Version 1) had two parts: part 1 describes observation events, and part 2 provides a schema sampling features. A revised version of O&M (Version 2) is to be published in a single document as ISO 19156. O&M Version 1 included an XML encoding for data exchange, which is used as the payload for SOS responses. The new version will provide a UML model only. Since an XML

  2. Concrete durability standards: International trends and the South African context

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J G, Kessy; M G, Alexander; H, Beushausen.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Durability problems in reinforced concrete (RC) structures are an issue of global concern, since they threaten economic growth, natural resources and human safety. As a result, attempts have been made in design standards developed in most countries to include requirements to provide durable RC struc [...] tures. This paper examines and compares such durability requirements in standards from the United States, Australia, Canada, Europe, India and South Africa. It focuses on aspects such as exposure conditions, limiting values of material compositions and proportions, and cover depth to the reinforcing steel. The paper describes issues behind prescriptive standards and deals with challenges confronting performance approaches for concrete durability. Following international trends, it is evident that the South African Standards, particularly SANS 10100-2, must undergo substantial updating and improvements to durability requirements. The paper suggests the means of re-drafting and implementing durability specifications in any revised version of SANS 10100-2, taking into account both prescriptive and performance alternatives. Further, a methodology of developing durability specifications suitable for the South African concrete industry is proposed, and recommendations are made for future developments.

  3. X-rays, radiometers and skin unit dose. The development of measuring methods and measuring units for X radiation in medical physics from the beginning until the international standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-rays, a special form of ionizing radiation, have been utilized in medicine and technology ever since their discovery at the end of 1895. However, the usage of X-rays made the development of measuring techniques necessary. Newly-developed measuring devices were at first called radiometers', but later the term dosimeter' has gained universal acceptance. The development of numerous dosimeters used in radiotherapy was accompanied by new units of measurement, each corresponding to its individual newly constructed dosimeter or method of measurement. While at first conversions between old and new units were performed, it later became clear that both within Germany and Europe units with similar names were used with different meanings, which was both incompatible and confusing. The first serious attempts of a standardization of units in Germany were made after the First World War, when the when the ionizing properties of X-rays was focused on for both measurements and unit definitions. Efforts towards an international standardization of units became successful in the mid-1920s when the Roentgen was defined as the universal unit. From the development described above, four stages of the evolution of radiation measurement and units in radiotherapy could be identified by means of comprehensive systematic research in printed publications. The first stage was the period of diagnostic application of X-rays, when tools for the determination of X-ray quality were designed. This stage progressed into that of therapeutic administration of X-rays shortly after, when instruments and units for the measurement of X-ray quantities (dose') were implemented. Due to the variety and diversity of measurement apparatus and units a third stage emerged, closely interconnected with the second. During the third stage, a nation-wide standardization was attempted in Germany. With the conclusion of this stage - the resolution of a unit for dose measurement in Germany - the stage of international standardization began. This fourth stage continues arguably to the present day, since by now not only units, but also standards for both measurement of these units and quality assurance, are developed in international cooperation. This study presents how present-day knowledge of fundamental physical laws, of potential measurement errors and of shortcomings of methods contribute to a better understanding of the historical process of the development portrayed here. When applying scientific discoveries to medicine and technology, this historical knowledge is an essential prerequisite for successful communication in a globalized world, which depends on international standards for manufacturing and application of measurement devices.

  4. International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

  5. Environmental Accounting and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

    OpenAIRE

    CA. Mohammad Firoz; A. Aziz Ansari

    2010-01-01

    As financial globalization proceeds, international financial reporting and auditing standards are increasinglybecoming important instruments of integration. This has been observed in both the London and Pittsburgsummits of the G20 leaders in 2009. The G20 leaders reinforced the influence of International FinancialReporting Standards (IFRS) in that they called for the implementation of global accounting standards by 2011.By the end of 2008, there were over 100 countries that had adopted IFRS. ...

  6. Managing Exposure to Natural Sources: International Standards and New Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection in exposure to natural sources has been evolving for decades. In the last two decades, developments concerning exposure to NORM have resulted in progress towards achieving broad international consensus on managing exposure to NORM. However, the standards and regulatory approaches being adopted at the national level still need to be harmonized, especially in developing countries with limited regulatory resources. A large effort is underway at the national and international level to assess exposure to NORM and to develop strategies to address existing situations that give rise to exposures. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, in its 2008 report, encourages further development of inventories and methodologies for dose assessment in order to have a more comprehensive view over the topic. The revised International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) published by the IAEA in 2011 provides requirements reflecting the concepts of planned exposure situations, emergency exposure situations and existing exposure situations. Exposure to natural sources is generally subject to the requirements for existing exposure situations, with some exceptions to be considered as planned exposure situations. The BSS provides numerical criteria for exemption and clearance for regulatory purposes as well as reference levels for control of exposure to radon in workplaces. From a global perspective, the new radiation protection challenges for natural sources include the following: the harmonization of standards and regulatory approaches; the diverse nature of the industries and the need for an industry specific approach in determining radiation protection measures; the identification of situations that could be classified as either existing exposure situations or planned exposure situations; and the extent to which exposures should be optimized using, as appropriate, reference levels or dose constraints. The use of a graded approach in national regulations; the realistic estimation of individual doses and the need for an evidence based approach for regulatory decision making; radon in workplaces; transport issues; the recycling of NORM residues and their use as by-products; the management of NORM residues and wastes are related issues. A summary is provided of the international standards and guidance on the control of exposure to natural sources and of the work of the IAEA on industry specific safety reports. (author)

  7. International comparison of standard-materials. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present manual the metallic materials standardized in the highly developed industrial countries of the world and by regional and international standards bodies are compared with the German materials standardized in DIN or the Steel Iron Material Sheets (StEWb1.). The indication of chemical composition and mechanical properties also allows to compare materials of other countries with one another, even if the categories of equivalence indicated only refer to the basis of the German materials. Through a comprehensive list of all short designations or steel grades indicating the corresponding pages and the relevant standards, a quik identificatin of material indications in the drawings is possible. Where the information contained in this manual about the individual materials is not sufficient, it will be possible to procure the corresponding material standard. This issue contains the material groups steel and iron for the applications in automobile, machinery, equipment and vessel production, in the electrical and chemical industries. Boiler plates (plates and strips in heat-resisting steel) according to DIN 17155 have not been dealt with, because the comparability does not dependend on the physical properties e.g. tensile strength, welding performance, bending strength brittle fracture behaviour etc., but additional instructions for equipment to be supervised have to be observed (in Germany, these are TRD, TRG and TRB). (orig./MM)

  8. Development of strategies and sustainability standards for the certification of biomass for international trade. Sustainable bioenergy: current status and outlook; Entwicklung von Strategien und Nachhaltigkeitsstandards zur Zertifizierung von Biomasse fuer den internationalen Handel. Nachhaltige Bioenergie - Stand und Ausblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsche, Uwe R.; Hennenberg, Klaus J.; Hermann, Andreas; Huenecke, Katja; Schulze, Falk; Wiegmann, Kirsten [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Darmstadt (Germany); Fehrenbach, Horst; Roth, Elvira; Hennecke, Anna; Giegrich, Juergen [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Since Summer 2007, Oeko-Institut (Institute for Applied Ecology) and IFEU (Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, a non-profit limited liability company, Heidelberg) are carrying out the project ''Development of Strategies and Sustainability Standards for the Certification of Biomass for International Trade (Bio-global)'' on behalf of Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Agency). The study is based on the fact that the production of renewable raw materials (biomass) and their application range are significantly increasing at present as a result of ambitious growth objectives adopted in Germany, the EU, the U.S., as well as several developing countries. Low-cost imports from third countries are leading to a steady rise in global trade with biogenic resources and energy carriers. This development results in conflicts between ecological and social objectives which might counteract the political efforts to protect the climate, biodiversity and resources - not only in Europe, but also at the international level. For this reason, viable, internationally negotiable strategies and instruments have to be developed in order to avoid or at least significantly reduce potential conflicts of objectives of increasing biomass use. The project is based on current research and is aimed at working out concrete proposals for standards and certification systems and their implementation at the national, European and global level in a dialog with relevant stakeholders as an input to international processes. Furthermore, ongoing national policy consulting as well as participation in and organization of national, European and international conferences and workshops are issues covered by the project team. The present report summarizes the project results achieved so far in different subjectrelated chapters: - Which international strategy holds promise for globally sustainable biomass (Chapter 2)? - What is the balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from bioenergy with respect to possible land use changes (Chapter 3)? - How can negative effects of biomass cultivation on biodiversity be successfully reduced (Chapter 4)? - What are the effects of bioenergy on the resource of water (Chapter 5)? - What is the potential of unused areas (Chapter 6)? - How does global biomass trade develop, and what are legal framework conditions of such trade (Chapter 7)? - Are sustainability standards for bioenergy the right answer (Chapter 8)? Chapter 9 provides a short outlook on further work to be carried out until the end of 2009. The Annex gives important abbreviations, strategy issues and working hypotheses as well as information on international cooperation and representation of the project, and finally a list of available working papers. (orig.)

  9. Interrogating Identity: The International Standard School in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhiyya, Zulfa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the International Standard School (ISS) on the identity of Indonesia as a postcolonial nation. According to the Indonesian Ministry of National Education, an ISS is "a school which complies with the National Standard of Education and enriches its standards from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and

  10. Pioneering of Schools with International Standard to Respond the Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipnugraha Ipnugraha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet respond the challenges of globalization Indonesia Government held a Pioneering of Schools with International Standard (RSBI. As an international standard schools pilot, these schools prepared gradually through the guidance by government and stakeholders. Within a certain period of four years it is expected that the schools is able to fulfill and meet the criteria of Schools with International Standard (SBI. Actually, in its implementation, RSBI faces many challenges, among others, were expensive anda require modern infrastructure, require a qualified teacher, SBI criteria and English implementation in education not yet possessed constitutional base. With RSBI it will form a national school with national education standards that have international quality and its graduates are able to compete internationally

  11. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  12. Nuclear Data Center International Standard Towards TSO Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Data Center is the main facility for Nuclear Malaysia Agency IT infrastructure comprising of main critical servers, research and operational data storage, HPC-clusters system and vital network core equipment. In recent years, international body such as TIA-Telecommunication Industry Association and Up time Institute have came out with proper international data center standards in order to ensure data center operation on achieving maximum operational up time and minimal downtime. The standard are currently being rated as tier level ranging from Data Center tier I up to tier IV, differentiate by facility standard and up time/ downtime percentage ratio. This paper will discuss Nuclear Data Center adopting international standards in supporting Nuclear Malaysia TSO initiative thus ensuring the critical core component of agency IT services availability and further more International standard recognitions. (author)

  13. On the Construction of Chinas Accounting Standard System with International Convergence in Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Hongman Zhang; Xianfeng Liu

    2010-01-01

    With the international convergence of accounting standards becoming an irresistible trend, Chinas new businessaccounting standards have reached substantive convergence with International Financial Report Standards(IFRS). However, due to some factors including economy, law and culture, there is still a narrow gap betweenchinas accounting standards and IFRS. In order to further keep up with IFRS, China should attach greaterimportance to learning from it to establish or implement its accountin...

  14. CSNI International standard problems (ISP). Brief descriptions (1975-1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last twenty-five years the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored a considerable number of international activities to promote the exchange of experience between its Member countries in the use of nuclear safety codes and testing materials. A primary goal of these activities is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. International Standard Problems (ISPs) exercises are comparative exercises in which predictions or recalculations of a given physical problem with different best-estimate computer code are compared with each other and above all with the results of a carefully specified experimental study. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. In an open Standard Problem exercise the results of the experiment are available to the participants before performing the calculations, while in a blind Standard Problem exercise the experimental results are locked until the calculation results are made available for comparison. The CSNI-promoted ISP activity started in the early 70's and is still underway. Parallel to other national and international programs the CSNI has sponsored over more than 25 years forty-seven International Standard Problem exercises. This program has been focused mainly on the applicability of large thermal-hydraulic code systems simulating the behaviour of nuclear coolant and containment systems, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, hydrogen distribution, core-concrete interactions and fission product release and transport. One ISP exercise was organised in connection with a seismic ultimate dynamic response test. ISP exercises have proven to be very valuable to participating countries. They have been fruitful to identify code application problems and to amplify the contacts between the experimental and analytical working communities on an international level. Moreover, they enable code users to improve their ability, gain experience and demonstrate their competence. Technical proposals originating from laboratories in 13 countries were submitted and adopted serving as experimental background for the international activity. An activity complementary to the ISP programme but not directly related to it is the establishment of comprehensive sets of experimental data for use in validating proper code application by experts other than code developers. Known as a Code Validation Matrix, the results of such an extensive list of experiments are collected and stored in the NEA Data Bank for the purpose that they be made available to Member countries wishing to validate relevant codes. ISP tests are important elements of validation matrices for thermal-hydraulic codes. In the field of containment behaviour it has been recommended to preferably base a general code validation matrix on containment-related ISPs as well. The way of organizing ISP exercises has been described in CSNI Report No. 17, CSNI Standard Problem Procedures, revised for the third time in November 1989. The following report in some detail summarises the main objectives, the underlying experimental background and the main findings and conclusions of the ISPs to provide interested groups an overview on the accumulated experience in this matter. The document, which has been reviewed by members of CSNI's Principal Working on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2) and Principal Working on Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases (PWG4), summarises systematically the main features of all International Standard Problem exercises organised so far, from ISP-1 to ISP-43, namely: - Objectives of the ISP; - Brief Description of the Facility; - Scaling Information; - Parameters Offered for Comparison; - Dominating Experimental Uncertainties; - Findings; - Recommendations; - Total Duration of the ISP exercise; - Participation; - CSNI Report Reference

  15. Outline of the International Organization for Standardization Standard for Circulatory Support Devices (ISO 14708-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imachi, Kou; Mussivand, Tofy

    2010-09-01

    The rapid progress of artificial heart and circulatory support devices enables us to apply them to severe heart failure patients. Many types of circulatory support devices have been developed in the United States, Europe, and Japan. This situation urged the establishment of an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard for the circulatory support devices. A new work, "Cardiac Ventricular Assist Devices," was proposed to the ISO/TC150/SC6 (TC150: Technical Committee of Implants for Surgery, SC6: Sub-committee of Active Implants) in 2000, and the work was finalized for publication at a 2009 meeting of the ISO/TC150 in Kyoto. In this article, the authors would like to introduce the ISO system and the outline of the ISO Standard for Circulatory Support Devices. PMID:20883386

  16. Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

  17. An International Centre for Standards Documentation: Proposals for Standardization of UDC Usage and the Mechanized Documentation of Information on Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, Hans

    At present, there are several obstacles to efficient information retrieval regarding the world's standards. There is no uniformity in subject classification, although most standards are classified by the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC); there are no international indexes to the subjects covered; foreign standards and superseded standards

  18. Primary standardization of cesium-137 for international intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary standards of cesium-137 are of great importance for precise radiation measurements because, due to its simple decay-scheme and long half-life, it is widely used for the calibration of radiation detectors. Also 137Cs is used for the measurement of fission-yield and uranium burn-up in reactor engineering studies. In view of these, an international intercomparison was organised on a limited scale to correlate the standards established at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay(India) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), West Germany. The ''efficiency tracing technique'' was developed at BARC for the primary standardization of 137Cs for this intercomparison. Two tracers, namely 82Br and 60Co, were employed to trace the beta efficiency of the 4 ??-? coincidence counting system. It is shown that this technique offers high accuracy and inherent reliability. The ''tracing-technique'' for 137Cs standardization is briefly described. The gravimetric method of dilution and preparation of mixed sources of 137Cs - 82Br and 137Cs - 60Co are given. The various counting parameters and settings are included. Data reduction and the estimation of systematic and statistical errors are discussed. The results of the intercomparison, which are also included, show that the agreement between the measurments of BARC and PTB is within 0.5%. (author)

  19. Standardization of information systems development processes and banking industry adaptations

    CERN Document Server

    Tanrikulu, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms of compliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards to determine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into system development and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected. Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classical Waterfall life cycle model. Each question is made up of guidance and suggestions from the international system development standards. To collect data, people from the information technology departments of three major banks in Turkey were interviewed. Results have been aggregated by examining the current process status of the three banks together. Problematic issues were identified using the international system development standards.

  20. International standardization in the petroleum industry status from the subsea sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of standards in subsea production systems and how the standards should be developed has been a debate for some time in the industry. The initial standardization work springs from the work performed in the API 17 series of recommended practices and specifications. The development within this sector of the industry is still happening rapidly since it is a relative new area. The standardization effort is happening both on national, regional and international levels. This paper will give status of the international standardization ISO work ongoing in the subsea area and give some background for the work. The importance of the work to the industry will be highlighted

  1. Development of standard reference samples for diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, samples of standard reference materials for diffractometry of polycrystals were developed. High-purity materials were submitted to mechanical and thermal treatments in order to present the adequate properties to be used as high-quality standard reference materials for powder diffraction, comparable to the internationally recognized produced by the USA National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST, but at lower costs. The characterization of the standard materials was performed by measurements in conventional X-ray diffraction diffractometers, high resolution neutron diffraction and high-resolution synchrotron diffraction. The lattice parameters were calculated by extrapolation of the values obtained from each X-ray reflection against cos2? by the Least-Squares Method. The adjustments were compared to the values obtained by the Rietveld Method, using program GSAS. The materials thus obtained were the ?-alumina, yttrium oxide, silicon, cerium oxide, lanthanum hexaboride and lithium fluoride. The standard reference materials produced present quality similar or, in some cases, superior to the standard reference materials produced and commercialized by the NIST. (author)

  2. ISBD(M), International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographic Publications. First Standard Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, London (England). Committee on Cataloguing.

    The International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monograph Publications [ISBD(M)] provides a format for the international communication on bibliographic information, so that records may be interchanged between sources, interpreted across language barriers, and converted to machine readable form. The ISBD(M) standards are limited to the

  3. 5th international conference on certification and standardization in NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This CD-ROM contains 30 lectures (in form of manuscripts or abstracts) and 6 posters with the following topics: 1. Some Critical Remarks from German Chemical Industry on Certification and Accreditation in NDT. 2. Global Impact of International Standard ISO 9712. 3. Maintaining Concurrent Compliance with Multiple NDT Personnel Certification Standards. 4. The Revision of the New Approach. 5. Comparison between prEN 473 Currently Submitted to Formal Vote and ISO 9712:2005. 6. Accreditation and Certification - a Contradiction?. 7. The Way We Were. 8. EFNDT-Question-Data-Bank (QDB). 9. NDT Certification in Turkey as an European Country- How It Couldn't Work as the Only Example?. 10. Validation of Practical Examination Specimens. 11. Examination Bank Structure for Radiographic Testing (RT) - An Example. 12. About the New Classification of NDT Methods Based on Positions of Risks and Equipment Life Assessment. 13. Olympus NDT Training Academy. 14. Harmonisation of Personnel Certification Schemes for Non-destructive Testing in the Asia-Pacific Region. 15. How EFNDT Can Help in Accreditation or Recognition/Approval of NDT Certification Bodies? 16. SNT-TC-1A - 40 Years of Employer Certification for NDT Personnel. 17. The Same NDT Certification Scheme for Everybody: a Dream or a Need. 18. 19. Personnel Certification for Thermographers - Status and Trends. 20. Guided Wave Training and Certification. 21. Examination Radiographs and Master Reports for the Industrial Sectors 6 and 7. 22. New Standards ISO 24497 on the Metal Magnetic Memory Method. The Program of Personnel Training and Certification. 23. The Use of the Psychometrics in NDT Certification Programs. 24. EFNDT Guidelines ''Overall NDT Quality System''. 25. The Role of the Forum for National Aerospace NDT Boards. 26. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 27. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 28. The Need for Standardization in NDT Personnel Certification. 29. NDT Certification for Railway Maintenance Personnel in France; 10 Years of the CFCM. 30. NDT Personnel Certification - Service for Industry. 31. Certification of Personnel Performing Automated Non-destructive Testing of Pipes and Flat Products. Problems and Solutions. 32. Stress Testing is a New NDT Type in the Russian Standard GOST R 52330-2005 and International Standard ISO-9712. 33. Accreditation of Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement Methods - Practical Aspects. 34. Results of Approval of Certification Body ''SPEKTRCert'' by Auditors of EFNDT. 35. The Program for Specialists Training and Certification in Stress-Strained State Determination and Residual Life Assesment of Technical Devices and Contructions. 36. NDT Personnel Certification System at Turkish Standards Instiution (TSE) and Developments in Turkey. 37. Nondestructive Testing Personnel Certification in Turkish Aerospace Industries and National Aerospace Nondestructive Testing Board in the Turkey

  4. International standard for the charging of electric vehicles; Internationaler Standard fuer das Laden von Elektrofahrzeugen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathoy, A.

    2001-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the situation regarding the standardisation of battery charging systems for electric vehicles. The advantages of an international standard both for users and manufacturers of electrically-powered vehicles are discussed. The work done in the IEC and CENELEC technical committees is reviewed. Developments achieved since 1999 are reviewed and further developments and work to be done are examined. The most important points in the IEC standard 61851 are looked at and various connector interfaces are described. Direct and inductive charging systems according to IEC 61980 are examined and the special situation in Italy, where power available in homes for the charging of electrical vehicles is more limited, is reviewed.

  5. Introduction to International Ethical Standards Related to Genetics and Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Seon-Hee; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The rapid advances in genetic knowledge and technology raise various, sometimes unprecedented, ethical dilemmas in the scientific community as well as the public realm. To deal with these dilemmas, the international community has prepared and issued ethical standards in various formats. In this review, seven international standards regarding genetics and genomics will be briefly introduced in chronological order. Critical reflections on them will not be provided in this review, and naturally,...

  6. [Standardization in clinical laboratory--its national and international activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, T

    1993-04-01

    In order to obtain comparability among laboratory results obtained by different laboratories, standardization is necessary in all steps related to clinical laboratory practice. Standardization in clinical laboratory is a consensus process among professional, industrial and governmental organizations. Everyone concerned in clinical laboratory practice should try to follow those consensus proposed. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a key international body which is represented by many different national organizations. World Health Organization (WHO) plays an important role in medical field, but many non-governmental organizations (NGO) such as the World Association of Societies of Pathology (WASP), the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) and others also contribute significantly. In 1975, the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) was established in USA and has been the most active. In 1985, The Japanese Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (JCCLS) was established as some other CCLS in different European countries. National activity for establishing many reference materials in Japan is briefly reviewed. PMID:8350495

  7. Open development networked innovations in international development

    CERN Document Server

    Reilly, Katherine M A

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. Open network structures allow people to come together to share information, organize, and collaborate. Open development harnesses this power, to create new organizational forms and improve people's lives; it is not only an agenda for research and practice but also a statement about how to approach international development. In this volume, experts explore a variety of applications of openness, addressing challenges as well as opportunities. Open development requires new theoretical tools that focus on real world problems, consider a variety of solutions, and recognize the complexity of local contexts. After exploring the new theoretical terrain, the book describes a range of cases in which open models address such specific development issues as biotechnology research, improving education, and access to scholarly publications. Contributors then examine tensions between open model...

  8. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines'' (77 FR 33812). The June 7, 2012... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines...

  9. Internal standard versus external standard calibration: an uncertainty case study of a liquid chromatography analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elcio Cruz de, Oliveira; Edson I., Muller; Fernanda, Abad; Juliana, Dallarosa; Cristine, Adriano.

    Full Text Available Traditionally, in the cigarettes industry, the determination of ammonium ion in the mainstream smoke is performed by ion chromatography. This work studies this determination and compares the results of this technique with the use of external and internal standard calibration. A reference cigarette s [...] ample presented measurement uncertainty of 2.0 ?g/cigarette and 1.5 ?g/cigarette, with external and internal standard, respectively. It is observed that the greatest source of uncertainty is the bias correction factor and that it is even more significant when using external standard, confirming thus the importance of internal standardization for this correction.

  10. Internal standard versus external standard calibration: an uncertainty case study of a liquid chromatography analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Cruz de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, in the cigarettes industry, the determination of ammonium ion in the mainstream smoke is performed by ion chromatography. This work studies this determination and compares the results of this technique with the use of external and internal standard calibration. A reference cigarette sample presented measurement uncertainty of 2.0 ?g/cigarette and 1.5 ?g/cigarette, with external and internal standard, respectively. It is observed that the greatest source of uncertainty is the bias correction factor and that it is even more significant when using external standard, confirming thus the importance of internal standardization for this correction.

  11. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  12. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B. [Industrial and Biological Section. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science. P.O. Box 31. Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  13. International Financial Reporting Standards : A Practical Guide, Newly Revised Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Van Greuning, Hennie

    2005-01-01

    In response to the global financial crisis in 1998, an initiative was launched to strengthen the global financial structure, and, although the International Accounting Standards (IAS) have been in existence for some time, it is believed such initiative will help promote transparency in financial reporting, and acceptance of its wide range of international best practices. This publication p...

  14. FY 1999 Report on the technical results. Research and development project for creation of the quick-effect type international standards (Standardization in the field of safety of machinery); 1999 nendo sokkogata kokusai hyojun sosei kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kikai anzensei ni kakawaru hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    It is necessary to standardize the concepts and terminology of safety, design principles, protection and technology for evaluation of safety over a wide range including designs and specifications, in order to secure safety of the users. The international standardization has been promoted, based on the European voluntary standards EN. It is necessary for Japan to propose the international standards reflecting the industrial environments of Japan, in order to keep and expand her international competitiveness. Those technologies developed for the above purposes include the safety-related ones based on the Japanese electronic technologies, electronized operation-controlling technologies with dynamic fail safe signal processing, DC power supply circuit with a failure-sensing circuit, opto-ultrasonic hybrid type personal sensing device and pressure-sensitive mat sensor, emergency stop devices having no electrical contact to eliminate the contact fusing risk, and video camera system which facilitates emergency stop action of machinery. These results are submitted to the related technical committees of ISO or IEC. A total of 46 items of the international standard proposal drafts related to IEC/TC44 are also submitted. (NEDO)

  15. National legislative systems and foreign standards and regulations: The case of International Financial Reporting Standards adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Dima, Bogdan; Dima(Cristea), Stefana Maria; Nicoleta MOLDOVAN; Pirtea, Marilen Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    This study is focused on the linkages between the legislative families as descriptors of national legislative systems and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). We consider such analysis as a case study for the more general issue of explaining the preferences of national regulators in the adoption of foreign norms, rules, standards and practices. By using a dataset of 162 jurisdictions and dummy variables designed to ...

  16. The main requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main requirements of the new international basic safety standards are discussed, including such topics as health effects of ionizing radiations, the revision of basic safety standards, the requirements for radiation protection practices, the requirements for intervention,and the field of regulatory infrastructures. (A.K.)

  17. Development accounting and international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Ishise, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Development accounting shows that a significant part of cross-country income differences is attributed to differences in total factor productivity (TFP), but the sources of TFP differences are not well understood. This paper considers the role of international trade to explain cross-country income differences in TFP. By using a multi-country Ricardian trade model, I distinguish trade costs and trade policy factors from a pure technology factor in TFP. Under the baseline parameterization, my m...

  18. International Accreditation of ASME Codes and Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ASME established a Boiler Code Committee to develop rules for the design, fabrication and inspection of boilers. This year we recognize 75 years of that Code and will publish a history of that 75 years. The first Code and subsequent editions provided for a Code Symbol Stamp or mark which could be affixed by a manufacturer to a newly constructed product to certify that the manufacturer had designed, fabricated and had inspected it in accordance with Code requirements. The purpose of the ASME Mark is to identify those boilers that meet ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements. Through thousands of updates over the years, the Code has been revised to reflect technological advances and changing safety needs. Its scope has been broadened from boilers to include pressure vessels, nuclear components and systems. Proposed revisions to the Code are published for public review and comment four times per year and revisions and interpretations are published annually; it's a living and constantly evolving Code. You and your organizations are a vital part of the feedback system that keeps the Code alive. Because of this dynamic Code, we no longer have columns in newspapers listing boiler explosions. Nevertheless, it has been argued recently that ASME should go further in internationalizing its Code. Specifically, representatives of several countries, have suggested that ASME delegate to them responsibility for Code implementation within their national boundaries. The question is, thus, posed: Has the time come to franchise responsibility for administration of ASME's Code accreditation programs to foreign entities or, perhaps, 'institutes.' And if so, how should this be accomplished?

  19. Developing the Framed Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Michael J; Chan, H M; Tsou, S T

    2011-01-01

    The framed standard model (FSM) suggested earlier, which incorporates the Higgs field and 3 fermion generations as part of the framed gauge theory structure, is here developed further to show that it gives both quarks and leptons hierarchical masses and mixing matrices akin to what is experimentally observed. Among its many distinguishing features which lead to the above results are (i) the vacuum is degenerate under a global $su(3)$ symmetry which plays the role of fermion generations, (ii) the fermion mass matrix is "universal", rank-one and rotates (changes its orientation in generation space) with changing scale $\\mu$, (iii) the metric in generation space is scale-dependent too, and in general non-flat, (iv) the theta-angle term in the QCD action of topological origin gets transformed into the CP-violating phase of the CKM matrix for quarks, thus offering at the same time a solution to the strong CP problem.

  20. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  1. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940's: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950's: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960's: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970's: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980's: establishment of national regulations; 1990's: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  2. Study on a Threat-Countermeasure Model Based on International Standard Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Horacio Ramirez Caceres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Many international standards exist in the field of IT security. This research is based on the ISO/IEC 15408, 15446, 19791, 13335 and 17799 standards. In this paper, we propose a knowledge base comprising a threat countermeasure model based on international standards for identifying and specifying threats which affect IT environments. In addition, the proposed knowledge base system aims at fusing similar security control policies and objectives in order to create effective security guidelines for specific IT environments. As a result, a knowledge base of security objectives was developed on the basis of the relationships inside the standards as well as the relationships between different standards. In addition, a web application was developed which displays details about the most common threats to information systems, and for each threat presents a set of related security control policies from different international standards, including ISO/IEC 27002.

  3. Developments in international bioenergy trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre; Wit, Marc de [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Bolkesjoe, Torjus [Point Carbon, P.O. Box 7120 St.Olav, N-0130 Oslo (Norway); Bradley, Douglas [Climate Change Solutions, 402 Third Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Dolzan, Paulo; Piacente, Erik; Walter, Arnaldo da Silva [State University of Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Heinimoe, Jussi [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Energy Technology Cluster Programme, Wredenkatu 2, FI-78250 Varkaus (Finland); Hektor, Bo [TallOil, Klarabergsviadukten 70, 7D, SE 111 64 Stockholm (Sweden); Leistad, Oeyvind [Enova, Abelsgate 5, 7030 Trondheim (Norway); Ling, Erik [Sveaskog AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Perry, Miles; Rosillo-Calle, Frank [Imperial College London, Centre for Energy Policy and Technology, Mechanical Engineering, 313A South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ryckmans, Yves [Laborelec/Electrabel, Rodestraat, 125, B-1630 Linkebeek (Belgium); Schouwenberg, Peter-Paul [Essent Energy Trading, P.O. Box 689, 5201 AR ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Solberg, Birger; Troemborg, Erik [Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management (INA), Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway)

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, imported biomass contributes already significantly (between 21% and 43%) to total biomass use. Wood pellets are currently exported by Canada, Finland and (to a small extent) Brazil and Norway, and imported by Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK. In the Netherlands and Belgium, pellet imports nowadays contribute to a major share to total renewable electricity production. Trade in bio-ethanol is another example of a rapidly growing international market. With the EU-wide target of 5.75% biofuels for transportation in 2010 (and 10% in 2020), exports from Brazil and other countries to Europe are likely to rise as well. Major drivers for international bioenergy trade in general are the large resource potentials and relatively low production costs in producing countries such as Canada and Brazil, and high fossil fuel prices and various policy incentives to stimulate biomass use in importing countries. However, the logistic infrastructure both in exporting and importing countries needs to be developed to access larger physical biomass volumes and to reach other (i.e. smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded that international bioenergy trade is growing rapidly, far beyond what was deemed possible only a few years ago, and may in the future in some Task 40 countries surpass domestic biomass use, especially for specific applications (e.g. transport fuels). (author)

  4. Developments in international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, imported biomass contributes already significantly (between 21% and 43%) to total biomass use. Wood pellets are currently exported by Canada, Finland and (to a small extent) Brazil and Norway, and imported by Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK. In the Netherlands and Belgium, pellet imports nowadays contribute to a major share to total renewable electricity production. Trade in bio-ethanol is another example of a rapidly growing international market. With the EU-wide target of 5.75% biofuels for transportation in 2010 (and 10% in 2020), exports from Brazil and other countries to Europe are likely to rise as well. Major drivers for international bioenergy trade in general are the large resource potentials and relatively low production costs in producing countries such as Canada and Brazil, and high fossil fuel prices and various policy incentives to stimulate biomass use in importing countries. However, the logistic infrastructure both in exporting and importing countries needs to be developed to access larger physical biomass volumes and to reach other (i.e. smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded that international bioenergy trade is growing rapidly, far beyond what was deemed possible only a few years ago, and may in the future in some Task 40 countries surpass domestic biomass use, especially for specific applications (e.g. transport fuels). (author)

  5. Developing software and systems engineering standards

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Rory

    2015-01-01

    There are a great many Software and Systems Engineering standards such as those supported by organizations like the ISO (International Organization for Standardization). It is often said that many of these have a poor reputation with many sections of academia and industry. Whilst there may be many publicized business advantages of using standards, standardization is an often-neglected route for exploiting academic and commercial research. Often researchers have little experience of standardiz...

  6. Development of strategies and sustainability standards for the certification of internationally traded biomass. Final report; Entwicklung von Strategien und Nachhaltigkeitsstandards zur Zertifizierung von Biomasse fuer den internationalen Handel. Zusammenfassender Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsche, Uwe R.; Hennenberg, Klaus J.; Hermann, Andreas; Huenecke, Katja; Herrera, Rocio [Oeko-Institut (Institut fuer angewandte Oekologie e.V.), Darmstadt (Germany); Fehrenbach, Horst; Roth, Elvira; Hennecke, Anna; Giegrich, Juergen [IFEU (Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung) gGmbh, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The increased production of renewable raw materials for bioenergy and bio-materials needed to meet the ambitious targets of Germany, the EU and other countries implies tradeoffs which could oppose sustainability requirements. The project worked out the scientific base of and developed proposals for sustainability requirements for biomass and their implementation on national, European and global levels, in dialogue with relevant actors and provided inputs into respective processes. For that, discussions with experts from more than 20 countries were held, international networks created and extended, and political decision-makers supported. Besides answers to strategic questions, the issues focused on were greenhouse gas balances (calculation of GHG emissions from direct and indirect land use changes), biodiversity (a globally applicable risk minimization strategy was developed and tested in Brazil, China and South Africa for degraded lands), water scarcity and water quality (requirements for biomass cultivation were developed). The majority of project results was successfully implemented in legal and standardization processes (e.g., German Sustainability Ordinances for bioenergy, EU renewable energy directive, European Committee for Standardization, Global Bioenergy Partnership) and both scientific and environmental and development questions were discussed with - not only governmental - actors. The next steps should be the extension of the approaches developed to other biomass (especially for material use) and the critical review of the further implementation. (orig.)

  7. International standardization of safety requirements for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is conducting the FaCT (Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development) project in cooperation with Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) and Mitsubishi FBR systems inc. (MFBR), where an advanced loop-type fast reactor named JSFR (Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is being developed. It is important to develop software technologies (a safety guideline, safety design criteria, safety design standards etc.) of FBRs as well as hardware ones (a reactor plant itself) in order to address prospective worldwide utilization of FBR technology. Therefore, it is expected to establish a rational safety guideline applicable to the JSFR and harmonized with national nuclear-safety regulations as well, including Japan, the United States and the European Union. This report presents domestic and international status of safety guideline development for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), results of comparative study for safety requirements provided in existing documents and a proposal for safety requirements of future SFRs with a roadmap for their refinement and worldwide utilization. (author)

  8. International standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM), publication No. 15

    CERN Multimedia

    Tom Wegelius

    2006-01-01

    GUIDELINES FOR REGULATING WOOD PACKAGING MATERIAL IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE SCOPE This standard describes phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests associated with wood packaging material (including dunnage), made of coniferous and non-coniferous raw wood, in use in international trade. For more information, contact the Shipping Service (FI-LS-SH) at 79947. Table of guidelines

  9. The Inclusion of Standard Terms in International Sales Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Eiselen, S

    2011-01-01

    The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG) does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international...

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on international research cooperation project. Research and development of transfer standard for oil flowmeter; 1999 nendo sekiyu ryuryokei no iten hyojunki no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research was conducted for the development of a highly reliable flowmeter which enables the efficient calibration of flowmeters at oil plant working sites and the international comparison of oil flow standards, and is also usable as the standard of oil flow at private businesses. In this connection, international research cooperation was carried out with Physical Engineering Research Institute, Germany. In the study of rotors, tooth profiles were contrived and various analyses were conducted for each screw type. In the study of flow inside flowmeters and of structures, screw-type volumetric flowmeters of K Co. were subjected to various tests for structural analysis, and visible models were fabricated for the clarification of flow characteristics. In the study of servo systems and instrumentation, several types of pressure difference detecting mechanisms were newly contrived, and servo control systems were investigated. In the study of trial manufacture and evaluation, the UF-VI080{alpha} cast iron (FC250) rotor flowmeter and the UF-VI080{alpha} aluminum (A7075BE) rotor flowmeter were examined. Both failed to achieve the target precision of {+-}0.2% in the case of gasoline but, in the case of kerosene and heavy oil, the target levels were sufficiently met. (NEDO)

  11. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of communication interface for open robots in production system; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Seisan system nado ni okeru open robot yo tsushin interface no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In order to realize the open use between robot controllers and personal computers on the communication level, R and D has been performed on the standard API required for structuring the applications to use robot information on the personal computers. A draft of the international standard was prepared. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. The current fiscal year has executed improvements on the standard API software, as well as the demonstration tests. The following achievements were obtained: problems in practical use based on the demonstration tests of RAO ver. 0.5 were extracted and rectified; the standard API (Ver0.9) given additional functions including file transfer was developed; the specifications for the standard API (Ver1.0) were compiled based on the result of discussions on the major application functions; as a result of the demonstration test on reliability of the standard API (Ver0.9), performances were verified when the API is connected under different structural and using conditions; and a resolution was made at the ISO/TC184/SC2 international conference that 'continuation is encouraged on the present R and D expected as a proposal for the new work items'. (NEDO)

  12. CONVERGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL AUDIT STANDARDS AND AMERICAN AUDIT STANDARDS REGARDING SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chis Anca Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sampling is widely used in market research, scientific analysis, market analysis, opinion polls and not least in the financial statement audit. We wonder what is actually sampling and how did it appear? Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Nowadays the technique is indispensable, the economic entities operating with sophisticated computer systems and large amounts of data. Economic globalization and complexity of capital markets has made possible not only the harmonization of international accounting standards with the national ones, but also the convergence of international accounting and auditing standards with the American regulations. International Standard on Auditing 530 and Statement on Auditing Standard 39 are the two main international and American normalized referentials referring to audit sampling. This article discusses the origin of audit sampling, mentioning a brief history of the method and different definitions from literature review. The two standards are studied using Jaccard indicators in terms of the degree of similarity and dissimilarity concerning different issues. The Jaccard coefficient measures the degree of convergence of international auditing standards (ISA 530 and U.S. auditing standards (SAS 39. International auditing standards and American auditing standards, study the sampling problem, both regulations presenting common points with regard to accepted sampling techniques, factors influencing the audit sample, treatment of identified misstatements and the circumstances in which sampling is appropriate. The study shows that both standards agree on application of statistical and non-statistical sampling in auditing, that sampling is appropriate for tests of details and controls, the factors affecting audit sampling being audit risk, audit objectives and population\\'s characteristics.

  13. 78 FR 23940 - Use of International Standard ISO-10993, Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Use of International Standard ISO-10993, ``Biological... International Standard ISO-10993, `Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing... entitled ``Use of International Standard ISO-10993, `Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part...

  14. International Accounting Standards and Changes in Accounting Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    The language of accounting is subject to continuous change. One of the reasons for a change in terminology is the introduction of new legal requirements that bring about a change in the underlying concepts and therefore the need for new specific terms. Such a situation was created by the Regulation (EC) No. 1606/2002 on the application of international accounting standards (IAS). This regulation aims at harmonising ac-counting standards and procedures relating to the preparation and presentat...

  15. A standard international acupuncture nomenclature: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The WHO Scientific Group to Adopt a Standard International Acupuncture Nomenclature met in Geneva from 30 October to 3 November 1989. The main features of the recommended nomenclature are the use of the English translation of the name of each meridian and an alphanumeric code derived from the English names, and the use of the Chinese phonetic alphabet (Pinyin) names and the Han character names of the meridians and acupuncture points. This standard nomenclature will facilitate the teaching, re...

  16. The first International Standard anti-Brucella melitensis Serum

    OpenAIRE

    McGiven, J.; A Taylor; Duncombe, L.; Sayers, R; Albert, D.; Banai, M.; Blasco Martnez, Jos Mara; Elena, S.; Fretin, D.; Garin-Bastuji, B.; Melzer, F.; Muoz Alvaro, Pilar Mara; Nielsen, K.; De Nicola, A; Scacchia, M.

    2011-01-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) requested an International Standard anti-Brucella melitensis Serum (ISaBmS) to standardise diagnostic tests and reagents for sheep and goats. The agreed criteria were the highest dilution (in negative serum) of the standard which must give a positive result and the lowest dilution (in negative serum) which must simultaneously give a negative result. The two dilutions for each assay were, respectively: indirect enzyme-linked immu...

  17. International Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development

    OpenAIRE

    Boermans, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    International entrepreneurship is an important vehicle for firms to reap benefits from their high productivity levels and from economies of scale by reaching new customers. International enterprises tend to be larger and more innovative, but a key question of causality remains disputed in the international trade and international business studies literature. That is, does innovation and productivity drive firms towards international markets or does internationalization influence firm innovati...

  18. ASTEC participation in the international standard problem on KAEVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the International Standard Problem no 44 was aerosol depletion behaviour under severe accident conditions in a LWR containment examined in the KAEVER test facility of Battelle (Germany). Nine organisations participated with 5 different codes in the ISP44, including a joint participation of GRS and IPSN with the integral code ASTEC (and in particular the CPA module) they have commonly developed. Five tests were selected from the KAEVER test matrix: K123, K148, K186 and K188 as open standard problems and the three-component test K187 as blind standard problem. All these tests were performed in supersaturated conditions and with slight fog formation, which are the most ambitious conditions for the coupled problem of thermal hydraulics and aerosol processes. The comparison between calculation and test showed a good agreement for all the tests with respect to the thermal-hydraulic conditions in the vessel, i.e. total pressure, atmosphere temperature, sump water and nitrogen mass, etc.... As for aerosol depletion, the ASTEC results were in a good overall agreement with the measured data. The code in particular predicted well the fast depletion of the hygroscopic and mixed aerosols and the slow depletion of insoluble silver aerosol. The important effects of bulk condensation, solubility and the Kelvin effect on the aerosol depletion were well predicted. However the code overestimation of steam condensation on hygroscopic aerosols in supersaturated conditions indicates that some slight improvements of the appropriate ASTEC models are needed in the future. In the final ISP44 workshop, the deviations of the ASTEC results with respect to the experiments were considered to be small compared to those of most other codes. (authors)

  19. How Do Firms Comply with International Sustainability Standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigneau, Laurence; Humphreys, Michael; Moon, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the influence of global governance institutions, particularly international sustainability standards, on a firms intra-organizational practices. More precisely, we provide an exploratory empirical view of the impact of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) on a ...

  20. Standardization on an international level; Die Norm als Wegbereiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banse, Stephanie

    2010-10-08

    Air-filled solar collector are used worldwide in the most varied applications and with good results. What is lacking, however, is an international standard that would ensure wider sales and better exports. This standardisation project will be undertaken by Fraunhofer ISE and the Canadian association Cansia. (orig.)

  1. How to Integrate International Financial Reporting Standards into Accounting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    It is expected the SEC will require U.S. domestic companies to prepare and file their annual 10Ks in accordance with international financial reporting standards (IFRS) by 2016. Given the probability that the FASB-IASB convergence project (i.e., Norwalk Agreement) will continue subsequent to mandatory adoption, US accounting programs will be

  2. CODE OF ETHICS FOR INTERNAL AUDITORS HARMONISED WITH THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR INTERNAL AUDIT

    OpenAIRE

    GEORGE CALOT?

    2008-01-01

    The Code of Ethics is binding for the internal auditor profession, since, at the end of the internal audit activity, the internal auditors, based on the tests and analyses carried out, express their opinion on the quality of the internal control system of the audited activity. The Code of Ethics stipulates four fundamental principles, as follows: integrity, constitutes the base for the trust granted to internal auditors; objectivity, directly related to independence; confidentiality, absolute...

  3. The International Reference Ionosphere - a standard for the ionosphere environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Tamara, Gulyaeva; Reinisch, Bodo

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) describes monthly averages of electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and the percentage of O+, H+, He+, N+, NO+, O2+, and Cluster ions in the altitude range from 50 km to 1500 km. IRI is the result of an international collaboration sponsored by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI). The observation-based model represents a synthesis of most of the existing ionospheric data acquired from the ground and in space. IRI is the de facto climatological standard for the ionosphere and is currently undergoing registration as Technical Specification (TS) 16457 of the International Standardization Organization (ISO). It is also the model of choice recommended by the European Cooperation on Space Standardization (ECSS). This talk will report about recent activities within the IRI Working Group with special emphasis on the newest version IRI-2007 and on areas were future improvements are expected. We will highlight the most important results from the 2007 IRI Workshop in Prague, Czech Republic. A special IRI session during this COSPAR Scientific Assembly (C41) has ‘Updating Ionospheric Models with Ground and Space Data' as its topic.

  4. Latest Developments in LED Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Yurtseven, M. Berker; Onaygil, Sermin

    2015-01-01

    The LED light sources can be stated as the most promising technology for the last decade from the lighting technology point of view. In order to compare LED chips and LED products from different manufacturers and achieve reproducible results, all of the manufacturers shall measure their LEDs or LED based products using same methodology. In this study, it is aimed to explain measurement and performance standards for LED chips and LED based Solid State Lighting products.

  5. New international radiation protection standards: preservation -modification - innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euratom basic standards are obligatory upon member states, however, more rigid national demands are permitted according to European legislation, inspite of the single European market. The basic standard of the IAEA which is published together with the FAO, ILO, NEA (OECD), PAHO and WHO, first of all regulates radiation protection within those international organizations and in connection with the technical assistance granted by them, but it is intended to be also a guideline for national radiation protection regulations in member states. Although worldwide applicable, it is less binding than EU basic standards. Although the two basic standards are worked out separately, intensive efforts are made to constantly harmonize the two documents, both of which are, in addition , based on ICRP recommendations. Since the two documents have not yet been finally adopted, reference is made only to their actual state. (orig./HP)

  6. A standard international acupuncture nomenclature: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The WHO Scientific Group to Adopt a Standard International Acupuncture Nomenclature met in Geneva from 30 October to 3 November 1989. The main features of the recommended nomenclature are the use of the English translation of the name of each meridian and an alphanumeric code derived from the English names, and the use of the Chinese phonetic alphabet (Pinyin) names and the Han character names of the meridians and acupuncture points. This standard nomenclature will facilitate the teaching, research and clinical practice of acupuncture, as well as exchange of information globally. PMID:2364475

  7. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of systems for detecting gene recombination products; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojunka kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Idenshi kumikae seihin kenshutsu system no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the studies on the basic conditions for gene recombination products, and methods of determining content of the purchased gene recombination products in agricultural products, conducted to promote the standardization of the gene recombination product detection systems. Soybean is taken up as the gene recombination product to be studied, in which the samples containing the gene recombination product at 5, 0.5, 0.1 and 0% are prepared, and qualitatively analyzed by the DNA extraction and PCR method. No band is detected. For the quantitative examination by the real-time PCR method, the SYBRGeen, Taqman and hybridization probe methods are used to study the PCR conditions. The sample DNA extracted by the DNA Extraction kit for GMO Detection Ver.2 from the sample containing the RoundupReady{sup TM} soybean is quantitatively analyzed by the real-time PCR method for GMO content, which has produced the results for promotion of the standardization. (NEDO)

  8. Review of IEC/ISO international standard related to HMI design for control rooms on NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished work wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards by IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) as international standard. On the other hand, ISO (International Standard Organization) issues ergonomic standards in HCI (Human Computer Interaction) for general industrial use. ISO11064 series are the process oriented standards specify procedures and processes to be followed. IEC60964 and supplemental standards have been effectively used and the design process required in IEC 60964 is the basis of the design process of ISO11064-1. However, IEC60964 is under revision, for example, to make technological update for taking into account the computerized control rooms, and to improve the human factor requirements. The revised version will consistent with the other IEC standards and similar standards or guidelines of another bodies. For hardware and software of computerized I and C system, a series of international standards have been systematically developed. In Japan, Japan electric association is developing industry association level guideline for the human-machine interface designs of the computerized main control rooms of nuclear power plants, as well as regulatory agencies of nuclear power plants in Japan are preparing technical basis for reviewers of control rooms of nuclear power plants. In this paper, we present the review of not only the state of international activities for revising IEC60964 and the state of ISO11064 series, but also the state and relationship to the related standards. (author)

  9. Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL's analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described

  10. Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chokshi, N. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-04-01

    In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL`s analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described.

  11. Standardized monitoring of Rangifer health during International Polar Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Kutz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} Monitoring of individual animal health indices in wildlife populations can be a powerful tool for evaluation of population health, detecting changes, and informing management decisions. Standardized monitoring allows robust comparisons within and across populations, and over time and vast geographic regions. As an International Polar Year Initiative, the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment network established field protocols for standardized monitoring of caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus health, which included body condition, contaminants, and pathogen exposure and abundance. To facilitate use of the protocols, training sessions were held, additional resources were developed, and language was translated where needed. From March 2007 to September 2010, at least 1206 animals from 16 circumpolar herds were sampled in the field using the protocols. Four main levels of sampling were done and ranged from basic to comprehensive sampling. Possible sources of sampling error were noted by network members early in the process and protocols were modified or supplemented with additional visual resources to improve clarity when needed. This is the first time that such broad and comprehensive circumpolar sampling of migratory caribou and wild reindeer, using standardized protocols covering both body condition and parasite disease status, has been done.

  12. Whole proteomes as internal standards in quantitative proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Shao-En

    2010-01-01

    As mass-spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics approaches become increasingly powerful, researchers are taking advantage of well established methodologies and improving instrumentation to pioneer new protein expression profiling methods. For example, pooling several proteomes labeled using the stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) method yields a whole-proteome stable isotope-labeled internal standard that can be mixed with a tissue-derived proteome for quantifica...

  13. International Financial Reporting Standards effects on Banks in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Trang

    2012-01-01

    The thesis discusses the Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on Banks operating in Viet Nam. The goal is to investigate how the adoption of IFRS would change financial practices in Vietnamese Banking Industry and what Bank managers should be prepared for. The thesis use case study method to gain in-depth knowledge about the issue. The case study consisted analysis of Financial Reports from three well-known Banks in Viet Nam. The thesis first introduce about Bankin...

  14. Austrian results at the international standard problem 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extended computer code BALO-2A and the thermal-hydraulic code RELAP IV/Mod 6 were applied to perform the International Standard Problem ISP-19. It was possible to model the system simply and to obtain the thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions for BALO-2A. The results are satisfying which is remarkable because loss of coolant accident analyses are performed usually with larger computer codes. (Author)

  15. Standardized susceptibility testing of fluconazole: an international collaborative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaller, M A; Dupont, B; Kobayashi, G S; Mller, J; RINALDI, M.G.; Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Shadomy, S.; Troke, P F; Walsh, T.J.; Warnock, D W

    1992-01-01

    An international collaborative study of broth dilution (MIC) and disk diffusion susceptibility testing of fluconazole was conducted by using a chemically defined medium (High-Resolution Antifungal Assay Medium; Oxoid Ltd., Basingstoke, United Kingdom) and standard test methods performed in eight reference laboratories. Ten yeast isolates were tested by each test method in duplicate on each of 3 separate days. The intralaboratory reproducibility of the MIC test was excellent; 95.7% of the repl...

  16. International Standards for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a terminally sterilized medical device to be designated '' STERILE '', probability of finding the viable micro-organisms in the device shall be equal to or less than 1 x 10-6 (EN 556-1:2001: Sterilization of medical devices - Requirements for medical devices to be designated '' STERILE '' - Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices). Author presents the main legal aspects of the international standards for radiation sterilization of medical devices

  17. Monitoring the International Standardization Process Theoretical Choices and Methodological Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Juanals

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations are in charge of global security management. This paper outlines and argues for the construction of a theoretical and methodological framework in order to critically assess the new technopolitics currently being developed in the field of global security and which are materialized in standards. The main purpose is to design both a methodology and specific text mining tools to investigate these standards. These tools will be implemented in a platform designed to provide cartographic representations of standards and to assist the navigation of an end-user through a corpus of standards.

  18. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR NEUTRAL TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This standard operating procedure describes the method used for preparing internal standard, surrogate recovery standard and calibration standard solutions for neutral analytes used for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

  19. Globalisation, labour Standards and economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit; Zammit, Ann

    2011-01-01

    When this chapter was originally written for the Handbook of Globalisation (Michie, 2003) the burning issue regarding labour standards was the attempt by advanced country governments and unions, particularly the US, to establish multilateral rules in the World Trade Organization (WTO) to enforce labour standards globally. This initiative did not succeed and the issues raised remain as relevant as ever, though they no longer command as much attention at the top of the international policy agen...

  20. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    · Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials · Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  1. International standards for the indoor environment. Where are we and do they apply to Asian countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    On the international level, ISO (International Organization for Standardization), CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) are writing and reviewing standards relating to the indoor environment on a regular...... basis. This presentation will focus on the development of standards for the indoor thermal environment and indoor air quality (ventilation). In the future, recommendations for acceptable indoor environments will be specified as classes. This allows for national differences in the requirements as well as...... for designing buildings for different quality levels. Several of these standards have been developed mainly by experts from Europe, North America and Japan. Are there, however, special considerations relating to South-East Asia (lifestyle, outdoor climate, economy) that are not dealt with in these...

  2. Standardization of Information Systems Development Processes and Banking Industry Adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuna Ozcer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms ofcompliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards todetermine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into systemdevelopment and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected.Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classicalWaterfall life cycle model. Each question is made up of guidance and suggestions from the internationalsystem development standards. To collect data, people from the information technology departments ofthree major banks in Turkey were interviewed. Results have been aggregated by examining the currentprocess status of the three banks together. Problematic issues were identified using the internationalsystem development standards.

  3. Efficiency of Management Systems, Based on International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Gafforova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers major trends of management systems standardization development and efficiency. The authors determine possible structure of effects in the process of integrated management systems implementation.

  4. Nuclear data standards - International Evaluation Co-operation volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The working party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank member countries) and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries is organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report was issued by Subgroup 7, which was in charge of producing new evaluated neutron cross-section standards. When starting the project, there was a general consensus on the need to update these standards, as significant improvements had been made to the experimental database since 1991 when the last evaluation of these standards was performed. The present work was accomplished through efficient collaboration between a task force of the US Cross-section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Subgroup 7 of the Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee. Work is reported on the results of an international effort to evaluate the neutron cross-section standards. The evaluations include the H(n,n), 6Li(n,t), 10B(n,?), 10B(n,?1?), 197Au(n,?), 235U(n,f) and 238U(n,f) standard reactions. Evaluations were also produced for the non-standard 238U(n,?) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions. This effort was performed so as to include new experiments in the standards that have been established since the ENDF/B-VI standard evaluation was completed, and to improve the evaluation process. Evaluations were not undertaken for the3He(n,p) and C(n,n) standards. These standards are carried over from ENDF/B-VI. The interest in standards above 20 MeV led to the extension of the 235U(n,f) and 238U(n,f) cross-sections to 200 MeV. The 239Pu(n,f) cross-section was also extended to 200 MeV. The general trend observed for the evaluations is an increase in the cross-sections for most of the reactions from fractions of a per cent to several per cent compared with the ENDF/B-VI results

  5. A recommendation of adopting international standard for controlling surface contamination by radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the difference between the existing control limits of surface contamination in China and the international standard. It is suggested that the international standard should be used as the national standard

  6. How Do Firms Comply with International Sustainability Standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigneau, Laurence; Humphreys, Michael; Moon, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    multinational corporations corporate social responsibility (CSR) management practices. We investigate standard compliance by comparing the stated intention of the use of the GRI with its actual use and the consequent effects within the firm. Based on an in-depth case study, our findings illustrate the......This paper addresses the issue of the influence of global governance institutions, particularly international sustainability standards, on a firms intra-organizational practices. More precisely, we provide an exploratory empirical view of the impact of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) on a...... relationships between subsidiaries, the temporal dimension of CSR management and the interpretation of CSR performance. We also highlight the need to look at the relationship dynamics (or lack of) between standards. Finally, we illustrate and discuss the role of reporting and its influence on management in...

  7. Development of radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection standards are based on the best available knowledge, caution, and perception. Dose limits for occupational exposure have decreased as knowledge was gained about radiation effects: from 0.6 Sv (60 rem)/year for 1900-1930 to 50 mSv (5 rem)/year in 1958 (the level still used as of 1990). Current dose limits for public exposure range from 1 mSv to 5 mSv, depending on frequency of exposure. For the embryo and fetus, dose limits are 0.5 mSv/mo and 5 mSv for the entire gestation. In the 1970s, the concept of acceptable risk and that of a non-threshold dose-response relationship became the basis for setting dose limits. Three principles of radiation protection are that (a) dose levels should not exceed acceptable levels, (b) optimal dose levels should be as low as reasonably achievable, and (c) radiation should not be used unless it produces a positive net benefit. Although no dose limits have been set for patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures, such measures must provide a net benefit to patients at optimal dose levels

  8. Development of uv irradiance standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, E.; Junttila, M.L.; Jokela, K.

    1993-01-01

    Precision measurements of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation are needed for the assessment of health and environmental effects associated with the depletion of stratospheric ozone. The possibility of large ozone depletions over the Northern Europe combined with the relatively high UV sensitivity of the population are reasons justifying increased efforts for solar UV measurements in the Nordic Countries. Moreover, reflection from snow considerably increases ocular and facial doses in spring. Presently, the most accurate UV measurements are carried out at 15% uncertainty level with absolutely calibrated spectroradiometers. To provide meaningful estimates of the solar UV trends at the few percent uncertainty level, calibration of spectroradiometers must, at least, be stable at 1% level over time scales of ten years or more. The best way to do this is to establish a detector based primary standard which can be used for direct calibration of spectroradiometers. The authors have available at the Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and at the Helsinki University of Technology the necessary basic equipment needed for the new calibration system.

  9. Development of an organically bound tritium standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-concentration factors between seawater and marine organisms have been observed for organically bound tritium (OBT). The absence of an available OBT standard impedes the validation of an analytical method for environmental samples. This paper describes the secondary standardisation of tritiated thymidine, which was chosen to act as an OBT standard, using liquid scintillation counting. Traceability was provided by using internal standards of tritiated water (HTO). The assumption that the counting efficiencies for tritiated thymidine and HTO were identical was tested with separate quench curves. The rate of self-decomposition for tritiated thymidine, which resulted in an activity concentration of tritiated thymidine lower than the total tritium activity concentration, was determined

  10. Playing Against China : Global Value Chains and Labour Standards in the International Sports Goods Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The rise of China as the global factory raises challenges for many developing countries and their producers. The football-manufacturing sector is a case in which China has emerged as a global player. It is also a sector where compliance with international labour standards is considered critical. Leading international brands dominate the industry and control the global value chain for sports goods. In this article, we explore the relationship between the rise of China and international labour standards and consider how labour standards have affected the geography and organization of global football production. We draw on evidence from three of the main production locations China, Pakistan and India. It appears that compliance with labour standards not only has different implications for the three production locations, but also that compliance alone is an insufficient basis for competing against China

  11. Preradba norme ISO 3297 Information and documentation - international standard serial number = Revision of the Standard ISO 3297 Information and documentation - international standard serial number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Zajec

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prikazuje se rad na normizaciji u podru?ju identifikacije i opisa dokumenata. Opisana je redovita preradba norme ISO 3297 Information and documentation International Standard Serial Number (ISSN. Prikazan je tijek rada i razli?ite faze preradbe teksta norme. Izneseni su glavni elementi preradbe i rjeenja Radne skupine. Navode se novine u tekstu nacrta odbora u odnosu na teku?e izdanje.The paper gives an outline of the work on standardization in the area of identification and description of documents. The regular revision of the standard ISO 3297 Information and documentation International Standard Serial Number (ISSN is described. Different phases of revision are enumerated. The main issues of the revision and the solutions proposed by the ISSN Standard Revision Working Group are presented. The new elements in the text of the committee draft are described.

  12. Contributions of the ISO and IEC to international standardization in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the world's total of about 2,600 radiation protection standards, only approximately ten per cent are international. The recommendations of international bodies such as the IAEA and the ICRP on the principles of radiation protection are supplemented by numerous detailed international technical standards. These deal with requirements for radiation monitoring instruments and methods as well as many other aspects of practical radiation protection. These standards are developed in working bodies by leading experts and represent highly condensed technical know-how. They are valuable sources of information and also serve as an instrument of technology transfer to developing countries. The main bodies devoted to the development of such international technical standards are: in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Subcommittee 2 ''Radiation Protection'' of its Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'', and in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), its TC 45B ''Radiation Protection Instrumentation''. Standards published so far include: the basic ionizing radiation symbol; nuclear energy glossary; requirements, classification and leakage testing of sealed radioactive sources; principles of criticality safety; personal photographic dosimeters; direct and indirect reading pocket dosimeters; leakage testing of radioactive materials, packaging, unsealed radioactive sources; different reference radiations for calibrating dosimeters and dose rate meters and determining their energy response; testing of exposure meters; sampling of airborne radioactive materials; and lead shielding. Standards published so far by the IEC include surface contamination meters and monitors, portable exposure rate meters and monitors, hand and foot contamination monitors, installed exposure rate meters, radioactive aerosol contamination meters and equipment for the measurement of airborne tritium and the continuous monitoring of radioactivity in gaseous effluents. Work on a large number of additional projects is currently in progress. (author). 7 refs, 9 tabs

  13. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation's (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs

  14. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Developing Foreign Language Teacher Standards in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the development of foreign language (FL) teacher standards in Uruguay. It begins by discussing what it means to be a teacher, what standards are and are not, and how they can be helpful or misused in teacher development. In the proposal, a distinction is made between teacher preparation programs that are course-based and

  16. Codes & standards research, development & demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-07-22

    This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for SDOs to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.

  17. Comparative study between external standard method and internal standard method for low-level tritium measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenching is always present in water samples and the degree of quenching can vary from one sample to another even within the same batch. This means that quench correction should be carried out for each sample in order to determine the activity so that comparisons can be made between samples and other batches. In this paper, a comparative study of tritium measurements between two methods used to correct for quenching is presented. The methods used to determine counting efficiency in the presence of quenching are as follow: Spectral Quench Parameter of External standard method (SQP(E)) and Internal Standard Method. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation system detector (Quantulus 1220) is used to determine tritium activity concentration in heavy water with different concentration from 99,66 D/H+D% to 1,65 D/D+H %. A standard calibration curve for the SQP(E) technique has been carried out with 3H low level quenched PACKARD standard set that had an assayed value of 29,240 dpm/std + 1,6%. Quench correction for Internal Standard Method has been made for each sample of heavy water with Tritiated Water Internal Standard that had a tritium concentration of 2,51 x 106 dpm/g + 3,0%. A comparison between dilution factors, calculated both for D/(D+ H)% concentration and for tritium activity, measured by the two methods, is discussed in this paper. Internal Standard Method provides accurate results especially for lower D/(D+H)% concentration, which is the environmental samples case. Commercial standards set don't fulfill the exigency of an accurate environmental tritium measurement. It must consider the following problems: type of vial, type of scintillant, filled volume and counting geometry. Even if you make your own standard set for quenching calibration you must exceed another problem. The Compton electrons produced by external standard are energetic beta particles and do not have the same behavior of weak beta-particles in the sample itself. Hence a small amount quenching in tritium sample may remain undetected.(author)

  18. Monitoring the International Standardization Process: Theoretical Choices and Methodological Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Brigitte Juanals; Jean-Luc Minel

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations are in charge of global security management. This paper outlines and argues for the construction of a theoretical and methodological framework in order to critically assess the new technopolitics currently being developed in the field of global security and which are materialized in standards. The main purpose is to design both a methodology and specific text mining tools to investigate these standards. These tools will be implemented in a platform designed to provide carto...

  19. International Consensus on Allergen Immunotherapy II: Mechanisms, standardization, and pharmacoeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Marek; Agache, Ioana; Bonini, Sergio; Burks, A Wesley; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, Walter; Cox, Linda; Demoly, Pascal; Frew, Antony J; O'Hehir, Robyn; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Muraro, Antonella; Lack, Gideon; Larenas, Désirée; Levin, Michael; Martin, Bryan L; Nelson, Harald; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; van Ree, Ronald; Sampson, Hugh; Sublett, James L; Sugita, Kazunari; Du Toit, George; Werfel, Thomas; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Zhang, Luo; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2016-02-01

    This article continues the comprehensive international consensus (ICON) statement on allergen immunotherapy (AIT). The initial article also recently appeared in the Journal. The conclusions below focus on key mechanisms of AIT-triggered tolerance, requirements in allergen standardization, AIT cost-effectiveness, and regulatory guidance. Potential barriers to and facilitators of the use of AIT are described in addition to future directions. International allergy specialists representing the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; and the World Allergy Organization critically reviewed the existing literature and prepared this summary of recommendations for best AIT practice. The authors contributed equally and reached consensus on the statements presented herein. PMID:26853128

  20. National and international radiation protection standards to supplement laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The well-known recommendations of various governmental and non-governmental international organizations on which the radiation protection laws and regulations in about fifty countries are based are supplemented by almost 2000 consensus type national and international standards, dealing in more detail with the specific problems in radiation protection. Such standards, being valuable sources of highly condensed and up-to-date technical know-how, are an excellent instrument of information transfer to developing countries, as well as an important tool for the practical implementation of the more basic limits, rules and principles. They may thus be considered as 'codes of practice' to supplement the general governmental regulations. Development of voluntary standards occurs mainly on three levels, (a) professional radiation protection societies, with specialist working groups drafting documents to a pre-standard level; (b) national standards organizations issuing national standards, and (c) the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and its sister organization the International Electrotechnical Commission, whose Technical Committee 45B is concerned with radiation protection instrumentation. There is intense interaction between these three levels, and close liaison with other relevant organizations is required in order to avoid redundancies or contradictions. With the increasing number and completeness of the standards, their maintenance (regular revisions, etc.) gains in importance relative to the writing of new standards. Also, the focal points of work have to be adjusted to changing needs. For example, as a set of widely used ISO standards on reference radiations for the calibration of radiation protection instruments approaches completion, new work has recently been initiated regarding basic problems of radioactivity measurements such as detection limits, counting statistics, accuracy, etc. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

  1. Integrated Procedures for Flight and Ground Operations Using International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, John

    2011-01-01

    Imagine astronauts using the same Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM's) as the ground personnel who assemble or maintain their flight hardware, and having all of that data interoperable with design, logistics, reliability analysis, and training. Modern international standards and their corresponding COTS tools already used in other industries provide a good foundation for streamlined technical publications in the space industry. These standards cover everything from data exchange to product breakdown structure to business rules flexibility. Full Product Lifecycle Support (PLCS) is supported. The concept is to organize, build once, reuse many ways, and integrate. This should apply to all future and some current launch vehicles, payloads, space stations/habitats, spacecraft, facilities, support equipment, and retrieval ships.

  2. A NEW APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY DECOMISSIONING STANDARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Decontamination, Decommissioning, and Reutilization (DDR) Division of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) is to advance the technology of decontamination, decommissioning, and reutilization of nuclear and former nuclear installations, materials, facilities, and sites [1]. This includes sharing collective decommissioning experiences and lessons learned with others in the industry. An integral part of the work of the DDR Division is the preparation of voluntary decommissioning standards through its recently re-established DDR Standards Committee. This Committee intends to support development of various standards with other divisions of the ANS. The Committee also intends to participate with external organizations to disseminate information and lessons learned regarding decontamination activities, and participate in the development of voluntary decommissioning standards. External organizations, such as ASTM International, are involved in the development of consensus standards for nuclear decommissioning work. This paper describes the work of the DDR Standards Committee on a new co-operative initiative with ASTM International to develop voluntary consensus standards for nuclear decommissioning work

  3. 78 FR 50259 - Derivatives Clearing Organizations and International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... analysis and oversight that identifies and minimizes sources of operational risk through the development of... investment risks); Principle 17 (Operational risk); Principle 21 (Efficiency and effectiveness); Principle 22...: Operational Risk Principle 17 addresses the risk of deficiencies in information systems or internal...

  4. The protection of migrant workers and international labour standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohning, W R

    1988-06-01

    International labor standards take the form of Conventions and Recommendations that embody the agreements reached by a 2/3 majority of the representatives of Governments, Employers, and Workers of International Labour Office (ILO) member states. Originally designed to guard against the danger that 1 country or other would keep down wages and working conditions to gain competitive advantage and thereby undermine advances elsewhere, international labor standards have also been inspired by humanitarian concerns--the visible plight of workers and the physical dangers of industrialization and by the notion of social justice, which embraces wellbeing and dignity, security, and equality as well as a measure of participation in economic and social matters. ILO standards apply to workers generally and therefore also to migrant workers, irrespective of the fact that the general standards are complemented by standards especially for migrant workers. The social security protection of migrant workers has been dealt with in ILO instruments primarily from the angle of equality of treatment but also from that of the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition, including the payment of benefits to entitled persons resident abroad. The ILO Conventions on migrant workers and the Recommendations which supplement them deal with practically all aspects of the work and life of non-nationals such as recruitment matters, information to be made available, contract conditions, medical examination and attention, customs, exemption for personal effects, assistance in settling into their new environment, vocational training, promotion at work, job security and alternative employment, liberty of movement, participation in the cultural life of the state as well as maintenance of their own culture, transfer of earnings and savings, family reunification and visits, appeal against unjustified termination of employment or expulsion, and return assistance. ILO's supervisory mechanism consists basically of a dialogue between the ILO and the Government that is responsible for a law, regulation, or practice alleged to be in contravention of principles it voluntarily accepted. The control machinery is often set in motion by workers' organizations. The UN General Assembly is currently elaborating a new instrument designed to cover both regular and irregular migrant workers and their families. PMID:12342038

  5. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Srensen, Fin; Bodner, D; Brackett, N L; Cardenas, D; Charlifue, S; Creasey, G; Dietz, V; Ditunno, J; Donovan, W; Elliott, S L; Estores, I; Graves, D E; Green, B; Gousse, A; Jackson, A B; Kennelly, M; Karlsson, A-K; Krassioukov, A; Krogh, K; Linsenmeyer, T; Marino, R; Mathias, C J; Perkash, I; Sheel, A W; Schilero, G; Shilero, G; Schurch, B; Snksen, Jens Otto Reimers; Stiens, S; Wecht, J; Wuermser, L A; Wyndaele, J-J

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Experts opinions consensus. OBJECTIVE: To develop a common strategy to document remaining autonomic neurologic function following spinal cord injury (SCI). BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: The impact of a specific SCI on a person's neurologic function is generally described through use of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of SCI. These standards document the remaining motor and sensory function that a person may have; however, they do not provide information ...

  6. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sorensen, F; Bodner, D; Brackett, N L; Cardenas, D; Charlifue, S; Creasey, G; Dietz, V; Ditunno, J; Donovan, W; Elliott, S L; Estores, I; Graves, D E; Green, B; Gousse, A; Jackson, A B; Kennelly, M; Karlsson, A-K; Krassioukov, A; Krogh, K; Linsenmeyer, T; Marino, R; Mathias, C J; Perkash, I; Sheel, A W; Schilero, G; Shilero, G; Schurch, B; Sonksen, J; Stiens, S; Wecht, J; Wuermser, L A; Wyndaele, J-J

    2009-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Experts opinions consensus. OBJECTIVE: To develop a common strategy to document remaining autonomic neurologic function following spinal cord injury (SCI). BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: The impact of a specific SCI on a person's neurologic function is generally described through use of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of SCI. These standards document the remaining motor and sensory function that a person may have; however, they do not provide information ...

  7. Standards development for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ushering of nuclear era in the Philippines with the construction of the PNPP-I (Philippine Nuclear Power Plant) necessitates the evolvement and use of nuclear standards as a tool for safety evaluation in the licensing process. The Department of Nuclear Regulation and Safeguards under the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission has as one of its responsibilities the establishment of regulatory standards to ensure safe operation of nuclear facilities. This article points out the needs for nuclear standards and the steps in standard development which involve an enormous amount of resources in terms of manpower, expertise and money. The staff of the Department of Nuclear Regulations and Safeguards (DNRS) does not intend to engage in the original development of standards; rather, it reviews standards in use elsewhere, specifically in the U.S. and adopts to local conditions. (author)

  8. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms and applications of radiation processing. To date, the group has completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment. This set will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies or other standards-setting organizations for their procedures and protocols. (author)

  9. Standards Initiatives for Software Product Line Engineering and Management within the International Organization for Standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Kkl, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Software product line engineering is an established methodology for fast and effective development of software-intensive systems and services. To reap maximum benefits from the methodology, businesses typically need to implement coordinated changes in development methodologies, tools, product architectures, organizational designs, and business models. Product lines are developed in complex international software ecosystems, but there is no coordinated set of interna...

  10. Development of plating thickness standards. Milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Standards which are unavailable from the National Bureau of Standards were developed to support the nondestructive measurement of plating thickness. Their fabrication, measurement, certification, and calibration-recall schedule are discussed. Reference standards that have been put into service include aluminum/Kapton, silver/copper, tin/steel, gold/silver, cadmium/Kovar, silver/iron, rhodium/copper, and gold/ceramic. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  11. CCSDS Advanced Orbiting Systems - International data communications standards for the Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Adrian J.

    1990-01-01

    Established in 1982, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is an international organization that is staffed by data-handling experts from nearly all of the world's major space agencies. Its goal is to develop standard data-communications techniques so that several agencies may cross-support each other's data flow and thus allow complex, international missions to be flown. Under the general umbrella of Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS), an international CCSDS task force was formed in 1985 to develop standard data-communications concepts for manned missions, such as the Space Station Freedom and the Hermes space plane, and large unmanned vehicles, such as polar orbiting platforms. The history of the CCSDS and the development of the AOS recommendation are reviewed, and the user services and protocols embodied in its systems architecture are introduced.

  12. CCSDS Advanced Orbiting Systems - International data communications standards for the Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Adrian J.

    1990-09-01

    Established in 1982, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is an international organization that is staffed by data-handling experts from nearly all of the world's major space agencies. Its goal is to develop standard data-communications techniques so that several agencies may cross-support each other's data flow and thus allow complex, international missions to be flown. Under the general umbrella of Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS), an international CCSDS task force was formed in 1985 to develop standard data-communications concepts for manned missions, such as the Space Station Freedom and the Hermes space plane, and large unmanned vehicles, such as polar orbiting platforms. The history of the CCSDS and the development of the AOS recommendation are reviewed, and the user services and protocols embodied in its systems architecture are introduced.

  13. Branding in the international business opportunity development

    OpenAIRE

    Yli-Nikkola, H. (Heli)

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses challenges and possibilities with newly established firms related to international business opportunity development, and examines the role of branding in the process. The aim of the research is to analyse how international business opportunities and branding are intertwined in new and small firms activities. The study starts with a literature review where the phenomenon is approached by reviewing focal theories related to international business opportunity development an...

  14. International and domestic experience of the development reporting segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Ivchenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the stages of formation and development of segment reporting as a form of financial statements of the enterprise, namely the evolution of international standards and the emergence of segment reporting in Ukraine, its role in providing the information needs of users. Based on a comparative analysis of national and international regulations that govern the exercise of the preparation and filing of segmental reporting are defined by their relationship , common and distinctive features , proved the need to coordinate National accounting standart 29 "Financial Reporting by Segments" with the requirements of international practice . First of all it is necessary to avoid the collision feeding segmental reports by enterprises that focus on the international market and use international financial reporting standards.

  15. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF CERTIFICATION PROCESS OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SA 8000 ON SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza RAJABZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the development of general tool for determining the direction and priority of consideration and study of accumulated experience results in the world practice, obtained when development, implementation, and certification of the management systems according to the requirements of international standard SA 8000. To solve this problem, in this article, it was suggested to use input data presented by international organization SAAS (Social Accountability Accreditation Services, statistical and graphical methods of data processing and analysis, and Pareto analysis methodology. As a result of the conducted research, the general tool was developed, that allows to systematize the accumulated experience of management systems implementation and certification in the world practice, which is developed on the basis of international standard SA 8000. It was suggested to classify the accumulated experience according to such indicators as quantity of organizations, quantity of personnel, industry, and continent. It was shown that the most quantity of organizations having certified management system in conformity with the requirements of international standard SA 8000, and the most quantity of personnel in certified organizations was concentrated in Asia. It was found that the most widespread branches of industry in regard to the certification of their management systems in conformity with the requirements of this standard are such branches as construction, apparel, and textiles industries.

  16. Descriptors for Competence: Towards an International Standard Classification for Skills and Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Plaimauer, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential of already existing skills and competence ontologies to benefit European transparency tools and especially the implementation of the European Qualification Framework. Furthermore, it asks whether any of them could serve as a starting point to develop an International Standard

  17. International standardization of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee in vitro experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to improve and standardize cage systems for maintaining adult honey bee workers under in vitro laboratory conditions. To achieve this goal, we experimentally evaluated the impact of different cages, developed by scientists of the international research network COLOSS (Preve...

  18. International Migration, Remittances and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Mahmud; Md. Abdus Sabur; Sharmin Tamanna

    2009-01-01

    The increasing remittance flows to the labor sending developing countries in recent years have generated huge optimism in the contemporary development discourse about the possibility of development at the grassroots levels which has been an overwhelming challenge for the development actors for decades. However, the realization of such potential proves difficult due to a lack of common understanding of the phenomenon of labor migration and its causes and consequences. This study focuses on the...

  19. To standardize or not standardize international marketing : is it still a question?

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Ana Maria; Farhangmehr, Minoo; Shoham, Aviv

    2003-01-01

    The standardization versus adaptation argument has been raging for years and international marketing research about it has spanned some four decades, attesting to its far reaching theoretical and practical relevance. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on this debate. Major theoretical and empirical contributions from companies and consumers points of view are presented. The importance of resolving this issue cannot be underestimated as it as an impact on segmentation i...

  20. Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarwinski, R; Crick, M J

    2011-03-01

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO--as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS--the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as recordkeeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. PMID:21148586

  1. Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO-as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS-the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as record keeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. (authors)

  2. National and international current developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The news at the national level concern information on events occurred during the year 2009 such licensing of dismantling, irradiation accidents in radiotherapy or industry, control on the construction of the EPR reactor of Flamanville, report on events happened in radiotherapy, inspections, radioactive waste management. At the international level, are detailed the meetings of commissions and working groups (Western european nuclear regulators association, W.E.N.R.A., regulatory assistance management group, R.A.M.G., heads of European radiation control authorities, H.E.R.C.A., European nuclear safety regulator group, E.N.S.R.E.G.. Out of European union are a workshop organised by IAEA and an international conference on efficient nuclear regulation also organised by IAEA, a meeting of the committee of regulatory nuclear activities (C.N.R.A.) created by N.E.A., a conference between France, Japan and United States on fast neutron reactors. Then, bilateral relations are given between Belgium and France on crisis exercises and inspections, between France and Spain that led to cooperation agreements on radiological emergency situations, between U.S.A. and France where the N.R.C. expressed his desire to participate in inspections on construction of E.P.R. at Flamanville. A Japanese delegation was received by A.s.n. to discuss on safety requirements for the fire protection in nuclear installations. Some congress and conferences are reported. Publications of A.s.n. are detailed. The works of the different experts groups are summarized, these groups worked on waste, nuclear pressure equipment, reactors, laboratories and plants, radiation protection in medical and industrial field. The high committee for the transparency and information on nuclear safety (H.C.T.I.S.I.N.) worked on transparency about radioactive waste management. (N.C.)

  3. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab

  4. Packaging in the New Product Development Process : An International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Pauline; Hult, Malin

    2005-01-01

    The thesis is conducted to investigate how packaging is taken into consideration within the new product development process and in which stages of the new product development process packaging actually is taken into consideration. Further we want to investigate if packaging has increased in importance within the activities of the new product development process, and how organizations deal with standardization of packaging for international markets in the new product development process. The p...

  5. Internal Migration in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Groppo, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    For people in rural areas of developing countries, finding a better paying job or better education is often only possible by moving - migrating - somewhere else. Moreover, agricultural production, generally the main economic activity in rural areas of developing countries, is risky, affected by droughts and floods. Due to poverty and the limited availability of crop insurance, rural households often rely on distant family members to provide money for buying food, starting a business or mainta...

  6. North-South standards harmonization and international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Disdier, Anne-Celia; Fontagné, Lionel; Cadot, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in economic integration agreements (EIAs) and the development of non-tariff measures (NTMs). As a consequence, a growing number of EIAs include provisions on NTMs. This paper focuses on provisions on technical regulations. We investigate whether the technical requirements contained in North-South Agreements affect international trade. More particularly, using a gravity equation, we assess to what extent North-South harmonization of technical barriers creates or ...

  7. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies the requirements of international and national regulatory bodies for patient safety. A culture of quality assurance and the need for scientific exchange at the international level have extended the requirements for standardization to many other areas. These include radiotherapy with heavy charged particles, brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. A major advance in radiotherapy over the past few years has been the growing use of proton and heavy ion irradiation facilities for cancer therapy. The increased use of brachytherapy, including the new application of intravascular brachytherapy, has resulted in the development of new standards and codes of practice in this area. In diagnostic radiology, including computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional procedures, the awareness of the importance of dose reduction to the patient has also lead to the development of codes of practice. In the field of nuclear medicine there is a need to increase the dissemination of standards and the development of international recommendations for dosimetry procedures. Every year there are several regional or international meetings on radiation physics applied to medicine or related areas. A meeting focused exclusively on dosimetry gives the unique opportunity to review in depth the developments and trends in this continuously changing field. By organizing this Symposium the IAEA maintains its longstanding tradition of disseminating knowledge, promoting expertise and supporting international co-operation in radiation dosimetry. The Symposium provided a forum where advances in radiation dosimetry during the past decade, not only in external beam radiotherapy but also in other areas of radiation medicine, can be disseminated and scientific knowledge exchanged. It will include areas that have been developed recently (e.g. intravascular therapy and hadron dosimetry), together with classic areas where the standardization of dosimetry may not have reached a mature stage (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). It will also summarize the present status and outline future trends in medical radiation dosimetry and identify possible areas for improvement. Its conclusions and summaries should lead to the formulation of recommendations for the scientific community

  8. 25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...minimum internal control standards for internal...to, bingo card control, payout procedures...cash reconciliation process; (ii) Pull...not limited to, statistical records, winner...key location and control, and a review of... (i) Audit objectives; (ii)...

  9. 25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...minimum internal control standards for internal...to, bingo card control, payout procedures...cash reconciliation process; (ii) Pull...not limited to, statistical records, winner...key location and control, and a review of... (i) Audit objectives; (ii)...

  10. 25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...minimum internal control standards for internal...to, bingo card control, payout procedures...cash reconciliation process; (ii) Pull...not limited to, statistical records, winner...key location and control, and a review of... (i) Audit objectives; (ii)...

  11. Padronizao interna em espectrometria de absoro atmica Internal standardization in atomic absorption spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly G. Fernandes; Mercedes de Moraes; Jos A. Gomes Neto; Nbrega, Joaquim A.; Pedro V. Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a review on internal standardization in atomic absorption spectrometry with emphasis to the systematic and random errors in atomic absorption spectrometry and applications of internal standardization in flame atomic absorption spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The rules for selecting an element as internal standard, limitations of the method, and some comments about the application of internal standardization in atomic absorption spectrometry...

  12. Concrete blocks. Analysis of UNE, ISO en standards and comparison with other international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Alonso, Marina

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to describe the recently approved UNE standards through a systematic analysis of the main specifications therein contained and the values considered for each of them, as well as the drafts for ISO and EN concrete block standards. Furthermore, the study tries to place the set of ISO standards in the international environment through a comparative analysis against a representative sample of the standards prevailing in various geographical regions of the globe to determine the analogies and differences among them. PALABRAS CLAVE: albañilería, análisis de sistemas, bloque de hormigón, muros de fábrica, normativa KEY WORDS: masonry, system analysis, concrete blocks, masonry walls, standards

    En este trabajo se pretende describir la reciente aprobada normativa UNE, analizando sistemáticamente las principales prescripciones contempladas y los valores considerados para cada una de ellas, así como los proyectos de Norma ISO, y EN sobre bloques de hormigón. Asimismo se intenta situar la normativa UNE en al ámbito internacional, haciendo un análisis comparativo con una representación de Normas de distintas regiones geográficas del mundo, determinando sus analogías y diferencias.

  13. Contribution from twenty two years of CSNI International Standard Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a brief overview on the contribution of some CSNI International Standard Problems (ISPs) to nuclear reactor safety issues (41 ISPs performed over the last 22 years). This CSNI activity on ISPs has been one of the major activities of the Principal Working Group no.2 on Coolant System Behaviour. Its domain extended from thermal-hydraulics to several other accident domains following the main concerns of nuclear reactor safety, e.g., LOCA predictions fuel behaviour, operator procedures, containment thermal-hydraulics severe accidents, VVERs, etc. ISPs are providing unique material and benefits for some safety related issues. Clearly, all the technical findings and benefits provided by ISPs are still needed and contribute to advancement of nuclear safety. The report provides some overview on the general objectives of ISPs, content and types of ISPs, and technical domains covered by ISPs, followed by a synthesis of technical findings and benefits to the scientific community

  14. International comparison of calibration standards for exposure and absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was performed of the primary calibration standards for 60Co gamma radiation dose from Czechoslovakia (UDZ CSAV, Prague), Austria (OEFZS/BEV Seibersdorf) and Hungary (OMH Budapest) using ND 1005 (absolute measurement) and V-415 (by means of Nx) graphite ionization chambers. BEV achieved agreement better than 0.1%, OMH 0.35%. Good agreement was also achieved for the values of exposure obtained in absolute values and those obtained via Nx, this for the ND 1005/8105 chamber. The first ever international comparison involving Czechoslovakia was also performed of the unit of absorbed gamma radiation in a water and/or graphite phantom. The participants included Czechoslovakia (UDZ CSAV Prague), the USSR (VNIIFTRI Moscow) and Austria (OEFZS/BEV Seibersdorf). In all measurements, the agreement was better than 1%, which, in view of the differences in methodologies (VNIIFTRI, BEV: calorimetry, UDZ, UVVVR: ionometry) and the overall inaccuracies in determining the absorbed dose values, is a good result. (author)

  15. International standard problem ISP-47 on containment thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the OECD/NEA International Standard Problem ISP -47 programme was to assess the capabilities of lumped parameter (LP) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis codes in the area of containment thermal-hydraulics. Following the recommendations made in the 'State-of-the-art Report on Containment Thermal-hydraulics and Hydrogen Distribution', experimental data from different complementary experimental facilities were employed for the benchmark analyses applying a progressive modelling difficulty. The three experimental facilities TOSQAN, MISTRA and ThAI provided good quality experimental data suitable for CFD and LP code benchmarking both for steady-state and transient conditions. The ISP-47 programme was successfully completed in 2007. Nineteen organisations from fourteen countries participated by contributing experimental results, analyses with twelve different codes and reviews. The programme's final report, is broached. (authors)

  16. Good clinical practice: International quality standard for clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulovi? Sinia S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical trial is one of the most important examples of experimental studies. Clinical trials represent an indispensable tool for testing, in a rigorous scientific manner, the efficacy of new therapies. Good Clinical Practice is an international ethical and scientific quality standard for clinical trials, concerning the design, conduct, performance, monitoring auditing, recording, analysis and reporting. This is an assurance to the public that the rights, safety and well-being of trial subjects are protected, and that clinical trial data is credible. The above definitions are consistent with the principles that have their origin in the declaration of Helsinki. The objectives of Good Clinical Practice are to protect the rights of trial subjects, to enhance credibility of data and to improve the quality of science.

  17. International developments in waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, the legal framework conditions for waste disposal are provided by the principles of the Waste Disposal Provision of 1980, the amendments to the Atomic Act dated 1994, the EU Basic Standards for Radiation Protection of 1996 and the safety criteria issued by the West German and East German safety commissions (RSK and SSK) in 1983. In Germany, 12 nuclear power stations have now been licensed to use leaded zinc oxide fuel elements. These are now manufactured in France, Belgium and Great Britain. The volume of plutonium expected to be obtained from these by the year 2003 is 42 tonnes, of which 11 tonnes have been recycled to date. The first stage in the search for a permanent storage site is the selection of suitable rock formations. Finland, Sweden, Canada, the Czech Republic and Switzerland have opted for granite. France is tending towards argillaceous rock (but is also keeping open the option of granite). Belgium, Japan and Spain are backing both. To date, Germany alone has opted for salt formations. The USA wants to use the tuff under the Nevada desert for storage. Individual states also address the search for a location differently. Belgium decided quickly upon the region around Mol, where it is carrying out intensive rock analyses. In Finland, the initial shortlist of five potential sites has been reduced to three, but ultimately only a single one is required. France is carrying out surveys in three regions. Sweden has also carried out a relatively wide range of surveys. Political implementation is, however, lagging behind. Scandinavians have had positive results from a staged licensing procedure. Germany has made great progress with the surveys of the salt mine in Gorleben which have been going on for some years. An extremely large massif of homogeneous salt has been found in the salt mine there. (orig.)

  18. Development of standard solution for some radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive standard solution is a standard reference material. It is an important standard measuring instrument and used for transferring and inter-comparing of quantity value. According to requirement for the preparation of radioactive standard solution, 60Co, 90Sr-90Y, 137Cs, 134Cs, 63Ni, 241Am, 125I, 131I standard solutions have been developed. The medium includes about 20?50 ?g stable carrier per gram solution and 0.1 mol/L HCl. For iodine radioactive solutions., the medium is alkaline and the stabilizer is added into it. The solutions are all stable and uniform in the long term. The specific activities are accurate and the uncertainties are 0.10%, 0.27%, 0.18%, 0.12%, 0.24%, 0.18%, 0.20%, 0.22% respectively (1 ?)

  19. Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy to Teach the Internal Standard Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    The internal standard method is widely applied in quantitative analyses. However, most analytical chemistry textbooks either omit this topic or only provide examples of a single-point internal standardization. An experiment designed to teach students how to prepare an internal standard calibration curve is described. The experiment is a modified

  20. Application of argon as the internal standard method in glow discharge mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yu; Xiaojia, Li; Haizhou, Wang

    2007-01-01

    Using (78)Ar(2)(+) as the internal standard (argon internal standard) in glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) was investigated in detail. After comparing ion intensities and interferences, i.e. of argon ions, bi-atom argon ions and tri-atom argon ions, the (78)Ar(2)(+) was selected as the internal standard in the analysis. Mass spectral behavior of the argon internal standard affected by glow discharge current and voltage were studied. The ion intensity relationship between the argon internal standard and the matrix internal standard showed that the argon internal standard and the matrix internal standard have the same corrective effect on sample analysis. The experiment proved that the effects of the difference in analysis samples and the fluctuation of discharge conditions for analytical results were efficiently reduced if the argon internal standard was used. Moreover, the argon internal standard is similar to the matrix internal standard in correcting analytical results and both give satisfactory results. Elemental content in samples can be accurately determined by using the argon internal standard when the matrix content is unknown with good results. PMID:17881779

  1. Comparison of international standards for digital safety system verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was performed to evaluate different international standards for software verification and validation of digital safety systems suitable for nuclear power plant applications. Since the verification and validation of the digital safety system should be considered from the entire digital system life-cycle point of view, the standards for each phase of the life cycle of the safety system were compared. The major phases of the digital system life cycle considered are system requirements, system test-bed requirements, design and construction, system hardware and software specifications, designs, test, integration, plant implementation, and maintenance phases. Some of the conclusions are: 1) there are too many standards; 2) none of the existing standards provide complete guidance to the developer, regulator, and managers for consistently and practically applying the standards at each phase of the life-cycle; 3) there is no uniformity among the international standards concerning the level of depth and details to be followed by the users; 4) inconsistencies among the standards and their interpretations have led to practical difficulties among developers and regulators; 5) practical guidance on how to handle verification and validation issues such as how to identify and test unintended functions, how to handle common cause failures, what are the qualitative and quantitative reliability measures to use, how much testing is good enough is either missing or not addressed. The authors recommend that a uniform international standard and a practical framework for the digital safety system verification and validation should be developed and the efforts in this direction should start now. (Author) 37 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  2. The Global Career Development Facilitator Credential: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, Dale; Neault, Roberta A.; Pickerell, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The Global Career Development Facilitator (GCDF) credential was established to provide professional training and standards for individuals working in the career field. GCDF programs are now available in the United States and 10 other countries. The authors highlight the first international GCDF program in New Zealand, new online GCDF training in

  3. AGRARIAN ACCOUNTANCY IN THE VISUAL CONE OF INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela SIMTION

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available After a long period during which agriculture did not have a standard of its own and applied for that matter the IAS 2 rules regarding inventories; IAS 16 regarding property, plant and equipment and IAS 18 regarding revenues, one last standard is being born IAS 41. The late appearance of this standard is compensated by the great attention granted from the IASC, as agriculture is very important for those countries in course of development. IAS 41 is operative for those financial statements starting with the 1 of January 2003. The current standard is applied to account those elements regarding agricultural activities. IAS 41 is does not deal: with genuine exploiting activities, with harvested agricultural products, which are non biological products, or with the agricultural production, which is incorporated in the processing process. The activity will follow the financial reporting guidelines imposed by IAS 41 if: (athe plants or animals, that represent the object of the activities, are living and suitable for transformation; (b the change must be controlled, a fact which implies a range of activities like ground fertilizing and crop cultivation, feeding and medical assistance while breeding animals;(cthere have to exist fundamentals for evaluating changes like: the degree at which plants ripen, the animals weight, the trees circumference. The most important feature of this standard is the request for evaluating the biological assets at each balance sheet date at its fair value. Taking into consideration the limited framework of the current standard, beside of the explicit exceptions, all IAS must also be applied in agriculture.

  4. International financial markets and development

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Wahl

    2009-01-01

    The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the casino economy. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new act...

  5. Cyberfeminism, technology, and international "development".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjala, R; Mamidipudi, A

    1999-07-01

    This article reports on the implications and benefits of Internet technology among women from developing countries. Cyberfeminism is the practice of feminism in cyberspace. Feminists believe that women should take control and augment Internet technologies to empower themselves. Learning to use the computers, getting "connected," and surfing the Internet are encouraged among all women with the aim of advancing feminist causes and empowering women. The Internet has been observed to cause radical changes in the way business and social activities are conducted. A description of how two women have engaged in cyberfeminism and worked in development and technology programs is included. One contributor, Annapurna Mamipudi, is involved in a non-governmental organization working with traditional handloom weavers in India Another contributor is Radhika Gajjala, who works in academia and creates on-line "discussion lists" and Web sites from her North American geographical location. Her job is to create spaces that provide opportunities for dialogue and collaboration among women with Internet access all over the world. PMID:12349221

  6. International financial markets and development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Peter, Wahl.

    Full Text Available The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the casino economy. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated [...] by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new actors are surfacing, e.g. the institutional investor (hedge funds, private equity funds, etc.), while new instruments are leading to highly leveraged and destabilising derivatives. The casino system has been promoted by governments and intergovernmental institutions to liberalise and deregulate financial markets. Although developing countries have not participated in the casino system, they have been suffering most from the spill-over into the real economy. The main lesson learnt is that the casino has to be closed.

  7. International financial markets and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wahl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the casino economy. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new actors are surfacing, e.g. the institutional investor (hedge funds, private equity funds, etc., while new instruments are leading to highly leveraged and destabilising derivatives. The casino system has been promoted by governments and intergovernmental institutions to liberalise and deregulate financial markets. Although developing countries have not participated in the casino system, they have been suffering most from the spill-over into the real economy. The main lesson learnt is that the casino has to be closed.

  8. US agency for international development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumfrey, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author addresses the following questions in his presentation: what is USAID; where does the money go and who makes the decisions; where does USAID fund energy programs, and especially renewable energy; who are their `partners`; what is the approach to renewable energy; what in summary, has USAID funded that is relevant to village power. USAID is the foreign aid agency of the US Government. Approximately 75 countries receive regular assistance. The fiscal year 97 budget for the agency is approximately $5.8 billion. About half of the total budget goes to Israel, Egypt, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. These budgeting decisions are geopolitical. Congress earmarks total budgets for a few sectors or subjects, such as family planning. The goal of USAID`s renewable energy programs is simple: They are interested in accelerating the market penetration of commercial technologies. They do not engage in technology R&D. Developing countries have energy needs now, and commercial technologies are available now. USAID has taken note of the interest taken by subsidiaries of US utilities in the past couple of years in bringing their expertise and resources to bear on meeting the challenge of rural energy needs in developing countries. They believe that the entry into the market of these players could be one of the most important catalysts for making the rural energy revolution happen.

  9. Defining the Core Archive Data Standards of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Dan; Beebe, Reta; Guinness, Ed; Heather, David; Zender, Joe

    2007-01-01

    A goal of the International Planetary Data Alliance (lPDA) is to develop a set of archive data standards that enable the sharing of scientific data across international agencies and missions. To help achieve this goal, the IPDA steering committee initiated a six month proj ect to write requirements for and draft an information model based on the Planetary Data System (PDS) archive data standards. The project had a special emphasis on data formats. A set of use case scenarios were first developed from which a set of requirements were derived for the IPDA archive data standards. The special emphasis on data formats was addressed by identifying data formats that have been used by PDS nodes and other agencies in the creation of successful data sets for the Planetary Data System (PDS). The dependency of the IPDA information model on the PDS archive standards required the compilation of a formal specification of the archive standards currently in use by the PDS. An ontology modelling tool was chosen to capture the information model from various sources including the Planetary Science Data Dictionary [I] and the PDS Standards Reference [2]. Exports of the modelling information from the tool database were used to produce the information model document using an object-oriented notation for presenting the model. The tool exports can also be used for software development and are directly accessible by semantic web applications.

  10. [The revelation from three international medical education standards to education of physician-patient communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Jia; Sun, Hui-Qiang; Shao, Qi; Deng, Yan-Nan

    2010-12-01

    The ability of manipulating physician-patient communication is of great significance in medical practice and undoubtedly needed to be developed during medical education. The importance and request of physician-patient communication in medical education has been definitely prescribed in three international standards stipulated respectively by three international medical education organizations. In this article, the author attempted to reveal the deficiency of Chinese medical education on physician-patient communication by studying the three international standards as mentioned. And some measures had also been recommended to improve the conditions: setting up physician-patient communication curriculums among students; emphasizing the training of the skills in internship during undergraduate study period; adding physician-patient communication contents in the Practice Physician Qualification Test; and so on. The improvement of communication skills in basic medical education is the primary part for the progress of whole medical area. Supported by Teaching Reform Project of Shandong University (Grant No.200954,2009174,2009226). PMID:21431271

  11. Automated computer software development standards enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, H.P.; Formento, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Uniform Development Environment (UDE) is being investigated as a means of enforcing software engineering standards. For the programmer, it provides an environment containing the tools and utilities necessary for orderly and controlled development and maintenance of code according to requirements. In addition, it provides DoD management and developer management the tools needed for all phases of software life cycle management and control, from project planning and management, to code development, configuration management, version control, and change control. This paper reports the status of UDE development and field testing. 5 refs.

  12. SPOTS project and development of a standard and reference material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson E.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Standardization Project for Optical Techniques of Strain measurement (SPOTS was focused on the development of reference materials for calibrating optical systems for static strain measurement and standardized tests for evaluating the capabilities of such systems. The reference material consists of a beam in four-point bending within a monolithic frame that ensures reproducibility of the boundary and loading conditions. A procedure for the use of the reference material has been developed and leads to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties that allow the construction of confidence limits for the data obtained with the calibrated optical system. The design and methodology have been developed into a proposed draft standard which is being endorsed by VAMAS (Versailles Agreement on Materials And Standards for review by ISO (International Standards Organisation. An overview of philosophy underpinning the proposed draft standard is presented and serves as an introduction to the reference material and standardized test and their use in providing higher confidence in optical measurements of strain.

  13. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances in scientific and engineering understanding. We present a draft outline that can be used as the basis for such a standard.

  14. Standardization of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries should take food standardization seriously so that they do not become a dumping ground for foods that some developed countries refuse to admit for human consumption. Let us take saccharin for example. Whereas saccharin would normally not be allowed for use in flour preparations and ice-cream in certain developed countries, because saccharin is now known to be slightly carcinogenic, multinational companies from these same countries have been known to promote the use of saccharin in flour preparations and ice-cream in developing countries. When saccharin is used in soft drinks produced in developing countries, this is often not even declared on the label although manufacturers may be required by law in developed countries to declare the presence of saccharin in such drinks, which in any case must never exceed certain limits. It is against this background that the question of standardization of irradiated foods needs to be considered in developing countries. Like all food standardization questions, developing countries must have clearly defined guidelines and regulations for the consumption of irradiated foods and the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods.

  15. THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS IN ROMANIA: ADVANTAGES AND MAIN PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Diana-Andreea, TRAISTARU

    2014-01-01

    This work is meant to analyze the implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards in Romania. The work tries to focus on the benefits and challenges of International Financial Reporting Standards, mainly on factors pertaining to its adoption connections, statistics and other types of analyses were used in order to show the importance that International Financial Reporting Standards adoption could represent for a large number of stakeholders. The most important features of Intern...

  16. INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS: A WAY FOR GLOBAL CONSISTENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Tripathi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The reverberations of Wall Street had to be felt across the global banking system. Last September, the world economy seemed to be hurtling down in a way that had initially raised the spectre of the Great Depression in America of the late 1920s. This is based largely on the performance of stock markets which are supposed to reflect future trends in the real economy. However, such knowledge embedded in the markets can be imperfect, as we have learnt by now. In some ways, the global financial crisis and its fallout are forcing economic agents to acquire new knowledge in regard to what might happen in the future. It was difficult to explain rationally why the stock markets were furiously running up even as company balance sheets were still bleeding. A few years ago, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS were a distant possibility. Today, the reality is far different. We are in a dramatic shift that is fast making IFRS the most widely accepted accounting model in the world. As the business environment becomes increasingly global and companies routinely list on stock exchanges in many countries, the need for consistent worldwide reporting standards intensifies. IFRS clearly addresses this issue; its goal is to create comparable, reliable, and transparent financial statements that will facilitate greater cross-border capital raising, trade and better corporate governance practices. Thus acceptance of IFRS is gaining momentum across the globe. IFRS transition program for any organization will have multi dimensional effect because of differences which exist between IFRS and Local GAAPs. The objectives of the paper is to highlight the nature of such differences with examples along with analysing the provisions of IFRS, comparative analysis of IFRS with Indian GAAP system, benefits, and major issues in first time adoption of IFRS in Indian companies with the help of case study of Indian corporate.

  17. Updating the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care. Entering the era of molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Philip C; Fair, Elizabeth L; Uplekar, Mukund

    2014-03-01

    The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care, first published in 2006 (Lancet Infect Dis 2006;6:710-725.) with a second edition in 2009 ( www.currytbcenter.ucsf.edu/international/istc_report ), was produced by an international coalition of organizations funded by the United States Agency for International Development. Development of the document was led jointly by the World Health Organization and the American Thoracic Society, with the aim of promoting engagement of all care providers, especially those in the private sector in low- and middle-income countries, in delivering high-quality services for tuberculosis. In keeping with World Health Organization recommendations regarding rapid molecular testing, as well as other pertinent new recommendations, the third edition of the Standards has been developed. After decades of dormancy, the technology available for tuberculosis care and control is now rapidly evolving. In particular, rapid molecular testing, using devices with excellent performance characteristics for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance, and that are practical and affordable for use in decentralized facilities in low-resource settings, is being widely deployed globally. Used appropriately, both within tuberculosis control programs and in private laboratories, these devices have the potential to revolutionize tuberculosis care and control, providing a confirmed diagnosis and a determination of rifampin resistance within a few hours, enabling appropriate treatment to be initiated promptly. Major changes have been made in the standards for diagnosis. Additional important changes include: emphasis on the recognition of groups at increased risk of tuberculosis; updating the standard on antiretroviral treatment in persons with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection; and revising the standard on treating multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:24673691

  18. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  19. FDA use of international standards in the premarket review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechen, E; Barth, D J; Marlowe, D; Kroger, L

    1998-01-01

    "This is an exciting time," says Eric Rechen, policy analyst in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Office of Device Evaluation (ODE). "We're entering an era in which standards will have a more prominent role in the review of medical devices than ever before." During the past 10 years, there has been significant growth in the importance of standards in regulatory processes, as Donald J. Barth, regulatory staff manager for the Medical Products Group at Hewlett Packard Company, notes in setting the stage for discussion of the latest developments. Donald Marlowe, director of the FDA's Office of Science and Technology, and Rechen explain the use of standards in the regulatory review process as part of FDA efforts to ensure public safety in a time of shrinking agency resources. Marlowe discusses provisions of the FDA Modernization Act of 1997 that allow manufacturers to submit a declaration of conformity to a standard to satisfy premarket review requirements. A guidance on the recognition and use of consensus standards, a list of recognized standards, and a list of frequently asked questions are available at the Web site of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) at www.fda.gov/cdrh and via the AAMI Web site at www.aami.org. The information is also available by telephone via CDRH Facts on Demand at 800-899-0381. Rechen provides details about the two new approaches for premarket notifications available under the new 510(k) paradigm. Manufacturers may demonstrate substantial equivalence through special and abbreviated 510(k)s in addition to traditional 510(k)s. A copy of the new 510(k) paradigm is available at the AAMI and CDRH Web sites and through Facts on Demand. As the FDA and many manufacturers enter the new world of abbreviated and special 510(k)s, Larry Kroger, GE Medical Systems, provides his comments based on the 4 years of experience manufacturers of diagnostic x-ray products have had with simplified 510(k)s. A comparison of the European conformity assessment procedures with the new 510(k) paradigm will appear in an upcoming issue of BI&T. PMID:9800008

  20. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratories: Development and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication describes the work of the IAEA and the WHO in the establishment of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. Membership in the SSDL network has now risen to about 50 laboratories, of which 36 are in developing countries

  1. Final comparison report for international standard problem n.22 (SPES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OECD-CSNI International Standard Problem 22 is a 'Loss of Feedwater with EFW delayed' test, performed in the SPES facility (SIET-Piacenza). The purpose of 'LOFW-EFW delayed' experiment is to obtain in the primary system of the facility the thermal-hydraulic conditions similar to the reference plant in the incidental transient of main feedwater total loss, in all the three steam generators, with a delayed intervention of the emergency feedwater system. It is a double blind exercise, characterized by a large participation of non-OECD countries sponsored by IAEA. The ISP22 Comparison Report is based on two fundamental elements: the comparison between the single Participants predictions and the experimental data, and the overall comparison among all calculations and test results. The conclusions drawn from these analyses highlight the major contributions to the observed discrepancies deriving from code limitations, user errors, experimental uncertainties. From a macroscopic point of view, it is concluded that most of the phenomena occurring in ISP22 experiment were generally predicted by the double blind predictions. A more accurate analysis of the single phenomena can nevertheless reveal relevant discrepancies between calculations and data. The document also contains a description of ISP22 Participants and input decks, and a collection of their comments on the differences between calculations and test results

  2. Do international labor standards contribute to the persistence of the child-labor problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of governments and consumer groups in rich countries have tried to discourage the use of child labor in poor countries through measures such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards. The purported objective of such measures is to reduce the incidence of child labor in developing countries and thereby improve children's welfare. In this paper, we examine the effects of such policies from a political-economy perspective. We show that thes...

  3. Austrian contributions to fuel rod failure models shown at the International Standard Problem ISP-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code BALON-2A was improved to perform the International Standard Problem ISP-14. The main extensions are the implementation of input-options and the development of a model to predict the pressure in the fuel rod gap. With these improvements and some calculations for input values satisfying results have been obtained. This is remarkable because loss of coolant accident analyses are performed usually with larger computer codes. (Author)

  4. Silica optical fiber technology for devices and components design, fabrication, and international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Kyunghwan

    2012-01-01

    From basic physics to new products, Silica Optical Fiber Technology for Device and Components examines all aspects of specialty optical fibers. Moreover, the inclusion of the latest international standards governing optical fibers enables you to move from research to fabrication to commercialization. Reviews all the latest specialty optical fiber technologies, including those developed for high capacity WDM applications; broadband fiber amplifiers; fiber filleters based on periodic coupling; fiber branching devices; and fiber terminations Discusses key differences among sing

  5. Fluorescein thiocarbamyl amino acids as internal standards for migration time correction in capillary sieving electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Pugsley, Haley R.; Swearingen, Kristian E.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2009-01-01

    A number of algorithms have been developed to correct for migration time drift in capillary electrophoresis. Those algorithms require identification of common components in each run. However, not all components may be present or resolved in separations of complex samples, which can confound attempts for alignment. This paper reports the use of fluorescein thiocarbamyl derivatives of amino acids as internal standards for alignment of 3-(2-furoyl)quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (FQ)-labeled proteins...

  6. An International Marketing Curriculum - Development and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboushi, Suhail; Lackman, Conway; Peace, A. Graham

    1999-01-01

    Describes the process of market-driven curriculum design in the development of an undergraduate International Marketing (IM) major at Duquesne University (Pennsylvania) School of Business Administration. Reports on a market study revealing profiles and IM curriculum design preferences of exporting companies. Discusses the curriculum development,

  7. Upgrade of internal events PSA model using the AESJ level-1 PSA standard for operating state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2003, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) started to develop the Level-1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) standard of internal events for operating state (AESJ standard). The AESJ standard has been finished to be asked for public comment. Using the AESJ standard (draft version), the authors have upgraded the PSA model for Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) BWR-5 plant not only to reflect latest knowledge but also to ensure high quality of PSA model (not yet peer-reviewed) for the purpose of better operation and maintenance management of TEPCO BWR plants. For example, the categorization of structures, systems and components (SSCs) will be performed to improve nuclear reactor safety using information of risk importance. (author)

  8. The role of food standards in development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    The thesis consists of three papers based on the original data collected through fieldwork in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. It is focused on understanding the implications of modern agri-food sector restructuring for farmers in developing countries. The thesis particularly looks at (i) the impact of...... are Good for Middle-Class Farmers, joint with Henrik Hansen, estimates the impact of food standards on farmers wellbeing using the data from the Vietnamese pangasius sector. In this paper we estimate both the average effect as well as the effects on poorer and richer farmers using the instrumental...... pangasius sector the adopt food standards to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging the application of standards and contract farming, processing companies prefer to vertically integrate primary production largely due to concerns over the stable supply of pangasius...

  9. Strategies towards enterprising development and application of external events PRA standards in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed the background and development of PRA standards (Levels 1, 2 and 3) in Japan with the focus on external hazards PRA standards. A standard for procedures of seismic PRA was issued in September 2007, implementation standards for tsunami in February 2012 and the standard for internal flooding in November 2012. The development of standards is ongoing, including new standards for fires and quality of PRA, and additional revisions of the existing standards to cover consequential events and shutdown states. Japanese experts strongly emphasize the importance of the assessment of external hazards

  10. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ....gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-07/pdf/2012-13193.pdf and also in the docket identified below. The public... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines.'' The...

  11. A comparative analysis of required financial disclosures in US, UK and international accounting standards

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Niamh; Marston, Claire

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores the extent to which there are significant differences in disclosure requirements under US, UK, international accounting standards. Previous research into international disclosure diversity has focused on an analysis of disclosure practices in different countries rather than on disclosures required by regulations in different countries. Financial disclosures required by UK professional regulations and by International Accounting Standards (IASs) are summarised and class...

  12. The pluralization of the international: Resistance and alter-standardization in regenerative stem cell medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the formation of an international politics of resistance and alter-standardization in regenerative stem cell medicine. The absence of internationally harmonized regulatory frameworks in the clinical stem cell field and the presence of lucrative business opportunities have resulted in the formation of transnational networks adopting alternative research standards and practices. These oppose, as a universal global standard, strict evidence-based medicine clinical research protocols as defined by scientists and regulatory agencies in highly developed countries. The emergence of transnational spaces of alter-standardization is closely linked to scientific advances in rapidly developing countries such as China and India, but calls for more flexible regulatory frameworks, and the legitimization of experimental for-profit applications outside of evidence-based medical care, are emerging increasingly also within more stringently regulated countries, such as the United States and countries in the European Union. We can observe, then, a trend toward the pluralization of the standards, practices, and concepts in the stem cell field.

  13. Developing tendency of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) reflected by international open publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the international open papers and technology standards on EMP, briefly introduce the subjects and works developed in the recent years by international relevant organizations, including the definitions of HPEM and IEMI, the classifications, hazards, protections and technology standardizations of EMP. The series standards developed by the Subcommittee 77 C (SC 77C) of IEC are introduced as an emphasis. Finally some proposals are presented for the civil development of EMP technologies. (authors)

  14. A New International Standard for "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørum, Alf; Burcharth, Hans F.; Goda, Yoshimi; Kortenhaus, Andreas; Kriebel, David

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is going to issue a new standard concerning "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures," which becomes the first international standard in coastal engineering. It is composed of a normative part (29 pages), an informative part (...

  15. Developing Carbon Nanotube Standards at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pasha; Arepalli, Sivaram; Sosa, Edward; Gorelik, Olga; Yowell, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are currently being produced and processed by several methods. Many researchers are continuously modifying existing methods and developing new methods to incorporate carbon nanotubes into other materials and utilize the phenomenal properties of SWCNTs. These applications require availability of SWCNTs with known properties and there is a need to characterize these materials in a consistent manner. In order to monitor such progress, it is critical to establish a means by which to define the quality of SWCNT material and develop characterization standards to evaluate of nanotube quality across the board. Such characterization standards should be applicable to as-produced materials as well as processed SWCNT materials. In order to address this issue, NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a protocol for purity and dispersion characterization of SWCNTs. The NASA JSC group is currently working with NIST, ANSI and ISO to establish purity and dispersion standards for SWCNT material. A practice guide for nanotube characterization is being developed in cooperation with NIST. Furthermore, work is in progress to incorporate additional characterization methods for electrical, mechanical, thermal, optical and other properties of SWCNTs.

  16. Specific Features of Reflection of Information Regarding Lease Operations in the National and International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolenko Nataliya V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies the degree of correspondence of the national Provisions (Standard of Business Accounting (PSBA Lease with the international standard and provides recommendations with respect to their closing up. On the results of the study the author provides specific features of international and national standards the existing IFRS 17 Lease and national PSBA 14 Lease by the following components: definition of lease, its classification and reflection in accounting. Also the text of PSBA 31 Financial Expenditures is supplemented with provisions on capitalisation of financial expenditures prospectively, which would allow avoidance of correction of the balance of the retained income and provision of comparative information for previous periods. The article provides an algorithm of division of lease for accounting purposes on the basis of international standards. Its use would ensure correctness of reflection of lease operations in accounting and would serve as a basis for development of methodical provisions with respect to accounting. By the result of the study the author forms definition of the qualification asset as an asset which requires considerable time for its creation, preparation for target use, sales or acquisition of the ownership right. Capitalisation of such expenditures would allow non-reduction of the accounting income and also would provide a possibility to reflect financial expenditures in accordance with their economic essence.

  17. Development in Danish international air traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    The paper is describing the development in international air traffic made by Danes and for all travellers out of Denmark in the period 2002 - 2012. Development in passengers, destination countries and prices is illustrated. The person kilometres by Danes have increased 80% or 7.2% per year in mean...... during the 10 years. This increase has been analysed by a panel data model. The conclusion found by modelling is the increasing travel activity first of all is driven by increasing income and to less extent by decreasing prices. The paper is furthermore showing how the international air traffic has got...

  18. Development of radiation protection standards at EPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of EPA radiation protection standards combines the elements of risk assessment and risk management. The process of risk assessment consists of technical evaluation of the source term, environmental transport mechanisms, and biological effects. Engineering evaluations provide data on control options and costs. The risk management process considers the scope of legal authorities and the balancing of costs and benefits of alternatives within the framework of national priorities. The regulatory process provides for substantial public participation and is subject to legal reviews

  19. GE, Westinghouse to develop standardized reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a bid to reposition the nuclear industry as a contender in the electric generation construction market, the Dept. of Energy (DOE) has selected General Electric Co. and Westinghouse Electric Corp. to develop standardized designs for a new generation of nuclear reactors. DOE and a consortium of 16 utilities selected General Electric's advanced boiling water reactor design (1,300-MW capacity) and Westinghouse's 600 MW pressurized water reactor to receive $150 million for completion of design development over the next five years. The two companies will contribute $50 million in cash and services toward design development. Standardization is intended to allow utilities to project firm construction costs and schedules before ordering a nuclear plant. The first-of-a-kind-engineering program also is designed to reduce construction time from 10 to 15 years to around 5 years. By creating a standardized design, licensable in advance by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the industry also hopes to cut the lengthy approval process required of custombuilt plants. Both companies already have submitted their designs to the NRC, with final design approval not expected before 1994. Nuclear energy officials, buoyed by the Energy Policy Act's reform of the plant licensing process, have expressed optimism about the industry's ability to compete in the domestic generation market. Nevertheless, the last domestic order for a nuclear plant completed and put into operation was in 1973. Since that time over 100 orders have been canceled

  20. Application of a powdered-internal-standard method to plant and seaweed samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preparation method making use of liquid nitrogen combined with a powdered-internal-standard method has been established for seaweed and plant samples, whose elemental concentration has been attracting attention in various research fields. It is found that a powdered-internal-standard method developed by us in applicable to the powdered samples treated with liquid nitrogen with good accuracy and reproducibility. The results were compared with those obtained by direct-powder method and by chemical-ashing method and good agreement was obtained. In addition, it is found that the whole sample of large quantities was almost uniformized by this preparation method. Moreover, it becomes possible to obtain concentrations of all the concerned elements including iodine, chlorine and bromine, which are essential elements in the fields of life-sciences and are difficult to be analyzed by the chemical-ashing method. It is expected that the application to other biological samples is also promising. (author)

  1. 76 FR 32933 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... (60 FR 15845), designated the U.S. Department of Agriculture as the agency responsible for informing... will continue working on: Draft Standard for Avocado at Step 7. Proposed draft Standard for Pomegranate... the Standard for Olive Oils and Olive Pomace Oils: Linolenic Acid Level. Responsible Agencies:...

  2. The development of internal fixation: Historical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei? Aleksandar R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the ancient times, man was faced with the problem of fracture treatment, which is first described in the records from ancient Egypt. Ever since, many treatment methods have been developed, but the real revolution in the fracture treatment was achieved by internal fixation. Since it was described for the first time, at the end of the 18th century, this method has continuously developed, but sterilization, radiographies, anaesthesiology, antibiotics made this surgery modern and safe. The great ideas and practical solutions of the new methods were done by Albin Lambotte, William Arbuthnot Lane, Robert Danis, William Hey Groves. They lead to the expansion of this method and truly made the principles for the future AO school. New methods, biological internal fixation, minimally invasive procedures, new technologies and devices for internal fixation are introduced in the surgical practice daily. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175095 i br. 45005

  3. THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS IN THE LIBRARY SYSTEM OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN

    OpenAIRE

    Aybaniz Aliyeva-Kengerli; Nigar Kh. Babakhanova

    2014-01-01

    The article is concerned with the use of the international standards applied in the field of bibliography and library in the libraries of Azerbaijan. It is noted that in the con¬text of globalization, the application of international standards and norms helps to determine the correct priorities both in economical and institutional context as in the other fields. It is indicated that the proper use of such standards contribute to a more optimal and sustainable interlibrary international relati...

  4. For a communicational analysis of international management standards in societal security

    OpenAIRE

    Brigitte JUANALS

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This proposal presents a communicational analysis of international management standards in the field of private and public organizations. We study the new communication policies and strategies transmitted by these texts.this work (part of the notSeG project, 2009-2012) takes place in the field of the international standardization of societal security. the aim of this project is to study management standards (international, european and national) in relation to the institutions an...

  5. Long-term Assets Reporting according to International Financial Reporting Standards IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Piskačová, Patricie

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on long-term assets reporting according to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and its interpretation, practical view and other aspects connected with international reporting. The aim of the thesis is to characterize accounting and reporting treatment for property, mostly used by the entity for more than one year, in accordance with IFRS. From the comparison Czech Accounting Standards and International Financial Reporting Standards given in discu...

  6. Analysis of International and National Hotel Chains Development in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gorina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the national hotel chains development in Ukraine and the sponsorship for the international hotel chains functioning are not only due to the countrys business and tourist attractiveness formation, taking into account Euro-2012, but also due to the necessity of high-quality expansion of dwelling and resort places choice for foreign and Ukrainian guests in accordance with their aims of arrival and individual preferences.In comparison with the international hotel chains, the national hotel chains have the following advantages: the local market adaptation; the countrys legislative base awareness; the best understanding of local traditions and customs; the standards development independence; the ability to react to the market changes quickly.The development of national hotel chains in Ukraine is in the initial stage. The formation of Ukrainian hotel chains is arising from the following objectives: support of increasing volumes of inbound tourism; service according to the international hotel service standards; employment in a services sector; enterprises support in the hotel business while developing hotel chains. The favorable geographic location of Ukraine, the low level of market saturation and the high hotel service demand favor the appearance of the international hotel chains in Ukraine.

  7. Defining International Human Resource Development: A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Gary N.; Wang, Xiaohui

    2007-01-01

    From the beginning of the use of the term, there have been struggles over the meaning of human resource development (HRD). In recent years, there has been increased attention to the field's definition. This paper moves this exploration one more step to an exploration of the dilemma of defining international and cross-national HRD. A beginning

  8. The international cooperation for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article notices the importance of the environmental issue for the international cooperation and the legislative progress about it in Colombia. Also, it study the changes in the cooperation system, from one based in quotas to other based in the demand, and the adjustments required in developing countries to adapt to the new scheme

  9. The future of international development cooperation.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhatch, Tom

    2012-01-01

    International development cooperation must be inspiratio- nally innovative if it is to be effective. The post-2015 agenda will be more inclusive and cooperative while emphasizing climate change and accountability, notably against corruption. South-South aid will grow and technological innovation could become the driving force for change.

  10. International Migration, Economic Development and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    zden, a?lar; Schiff,Maurice

    2007-01-01

    This volume reflects the expansion of the World Bank Research Program on International Migration and Development into new substantive and geographic areas. It presents a new global migration database and includes studies of the determinants and impact of return and circular migration, the impact of the flow of ideas on fertility, host country policies and their impact on immigrants, and th...

  11. Development of activity standard for 90Y microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    90Y microspheres are important therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals used in the treatment of liver cancer through a process known as selective internal radiation therapy. SIR-spheres[reg] is a radiopharmaceutical product that is comprised of 90Y microspheres suspended in sterile, pyrogen-free water for injection into patients. It is necessary to establish for the SIR-spheres[reg] production the capability of accurately measuring the activity of this product to a traceable national measurement standard. An activity standard for SIR-spheres[reg] was developed from a standard for 90Y solution, employing a highly quantifiable chemical digestion process. Calibration factors for the manufacturer's ionisation chambers were determined for 1 and 5 ml of the SIR-spheres[reg] product placed in Wheaton vials, for both 34% and 44% of 90Y microsphere concentration

  12. Recent developments in negotiating international petroleum agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in negotiating international petroleum agreements are discussed. It is concluded that three major developments will influence future mineral licensing and negotiating practices. Firstly the large potential of the former USSR linked to the likely chaos there will be a major focus for the world's mineral industries. Secondly restructuring, privatization and internationalization of the most advanced state-owned oil companies is likely to continue. Finally, the environment will continue to dominate government policies. (UK)

  13. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of method for evaluating mechanical stress of composite structures for aerospace use; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Koku uchuyo sentan fukugozai no kyodo hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    R and D has been performed on methods to repair composite structures used in aerospace application, and on stress evaluation on repaired portions, targeting at establishment of international standardization. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. The current fiscal year has executed surveys on repair methods, selection of the repair methods, evaluation on the repairing processes, and compression strength evaluation on test samples given repairs. The method for repairing the sandwich-structure composite members was selected as a result surveys and discussions on published literatures. For the evaluation test on the repairing processes, specific repairing processes were established with reference to the result of surveys on the repair methods, which were applied to test samples having been given damages. In addition, discussions were given also on non-destructive inspection methods for sandwich panels. Regarding the strength test for repaired portions, a compression strength test was performed on test samples repaired by using adhesive after having been given damages, wherein data related to compression strength were obtained. Furthermore, a system was developed to analyze the scarf-like adhesive-repaired potions by using the two-dimensional finite element method model. (NEDO)

  14. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR POLAR TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.26)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method used for preparing surrogate recovery standard and internal standard solutions for the analysis of polar target analytes. It also describes the method for preparing calibration standard solutions for polar analytes used for gas chromatography/mass sp...

  15. International Standard Problem No. 48 - containment capacity. Synthesis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2002, the OECD-NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) initiated an International Standard Problem on containment integrity (ISP 48) based on the NRC/NUPEC/Sandia test. The objectives of the ISP are to extend the understanding of capacities of actual containment structures based on results of the recent PCCV Model test and other previous research. From 1997 through 2001 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a Cooperative Containment Integrity Program under the joint sponsorship of the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan, and the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The purpose of the program was to investigate the response of representative models of nuclear containment structures to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions to measured behavior. A uniform 1:4-scale model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) was constructed and tested at SNL. This model was representative of the containment structure of an actual pressurized water reactor plant in Japan. The ISP consists of four phases over a period of 2 years: Phase 1: Data Collection and Identification. Phase 2: Calculation of the Limit State Test (LST), i.e. static pressure loading. Phase 3: Calculation of response to both Thermal and Mechanical Loadings. Phase 4: Reporting Workshop Eleven organizations (or teams) from nine OECD member countries accepted the invitation to participate in the ISP and perform calculations to predict the structural response of the PCCV model to static and transient pressure and thermal loading. Each participating organization was provided with the model and loading data and was asked to perform independent analyses to simulate the response of the PCCV model. The results of each team's calculations were compiled and the results presented at a final workshop in April 2005. The prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model is a uniform 1:4-scale model of the containment structure of Unit 3 of the Ohi Nuclear Power Station in Japan. The approach to designing the model was to scale the design of the Ohi-3 containment to the extent possible and include as many representative features of the prototype as practical: liner, penetrations, reinforcement steel and tendons. Fifty-five response parameters, referred to as standard output locations (SOLs), were selected to facilitate initial comparison of the Phase 2 calculations with the test results. The calculated responses match the test results and each other reasonably well up to the onset of global or general membrane, yielding where the results begin to diverge. Also, most of the analyses capture the loss of stiffness due to cracking of the concrete at approximately 1.5 times the design pressure. In addition to submitting response predictions at the SOLs, each participant was also asked to provide a best estimate of failure pressure and mechanisms of the PCCV model. It is interesting to note that the differences in failure predictions are much more significant than the differences in the calculated responses would seem to suggest. Phase 3 of ISP48 extends the results of the model tests and calculations by investigating the addition of temperature to the pressure loading. The ISP participants agreed to consider two thermal load cases for Phase 3: - Case 1: Saturated Steam Conditions (mandatory for all Phase 3 participants) - Monotonically increasing static pressure and temperature (saturated steam). - Case 2: Station Blackout Scenario - A representative severe-accident scenario for a four-loop PWR including vessel failure and hydrogen detonation

  16. Comparison requirements of national and international standards for stainless steel pipes of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents review of standards and specification for stainless steel of X18H10T series used in NPP structures. The article is aimed at displaying mismatches between pipes under different standards. National standards should be put in compliance with European regulations. Therefore, requirements for national NPP pipes should be put in compliance with international standards, rules and regulations

  17. Development of American National Standard on External Event PRA Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last ten years, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S. nuclear utilities have been developing methods and requirements for risk-informed applications making use of probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of nuclear power plants. Early in this process, it became clear that the existing PRAs were done with different objectives and methodologies by different analysts. For uniformity and consistency in future risk-informed applications, industry consensus standards on probabilistic risk assessments were deemed to be essential. Currently, the following standards have been published or under preparation: - ASME RA-S-2002: 'Standard for Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Nuclear Power Plant Applications', Addendum C, March 2005. - ANSI/ANS-58.21-2003 'External-Events PRA Methodology' March 2003. - ANS-58.22 'Low Power and Shutdown PRA Standard'. - ANS-58.23 'Fire PRA Methodology Standard'. - ANS Level 2 and Level 3 PRA Standards. The ASME Standard specifies the requirements for performing PRA for internal events under full power conditions. ANS 58.21 specifies the requirements for conducting PRA of external events under full power conditions. These standards have been published, whereas the other standards are under preparation. ANS 58.21 was prepared by a working group comprised of the following individuals: - Dr. R.J. Budnitz, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. - Dr. N.C. Chokshi, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. - W. Henries, Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company. - Dr. M.K. Ravindra, ABS Consulting, (Current Chair of Working Group). - Dr. J.D. Stevenson, J.D. Stevenson Consultants. - T. Yee, Southern California Edison Company. The development of this Standard was guided and approved by the Risk Informed Standards Committee (RISC) of American Nuclear Society. This committee has presently 22 members drawn from different sectors of the nuclear industry: utilities, reactor vendors, universities, research organizations, architect engineers, consultants and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In addition, the Working Group had sent early drafts of the Standard to a select group of peers in different elements of the external event PRA; this peer group included industry experts like Professor Allin Cornell, Dr. Robert Kennedy, and Mr. David Moore. The final requirements in the Standard hence represent the consensus of the industry. (author)

  18. Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012

  19. Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, I. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, I. W.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, J. C. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012.

  20. Application of ISO standard 27048: Dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future. (authors)

  1. New developments in international nuclear liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Bord of Governors at its session in February 1990 entrusted its Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability under a new mandate with the preparatory work for the revision of the Vienna Convention. This Standing Committee has so far helt three sessions. The following four main items appeared on its agenda: 1. proposals for the revision of the Vienna Convention; 2. the question of supplementary funding for compensation of nuclear damage under the revised Vienna Convention; 3. procedure for the settlement of claims for nuclear damage under the revised Vienna Convention; and 4. International State liability for nuclear damage and its relationship to the international civil liability regime. A brief description is provided of these initiatives to improve the existing international nuclear liability regime. Also progress made with regard to each of them is reported. Because of the different legal character of these initiatives, belonging to international civil, international state law and sometimes a mixture, there is a serious risk that the new developments will not be formalized as soon as hoped for. (orig.)

  2. Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures.

  3. Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures

  4. 78 FR 37505 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... (60 FR 15845), designated the U.S. Department of Agriculture as the agency responsible for informing... Reduction of Mycotoxin Contamination in Cereals) Proposed draft Code of Practice for Weed Control to Prevent...: Consideration of labelling provisions in draft Codex standards for the draft standard for: Smoked Fish,...

  5. 75 FR 31749 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... President, pursuant to Proclamation No. 6780 of March 23, 1995 (60 FR 15845), designated the U.S. Department... Pomegranate. Proposed Layout for Codex Standards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables. Glossary of Terms used in... and Oils in Bulk). Proposed draft amendment to the Standard for Olive Oils and Olive Pomace...

  6. The administration of ISO 10444: International Standard Technical Report Number. Activities and Cooperations of the International Registration Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Ulrike (FIZ); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1998-01-01

    Established end of 1994, the International Registration Authority is implementing the ISRN (International Standard Technical Report Number) system. In addition to the well-adopted and well-running numbering systems ISSN and ISBN the ISRN registration has the goal to make grey literature, especially scientific reports, better accessible by an improved identification system. FIZ Karlsruhe in Germany took over the task of the International Agency and started to build a network of national agenci...

  7. The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kareš

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with institutional aspects of auditing profession, mostly their impact on international harmonization concept of auditing services. The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services behavior and development, mostly in context of providing the auditing services. The authors mention on the IAASB priorities in this area set for period 2009 - 2011.

  8. The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Kareš; Petra Krišková

    2008-01-01

    The article dealt with institutional aspects of auditing profession, mostly their impact on international harmonization concept of auditing services. The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services behavior and development, mostly in context of providing the auditing services. The authors mention on the IAASB priorities in this area set for period...

  9. The requirements for the inclusion of standard terms in international sales contracts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Eiselen.

    Full Text Available The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG) does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solutio [...] n to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it is necessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be made available to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems, namely that a clear incorporation clause in the contract is sufficient for the effective incorporation of standard terms. The author critically examines the case law, the various approaches and the underlying arguments on which they are based, before reaching the conclusion that the two extreme approaches should be rejected in favour of the more moderate approach. This approach is founded on a proper interpretation of the provisions of the CISG as well as being in step with international trade practice.

  10. WHY DOES THE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDIZATION HAVE TO PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN SUSTAINABLE ECONOMICS AND FINANCIAL STRATEGIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeno Beke, Ph.D, CMA, CPA, CTA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards and their contribution to harmonization in business economics and financial practice. In this review, the goal is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards promote financial decisions and influence the business environment in a global scale. It is expected that the unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business economics and financialpractice of certain countries. Standardization of financial accounting has tended to follow the integration of the markets served by the accounts. The present impetus for global accounting standards follows the accelerating integration of the word economy. The global accounting standards would enable the worlds stock markets to become more closely integrated. It is important for companies to develop coherent and consistent financialstrategies and to utilize international accounting methods to support strategic planning, decision-making and control.

  11. International standards for tuberculosis care: Relevance and implications for laboratory professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On World Tuberculosis (TB Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are suspected of having, TB and is intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all healthcare providers in delivering high quality care for patients of all ages, including those with smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB, TB caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TB/HIV coinfection. In this article, we present the ISTC, with a special focus on the diagnostic standards and describe their implications and relevance for laboratory professionals in India and worldwide. Laboratory professionals play a critical role in ensuring that all the standards are actually met by providing high quality laboratory services for smear microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing and other services such as testing for HIV infection. In fact, if the ISTC is widely followed, it can be expected that there will be a greater need and demand for quality assured laboratory services and this will have obvious implications for all laboratories in terms of work load, requirement for resources and trained personnel and organization of quality assurance systems.

  12. Fluorescein thiocarbamyl amino acids as internal standards for migration time correction in capillary sieving electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, Haley R; Swearingen, Kristian E; Dovichi, Norman J

    2009-04-10

    A number of algorithms have been developed to correct for migration time drift in capillary electrophoresis. Those algorithms require identification of common components in each run. However, not all components may be present or resolved in separations of complex samples, which can confound attempts for alignment. This paper reports the use of fluorescein thiocarbamyl derivatives of amino acids as internal standards for alignment of 3-(2-furoyl)quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (FQ)-labeled proteins in capillary sieving electrophoresis. The fluorescein thiocarbamyl derivative of aspartic acid migrates before FQ-labeled proteins and the fluorescein thiocarbamyl derivative of arginine migrates after the FQ-labeled proteins. These compounds were used as internal standards to correct for variations in migration time over a two-week period in the separation of a cellular homogenate. The experimental conditions were deliberately manipulated by varying electric field and sample preparation conditions. Three components of the homogenate were used to evaluate the alignment efficiency. Before alignment, the average relative standard deviation in migration time for these components was 13.3%. After alignment, the average relative standard deviation in migration time for these components was reduced to 0.5%. PMID:19249052

  13. Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation

    OpenAIRE

    Benedict, Ralph HB; Amato, Maria Pia; Boringa, Jan; Brochet, Bruno; Foley, Fred; Fredrikson, Stan; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hartung, Hans; Krupp, Lauren; Penner, Iris; REDER, Anthony T.; Langdon, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different langu...

  14. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 RIN 2060-AQ58 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal...

  15. Standardizing Clinical Trials Workflow Representation in UML for International Site Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Elias Cesar Araujo; Jayanti, Madhav Kishore; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Kozan, Andreia M. O.; Rodrigues, Maria J.; Shah, Jatin; Loures, Marco R.; Patil, Sunita; Payne, Philip; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Background With the globalization of clinical trials, a growing emphasis has been placed on the standardization of the workflow in order to ensure the reproducibility and reliability of the overall trial. Despite the importance of workflow evaluation, to our knowledge no previous studies have attempted to adapt existing modeling languages to standardize the representation of clinical trials. Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a computational language that can be used to model operational workflow, and a UML profile can be developed to standardize UML models within a given domain. This paper's objective is to develop a UML profile to extend the UML Activity Diagram schema into the clinical trials domain, defining a standard representation for clinical trial workflow diagrams in UML. Methods Two Brazilian clinical trial sites in rheumatology and oncology were examined to model their workflow and collect time-motion data. UML modeling was conducted in Eclipse, and a UML profile was developed to incorporate information used in discrete event simulation software. Results Ethnographic observation revealed bottlenecks in workflow: these included tasks requiring full commitment of CRCs, transferring notes from paper to computers, deviations from standard operating procedures, and conflicts between different IT systems. Time-motion analysis revealed that nurses' activities took up the most time in the workflow and contained a high frequency of shorter duration activities. Administrative assistants performed more activities near the beginning and end of the workflow. Overall, clinical trial tasks had a greater frequency than clinic routines or other general activities. Conclusions This paper describes a method for modeling clinical trial workflow in UML and standardizing these workflow diagrams through a UML profile. In the increasingly global environment of clinical trials, the standardization of workflow modeling is a necessary precursor to conducting a comparative analysis of international clinical trials workflows. PMID:21085484

  16. Capitalist development and internal migration in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akor, R I; Mou, D

    1986-12-01

    The authors analyze internal migration trends in Nigeria by examining individual household strategies and how they have adapted to structural changes brought about by colonial rule and capitalist development. The first section of this article describes the structural changes that started the process of labor migration. The second section deals with post-independence industrialization and the consequent rural-urban migration. The final section analyzes the consequences of these migration patterns for urban growth and rural productivity. PMID:12280787

  17. International competition policy and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Frederic Michael

    1996-01-01

    During the past half century many nations have adopted policies whose function is to discourage cartels and other restrictive practices. Industrialized nations led the movement toward pro-competition policies, but more recently, developing nations have begun to join the parade. Initial steps have also been taken toward the implementation of competition policies spanning national borders, and proposals for their extension have been made. This paper analyzes the consequences national and intern...

  18. Developments in standards and other guidance for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years there has been a huge increase in the development and publication of standards, documents of relevance and other guidance for individual monitoring (IM), particularly for external radiation. An extensive list of the main documents published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), International Organisation for Standardization (ISO), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), CEN/CENELEC, European Council (EC) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) can be found elsewhere [Fantuzzi, E., Alves, J.G., Ambrosi, P., Janzekovic, H., Vartiainen, E., 2004. Implementation of standards for individual monitoring in Europe. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 112 (1), 3-44; Fantuzzi, E., 2007. Standards, documents of relevance and directives in individual monitoring: is European individual monitoring in compliance with standards? Radiat. Prot. Dosim., doi: (10.1093/rpd/ncl568)]. In March 2007 ICRP approved a new set of fundamental recommendations that will replace ICRP Publication 60. Similarly to what has happened in the past with previous ICRP Publications 26 and 60, it is expected that this document will inspire the revision of the Basic Safety Standards of the IAEA [Safety Series 115, 1996. International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. IAEA, Vienna] and of the European Union (EC Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM) and consequently of national legislation in the respective member states. In order to implement the radiation protection principles laid down in the BSS both the IAEA and EC have regularly published guidance documents. EC published in 1994 EUR 14852 entitled Technical recommendations for monitoring individuals occupationally exposed to external radiation that was a powerful tool for all the participants to the field of IM (radiation protection authorities, individual monitoring services and users) summarizing concepts and contributing to the improvement of quality and the reliability of results. Particularly over the last decade, EURADOS WG2 has actively contributed to harmonization of IM in Europe, publishing reports (, ), organizing an intercomparison in 1999. A 'series' of workshops on IM to disseminate WG activity star, organizing an intercomparison in 1999. A 'series' of workshops on IM to disseminate WG activity started: IM-2000 was held in Helsinki organized by STUK, IM-2005 was held in Vienna organized by ARCS, EURADOS and IAEA (Radiat. Prot. Dosim. advance access). Recent WG2 actions included the review of EUR 14852 and the preparation of a proposal to organize self-sustained intercomparisons. In September 2006, EC issued a call for a tender on the establishment of European technical recommendations. A consortium comprising GAEC and EURADOS prepared and presented a proposal. Following the evaluation procedure EC awarded a contract to the consortium: the EU-Trimer project. This paper will cover the main ICRP and ICRU quantities and requirements, standards and other guidance documents recently published or in course of development in order to achieve harmonization of practices and procedures for IM of external radiation. The main aspects of the EU-Trimer project will also be addressed

  19. X-rays, radiometers and skin unit dose. The development of measuring methods and measuring units for X radiation in medical physics from the beginning until the international standardization; X-Strahlen, Radiometer und Hauteinheitsdosis. Die Entwicklung der Messverfahren und Masseinheiten fuer Roentgenstrahlung in der medizinischen Physik von den Anfaengen bis zur internationalen Standardisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glessmer-Junike, Simone

    2015-01-22

    X-rays, a special form of ionizing radiation, have been utilized in medicine and technology ever since their discovery at the end of 1895. However, the usage of X-rays made the development of measuring techniques necessary. Newly-developed measuring devices were at first called radiometers', but later the term dosimeter' has gained universal acceptance. The development of numerous dosimeters used in radiotherapy was accompanied by new units of measurement, each corresponding to its individual newly constructed dosimeter or method of measurement. While at first conversions between old and new units were performed, it later became clear that both within Germany and Europe units with similar names were used with different meanings, which was both incompatible and confusing. The first serious attempts of a standardization of units in Germany were made after the First World War, when the when the ionizing properties of X-rays was focused on for both measurements and unit definitions. Efforts towards an international standardization of units became successful in the mid-1920s when the Roentgen was defined as the universal unit. From the development described above, four stages of the evolution of radiation measurement and units in radiotherapy could be identified by means of comprehensive systematic research in printed publications. The first stage was the period of diagnostic application of X-rays, when tools for the determination of X-ray quality were designed. This stage progressed into that of therapeutic administration of X-rays shortly after, when instruments and units for the measurement of X-ray quantities (dose') were implemented. Due to the variety and diversity of measurement apparatus and units a third stage emerged, closely interconnected with the second. During the third stage, a nation-wide standardization was attempted in Germany. With the conclusion of this stage - the resolution of a unit for dose measurement in Germany - the stage of international standardization began. This fourth stage continues arguably to the present day, since by now not only units, but also standards for both measurement of these units and quality assurance, are developed in international cooperation. This study presents how present-day knowledge of fundamental physical laws, of potential measurement errors and of shortcomings of methods contribute to a better understanding of the historical process of the development portrayed here. When applying scientific discoveries to medicine and technology, this historical knowledge is an essential prerequisite for successful communication in a globalized world, which depends on international standards for manufacturing and application of measurement devices.

  20. Business and Management Aspects of International Accounting Standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerialdecisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system willlead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from thebusiness management of certain countries. The results of applied regression model support that the greaterdemand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to pe...

  1. Evolution of Climate Science Modelling Language within international standards frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Dominic; Woolf, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    The Climate Science Modelling Language (CSML) was originally developed as part of the NERC Data Grid (NDG) project in the UK. It was one of the first Geography Markup Language (GML) application schemas describing complex feature types for the metocean domain. CSML feature types can be used to describe typical climate products such as model runs or atmospheric profiles. CSML has been successfully used within NDG to provide harmonised access to a number of different data sources. For example, meteorological observations held in heterogeneous databases by the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) and Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) were served uniformly as CSML features via Web Feature Service. CSML has now been substantially revised to harmonise it with the latest developments in OGC and ISO conceptual modelling for geographic information. In particular, CSML is now aligned with the near-final ISO 19156 Observations & Measurements (O&M) standard. CSML combines the O&M concept of 'sampling features' together with an observation result based on the coverage model (ISO 19123). This general pattern is specialised for particular data types of interest, classified on the basis of sampling geometry and topology. In parallel work, the OGC Met Ocean Domain Working Group has established a conceptual modelling activity. This is a cross-organisational effort aimed at reaching consensus on a common core data model that could be re-used in a number of met-related application areas: operational meteorology, aviation meteorology, climate studies, and the research community. It is significant to note that this group has also identified sampling geometry and topology as a key classification axis for data types. Using the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach as adopted by INSPIRE we demonstrate how the CSML application schema is derived from a formal UML conceptual model based on the ISO TC211 framework. By employing MDA tools which map consistently between UML and GML we can treat the formal UML model as the primary governed artefact and automatically produce the GML schema as a secondary output. Finally we describe how increased convergence between CSML and Scientific Feature Types in the Unidata Commmon Data Model may assist with bridging the implementation gap between OGC/ISO services and the CF-NetCDF binary data management community. This improved agreement at the conceptual (feature type) level is important to enable better interoperability at the data exchange and service levels.

  2. Simultaneous determination of the intermediates of the citric acid cycle by gas chromatography--mass fragmentography using deuterated internal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current developments in the use of gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy in studying the intermediates in the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle are outlined. The methods developed make use of deuterated internal standards and multiple-ion monitoring to obtain sensitivity comparable to that of the better fluorimetric enzymatic assays. The problems still remaining are indicated

  3. The basic safety standards on diskette. International basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program SS115 contains the text and data from Safety Series No. 115: 'International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources' published by the IAEA in Vienna in 1996. The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards

  4. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Overall survey; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Sogo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of tackling with the international standardization by enterprises and organizations involved in the standardization in the U.S., Europe and Japan, the results of the R and D on 20 themes for the international standardization, and the development toward the international standardization. As the R and D themes, the following were selected: the development of chemical method to analyze/evaluate metallic coatings of surface treated steel coating sheets, R and D of the basic evaluation method of functional composite particles, international standards for computer/manikins, basic technology of color image management, study on optimizing design/evaluation technology using quality engineering, study of the international standardization by economic evaluation of environmental impacts, R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells, development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards, standard measuring methods of hormone effects of chemical substances, quantification of the sensory evaluation and international standardization in the paint field, experimental study on the international standardization for immunochemical measurement of chemical substances, etc. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products

    OpenAIRE

    Bialous, S.; YACH, D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).?METHODSAnalysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Search words included "ISO", "CORESTA", "Barclay", "compensation and machine smoking", "tar and nicotine deliverie...

  6. International development workshops. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) began to act on their recognition of the importance of education in nuclear literacy, specifically in radioactive waste management (RWM), several years ago. To address this Goal for nuclear literacy, the US DOE; through the Information and Education Division of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and in cooperation with the OECD/NEA, organized an ''International Workshop on Education in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management'' in Engelberg, Switzerland in June of 1991. To this end, a grant to support nuclear literacy and RWM was written and funded by the OCRWM and the education division of the DOE Yucca Mountain Office in 1990. The over-riding Goal of that workshop and the DOE grant was to find ways of raising the level of nuclear literacy in the general public through educational programs in radioactive waste management (RWM). The two Main Objectives of the workshop were: first, to contribute to an information base for education systems, on global aspects of radioactive waste management; and second, to achieve international consensus on the basic tools and methods required to develop the information base. These two objectives also became the principal objectives of the DOE International Workshops grant. In other words, the global and local (Nevada) objectives were one and the same. Workshop overviews and accomplishments are summarized in this report

  7. International development workshops. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) began to act on their recognition of the importance of education in nuclear literacy, specifically in radioactive waste management (RWM), several years ago. To address this Goal for nuclear literacy, the US DOE; through the Information and Education Division of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and in cooperation with the OECD/NEA, organized an ``International Workshop on Education in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management`` in Engelberg, Switzerland in June of 1991. To this end, a grant to support nuclear literacy and RWM was written and funded by the OCRWM and the education division of the DOE Yucca Mountain Office in 1990. The over-riding Goal of that workshop and the DOE grant was to find ways of raising the level of nuclear literacy in the general public through educational programs in radioactive waste management (RWM). The two Main Objectives of the workshop were: first, to contribute to an information base for education systems, on global aspects of radioactive waste management; and second, to achieve international consensus on the basic tools and methods required to develop the information base. These two objectives also became the principal objectives of the DOE International Workshops grant. In other words, the global and local (Nevada) objectives were one and the same. Workshop overviews and accomplishments are summarized in this report.

  8. HARMONIZATION OF NATIONAL REGULATION AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS – PARTICULAR CASE OF NONCURRENT ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coste Andreea Ioana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature, accounting harmonization is a top topic because it helps to increase the comparability of financial statements. Also in Romania in the last 10 years becames a topic that is very often debated. The harmonization is trying to reduce differences of financial reporting statements between countries or, in the other words, it is trying to bring to a common denominator of existing rules when appear conflicts of comparability between them. The purpose of this paper is to measure the harmonisation between national and international regulation for a significant element of financial position statement, such as noncurrent assets. This paper provides an empirical research of information that must be presented by entities which apply national accounting standards or international ones when financial statements are prepared, trying to measure the harmonization between the two referential. Thus, in trying to determine the harmonisation, we use the Jaccard coefficient in order to provide an overview of the degree of harmonization of accounting practice. When measuring the degree of comparability of Romanian accounting regulations with International Accounting Standards we analyzed noncurrent assets and impairment of assets using the Jaccard coefficient for accounting treatments and we calculated an average of similarities between the two regulations. Further, the results suggest that there is an average level of harmonization for the accounting treatment of noncurrent assets and for determining the impairment of the assets, the methods are the same. The study contributes to the development of accounting literature about the harmonisation between national regulation and international standards regarding the noncurrent assets and impairment of the assets, which together with the other elements define the activity of the business. In addition, the study provides an analysis of how the regulations treats noncurrent assets, during the life of the asset, namely: the recognition phase, the evaluation and the depreciation.

  9. 2009 review and revisions of the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Burns, Stephen; Donovan, William; Graves, Daniel; Jha, Amitabh; Jones, Linda; Kirshblum, Steven; Marino, Ralph; Mulcahey, M J; Reeves, Ronald; Scelza, William M; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Stein, Adam; Biering-Srensen, Fin

    2010-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI were also reviewed. The last citable reference for the ISNCSCI's methodology is the ISNCSCI Reference Manual, published in 2003 by ASIA. The Standards Committee recommended that the numerous items tha...

  10. Radioenzymatic assay for femtomole determination of catecholamines using ?-methyldopamine as an internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioenzymatic assay has been developed for the sensitive determination of plasma catecholamines in perchloric acid extracts using ?-methyldopamine as an internal standard. With 25 ?l of plasma extract in a total volume of 40 ?l the assay gives blank values equivalent to approximately 2 femtomoles (fmole) for epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), 6 fmole for ?-methyldopamine (MeDA) and approximately 15 femtomoles for dopamine (DA). Recoveries of 25 dpm/fmole NE, 40 dpm/fmole E, 56 dpm/fmole DA and 80 dpm/fmole MeDA have been obtained

  11. Quantification of cytokinins by selected ion monitoring using 15N labelled internal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure has been developed for the synthesis of 6-chloropurine labelled with four 15N atoms. This compound can be used in the synthesis of a range of labelled cytokinin bases, which can be ribosylated by an enzymatic procedure. 15N labelled zeatin riboside was synthesized and used as an internal standard in the measurement by selected ion monitoring of the levels of this cytokinin in cultured crown gall and normal tissues of Vinca rosea, which were found to contain 402 and 2.5 ng per g fresh weight respectively. (author)

  12. 15 CFR 10.3 - Development of a proposed standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of a proposed standard. 10... DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS 10.3 Development of a proposed standard. (a) A proposed standard... adequate marketing information, or both, as determined to be appropriate by the Department; (2) Shall...

  13. Kyrgyzstan: Internal and External Course of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Volovoj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After collapse of the Soviet Union Central Asia (CA was not in the focus of academic society and big geopolitical players, Kyrgyzstan not being an exception. But today Russia is back to CA through the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU and Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO. Kyrgyzstan is a member of CSTO and is going to join the EEU. Therefore it is worth of broader analysis. This study tried to understand specifics of Kyrgyz internal and external course of development. It found that internal political process in Kyrgyzstan used to be very problematic. The country suffered a lot from two revolutions, caused by the authoritarian family rule of Askar Akaev and Kurmanbek Bakiev. After that Kyrgyzstan decided to change its system of government from presidential to parliamentary (or semi-presidential model. But this experiment did not bring peace and stability, additionally complicated by ethnic tension between Kyrgyz and Uzbek citizens. Possible recipe of success bigger socio-economic responsibility of the government, but it is still not in place. After two people revolts Kyrgyzstan was near to become a failed state, but orientation towards strategic partnership with Russia and membership in the EEU can help it to survive politically and economically at the expense of Russian geopolitical ambitions, compensate internal political turbulence by external factor of stability. Moreover, close (also institutional cooperation with Moscow strengthens systemic power of Kyrgyzstan in its relations with the closest neighbors, such as Uzbekistan (not satisfied with the water policy of Bishkek and Afghanistan (poses real security threat of Islamic extremism and terrorism to Kyrgyzstan. To sum up, for the moment Kyrgyz internal politics is hardly predictable, also because of the parliamentary experiment, but definite external orientation towards Russia and the EEU creates some basis for stable long term development of the country.

  14. Partial synthesis of ganglioside and lysoganglioside lipoforms as internal standards for MS quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Martin; Schwarzmann, Gnter; Sandhoff, Konrad; Kolter, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Within recent years, ganglioside patterns have been increasingly analyzed by MS. However, internal standards for calibration are only available for gangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3. For this reason, we prepared homologous internal standards bearing nonnatural fatty acids of the major mammalian brain gangliosides GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, and of the tumor-associated gangliosides GM2 and GD2. The fatty acid moieties were incorporated after selective chemical or enzymatic deacylation of bovine brain gangliosides. For modification of the sphingoid bases, we developed a new synthetic method based on olefin cross metathesis. This method was used for the preparation of a lyso-GM1 and a lyso-GM2 standard. The total yield of this method was 8.7% for the synthesis of d17:1-lyso-GM1 from d20:1/18:0-GM1 in four steps. The title compounds are currently used as calibration substances for MS quantification and are also suitable for functional studies. PMID:25341943

  15. Knowledge sharing in international product development teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne

    Many companies are facing an increasing need to compete on a global scale. But as companies move into multiple markets, the process of developing new products becomes increasingly complex. Coping successfully with the increased internationalization forces companies to excel at collaboration and...... knowledge sharing, also across geographical distances. The capability to develop new transnational products depends largely on the multinational company's ability to transfer and deploy knowledge from its multiple country sources. The challenges of the transfer of knowledge between departments in the same...... desirable, previous research found that it is the exception rather than the rule in most companies (Golder, 2000:329). Hence, it is relevant to research how companies can improve their ability to share knowledge in connection with international product development. One way to increase knowledge sharing in...

  16. Normalization method for metabolomics data using optimal selection of multiple internal standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetukuri Laxman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Success of metabolomics as the phenotyping platform largely depends on its ability to detect various sources of biological variability. Removal of platform-specific sources of variability such as systematic error is therefore one of the foremost priorities in data preprocessing. However, chemical diversity of molecular species included in typical metabolic profiling experiments leads to different responses to variations in experimental conditions, making normalization a very demanding task. Results With the aim to remove unwanted systematic variation, we present an approach that utilizes variability information from multiple internal standard compounds to find optimal normalization factor for each individual molecular species detected by metabolomics approach (NOMIS. We demonstrate the method on mouse liver lipidomic profiles using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compare its performance to two commonly utilized normalization methods: normalization by l2 norm and by retention time region specific standard compound profiles. The NOMIS method proved superior in its ability to reduce the effect of systematic error across the full spectrum of metabolite peaks. We also demonstrate that the method can be used to select best combinations of standard compounds for normalization. Conclusion Depending on experiment design and biological matrix, the NOMIS method is applicable either as a one-step normalization method or as a two-step method where the normalization parameters, influenced by variabilities of internal standard compounds and their correlation to metabolites, are first calculated from a study conducted in repeatability conditions. The method can also be used in analytical development of metabolomics methods by helping to select best combinations of standard compounds for a particular biological matrix and analytical platform.

  17. Developing Ethics and Standards in Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Boog

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a globalizing world, what role can social science research particularly action research play in order to address the risks of exclusion, poverty, social and physical insecurity and environmental deprivation? More specifically, how can this type of research be conducted in a participatory, responsible, transparent and scientific way? In other words: what about the ethics and standards in action research? This was the main focus of the World Congress on Action Research and Action Learning (August 2006 organized by the University of Groningen and the Higher Education Group of the Northern Netherlands. We begin by discussing the core characteristics of action research with reference to theory and practice. Reflection and action are key constituents of the process through the enactment of action research. The middle section draws upon the research findings presented at the congress and published in a book [B. Boog, J. Preece, M. Slagter and J. Zeelen (Eds. (2008 Towards Quality Improvement of Action Research. Developing Ethics and Standards, Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers]. Citing authors who contributed chapters to the book mentioned above, we analyze four important subthemes: participation, power and rapport; quality of research and quality management; learning to solve your own problems in complex responsive social systems, and heuristics (rules of thumb for action research practice. Finally, we comment on possible quality improvements for action research. Our remarks relate to the problems of implementing the concept of participation, the ambition of action research to contribute to both knowledge production and social change and the need for systematic reconstruction (scientific validation of action research.

  18. International harmonization of radiation protection and safety standards. The role of the United Nations system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As we enter the 21st century, the vast amount of new information accumulated on the levels and effects of exposures to ionizing radiation and on the safety of radiation sources and a number of developments have brought radiation protection to the attention of the public and its political representatives. New radio epidemiological and radiobiological findings roughly corroborate previous estimates of the risks attributable to radiation exposure. A number of events have had a lasting effect on public perception of the potential danger from radiation exposure. These were primarily the nuclear accidents at Three Mile Island in 1979 and at Chernobyl in 1986 with its unprecedented transboundary contamination. In some countries, the public were concerned about the safe transport of radioactive materials. The safe management of radioactive waste also developed into an issue of public debate and the disposal of high level radioactive waste came to a standstill because of concern over potential radiation exposure. Accidents with radiation sources used in medicine and industry also attracted widespread attention from the public and governments. Furthermore, the 1980s saw the rediscovery of natural radiation as a cause of concern for health: some dwellings were found to have surprisingly high levels of radon in air; natural radiation exposure of some non-radiation-related workers were discovered to be at levels much higher than the occupational limits specified in radiation protection standards. In line with these developments, a number of significant scientific strides were taken in the 1990s at the international level. On the one hand, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) reviewed the global levels and effects of radiation exposure. This highly respected body is responsible for keeping the highest UN body, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), informed about these levels and effects. In 1993, UNSCEAR presented its extensive 928-page report, and in 1994 its supplementary 272-page report, to the UNGA. A new UNSCEAR report is expected by the end of 2000. On the other hand, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which in 1990 had revised its standing recommendations, has now issued a number of documents to apply these recommendations in specific situations. In 1991 six organizations - FAO, ILO, NEA/OECD, PAHO, WHO, and IAEA - created a Joint Secretariat coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Organization (IAEA) with the purpose of establishing the International Basic Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and the Safety of Radiation Sources (the so-called BSS). This was the peak of decades of work and marked an unprecedented international co-operation that involved hundreds of experts from the Member States of the sponsoring organizations establishing the BSS. Within this framework, the objective of this paper is to present the significant role that the United Nations system of international organizations could play to achieve a genuine international consensus on radiation protection and safety standards. Not surprisingly, the paper will concentrate on the role and functions of the IAEA. The IAEA, is the only organization in the UN family with specific statutory functions, duties and responsibilities in the establishing international standards for radiation protection and safety. By analysing the functions and roles of UNSCEAR and the IAEA, it is clear how the UN policy on this matter has been built up and where it now stands. It should be emphasized that both UNSCEAR and the IAEA are not free 'think tanks'. They are governmental organizations. Their policies therefore reflect those of their constituencies, namely their Member States. Thus, the paper summarizes the status of UN policies on the health effects of radiation exposure, particularly on the controversial issue of the effects of low level radiation, as well as on the approach for protecting individuals and society against radiation exposure, as recommended by ICRP. The paper fu

  19. Conservation and human rights: the need for international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oviedo, Gonzalo [International Union for the Conservation of Nature (International organizations without location); Pabon, Luis [The Nature Conservancy (United States); Painter, Michael; Redford, Kent [The Wildlife Conservation Society (United States); Siegele, Linda [Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (United Kingdom); Springer, Jenny [WWF-US (United States); Thomas, David [Birdlife International (International organizations without location); Painemilla, Kristen Walker [Conservation International (United States); Roe, Dilys

    2010-05-15

    Conservation doesn't happen in a vacuum. In recent years, awareness has grown of the relationship of international conservation practice to indigenous peoples and local communities, and especially the links between conservation and human rights. The impacts protected areas can have on rural communities such as evictions and lost access to natural resources are now under particular scrutiny. Concern is meanwhile rising over the human rights implications of some climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. But awareness is also growing of the positive contributions of nature conservation to the rights of people to secure their livelihoods, enjoy healthy and productive environments, and live with dignity. International NGOs can play a central role in supporting and promoting conservation actions that respect the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, and help sustain their livelihoods. Many conservation organisations have long worked towards this. It is vital that they hold to consistent principles and implement measures that ensure their application, so their action on conservation remains accountable, transparent and sustainable.

  20. The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise

  1. THE BASES OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRIN IONEL GABRIEL

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Capitalism started as a consequence of the urban phenomena development, as well as of the commercial activities development. Thus, over this period of time, the attitude towards business also changed. This change was based also on certain economic reasons. The term business is defined in numerous dictionaries released until the present day in a restrictive and subjective manner, both from the perspective of the totalitarian communist ideology, which happened up to the year 1989, and also from the perspective of the different categories of meanings that were taken into consideration when compiling dictionaries in different international circulation languages. If an enterprise conducts business at an international level, then it will take into consideration the performance of different types of activities which differ greatly from the activities conducted at a national level. All these elements must be carefully studied by the company's management, in order to be able to act with high economic efficiency. It must be said that, in contemporary times, that invisible hand of the market from the past is none other than competition. As a consequence of the competitive phenomenon's manifestation, the prices are lower, the services are of a better quality and they are increasingly more diverse. Because of these positive arguments, Adam Smith was named the father of economy.

  2. Developing International Business Managers through International Study Visits to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yiming; Rose, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is a key factor in the success of business organizations today, impacting many aspects of management performance. Understanding the global business environment has therefore become a key objective in the teaching of international business on Executive MBA programs. Drawing on the theory of experiential learning, this study examines

  3. Standards and safety rules in an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is seen that it is not the big existing differences in the basic requirements from nuclear power plants - such as the differing requirements relating to the degree of redundancy of safety systems - that causes difficulties, but mostly the regulations which are more detailed. The article shows that the international comparison of nuclear-technical regulations, with regard to the basic requirements, is possible; that it is, however, connected with extremely strong efforts with regard to the regulation of the details. It would be very helpful to those countries which have relatively small nuclear programmes and are not able or willing to establish their own regulations if there were a delineation based on the IAEA-codes and guides of the NUSS-programme which systematically refers to those parts of the German regulations which have to be added as necessary completion. (orig./HP)

  4. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, John D.

    This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list

  5. A New International Standard for "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trum, Alf; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2007-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is going to issue a new standard concerning "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures," which becomes the first international standard in coastal engineering. It is composed of a normative part (29 pages), an informative part (80 pages) and Bibliography ( 17 pages). The normative part describes what is considered as the norm of the matters in concern, while the informative part provides the information on recommended practice. The paper introduces the main points of the normative part and discusses the influence of the new standard on coastal engineering practice.

  6. Development of community standards for brain atlas interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Baldock

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the key goals of the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility is the development of a sustainable global infrastructure for collaborative neuroscience research [1]. To support the integration of diverse neuroscience resources (datasets, applications, services, workflows, models, published research results this infrastructure shall rely on standardization of service interfaces, data exchange formats and nomenclatures across neuroscience projects as its central unifying activity. We summarize the main challenges of creating a standards-based infrastructure, and review recent efforts of the INCF Digital Atlasing Infrastructure (INCF-DAI task force in the development of standards for integrating rodent brain data. Within INCF-DAI, and in communication with other INCF task force teams, we identified several scenarios for standards-based data exchange, for example: When exploring an atlas of a mouse brain, a researcher wants to know what information is available for a location in the brain, or for an anatomic structure, in other atlases, gene expression databases, publications, etc. When simulating a neocortical column, a brain modeler needs to bring in additional datasets to constrain the model for more realistic simulations, and wants to make sure these additional data can be unambiguously interpreted and seamlessly integrated in the model. When analyzing gene expression patterns, a researcher needs to compare these patterns as expressed in adult mouse brain, adult brain of rat (and other species, and in the developing brain. When creating software for analyzing and visualizing neuroscience data, a software developer wants to ensure that it will be able to process different datasets and thus have a wider audience. Based on the notion of a service-oriented architecture (SOA, the INCF data infrastructure is envisioned as a network of computational neuroscience hubs linked with the central INCF server. Hubs host a collection of standards-compliant services which can be registered at INCF Central, so that their metadata is harvested into the central catalog, to support resource discovery across the hubs. A hub can host any combination of atlasing services, image visualization services, ontology services, collection management services, services for connectivity data, simulation services, etc., as long as each of these services is standards-compliant and declares its capabilities and supported functions to the central server. The emerging INCF-DAI infrastructure for sharing brain atlas data follows this model. A standard set of atlas services is specified and implemented to integrate information from the Allen Brain Atlas, the Edinburgh Mouse Atlas, images and image mosaics assembled at UCSD in the course of the SMART Atlas and the Whole Brain Catalog projects, and the Waxholm Space, with the latter being used as the spatial reference system against which most spatial transformations are computed. The methods include core capability information about an atlasing hub service, descriptions of available spatial reference systems, coordinate transformations, structure lookup, and other methods that may be specific for a particular hub and provide access to the hubs information based on an anatomic structure name (as defined in an ontology or a point of interest (as defined in a spatial reference system. The output XML schema used by the atlas services is referred to as Waxholm Markup Language. Further development of this model for standards and services and extending it to other areas of neuroscience requires that the neuroscience community establishes a consensus mechanism to identify areas appropriate for standardization, endorse existing standards where possible or develop new standard specifications where justified, and to maintain a system for governing and evolving the specifications. We will present a prototype of such a mechanism, which is currently being approbated for brain atlas interoperability

  7. LIMITS IN APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS TO INNOVATIVE CERAMIC SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gres Porcelain stoneware is a ceramic with a compact, hard, coloured and non-porous body. It is largely used as building materials, for a quality architecture, offering high resistance to impact, stress, wear, scratching, frost, chemical attach and stains. It is produced in flat tiles, billions of tons per year. A very prominent technology, based on a pyroclastic deformation, permits to obtain bended porcelain tiles as innovative solutions for a modern architecture. This technology is grounded on a proper combination of heavy machining by cutting tools and secondary firing in a kiln. This new element, the bended tile, can be used in several innovative applications (as steps, shelves, benches, radiators.... But, new functions require a better and in-depth knowledge of these materials, especially referring to the mechanical proprieties. This paper investigates the limits of applicability of ISO standards for the quality classification of ceramics and experimental measures of their mechanical proprieties.

  8. A new internal standard for HPLC assay of conjugated linoleic acid in animal tissues and milk.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan; Michalski, J. P.; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, A. J.; Krajewska, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 56, ?. 1 (2011), s. 23-29. ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : sorbic acid * internal standard * CLA isomers Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2011

  9. Trends in US nuclear standards development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulation of the US Nuclear Power industry has been extensive during the 1970's. Key to this situation has been the evolution in the interpretation of the rules, regulations and consensus standards which have been incorporated into NRC guidance documents by reference or endorsement. The resulting increase in the number and complexity of LWR construction requirements has significantly increased the labor content of an LWR construction project. The authors believe that existing nuclear related consensus standards should be reviewed with the objective of modifying the standards to improve the efficiency and productivity of engineering, craft, and non-manual personnel

  10. International Education and Development: Histories, Parallels, Crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Carbonnier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Education has been a priority sector when considering foreign aid allocationsince the 1970s. The stated objective has been to ensure universal access to basic education, with a more recent emphasis on quality and outcomes. Aware that these goals will not be met universally, the major actors involved in the post-2015 debate are turning back to the concept of learning. In this chapter, we briefly review major scholarly work and strategic papers that have shaped the discourse and policies of international development organisations and national actors over the past four decades. We discuss how the central notions of skills, learning, and both formal and non-formal education have evolved in conjunction with ideological shifts. We examine the tensions between public and private education as well as between individualised and standardised delivery modes. We further look at (big data and online education promises. To conclude, we question the current focus of major stakeholders on post-2015, post-EFA agendas. As several articles in this special issue underscore, national policies and local practices are largely driven by persistent political economy dynamics while the influence of the global agenda tends to remain confined to the international cooperation community itself.

  11. A review of international underground laboratory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground laboratories are essential for various important physics areas such as the search for dark matter, double beta decay, neutrino oscillation, and proton decay. At the same time, they are also a very important location for studying rock mechanics, earth structure evolution,and ecology. It is essential for a nation's basic research capability to construct and develop underground laboratories. In the past, China had no high-quality underground laboratory,in particular no deep underground laboratory,so her scientists could not work independently in major fields such as the search for dark matter,but had to collaborate with foreign scientists and share the space of foreign underground laboratories. In 2009, Tsinghua university collaborated with the Ertan Hydropower Development Company to construct an extremely deep underground laboratory, the first in China and currently the deepest in the world, in the Jinping traffic tunnel which was built to develop hydropower from the Yalong River in Sichuan province. This laboratory is named the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and formally opened on December 12, 2010. It is now a major independent platform in China and can host various leading basic research projects. We present a brief review of the development of various international underground laboratories,and especially describe CJPL in detail. (authors)

  12. International financial reporting standards and American generally accepted accounting principles: the convergence lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslana Kuzina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS adopting process in different countries. Special attention has been paid to the processes taking place in the United States. In recent years there have been numerous attempts to assess the impact of IFRS on the developed and developing capital markets, and to use the results of this assessment as arguments in the debate about the effectiveness of regulation of corporate reporting, in particular about the introduction of a mandatory requirement to use global accounting standards. Two main regulatory bodies inthe corporate reporting area in the world The U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC and the Board of Trustees of the IFRS Foundation use the results of academic research based on empirical observations of IFRS use onwards from 2005 to support its position on possible benefits from the introduction of global reporting standards and recommendations on different approaches to the practical implementation of this idea. Analysis of the preparatory process for the adoption of IFRS in the United States is required for error analysis of IFRS implementation in Ukraine.

  13. Standardization of negative controls in diagnostic immunohistochemistry: recommendations from the international ad hoc expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlakovic, Emina E; Francis, Glenn; Garratt, John; Gilks, Blake; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Ibrahim, Merdol; Miller, Rodney; Nielsen, Sren; Petcu, Eugen B; Swanson, Paul E; Taylor, Clive R; Vyberg, Mogens

    2014-04-01

    Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide "best practice recommendations" for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on "fit-for-use" principles. PMID:24714041

  14. Selecting International Standards for Accrual-Based Accounting in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the definition of a government business enterprise (GBE), as provided in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), as a determinant for applying IPSAS or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for a public sector entity. The work of the...... IPSASB is focused on the accounting and financial reporting needs of national, regional and local governments, and related governmental agencies, while the IFRS serves the private sector....

  15. Convergence Between KazakhstanS Financial Systemand International Standards: Overcoming Difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Uvarova Natalya

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the convergence of the Kazakh financial system with international standards in light of the new, enhanced agreement with the European Union on partnership and cooperation (January 19, 2015). Based on this research, the approaches used by the Kazakh financial system to converge with the European Union (EU) and the mechanism of implementing international standards in the national regulatory framework are determined. In practice, the study provides justification for the n...

  16. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: Cases With Classification Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kirshblum, S.C.; Biering-Srensen, F.; Betz, R; Burns, S.; Donovan, W.; Graves, D E; Johansen, M.(Department of Physics, Stockholm University; The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm, Sweden); Jones, L.; Mulcahey, M.J; Rodriguez, G.M.; Schmidt-Read, M.; Steeves, J D; Tansey, K.; Waring, W.

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSC...

  17. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: Cases with classification challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kirshblum, S.C.; Biering-Sorensen, F.; Betz, R; Burns, S.; Donovan, W.; Graves, D E; Johansen, M.(Department of Physics, Stockholm University; The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm, Sweden); Jones, L.; Mulcahey, M.J; Rodriguez, G.M.; Schmidt-Read, M.; Steeves, J D; Tansey, K.; Waring, W.

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. ...

  18. Challenges associated with knowledge sharing in international product development teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne

    Motivated by and accelerating the globalization process, product development is increasingly taking place in international firms with employees of various nationalities and aimed at international markets. This poses a number of new managerial challenges. This paper draws together literature on product development teams, knowledge sharing, and international product development management to form a conceptual framework of factors that influence knowledge sharing in international teams. Four in-depth case studies are used to explore and expand the understanding of the challenges associated with international product development teams. Results indicate that international product development might not be as international as would be expected and that even if many of the characteristics and problems associated with international product development in the literature are found, there are also a number of interesting underlying mechanisms that influence how well international product development teams function.

  19. Assisting member states to achieve international analytical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than forty years the IAEA has been assisting laboratories in its Member States to maintain and improve the quality and reliability of analytical data. This is achieved by organising worldwide and regional intercomparison studies and proficiency tests and by providing appropriate reference materials. Participation in proficiency testing schemes ensures an objective means of assessing and demonstrating the quality of the obtained laboratory data and reinforces the confidence of end users in the reliability of the reported analytical results. The External Quality Assurance (EQA) programme currently operated by the Soil Science Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria encompasses: 1. training on the implementation of basic Quality Systems in isotope laboratories; 2. production and provision of purposely tailored information materials, standard operating procedures and handbooks on quality assurance; 3. production and provision of liquid and natural matrix reference materials; 4. organisation of annual proficiency tests on isotope abundance determination of 15N and 13C, the most common stable isotope tracers in agricultural research; 5. continuous technical advice to participating laboratories on analytical issues, including online troubleshooting and direct communication

  20. Demystifying Learning Technology Standards: Part I: Development and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwalkar, Nishikant

    2002-01-01

    The first of a two-part article introduces the evolution of learning technology standards and key organizations leading development. Presents the integrative collaborative development model adapted by most learning technology standards organizations, and identifies other efforts, beside these organizations, that focused on developing standards.

  1. Development of quality assurance requirements - an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total quality management strategy and the worldwide introduction of the DIN/ISO 9000 (EN 29 000) series of standards have given new impetus to traditional quality assurance. The most important change must surely be seen in the holistic approach of total quality management and its strict orientation towards customer requirements and satisfaction. International codes and standards for the nuclear industry will also have to be brought into line as part of the process of harmonizing quality assurance system standards. One possible approach is simply to specify a supplementary 'delta' of nuclear-specific requirements to be appended to the broad range of conventional requirements. It is a particular feature of quality-assured procedures in Germany that product and/or component related quality requirements and quality verifications are defined in the specifications of the architect engineer so that full implementation of the requirements from the design phase through to the manufacturing phase is assured. Looking at the development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) and the elaboration of 'Common Rules', it is to be anticipated that a major step will be made toward international harmonization of safety criteria. (orig.)

  2. Seeing power in international development cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim; Axelsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    technology through which the World Bank could promote its favoured vision of political culture in a local setting (here urban planning in Dhaka, Bangladesh), an alternative account is generated that reveals a will to power among the international development community, realised through the construction of......The aim of this paper is to sharpen the ways in which power dynamics can be analytically ‘seen’ in complex governance contexts where particular ways of governing, and their associated horizons of thought, shape and are in turn shaped by intricate interactions between actors. A theoretical approach...... is proposed, combining a governmentality perspective with Stewart Clegg's theory of circuits of power. The framework is applied in a case study of experimentation by the World Bank with a new tool for Environmental Policy Integration (EPI). Rather than conceptualising the EPI tool as a governmental...

  3. Internal standardization in atomic-emission spectrometry using inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of internal standardization has been used in quantitative analytical emission spectroscopy since 1925 to minimize the errors arising from fluctuations in sample preparation, excitation-source conditions, and detection parameters. Although modern spectroscopic excitation sources are far more stable and electronic detection methods are more precise than before, the system for the introduction of the sample in spectrometric analysis using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) introduces significant errors, and internal standardization can still play a useful role in improving the overall precision of the analytical results. The criteria for the selection of the elements to be used as internal standards in arc and spark spectrographic analysis apply to a much lesser extent in ICP-spectrometric analysis. Internal standardization is recommended for use in routine ICP-simultaneous spectrometric analysis to improve its accuracy and precision and to provide a monitor for the reassurance of the analyst. However, the selection of an unsuitable reference element can result in misuse of the principle of internal standardization and, although internal standardization can be applied when a sequential monochromator is used, the main sources of error will not be minimized

  4. Proposing a 6+3 Model for Developing Information Literacy Standards for Schools: A Case for Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Intan Azura; Foo, Schubert; Majid, Shaheen; Theng, Yin Leng; Luyt, Brendan; Chang, Yun-Ke

    2009-01-01

    Several comprehensive information literacy (IL) standards have been developed worldwide for use in the education sector, specifically for students and teachers. Apart from the more generic International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) IL standards, such standards are more appropriate for their countries of origins. If these standards are

  5. Implementation of the new international standards in Swiss legislation on radon protection in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current revision of the Swiss Radiological Protection Ordinance aims to bring Swiss legislation in line with new international standards. In future, the control of radon exposure in dwellings will be based on a reference level of 300 Bq m-3. Since this value is exceeded in >10 % of the buildings so far investigated nationwide, the new strategy requires the development of efficient measures to reduce radon-related health risks at an acceptable cost. The minimisation of radon concentrations in new buildings is therefore of great importance. This can be achieved, for example, through the enforcement of building regulations and the education of construction professionals. With regard to radon mitigation in existing buildings, synergies with the ongoing renewal of the building stock should be exploited. In addition, the dissemination of knowledge about radon and its risks needs to be focused on specific target groups, e.g. notaries, who play an important information role in real estate transactions. The 'National Action Plan concerning Radon 2012-2020'(1), approved by the Swiss Federal Council in 2011, has paved the way for the implementation of the new international standards on the protection of the public against radon. One of the main measures in this action plan involves a revision of the Swiss Radiological Protection Ordinance (RPO) of 1994, which is implemented by the cantons. (authors)

  6. Comparison report for CSNI International Standard Problem 12 (ROSA-III Run 912)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSA-III Run 912 was identified as International Standard Problem 12 by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations. Run 912 simulated a 5% split break LOCA condition in a BWR at the pump suction in the recirculation line with the HPCS failure. Comparisons between the test data and the calculations by eight international participants were made and discussed. (author)

  7. New international developments in oil sands projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vercoe, J. [Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    Governments and oil companies from a variety of different countries are now working to create alternative oil and gas operations and the policies required to enable their financial success. The Africa Energy Commission was developed to coordinate policy and act as a framework for the African energy sector. Several large oil and gas operators have become involved in the creation of new contracts to develop training and human resources policies for the petroleum industry in Congo. Issues related to national oil companies and value creation in African countries are currently being studied by the World Bank. A biofuel alliance was recently signed between Congo and Brazil, and a Congo Forest Fund has also been created to help the inhabitants of the Congolese rainforest protect their environment. Congo is also offering opportunities for international companies to implement greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction programs to trade emission credits when requirements are satisfied. It was concluded that several African countries are suitable candidates for oil sands development. 1 fig.

  8. Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    China first adopted minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in 1989. Today, there are standards for a wide range of domestic, commercial and selected industrial equipment. In 1999, China launched a voluntary endorsement label, which has grown to cover over 40 products including water-saving products (See Figure 1). Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label (also referred to as the 'Energy Label'). Today, the Energy Label is applied to four products including: air conditioners; household refrigerators; clothes washers; and unitary air conditioners (See Figure 2). MEPS and the voluntary endorsement labeling specifications have been updated and revised in order to reflect technology improvements to those products in the market. These programs have had an important impact in reducing energy consumption of appliances in China. Indeed, China has built up a strong infrastructure to develop and implement product standards. Historically, however, the government's primary focus has been on the technical requirements for efficiency performance. Less attention has been paid to monitoring and enforcement with a minimal commitment of resources and little expansion of administrative capacity in this area. Thus, market compliance with both mandatory standards and labeling programs has been questionable and actual energy savings may have been undermined as a result. The establishment of a regularized monitoring system for tracking compliance with the mandatory standard and energy information label in China is a major area for program improvement. Over the years, the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) has partnered with several Chinese institutions to promote energy-efficient products in China. CLASP, together with its implementing partner Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), has assisted China in developing and updating the above-mentioned standards and labeling programs. Because of the increasing need for the development of a monitoring system to track compliance with standards and labeling, CLASP, with support from Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), has expanded its ongoing collaboration with the China National Institute of Standards (CNIS) to include enforcement and monitoring. CNIS has already begun working on the issue of compliance. CNIS has conducted modest sample testing in 2006 for refrigerators, freezers and room air-conditioners, and repeated the same task in 2007 with a similar sample size for three products (refrigerators, freezers, air-conditioners and clothes washers). And, CNIS, with technical support from LBNL, has analyzed the data collected through testing. At the same time, parallel effort has also been paid to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. In conjunction with CNIS, CLASP technical experts reviewed the standards development timeline of the four products currently subject to the mandatory energy information label. CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing: technical input to the process; comment and advice on particular technical issues; as well as evaluation of the results. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. This short report summarizes the status of Standards and Labeling program, current enforcement and monitoring mechanism in China, and states the importance of international collaborations.

  9. GMO Regulations, International Trade and the Imperialism of Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Vigani, Mauro; Raimondi, Valentina; Olper, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the quantification of GMO regulations on bilateral trade flows. A composite index of the complexity of such regulations for sixty countries as well as an objective score for six GMO regulatory sub-dimensions has been developed. Using a gravity model, we show how bilateral similarity?in GMO regulations, affect trade flows for the composite index and its components. Results show that bilateral distance in GMO regulations negatively affect trade flows, especially as an effe...

  10. International standards for statistics on the government sector

    OpenAIRE

    Valentov P?lpnov, Lenka

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of the government sector gained prominence after the World War II as the Keynesian theory attributed the government sector key importance in battling economic cycle and the post-war reconstruction and development involved state interventions on a large scale. In 1990s a strength-ened interest in the government sector was triggered by the need to coordinate fiscal policies and closely monitor fiscal health in the countries forming the Economic and Monetary Union. Finally, in the c...

  11. Persian Agricultural Journals and Standard: Degree of Compatibility of Persian Scientific Agricultural Journals with International Standard Organization (ISO Publishing standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Gilvari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Standard is a collection of recipes, guidelines or recommendations which use in production, creating or making of goods, products, documents or special resources. Extent of adaptation of Persian Agricultural scientific journals which are publishing in Iran with ISO publishing standards was evaluated in this research. The information items which were necessary to be presented in different sections of Agricultural scientific journals were examined. Items which were needed to be present in cover page, content, title page, running title, and endnote, abstract, first page of an article, references and its structure were among the information items. 47 Agricultural scientific journals were publishing until February 2009 consisted of the research population. Descriptive survey method is used. Results showed the adaption rate with ISO standards in research population was 53.47 percent. There was no private publisher which publishes agricultural scientific journals. The extent of adaptation with ISO standards was high in journal sections such as abstracts and keywords.

  12. Westinghouse uses USAF-developed standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyman, C. S.

    1982-11-01

    Westinghouse has applied digital standards advantageously for the U.S. Air Force on its latest weapon systems. At present Westinghouse is applying MIL-STD-1750A (ISA), MIL-STD-1589B (JOVIAL 73 HOL), and MIL-STD-1553B (multiplex busing) to three major programs: B-1B Offensive Radar System, Improved AN/APG-66 Radar for the F-16, and AFTI F-16 Electro-Optical Sensor/Tracker. Westinghouse has gone one step further than the digital standards. With U.S. Air Force encouragement Westinghouse has a program for maximum radar commonality among the B-1B ORS, F-16C, and the U.S. Army Sgt. York DIVAD Gun System. This paper will cover Westinghouse's approach toward managing the application of the military standards across multiple programs with different prime contractors and services. Additionally, the method by which configuration control of standard module hardware (i.e., rational standardization) maintained at Westinghouse will be discussed.

  13. Dose limits to the lens of the eye: International Basic Safety Standards and related guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, T J; Pinak, M

    2015-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety requirements: 'General Safety Requirements Part 3--Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International Basic Safety Standards' (BSS) was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors at its meeting in September 2011, and was issued as General Safety Requirements Part 3 in July 2014. The equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye for occupational exposure in planned exposure situations was reduced from 150 mSv year(-1) to 20 mSv year(-1), averaged over defined periods of 5 years, with no annual dose in a single year exceeding 50 mSv. This reduction in the dose limit for the lens of the eye followed the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in its statement on tissue reactions of 21 April 2011. IAEA has developed guidance on the implications of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye. This paper summarises the process that led to the inclusion of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye in the BSS, and the implications of the new dose limit. PMID:25816264

  14. 78 FR 1826 - International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...informing the public of the SPS standard-setting activities...Agriculture's (USDA's) Food Safety and Inspection...to inform the public of SPS standard-setting activities...Nations organizations, the Food and Agriculture Organization...tests, vaccines, and the safe international trade...

  15. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ...2701-21 (IGRA), to regulate gaming on Indian lands. The NIGC published...Internal Control Standards Class II Gaming, with comprehensive and updated...as they apply to Class II gaming. Some of these standards...before the 2012 final rule takes effect, the Commission suspends...

  16. GMO Regulations, International Trade and the Imperialism of Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Vigani, Mauro; Raimondi,Valentina; Olper, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the quantification of GMO regulations on bilateral trade flows. A composite index of the 慶omplexity?of such regulations for sixty countries as well as an 憃bjective?score for six GMO regulatory sub-dimensions has been developed. Using a gravity model, we show how bilateral 憇imilarity?in GMO regulations, affect trade flows for the composite index and its components. Results show that bilateral distance in GMO regulations negatively affect trade flows, especially as a...

  17. Standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Proceedings of an international symposium. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In technologically advanced societies, there are many applications and processes that employ ionizing radiation. In order to use radiation safely and effectively, it is necessary to be able to measure radiation properly. Dosimetry is the science of radiation measurement. Knowledge of dosimetry enables nuclear technology to be applied to meet the needs of society. Medical radiation dosimetry deals with those applications in which patients are irradiated for either diagnosis or therapy. These Proceedings present a refereed selection of papers that were presented at the International Symposium on Standards and Codes of Practice in Medical Radiation Dosimetry, held in Vienna from 25 to 28 November 2002. Over 250 scientists from 62 countries attended the meeting, at which 140 presentations were delivered covering a broad range of topics in medical radiation dosimetry. Since the last IAEA meeting on dosimetry (Measurement Assurance in Dosimetry, held in Vienna from 24 to 27 May 1993), three major activities have affected progress in medical radiation dosimetry. Firstly, in terms of measurement technology, much work has gone into perfecting calorimetric methods for the determination of absorbed dose to water, and so one entire session of the symposium was devoted to that topic. Secondly, since several primary standards dosimetry laboratories have developed the capability to provide instrument calibrations based on their newly refined standards of absorbed dose to water, the IAEA and other organizations developed new dosimetry codes of practice using these standards. In the opening session, one talk focused on the development of dosimetry codes of practice, in particular the international code of practice published by the IAEA in Technical Reports Series No. 398, Absorbed Dose Determination in External Beam Radiotherapy. The third major activity in dosimetry relates to the mutual recognition arrangement (MRA) of the Comite international des poids et mesures, which was signed by the laboratories, including the IAEA's, responsible for metrology in the field of ionizing radiation standards. One of the talks in the opening session dealt with the MRA explicitly, but several of the sessions on comparisons were motivated by the need to establish degrees of equivalence between the dosimetry standards of different laboratories. The new standards, the dosimetry protocols that use them and the MRA, which encourages comparisons, have together raised dosimetry to a new level.Of course, the requirement for accuracy in dosimetry is driven primarily by the demands for cancer therapy - too low a dose leaves the patient to die from cancer and too high a dose may result in a dramatic increase in complication rates. An overt attempt was made during the symposium to highlight the link between accuracy in dosimetry and cancer therapy. For example, a plenary session focused on the impending crisis in cancer management, and regular scientific sessions dealt with clinical radiotherapy dosimetry and with radiotherapy dosimetry auditing. In addition, scientific sessions were dedicated to dosimetry issues in brachytherapy, proton and hadron therapy and diagnostic radiology. One session was devoted to nuclear medicine, in an attempt to bridge the gap between the experts who measure radioactivity and those who deal with quality assurance in nuclear medicine. The symposium programme comprised 14 scientific sessions, and at the end of each session there was a brief discussion arising from the material that had been presented

  18. Study and development of methodologies for qualification of waste products in repositories according to international standards; Estudo e desenvolvimento de metodologias para a qualificacao de produtos de rejeito em repositorios conforme padroes internacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seles, Sandro Rogerio Novaes; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Gerencia de Rejeitos]. E-mail: seless@cdtn.br; tellocc@cdtn.br

    2005-07-01

    One of the processes to treat dangerous wastes is to immobilise them in cement. At CDTN/CNEN some researches are carried out on cementation in order to establish process parameters, materials, and equipment, aiming at the safe disposal of these wastes, protecting of the human being and the environment of possible risks. To establish the compressive strength of cemented products is important because it implies in its suitability for handling, transportation and storage without risks for the human bodies or environment. It is urgent to obtain the certification of the compressive strength test providing reproducible, trustful and suitable results, mainly to assure its traceability. At Cementation Laboratory (LABCIM/CDTN) the certification process of the compressive strength was begun in the year 2000. It was completed the necessary adequacies, the staff training, and the first internal audit. It is previewed for the current year another internal audit, the external audit, and the certification request. (author)

  19. International experience with urban infrastructure development financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Buriachenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the need for scientific studying the state of local infrastructure financing as well as efficient management of the existing infrastructure facilities. It is noted that under the influence of such factors as globalization, urbanization and information revolution the value of the city and role thereof in society are increasing. Based on analysis of the budget and demographic indices it has been proven that Kyiv, as the capital, occupies a unique place in the economic life of Ukraine, while being the country's financial and investment centre. It has been asserted that the critical level of the city's key infrastructure deterioration indicates lack of adequate municipal management in this field. The paper also asserts a high level of monopolization regarding housing and communal services, whereas also provides substantiation of the need for developing new competitive financing mechanisms to be applied. Existence of significant disparities between development of the city and construction of the essential transport infrastructure has been demonstrated with the said fact being due to incompliance of the borrowed finances with real investment needs. Given the international experience, the methods of upgrading the existing city infrastructure as well as sources of financial support for the new infrastructure projects have been suggested

  20. Advanced test modelling and execution based on the international standardized techniques TTCN-3 and UTP

    OpenAIRE

    Rennoch, Axel; Wendland, Marc-Florian; Hoffmann, Andreas; Schneider, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In systems and service engineering testing is an important part to get confidence in quality and trust in security issues. Standardized testing techniques support the unique definition of abstract test models, configurations and behavior scenarios that can be executed automatically. This contribution presents the state of the art and future directions of two international standards for testing: the Testing and Test Control Notation (TTCN-3) from the European Telecommunication Standardization ...

  1. Draft I.E.C. standard for monitoring PWR internal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF has proposed to the International Electrotechnical Commission a draft standard for monitoring the vessel internal structures of PWRs. The standard applies to systems used for monitoring the vibratory behavior of the internal structures of PWRs (core barrel, thermal shield, fuel assemblies) on the basis of neutron fluctuations observed outside the vessel as well as of vessel vibrations. It covers the systems characteristics and the monitoring procedures. It should facilitate standardization of monitoring and comparisons on an international level. This paper presents the main features of the draft standard: -principles of measurement: correlation between movements of internals and ex core neutron noise on the one hand, forced vibrations of the vessel on the other hand; -sampling and conditioning of the signals; -monitoring equipment and in particular spectral analysis device; -functions of the monitoring software used for spectral analysis, peak detection and calculation of structure displacement; -studies preliminary to setting up the monitoring (calculation of internal vibratory modes, defect simulation on mockup, qualification on reactor during hot test...); -monitoring procedures (periodicity of analysis and what to do in case of anomaly); -documentation necessary to the monitoring. A diagnostic procedure is given as an example. The draft standard, written in 1994, will be presented in Frankfurt (Germany) in February 1995. (author). 1 annexe

  2. Auditors Compliance with International Standards on Auditing (ISAs: Evidence form Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad N. Obaidat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous new amendments of the International Standards on Auditing (ISAs in the beginning of 2007 formed a pressure on auditors to follow up and comply with them. The present study attempted to examine to what extent auditors complied with ISA according to the last pronouncement by the International Auditing and Assurance Standard Board (IAASB. Data was collected through a questionnaire administered to a random sample of external auditors in Jordan. The study revealed that Jordanian auditors complied with all auditing standards with some variance in the degree of compliance among them. The results indicated that further measures and steps could be taken to improve the ISA compliance.

  3. Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

    2012-01-01

    The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

  4. INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 41 (IAS 41 IMPLICATION FOR REPORTING CROP ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru ?tefea

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of articles were written regarding International Accounting Standard 41 (IAS 41 Agriculture in order to outpost the the implication of this standard over valuating the different biological assets. Valuation of crop assets are also a part of the IAS 41 objective. Anyway, this paper investigates the implications of International Accounting Standard 41 for European Union (EU entities reporting on holdings of crop asset from thre points of view: implication of production forecast over the accurate accounting, the impact over cash flow and the possibility like companies to use acoounting methodology on own interests.

  5. Facilitating Automation Development in Internal Logistics Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Granlund, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The internal logistics system includes all activities connected with managing the flow of materials within the physical limits of a facility. This system is an important part of operations in need of increased focus and continuous improvements. Automation is one possible tool with a previously confirmed great potential to improve internal logistics. Despite this great potential and a growing trend of using automation in the area, internal logistics activities are still not automated to the sa...

  6. Attributes and Dynamic Development Phases of ICT Standards Consortia

    OpenAIRE

    Pohlmann, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Standards consortia are private industry alliances that serve a certain purpose and gather likeminded companies that share the same interest to sponsor and develop technologies for standardization. Compared to formal standard setting, participation in consortia is less bureaucratic, more efficient in reacting to market needs and allows, in respect to the tiered membership structures, a strategic influence of standard setting outcomes. Formal standardization is in contrast an often protracted ...

  7. INTERDEPENDENCIES OF THE INTERNAL / MANAGERIAL CONTROL STANDARD NO. 6 - ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut-Cosmin B?LOI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our initiative of analyzing the internal control standard which deals with the organizational structure comes from the observations on the significance of these essential aspects of modern management and on the sensitivity with which this standard is treated in most of the public institutions considered representative for the Oltenia region. Although the administrators of public institutions strive to optimize the systems of internal/managerial control, they frequently face many issues concerning the misunderstanding of these standards, vaguely explained, for example throughout some guidelines or other documents. The hypothesis of our study is that most of public institutions face gaps in understanding, interpreting, adapting and implementing an effective model of organizational structure, and the causes are due to the lack of an interdependent, correlated approach of the pillars that support the internal/managerial control system: the 25 standards required by the Romanian legislation. Our study critically describes the superficial approach founded in the self-evaluation reports of the public institutions, if we refer only to the conformity of the organizational structure and the four standards that we consider inextricably related with this internal/managerial control standard. From the methodological point of view, our study tests the correlation between the level of compliance of these standards and the functionality of the system composed by them in the public organizations that we have investigated.

  8. Anything New Since the End of the Cold War? or International Law Goes Domestic: International Electoral Standards and Their Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: After the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union, democratic Zeitgeist swept the globe. International law seemed no longer indifferent to how domestic regimes were formed. Part of this post-1989 development was a considerable increase in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights concerning the right to political participation as well as a proliferation of election observation missions by the OSCE/ODIHR. Both developed and implemented international...

  9. A Culture of compliance: developing standards for fighting corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Sampson, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Abstract.Over the past decade, a new global regime of anti-corruption has taken shape. Pushed by NGOs such as Transparency International, and with coalitions of international organizations, Western governments, and private business circles, we now have a framework of conventions and regulations that impel governments and international firms to act with integrity and to prevent corruption in business and international development. New anti-bribery laws reward whistleblowers and penalize firms ...

  10. The Development of the Standard Lithuanian Language: Ecolinguistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaida Buivydien?

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of standard languages is closely linked with the standardization policy and prevailing ideology. The language ideology comprises its value, experience and convictions related to language usage and its dis - course being influenced at institutional, local and global levels. Recently, in the last decades, foreign linguists have linked the theories of the development of standard lan- guages and their ideologies with an ecolinguistic approach towards language standardization phenomena. The article is based on Einar Haugen s theory about the development of standard languages and ecolinguistic statements and presents the stages of developing the standard language as well as the factors having an influ - ence on them. In conclusion, a strong political and social impact has been made on the development of the standard Lithuanian language. The stages of the progress of the standard Lithuanian language have rapidly changed each other, some have been held very close to one another and some still have been taken part.

  11. Posttest analysis of international standard problem 10 using RELAP4/MOD7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RELAP4/MOD7, a best estimate computer code for the calculation of thermal and hydraulic phenomena in a nuclear reactor or related system, is the latest version in the RELAP4 code development series. This paper evaluates the capability of RELAP4/MOD7 to calculate refill/reflood phenomena. This evaluation uses the data of International Standard Problem 10, which is based on West Germany's KWU PKL refill/reflood experiment K9A. The PKL test facility represents a typical West German four-loop, 1300 MW pressurized water reactor (PWR) in reduced scale while maintaining prototypical volume-to-power ratio. The PKL facility was designed to specifically simulate the refill/reflood phase of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident

  12. Prediction of ROSA-III test RUN 912 (International Standard Problem-12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ROSA-III test RUN 912 is conducted at JAERI for ISP-12 (International Standard Problem-12) of CSNI (Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations). RUN 912 simulates a 5% split break at the recirculation pump inlet side of a BWR with the assumption of HPCS single failure. Prediction of the ROSA-III test RUN 912 was performed by using RELAP4J, RELAP4/MOD6 and RELAP5/MOD0 computer codes developed to analyze thermal hydraulic phenomena during loss of coolant accidents and transients of a light water reactor. Both RELAP4J and RELAP4/MOD6 are codes based on a one-dimensional homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow model, whereas RELAP5/MOD0 is an advanced code based on a one-dimensional nonhomogeneous nonequilibrium two-phase flow model. The present prediction is useful to evaluate the predictability of LOCA analysis codes and for a better understanding of the codes. (author)

  13. Calibrating ChIP-Seq with Nucleosomal Internal Standards to Measure Histone Modification Density Genome Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Adrian T; Chen, Zhonglei; Ruthenburg, Alexander J

    2015-06-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) serves as acentral experimental technique in epigenetics research, yet there are serious drawbacks: it is a relative measurement, which untethered to any external scale obscures fair comparison among experiments; it employs antibody reagents that have differing affinities and specificities for target epitopes that vary in abundance; and it is frequently not reproducible. To address these problems, we developed Internal Standard Calibrated ChIP (ICeChIP), wherein a native chromatin sample is spiked with nucleosomes reconstituted from recombinant and semisynthetic histones on barcoded DNA prior to immunoprecipitation. ICeChIP measures local histone modification densities on a biologically meaningful scale, enabling unbiased trans-experimental comparisons, and reveals unique insight into the nature of bivalent domains. This technology provides insitu assessment of the immunoprecipitation step, accommodating for many experimental pitfalls as well as providing acritical examination of untested assumptions inherent to conventional ChIP. PMID:26004229

  14. Development in Children's Thinking about International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Mark C.; Lephardt, Noreen

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results of how children reason about international trade. Explains that open ended questions were posed to students in grades 1-11 asking why nations trade, the benefits of trade, and their understanding of barriers to trade. Concludes that teaching fundamentals of international trade can be introduced as early as grade six. (DK)

  15. Developing Successful International Faculty Led Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabregas Janeiro, Maria G.; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Rosete, Rodrigo Tello

    2012-01-01

    Faculty Led Programs are study abroad experiences led by university professors. Faculty Led Programs are considered as an opportunity for college students, especially in the United States to attend a short-term international experience (Mills, 2010). Faculty Led Program is an international experience which is different from the traditional

  16. Quantification of rhodium in a series of inorganic and organometallic compounds using cobalt as internal standard

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Trevor T., Chiweshe; Walter, Purcell; Johan A., Venter.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method for the quantification of rhodium using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cobalt as internal standard was developed. Rhodium recovery was determined in different samples, which included a certified reference material (CRM), pure rhodium metal [...] , inorganic RhCl.3H2O salt as well as different organometallic compounds. Excellent rhodium recoveries of 100,100, 99.0 and 99.7 % with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.0,1.0, 0.3 and 0.4 % were obtained for the CRM, rhodium metal sample, RhCl33H2O and [Rh(cupf)(PPh3)(CO)(CH3)(I)], respectively. The accurate recovery of rhodium was, however, affected by the presence of easily ionized elements (EIE) and unmatched acid matrixes with a decrease in rhodium recovery of up to 16 %. Validation parameters such as accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and robustness were all investigated to confirm the suitability of this newly developed analytical procedure for rhodium determination.

  17. Standards for PV Modules and Components -- Recent Developments and Challenges: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-10-01

    International standards play an important role in the Photovoltaic industry. Since PV is such a global industry it is critical that PV products be measured and qualified the same way everywhere in the world. IEC TC82 has developed and published a number of module and component measurement and qualification standards. These are continually being updated to take advantage of new techniques and equipment as well as better understanding of test requirements. Standards presently being updated include the third edition of IEC 61215, Crystalline Silicon Qualification and the second edition of IEC 61730, PV Module Safety Requirements. New standards under development include qualification of junction boxes, connectors, PV cables, and module integrated electronics as well as for testing the packaging used during transport of modules. After many years of effort, a draft standard on Module Energy Rating should be circulated for review soon. New activities have been undertaken to develop standards for the materials within a module and to develop tests that evaluate modules for wear-out in the field (International PV Module QA Task Force). This paper will discuss these efforts and indicate how the audience can participate in development of international standards.

  18. Developing an International and Technology-Driven Business School Program: Perspectives from the International Business Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel; Bush, Victoria; Bush, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed the international business and technological community about the skills it requires of recent business school graduates. Findings provide insights for developing action plans to address international and technological needs. (EV)

  19. Development and analysis of an International Speech Test Signal (ISTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holube, Inga; Fredelake, Stefan; Vlaming, Marcel; Kollmeier, Birger

    2010-12-01

    For analysing the processing of speech by a hearing instrument, a standard test signal is necessary which allows for reproducible measurement conditions, and which features as many of the most relevant properties of natural speech as possible, e.g. the average speech spectrum, the modulation spectrum, the variation of the fundamental frequency together with its appropriate harmonics, and the comodulation in different frequency bands. Existing artificial signals do not adequately fulfill these requirements. Moreover, recordings from natural speakers represent only one language and are therefore not internationally acceptable. For this reason, an International Speech Test Signal (ISTS) was developed. It is based on natural recordings but is largely non-intelligible because of segmentation and remixing. When using the signal for hearing aid measurements, the gain of a device can be described at different percentiles of the speech level distribution. The primary intention is to include this test signal with a new measurement method for a new hearing aid standard (IEC 60118-15). PMID:21070124

  20. Global standards and local knowledge building: Upgrading small producers in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Aleman, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Local knowledge building is a crucial factor for upgrading small producers and improving their market competitiveness and livelihoods. The rise of global standards affecting food safety and environmental sustainability in agriculture sparks debates on the impact on smallholders in developing countries. This article presents a perspective on the links of international standards to knowledge and institution building for developing the capabilities of small producers. Interacting with global pra...

  1. PROPOSAL METHODOLOGY OF THE SUBSYSTEM - INTERNAL STANDARDIZATION AS PART OF TQM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Mitreva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Standardization in the management system becomes a key task of the managers and a priority issue for survival of every organization of this century. Besides the company's owner which is mostly concerned with the profit and fast multiplication of its invested capital, many other parties such as consumers, community, employees, deliverers and the society make a pressure in demanding. As of those demands the organization is to adapt its management system according the standards in order to be safe t hat the expectations will be fulfilled. However, to fulfill the standards in Europe and worldwide it is necessary to approach towards huge - radical changes in problem solving i.e. reengineering, new manner of consideration of causes and not as the so far known way - thinking over the consequences. Implementing this new TQM strategy means designing solidly documented quality system that covers every working process in a company and appears as a necessary base for successful usage of statistical process contr ol (SPC and efficient teamwork which otherwise in case of bad quality system will not be able to be set. In this manner it is guaranteed that the attitude of the top management is conducted; this attitude is consisted within the quality policy that create s a climate and information base whe re team work can be developed. This paper offers a proposal methodology for designing and implementation of internal standardization of TQM system in companies. This methodology is applicable in factory for reconstructio n of wagons and in a factory for confectionary production and has shown its efficiency and usage. In order to design the processes in line with the consumers/ clients content and at the same time to achieve profitability, it is necessary to reengineer the working processes

  2. A unified international risk management standard as a response to the challenges of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strelbitska, Natalya Yevhenivna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article an international standard of risk-management ISO 31000:2009 is investigated, particulary interconnection between principles, system and process of risk management and changes in a terminology base are considered. The comparative analysis of ISO 31000:2009 standard with Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4360:2004 and the standard of the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO is conducted. The basic directions of application of ISO 31000:2009 in Ukraine are detected.

  3. Spillover effects of international standards : Work conditions in Vietnamese small and medium enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firmemployee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium enterprises in Vietnam. Certified firms pay higher wages on average. They are also more likely to offer formal contracts and to pay social and health insurance to workers. The estimation accounts for endogenous matching of workers with firms and unobserved heterogeneity using an instrumental variable approach. The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards.

  4. Reducing barriers to interoperability through collaborative development of standards for Earth science information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percivall, G. S.; Arctur, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Increasingly, Earth science research must make effective use of interdisciplinary data sources and processes. Non-interoperability impedes sharing of data and computing resources. Standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and other organizations are the basis for successfully deploying a seamless, distributed information infrastructure for the geosciences. Collaborative development of the standards has proven effective in reducing barriers to standards adoption. Standards are the basis for the success of the Internet and the World Wide Web. A standard describes a set of rules that have been agreed to in some consensus forum, such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), or the OGC. As described in The Importance of Going Open, non-interoperability causes organizations to spend much more than necessary on geospatial information technology development. In the context of e-Science, the National Science Foundations Cyberinfrastructure Council argues that The use of standards creates economies of scale and scope for developing and deploying common resources, tools, software, and services that enhance the use of cyberinfrastructure in multiple science and engineering communities. Barriers to adoption include misperceptions and misuse of standards. Adhering to standards costs more - typically this statement is made when a research program considers implementing standards as a one-time modification to an existing system. Multiple economic studies have shown lower development costs when using standards over the life of a project. Standards stifle innovation - a key decision in research is to consider what assumptions to consider fixed and what to challenge. The long history of standards in research, e.g., SI units, is fundamental to assessing repeatable results by independent researchers. Similar need for common standards exist in the information systems used for Earth science research. Standards constrain how to think" - standards for data access allow for efficient data exchange and understanding. So much wasted effort currently goes into data management, when following standards would reduce that and enable more focus on the real interesting and challenging problems to be solved. Your standards are not my standards - Finding common agreement on open standards is long-term process best served by collaborative development. Collaborative development is key to consensus adoption and wide use of information technology standards. The OGC Interoperability Program - unique in the world of standards development - in which researchers software developers, and funding agencies, work collaboratively to develop specifications for consideration as consensus standards. The OGC Interoperability Program conducts testbeds that create specifications, running code and demonstrations of why the specifications are useful. The specifications are then considered by the OGC Specification Program for vetting and voting as consensus standards.

  5. Challenges associated with knowledge sharing in international product development teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne

    Motivated by and accelerating the globalization process, product development is increasingly taking place in international firms with employees of various nationalities and aimed at international markets. This poses a number of new managerial challenges. This paper draws together literature on...... interesting underlying mechanisms that influence how well international product development teams function....... product development teams, knowledge sharing, and international product development management to form a conceptual framework of factors that influence knowledge sharing in international teams. Four in-depth case studies are used to explore and expand the understanding of the challenges associated with...

  6. 24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES...Empowerment Zone Grants 598.615 Economic development standards. (a) Economic...

  7. Comparative study of Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures on radiation and nuclear safety with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the results of the critical reviews, analysis, and comparison of the regulatory infrastructures for radiation and nuclear safety of Malaysis and the Philippines usi ng the IAEA safety requirements, GSR Part 1, Government, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety'' as the main basis and in part, the GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. The scope of the comparison includes the elements of the relevant legislations, the regulatory system and processes including the core functions of the regulatory body (authorization, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, development of regulations and guides); and the staffing and training of regulatory body. The respective availabe data of the Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures and current practices were gathered and analyzed. Recommendations to fill the gaps and strengthen the existing regulatory infrastructure of each country was given using as bases relevant IAEA safety guides. Based on the analysis made, the main findings are: the legislations of both countries do not contain al the elements of teh national policy and strategy for safety as well as those of teh framework for safety in GR Part I. Among the provision that need to be included in the legislations are: emergency planning and response; decommissioning of facilities safe management of radioactive wastes and spent fuel; competence for safety; and technical sevices. Provisions on coordination of different authorities with safety responsibilities within the regulatory framework for safety as well as liaison with advisory bodies and support organizations need to be enhanced. The Philippines needs to establish an independent regulatory body, ie. separate from organizations charged with promotion of nuclear technologies and responsible for facilitiesand activities. Graded approach on the system of notification and authorization by registration and licensing needs to be considered in the regulatory system and processes of both countries. Enforcement policy of AELB and PNRI needs to be enhanced taking into account the factors in GS-G-1.5. Examples of key learning areas and good practices identified are: AELB's e-learning system represents an innovative means of its regulatory processes; the style and language used in the code of PNRI Regulations is in acordance with international standards, i.e. use of shall statements. The results of this study could be used by both countries in revisiting or further reviewing and updating their respective legislations in order to be consistent and coherent with international standards. (author)

  8. Development of international law concerning nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short overview is given of the most important international conventions relating to civil liability for damage to, or loss of, life of persons or property, caused by nuclear incidents during the operation of stationary and non-stationary nuclear installations or transport of nuclear material. In accord with the international provisions, in the German Democratic Republic too, nuclear operators are exclusively liable for such damage unless it has been caused intentionally by the injury party. (author)

  9. A Theory of Standards-Driven Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Swinnen, Johan F. M.; Rozelle, Scott; Xiang, Tao; Vandemoortele, Thijs

    2008-01-01

    Consumers have increasing demands for product standards. This has important implications for development. This paper develops a firmal theory of the process of the introduction of high product standards in developing countries. The model endogenizes the introduction of high standards. Initial differences in income, the nature of capital constraints and transaction costs, the initial production structure and policies and institutions are shown to affect the likelihood of and the size of the hi...

  10. Codes and standards research, development and demonstration roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-07-22

    C&S RD&D Roadmap - 2008: This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.

  11. 25 CFR 36.13 - Standard IV-Curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard IV-Curriculum development. 36.13 Section 36.13... 36.13 Standard IVCurriculum development. (a) Each school shall implement an organized program of curriculum development involving certified and non-certified staff and shall provide the opportunity...

  12. A Study on the Development of Service Quality Index for Incheon International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Seok; Lee, Seung Chang; Hong, Soon Kil

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is located at developing Ominibus Monitors System(OMS) for internal management, which will enable to establish standards, finding out matters to be improved, and appreciation for its treatment in a systematic way. It is through developing subjective or objective estimation tool with use importance, perceived level, and complex index at international airport by each principal service items. The direction of this study came towards for the purpose of developing a metric analysis tool, utilizing the Quantitative Second Data, Analysing Perceived Data through airport user surveys, systemizing the data collection-input-analysis process, making data image according to graph of results, planning Service Encounter and endowing control attribution, and ensuring competitiveness at the minimal international standards. It is much important to set up a pre-investigation plan on the base of existent foreign literature and actual inspection to international airport. Two tasks have been executed together on the base of this pre-investigation; one is developing subjective estimation standards for departing party, entering party, and airport residence and the other is developing objective standards as complementary methods. The study has processed for the purpose of monitoring services at airports regularly and irregularly through developing software system for operating standards after ensuring credibility and feasibility of estimation standards with substantial and statistical way.

  13. Development of an ISO 9000 compatible occupational health standard: defining the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyjack, D T; Levine, S P

    1995-06-01

    Corporate ISO 9000 registration is gaining international acceptance as the hallmark of quality system achievement. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is currently drafting environmental standards that will complement ISO 9000. Should the international community also consider development of an ISO 9000-compatible occupational safety and health management standard (OSHMS)? To determine the advantages and disadvantages of this issue, the investigators conducted interviews with government and private sector experts, reviewed publicly accessible ISO documents, and evaluated published literature germane to the subject. Major advantages of an ISO OSHMS were the harmonization of national standards, maximizing Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) efficiency through third-party registration audits, and increased emphasis on employee-driven health and safety programs. Major disadvantages were the single vote of the American National Standards Institute at international proceedings, direct and indirect program development costs, potential unethical or incompetent conduct of registrars, and the logistics of developing an acceptable standard to all stakeholders. Some unresolved issues were the inevitability of an ISO OSHMS, auditor indemnification, and the scope of OSHA participation. Industrial health and safety professionals should initiate formal discussion on this issue to elaborate on findings presented here and to establish a consensus on future activities. PMID:7778527

  14. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International basic safety standards. General safety requirements. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  15. International collaborative study for establishment of the 2nd WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawas, Fatme; Burkin, Karena; Dougall, Thomas; Saydam, Manolya; Rigsby, Peter; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    In this report we present the results of a collaborative study for the preparation and calibration of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-d-ribitol-(1?1)-?-d-ribose-3-phosphate; PRP). Two candidate preparations were evaluated. Thirteen laboratories from 9 different countries participated in the collaborative study to assess the suitability and determine the PRP content of two candidate standards. On the basis of the results from this study, Candidate 2 (NIBSC code 12/306) has been established as the 2nd WHO IS for PRP by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation with a content of 4.9040.185mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 11 of the participating laboratories. PMID:26298195

  16. An International Standard Set of Patient-Centered Outcome Measures After Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Joel; Sprinkhuizen, Sara M.; Ackerson, Teri; Bernhardt, Julie; Davie, Charlie; George, Mary G.; Gething, Stephanie; Kelly, Adam G.; Lindsay, Patrice; Liu, Liping; Martins, Sheila C.O.; Morgan, Louise; Norrving, Bo; Ribbers, Gerard M.; Silver, Frank L.; Smith, Eric E.; Williams, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Value-based health care aims to bring together patients and health systems to maximize the ratio of quality over cost. To enable assessment of healthcare value in stroke management, an international standard set of patient-centered stroke outcome measures was defined for use in a variety of healthcare settings. Methods A modified Delphi process was implemented with an international expert panel representing patients, advocates, and clinical specialists in stroke outcomes, stroke registers, global health, epidemiology, and rehabilitation to reach consensus on the preferred outcome measures, included populations, and baseline risk adjustment variables. Results Patients presenting to a hospital with ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage were selected as the target population for these recommendations, with the inclusion of transient ischemic attacks optional. Outcome categories recommended for assessment were survival and disease control, acute complications, and patient-reported outcomes. Patient-reported outcomes proposed for assessment at 90 days were pain, mood, feeding, selfcare, mobility, communication, cognitive functioning, social participation, ability to return to usual activities, and health-related quality of life, with mobility, feeding, selfcare, and communication also collected at discharge. One instrument was able to collect most patient-reported subdomains (9/16, 56%). Minimum data collection for risk adjustment included patient demographics, premorbid functioning, stroke type and severity, vascular and systemic risk factors, and specific treatment/care-related factors. Conclusions A consensus stroke measure Standard Set was developed as a simple, pragmatic method to increase the value of stroke care. The set should be validated in practice when used for monitoring and comparisons across different care settings. PMID:26604251

  17. International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) Benefits, Obstacles and Intrigues for Implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ikpefan, Ochei Ailemen; A. O. Akande

    2012-01-01

    IFRS is International Financial Reporting System and International Accounting Standard Board - (IASB) provided the framework for its working. IFRS adopted by IASB has gained worldwide acceptance amongst many countries and some listed companies in European nations have embraced it. IFRS employs a uniform, single consistent accounting framework that is gravitating towards General Accepted Accounting Practice (GAPP) in the future. IFRS since its introduction in 2001 had provi...

  18. Time for a Paradigm Shift? Exploring Maximum Standards in International Intellectual Property Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan

    2009-01-01

    International intellectual property (IP) protection is at the heart of controversies over the impact of economic interests on social or environmental concerns. Some see IP rights as unduly encroaching upon human rights and societal interests, others argue for stronger enforcement and additional exclusivity to incentivize new innovations and creations. Underlying these debates is the perception that international IP treaties set out minimum standards of protection - which presumably allow for ...

  19. Adjustment of the Brazilian radioprotection standards to the safety principles of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a recommendation with 10 basic safety principles (Fundamental Safety Principles Safety Fundamentals series, number SF-1), which are: 1) Responsibility for safety; 2) Role for government; 3) Leadership and management for safety; 4) Justification of facilities and activities; 5) Optimization of protection; 6) Limitation of risk to individuals; 7) Protection of present and futures generations; 8) Prevention of accidents; 9) Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protection actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiations risk. The aim of this study is to verify that the Brazilian standards of radiation protection meet the principles described above and how well suited to them. The analysis of the national radiation protection regulatory system, developed and deployed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), showed that out of the ten items, two are covered partially, the number 2 and 10. The others are fully met. The item 2 the fact that the regulatory body (CNEN) be stock controller of a large company in the sector put in check its independence as a regulatory body. In item 10 the Brazilian standard of radiation protection does not provide explicit resolution of environmental liabilities

  20. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  1. Bismuth as a general internal standard for lead in atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechlin, Marcos A.; Fortunato, Felipe M.; Ferreira, Edilene C. [So Paulo State University - Unesp, Analytical Chemistry Department, P.O. Box 355, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Neto, Jos A. Gomes, E-mail: anchieta@iq.unesp.br [So Paulo State University - Unesp, Analytical Chemistry Department, P.O. Box 355, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Nbrega, Joaquim A. [Federal University of So Carlos, Department of Chemistry, So Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Donati, George L.; Jones, Bradley T. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27106 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: Single internal standard is commonly proposed for definite application in AAS. Internal standard for general use in AAS techniques is original. Bi showed efficiency as internal standard for Pb determinations by FAAS and GFAAS. Assorted samples were analyzed and accurate results were found. - Abstract: Bismuth was evaluated as internal standard for Pb determination by line source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (LS FAAS), high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS) and line source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (LS GFAAS). Analysis of samples containing different matrices indicated close relationship between Pb and Bi absorbances. Correlation coefficients of calibration curves built up by plotting A{sup Pb}/A{sup Bi}versus Pb concentration were higher than 0.9953 (FAAS) and higher than 0.9993 (GFAAS). Recoveries of Pb improved from 52118% (without IS) to 97109% (IS, LS FAAS); 74231% (without IS) to 96109% (IS, HR-CS FAAS); and 36125% (without IS) to 96110% (IS, LS GFAAS). The relative standard deviations (n = 12) were reduced from 0.69.2% (without IS) to 0.34.3% (IS, LS FAAS); 0.77.7% (without IS) to 0.14.0% (IS, HR-CS FAAS); and 2.113% (without IS) to 0.45.9% (IS, LS GFAAS)

  2. Procedural Bio-Medical Waste Management - A Comparison with International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    B. Rajeswari

    2012-01-01

    Though India has the state of art medical facilities on par with global standards for a comparatively cheaper cost with best knowledge, the bio-waste management protocols of many hospitals are far below the international standards. An effort was made to understand the bio-waste management procedures of big hospitals by making a critical analysis of bio waste generated. Biomedical waste includes syringes, live vaccines, laboratory samples, body parts, bodily fluids and waste, sharp needles, cu...

  3. Impact of Adopting International Financial Reporting Standards: Empirical Evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Terzi; Recep Oktem; Ilker Kiymetli Sen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of adopting International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) on listed companies in Turkey was examined. We observed the financial statements that were prepared in accordance with IFRS and local GAAP and researched the standards which included more relevant information. We worked on the financial statements of the companies in the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) that operated in the manufacturing industry. In our findings, we determined that the financial statements...

  4. International Financial Reporting Standards and banking regulation: A comeback of the state?

    OpenAIRE

    Grasl, Maximilian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union began using accounting rules defined by an independent private sector regime as compulsory norms in 2005. Is the incorporation of these International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) into European law a viable solution to combine external technical expertise with principles of democratic governance? The current financial crisis has shown that the technical expertise of this standard-setting body alone does not sufficiently guarantee satisfactory policy outcomes: The pro...

  5. A change of course: The importance to DoD of international standards for electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Judith E.

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is committed to using electronic commerce in the future with the over 300,000 vendors interested in doing business with DoD. Electronic commerce will move DoD from a paper-based world to one based on electronic transactions enabled by the exchange of formatted, electronic messages referred to as electronic data interchange (EDI). With electronic commerce, DoD plans to reduce costs, increase effectiveness, and make it easier for vendors to deal with DoD. Benefits from electronic commerce are enhanced when many businesses use the same standards for EDI messages themselves and their transmission. The fewer standards used, the less time and resources must be spent translating messages and agreeing on how to use different standards. To enhance benefits and smooth the transition to electronic commerce for itself and its vendors, DoD has chosen to use the widely accepted American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X12 standards for EDI messages, coupled with international standards for delivering messages and organizing addresses. In the past 18 months, EDI standards sponsored by a United Nations body and serving the same purpose as ANSI X12 message standards have begun to gain wider acceptance internationally.

  6. Analysis of Belgian Public Accounting and Its Compliance with International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) 1, 6 and 22

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Bellanca; Julien Vandernoot

    2013-01-01

    Belgian public accounting, which is continuously evolving, has to meet international standards. The aim of thispaper is to describe the current Belgian public accounting systems and to analyze their compliance with IPSAS1, 6 and 22, key points of modern accounting.We first describe the development of Belgian public accounting since 1846. We then focus on the 2003accounting reform, and more specifically its content and its triggering factors. The level of implementation ofthis reform in the di...

  7. Constraints and Improvement: A case Study of the Indonesias International Standard School in Improving its Capacity Building

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Sumintono; Hamdan Said; Nora Mislan

    2012-01-01

    Improving school capacity building becomes one of the major themes in the educational effectiveness research. This paper investigates implementation of the International Standard School (SBI) policy in Indonesia which as an effort of school capacity building improvement in the country. Using framework that is developed by King and Newman (2001), several dimensions of capacity building with relation to knowledge, skill and disposition of individual staff, and professional learning com...

  8. 5{sup th} international conference on certification and standardization in NDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This CD-ROM contains 30 lectures (in form of manuscripts or abstracts) and 6 posters with the following topics: 1. Some Critical Remarks from German Chemical Industry on Certification and Accreditation in NDT. 2. Global Impact of International Standard ISO 9712. 3. Maintaining Concurrent Compliance with Multiple NDT Personnel Certification Standards. 4. The Revision of the New Approach. 5. Comparison between prEN 473 Currently Submitted to Formal Vote and ISO 9712:2005. 6. Accreditation and Certification - a Contradiction?. 7. The Way We Were. 8. EFNDT-Question-Data-Bank (QDB). 9. NDT Certification in Turkey as an European Country- How It Couldn't Work as the Only Example?. 10. Validation of Practical Examination Specimens. 11. Examination Bank Structure for Radiographic Testing (RT) - An Example. 12. About the New Classification of NDT Methods Based on Positions of Risks and Equipment Life Assessment. 13. Olympus NDT Training Academy. 14. Harmonisation of Personnel Certification Schemes for Non-destructive Testing in the Asia-Pacific Region. 15. How EFNDT Can Help in Accreditation or Recognition/Approval of NDT Certification Bodies? 16. SNT-TC-1A - 40 Years of Employer Certification for NDT Personnel. 17. The Same NDT Certification Scheme for Everybody: a Dream or a Need. 18. 19. Personnel Certification for Thermographers - Status and Trends. 20. Guided Wave Training and Certification. 21. Examination Radiographs and Master Reports for the Industrial Sectors 6 and 7. 22. New Standards ISO 24497 on the Metal Magnetic Memory Method. The Program of Personnel Training and Certification. 23. The Use of the Psychometrics in NDT Certification Programs. 24. EFNDT Guidelines ''Overall NDT Quality System''. 25. The Role of the Forum for National Aerospace NDT Boards. 26. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 27. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 28. The Need for Standardization in NDT Personnel Certification. 29. NDT Certification for Railway Maintenance Personnel in France; 10 Years of the CFCM. 30. NDT Personnel Certification - Service for Industry. 31. Certification of Personnel Performing Automated Non-destructive Testing of Pipes and Flat Products. Problems and Solutions. 32. Stress Testing is a New NDT Type in the Russian Standard GOST R 52330-2005 and International Standard ISO-9712. 33. Accreditation of Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement Methods - Practical Aspects. 34. Results of Approval of Certification Body ''SPEKTRCert'' by Auditors of EFNDT. 35. The Program for Specialists Training and Certification in Stress-Strained State Determination and Residual Life Assesment of Technical Devices and Contructions. 36. NDT Personnel Certification System at Turkish Standards Instiution (TSE) and Developments in Turkey. 37. Nondestructive Testing Personnel Certification in Turkish Aerospace Industries and National Aerospace Nondestructive Testing Board in the Turkey.

  9. Mengukur Tingkat Kesesuaian antara Standar Akuntansi Keuangan dengan International Financial Reporting Standards per 1 Januari 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosinta Ria Panggabean

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available International accounting topic was rare to adress between accounting practices, especially International Accounting Standard. It occured due to the restrictive source and difficulty in finding the source. However, recently the standard has been an addressed issue since Indonesia Chartered of Accountant (IAI plans to comply the Indonesia Accounting Standard (SAK with the International Financial reporting (IFRS on 1st January 2012. The purpose of the research is to measure the compliance of the (SAK per 1st January 2008 with the IFRS per 1st January 2008 and attain the association between those two standards. Hence, the difference between the two standards and the neccessary steps to be taken for complying can be obtained. The methodology will be used in the paper are Jaccards Coefficients, Spearmans Correlation Coefficient,Euclidean Distances.The sample for the paper will be 43 accounting issues adressed on both standards that have been chosen and investigated. The paper concludes that there are significant equalities (75% between SAK per 1st January 2008 and IFRS 1st January 2008. (using Jaccards Coefficients. Due to several problems that have been found in the research, the author wish that the further researchers could widen the researchs samples, so the result will be more accurate and comprehensive.

  10. Development of thermodynamic potentials for fluid water, ice and seawater : a new standard for oceanography

    OpenAIRE

    R. Feistel1; Wright, D G; K. Miyagawa; Hruby, J; D. R. Jackett; T. J. McDougall; Wagner, W

    2008-01-01

    A new seawater standard has been developed for oceanographic and engineering applications that consists of three independent thermodynamic potential functions, derived from extended distinct sets of very accurate experimental data. The results have been formulated as Releases of the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS (1996, 2006, 2008) and are to be adopted internationally by other organizations in subsequent years. In order to successfully perform computat...

  11. Developing pipeline reclamation standards in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of Alberta's oil and gas industry has led to a proliferation of pipelines in the province. All Alberta pipelines require a reclamation certificate before the proponent is released of reclamation liabilities. This has led to much discussion of how to assess oil and gas wellsites and pipeline reclamation success since the early 1980s. The requirement for reclamation certification is that land have equivalent capability to that which existed prior to the disturbance. The approach that has been used for wellsite reclamation success evaluation is a parameter by parameter comparison and pass/fail system. In this case each parameter must pass or the site fails. NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd. undertook, in late 1996, to put together a group of government regulatory and non-regulatory personnel, industry and third party individuals to develop a more integrated capability based evaluation system. Various approaches were field tested in 1997 and 1998. This paper reports on the process used, the field results and current status of the project

  12. ISO TS/15216; an international standard method for the detection and quantification of norovirus in high risk foodstuffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowther, James; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    Norovirus is one of the principal agents of food-related gastroenteritis. Outbreaks have been associated with a number of different food vehicles, most notably bivalve molluscan shellfish and soft fruit. Contamination of prepared food through contact with infected food handlers also presents a major safety risk. The introduction of testing for norovirus into food hygiene legislation and standard operating procedures for investigating foodborne outbreaks is a priority for many national and international authorities. Until recently this has been prevented by the lack of availability of standardised methods, however in March 2013 the International Standards Organisation (ISO) and European Committee for Standardization (CEN) published a joint technical specification for detection and quantification of viruses including norovirus GI and GII in foods using real-time RT-PCR (ISO/TS 15216). This paper will describe the development and validation of this method by an international working group of expert food virologists from twenty institutes in thirteen countries (CEN TC275/WG6 TAG4), the current and future implications of this method for European and International Food Hygiene Legislation and the application of the method to the testing of food samples implicated in outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis.

  13. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)

  14. Trends of international standard procedures on dosimetry systems and irradiated foods applied in the multi-purpose radiation processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, with new radiation technology being developed and used in advanced industries, the business opportunity of radiation processing has been increasing. For the industrial application of developed products, it is required to review scientific and technical aspects of standard procedures applied to radiation processes. Standard procedures describe requirements of products manufactured under standard processing conditions. In fields related to the operation control of the multi-purpose radiation processing facilities, the ISO 11137 and Codex stan-106 are famous standards adopted as national standards in the advanced countries. The ISO 11137 is applied to supply criteria of medical devices for the validation and routine control of radiation sterilization including variability and uncertainty of dosimetry systems. Korean national standards on the food irradiation are significantly different from Codex stan-106 in parts such as the labelling. Therefore, prior to implementation of the labelling on the labelling on irradiated foods starting from year 2010, it is necessary to revise the inconsistent labelling to the reasonable level of international standard for the promotion and reenforcement of competition in industries using radiation processing technology

  15. Development of internal communication management in a digital environment

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Kajan, Dana

    2015-01-01

    This Master’s thesis examines the development possibilities and opportunities in the field of internal communication management in Nordea Bank, a global financial institution, from the perspective of intranet mediated digital communication. Internal communication management in this thesis refers to the strategic framework and practices of governing internal organiza-tional communication. The study has taken a holistic view on the interaction of the digital working environment, internal commun...

  16. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  17. Developing the Internal Service Quality in Organisation Y

    OpenAIRE

    Järvi, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyze the quality of internal service at Organization Y by researching internal customer relationships. The objectives were to identify areas for development and strengths, as well as to make employees aware of the importance of the internal customers. The research problem concerned the extent to which internal service quality should be improved, and if so, the ways in which this could be achieved. Solutions were researched by determining the expectations a...

  18. Evaluation of Vocational Services Provided to Jordanian Disabled People According to International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Oweidi, Alia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the vocational rehabilitation services provided to people with disabilities according to international standards in Jordan. The sample of the study consisted of (56) managers and teachers in four specialized centers in vocational rehabilitation. The findings showed that the compatibility degree ranged

  19. Adopting the international financial reporting standards: a positive impact on 2004 income and consolidated equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides preliminary information on the quantitative impact of transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on AREVA 2004 financial position, in accordance with AMF recommendations regarding financial communications during the transition period.The basis for preparing 2004 information on transition to the IFRS comes from: the International Accounting Standards (IAS)/IFRS, as approved by the European Union. The impact of IAS 32/39 and IFRS 4 will not be recognized in shareholders equity until January 1, 2005; AREVA anticipation of the resolution of technical issues and ongoing projects under discussion by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). Uncertainty factors on practical methods for applying certain standards and ongoing interpretations by IFRIC and regulatory organizations could impact the exactness of restatements identified at this stage. For all of these reasons, it is conceivable that the opening balance sheet at January 1, 2004, as presented in this document, will not be the balance sheet actually used to establish the consolidated financial statements for 2005. (author)

  20. 25 CFR 542.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for card games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for card... card games? (a) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate documentation... and count. The procedures for the collection of the card game drop and the count thereof shall...

  1. Adopting the international financial reporting standards: a positive impact on 2004 income and consolidated equity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallet, O

    2005-03-01

    This document provides preliminary information on the quantitative impact of transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on AREVA 2004 financial position, in accordance with AMF recommendations regarding financial communications during the transition period.The basis for preparing 2004 information on transition to the IFRS comes from: the International Accounting Standards (IAS)/IFRS, as approved by the European Union. The impact of IAS 32/39 and IFRS 4 will not be recognized in shareholders equity until January 1, 2005; AREVA anticipation of the resolution of technical issues and ongoing projects under discussion by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). Uncertainty factors on practical methods for applying certain standards and ongoing interpretations by IFRIC and regulatory organizations could impact the exactness of restatements identified at this stage. For all of these reasons, it is conceivable that the opening balance sheet at January 1, 2004, as presented in this document, will not be the balance sheet actually used to establish the consolidated financial statements for 2005. (author)

  2. INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE MANAGEMENT OF A COMPANY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA - MARIA M?L?ESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The accounting standardization process is in progress at international and regional level, more and more countries have reached the same conclusion of enforcing high quality accounting standards like IAS / IFRS. There are various reasons for Romania adopting the international accounting referential most of them subordinated to its central aim, respectively EU accession. In our country the accounting system is subordinated to the taxation system, financing still comes prevalent from banks and very few Romanian companies are listed on foreign capital markets. Romania is an ex-communist emergent country in wich changes in the economic and political environment merely started only after the end of the communist regime in the early 1990s. Many European companies already observed that by enforcing IFRS standards they have access to international capital markets, they could reduce expenses and unroll international transactions easier. It is improbable that a financial reporting, which is not easy understood by all its users, would offer new business opportunities or additional capital.Therefore, a significant number of companies, either voluntarily enforce IFRS standards, or they are pledged by the government to do this.

  3. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... standards of performance (``NSPS'') for stationary internal combustion engines (ICE) (78 FR 6674). Following... stationary RICE on March 3, 2010, (75 FR 9648) and August 20, 2010 (75 FR 51570). The EPA received petitions... amendments to the RICE NESHAP on January 30, 2013, (78 FR 6674) to address certain issues raised in...

  4. An Exploratory Study of the Perceptions of AACSB International's 2013 Accreditation Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Morgan P.; Franklin, Geralyn McClure; Grimmer, Martin; Heriot, Kirl C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings of an exploratory survey designed to measure AACSB member deans' perceptions about the recently revised 2013 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) Accreditation Standards. In April of 2013, AACSB International released a major revision of its accreditation

  5. The Effect of International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence on U. S. Accounting Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Homer L.; Waldrup, Bobby E.; Shea, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Major changes are coming to U.S. financial accounting and accounting education as U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards (IFRS) converge within the next few years. In 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) published a proposed "road map" for the potential

  6. A Principles-Based Approach to Teaching International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Obeua

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the principles-based approach that emphasizes a "why" question by using the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) "Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting" to question and understand the basis for specific differences between IFRS and U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S.

  7. The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on Accounting Curriculum in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallapragada, RamMohan R.; Toma, Alfred G.; Roe, C. William

    2011-01-01

    According to the time line presently specified by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), business firms in the United States (US) should switch from the existing US accounting reporting guidelines of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by the year 2014. The US business

  8. Determination of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste by spectrophotometry using neodymium as an internal standard for safeguards analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectrophotometric determination using neodymium as an internal standard has been developed for safeguards verification analysis of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste which is produced by the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The method offers reduced sample preparation and analysis time compared to isotope dilution mass spectrometry. It uses neodymium as an internal standard, which allows for determining an index for the authentication of the analytical operation and the instrument conditions. The sample was mixed with a known amount of neodymium as an internal standard. Subsequently, plutonium was quantitatively oxidized to Pu(IV) by the addition of Ce(IV). Plutonium concentration was calculated from a relation between Nd(III)/Pu(IV) molar extinction coefficient ratio and their absorbance ratio. The expanded uncertainty of the repeated analysis of plutonium (n=5) was found to be 15 mg L-1 (confidence interval 95%) for a highly radioactive liquid waste sample (173 mg L-1). The determination limit was calculated to be 6 mg L-1 (ten fold's the standard deviation). This method was validated through comparison experiments with isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The analytical results of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste using this method were agree well with values obtained using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The proposed method was successfully applied for the independent on-site safeguards analysis at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  9. DEVELOPING THE CONCEPTUAL APPROACH TO STANDARDIZATION OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Blinov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes educational standards as the key concept of modern education; their interrelation with the national qualifications system and professional standards being considered. The authors denote the reasons for changing the conceptual approach to the standard developments, and demonstrate the possible ways of educational quality assurance.Diversification and mobility of the modern qualifications along with the fast technological changes affects the educational content and knowledge acquisition, and requires the variable and flexible educational curricula and management. The global development trends, concerning the educational quality standards, involve their orientation on the learning outcomes, which should be taken into account while developing the Federal State Educational Standards of the fourth generation. The authors reveal the structure of the future standard, outline its implementation stages, and demonstrate the mechanism guaranteeing the regulatory legal provision of professional education.

  10. Fixation of Radiological Contamination; International Collaborative Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer

    2013-03-01

    A cooperative international project was conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdoms National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to integrate a capture coating with a high performance atomizing process. The initial results were promising, and lead to further trials. The somewhat longer testing and optimization process has resulted in a product that could be demonstrated in the field to reduce airborne radiological dust and contamination.

  11. Development of the National Bureau of Standards low-energy-photon-emission-rate radioactivity standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Bureau of Standards has recently developed point source low-energy-photon-emission-rate standards of 55Fe, 85Sr, 109Cd and 125I. The standardizations were performed using a defined solid angle, NaI(Tl) spectrometer that can be operated with gas fillings at atmospheric and reduced pressure. The corrections applicable to such a spectrometer have been discussed by W. B. Bambynek

  12. ISO 14000 - the International Environmental Management Standard: Potential impacts on environmental management and auditing in the electric power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of environmental management, the concept of voluntary environmental compliance auditing is not in itself a new development. Environmentally conscious firms have for more than a decade, undertaken voluntary audits to help achieve and maintain compliance with environmental regulations and to help identify and correct unregulated or poorly regulated environmental hazard. The firms undertaking the audits were motivated by a desire to mitigate legal and financial risks and/or the desire to be a highly responsible member of the corporate community. Much of the early attention to environmental auditing was in the chemical process industries. Today, there are four current trends affecting environmental auditing: (1) the practice is becoming widespread in all industry groups in both large and small firms; (2) environmental management and audit methodolgies and approaches are being codified in the form of written national and International standards; (3) environmental management programs and in-house audits are increasingly being certified by independent auditors (who are not associated with regulatory agencies); and (4) the certifications are being viewed as marketing and public relations tools. The adoption of ISO 14000 is destined to become the most significant development in international environmental management and auditing. International standards for the development of Environmental Management Systems and the execution of environmental audits do not currently exist. Individual countries, such as England and France, have national standards. One multi-national standard currently exists--the European Economic Community's Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). The United States does not have a national environmental management and auditing standard

  13. International standard problem No 30 beta test V5.1 on core concrete interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition of International Standard Problem (ISP) Exercises organized by OECD-CSNI is the systematic comparison between experimental and analytical results for a given physical problem, especially in the field of nuclear safety. For the analytical simulation, only computer code should be considered which are used or planned to use in designing an licensing of nuclear plants. The calculations for a standard problem are generally performed best estimate with or without previous knowledge of the experimental results. The detailed comparison of the results permits the determination of the reliability and precision of analytical models as well as guidance for the selection of code options and input parameters. Moreover it contributes to an intensive international know how exchange between the parties involved. Suggested by OECD-CSNI and sponsored by the German Ministry for Research and Technology the open International Standard Problem No. 30 was carried out on the basis of the molten core-concrete interaction experiment BETA V 5.1. The special objective of this experiment is to investigate the influence of high Zr metal content in a steel melt interacting with a siliceous concrete crucible. Seven organization from five countries submitted their results for ISP30. They used the codes CORCON and WECHSL for the thermal-hydraulic calculation and VANESA for the aerosol release. ISP30 is the second ISP on molten core-concrete aspects. The first one was ISP24 performed in 1988, which dealt with the SURC (Sustained Urania-Concrete) - 4 test conducted at Sandia National Laboratory. Molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) can occur during a core meltdown accident in light water reactors if the core debris penetrates the reactor vessel lower head and is deposited onto the concrete basement. This results in four major consequences which are essential for risk evaluation: - Pressure increase of containment atmosphere due to gas release, - accumulation of burnable gases in the containment, especially H2 and CO, - release of aerosol and fission products from the melt, - melting and erosion of the basement and other important internal containment structures. In test BETA V 5.1 particular interest is given to the oxidation process of Zr. While earlier chemical modelling considers Zr oxidation by gases (H2O, CO2) only the SURC-4 experiment identified the existence of a so-called condensed phase chemistry that is the Zr oxidation by reduction of SiO2. This situation leads to the following objectives of ISP30: - Contribution to the development, improvement and assessment of computer codes for MCCI and aerosol release. - Improvement of the understanding of the physical and chemical phenomena involved: thermal-hydraulic behavior of metallic melt with high zirconium content, zirconium chemistry esp. in the condensed phase, two dimensional concrete erosion, aerosol release. The comparison of the analytical and experimental data yields to the observation that, in general, the calculations give the right tendency of the experimental results. Some important variables, however, show significant discrepancies between each other and from the experimental results. Since the experimental results were known to the participants prior to the calculation the reason for the discrepancies is mainly due to deficiencies in the physical models. The calculated temperature of the metallic melt deviates from the measurement in some important aspects. While the early temperature drop of the WECHSL calculations agrees reasonably with the measured temperature shape, WECHSL over-predicts the long term freezing temperature of the metal by about 100 K. CORCON predicts a much slower temperature drop than measured. The calculated results for the melt composition differ considerably between the different calculations. The main reason is the Zr-reaction in the condensed phase, which only three participants took into account. VANESA over-predicts the early aerosol rates but gives satisfactory agreement after the depletion of Zr metal is calculated. A detailed comparison of

  14. Concept of Draft International Standard for a Unified Approach to Space Program Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryzhak, Y.; Vasilina, V.; Kurbatov, V.

    2002-01-01

    For want of the unified approach to guaranteed space project and product quality assurance, implementation of many international space programs has become a challenge. Globalization of aerospace industry and participation of various international ventures with diverse quality assurance requirements in big international space programs requires for urgent generation of unified international standards related to this field. To ensure successful fulfillment of space missions, aerospace companies should design and process reliable and safe products with properties complying or bettering User's (or Customer's) requirements. Quality of the products designed or processed by subcontractors (or other suppliers) should also be in compliance with the main user (customer)'s requirements. Implementation of this involved set of unified requirements will be made possible by creating and approving a system (series) of international standards under a generic title Space Product Quality Assurance based on a system consensus principle. Conceptual features of the baseline standard in this system (series) should comprise: - Procedures for ISO 9000, CEN and ECSS requirements adaptation and introduction into space product creation, design, manufacture, testing and operation; - Procedures for quality assurance at initial (design) phases of space programs, with a decision on the end product made based on the principle of independence; - Procedures to arrange incoming inspection of products delivered by subcontractors (including testing, audit of supplier's procedures, review of supplier's documentation), and space product certification; - Procedures to identify materials and primary products applied; - Procedures for quality system audit at the component part, primary product and materials supplier facilities; - Unified procedures to form a list of basic performances to be under configuration management; - Unified procedures to form a list of critical space product components, and unified procedures to define risks related to the specific component application and evaluate safety for the entire program implementation. In the eyes of the authors, those features together with a number of other conceptual proposals should constitute a unified standard-technical basis for implementing international space programs.

  15. Standards development in the assessment of radiological contamination of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present standards available on sampling, measuring, analyzing, and assessing the presence of radionuclides in soil are reviewed. The review includes the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Environmental Methods Task Group's standards on soil sampling, sample preparation, and radionanalysis; US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radiological contamination at formerly utilized sites and remedial action programs; the Health Physics draft guide for assessment of radiation doses from plutonium and americium in soils; and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) guidelines for residual radiological contamination assessment. Draft standards under development and personel observations concerning the need for further standard development are also discussed

  16. UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AS A MEANS FOR REGIONAL INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia DONCHENKO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Programs of international cooperation in higher education claim to promote peace and intercultural understanding, contribute to development of efficient human resources as well as research and innovation. For centuries, universities were centers of progress that ensure community’s development. Processes of globalization, internationalization, rapid development of information technology transform the mission of university, challenging modern universities to join forces to meet growing needs of knowledge society. The European Higher Education Area is continuously working to reduce mismatch of skills between the workforce and labor market. International cooperation in education has fundamental potential for reducing economic disparity. Ukrainian government views higher education as a means of growth and development and considers international activity pivotal in responding to global and regional change and achieving world quality standards of education. The aim of this paper is to explore potential of international cooperation in higher education in globalized world by examining selected international projects and their outcomes.

  17. Developing Standards-Based Geography Curricular Materials from Overseas Field Experiences for K-12 Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Alex; Palacios, Fabian Araya

    2012-01-01

    Overseas experiences provide educators with exceptional opportunities to incorporate field study, firsthand experiences, and tangible artifacts into the classroom. Despite this potential, teachers must consider curricular standards that direct how such international endeavors can be integrated. Furthermore, geography curriculum development is more

  18. New nuclear technology; International developments. Review 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary review of the development of new nuclear rector technology is presented in this report. Fuel cycle strategies and waste handling developments are also commented. Different plans for dismantling nuclear weapons are presented. 18 refs

  19. ACCURACY OF MRI IN DIAGNOSING THE INTERNAL DERANGEMENT OF KNEE JOINT WITH ARTHROSCOPY AS REFERENCE STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of MRI knee joint in diagnosing the internal derangement of knee with arthroscopy as reference standard. Internal derangement of knee refers to a group of disorder involving disruption of the normal functioning of the ligaments or menisci of knee joint. It can be traumatic or degenerative. MRI is most commonly indicated in patients with suspected injuries of the menis ci and ligaments. This prospective study was done in the department of radiodiagnosis , KMCT medical college. In this study 150 patients suspected to have internal derangement of knee were included. MRI knee and arthroscopy were done in all cases. MRI had a diagnostic accuracy of 88% in ACL injuries , 93% in PCL injuries , 88% in medial meniscal injuries and 91% in lateral meniscal injuries. MRI is highly accurate in diagnosis of ligament and meniscal injuries and it can replace diagnostic arthroscopy in patie nts with internal derangement of knee.

  20. Development of standard solutions for the Minergie standard; Standardloesungen - Entwicklung von Standardloesungen fuer den Minergie-Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissille, L.; Huber, T.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines a project that aimed to define standard solutions for use in buildings built to meet Minergie low energy consumption standards. These standard solutions are to provide a way of meeting Minergie standards in an easy way and thus further the use of the standard and also assure quality at the same time. The report describes how the solutions were developed on the basis of a selection of existing Minergie buildings. For various combinations of heating systems - wood, wood/solar, heat pumps (brine-water and air-water), gas/solar and oil/solar - the appropriate U-values for various building elements are listed. The resulting Minergie forms and guides are listed.