WorldWideScience

Sample records for developing international standards

  1. ISO: international standards development for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of internationally recognized standards for nuclear technology and safety is rapidly increasing for technical as well as economical and political reasons such as public acceptance and nuclear technology transfer to developing countries. The need for such standards is also evident because of the large number of nuclear installations sited close to international borders, and the export of nuclear installations from relatively few supplier countries to a large number of user countries. It is the purpose of this report to describe briefly the history, organizational structures and procedures, goals, accomplishments, problems, and future needs of the relevant activities of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO is composed of the partly governmental, partly non-governmental national standards bodies of 86 countries including China. The work of its Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' is mostly concerned with industrial applications, contractual aspects and international communication, for the benefit of both developed and developing countries. It works in close liaison with IAEA, which develops Codes and Guides addressed mainly to the regulatory aspects of nuclear power plants in developing countries. ISO/TC 85 has four sub-committees dealing with: (a) Terminology, Definitions, Units and Symbols (Secretariat USA, four working groups (WGs)); (b) Radiation Protection (Secretariat France, ten WGs); (c) Power Reactor Technology (Seten WGs); (c) Power Reactor Technology (Secretariat Sweden, nine WGs); (d) Nuclear Fuel Technology (Secretariat F.R. Germany, seven WGs). (author)

  2. IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological safety of the equipment. The main characteristics of IEC 62463 and IEC 62523 standards are presented and as well as the IEC methodology of standard development and approval

  3. Probabilistic safety assessment and development of international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The questions discussed are taken from Section 5 of Topical Issue Paper: Risk Informed Decision Making. Is there sufficient guidance for the preparation of high quality PSAs? Is there a need for an international standard for PSAs? Is PSA methodology sufficiently developed to support 'risk informed' regulation, e.g. treatment of rare events, modelling of human failure, severe accident management, organizational factors? Is PSA methodology sufficiently developed to model new reactor designs that are more dependent on passive safety features? How is it possible to ensure that operators are in a position to develop, use and maintain living PSAs and risk/safety monitors to support risk informed' decisions? What actions should be taken by the IAEA to support the introduction of 'risk informed' decision making, e.g. as related to the areas of the development of international standards, harmonization of criteria, compilation and dissemination of experience, and education and training?

  4. Sustainability and International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisdorph, David

    This paper describes the need for courses that link standards and sustainability and reviews an Oklahoma State University Environmental Science graduate course in Sustainability and International Standards. The course conveys the importance of voluntary international standards, such as from ASTM International or the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to sustainability. The curriculum uses an innovative experiential learning approach whereby students research and develop a standard using the ASTM International process. One driven student joined ASTM International and worked to see her class project catalyze the publication of ASTM E 2348 Guide for Framework for a Consensus-Based Environmental Decision-Making Process.

  5. THE ADOPTION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES- The Case of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Antwi, Kofi

    2010-01-01

    Most countries in the world have revolutionized their accounting practices especially during the last few decades of the 21st century. Such revolutions encompass the adoption and adaptation of local accounting practices and harmonizing it with that of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) – formerly International Accounting Standards (IAS). The study seeks to analyze how developing countries and in particular Ghana adopted the International Financial Reporting Standards. Th...

  6. International Standardization and Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz

    1991-01-01

    The paper develops a two country overlapping generations model of product improvement innovation to analyze the evolution of incompatible standards among countries. The paper emphasizes the welfare tradeoff between international standardization of products and the frequency of product improvement innovations. The paper classifies and evaluates various government standardization policies according to their objectives.

  7. Occupational Standards: International Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joao, Ed.

    These nine papers from a conference of the International Research Network for Training and Development focus on occupational classification, standards, and certification. "Introduction" (Joao Oliveria) presents synopses with highlights from the papers. Part I offers an overview of recent developments in the United States in "Occupational Standards

  8. Commercial versus Internally Developed Standardized Tests: Lessons from a Small Regional School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjicharalambous, Costas

    2014-01-01

    The author compares the efficacy of commercially available and internally developed standardized tests and evaluates their strengths and weakness in assessing student learning outcomes. The author shares the experience of a regional school in developing a standardized test to assess business knowledge. Data from a sample of 268 students were used…

  9. The developments of international hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards and the response strategies in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of hydrogen and fuel cells has expanded as the technology in international markets has improved. Leading countries have focused on establishing hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards. Both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) continuously release new hydrogen and fuel cell related standards. Although the government of Taiwan is promoting the development of a hydrogen and fuel cell industry, it may delay the commercialized schedule if there are no hydrogen and fuel cell related standards and regulations in place. Standards and regulations must be established as quickly as possible in order to accelerate the progress of the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. This presentation reviewed the international progress in hydrogen and fuel cell development and explained Taiwan's response strategies regarding the adoption of hydrogen and fuel cell products in niche Taiwanese markets

  10. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  11. Development of an international standard for electromagnetic interference (EMI)/radio frequency interference (RFI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarylov, V. [EMC Test Center, NUIT, FSUE RIPT, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shumov, S. [FSUE SEC SNIIP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Quinn, E. [ANS, Dana Point, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper covers the development of an international standard that establishes the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility testing of instrumentation and control equipment supplied for use in systems important to safety at nuclear power plants. The standard lists the applicable IEC standards (principally the IEC 61000 series) which define the general test methods, and provides the necessary application-specific parameters and criteria to ensure that nuclear safety requirements are met. This standard was prepared with the leadership by the Russian National Committee representatives to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). (authors)

  12. Development of an international standard for electromagnetic interference (EMI)/radio frequency interference (RFI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the development of an international standard that establishes the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility testing of instrumentation and control equipment supplied for use in systems important to safety at nuclear power plants. The standard lists the applicable IEC standards (principally the IEC 61000 series) which define the general test methods, and provides the necessary application-specific parameters and criteria to ensure that nuclear safety requirements are met. This standard was prepared with the leadership by the Russian National Committee representatives to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). (authors)

  13. Standardising through concepts: scientific experts and the international development of the HACCP Food Safety Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Demortain, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with international standard-setting. Using the HACCP food safety standard as the basis of discussion, this paper considers the influence of scientific experts on the regulatory process. What is usually referred to as the diffusion or dissemination of soft or voluntary standards is here explained in terms of transferability of a regulatory concept. It is the ability of scientific experts to transform practices into a universal concept and, conversely, to develop technologies f...

  14. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'

  15. Developing international safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme to create a corpus of internationally accepted Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS), focus is currently being placed on establishing standards for the 'geological disposal of radioactive waste'. This is a challenging task and to help the standards development process there is a need to stimulate discussion of some of the associated scientific and technical issues. A number of position papers developed in recent years by a subgroup of the Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal, address many of the relevant issues. These include a common safety based framework for radioactive waste disposal, appropriate time frames for safety assessment, different possible indicators of long-term safety, the safety implications of reversibility and retrievability, the assessment of possible human intrusion into the repository, the role and limitations of institutional control, establishing reference critical groups and biospheres for long-term assessment, and what is meant by 'compliance' with the standards. These papers will be discussed at a Specialists Meeting to be held at the IAEA in June 2001 as a means of establishing the extent to which they enjoy the general support of experts. In order to broaden that consensus, the conclusions reached at the Specialists Meeting on the issues listed above will be presented and discussed with participants at a number of international meetings. Later this year, a draft safety standard on the geological disposal of radioactive waste which takes account of the consensus positions reached through the various consultations will be submitted for the consideration of Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the officially approved body within the IAEA for the review and approval of waste safety standards. The Committee is made up of government appointed radioactive waste regulators. Subsequent steps include the provision of formal comments by governments, final approval by WASSC, and by the IAEA's Commission on Safety Standards (CSS) and finally by the IAEA's Board of Governors. (author)

  16. International standards for the exploration and production industry -- Their development and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single global market for procurement is of crucial importance to the E and P industry. The resulting benefits, including cost reductions and shorter delivery times, could even be the key to the economic development of marginal fields. International Standards that cater for the needs of users, manufacturers and the public at large can provide a common basis for companies to procure and provide goods and services that will deliver the required performance throughout the field life. The savings to industry could be billions of dollars per year. The E and P Forum, on behalf of the industry, has developed proposals to increase the efficiency of this managerial procedure and to speed up the ''internationalization'' of selected standards. Details are given at the end of the paper. It is argued that the E and P industry should rally to the cause of international standardization. Companies should lend their full support by committing their valuable expert resources. It is in the interests of the industry to do this for, without suitably skilled expert representation in ISO and the elimination of duplication as well as waste of resources through performing similar work at company or national level, the large potential benefits of international standardization will elude the E and P industry

  17. International standards for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of history, current status and possible future developments in the field of international nuclear standards, with emphasis on the relevant activities of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). After a brief history of standardization in general and description of the 'hierarchy' of legal and technical nuclear standars, the reasons for international nuclear standardization and the efforts of various international organizations in this field are described, in particular the Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' of ISO (with tables of its organization, output and projects); the TC 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC); the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Program, and some other international organizations. Finally, some problems in this important and difficult field which remain to be solved are being discussed. (orig.)

  18. Development and pilot of an internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management in European primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szecsenyi Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care can play an important role in providing cardiovascular risk management in patients with established Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD, patients with a known high risk of developing CVD, and potentially for individuals with a low risk of developing CVD, but who have unhealthy lifestyles. To describe and compare cardiovascular risk management, internationally valid quality indicators and standardized measures are needed. As part of a large project in 9 European countries (EPA-Cardio, we have developed and tested a set of standardized measures, linked to previously developed quality indicators. Methods A structured stepwise procedure was followed to develop measures. First, the research team allocated 106 validated quality indicators to one of the three target populations (established CVD, at high risk, at low risk and to different data-collection methods (data abstraction from the medical records, a patient survey, an interview with lead practice GP/a practice survey. Secondly, we selected a number of other validated measures to enrich the assessment. A pilot study was performed to test the feasibility. Finally, we revised the measures based on the findings. Results The EPA-Cardio measures consisted of abstraction forms from the medical-records data of established Coronary Heart Disease (CHD-patients - and high-risk groups, a patient questionnaire for each of the 3 groups, an interview questionnaire for the lead GP and a questionnaire for practice teams. The measures were feasible and accepted by general practices from different countries. Conclusions An internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management, linked to validated quality indicators and tested for feasibility in general practice, is now available. Careful development and pilot testing of the measures are crucial in international studies of quality of healthcare.

  19. Development Of International Data Standards For The COSMOS/PEER-LL Virtual Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, J. N.

    2005-12-01

    The COSMOS -PEER Lifelines Project 2L02 completed a Pilot Geotechnical Virtual Data Center (GVDC) system capable of both archiving geotechnical data and of disseminating data from multiple linked geotechnical databases. The Pilot GVDC system links geotechnical databases of four organizations: the California Geological Survey, Caltrans, PG&E, and the U. S. Geological Survey The System was presented and reviewed in the COSMOS-PEER Lifelines workshop on June 21 - 23, 2004, which was co-sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and included participation by the United Kingdom Highways Agency (UKHA) , the Association of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Specialists in the United Kingdom (AGS), the United States Army Corp of Engineers (USACOE), Caltrans, United States Geological Survey (USGS), California Geological Survey (CGS), a number of state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), county building code officials, and representatives of academic institutions and private sector geotechnical companies. As of February 2005 COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Project 2L03 is currently funded to accomplish the following tasks: 1) expand the Pilot GVDC Geotechnical Data Dictionary and XML Schema to include data definitions and structures to describe in-situ measurements such as shear wave velocity profiles, and additional laboratory geotechnical test types; 2) participate in an international cooperative working group developing a single geotechnical data exchange standard that has broad international acceptance; and 3) upgrade the GVDC system to support corresponding exchange standard data dictionary and schema improvements. The new geophysical data structures being developed will include PS-logs, downhole geophysical logs, cross-hole velocity data, and velocity profiles derived using surface waves. A COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Geophysical Data Dictionary Working Committee constituted of experts in the development of data dictionary standards and experts in the specific data to be captured are presently working on this task. The international geotechnical data dictionary and schema development is a highly collaborative effort funded by a pooled fund study coordinated by state DOTs and FHWA. The technical development of the standards called DIGGS (Data Interchange for Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Specialists) is lead by a team consisting of representatives from the University of Florida, Department of Civil Engineering (UF), AGS, Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA), UKHA, Ohio DOT, and COSMOS. The first draft of DIGGS is currently in preparation. A Geotechnical Management System Group (GMS group), composed of representatives from 13 State DOTs, FHWA, US EPA, USACOE, USGS and UKHA, oversees and approves the development of the standards. The ultimate goal of both COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Project 2L03 and the international GMS working group is to produce open and flexible, GML-compliant XML schema-based data structures and data dictionaries for review and approval by DOTs, other public agencies, and the international engineering and geoenvironmental community at large, leading to adoption of internationally accepted geotechnical and geophysical data transfer standards. Establishment of these standards is intended to significantly facilitate the accessibility and exchange of geotechnical information world wide.

  20. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process. Fourth, sufficient program resources for program implementation and evaluation are critical to the effectiveness of standards and labeling programs and cost-sharing between national and local governments can help ensure adequate resources and uniform implementation. Lastly, check-testing and punitive measures are important forms of enforcement while the cancellation of registration or product sales-based fines have also proven effective in reducing non-compliance. The international comparative analysis also revealed the differing degree to which the level of government decentralization has influenced S&L programs and while no single country has best practices in all elements of standards and labeling development and implementation, national examples of best practices for specific elements do exist. For example, the U.S. has exemplified the use of rigorous analyses for standard-setting and robust data source with the RECS database while Japan?s Top Runner standard-setting principle has motivated manufacturers to exceed targets. In terms of standards implementation and enforcement, Australia has demonstrated success with enforcement given its long history of check-testing and enforcement initiatives while mandatory information-sharing between EU jurisdictions on compliance results is another important enforcement mechanism. These examples show that it is important to evaluate not only the drivers of different paths of standards and labeling development, but also the country-specific context for best practice examples in order to understand how and why certain elements of specific S&L programs have been effective.

  1. Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Developing Countries: The Case of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkadir Madawaki

    2012-01-01

    The study focused on the adoption process of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on adeveloping economy, with particular reference to Nigeria. The paper is based on the data obtained from literaturesurvey and archival sources in the context of the globalization of International Financial Reporting and theadoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).Nigeria has embraced IFRS in order toparticipate in the benefits it offers, including attracting foreign direct i...

  2. International hearing protector standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4...

  3. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance in impulse noise, protectors with active noise reduction). Furthermore, an overview of the present European standards (CEN) and the relation to American and Australian/New Zealand standards will be discussed.

  4. Public participation and the private sector : the role of multilateral development banks in the evolution of international legal standards

    OpenAIRE

    Bradlow, Daniel David; Chapman, Megan S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper systematically describes the public participation standards currently applied by multilateral development banks (MDBs) to the private sector and seeks to identify emerging trends and areas for further development or improvement. It begins by outlining the developing body of international law on public participation and its relationship to good development practice. Thereafter, the paper describes the two principle models for standards attached to MDB funding and assistance to the p...

  5. Radiation protection instrumentation standards developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' of the IEC produces International Standards defining the requirements to which the instrumentation used for the radiation protection must satisfy. The compliance to these requirements is a guaranty of the quality of the instrument, of its good performance in the nuclear environment. Type testing equipment to the recommendations and requirements of the standards also provides the equipment user with reliable and internationally acceptable performance data which they can use for the accurate interpretation and comparisons of their operational measurements. The list of the published SC 45B standards is given in this paper. (author)

  6. Advantages and difficulties of implementation of the international GNA standards in sustainable mining development. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Conflicts in the development of mining projects are now common between the mining proponents, NGO's and communities. These conflicts can sometimes be alleviated by early development of modes of communication, and a formal discussion format that allows airing of concerns and potential resolution of problems. One of the methods that can formalize this process is to establish a Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA), which deals specifically with challenges in relationships between mining operations and the local communities. It is a new practice related to mining operations that are oriented toward social needs and concerns of local communities that arise during the normal life of a mine, which can achieve sustainable mining practices in both developing and developed countries. The GNA project being currently developed at the University of Nevada, Reno in cooperation with the Newmont Mining Corporation has a goal to create an open company/community dialog that is based on the international standards and that will help identify and address sociological and environmental concerns associated with mining, as well as find methods for communication and conflict resolution. GNA standards should be based on trust doctrine, open information access, and community involvement in the decision making process. It should include the following components: emergency response and community communications; environmental issues, including air and water quality standards; reclamation and recultivation; socio-economic issues: transportation, safety, training, and local hiring; and financial issues, particularly related to mitigation offsets and community needs. The GNA standards help identify and evaluate conflict criteria in mining/community relationships; determine the status of concerns; focus on the local political and government systems; separate the acute and the chronic concerns; determine the role and responsibilities of stakeholders; analyze problem resolution feasibility; maintain the community involvement and support through economic benefits and environmental safeguards; develop options for the concerns resolution; develop and manage short and long-term plans. Difficulties in establishing the GNA standards include identification of the full list of stakeholders, lack of responsible environmental protection practices, dependence on the government and political system, lack of will to disclose full information to the public. It is further complicated by the lack of insurance/bonding policies, and by the lack of audit and monitoring that could determine the level of exposure of the local community and the environment to the contaminants released at the mine sites. Since many problems of mines can occur during closure and post-closure, GNA's should address those issues also. Determined the process for the GNA implementation as a conflict prevention/resolution tool, analyzed conflict/concerns criteria associated with mining operations, determined the role of the stakeholders, worked out the process of stakeholders monitoring, carried out the sociological survey of the stakeholders and the community. Frequent conflicts between mining companies and surrounding communities that lead to work disruptions or even mine closures show the necessity of a less confrontational approach to environmental and social justice. Establishment of GNA standards for use in both developed and developing nations can decrease these conflicts.

  7. Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Developing Countries: The Case of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Madawaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the adoption process of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS on adeveloping economy, with particular reference to Nigeria. The paper is based on the data obtained from literaturesurvey and archival sources in the context of the globalization of International Financial Reporting and theadoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS.Nigeria has embraced IFRS in order toparticipate in the benefits it offers, including attracting foreign direct investment, reduction of the cost of doingbusiness, and cross border listing. In implementing IFRS Nigeria will face challenges including the developmentof a legal and regulatory framework, awareness campaign, and training of personnel. Recommendations weremade to forestall such challenges which include strengthening education and training, establishment of anindependent body to monitor and enforce accounting and auditing standards.

  8. Standardized efficiency. Further development of international standardization of efficiency classes of electric motors and drive systems; Genormte Energieeffizienz. Aktuelle Weiterentwicklung der internationalen Normung zu Wirkungsgradklassen von Elektroantrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponick, Bernd [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebssysteme und Leistungselektronik

    2011-07-01

    The international standardization of efficiency classes for electric motors and the efficiency legislation of the European Union based on this standardization have already influenced the development of standard motors for industrial applications significantly. On initiative of the European Commission, the next edition of the respective standard, which is currently elaborated, will incorporate also other types of electrical machines into the system of efficiency classes, which is currently restricted to standard cage induction motors. In a parallel standardization project, a new system of efficiency classes for converter fed power drive systems is being developed. These activities have important consequences for the development of new series of electric motors and the further development of electrical drive technology for industrial applications, which are discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  9. International standards for electric disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Courtois, E. [Hydro-Quebec, Shawinigan, PQ (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation provided a definition of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), reviewed disturbances, such as flicker, overvoltage, harmonics, imbalance, dips and sags, and relevant standards, outlined a scheme of how electromagnetic standards should be applied, discussed target areas, including the environment, emissions, immunity, the International Electrotechnical Commission`s (IEC) 61000 standards structure, the status of EMC standards in Canada, Hydro-Quebec standards and EMC, and other relevant standards on EMC. The lack of compatibility and the differences in acceptance levels of the various standards have been identified as a major source of the problems and the increasing cost incurred by industry as a result of lost production. The importance of EMC standards is that they have been developed specifically to provide the information needed to obtain an appropriate level of compatibility between electricity supply and demand. Existing problems could be resolved if everyone played their respective parts. figs.

  10. Protection of emergency workers and helpers: recent developments in international standards in emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. IAEA safety requirements in preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, were endorsed in 2002 in a joint sponsorship of seven international intergovernmental organizations. Building on experience from responses to actual emergencies, these safety requirements set common goals to be achieved and the common concepts and approaches to be taken for an adequate preparedness to effectively respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency irrespective of the cause. Ensuring an adequate protection of emergency workers is an important aspect of emergency arrangements considered in this publication. In 2011, a revision of these safety requirements was initiated in order to take into account past experience and developments since 2002 with due consideration (but not limited to) the experience gained in the emergency response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Protection of emergency workers got particular attention during this revision in the light of the lessons identified in past emergencies resulting in strengthened and more comprehensive, yet simple, system for protection of emergency workers of different organizations and services. The revised safety requirements are expected to be published in 2015 as Part 7 of the General Safety Requirements (GSR Part 7) within the IAEA Safety Standards Series. In this presentation, the latest updates and developments with regard to emergency workers in the light of the revision of the Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 are presented. Issues such as who are to be considered as emergency workers, the importance of their designation prior to an emergency, how to deal during an emergency response with those emergency workers not recognized as such at preparedness stage, protection aspects to be considered for all emergency workers and dose criteria to be used for restricting their further exposures in an emergency response are addressed. The specifics associated with the protection of female emergency workers are also highlighted. Moreover, the approach to dealing and protecting helpers on the part of the public willing to contribute to the emergency response on a voluntarily basis is covered in this presentation too. (author)

  11. Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Triple Bottom Line Reports Using International Standards on Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouloudis, Antonis; Evangelinos, Konstantinos; Kourmousis, Fotis

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. First, evaluation scoring systems for triple bottom line (TBL) reports to date are examined and potential methodological weaknesses and problems are highlighted. In this context, a new assessment methodology is presented based explicitly on the most widely acknowledged standard on non-financial reporting worldwide, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The set of GRI topics and performance indicators was converted into scoring criteria while the generic scoring devise was set from 0 to 4 points. Secondly, the proposed benchmark tool was applied to the TBL reports published by Greek companies. Results reveal major gaps in reporting practices, stressing the need for the further development of internal systems and processes in order to collect essential non-financial performance data. A critical overview of the structure and rationale of the evaluation tool in conjunction with the Greek case study is discussed while recommendations for future research on the field of this relatively new form of reporting are suggested.

  12. Development of an evaluation methodology for triple bottom line reports using international standards on reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouloudis, Antonis; Evangelinos, Konstantinos; Kourmousis, Fotis

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. First, evaluation scoring systems for triple bottom line (TBL) reports to date are examined and potential methodological weaknesses and problems are highlighted. In this context, a new assessment methodology is presented based explicitly on the most widely acknowledged standard on non-financial reporting worldwide, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The set of GRI topics and performance indicators was converted into scoring criteria while the generic scoring devise was set from 0 to 4 points. Secondly, the proposed benchmark tool was applied to the TBL reports published by Greek companies. Results reveal major gaps in reporting practices, stressing the need for the further development of internal systems and processes in order to collect essential non-financial performance data. A critical overview of the structure and rationale of the evaluation tool in conjunction with the Greek case study is discussed while recommendations for future research on the field of this relatively new form of reporting are suggested. PMID:19495861

  13. On the International Convergence of Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Boka Moussa

    2010-01-01

    The international convergence of accounting standards has become a hot topic in the international accounting field.The convergence is an irreversible developing trend of accounting internationalization development that began many years ago.Accounting,as a world-wide accepted business language,should naturally move towards internationalization.This paper discusses the international convergence of accounting standards focusing on its development stages,necessity and analyse the international st...

  14. On the International Convergence of Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boka Moussa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The international convergence of accounting standards has become a hot topic in the international accounting field.The convergence is an irreversible developing trend of accounting internationalization development that began many years ago.Accounting,as a world-wide accepted business language,should naturally move towards internationalization.This paper discusses the international convergence of accounting standards focusing on its development stages,necessity and analyse the international status.

  15. Selected Lessons Learned through the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews selected lessons that were learned during the design, development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. The critical importance of standards and common interfaces is emphasized to create a common operation environment that can lead to flexibility and adaptability.

  16. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  17. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently set up a Metadata Working Group to take responsibility for standards for specification and management of metadata. The scope of the Working Group includes metadata elements, classification and coding schemes, a...

  18. Standards in the international telecommunications regime

    OpenAIRE

    Werle, Raymund

    2001-01-01

    Technical standards in telecommunications – the central focus of this paper - were traditionally developed by official government accredited or intergovernmental organizations. In the last two decades, however, private forums and consortia of standardization have evolved which initiated a shift from a predominantly technical to a business approach to standards-setting. The business perspective also guides the evaluation of standards in trade policy at the European and at the international lev...

  19. International standards for cost-optimized space missions and infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, Merle

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of international standards is essential for the success of multiagency space missions. Here, two key areas for international standardization are proposed: the development of standards for infrastructure and the development of multiagency standards. Such standards will ultimately enable cost-optimized small missions as well as a cost-optimized superset of space infractructures.

  20. Nuclear standardization development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  1. International aerospace standards - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J. L.

    1983-10-01

    Factors to be considered in adopting and extending international standards in the U.S. aerospace industry are reviewed. Cost-related advantages and disadvantages of standardization are weighed, and further obstacles are identified in the English/metric rivalry and the pacing of metrification. The problem of standard duplication is examined, and the issue of revenues from the sale of copyrighted documents describing standards is addressed. It is recommended that international metric-system standards be introduced, with proper timing, wherever possible, and that prompt negotiations be undertaken to prevent or resolve document-sales disagreements. The continuation of English-system standards for safety-related cockpit readouts and communications systems is suggested.

  2. Study and development of methodologies for qualification of waste products in repositories according to international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the processes to treat dangerous wastes is to immobilise them in cement. At CDTN/CNEN some researches are carried out on cementation in order to establish process parameters, materials, and equipment, aiming at the safe disposal of these wastes, protecting of the human being and the environment of possible risks. To establish the compressive strength of cemented products is important because it implies in its suitability for handling, transportation and storage without risks for the human bodies or environment. It is urgent to obtain the certification of the compressive strength test providing reproducible, trustful and suitable results, mainly to assure its traceability. At Cementation Laboratory (LABCIM/CDTN) the certification process of the compressive strength was begun in the year 2000. It was completed the necessary adequacies, the staff training, and the first internal audit. It is previewed for the current year another internal audit, the external audit, and the certification request. (author)

  3. Standardizing products for the international NSSS market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse has responded to international differences in nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) design requirements by developing generic designs that meet particular national requirements to varying degrees. These standardized products represent a composite of the most common safety requirements in the international market. The way in which Westinghouse has coped with some of the obstacles to supplying nuclear equipment to meet the requirements of an international market with many national differences is discussed. (author)

  4. Room to Groove? : Standards of Civilization in the Development of International Financial Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    The use of a `standard of civilization', a preferred form of socio-political organization, in global capital markets presents both constraints and opportunities for creditors and borrowers. When imposed, civilizing standards may change how a borrower would prefer to conduct their affairs. Creditors, after all, do not have the time and money to check every little detail and want clear performance benchmarks in economic life. At the same time, borrowers may present themselves as conforming to a civilizing standard to access capital and give themselves a greater capacity to conduct their own affairs. As long as they stay within the parameters of legitimate financial practice to signal institutional isomorphism, the `groove', creditors may well allow borrowers room for change in self-determined ways. This paper maps out the historical and conceptual terrain concerning civilizing ideas about the legitimacy of financial practices within global capital markets, and investigates relationships between Western `civilizers' and Emerging Market Economies during the last two periods of financial globalization, the late-nineteenth/ early-twentieth centuries and the late-twentieth century.

  5. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing

  6. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing. (author)

  7. Adoption determinants of the International Accounting Standards IAS/IFRS by the developing countries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fatma, Zehri; Jamel, Chouaibi.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este documento es identificar ciertos factores que probablemente esclarezcan la opción de aplicar IAS/IFRS adoptadas por los países en desarrollo hasta el año 2008. Basados en una muestra de 74 países en desarrollo, los resultados empíricos han demostrado que la mayoría de e [...] llos probablemente tienen un alto nivel de crecimiento económico, junto con un sistema jurídico de derecho consuetudinario y un nivel de educación avanzado. Abstract in english This paper’s main objective is to identify certain explanatory factors that likely clarify the choice of applying IAS/IFRS adopted by developing countries (DCs) up until the year 2008. Based on a sample consisting of 74 DCs, the empirical results have indicated that the DCs most likely to adopt IAS/ [...] IFRS have a high level of economic growth, along with a legal system of common law and an advanced educational level.

  8. Accounting Management by International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeno Beke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards – their contribution to harmonization andglobalization by purposing and tasking for accounting management. Measuring in details their pros and conseffects on the division of labour, financial innovation, company transactions and cost of capital it could beauthor’s recommendation for the business management inside and outside of one country’s border. Especiallythe multinational companies whose subsidiaries had to report for some purposes (e.g. tax, local borrowing,benchmarking using national accounting rules convert and consolidate their different framework for unifiedfinancial statement where they were listed. With the growth of international business transactions by private andpublic entities, organizations the need to coordinate different investment decisions has increased. A suitableaccounting information system can help multinational enterprises accomplish their managerial functions on aglobal basis. In this viewpoint the adoption of international accounting standards can promote and support forthe business management.

  9. Internal emitter research and standard setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of the use of data from internal emitter research in the derivation of safety standards is reviewed. At first, observed biological effects were correlated with body burdens or exposure levels. This direct approach is illustrated by detailed accounts of the cases of uranium and plutonium. In the 1950's, when it was decided to provide standards for over 200 isotopes, the direct approach was replaced by a system of calculations. This necessitated changes in internal emitter research programs to provide metabolic data, and the development of models such as Reference Man and the Lung and Gastrointestinal Tract models. The continuing contribution of internal emitter research to standard setting can be seen in the references quoted in the metabolic data section of the new ICRP report (ICRP Publication 30). Present trends suggest a possible return to the direct use of internal emitter effects data for obtaining risk estimates. (U.K.)

  10. Internal standard capillary electrophoresis as a high-throughput method for pKa determination in drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabot, Joan M; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí

    2014-10-13

    A novel high-throughput method for determining acidity constants (pKa) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) is developed. The method, based on the use of an internal standard (IS-CE), is implemented as a routine method for accurate experimental pKa determination of drugs undergoing physicochemical measurements in drug discovery laboratories. Just two electropherograms at 2 different pH values are needed to calculate an acidity constant. Several ISs can be used in the same buffer and run to enhance precision. With 3 ISs, for example, the pKa of the test compound (TC) can be obtained in triplicate in less than 3 min of electrophoresis. It has been demonstrated that the IS-CE method eliminates some systematic errors, maintaining, or even increasing the precision of the results compared with other methods. Furthermore, pH buffer instability during electrophoretic runs is not a problem in the IS-CE method. It is also proved that after 16 h of electroseparation using the same buffer vial, pH may change by around one unit; but the pKa calculated by the IS-CE method remains constant. Thus, IS-CE is a powerful high-throughput method for pKa determination in drug discovery and development. PMID:25170674

  11. International standard for design basis threat (DBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A design basis threat (DBT) has been used by the United States since the 1970's as a basis for the design of a facility physical protection system, a basis for the evaluation of the facility physical protection system, and as a standard against which to compare the continuously changing threat. In the last two years substantial effort has been made to develop an international standard for the development of a design basis threat. This approach is the result of a year's worth of discussions between the United States, Germany, United Kingdom, France, and most recently the Russian Federation. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supported these discussions and the resulting process, which culminated in a three day workshop on the development of a state DBT. The IAEA was directly involved in this process due to the latest revision of INFCIRC 225, which recommends the use of a DBT in the state physical protection regime. This international standard for the development of a DBT is a significant milestone in the international community. This was necessary because Sandia National Laboratory had developed material for a 'DBT Workshop', and a standard, international approach had to be established before the workshop could be finalized and the instructional material provided to the IAEA for general use. This paper presents a summary of the new international approach to the creation and use of a design basis threat. The paper describes how a DBT is created within a state. This paper also explains the advantages and disadvantages of using this internationalized approach to the DBT. Each state may, of course, choose to modify their use of the DBT to better fit their culture, technical experience of the facilities and authorities, and strengths and weaknesses of their regulatory systems. The internationalized version of the creation and use of the DBT is a major milestone in the international effort of the United States and the IAEA, and this paper is a summary of that milestone. (author)

  12. Accounting Management by International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards – their contribution to harmonization andglobalization by purposing and tasking for accounting management. Measuring in details their pros and conseffects on the division of labour, financial innovation, company transactions and cost of capital it could beauthor’s recommendation for the business management inside and outside of one country’s border. Especiallythe multinational companies whose subsidiaries had to report...

  13. Operations of TESLA VUPJT standardization centre in international standardization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The centre is primarily involved in technical standardization management in the sector Instruments for detection, measurement and control of radioactive radiation. It is responsible for compiling sector and state standards, for international standardization activities, for the introduction, observance and application of technical standards, participation in the preparation of new technology, for quality and metrology control, and for securing the enterprise metrology tasks. Within international standardization activities it mainly cooperates with CMEA and the IEC TC 45 commission. (J.B.)

  14. International heat stress standards: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, K C

    1995-01-01

    Heat stress indices are included in international standards to provide methods and limits for the design, assessment and control of hot thermal environments. Indices used in standards are described with particular reference to those in ISO standards concerned with the ergonomics of the thermal environment. ISO 7243 provides a simple method for assessing and controlling hot environments based upon the WBGT (web bulb globe temperature) index. ISO 7933 describes an analytical method of assessment of hot environments based upon the human heat balance equation and the calculation of the required sweat rate index (Sreq). This standard is discussed in detail with particular consideration of its use in practical application. The method has been evaluated in both laboratory and industrial contexts. Limitations of the standards and areas where further development is required, are presented. PMID:7875120

  15. Development of Accounting and Financial Reporting For Small and Medium-Sized Businesses in Accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Klychova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This publication considers accounting procedures and financial data reporting by small and medium sizebusinesses in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. It studies different IFRSinfluence zones in small and medium size businesses. The present study offers the following information: adefinition for “small and medium sized business”; a model of financial accounting and reporting proceduralguidelines for Russian small and medium sized businesses; approaches to creating an accounting system toprepare IFRS-based financial statements; an algorithm to transform small and medium sized businesses’accounting statements in accordance with IFRS requirements.

  16. National and International Standardization (International Organization for Standardization and European Committee for Standardization) Relevant for Sustainability in Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Morbiducci; Marina Fumo; Guri Krigsvoll

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability in construction has a short history in terms of principles, standardizations and applications. From the Brundtland Report “Our Common Future”, a new vision of the resource deficits, climate impacts and the social responsibility gave growth to the idea of sustainability also in design and construction. Consequently, in around 2000, the international and national organizations for standardization started to develop standards for the application of sustainable principles. This...

  17. Study of International Standards of Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykan Volodymyr L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management, are of general character and differ with the degree of detailing. Their undoubted value in development of risk management in Ukraine is identification of a general direction of building corporate systems of risk management in practice. The said approaches at the national and corporate levels of standardisation in Ukraine within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management would allow improvement of risk management in corporations and enterprises. The prospect of further studies of domestic specialists in the field of risk management is development of the domestic standard of risk management with consideration of modern domestic specific features of development of risk management in Ukraine and leading foreign experience.

  18. National and International Standardization (International Organization for Standardization and European Committee for Standardization Relevant for Sustainability in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Morbiducci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in construction has a short history in terms of principles, standardizations and applications. From the Brundtland Report “Our Common Future”, a new vision of the resource deficits, climate impacts and the social responsibility gave growth to the idea of sustainability also in design and construction. Consequently, in around 2000, the international and national organizations for standardization started to develop standards for the application of sustainable principles. This paper gives an overview of existing and planned standards, and examples on how to use them as a framework for the development of methods and tools for assessment.

  19. Standardization of procurement: National or international?

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, W; Laryea, S.

    2009-01-01

    The ISO has issued a Draft International Standard on construction procurement and the British Standards Institute is drafting a standard based upon this for use in the UK. Three questions arise from these observations. First, what kind of consultation processes would be adequate to ensure that such a standard meets the requirements of an industry as diverse as construction? Second, why would an international standard be inappropriate for use in a country like UK? Third, what sort of issues sh...

  20. Toward an International Standard for PCR-Based Detection of Food-Borne Thermotolerant Campylobacters: Assay Development and Analytical Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Lübeck, P S; Wolffs, P.; On, S. L. W.; Ahrens, P.; Rådström, P.; Hoorfar, J

    2003-01-01

    As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene were tested in all possible pairwise combinations, as well as two published primers targeting the 23S rRNA gene. A panel of 150 strains including target an...

  1. Towards an international standard for PCR-based detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacters: assay development and analytical validation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lübeck, P S; Wolffs, Petra; On, S L; Ahrens, P.; Rådström, Peter; Hoorfar, J

    2003-01-01

    As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene were tested in all possible pairwise combinations, as well as two published primers targeting the 23S rRNA gene. A panel of 150 strains including target and nontarget strains was used in ...

  2. Status and Value of International Standards for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provides an update to the author's standards report provided at the ICNC-2007 meeting. It includes a discussion about the difference between, and the value of participating in, the development of international 'consensus' standards as opposed to nonconsensus standards. Standards are developed for a myriad of reasons. Generally, standards represent an agreed upon, repeatable way of doing something as defined by an individual or group of people. They come in various types. Examples include personal, family, business, industrial, commercial, and regulatory such as military, community, state, federal, and international standards. Typically, national and international 'consensus' standards are developed by individuals and organizations of diverse backgrounds representing the subject matter users and developers of a service or product and other interested parties or organizations. Within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Technical Committee 85 (TC85) on nuclear energy, Subcommittee 5 (SC5) on nuclear fuel technology, there is a Working Group 8 (WG8) on standardization of calculations, procedures, and practices related to criticality safety. WG8 has developed, and is developing, ISO standards within the category of nuclear criticality safety of fissionable materials outside of reactors (i.e., nonreactor fissionable material nuclear fuel cycle facilities). Since the presentation of the ICNC-2007 report, WG8 has issued three new finali07 report, WG8 has issued three new finalized international standards and is developing two more new standards. Nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards. The progression of consensus standards development among international partners in a collegial environment establishes a synergy of different concepts that broadens the perspectives of the members. This breadth of perspectives benefits the working group members in their considerations of consensus standards developments in their own countries. A testament to the value of the international standards efforts is that nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards and are mainly consistent with international ISO member domestic standards.

  3. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise experimental data and improved developments in the methodology of analysis and evaluation. Initial efforts to produce a new evaluation were made by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group which formed a Task Force. It was realized that international cooperation would be needed to produce the evaluation. The Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee formed a Subgroup, and the International Atomic Energy Agency formed a Coordinated Research Project (CRP). These groups worked cooperatively to improve the evaluation process. The major effort in producing the evaluation was through the CRP. The evaluations of the neutron cross section standards were finalized in October 2005. Previous difficulties experienced with a data evaluation problem known as "Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle" create biases in the fit of correlated data, and they have been addressed to reduce this phenomenon. The new evaluations of the cross section standards also include covariance matrices of the uncertainties that contain fully justifiable values. The product of this international effort has been adopted as the neutron standards for ENDF/B-VII.0.

  4. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, hase obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise experimental data and improved developments in the methodology of analysis and evaluation. Initial efforts to produce a new evaluation were made by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group which formed a Task Force. It was realized that international cooperation would be needed to produce the evaluation. The Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee formed a Subgroup, and the International Atomic Energy Agency formed a Coordinated Research Project (CRP). These groups worked cooperatively to improve the evaluation process. The major effort in producing the evaluation was through the CRP. The evaluations of the neutron cross section standards were finalized in October 2005. Previous difficulties experienced with a data evaluation problem known as 'Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle' create biases in the fit of correlated data, and they have been addressed to reduce this phenomenon. The new evaluations of the cross section standards also include covariance matrices of the uncertainties that contain fully justifiable values. The product of this international effort has been adopted as the neutron standards for ENDF/B-VII.0.

  5. Developing standardized facility contingency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texaco consists of several operating departments that are, in effect, independent companies. Each of these departments is responsible for complying with all environmental laws and regulations. This includes the preparation by each facility to respond to an oil spill at that location. For larger spills, however, management of the response will rest with corporate regional response teams. Personnel from all departments make up the regional teams. In 1990, Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act. In 1991, the US Coast Guard began developing oil spill response contingency plan regulations, which they are still working on. Meanwhile, four of the five west coast states have also passed laws requiring contingency plans. (Only Hawaii has chosen to wait and see what the federal regulations will entail). Three of the states have already adopted regulations. Given these laws and regulations, along with its corporate structure, Texaco addressed the need to standardize local facility plans as well as its response organization. This paper discusses how, by working together, the Texaco corporate international oil spill response staff and the Texaco western region on-scene commander developed: A standard contingency plan format crossing corporate boundaries and meeting federal and state requirements. A response organization applicable to any size facility or spill. A strategy to sell the standard contingency plan and response organization to the operating unitse operating units

  6. 77 FR 32444 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...and San Diego, California, on April 5, 2012...internal control standards (MICS) for Class...established by the standards of this part, as...Determination of tier. (1) The determination...per week. This standard does not apply to...two agents. For Tier C operations,...

  7. Smart radiation monitors as per international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nuclear Reactors and accelerators, a large number of radiation monitors, typically 50 or more networked Area gamma monitors and Neutron Monitors indicating ambient dose rate equivalent H(10) and Fluence are required for Health physics and radiation protection. ECIL has developed (with BARC support) and supplied various Monitors like Neutron REM Monitors (NRM100, NRM 200) to RRMD BARC, Area Gamma Monitor, Neutron Flux Monitor, to VECC for accelerator radiation safety and. Radiological protection cannot be assured without adhering to regulatory requirements and international standards relating to radiological protection instrumentation. NRM 200 has been developed as per guidelines mentioned in IEC 61005 complying with calibration requirements, EMC/EMI requirements, Statistical fluctuation in firmware, Environmental tests and seismic qualification. The NRM 100 is a Battery Powered portable version of the NRM200. The Instruments consist of BF3 Neutron Detector, mounted within the moderator and associated electronics consisting of Charge sensitive Pre-Amplifier and Amplifier circuit, Processing unit, Low Voltage Supply and High Voltage supply. The Dose Equivalent Rate is presented on Analog meter as well as on LCD in digital format. NRMs are featured to display Accumulated Dose, Settable Dose Equivalent Rate Alarm level, Isolated 4-20mA Current Output, and Isolated RS485 Communication. These Units are planned for accreditation at International labs also. (auteditation at International labs also. (author)

  8. European and International Standards on health and safety in welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes- Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone - Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

  9. Review international standards for grid connected photovoltaic systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grid connected PV is being applied on variety application including large centralised stations, commercial building and individual houses. There is a need for specific standard to address distinctive new issue created by grid connected PV power system. Internationally many countries are attempting to develop standards for building integration, Dc side issues and grid connection issues. This paper surveys the current development state of the major countries standards in this area, comparing and contrasting, standards and guideline under development, also addressing the need of standards for grid connected in Malaysia

  10. International Business Accounting Standardization and Hungarian Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeno Beke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. This paper showed that both businesses earnings and stock returns effect on the management turnover. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to adopt international accounting standards. Sensitivity of CEO turnover to accounting earnings increased after the adoption of international system. Businesses with higher leverage and lagged sales growth have more frequent employee layoffs. Standards user enterprises’ employee layoffs are more response to accounting performance in the post-adoption period.

  11. Diffusion of the international creditor reference standard

    OpenAIRE

    Aalto, Aleksi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine which perceived attributes of the Diffusion of Innovations theory affect the diffusion of the international creditor reference standard and to what extent. The purpose of the international creditor reference standard, RF, is to automate the reconciliation of the payment to the invoice. The automation of reconciliation is believed to lead to cost savings and mistake reduction. In order to determine the potential adopters' views on RF, an academic study on ...

  12. International Business Accounting Standardization and Hungarian Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe and summarize the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. This paper showed that both businesses ...

  13. Business management by international accounting standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeno Beke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards - their contribution to harmonization and globalization by purposing and tasking for business management. The differences between the national accounting rules and the international standards are compared and valued inside and outside of the European Union. The empirical results of measuring and analyzing in details theirs pros and cons effects on the business environment by mathematical-statistical methods there could be the author’s recommendation for the businesses’ management.

  14. Business management by international accounting standards

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards - their contribution to harmonization and globalization by purposing and tasking for business management. The differences between the national accounting rules and the international standards are compared and valued inside and outside of the European Union. The empirical results of measuring and analyzing in details theirs pros and cons effects on the business environment by mathematical-statistical methods there could be ...

  15. Solar standards and testing activities in developed and developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytlinski, J. T.; Connell, H. L.

    Solar standards and testing activities in developed and developing countries are described in detail. The process of setting up solar standards in the United States is presented. Testing activities in the United States in the areas of flat-plate solar collectors, photovoltaic cells, solar materials and equipment, solar systems and wind machines are discussed and technical details concerning some of the testing facilities are provided. Solar standards and related testing activities in other countries are also discussed. The importance of solar standards and testing in setting up a healthy international solar market and in establishing a uniform base for solar technology transfer from developed to developing countries is pointed out.

  16. Standards: An international framework for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA, uniquely among international organizations concerned with the use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy, has statutory functions to establish safety standards and to provide for their application in Member States. The IAEA also contributes towards another major element of the 'global safety culture', namely the establishment of legally binding international agreements on safety related issues. (author)

  17. Improved nuclear safety through international standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, S. R.; Moffitt, R. L.; Taylor, T. T.; Trosman, G.

    2000-05-01

    In this shrinking world, what happens in an industry in one country can significantly affect the same industry elsewhere around the globe. In April 1986, a nuclear accident destroyed Unit 4 of Ukraine's Chernobyl nuclear power plant, focusing worldwide attention on the dozens of Soviet-designed reactors still in operation. The Chemobyl accident led to public concerns about all operating nuclear power plants and, in some countries (e.g., Italy and Sweden), to proposals for nationwide plant closures or moratoriums on new construction. However, for most former Soviet Union countries, plant shutdown was and still is not a viable option—the plants produce a significant percentage of each nation's total electricity, and those countries do not have sufficient economic resources to develop alternative power sources. In cooperation with similar programs initiated in Canada, Japan, and western European countries, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive effort to reduce risks at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants until they can be shut down or brought into compliance with international standards. This paper describes DOE-supported initiatives with participating host countries to: • improve reliability and accuracy of nondestructive evaluation equipment used for in-service inspection • transfer technologies and infrastructure to improve in-service inspections • enhance management systems for training and certifying host-country in-service inspection personnel The goal of these initiatives to enhance the use of international standards (ASME, ASNT, European Standards EN, and ISO) in operating and regulatory practices at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants.

  18. International Standards of Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    L. Stanislavská; K. Margarisová,; K. Štastná

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with internationally acknowledged standards and norms in the sphere of corporate socialresponsibility. It introduces the concept of social responsibility, the so-called triple-bottom line, in terms ofwhich the company focuses not only on the economic growth but it also takes into account environmental andsocial aspects of its business activities. The article presents five norms and standards which stem from the triplebottomline concept. The norms and standards are in the art...

  19. Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standard...

  20. Evaluation of uranium and plutonium internal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two internal standards have been synthesized and evaluated for application in mass spectrometric analysis of uranium. Each standard is a mixture of highly enriched 233U and 236U. One is used to refine 235U/238U ratio measurements and the other for isotope dilution applications. An internal standard consisting of a mixture of 242Pu and 244Pu has been characterized for use in plutonium analyses. Precisions obtainable on pulse-counting instruments have been improved to about 0.1%. 21 refs., 13 tabs

  1. International Financial Reporting Standards : Expanding Standards, Expanding Geographically, Expanding Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range of educational texts covering IFRS within the context of a review of the progress of IFRS themselves.

  2. Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeno Beke

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. The results of applied regression model support that the greater demand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to performance evaluations at more widely held by businesses stimulating to adopt international accounting standards. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to follow accounting standardization.Key words: Business practice; Accounting standards; Standardization process; Management performances; Comparable research; Hungary

  3. Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeno Beke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. The results of applied regression model support that the greater demand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to performance evaluations at more widely held by businesses stimulating to adopt international accounting standards. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to follow accounting standardization.
    Key words: Business practice; Accounting standards; Standardization process; Management performances; Comparable research; Hungary

  4. Standards development status. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Standards Development Status Summary Report is designed for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the process by which Regulatory Standards, Guides, Reports, Petitions, and Environmental Statements are written. It is a summary of the current schedule plans for development of the above products

  5. Development of cost-effective standards for Earth observation spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, Andrea M.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1989-01-01

    A program to accomplish a technical interdisciplinary approach to international standards development is described. Working groups include: remote sensing spacecraft, sensing system, operations, and communication and data systems. Additionally, the software reliability and international liaison working groups are discussed.

  6. Building SAWE Capability as an ANSI Accredited Standards Developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Ed; Peterson, Eric; Griffiths, William T.; Brooks, Andy; Stratton, Bonnie; Attar, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a 2014 status of the Society of Allied Weight Engineers' process towards becoming an Accredited Standards Developer (ASD) under certification by the United States American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Included is material from the committee's 2013 International presentation, current status, and additional general background material. The document strives to serve as a reference point to assist SAWE Recommended Practice and Standards developers in negotiating United States Standards Strategy, international standards strategy, and the association of SAWE standards and recommended practices to those efforts. Required procedures for SAWE to develop and maintain Recommended Practices and ANSI/SAWE Standards are reviewed.

  7. EPA STANDARDS NETWORK FACT SHEET: ISO 14000: INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This flyer provides an overview of the ISO 14000 series of International standards, supplying a brief history, structure of the Technical Committee (TC) 207, structure of the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to ISO TC-207, status of the Standards development as of June 1997, w...

  8. Advancements in internationally accepted standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcommittees of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) are developing standards on various aspects of radiation processing. Nine standards on how to select and calibrate dosimeters, where to put them, how many to use, and how to use individual types of dosimeter systems have been published. The group is also developing standards on how to use gamma, electron beam, and X-ray facilities for radiation processing, and a standard on how to treat dose uncertainties. Efforts are underway to promote inclusion of these standards into procedures now being developed by government agencies and by international groups such as the United Nations' International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in order to harmonize regulations and help avoid trade barriers. Standards on good irradiation practices for meat and poultry and for fresh fruits, and for the irradiation of seafood and spices have been developed. These food-related standards are based on practices previously published by ICGFI. Standards for determining doses for radiation hardness testing of electronics have been developed. Standards on the Fricke and TLD dosimetry systems are equally useful in other radiation processing applications. (Author)

  9. Development and progress of Ireland's biobank network: Ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI), standardized documentation, sample and data release, and international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Blanaid; Gaffney, Eoin; Glynn, Sharon A; Donatello, Simona; Carroll, Paul; Connolly, Elizabeth; Garrigle, Sarah Mc; Boyle, Terry; Flannery, Delia; Sullivan, Francis J; McCormick, Paul; Griffin, Mairead; Muldoon, Cian; Fay, Joanna; O'Grady, Tony; Kay, Elaine; Eustace, Joe; Burke, Louise; Sheikh, Asim A; Finn, Stephen; Flavin, Richard; Giles, Francis J

    2013-02-01

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James's Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents-Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups-Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media. PMID:24845249

  10. Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mee, Blanaid

    2013-02-19

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James\\'s Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents—Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups—Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media.

  11. Domestic and International Nuclear Energy Voluntary Consensus Standards Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report introduces the reader to the domestic and international standards development organizations (SDOs) and their structures and operations. It also identifies some of the support and subject matter needs for the development of standards on the subject of nuclear energy. The support needs are described with regard to organizational structure and subject-matter-expert (SME) participation that is required for producing voluntary consensus standards. The subject matter needs are described with regard to growing technologies and objectives that approach the boundaries of existing standards; implementation of knowledge; and safety of people, facilities, and the environment. Standards are proposed, developed, and produced by SMEs with the support of industry and government organizations. The voluntary consensus standards development process is, as its name implies, a voluntary effort. The problem in today's competitive market, impacted by global economic uncertainty, is that the voluntary participation is shifting from a collaborative industry and SME effort to a nearly SME-only one. This shift places a financial and/or time burden on the SMEs to the point that they are purposely withdrawing from the standards development process, both domestically and internationally. The standards development process desperately needs participation from more and younger SMEs. The report includes several suggestions on how this can be addressed.sed.

  12. 77 FR 36984 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ...financial and budgetary issues. Prior to the...applications from international non-governmental...Dorian LaFond, International Standards Coordinator...Agricultural Marketing Service, U...Dorian LaFond, International Standards Coordinator...Agricultural Marketing...

  13. Minimum quality standards and international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which a domestic and a foreign firm are identical except that the foreign firm faces positive transport costs. Asymmetric information generates a market failure, which the government attempts to alleviate with a MQS. It is found that although firms face the exact same costs of compliance, they will generally prefer different levels of regulation. As a result, international trade disputes are likely to arise even when regulation is non-discriminating.

  14. An international effort towards developing standards for best practices in analysis, interpretation and reporting of clinical genome sequencing results in the CLARITY Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownstein, Catherine A; Beggs, Alan H

    2014-01-01

    Background : There is tremendous potential for genome sequencing to improve clinical diagnosis and care once it becomes routinely accessible, but this will require formalizing research methods into clinical best practices in the areas of sequence data generation, analysis, interpretation and reporting. The CLARITY Challenge was designed to spur convergence in methods for diagnosing genetic disease starting from clinical case history and genome sequencing data. DNA samples were obtained from three families with heritable genetic disorders and genomic sequence data were donated by sequencing platform vendors. The challenge was to analyze and interpret these data with the goals of identifying disease-causing variants and reporting the findings in a clinically useful format. Participating contestant groups were solicited broadly, and an independent panel of judges evaluated their performance. Results : A total of 30 international groups were engaged. The entries reveal a general convergence of practices on most elements of the analysis and interpretation process. However, even given this commonality of approach, only two groups identified the consensus candidate variants in all disease cases, demonstrating a need for consistent fine-tuning of the generally accepted methods. There was greater diversity of the final clinical report content and in the patient consenting process, demonstrating that these areas require additional exploration and standardization. Conclusions : The CLARITY Challenge provides a comprehensive assessment of current practices for using genome sequencing to diagnose and report genetic diseases. There is remarkable convergence in bioinformatic techniques, but medical interpretation and reporting are areas that require further development by many groups.

  15. Working Towards Accreditation by the International Standards Organization 15189 Standard: How to Validate an In-house Developed Method an Example of Lead Determination in Whole Blood by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Hejl, Carine; Ramirez, Jose Manuel; Vest, Philippe; Chianea, Denis; Renard, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Laboratories working towards accreditation by the International Standards Organization (ISO) 15189 standard are required to demonstrate the validity of their analytical methods. The different guidelines set by various accreditation organizations make it difficult to provide objective evidence that an in-house method is fit for the intended purpose. Besides, the required performance characteristics tests and acceptance criteria are not always detailed. The laboratory must choose the most suita...

  16. 1998 Annual Study Report. New industry supporting type international standard development program (Comprehensive survey); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo (sogo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Summarized herein are results of the survey on a total of 13 themes for international standardization. These themes are for standardization of (1) color control, (2) securing interoperability between optical disk systems, (3) digital image processing for home digital electronic appliances, (4) securing interconnectability between home electronic information appliances, (5) production process systems, (6) testing and evaluation methods for fine ceramic materials for communications, (7) evaluation methods for high-temperature properties of new glass melts, (8) corrosion testing and evaluation methods for surface-treated steel plates, (9) testing and evaluation methods for high-purity titanium, (10) testing and evaluation methods for plastic optical fibers, (11) evaluation methods for high-strength, large-size steel pipe characteristics for superhigh-pressure natural gas pipelines, (12) methods for measuring mileage of hybrid electric vehicles, and (13) methods for determining recycle ratios of automobile components. This comprehensive survey also includes overseas trends for the standardization, establishment/expansion of the international standardization processes, and standardization for determining recycle ratios of home electric appliances. (NEDO)

  17. The international basic safety standards (the BSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Safety Standard SS115: International Basic Safety Standards for the Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources was published in 1996. Following a review of the BSS in 2005-2006, the revision of SS115 started in 2007. The revision of the BSS was coordinated by a BSS Secretariat consisting of representatives of the IAEA, FAO, EC, ILO, UNEP, PAHO, WHO and NEA/OECD. The BSS takes into account the findings of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the 2007 recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP), the ICRP Statement on Radon that was issued in November 2009, and the ICRP Statement on Tissue Reactions that was released in May 2011. A draft of the revised BSS was submitted to the Member States of the IAEA and of the potential cosponsoring organizations in early 2010 for comment. More than 1500 comments were received. The BSS was approved by the IAEA Safety Standards Committees in late 2010, by the Commission on Safety Standards in May 2011, and by the IAEA Board of Governors on 12 September 2011. The presentation will focus on the main changes to the BSS from the 1996 edition, and on the key issues encountered during the revision of the BSS.

  18. International Standards of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stanislavská

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with internationally acknowledged standards and norms in the sphere of corporate socialresponsibility. It introduces the concept of social responsibility, the so-called triple-bottom line, in terms ofwhich the company focuses not only on the economic growth but it also takes into account environmental andsocial aspects of its business activities. The article presents five norms and standards which stem from the triplebottomline concept. The norms and standards are in the article briefly characterised, which is followed by theircomparison based on four previously stated criteria. The results of the comparison show that there is no suchnorm which would meet current company requirements.This paper resulted from contribution to a research project IGA FEM CULS 201011140057 "ModernManagement Approaches in the Field of Higher Education in the Czech Republic"

  19. Development of plant assessment standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future of nuclear power in the United Kingdom depends on the building of new plant. In order to secure that future, nuclear power must gain public and political confidence in terms of both safety and cost. It is therefore important that Nuclear Electric plc (NE), who operates the majority of nuclear power plants in the UK, maintains its impeccable safety record. It is also very important in the current climate to drive down costs in order for the electricity produced by NE's existing power stations to be lower than that from fossil fuels. Therefore, in view of the pressure to demonstrate compliance with modern safety standards at existing nuclear power stations, it is important that any financial investments should be targeted at cost/safety benefit effective areas. The paper outlines the history of the development of plant safety assessment standards in the company and how the current framework is allowing NE to approach modern safety standards in an effective manner. NE operates 11 gas cooled nuclear power plants, with ages ranging from 6 to 31 years. Early reactors in the UK were not designed against detailed standards. Initially, this was not a problem, but, as more complex designs were introduced, the debate with the regulator over the adequacy of the design led to modifications and costly delays. Design safety guidelines were developed for later reactors and used as a contractual specification of the safety requirements. This has proved to be a successful apnts. This has proved to be a successful approach for the latest stations at Heysham 2 and Sizewell B. The standards that NE has developed for reviewing the safety of its operating stations are consistent with the standards of the regulatory authorities. These standards provide a systematic framework for targeting areas for any safety improvement and demonstrating that risk are as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), in a way that ensures that NE, and hence also the consumer, gets value for money. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs

  20. International Development Project Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mike

    This interdisciplinary classroom exercise from GreenApps at Red Rocks Community College presented by Mike Smith and Irina Strelnikova is designed for second year or experienced students in Water Quality technician programs. Each student is â??given insight into the needs for planning for an International Development project in water, wastewater, collection system, distribution system, or solid waste management.â?? Students are then required to pick from a list of locations to find development need and create a planning project. This site contains materials required, prerequisite skills necessary, and a breakdown of the activity by role.

  1. Standardization of information systems development processes and banking industry adaptations

    CERN Document Server

    Tanrikulu, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms of compliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards to determine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into system development and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected. Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classical Waterfall life cycle model. Each question is made up of guidance and suggestions from the international system development standards. To collect data, people from the information technology departments of three major banks in Turkey were interviewed. Results have been aggregated by examining the current process status of the three banks together. Problematic issues were identified using the international system development standards.

  2. International standardization of instruments for neutron irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JMTR in JAEA and HANARO in KAERI are the foremost testing/research reactors in the world and these are expected to contribute to many nuclear fields. As a part of instrument development in irradiation field, information exchange of instruments started from 2010 under the cooperation agreements between KAERI and JAEA. The instruments developed in JMTR and HANARO are introduced and cooperation experiments as future plan are discussed for international standardization. (author)

  3. Russian seismic standards and demands for equipment and their conformity with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle regulations of standard documents concerning seismic safety of NPPs and demands for reactor equipment conformity with international standards are presented in this report. General state of NPP safety standards is reviewed, with a special emphasis on the state of seismic design standards for NPP equipment and piping. Russian standards documents on seismic resistance of NPPs and requirements are compared to international ones

  4. International Economic Development Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the International Economic Development Council (IEDC), was created through the merger of existing economic development organizations, effectively creating the nation's largest association working in this realm of public policy. The IEDC's mission is "to provide leadership and excellence in economic development for our communities, members and partners to build economically strong, sustainable communities." While some of the online materials are available only to association members, there is a good deal of material that may be accessed by the general public. Through the online resource center, visitors may access such materials as the Economic Developer's Reference Guide (which provides an overview of such key topics as tourism, venture capital, and empowerment zones) and an overview of ongoing legislative matters that may impact the landscape of economic development. Finally, the site is rounded out by an excellent section dedicated to brownfields redevelopment, which includes a general manual of redevelopment techniques and links to external websites, such as those offered by the Environmental Protection Agency.

  5. Development of standard reference samples for diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, samples of standard reference materials for diffractometry of polycrystals were developed. High-purity materials were submitted to mechanical and thermal treatments in order to present the adequate properties to be used as high-quality standard reference materials for powder diffraction, comparable to the internationally recognized produced by the USA National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST, but at lower costs. The characterization of the standard materials was performed by measurements in conventional X-ray diffraction diffractometers, high resolution neutron diffraction and high-resolution synchrotron diffraction. The lattice parameters were calculated by extrapolation of the values obtained from each X-ray reflection against cos2? by the Least-Squares Method. The adjustments were compared to the values obtained by the Rietveld Method, using program GSAS. The materials thus obtained were the ?-alumina, yttrium oxide, silicon, cerium oxide, lanthanum hexaboride and lithium fluoride. The standard reference materials produced present quality similar or, in some cases, superior to the standard reference materials produced and commercialized by the NIST. (author)

  6. International Standards on stability of digital prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent uives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

  7. International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

    2010-03-01

    The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

  8. International standardization of nuclear reactor designs - the way forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian [CORDEL Group, World Nuclear Association (WNA), 22a St James' s Square, London SW1Y 4JH (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The concept of 'International Standardization of Nuclear Reactor Designs' means that vendors could build their designs in every country without having to adapt it specifically to national safety requirements. Such standardization would have two main effects. It would greatly facilitate nuclear new build worldwide by giving greater efficiency and certainty to the national licensing procedures; by taking into account the fact that vendors, and nowadays also utilities, are active across borders; by helping developing countries to establish their nuclear new build programmes; and by reducing the strain on human resources on both the regulators' and the industry's side. The second valuable effect of standardization would be to further enhance safety by improving the exchange of construction and operating experience among a number of reactors belonging to fleets of the same design. The World Nuclear Association's CORDEL (Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing) Group has developed a concept for implementation of international standardization of reactor designs. It has defined a number of steps to be taken by industry. At the same time, possibilities offered by national and international regulatory mechanisms would have to be fully made use of, and some changes in regulatory frameworks might be necessary. Some steps especially towards greater cooperation of regulators have already been taken; however, much still remains to be done. The concept of deploying standardized reactor designs across a number of countries supposes an alignment and, if possible, harmonization of national safety standards; a streamlining of national licensing procedures, making them more efficient and predictable; and the willingness of national regulators to take into account licensing done in other countries. In the end, this should lead to a mutual acceptance of design approvals or, in a more distant future, even to a multinational design approval process. All in all, the concept of standardized reactor designs raises many challenges, but these will have to be tackled. (authors)

  9. International standardization of nuclear reactor designs - the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of 'International Standardization of Nuclear Reactor Designs' means that vendors could build their designs in every country without having to adapt it specifically to national safety requirements. Such standardization would have two main effects. It would greatly facilitate nuclear new build worldwide by giving greater efficiency and certainty to the national licensing procedures; by taking into account the fact that vendors, and nowadays also utilities, are active across borders; by helping developing countries to establish their nuclear new build programmes; and by reducing the strain on human resources on both the regulators' and the industry's side. The second valuable effect of standardization would be to further enhance safety by improving the exchange of construction and operating experience among a number of reactors belonging to fleets of the same design. The World Nuclear Association's CORDEL (Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing) Group has developed a concept for implementation of international standardization of reactor designs. It has defined a number of steps to be taken by industry. At the same time, possibilities offered by national and international regulatory mechanisms would have to be fully made use of, and some changes in regulatory frameworks might be necessary. Some steps especially towards greater cooperation of regulators have already been taken; however, much still remains to be done. The concept of deploying stas to be done. The concept of deploying standardized reactor designs across a number of countries supposes an alignment and, if possible, harmonization of national safety standards; a streamlining of national licensing procedures, making them more efficient and predictable; and the willingness of national regulators to take into account licensing done in other countries. In the end, this should lead to a mutual acceptance of design approvals or, in a more distant future, even to a multinational design approval process. All in all, the concept of standardized reactor designs raises many challenges, but these will have to be tackled. (authors)

  10. A perspective on the recent developments in international financial reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Dima, Stefana Maria; David, Delia

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to provide a synopsis of the recent international financial reporting developments as well as to identify some of the related worldwide implications. The unprecedented joint activity of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and US Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has caused, in the last decade, a series of debates on whether or not International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) represent what is best of the international acco...

  11. Updated comparison of international standards for polymer piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Responding to a request by ASME B31 Committee, Code for Pressure Piping, to assist in the development of guidelines for establishing uniform manufacturing and design requirements for plastic piping, the Committee on Polymers for Pressure Components of the Pressure Vessel Research Council, initiated a literature survey and interpretive study on plastic piping. This paper discusses existing methods used for designing plastic piping systems and their components by comparing major international codes and standards. The study recognizes that thermoplastic and reinforces thermosetting resins require different design criteria. ASME standards reviewed include ASME B31.3, B31.1, RTP-1 and Section X of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes. Particular emphasis was given to ASME B31.3 Code for Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping. Chapter VII of the ASME B31.3 Code covers non-metallic piping and metallic piping lined with non-metals and establishes much of the design basis for non-metallic piping design covered in other Sections of the B31 Code. ASTM documents discussed are limited to those referenced in ASME B31. British Standard Code for glass reinforced plastics piping system, BS7159, as well as, the German standard for thermoplastic piping systems DVS2210 were used for comparison to U.S. Standards. A cursory review of other standards is also included for the development of a uniform industry standard for plastic piping systems. (authors). (authors)

  12. Vietnamese Accounting Reform and International Convergence of Vietnamese Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    AnhTuan Nguyen; Guangming Gong

    2012-01-01

    Due to the economic globalization, the international convergence of accounting standards is inevitable. But thelevel of economic globalization in among of countries are not the same. There are some differences inaccounting environment in the countries. This paper studies international convergence of Vietnamese accountingstandards. Firstly, the paper summarizes of the process of Vietnam's accounting reform, second analysisdifferences between Vietnamese accounting standards and International ac...

  13. Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mee, Blanaid; Gaffney, Eoin; Glynn, Sharon A.; Donatello, Simona; Carroll, Paul; Connolly, Elizabeth; Mc Garrigle, Sarah; Boyle, Terry; Flannery, Delia; Sullivan, Francis J.; Mccormick, Paul; Griffin, Mairead; Muldoon, Cian; Fay, Joanna; O Grady, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James's Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents—Patient Consent Policy, P...

  14. The development of consensus standards on dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcommittee E10.01 open-quotes Dosimetry for Radiation Processingclose quotes of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), comprised of 165 diverse experts from 45 countries, is developing standards on dosimetry for radiation processing. Eight standards will be published in the 1992 Annual Book of ASTM Standards and an additional 16 are under development. Three are specifically for food applications and the balance are relevant for all radiation processing applications, including food processing. When complete, the set will be published as a separate handbook. In addition, the group encourages the use of these standards through publications, workshops, and training courses; and identifies areas where new standards are needed. A related effort is underway to promote the inclusion of these standards into procedures now being developed by groups such as the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) and the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) to harmonize regulations and help avoid trade barriers

  15. Constitutionalism Without Governance : International Standards in the Afghan Legal System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    There has been a lot of attention in recent years about improving the quality of legal systems in overseas jurisdictions. This is reflected in the growing proportion of rule of law components in development assistance and, especially, in post-conflict stabilisation missions. External actors endeavour to strengthen the role of international legal standards in the courts and, more broadly, the political life of societies emerging from violent conflict. Virtually all stabilisation missions contain today important rule of law components, a shift in emphasis that is mirrored in bilateral financial assistance. The international engagement in Afghanistan since December 2001 has been no exception, having placed a heavy emphasis on introducing international legal norms into the Afghan legal and political system.

  16. International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

  17. Pioneering of Schools with International Standard to Respond the Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Ipnugraha Ipnugraha

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet respond the challenges of globalization Indonesia Government held a Pioneering of Schools with International Standard (RSBI). As an international standard schools pilot, these schools prepared gradually through the guidance by government and stakeholders. Within a certain period of four years it is expected that the schools is able to fulfill and meet the criteria of Schools with International Standard (SBI). Actually, in it’s implementation, RSBI faces many challenges, amo...

  18. International safety standards for radioactive waste management and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (the Agency) is mandated to develop safety standards for nuclear, radiation, waste and transport safety. With the entry into force of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, internationally endorsed safety standards for waste management safety and decommissioning take on a more significant role. The safety standards are made up of fundamental principles, applicable to all waste management activities and facilities, safety requirements for particular facilities and activities and safety guides on compliance with the requirements. Radioactive waste from all types of nuclear activities or applications needs to be managed safely in the period before it is finally disposed of. Experience exists in this area, and procedures for safe pre-disposal management are well established in most areas. Nevertheless, there are a number of safety related issues that require attention, namely, the processing of legacy waste, the safety implications of longer storage of radioactive waste when repositories are not available or are built in a way that allows waste retrieval, the need for improved characterization and quality assurance of waste, the adoption of holistic national strategies for waste management and the assessment and demonstration of safety of predisposal waste management activities and facilities. The Agency is establishing safety standards covering the activities and fty standards covering the activities and facilities of pre-disposal radioactive waste management in which these safety issues are being addressed. Recognising the developments taking place around the world in the area of geological disposal, the Member States of the Agency agreed that the process of developing safety standards for these facilities should be accelerated. The safety requirements for geological disposal are now published and guidance on compliance is under development. Effluent discharges have the potential to cause national and transboundary impacts on people and the environment, and it is therefore important that internationally agreed standards and procedures are in place to control them - guidance on radioactive discharge control, e.g. setting discharge limits and continuing review of national and international trends is under implementation. IAEA safety standards provide guidance reflecting prevailing best practice and coherent with contemporary radiation protection principles and IAEA safety requirements, on the strategy of monitoring in relation to: (a) control of radionuclide discharges under practice conditions, and (b) intervention. IAEA Standards on monitoring cover three categories of monitoring: monitoring at the source of the discharge (source monitoring), monitoring in the environment (environmental monitoring) and monitoring of individual exposure in emergencies (individual monitoring). General guidance is also provided on assessment of the doses to critical groups of the population due to the presence of radioactive materials or radiation fields in the environment both from practice and from intervention activities. Decommissioning of a wide range of facilities using radioactive material (from nuclear power plants to small research laboratories) is increasing worldwide. In view of the increasing importance of decommissioning in Member States, a specific high level safety standard (a Safety Requirement) has been developed on the safety of decommissioning that provides a focal point for the subject. Existing guidance is under review to ensure consistency with the new Safety Requirements. The paper elaborates on the safety standards for waste management and decommissioning, their development process and their role in the global nuclear safety regime. (author)

  19. What States Should Know about International Standards in Science: Highlights from Achieve's Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Achieve, through support from the Noyce Foundation, examined ten sets of international standards with the intent of informing the development of both the conceptual framework and Next Generation Science Standards. Achieve selected countries based on their strong performance on international assessments and/or their economic, political, or cultural…

  20. International standardization of nuclear reactor designs: the way forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Ch. [International Regulatory Affairs, E. ON Kerndraft (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The concept of international standardization of nuclear reactor designs means that vendors could built their designs in every country without having to adapt it specifically to national safety requirements. Such standardization would have 2 main effects: first it would ease the construction of new plants and secondly it would enhance safety by improving feedback experience on reactors belonging to fleets of the same design. The world nuclear association's CORDEL (Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing) group has developed a concept for the implementation of an international standardization of reactor designs. CORDEL proposes a three-phase approach. In the first phase, regulators when reviewing an application, have to make use of the assessment work already performed by another regulator. The second phase aims at taking over a design approval issued by a foreign regulator. This taking-over procedure could be considered as a validation. The third phase, there would be a comprehensive international design certification, issued by a team of regulators and this certification would be immediately applicable in all participating countries. (A.C.)

  1. The Inclusion of Standard Terms in International Sales Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Eiselen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it isnecessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be madeavailable to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems, namely that a clear incorporation clause in the contract is sufficient for the effective incorporation of standard terms. The author critically examines the case law, the various approaches and the underlying arguments on which they are based, before reaching the conclusion that the two extreme approaches should be rejected in favour of the more moderate approach. This approach is founded on aproper interpretation of the provisions of the CISG as well as being in step with international trade practice.

  2. The new international standard ISO 14001: 2004 environmental management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISO 14001 is one standard in the ISO 14000 series of standards developed by International Organization of Standardization (ISO). Since it was published in 19096, it has rapidly become the most important environmental standard in the world. ISO 14001 is an environmental management system (EMS) that can be classified into environmental technologies provides a systematic procedure to all kind of organizations to prevent pollutions, protect environment and to improve their overall environmental performance. This new standard ISO 14001 2004 was published on November 15, 2004. It cancels and replaced the old ISO 14001-1996. Because the important of the previous standard for our local industries, firms, ...etc, this paper presents ISO 14001 concepts, issues, benefits and focuses on the stages of implementation to achieve ISO 14001-2004 certification which includes general requirements environmental policy, planning (objectives, targets ..), implementation and operations, checking and management review ...etc and presents how to apply isotop time saver software to design records, and to save time to implement ISO 14001 2004 and finally a conclusion is provided.(Author)

  3. International development trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survey: World primary energy consumption balance 1976/77; world consumption of primary energy sources 1957/77; world petroleum extraction in the first half of 1978; international perspective of petroleum consumption and petroleum prices; the West German power industry in the 1st half of 1978. (HP)

  4. Radiation protection standards: Their development and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses basic standards for radiological protection, the practical application of standards, current issues, and future developments. The last few years have seen a major review of the basic standards for radiation protection as well as the introduction in many countries of new legislation laying down standards with regard to practices giving rise to radiation exposure, particularly that of electricity production from nuclear power. Topics covered include the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation effects and risk estimates, dose limits for occupational exposure, dose limits for individual members of the public, cost-benefit analysis, exposure of populations, the control of internal exposure, monitoring of exposures, the role of international bodies other than ICRP, and national standards. A glossary of dosimetric quantities and units is provided

  5. SPOTS project and development of a standard and reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguete, R.; Patterson, E.

    2010-06-01

    The ‘Standardization Project for Optical Techniques of Strain measurement’ (SPOTS) was focused on the development of reference materials for calibrating optical systems for static strain measurement and standardized tests for evaluating the capabilities of such systems. The reference material consists of a beam in four-point bending within a monolithic frame that ensures reproducibility of the boundary and loading conditions. A procedure for the use of the reference material has been developed and leads to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties that allow the construction of confidence limits for the data obtained with the calibrated optical system. The design and methodology have been developed into a proposed draft standard which is being endorsed by VAMAS (Versailles Agreement on Materials And Standards) for review by ISO (International Standards Organisation). An overview of philosophy underpinning the proposed draft standard is presented and serves as an introduction to the reference material and standardized test and their use in providing higher confidence in optical measurements of strain.

  6. Concrete durability standards: International trends and the South African context

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J G, Kessy; M G, Alexander; H, Beushausen.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Durability problems in reinforced concrete (RC) structures are an issue of global concern, since they threaten economic growth, natural resources and human safety. As a result, attempts have been made in design standards developed in most countries to include requirements to provide durable RC struc [...] tures. This paper examines and compares such durability requirements in standards from the United States, Australia, Canada, Europe, India and South Africa. It focuses on aspects such as exposure conditions, limiting values of material compositions and proportions, and cover depth to the reinforcing steel. The paper describes issues behind prescriptive standards and deals with challenges confronting performance approaches for concrete durability. Following international trends, it is evident that the South African Standards, particularly SANS 10100-2, must undergo substantial updating and improvements to durability requirements. The paper suggests the means of re-drafting and implementing durability specifications in any revised version of SANS 10100-2, taking into account both prescriptive and performance alternatives. Further, a methodology of developing durability specifications suitable for the South African concrete industry is proposed, and recommendations are made for future developments.

  7. Managing Exposure to Natural Sources: International Standards and New Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection in exposure to natural sources has been evolving for decades. In the last two decades, developments concerning exposure to NORM have resulted in progress towards achieving broad international consensus on managing exposure to NORM. However, the standards and regulatory approaches being adopted at the national level still need to be harmonized, especially in developing countries with limited regulatory resources. A large effort is underway at the national and international level to assess exposure to NORM and to develop strategies to address existing situations that give rise to exposures. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, in its 2008 report, encourages further development of inventories and methodologies for dose assessment in order to have a more comprehensive view over the topic. The revised International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) published by the IAEA in 2011 provides requirements reflecting the concepts of planned exposure situations, emergency exposure situations and existing exposure situations. Exposure to natural sources is generally subject to the requirements for existing exposure situations, with some exceptions to be considered as planned exposure situations. The BSS provides numerical criteria for exemption and clearance for regulatory purposes as well as reference levels for control of exposure to radon in workplaces. From a global perspective, the new radiation protection challenges for natural sources include the following: the harmonization of standards and regulatory approaches; the diverse nature of the industries and the need for an industry specific approach in determining radiation protection measures; the identification of situations that could be classified as either existing exposure situations or planned exposure situations; and the extent to which exposures should be optimized using, as appropriate, reference levels or dose constraints. The use of a graded approach in national regulations; the realistic estimation of individual doses and the need for an evidence based approach for regulatory decision making; radon in workplaces; transport issues; the recycling of NORM residues and their use as by-products; the management of NORM residues and wastes are related issues. A summary is provided of the international standards and guidance on the control of exposure to natural sources and of the work of the IAEA on industry specific safety reports. (author)

  8. On the Construction of China’s Accounting Standard System with International Convergence in Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Hongman Zhang; Xianfeng Liu

    2010-01-01

    With the international convergence of accounting standards becoming an irresistible trend, China’s new businessaccounting standards have reached substantive convergence with International Financial Report Standards(IFRS). However, due to some factors including economy, law and culture, there is still a narrow gap betweenchina’s accounting standards and IFRS. In order to further keep up with IFRS, China should attach greaterimportance to learning from it to establish or implement its accou...

  9. International Standard Numbering of Printed Music in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kani?

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the international standard numbering system for printed music (ISMN as applied in Slovenia since 1999. Fundamental concepts are given explaining the purpose of the respective numbering system as related to other international standard numbering systems, the structure and coding, the choice of publications entitled to be given ISMN, management of the international and national agencies, and some data on the Slovenian ISMN Agency.

  10. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  11. Environmental Accounting and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

    OpenAIRE

    CA. Mohammad Firoz; A. Aziz Ansari

    2010-01-01

    As financial globalization proceeds, international financial reporting and auditing standards are increasinglybecoming important instruments of integration. This has been observed in both the London and Pittsburgsummits of the G20 leaders in 2009. The G20 leaders reinforced the influence of International FinancialReporting Standards (IFRS) in that they called for the implementation of global accounting standards by 2011.By the end of 2008, there were over 100 countries that had adopted IFRS. ...

  12. International standard for the charging of electric vehicles; Internationaler Standard fuer das Laden von Elektrofahrzeugen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathoy, A.

    2001-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the situation regarding the standardisation of battery charging systems for electric vehicles. The advantages of an international standard both for users and manufacturers of electrically-powered vehicles are discussed. The work done in the IEC and CENELEC technical committees is reviewed. Developments achieved since 1999 are reviewed and further developments and work to be done are examined. The most important points in the IEC standard 61851 are looked at and various connector interfaces are described. Direct and inductive charging systems according to IEC 61980 are examined and the special situation in Italy, where power available in homes for the charging of electrical vehicles is more limited, is reviewed.

  13. THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS IN FIELDS OF APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Dasic, Predrag; Micic, Zivadin

    2012-01-01

    According International Classification for Standards (ICS) Application of Information Technology is ranged in frame of group ICS=35.240, with 280 ISO or ISO/IEC and 45 IEC standards. In the paper is presented analysis of ISO, ISO/IEC and IEC standards for Application of Information Technology and structure Technical Committee (TC) for fields of Information Technology

  14. Pioneering of Schools with International Standard to Respond the Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipnugraha Ipnugraha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet respond the challenges of globalization Indonesia Government held a Pioneering of Schools with International Standard (RSBI. As an international standard schools pilot, these schools prepared gradually through the guidance by government and stakeholders. Within a certain period of four years it is expected that the schools is able to fulfill and meet the criteria of Schools with International Standard (SBI. Actually, in it’s implementation, RSBI faces many challenges, among others, were expensive anda require modern infrastructure, require a qualified teacher, SBI criteria and English implementation in education not yet possessed constitutional base. With RSBI it will form a national school with national education standards that have international quality and its graduates are able to compete internationally

  15. Nuclear Data Center International Standard Towards TSO Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Data Center is the main facility for Nuclear Malaysia Agency IT infrastructure comprising of main critical servers, research and operational data storage, HPC-clusters system and vital network core equipment. In recent years, international body such as TIA-Telecommunication Industry Association and Up time Institute have came out with proper international data center standards in order to ensure data center operation on achieving maximum operational up time and minimal downtime. The standard are currently being rated as tier level ranging from Data Center tier I up to tier IV, differentiate by facility standard and up time/ downtime percentage ratio. This paper will discuss Nuclear Data Center adopting international standards in supporting Nuclear Malaysia TSO initiative thus ensuring the critical core component of agency IT services availability and further more International standard recognitions. (author)

  16. CSNI International standard problems (ISP). Brief descriptions (1975-1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last twenty-five years the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored a considerable number of international activities to promote the exchange of experience between its Member countries in the use of nuclear safety codes and testing materials. A primary goal of these activities is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. International Standard Problems (ISPs) exercises are comparative exercises in which predictions or recalculations of a given physical problem with different best-estimate computer code are compared with each other and above all with the results of a carefully specified experimental study. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. In an open Standard Problem exercise the results of the experiment are available to the participants before performing the calculations, while in a blind Standard Problem exercise the experimental results are locked until the calculation results are made available for comparison. The CSNI-promoted ISP activity started in the early 70's and is still underway. Parallel to other national and international programs the CSNI has sponsored over more than 25 years forty-seven International Standard Problem exercises. This program has been focused mainly on the applicability of large thermal-hydraulic code systems simulating the behaviour of nuclear coolant and containment systems, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, hydrogen distribution, core-concrete interactions and fission product release and transport. One ISP exercise was organised in connection with a seismic ultimate dynamic response test. ISP exercises have proven to be very valuable to participating countries. They have been fruitful to identify code application problems and to amplify the contacts between the experimental and analytical working communities on an international level. Moreover, they enable code users to improve their ability, gain experience and demonstrate their competence. Technical proposals originating from laboratories in 13 countries were submitted and adopted serving as experimental background for the international activity. An activity complementary to the ISP programme but not directly related to it is the establishment of comprehensive sets of experimental data for use in validating proper code application by experts other than code developers. Known as a Code Validation Matrix, the results of such an extensive list of experiments are collected and stored in the NEA Data Bank for the purpose that they be made available to Member countries wishing to validate relevant codes. ISP tests are important elements of validation matrices for thermal-hydraulic codes. In the field of containment behaviour it has been recommended to preferably base a general code validation matrix on containment-related ISPs as well. The way of organizing ISP exercises has been described in CSNI Report No. 17, CSNI Standard Problem Procedures, revised for the third time in November 1989. The following report in some detail summarises the main objectives, the underlying experimental background and the main findings and conclusions of the ISPs to provide interested groups an overview on the accumulated experience in this matter. The document, which has been reviewed by members of CSNI's Principal Working on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2) and Principal Working on Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases (PWG4), summarises systematically the main features of all International Standard Problem exercises organised so far, from ISP-1 to ISP-43, namely: - Objectives of the ISP; - Brief Description of the Facility; - Scaling Information; - Parameters Offered for Comparison; - Dominating Experimental Uncertainties; - Findings; - Recommendations; - Total Duration of the ISP exercise; - Participation; - CSNI Report Reference

  17. Primary standardization of cesium-137 for international intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary standards of cesium-137 are of great importance for precise radiation measurements because, due to its simple decay-scheme and long half-life, it is widely used for the calibration of radiation detectors. Also 137Cs is used for the measurement of fission-yield and uranium burn-up in reactor engineering studies. In view of these, an international intercomparison was organised on a limited scale to correlate the standards established at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay(India) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), West Germany. The ''efficiency tracing technique'' was developed at BARC for the primary standardization of 137Cs for this intercomparison. Two tracers, namely 82Br and 60Co, were employed to trace the beta efficiency of the 4 ??-? coincidence counting system. It is shown that this technique offers high accuracy and inherent reliability. The ''tracing-technique'' for 137Cs standardization is briefly described. The gravimetric method of dilution and preparation of mixed sources of 137Cs - 82Br and 137Cs - 60Co are given. The various counting parameters and settings are included. Data reduction and the estimation of systematic and statistical errors are discussed. The results of the intercomparison, which are also included, show that the agreement between the measurments of BARC and PTB is within 0.5%. (author)

  18. International evaluation of neutron cross-section standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron cross-section standards are important in the valid measurement and evaluation of all other neutron reaction cross-sections. Not many cross-sections can be defined as absolute - most cross-sections are measured relative to the cross-section standards for normalization to absolute values. Previous evaluations of the neutron cross-section standards were completed in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B standards. R matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least squares fits for the heavy elements were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross-sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The experimental database prepared by Poenitz included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. GMA is a least squares code developed by Poenitz to fit all types of cross section (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum averaged cross-sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. Unfortunately, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987.ase in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by experts for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross-section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise experimental data and developments in the methodology of analysis and evaluation. An IAEA consultants meeting was held in 2001 to consider the major tasks to be undertaken in order to improve the 1987 standards evaluation. The recommendation to formulate an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) entitled Improvement of Standards Cross-Sections for Light Elements was strongly endorsed by the International Nuclear Data Committee (technical advisory body to the IAEA), and this project was initiated in 2002. The main objective was to study and determine the reasons leading to the significant reduction in the uncertainties as derived by the R matrix model fits of the data. Three research coordination meetings were held between 2002 and 2004, and the scope of the CRP was substantially extended through debate in 2003 with the inclusion of tasks to evaluate the cross-section standards for heavy elements. The evaluations of the neutron cross-section standards were finalized in October 2005. Previous difficulties experienced with a data evaluation problem known as Peelle's pertinent puzzle create biases in the fit of correlated data, and have been addressed to reduce this phenomenon. The new evaluations of the cross-section standards also include covariance matrices of the uncertainties that contain fully justifiable values. Significant contributions to the experimental database were made by participants of Subgroup 7 of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation WPEC). Furthermore, the evaluations could not have been carried out without access to the original GMA database and related computer codes given to the IAEA by the US Cross Section Evaluation Working Group CSEWG). The IAEA officer responsible for this report was A.L. Nichols of the Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences

  19. Study on a Threat-Countermeasure Model Based on International Standard Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Horacio Ramirez Caceres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Many international standards exist in the field of IT security. This research is based on the ISO/IEC 15408, 15446, 19791, 13335 and 17799 standards. In this paper, we propose a knowledge base comprising a threat countermeasure model based on international standards for identifying and specifying threats which affect IT environments. In addition, the proposed knowledge base system aims at fusing similar security control policies and objectives in order to create effective security guidelines for specific IT environments. As a result, a knowledge base of security objectives was developed on the basis of the relationships inside the standards as well as the relationships between different standards. In addition, a web application was developed which displays details about the most common threats to information systems, and for each threat presents a set of related security control policies from different international standards, including ISO/IEC 27002.

  20. Development of strategies and sustainability standards for the certification of internationally traded biomass. Final report; Entwicklung von Strategien und Nachhaltigkeitsstandards zur Zertifizierung von Biomasse fuer den internationalen Handel. Zusammenfassender Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsche, Uwe R.; Hennenberg, Klaus J.; Hermann, Andreas; Huenecke, Katja; Herrera, Rocio [Oeko-Institut (Institut fuer angewandte Oekologie e.V.), Darmstadt (Germany); Fehrenbach, Horst; Roth, Elvira; Hennecke, Anna; Giegrich, Juergen [IFEU (Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung) gGmbh, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The increased production of renewable raw materials for bioenergy and bio-materials needed to meet the ambitious targets of Germany, the EU and other countries implies tradeoffs which could oppose sustainability requirements. The project worked out the scientific base of and developed proposals for sustainability requirements for biomass and their implementation on national, European and global levels, in dialogue with relevant actors and provided inputs into respective processes. For that, discussions with experts from more than 20 countries were held, international networks created and extended, and political decision-makers supported. Besides answers to strategic questions, the issues focused on were greenhouse gas balances (calculation of GHG emissions from direct and indirect land use changes), biodiversity (a globally applicable risk minimization strategy was developed and tested in Brazil, China and South Africa for degraded lands), water scarcity and water quality (requirements for biomass cultivation were developed). The majority of project results was successfully implemented in legal and standardization processes (e.g., German Sustainability Ordinances for bioenergy, EU renewable energy directive, European Committee for Standardization, Global Bioenergy Partnership) and both scientific and environmental and development questions were discussed with - not only governmental - actors. The next steps should be the extension of the approaches developed to other biomass (especially for material use) and the critical review of the further implementation. (orig.)

  1. Open development networked innovations in international development

    CERN Document Server

    Reilly, Katherine M A

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. Open network structures allow people to come together to share information, organize, and collaborate. Open development harnesses this power, to create new organizational forms and improve people's lives; it is not only an agenda for research and practice but also a statement about how to approach international development. In this volume, experts explore a variety of applications of openness, addressing challenges as well as opportunities. Open development requires new theoretical tools that focus on real world problems, consider a variety of solutions, and recognize the complexity of local contexts. After exploring the new theoretical terrain, the book describes a range of cases in which open models address such specific development issues as biotechnology research, improving education, and access to scholarly publications. Contributors then examine tensions between open model...

  2. 78 FR 11793 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ...major increase in costs or prices for consumers, individual...control standards for drop and count...count is completed and the drop proceeds are accepted...and (ii) The currency drop figures must be transferred...communications line or computer storage media to the...

  3. Private donations for international development

    OpenAIRE

    MICKLEWRIGHT, John; Wright, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Charitable donations by private individuals and firms can help fund the Millennium Development Goals. What are the prospects for increasing donations for international development, whether from small-scale donors, the super-rich (as in the recent gifts by Bill Gates and Ted Turner), or the corporate sector? The paper starts by reviewing how large are the sums currently given in OECD countries (including gifts of time) and the problems development has in competing with domestic causes. It then...

  4. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  5. A scientific view of radiation standards development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the early development and history of radiation protection standards, and examines the current status and circumstances of present standards. The author discusses the problems in the standards area which must be dealt with effectively, and presents several suggestions which should be beneficial in achieving further progress in standard's development. Problems or needs are discussed which require attention in order to improve radiation protection standards. Some of these include: the analytical definition of ALARA with particular attention paid to ''reasonable''; the introduction and application of de minimis values into radiation protection to limit control actions on a practical basis; and a decision to handle radiation protection standards on a holistic basis at the Federal level and to apportion the basic standard based on major categories of use

  6. The main requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main requirements of the new international basic safety standards are discussed, including such topics as health effects of ionizing radiations, the revision of basic safety standards, the requirements for radiation protection practices, the requirements for intervention,and the field of regulatory infrastructures. (A.K.)

  7. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury Revised 2011: Turkish Translation of Worksheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin GÜNDÜZ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Performing a standardized physical examination is useful in follow-up of the injury, monitorizing the effects of different treatments and to build a standard terminology among professionals dealing with the disease. The most common used method in assesment of spinal cord injured patient is International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury developed by American Spinal Cord Association (ASIA. The purpose of this report is to introduce the Turkish translation of worksheet in 2011 revision of International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. Turk J Phys Med Re­hab 2012;58 Suppl 1: 42-5.

  8. International standard problem for consequence modeling: results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard problem consists of a series of calculations designed to allow a step-by-step comparison of individual model components as well as consequence and risk estimates. Detailed data describing a hypothetical site and several hypothetical accident releases were provided. Seven problems were defined to compare submodels for atmospheric dispersion, dosimetry, health effects and land contamination, and the consequence frequency distributions calculated for a specific site both with and without emergency response. Examples of results and preliminary observations from the study are presented

  9. 49 CFR 171.22 - Authorization and conditions for the use of international standards and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...conditions for the use of international standards and regulations...Requirements for the Use of International Transport Standards and Regulations...through its principal place of business in accordance with § 172...requirements for the use of international standards and...

  10. 78 FR 23940 - Use of International Standard ISO-10993, “Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ...FDA-2013-D-0350] Use of International Standard ISO-10993, ``Biological Evaluation of Medical...entitled ``Use of International Standard ISO-10993, `Biological Evaluation of Medical...entitled ``Use of International Standard ISO-10993, `Biological Evaluation of...

  11. 77 FR 70390 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...consistency with international standards, and...the Coast Guard issues any final rule...amendments to international standards affecting...harmonization with current international standards will facilitate marketing of their...

  12. Standards development for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ushering of nuclear era in the Philippines with the construction of the PNPP-I (Philippine Nuclear Power Plant) necessitates the evolvement and use of nuclear standards as a tool for safety evaluation in the licensing process. The Department of Nuclear Regulation and Safeguards under the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission has as one of its responsibilities the establishment of regulatory standards to ensure safe operation of nuclear facilities. This article points out the needs for nuclear standards and the steps in standard development which involve an enormous amount of resources in terms of manpower, expertise and money. The staff of the Department of Nuclear Regulations and Safeguards (DNRS) does not intend to engage in the original development of standards; rather, it reviews standards in use elsewhere, specifically in the U.S. and adopts to local conditions. (author)

  13. International Migration, Remittances and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mahmud

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing remittance flows to the labor sending developing countries in recent years have generated huge optimism in the contemporary development discourse about the possibility of development at the grassroots levels which has been an overwhelming challenge for the development actors for decades. However, the realization of such potential proves difficult due to a lack of common understanding of the phenomenon of labor migration and its causes and consequences. This study focuses on the existing literature on international labor migration, its causes and consequences with a view to identify a common line of theorizing about the issue in question. 

  14. CONVERGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL AUDIT STANDARDS AND AMERICAN AUDIT STANDARDS REGARDING SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chis Anca Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sampling is widely used in market research, scientific analysis, market analysis, opinion polls and not least in the financial statement audit. We wonder what is actually sampling and how did it appear? Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Nowadays the technique is indispensable, the economic entities operating with sophisticated computer systems and large amounts of data. Economic globalization and complexity of capital markets has made possible not only the harmonization of international accounting standards with the national ones, but also the convergence of international accounting and auditing standards with the American regulations. International Standard on Auditing 530 and Statement on Auditing Standard 39 are the two main international and American normalized referentials referring to audit sampling. This article discusses the origin of audit sampling, mentioning a brief history of the method and different definitions from literature review. The two standards are studied using Jaccard indicators in terms of the degree of similarity and dissimilarity concerning different issues. The Jaccard coefficient measures the degree of convergence of international auditing standards (ISA 530 and U.S. auditing standards (SAS 39. International auditing standards and American auditing standards, study the sampling problem, both regulations presenting common points with regard to accepted sampling techniques, factors influencing the audit sample, treatment of identified misstatements and the circumstances in which sampling is appropriate. The study shows that both standards agree on application of statistical and non-statistical sampling in auditing, that sampling is appropriate for tests of details and controls, the factors affecting audit sampling being audit risk, audit objectives and population\\'s characteristics.

  15. Kazakhstan and international energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government of Kazakhstan is weighing its options on the export route for Tengiz oil. It could decide of postpone decision. There are a number of possible routes. Aside from the route to Xijiang, the principle possibilities are 1. The Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) line projecting across southern Russia; 2. undersea to Baku and out through Ceyhan, 3. south through Iran. All that is certain is that Kazakhstan would like to, and needs to, sell much as possible. In this situation the author of the article suggests to form a kind of forum or an association (Euro-Asian Oil and Gas Association (EAOGA)) to coordinate coming issues. By helping to integrate the International energy agenda with International environmental agenda, an association like EAOGA could be put in a framework of sustainable development. Presented in this manner, it could even find political and economic support among the United Nations and International financial institutes

  16. NSDC's Standards for Staff Development Assessment Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Staff Development Council, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This inventory is a reliable and valid staff development assessment instrument designed to measure the degree to which a school's professional development programs adheres to NSDC's Standards for Staff Development. This print version is meant to be completed by teachers and other school staff members. Sold in sets of 50 assessment inventories and…

  17. The Operating Islamic Banks in Jordan Applying the International Internal Auditing Standards (IIA's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Adel Al-Sharairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at identifying the operating Islamic banks in Jordan applying the international internal auditing standards, which are (4 banks. A questionnaire was designed for this purpose and distributed to internal auditors and un-executive board of directors members considered members of the Audit Committee in each bank, the number of questionnaires which were subjected to analysis were (35, resolution data was analyzed using (SPSS, and a number of statistical means through descriptive statistics, arithmetic means, standard deviations, and percentages. The study found that Islamic banks are applying international standards of internal audit in general. Qualities standards were the most applied, and then implementation standards in a high degree, while the performance standards do not apply in these banks, also there are some difficulties that limit the application, but moderately. The study recommends increasing the work on applying internal auditing standards on Islamic banks operating in Jordan, in particular standards of performance which brings together the efficiency and effectiveness of internal audit and contributes to improved risk management and creates additional value for those banks.

  18. Business and Management Aspects of International Accounting Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeno Beke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerialdecisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system willlead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from thebusiness management of certain countries. The results of applied regression model support that the greaterdemand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to performance evaluations at morewidely held by businesses stimulating to adopt international accounting standards. Businesses with lower labourproductivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to follow accounting standardization.

  19. Enabling conformity to international standards within SeaDataNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Boldrini, Enrico; de Korte, Arjen; Santoro, Mattia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet objective is to construct a standardized system for managing the large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the new automatic observation systems. The aim is to network and enhance the currently existing infrastructures, which are the national oceanographic data centres and satellite data centres of 36 countries, active in data collection. The networking of these professional data centres, in a unique virtual data management system will provide integrated data sets of standardized quality on-line. The Common Data Index (CDI) is the middleware service adopted by SeaDataNet for discovery and access of the available data. In order to develop an interoperable and effective system, the use of international de facto and de jure standards is required. In particular the new goal object of this presentation is to introduce and discuss the solutions for making SeaDataNet compliant with the European Union (EU) INSPIRE directive and in particular with its Implementing Rules (IR). The European INSPIRE directive aims to rule the creation of an European Spatial Data Infrastructure (ESDI). This will enable the sharing of environmental spatial information among public sector organisations and better facilitate public access to spatial information across Europe. To ensure that the spatial data infrastructures of the European Member States are compatible and usable in a community and transboundary context, the directive requires that common IRs are adopted in a number of specific areas (Metadata, Data Specifications, Network Services, Data and Service Sharing and Monitoring and Reporting). Often the use of already approved digital geographic information standards is mandated, drawing from international organizations like the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the latter by means of its Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211). In the context of geographic data discovery a set of mandatory metadata information is identified by INSPIRE metadata regulations and recommended implementations appear in IRs, in particular the use of ISO 19139 Application Profile (ISO AP) of OGC Catalogue Service for the Web 2.0.2 (CSW), as well as the use of ISO19139 XML schemas (along with additional constraints) to encode and distribute the required INSPIRE metadata. SeaDataNet started its work in 2006, basing its metadata schema upon the ISO 19115 DTD, the available schema at that time. Overtime this was replaced with the present CDI v.1 XML schema, based on ISO 19115 abstract model with community specific features and constraints. In order to assure the INSPIRE conformity a GI-cat based solution was developed. GI-cat is a broker service able to mediate from different metadata sources and publish them through a consistent and unified interface. In this case GI-cat is used as a front end to the SeaDataNet portal publishing the available data, based on CDI v.1, through a CSW AP ISO interface. The first step consisted in the precise definition of a community profile of ISO19115, containing both INSPIRE and CDI driven constraints and extensions. This abstract model is ready to be implemented both in CDI v.1 and in ISO 19139; to this aim, guidelines were drafted. Then a mapping from the CDI v.1 to the ISO 19139 implementation was ready to be produced. The work resulted in the creation of a new CDI accessor within GI-cat. These type of components play the role of data model mediators within the framework. While a replacement of the CDI v.1 format with the ISO 19139 solution is planned for SeaDataNet in the future, this front-end solution make data discovery readily effective by clients within the INSPIRE community.

  20. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ...Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to solicit comment on...

  1. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ...Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...

  2. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of the methods of evaluating the optical characteristics of the microlens for optical information processing; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Hikari joho shoriyo microlens kogaku seino hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the development of the performance evaluation analyzers, and researches on the measurement/evaluation methods that define the optical characteristics of microlenses and microlens arrays, which are widely used for light transmitting/receiving module connectors for optical communication, optical information recording pick-ups and devices with a number of openings for liquid crystal projectors, for proposing the international standards. The program for studying the interference micro optical systems selects the Mach-Zender type fringe-scanning interference system, and develops the prototype with a He-Ne light source, which can observe the interference fringes of up to 0.5 to 0.005{mu}m in diameter. It also can measure the wave front aberration of a microlens of 0.125{mu}m in diameter. It is agreed in the ISO/TC172/SC9 meeting held for the international standardization to promote the standardization which covers the geometrical structure parameters and optical characteristics defined as Microlens arrays-Vocabulary, where the discussion is started on the proposal Japan has submitted for collective deliberations. (NEDO)

  3. The Inclusion of Standard Terms in International Sales Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Eiselen, S

    2011-01-01

    The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG) does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international...

  4. International standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM), publication No. 15

    CERN Multimedia

    Tom Wegelius

    2006-01-01

    GUIDELINES FOR REGULATING WOOD PACKAGING MATERIAL IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE SCOPE This standard describes phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests associated with wood packaging material (including dunnage), made of coniferous and non-coniferous raw wood, in use in international trade. For more information, contact the Shipping Service (FI-LS-SH) at 79947. Table of guidelines

  5. 21 CFR 861.20 - Summary of standards development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Summary of standards development process. 861...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PROCEDURES FOR...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT Procedures for...Summary of standards development process. The...standard for a device may be...

  6. Environmental Accounting and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Mohammad Firoz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As financial globalization proceeds, international financial reporting and auditing standards are increasinglybecoming important instruments of integration. This has been observed in both the London and Pittsburgsummits of the G20 leaders in 2009. The G20 leaders reinforced the influence of International FinancialReporting Standards (IFRS in that they called for the implementation of global accounting standards by 2011.By the end of 2008, there were over 100 countries that had adopted IFRS. Another parallel summit was theUnited Nations special summit on the environment which was held on 22 September 2009. The United Nations’summit underscored the link between environment and finance. This research paper makes a critical appraisal ofthe contemporary environmental accounting literature and examines the applicable and relevant paragraphs ofthe global financial reporting standards (IFRS. The relevant paragraphs for environmental accounting have beenanalyzed in relation to the environmental financial reporting.

  7. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940's: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950's: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960's: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970's: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980's: establishment of national regulations; 1990's: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  8. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  9. 5th international conference on certification and standardization in NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This CD-ROM contains 30 lectures (in form of manuscripts or abstracts) and 6 posters with the following topics: 1. Some Critical Remarks from German Chemical Industry on Certification and Accreditation in NDT. 2. Global Impact of International Standard ISO 9712. 3. Maintaining Concurrent Compliance with Multiple NDT Personnel Certification Standards. 4. The Revision of the New Approach. 5. Comparison between prEN 473 Currently Submitted to Formal Vote and ISO 9712:2005. 6. Accreditation and Certification - a Contradiction?. 7. The Way We Were. 8. EFNDT-Question-Data-Bank (QDB). 9. NDT Certification in Turkey as an European Country- How It Couldn't Work as the Only Example?. 10. Validation of Practical Examination Specimens. 11. Examination Bank Structure for Radiographic Testing (RT) - An Example. 12. About the New Classification of NDT Methods Based on Positions of Risks and Equipment Life Assessment. 13. Olympus NDT Training Academy. 14. Harmonisation of Personnel Certification Schemes for Non-destructive Testing in the Asia-Pacific Region. 15. How EFNDT Can Help in Accreditation or Recognition/Approval of NDT Certification Bodies? 16. SNT-TC-1A - 40 Years of Employer Certification for NDT Personnel. 17. The Same NDT Certification Scheme for Everybody: a Dream or a Need. 18. 19. Personnel Certification for Thermographers - Status and Trends. 20. Guided Wave Training and Certification. 21. Examination Radiographs and Master Reports for the Industrial Sectors 6 and 7.eports for the Industrial Sectors 6 and 7. 22. New Standards ISO 24497 on the Metal Magnetic Memory Method. The Program of Personnel Training and Certification. 23. The Use of the Psychometrics in NDT Certification Programs. 24. EFNDT Guidelines ''Overall NDT Quality System''. 25. The Role of the Forum for National Aerospace NDT Boards. 26. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 27. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 28. The Need for Standardization in NDT Personnel Certification. 29. NDT Certification for Railway Maintenance Personnel in France; 10 Years of the CFCM. 30. NDT Personnel Certification - Service for Industry. 31. Certification of Personnel Performing Automated Non-destructive Testing of Pipes and Flat Products. Problems and Solutions. 32. Stress Testing is a New NDT Type in the Russian Standard GOST R 52330-2005 and International Standard ISO-9712. 33. Accreditation of Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement Methods - Practical Aspects. 34. Results of Approval of Certification Body ''SPEKTRCert'' by Auditors of EFNDT. 35. The Program for Specialists Training and Certification in Stress-Strained State Determination and Residual Life Assesment of Technical Devices and Contructions. 36. NDT Personnel Certification System at Turkish Standards Instiution (TSE) and Developments in Turkey. 37. Nondestructive Testing Personnel Certification in Turkish Aerospace Industries and National Aerospace Nondestructive Testing Board in the Turkey

  10. International Accounting Standards and Changes in Accounting Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    The language of accounting is subject to continuous change. One of the reasons for a change in terminology is the introduction of new legal requirements that bring about a change in the underlying concepts and therefore the need for new specific terms. Such a situation was created by the Regulation (EC) No. 1606/2002 on the application of international accounting standards (IAS). This regulation aims at harmonising ac-counting standards and procedures relating to the preparation and presentat...

  11. The first international standard for antibodies to double stranded DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Feltkamp, T E; Kirkwood, T B; Maini, R N; Aarden, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper announces the availability of the first international standard for anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA). The material, coded Wo/80, was obtained after recalcification of plasma taken from a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Vials were filled with 500 microliters serum and freeze dried. The serum contains no other autoantibodies in measurable quantities. The vials should be stored at -20 degrees C. The standard should be used for establishing national, regional, or local s...

  12. Standardized monitoring of Rangifer health during International Polar Year

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Kutz; Julie Ducrocq; Christine Cuyler; Brett Elkin; Anne Gunn; Leonid Kolpashikov; Don Russell; White, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of individual animal health indices in wildlife populations can be a powerful tool for evaluation of population health, detecting changes, and informing management decisions. Standardized monitoring allows robust comparisons within and across populations, and over time and vast geographic regions. As an International Polar Year Initiative, the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment network established field protocols for standardized monitoring of caribou and reindeer (Ran...

  13. ASTEC participation in the international standard problem on KAEVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the International Standard Problem no 44 was aerosol depletion behaviour under severe accident conditions in a LWR containment examined in the KAEVER test facility of Battelle (Germany). Nine organisations participated with 5 different codes in the ISP44, including a joint participation of GRS and IPSN with the integral code ASTEC (and in particular the CPA module) they have commonly developed. Five tests were selected from the KAEVER test matrix: K123, K148, K186 and K188 as open standard problems and the three-component test K187 as blind standard problem. All these tests were performed in supersaturated conditions and with slight fog formation, which are the most ambitious conditions for the coupled problem of thermal hydraulics and aerosol processes. The comparison between calculation and test showed a good agreement for all the tests with respect to the thermal-hydraulic conditions in the vessel, i.e. total pressure, atmosphere temperature, sump water and nitrogen mass, etc.... As for aerosol depletion, the ASTEC results were in a good overall agreement with the measured data. The code in particular predicted well the fast depletion of the hygroscopic and mixed aerosols and the slow depletion of insoluble silver aerosol. The important effects of bulk condensation, solubility and the Kelvin effect on the aerosol depletion were well predicted. However the code overestimation of steam condensation on hygroscopic aerosols in supersaturated conditions indicates that some slight improvements of the appropriate ASTEC models are needed in the future. In the final ISP44 workshop, the deviations of the ASTEC results with respect to the experiments were considered to be small compared to those of most other codes. (authors)

  14. Development of standard solution for some radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive standard solution is a standard reference material. It is an important standard measuring instrument and used for transferring and inter-comparing of quantity value. According to requirement for the preparation of radioactive standard solution, 60Co, 90Sr-90Y, 137Cs, 134Cs, 63Ni, 241Am, 125I, 131I standard solutions have been developed. The medium includes about 20?50 ?g stable carrier per gram solution and 0.1 mol/L HCl. For iodine radioactive solutions., the medium is alkaline and the stabilizer is added into it. The solutions are all stable and uniform in the long term. The specific activities are accurate and the uncertainties are 0.10%, 0.27%, 0.18%, 0.12%, 0.24%, 0.18%, 0.20%, 0.22% respectively (1 ?)

  15. Review of IEC/ISO international standard related to HMI design for control rooms on NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished work wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards by IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) as international standard. On the other hand, ISO (International Standard Organization) issues ergonomic standards in HCI (Human Computer Interaction) for general industrial use. ISO11064 series are the process oriented standards specify procedures and processes to be followed. IEC60964 and supplemental standards have been effectively used and the design process required in IEC 60964 is the basis of the design process of ISO11064-1. However, IEC60964 is under revision, for example, to make technological update for taking into account the computerized control rooms, and to improve the human factor requirements. The revised version will consistent with the other IEC standards and similar standards or guidelines of another bodies. For hardware and software of computerized I and C system, a series of international standards have been systematically developed. In Japan, Japan electric association is developing industry association level guideline for the human-machine interface designs of the computerized main control rooms of nuclear power plants, as well as regulatory agencies of nuclear power plants in Japan are preparing technical basis for reviewers of controng technical basis for reviewers of control rooms of nuclear power plants. In this paper, we present the review of not only the state of international activities for revising IEC60964 and the state of ISO11064 series, but also the state and relationship to the related standards. (author)

  16. Developing standard transmission system for radiology reporting including key images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of hospital information system and Picture Archiving Communication System is not new in the medical field, and the development of internet and information technology are also universal. In the course of such development, however, it is hard to share medical information without a refined standard format. Especially in the department of radiology, the role of PACS has become very important in interchanging information with other disparate hospital information systems. A specific system needs to be developed that radiological reports are archived into a database efficiently. This includes sharing of medical images. A model is suggested in this study in which an internal system is developed where radiologists store necessary images and transmit them is the standard international clinical format, Clinical Document Architecture, and share the information with hospitals. CDA document generator was made to generate a new file format and separate the existing storage system from the new system. This was to ensure the access to required data in XML documents. The model presented in this study added a process where crucial images in reading are inserted in the CDA radiological report generator. Therefore, this study suggests a storage and transmission model for CDA documents, which is different from the existing DICOM SR. Radiological reports could be better shared, when the application function for inserting images and the analysis of standard clinical terms are comnalysis of standard clinical terms are completed

  17. Standard development at the Human Variome Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Vihinen, Mauno

    2015-01-01

    The Human Variome Project (HVP) is a world organization working towards facilitating the collection, curation, interpretation and free and open sharing of genetic variation information. A key component of HVP activities is the development of standards and guidelines. HVP Standards are systems, procedures and technologies that the HVP Consortium has determined must be used by HVP-affiliated data sharing infrastructure and should be used by the broader community. HVP guidelines are considered to be beneficial for HVP affiliated data sharing infrastructure and the broader community to adopt. The HVP also maintains a process for assessing systems, processes and tools that implement HVP Standards and Guidelines. Recommended System Status is an accreditation process designed to encourage the adoption of HVP Standards and Guidelines. Here, we describe the HVP standards development process and discuss the accepted standards, guidelines and recommended systems as well as those under acceptance. Certain HVP Standards and Guidelines are already widely adopted by the community and there are committed users for the others. PMID:25818894

  18. CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY MEAUSREMENT SCHEDULE: DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION*

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Savita; Varma, V. K.; Verma, S. K.; Malhotra, Anil

    1988-01-01

    Development and standardization of an instrument Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) to assess psychopathology in children is reported. CPMS is standardized on Indian population and is applicable to children of both sexes in the age range of 4-14 years. It measures overall psychopathology in the form of a total scores and also the type of psychopathology in the form of eight factorially derived syndromes which have satisfactory reliability and validity. CPMS is proposed to b...

  19. Role of international standards and international cooperation for effectiveness of national regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, though a national activity, have transboundary and international repercussions. Therefore, activities related to nuclear safety of nuclear power plants attract international interest. In this regard, agencies such as the IAEA have played a very constructive role. The paper examines the role international standards play along with international cooperation to enhance effectiveness of national regulators. Such national regulators usually belong to countries that import nuclear power plants and may lack an advanced industrial infrastructure at par with other exporting countries. International cooperation is, therefore, needed to assure an acceptably high level of safety keeping in view the economy, public acceptance of risks, vendor ease, utility benefit and regulatory effectiveness. Furthermore, international standards - which may be design or fabrication or installation standards - are prepared by large national and/or multinational groups of knowledgeable experts. However, these standards based on knowledge and experiences appear to be information for the regulators of a nuclear power plant importing country. International cooperation is needed to re-transform this information into knowledge at the user end. The paper includes a brief description of such cooperation under an IAEA technical cooperation project entitled Applicability of IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards for NPP in Pakistan-(PAK/9/29), which is for NPP in Pakistan-(PAK/9/29), which is an example of international cooperation in the use of international standards to enhance the regulatory effectiveness of the national regulator in Pakistan. The role international organizations play in helping regulators become more effective is also highlighted which is necessary in an expanding international market for nuclear power plants and achieving the common global goal of providing affordable, secure, sustainable and safe electricity without undue hazards to man and his environment. (author)

  20. Developments in international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, imported biomass contributes already significantly (between 21% and 43%) to total biomass use. Wood pellets are currently exported by Canada, Finland and (to a small extent) Brazil and Norway, and imported by Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK. In the Netherlands and Belgium, pellet imports nowadays contribute to a major share to total renewable electricity production. Trade in bio-ethanol is another example of a rapidly growing international market. With the EU-wide target of 5.75% biofuels for transportation in 2010 (and 10% in 2020), exports from Brazil and other countries to Europe are likely to rise as well. Major drivers for international bioenergy trade in general are the large resource potentials and relatively low production costs in producing countries such as Canada and Brazil, and high fossil fuel prices and various policy incentives to stimulate biomass use in importing countries. However, the logistic infrastructure both in exporting and importing countries needs to be developed to access larger physical biomass volumes and to reach other (i.e. smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded . smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded that international bioenergy trade is growing rapidly, far beyond what was deemed possible only a few years ago, and may in the future in some Task 40 countries surpass domestic biomass use, especially for specific applications (e.g. transport fuels). (author)

  1. Standardization on an international level; Die Norm als Wegbereiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banse, Stephanie

    2010-10-08

    Air-filled solar collector are used worldwide in the most varied applications and with good results. What is lacking, however, is an international standard that would ensure wider sales and better exports. This standardisation project will be undertaken by Fraunhofer ISE and the Canadian association Cansia. (orig.)

  2. How to Integrate International Financial Reporting Standards into Accounting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    It is expected the SEC will require U.S. domestic companies to prepare and file their annual 10Ks in accordance with international financial reporting standards (IFRS) by 2016. Given the probability that the FASB-IASB convergence project (i.e., Norwalk Agreement) will continue subsequent to mandatory adoption, US accounting programs will be…

  3. International standardization and classification of human papillomavirus types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzhalava, Davit; Eklund, Carina; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-02-01

    Established Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types, up to HPV202, belong to 49 species in five genera. International standardization in classification and quality standards for HPV type designation and detection is ensured by the International HPV Reference Center. The center i) receives clones of potentially novel HPV types, re-clones and re-sequences them. If confirmed, an HPV type number is assigned and posted on www.hpvcenter.se. ii) distributes reference clone samples, for academic research, under Material Transfer Agreements agreed with the originator. iii) provides preliminary checking of whether new sequences represent novel types iv) issues international proficiency panels for HPV genotyping. The rate of HPV type discovery is increasing, probably because of metagenomic sequencing. ?-genus today contains 79HPV types and 27 species, surpassing ? and ? genera with 65 and 51HPV types, respectively. Regular issuing of proficiency panels based on HPV reference clones has resulted in global improvement of HPV genotyping services. PMID:25577151

  4. Development of nano-roughness calibration standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Laboratory for Precise Measurements of Length, currently the Croatian National Laboratory for Length, unique nano-roughness calibration standards were developed, which have been physically implemented in cooperation with the company MikroMasch Trading OU and the Ru?er Boškovi? Institute. In this paper, a new design for a calibration standard with two measuring surfaces is presented. One of the surfaces is for the reproduction of roughness parameters, while the other is for the traceability of length units below 50 nm. The nominal values of the groove depths on these measuring surfaces are the same. Thus, a link between the measuring surfaces has been ensured, which makes these standards unique. Furthermore, the calibration standards available on the market are generally designed specifically for individual groups of measuring instrumentation, such as interferometric microscopes, stylus instruments, scanning electron microscopes (SEM) or scanning probe microscopes. In this paper, a new design for nano-roughness standards has been proposed for use in the calibration of optical instruments, as well as for stylus instruments, SEM, atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes. Therefore, the development of these new nano-roughness calibration standards greatly contributes to the reproducibility of the results of groove depth measurement as well as the 2D and 3D roughness parameters obtained by various measuring methods. (paper)

  5. To recognize the use of international standards for making harmonized regulation of medical devices in Asia-pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, K; Saini, Ks; Chopra, Y; Binod, Sk

    2010-07-01

    'Medical Devices' include everything from highly sophisticated, computerized, medical equipment, right down to simple wooden tongue depressors. Regulations embody the public expectations for how buildings and facilities are expected to perform and as such represent public policy. Regulators, who develop and enforce regulations, are empowered to act in the public's interest to set this policy and are ultimately responsible to the public in this regard. Standardization contributes to the basic infrastructure that underpins society including health and environment, while promoting sustainability and good regulatory practice. The international organizations that produce International Standards are the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). With the increasing globalization of markets, International Standards (as opposed to regional or national standards) have become critical to the trading process, ensuring a level playing field for exports, and ensuring that imports meet the internationally recognized levels of performance and safety. The development of standards is done in response to sectors and stakeholders that express a clearly established need for them. An industry sector or other stakeholder group typically communicates its requirement for standards to one of the national members. To be accepted for development, a proposed work item must receive a majority support of the participating members, who verify the global relevance of the proposed item. The regulatory authority (RA) should provide a method for the recognition of international voluntary standards and for public notification of such recognition. The process of recognition may vary from country to country. Recognition may occur by periodic publication of lists of standards that a regulatory authority has found will meet the Essential Principles. In conclusion, International standards, such as, basic standards, group standards, and product standards, are a tool for harmonizing regulatory processes, to assure the safety, quality, and performance of medical devices. Standards represent the opinion of experts from all interested parties, including industry, regulators, users, and others. PMID:21042494

  6. Standardization of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries should take food standardization seriously so that they do not become a dumping ground for foods that some developed countries refuse to admit for human consumption. Let us take saccharin for example. Whereas saccharin would normally not be allowed for use in flour preparations and ice-cream in certain developed countries, because saccharin is now known to be slightly carcinogenic, multinational companies from these same countries have been known to promote the use of saccharin in flour preparations and ice-cream in developing countries. When saccharin is used in soft drinks produced in developing countries, this is often not even declared on the label although manufacturers may be required by law in developed countries to declare the presence of saccharin in such drinks, which in any case must never exceed certain limits. It is against this background that the question of standardization of irradiated foods needs to be considered in developing countries. Like all food standardization questions, developing countries must have clearly defined guidelines and regulations for the consumption of irradiated foods and the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods.

  7. Playing Against China : Global Value Chains and Labour Standards in the International Sports Goods Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The rise of China as the global factory raises challenges for many developing countries and their producers. The football-manufacturing sector is a case in which China has emerged as a global player. It is also a sector where compliance with international labour standards is considered critical. Leading international brands dominate the industry and control the global value chain for sports goods. In this article, we explore the relationship between the rise of China and international labour standards and consider how labour standards have affected the geography and organization of global football production. We draw on evidence from three of the main production locations – China, Pakistan and India. It appears that compliance with labour standards not only has different implications for the three production locations, but also that compliance alone is an insufficient basis for competing against China

  8. The Development of VLBI Standard Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ni; Zhang, Xiu-Zhong

    2007-03-01

    Since the beginning of VLBI in the late 1960's, a large segment of VLBI instrumentation development has been directed towards the development of specialized data systems to cater to the extreme demands of both bandwidth and total data quantity. Several generations of specialized data systems have been developed by the user community itself. However, most of them are incompatible with each other, which has long been recognized as posing a serious obstacle to the realization of the full potential of VLBI observations. VLBI standard interface is a new concept in the recent year's development of VLBI technology, aiming to solve the incompatibility of various VLBI data systems. It is a common interface standard which would allow observations recorded on different VLBI data systems to be processed at a common correlator. The paper reviews the evolution of VLBI data system, including both the traditional record/playback system and the newly coming up e-VLBI. The necessity of VLBI standard interface and how it is developed is showed in detail. Three aspects of VLBI standard interface specification are introduced: 1) a hardware definition, VSI-H; 2) a software definition, VSI-S; 3) a definition which should help transferring VLBI via networks, VSI-E.

  9. Development of the standards for probabilistic analysis of security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) for Analysis Probability of Security (APS), for applications in nuclear plants, it was limited originally to an APS Level 1 of internal events. However, the recent efforts taken by the committee of administration of nuclear risk of the ASME, together with the committee for standards informed in risk of the American Nuclear Society (ANS), they have taken place an improved standard that the combines standard original ASME of APS Level internal events, fires inside the plant and external events, with a reserved place for events that happen to low powers and put out. This integrated standard will be used for the nuclear plants and the regulators to carry out applications informed in risk. The use of the APS has matured to the point that the programs of risk management have been developed that its is being used as part of the taking of decisions making in the nuclear facilities. The standard provides approaches to evaluate the technical capacities of an APS, relative to a matter in particular that allows them to the specialists in APS to determine if the elements of the APS are technically appropriate with regard to an application informed in particular risk. Informed applications in risk like inspection in service and technical specifications informed in risk they save time and resources, not alone to the plants, but to the regulator also. (Author)

  10. Current status and review of development of IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) has published the safety standards series of the standards, guides, and procedures related to nuclear safety with consistency. The draft of IAEA safety standards has been submitted and reviewed to all member states for the international broadest consensus and reflection of major comment before the approval by the IAEA Board of Governors (for Safety Fundamentals and Safety Requirements) or, on behalf of the Director General, by the Publications Committee (for Safety Guides). Recently, as the member state of IAEA, Korea has steadily reviewed the drafts of IAEA safety standards and presented the our comments, which are expected to be big aid of improvement and supplementation of the system and content of the Nuclear Acts and the regulatory guides related to nuclear safety. The objectives of this paper are to survey the current status of the development of IAEA safety standards and to introduce the main contents and proposed comments for the drafts of IAEA safety standards which have been reviewed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS) up to now

  11. The Operating Islamic Banks in Jordan Applying the International Internal Auditing Standards (IIA's)

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Adel Al-Sharairi; Alsharayri, Majed A.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying the operating Islamic banks in Jordan applying the international internal auditing standards, which are (4) banks. A questionnaire was designed for this purpose and distributed to internal auditors and un-executive board of directors members considered members of the Audit Committee in each bank, the number of questionnaires which were subjected to analysis were (35), resolution data was analyzed using (SPSS), and a number of statistical means through descriptiv...

  12. MEASUREMENT OF NEED FOR HARMONIZATION BETWEEN NATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Mustata, Razvan V.; Matis, Dumitru

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the quantification methods of the harmonization degree between the national accounting settlements and the international accounting standards. Starting from the presentation of the main methods used for this purpose such as - Euclidean distances, Jaccard’s coefficients, Spearman’s coefficients and other nonparametric methods for rank correlation analysis – we suggest a method of quantification for the need of harmonization between the national accounting standards an...

  13. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratories: Development and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication describes the work of the IAEA and the WHO in the establishment of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. Membership in the SSDL network has now risen to about 50 laboratories, of which 36 are in developing countries

  14. International standards for the indoor environment. Where are we and do they apply to Asian countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2003-01-01

    On the international level, ISO (International Organization for Standardization), CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) are writing and reviewing standards relating to the indoor environment on a regular basis. This presentation will focus on the development of standards for the indoor thermal environment and indoor air quality (ventilation). In the future, recommendations for acceptable indoor environments will be specified as classes. This allows for national differences in the requirements as well as for designing buildings for different quality levels. Several of these standards have been developed mainly by experts from Europe, North America and Japan. Are there, however, special considerations relating to South-East Asia (lifestyle, outdoor climate, economy) that are not dealt with in these standards and that will require the revision of existing standards? Critical issues are adaptation, the effect of increased air velocity, humidity, type of indoor pollutant sources, etc. The paper will present an overview of existing methods and discuss areas where revision of present standards or the development of new standards are needed, relating especially to conditions in Asia.

  15. International standards for the oil and natural gas industries: A review paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review paper describes the status of developments towards a complete set of international standards for the oil and natural gas industry. It builds on papers describing the intent of the program presented at the 1992 OTC by Thomas, Thorp and Denham; Wilson; and Arney. These papers state the objectives of developing a set of ISO standards predominantly within ISO/TC67. This paper places the development of the set of standards for the oil and natural gas industry in the context of the need for, and use of, standards by the industry. It describes the main standards organizations including their structure, procedures and relationships. It identifies ISO/TC67 as the key international standards committee for ''materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum and natural gas industries,'' and details its role and current work program. It concludes with a summary of the achievements to date. Significance: Common international standards should enable all stakeholders involved (users/suppliers/regulatory bodies) to conduct their business efficiently (lifecycle cost) with enhanced safety/integrity

  16. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

    2010-02-15

    {center_dot} Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials {center_dot} Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  17. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    · Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials · Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  18. National and international radiation protection standards to supplement laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The well-known recommendations of various governmental and non-governmental international organizations on which the radiation protection laws and regulations in about fifty countries are based are supplemented by almost 2000 consensus type national and international standards, dealing in more detail with the specific problems in radiation protection. Such standards, being valuable sources of highly condensed and up-to-date technical know-how, are an excellent instrument of information transfer to developing countries, as well as an important tool for the practical implementation of the more basic limits, rules and principles. They may thus be considered as 'codes of practice' to supplement the general governmental regulations. Development of voluntary standards occurs mainly on three levels, (a) professional radiation protection societies, with specialist working groups drafting documents to a pre-standard level; (b) national standards organizations issuing national standards, and (c) the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and its sister organization the International Electrotechnical Commission, whose Technical Committee 45B is concerned with radiation protection instrumentation. There is intense interaction between these three levels, and close liaison with other relevant organizations is required in order to avoid redundancies or contradictions. With the increasing number and completeness of the standards, their maintenance (regular revisions, es, their maintenance (regular revisions, etc.) gains in importance relative to the writing of new standards. Also, the focal points of work have to be adjusted to changing needs. For example, as a set of widely used ISO standards on reference radiations for the calibration of radiation protection instruments approaches completion, new work has recently been initiated regarding basic problems of radioactivity measurements such as detection limits, counting statistics, accuracy, etc. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

  19. Use of IAEA safety standards in the development of European safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The harmonisation of safety standards at an EU level is not a new idea. Work has gone on since 1975. Much of this work has been inseparable from the work on standards done at the IAEA. A set of basic safety principles were published by the Commission in 1981 that tied safety to the legally binding 'basic safety standards' for radiation protection adopted under Chapter III of the Euratom Treaty. Parallel and similar work was being carried out at the IAEA. Starting from a very similar base, the two activities have more recently developed differently, the IAEA worked on the further development and revision of nuclear safety standards while the European Commission activities tended more towards the practical harmonisation of general safety requirements for design and operation. The EU has basic safety standards for radiation protection. These are nearly identical to those developed by the ICRP and used by the IAEA, but are binding within the EU territory. Why a push for common standards now? The Nuclear Safety Convention highlighted the benefits of an international nuclear safety regime. The EU Member States realised that the task of assessing nuclear safety in the countries candidate for accession was hampered by lack of common standards or practices. The European Parliament called on the EU to adopt common safety standards (in July 2002). The Member States themselves agreed that a high level of nuclear safety is needed throughout the EU (Laeken Summit). The Ed throughout the EU (Laeken Summit). The European Court of Justice ruling of December 2002 clearly stated that EU could not artificially separate radiation protection from nuclear safety. The IAEA is currently clarifying and ordering its numerous safety requirements and guidelines. The European Commission and many Member States are involved in the work. Once the IAEA has completed this process we will implement the results in the EU, but in a binding way. (author)

  20. Fiscal 1999 technical achievement report. Development project on prompt-effect international standards for developing new industry (Standardization of gene amplification and analysis methods for genetic screening); 1999 nendo shinki sangyo ikusei sokkogata kokusai hyojunka kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Idenshi kensayo idenshi zofuku kaiseki hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    There is a move in Europe and America to establish their own standards for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique although it is a technique essential to biotechnology, and it is feared that such will restrain Japan's activities. In its effort to counter the move, Japan is exerting its own endeavors, hoping that it will profit from international standardization of criteria for the PCR technique. The Japanese effort aims at establishing international standards by unifying measuring procedures in the PCR technique and by enhancing the general-purpose feature of the data involved. In concrete terms, items available on the market, such as test and research equipment, reagents, and electronic instruments for use in measurement, are compared with each other in terms of performance, and basic specifications necessary for standardization and basic data on quality are collected. The effort involves, in more concrete terms, the measurement of thermal cycler temperature distribution, the evaluation of heat-resistant DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) polymerase temperature sensitivity and accuracy, and the evaluation of performance of CCD (charge coupled device) camera systems and Polaroid camera systems to be used for the evaluation of PCR products. (NEDO)

  1. Efficiency of Management Systems, Based on International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Gafforova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers major trends of management systems standardization development and efficiency. The authors determine possible structure of effects in the process of integrated management systems implementation.

  2. Assessing QA systems on the basis of internationally recognized standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlike the standardization of product-specific quality testing processes, the standardization of requirements on quality assurance systems and their verification in contracts displays industry-neutral and product-neutral characteristics. With the publication of its ISO 9000-9004 series of standards, the ISO has tackled the problem of harmonizing numerous national standards created for QA systems and various technical fields. Uniform assessment methods for verifying contractually agreed QA system elements will be developed in future on this basis. (orig./HP)

  3. Monitoring the International Standardization Process Theoretical Choices and Methodological Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Juanals

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations are in charge of global security management. This paper outlines and argues for the construction of a theoretical and methodological framework in order to critically assess the new technopolitics currently being developed in the field of global security and which are materialized in standards. The main purpose is to design both a methodology and specific text mining tools to investigate these standards. These tools will be implemented in a platform designed to provide cartographic representations of standards and to assist the navigation of an end-user through a corpus of standards.

  4. The Development Status Quo and Counter measures of Logistics Informationization Standards of China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qian

    2011-01-01

    The construction of logistics informationization standard system is related to the long-term development of the logistics industry. The domestic standard construction of logistics informationization is fairly lagged behind; problems such as few standards, incomplete systems, and low level of international conventions still exist. This paper studies the constitution of a logistics informationization standard system, differentiates ten categories of logistics informationization standards, and t...

  5. Regulatory practices and standards: the international scene and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At national level, codification of standards governing the licensing and operation of nuclear installations is very different, ranging from criteria to regulations, according to the degree of the obligation imposed by national authorities; it also reflects the variety of national situations and the peculiarities of the legal and political systems. The need to agree upon a level of nuclear safety which is generally recognised as satisfactory and to exchange scientific and technological information in this field has greatly stimulated international co-operation, in particular within the framework of specialized international organisations such as IAEA, ISO, Euratom and OECD/NEA. Harmonization of such standards is particularly important from the viewpoint of public opinion in the countries concerned. In addition, the intrinsic safety of nuclear power plants, assurances as to the duration of plant life should increasingly be highlighted in future. (NEA)

  6. Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL's analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described

  7. Developing Carbon Nanotube Standards at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pasha; Arepalli, Sivaram; Sosa, Edward; Gorelik, Olga; Yowell, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are currently being produced and processed by several methods. Many researchers are continuously modifying existing methods and developing new methods to incorporate carbon nanotubes into other materials and utilize the phenomenal properties of SWCNTs. These applications require availability of SWCNTs with known properties and there is a need to characterize these materials in a consistent manner. In order to monitor such progress, it is critical to establish a means by which to define the quality of SWCNT material and develop characterization standards to evaluate of nanotube quality across the board. Such characterization standards should be applicable to as-produced materials as well as processed SWCNT materials. In order to address this issue, NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a protocol for purity and dispersion characterization of SWCNTs. The NASA JSC group is currently working with NIST, ANSI and ISO to establish purity and dispersion standards for SWCNT material. A practice guide for nanotube characterization is being developed in cooperation with NIST. Furthermore, work is in progress to incorporate additional characterization methods for electrical, mechanical, thermal, optical and other properties of SWCNTs.

  8. International financial markets and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wahl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the ‘casino economy’. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new actors are surfacing, e.g. the institutional investor (hedge funds, private equity funds, etc., while new instruments are leading to highly leveraged and destabilising derivatives. The casino system has been promoted by governments and intergovernmental institutions to liberalise and deregulate financial markets. Although developing countries have not participated in the casino system, they have been suffering most from the spill-over into the real economy. The main lesson learnt is that the casino has to be closed.

    How to cite this article: Wahl, P., 2009, ‘International financial markets and development’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 65(1, Art. #284, 4 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v65i1.284

  9. International Standards for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a terminally sterilized medical device to be designated '' STERILE '', probability of finding the viable micro-organisms in the device shall be equal to or less than 1 x 10-6 (EN 556-1:2001: Sterilization of medical devices - Requirements for medical devices to be designated '' STERILE '' - Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices). Author presents the main legal aspects of the international standards for radiation sterilization of medical devices

  10. International Financial Reporting Standards effects on Banks in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Trang

    2012-01-01

    The thesis discusses the Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on Banks operating in Viet Nam. The goal is to investigate how the adoption of IFRS would change financial practices in Vietnamese Banking Industry and what Bank managers should be prepared for. The thesis use case study method to gain in-depth knowledge about the issue. The case study consisted analysis of Financial Reports from three well-known Banks in Viet Nam. The thesis first introduce about Bankin...

  11. Evaluation of mechanical properties of structural materials at cryogenic temperatures and international standardization for those methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, T.

    2014-01-01

    Testing methods for mechanical properties of structural materials at cryogenic temperatures had been developed rapidly after 1980, however, until 1985 many researches on cryogenic structural materials have been reported using their own methods and new materials have been developed for ITER. Since 1986, a series of international inter-laboratory comparisons on the evaluation of mechanical properties of cryogenic structural materials have been performed among the participants of US-Japan cooperation project and VAMAS (the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) in order to establish unified test methods. Through these international collaborations and Round-Robin Tests, we have accumulated knowledge about mechanical tests at 4 K, and have prepared a draft of an international standard for tensile testing in liquid helium. After testing conditions, strain measurements and other technical points have been discussed, those drafts were submitted to ISO. The outline, development, and discussion of the documents so far, with the results of RRTs, were discussed.

  12. Performance Standards for Teachers supporting Nursing Students’ Reflection Skills Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaath Dekker- Groen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available How can nursing teachers improve students’ reflection skills? In the study performance standards for teachers were developed and validated. A ten-step procedure was followed to ensure procedural and internal validity. National competences and specific content standards for supporting nursing reflection skills development formed the foundation of a preliminary rubric framework which was piloted. Forty participants from six nursing institutes judged the developed rubric framework of eight competences covering thirty rubric attributes. They also discussed the prerequisite minimum performance level and judgmental models. These judgments and discussions resulted in consensus on the rubric framework, a cut-off score, and a conjunctive judgmental model that is convenient for assessing nursing teachers’ competences. The rubrics can be used in a teacher training program. Also institutes of nursing education can employ the rubrics as a tool for preparing and formatively assessing reflection skills.

  13. Comparative study between external standard method and internal standard method for low-level tritium measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenching is always present in coal samples and the degree of quenching can vary from one sample to another even within the same batch. This means that quench correction should be carried out for each sample in order to determine the activity so that comparisons can be done between samples and other batches. In this paper, a comparative study of tritium measurements between two methods used to correct for quenching is presented. The methods used to determine counting efficiency in the presence of quenching are as follows: Spectral Quench Parameter of External standard method (SQP(e)) and Internal Standard Method (ISM). In this work, a low background liquid scintillation system detector (Quantulus 1220) is used to determine tritium activity concentration in heavy water with different concentration from 99.66 D/H+D% to 1.65 D/D+H %. Standard calibration curve for the SQP(e) technique was carried out with 3 H low level quenched PACKARD standard set that had an assayed value of 29.240 dpm/std ±1.6%. Quench correction for Internal Standard Method was done for each sample of heavy water with Tritiated Water Internal Standard that had a tritium concentration of 2.51 x 106 dpm/g ± 3.0%. A comparison between dilution factors calculated for D/D+ H% concentration and dilution factors calculated for tritium activity measured by the two methods are presented in the paper. Internal Standard Method provides accurate results especially for lower D/D+H% concentults especially for lower D/D+H% concentrations, which are similar with the environmental sample. Commercial standards set do not fulfill the exigency of an accurate environmental tritium measurement. One must take into account the following problem: type of vial, type of scintillator, filled volume and counting geometry. Even if one makes his own standard set for quenching calibration one must cope to another problem. The Compton electrons produced by external standard are energetic beta particles in the sample itself. Hence a small amount of quenching in tritium sample may remain undetected. (authors)

  14. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF CERTIFICATION PROCESS OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SA 8000 ON SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza RAJABZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the development of general tool for determining the direction and priority of consideration and study of accumulated experience results in the world practice, obtained when development, implementation, and certification of the management systems according to the requirements of international standard SA 8000. To solve this problem, in this article, it was suggested to use input data presented by international organization SAAS (Social Accountability Accreditation Services, statistical and graphical methods of data processing and analysis, and “Pareto analysis” methodology. As a result of the conducted research, the general tool was developed, that allows to systematize the accumulated experience of management systems implementation and certification in the world practice, which is developed on the basis of international standard SA 8000. It was suggested to classify the accumulated experience according to such indicators as “quantity of organizations”, “quantity of personnel”, “industry”, and “continent”. It was shown that the most quantity of organizations having certified management system in conformity with the requirements of international standard SA 8000, and the most quantity of personnel in certified organizations was concentrated in Asia. It was found that the most widespread branches of industry in regard to the certification of their management systems in conformity with the requirements of this standard are such branches as “construction”, “apparel”, and “textiles” industries.

  15. The Development Status Quo and Counter measures of Logistics Informationization Standards of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian XU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of logistics informationization standard system is related to the long-term development of the logistics industry. The domestic standard construction of logistics informationization is fairly lagged behind; problems such as few standards, incomplete systems, and low level of international conventions still exist. This paper studies the constitution of a logistics informationization standard system, differentiates ten categories of logistics informationization standards, and then elaborates on how to establish and improve various standards. Finally, this paper studies the countermeasures to promote the implementation of logistics informationization standards.
    Key words: Logistics informationization; Standards; Status Quo; Countermeasures

  16. Nuclear data standards - International Evaluation Co-operation volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The working party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank member countries) and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries is organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report was issued by Subgroup 7, which was in charge of producing new evaluated neutron cross-section standards. When starting the project, there was a general consensus on the need to update these standards, as significant improvements had been made to the experimental database since 1991 when the last evaluation of these standards was performed. The present work was accomplished through efficient collaboration between a task force of the US Cross-section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Subgroup 7 of the Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee. Work is reported on the results of an international effort to evaluate the neutron cross-section standards. The evaluations include the H(n,n), 6Li(n,t), 10B(n,?), 10B(n,?1?), 197Au(n,?), 235U(n,f) and 238U(n,f) standard reactions. Evaluations were also produced for the non-standard 238U(n,?) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions. This effort was performed so as to include new experiments in the standards that have been established since the ENDF/B-VI standard evaluation was completed, and to improve the evaluation process. Evaluations were not undertaken for the3He(n,p) and C(n,n) standards. These standards are carried over from ENDF/B-VI. The interest in standards above 20 MeV led to the extension of the 235U(n,f) and 238U(n,f) cross-sections to 200 MeV. The 239Pu(n,f) cross-section was also extended to 200 MeV. The general trend observed for the evaluations is an increase in the cross-sections for most of the reactions from fractions of a per cent to several per cent compared with the ENDF/B-VI results

  17. Current status of proteomic standards development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Sandra; Taylor, Chris; Hermjakob, Henning; Zhu, Weimin; Julian, Randall; Apweiler, Rolf

    2004-08-01

    The generation of proteomic data is becoming ever more high throughput. Both the technologies and experimental designs used to generate and analyze data are becoming increasingly complex. The need for methods by which such data can be accurately described, stored and exchanged between experimenters and data repositories has been recognized. Work by the Proteome Standards Initiative of the Human Proteome Organization has laid the foundation for the development of standards by which experimental design can be described and data exchange facilitated. The Minimum Information About a Proteomic Experiment data model describes both the scope and purpose of a proteomics experiment and encompasses the development of more specific interchange formats such as the mzData model of mass spectrometry. The eXtensible Mark-up Language-MI data interchange format, which allows exchange of molecular interaction data, has already been published and major databases within this field are supplying data downloads in this format. PMID:15966812

  18. Development And Standardization Of Leadership Behavior Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Srikanta Swamy, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explains the procedure of developing and standardizing a leadership behavior scale constructed by the authors to measure the behavioral of the head of institution. After critical study related to institutional behavior of head, twenty four dimensions were selected for constructing the tool. The pilot study had 76 items, related to all the twenty four dimensions. The newly constructed scale which consists of 60 items had face validity, content validity, construct validity and reliab...

  19. Development And Standardization Of Leadership Behavior Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srikanta Swamy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the procedure of developing and standardizing a leadership behavior scale constructed by the authors to measure the behavioral of the head of institution. After critical study related to institutional behavior of head, twenty four dimensions were selected for constructing the tool. The pilot study had 76 items, related to all the twenty four dimensions. The newly constructed scale which consists of 60 items had face validity, content validity, construct validity and reliability

  20. Introduction of International Quality Standards into the Practice of Domestic High-tech Enterprises ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????????????? ???????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseyenko Tetyana Ye.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to reflect urgency of issues of introduction of the principles of international quality standards into the practice of domestic high-tech enterprises, namely: telecommunication enterprises. Analysing, systemising and generalising scientific works of many scientists, statistical information and materials of enterprises, the article considers evolution of quality standards, their actuality and also the level of loyalty of domestic telecommunication companies towards the quality management system. In the result of the study the article identifies problems of adaptation of international principles of management on the basis of ISO 9000 standards into the practice of domestic high-tech companies. Prospects of studies in this direction are based on the study of specific features of perception of international practice of managing enterprises and personnel, development of methods of introduction of management systems and combination of the process and functional approaches to management.???? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????, ? ??????: ??????????? ???????????????????? ?????. ??????????, ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????????, ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ?? ????????????, ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????. ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ISO ????? 9000 ? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????. ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??????????.

  1. Standards Initiatives for Software Product Line Engineering and Management within the International Organization for Standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Ka?ko?la?, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Software product line engineering is an established methodology for fast and effective development of software-intensive systems and services. To reap maximum benefits from the methodology, businesses typically need to implement coordinated changes in development methodologies, tools, product architectures, organizational designs, and business models. Product lines are developed in complex international software ecosystems, but there is no coordinated set of interna...

  2. Development of activity standard for 90Y microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    90Y microspheres are important therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals used in the treatment of liver cancer through a process known as selective internal radiation therapy. SIR-spheres[reg] is a radiopharmaceutical product that is comprised of 90Y microspheres suspended in sterile, pyrogen-free water for injection into patients. It is necessary to establish for the SIR-spheres[reg] production the capability of accurately measuring the activity of this product to a traceable national measurement standard. An activity standard for SIR-spheres[reg] was developed from a standard for 90Y solution, employing a highly quantifiable chemical digestion process. Calibration factors for the manufacturer's ionisation chambers were determined for 1 and 5 ml of the SIR-spheres[reg] product placed in Wheaton vials, for both 34% and 44% of 90Y microsphere concentration

  3. CODE OF ETHICS FOR INTERNAL AUDITORS HARMONISED WITH THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR INTERNAL AUDIT

    OpenAIRE

    GEORGE CALOT?

    2008-01-01

    The Code of Ethics is binding for the internal auditor profession, since, at the end of the internal audit activity, the internal auditors, based on the tests and analyses carried out, express their opinion on the quality of the internal control system of the audited activity. The Code of Ethics stipulates four fundamental principles, as follows: integrity, constitutes the base for the trust granted to internal auditors; objectivity, directly related to independence; confidentiality, absolute...

  4. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation's (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs

  5. Development of American National Standard on External Event PRA Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last ten years, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S. nuclear utilities have been developing methods and requirements for risk-informed applications making use of probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of nuclear power plants. Early in this process, it became clear that the existing PRAs were done with different objectives and methodologies by different analysts. For uniformity and consistency in future risk-informed applications, industry consensus standards on probabilistic risk assessments were deemed to be essential. Currently, the following standards have been published or under preparation: - ASME RA-S-2002: 'Standard for Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Nuclear Power Plant Applications', Addendum C, March 2005. - ANSI/ANS-58.21-2003 'External-Events PRA Methodology' March 2003. - ANS-58.22 'Low Power and Shutdown PRA Standard'. - ANS-58.23 'Fire PRA Methodology Standard'. - ANS Level 2 and Level 3 PRA Standards. The ASME Standard specifies the requirements for performing PRA for internal events under full power conditions. ANS 58.21 specifies the requirements for conducting PRA of external events under full power conditions. These standards have been published, whereas the other standards are under preparation. ANS 58.21 was prepared by a working group comprised of the following individuals: - Dr. R.J. Budnitz, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. - Dr. N.C. Chokshi, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. - W. Henries, Maine Yankee Atomimmission. - W. Henries, Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company. - Dr. M.K. Ravindra, ABS Consulting, (Current Chair of Working Group). - Dr. J.D. Stevenson, J.D. Stevenson Consultants. - T. Yee, Southern California Edison Company. The development of this Standard was guided and approved by the Risk Informed Standards Committee (RISC) of American Nuclear Society. This committee has presently 22 members drawn from different sectors of the nuclear industry: utilities, reactor vendors, universities, research organizations, architect engineers, consultants and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In addition, the Working Group had sent early drafts of the Standard to a select group of peers in different elements of the external event PRA; this peer group included industry experts like Professor Allin Cornell, Dr. Robert Kennedy, and Mr. David Moore. The final requirements in the Standard hence represent the consensus of the industry. (author)

  6. Packaging in the New Product Development Process : An International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Pauline; Hult, Malin

    2005-01-01

    The thesis is conducted to investigate how packaging is taken into consideration within the new product development process and in which stages of the new product development process packaging actually is taken into consideration. Further we want to investigate if packaging has increased in importance within the activities of the new product development process, and how organizations deal with standardization of packaging for international markets in the new product development process. The p...

  7. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies the requirements of international and national regulatory bodies for patient safety. A culture of quality assurance and the need for scientific exchange at the international level have extended the requirements for standardization to many other areas. These include radiotherapy with heavy charged particles, brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. A major advance in radiotherapy over the past few years has been the growing use of proton and heavy ion irradiation facilities for cancer therapy. The increased use of brachytherapy, including the new application of intravascular brachytherapy, has resulted in the development of new standards and codes of practice in this area. In diagnostic radiology, including computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional procedures, the awareness of the importance of dose reduction to the patient has also lead to the development of codes of practice. In the field of nuclear medicine there is a need to increase the dissemination of standards and the development of international recommendations for dosimetry procedures. Every year there are several regional or international meetings on radiation physics applied to medicine or related areas. A meeting focused exclusively on dosimetry gives the unique opportunity to review in depth the developments and trends in this continuously changing field. By organizing this Symposium the IAEA maintains its longstanding tradition of disseminating knowledge, promoting expertise and supporting international co-operation in radiation dosimetry. The Symposium provided a forum where advances in radiation dosimetry during the past decade, not only in external beam radiotherapy but also in other areas of radiation medicine, can be disseminated and scientific knowledge exchanged. It will include areas that have been developed recently (e.g. intravascular therapy and hadron dosimetry), together with classic areas where the standardization of dosimetry may not have reached a mature stage (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). It will also summarize the present status

  8. International regularity development partnership (IRDP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Energy enters a renaissance era. Several countries consider nuclear as one of their energy resources. For example at the present Vietnam just sign an agreement with Russia for their first nuclear power plants, Malaysia expected that the first nuclear power plant will be operated and commercially available in around the year of 2021. Thailand, Singapore and Indonesia also consider having nuclear power plant in the time frame around 2025. Each country recently tries to prepare their regulatory infrastructure for their first nuclear power plant. The problems are each country doesn't have enough human resource and experience in preparing the nuclear power plant regulations infrastructure. The remains regulations resource is from IAEA which are too general to implement and USNRC which are too detail and difficult to implement for the lack of human resources. Therefore this International Regulatory Development Partnership (IRDP) could be the solutions for the demand of regulatory infrastructure preparations for those countries who's want to emerging nuclear power plant in their country

  9. To standardize or not standardize international marketing : is it still a question?

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Ana Maria; Farhangmehr, Minoo; Shoham, Aviv

    2003-01-01

    The standardization versus adaptation argument has been raging for years and international marketing research about it has spanned some four decades, attesting to its far reaching theoretical and practical relevance. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on this debate. Major theoretical and empirical contributions from companies’ and consumers’ points of view are presented. The importance of resolving this issue cannot be underestimated as it as an impact on segmentati...

  10. 76 FR 62714 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ...Harmonization With International Standards AGENCY: Coast Guard...assessment of potential costs and benefits under...the change in the international standard for occupant weight...Certificate can be issued. Costs While this...

  11. 77 FR 232 - Implementation of the 2010 Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ...Security-Related Training AGENCY...amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification...there is a need to provide...Medina, Office of Vessel...Purpose The International Convention on Standards of Training,...

  12. 75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...standards for hazardous air pollutants for reciprocating internal combustion engines and requesting public comment on one issue...

  13. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines Correction In rule document 2013-01288, appearing on pages...

  14. Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures.

  15. Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures

  16. EFFECTS OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS CONCERNING THE FINANCIAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MOROSAN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the "normalization accounting practices" specific anglo-saxon countries, it is devoid of normative reference systems being influenced by operational practice. Accounting rules that define economic evaluation procedures for recording and best practices resulting from active and fully recognized by professional accountants that are encoded by authoritative professional bodies, respecting the best financial and economic doctrines. Yet another object of the work is to show the effects of international standards of financial reporting on financial audit and financial control then the accountant.

  17. Defining the Core Archive Data Standards of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Dan; Beebe, Reta; Guinness, Ed; Heather, David; Zender, Joe

    2007-01-01

    A goal of the International Planetary Data Alliance (lPDA) is to develop a set of archive data standards that enable the sharing of scientific data across international agencies and missions. To help achieve this goal, the IPDA steering committee initiated a six month proj ect to write requirements for and draft an information model based on the Planetary Data System (PDS) archive data standards. The project had a special emphasis on data formats. A set of use case scenarios were first developed from which a set of requirements were derived for the IPDA archive data standards. The special emphasis on data formats was addressed by identifying data formats that have been used by PDS nodes and other agencies in the creation of successful data sets for the Planetary Data System (PDS). The dependency of the IPDA information model on the PDS archive standards required the compilation of a formal specification of the archive standards currently in use by the PDS. An ontology modelling tool was chosen to capture the information model from various sources including the Planetary Science Data Dictionary [I] and the PDS Standards Reference [2]. Exports of the modelling information from the tool database were used to produce the information model document using an object-oriented notation for presenting the model. The tool exports can also be used for software development and are directly accessible by semantic web applications.

  18. Center for International Development at Harvard University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Established in 1998 by the Harvard Institute for International Development and the Kennedy School of Government, the Center for International Development (CID) is Harvard's primary center for research on sustainable international development. The CID is currently headed by Professor Dani Rodrik, who provides oversight and direction for the Center. On the site, visitors can learn about upcoming international development conferences sponsored by the Center, read about the various persons working at the Center, learn about various research programs, along with reading various reports associated with each area of inquiry. The site also contains a host of links to online research data sets for persons working in the field of international development, and to the Center's working papers and special reports. Some of the more compelling working papers address the situation of sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa and the rise and fall of the Indonesian economy.

  19. 25 CFR 36.13 - Standard IV-Curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Standard IV-Curriculum development. 36.13 Section...Management § 36.13 Standard IV—Curriculum development. (a) Each school...implement an organized program of curriculum development involving...

  20. International developments on exemption from regulatory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles for exemption from regulatory control which were the subject of an international consensus in 1988 have formed the basis for deriving quantitative guidance for use in the standards on radiation protection which have been jointly produced by the international organisations. The paper outlines the procedure adopted for deriving the exemption levels in the standards. The exemption levels will be used as the means for determining which radiation sources and practices do not need to be regulated. The principles have also been used as the basis for deriving a set of internationally agreed clearance levels for use in controlling the release of slightly contaminated materials from regulated facilities. The method used for deriving the clearance levels from the results of national and international studies is described and the values compared and contrasted with the exemption levels mentioned above. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  1. Concrete blocks. Analysis of UNE, ISO en standards and comparison with other international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Alonso, Marina

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to describe the recently approved UNE standards through a systematic analysis of the main specifications therein contained and the values considered for each of them, as well as the drafts for ISO and EN concrete block standards. Furthermore, the study tries to place the set of ISO standards in the international environment through a comparative analysis against a representative sample of the standards prevailing in various geographical regions of the globe to determine the analogies and differences among them. PALABRAS CLAVE: albañilería, análisis de sistemas, bloque de hormigón, muros de fábrica, normativa KEY WORDS: masonry, system analysis, concrete blocks, masonry walls, standards

    En este trabajo se pretende describir la reciente aprobada normativa UNE, analizando sistemáticamente las principales prescripciones contempladas y los valores considerados para cada una de ellas, así como los proyectos de Norma ISO, y EN sobre bloques de hormigón. Asimismo se intenta situar la normativa UNE en al ámbito internacional, haciendo un análisis comparativo con una representación de Normas de distintas regiones geográficas del mundo, determinando sus analogías y diferencias.

  2. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab

  3. International cooperation in detector research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international collaboration dealing with the research and development (R and D) of detectors for TeV region physics is reported. In this report, it is attempted to analyze which and in what form interregional R and D on detectors may be suitable for the experiment at a hadron machine. Calorimetry was used as an example to illustrate the range of development required. An important and successful aspect of interregional collaboration concerns the definition of standard in the field of data acquisition. The reconstruction of the complete system is required, and this implies the measurement of all particles. This can be done only with calorimetric techniques. The methodical and technological development of calorimetry is presented. The role of the tracking and momentum analysis will require reassessment. Tracking will be essential for several auxiliary measurement. For the R and D, the collaboration between different groups has been made. For example, the ring-imaging Cherenkov tests, the uranium calorimeter tests and the test of a uranium-liquid argon hadron calorimeter were made by the collaboration of several groups. The collaboration with industry has been also made. (Kato, T.)

  4. A systems process lifecycle standard for very small entities: development and pilot trials

    OpenAIRE

    Laporte, Claude; O Connor, Rory

    2014-01-01

    Very small entities, organizations with up to 25 people, are very important to the worldwide economy. The products they develop are either developed specifically for a customer or are integrated into products made by larger enterprises. To address the needs of Very small entities, a set of standards and guides have been developed using the systems engineering lifecycle standard ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 as the main framework. The systems engineering handbook, developed by the International Council o...

  5. Developments in safety standards and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explains, in broad terms, how regulatory control is exercised over licensed nuclear installations in the UK and how HSE has developed its safety standards to support its regulatory approach. It first sets out the scope of HSE's regulatory responsibilities, which NII exercises on its behalf, and briefly describes the licensing process and compliance monitoring through inspection over the life of a nuclear plant. It also refers to the role of assessment in NII's decision-making processes, and the part played in this by the consideration of costs and safety benefits. It then moves on to consider the challenges that HSE/NII are likely to face from the changing nuclear industry in the second half of the 1990s. (author)

  6. International standards for the dosimetry of radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of an international intercomparison of both active and passive techniques of radon and radon daughter dosimetry, sponsored by the European Communities (CEC) in 1982. A summary is also given of a similar world-wide programme sponsored jointly by the CEC and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1984. (U.K.)

  7. The protection of the accused in international criminal law according to the Human Rights Law Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Karolina Kremens

    2011-01-01

    The presented paper discusses the influence of international human rights law on international criminal law. It tries to give an answer to the question of whether rules protecting the accused in international criminal proceedings meet the human rights law standard provided by international declarations and covenants. Meaning, if the proceedings before the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and International Criminal ...

  8. Development and standardization of Mysore Tridosha scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpa, S; Murthy, C G Venkatesha

    2011-07-01

    The authors have developed a personality scale to assess Tridoshas i.e. Vata, Pitta, and Kapha from psychological perspective in human beings. The Tridoshas are composed of the Pancha Mahabhutas, but one or the other Dosha is dominant singularly or in combination. There can never be a state when one or the other Pancha Mahabhutas and consequently the Tridoshas are absent totally. All five are essential to sustain life. Vata Dosha is composed of Akasa and Vayu Mahabhuta. Pitta Dosha is composed of Tejas or Agni and Ap Mahabhuta. Kapha Dosha is composed of Ap and Prithvi Mahabhuta. Although Tridosha is studied, understood, and applied in Ayurveda, the present authors have tried to validate the same from the domain of psychology. Since the authors are not from the domain of Ayurveda but of Psychology, there are some constructs that are not amenable for psychological testing which have been ignored. Only those constructs that can be used by psychologists to assess the psychological aspects of the Dosha Prakriti have been used to build items for the assessment of personality. In this process, the psychometric properties of the scale are established. The scale assesses the psychological manifestation of the Tridoshas, which was the basic objective. The standardization procedure involved in the development of the Mysore Psychological Tridosha Scale is herewith delineated. PMID:22529642

  9. Synthesis of [(2) H6 ]ceftazidime as a stable isotopically labeled internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Lei; Bushby, Nick

    2015-06-15

    Ceftazidime is a third generation cephalosporin antibiotic that has activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial pathogens, including Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Stable isotope-labeled ceftazidime was required for use as an internal standard in LC-MS/MS assays, and a route was developed to make [(2) H6 ]ceftazidime in eight steps from the commercially available labeled starting material [(2) H7 ]isobutyric acid. PMID:26017617

  10. White Paper: functionality and efficacy of wrist protectors in snowboarding—towards a harmonized international standard

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Frank I; Schmitt, Kai-Uwe; Greenwald, Richard M.; Russell, Kelly; Simpson, Frank I; Schulz, David; Langran, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The wrist is the most frequently injured body region among snowboarders. Studies have shown that the risk of sustaining a wrist injury can be reduced by wearing wrist protection. Currently, there are a wide variety of wrist protection products for snowboarding on the market that offer a range of protective features. However, there are no minimum performance standards for snowboarding wrist protectors worldwide. The International Society for Skiing Safety convened a task force to develop a Whi...

  11. Silica optical fiber technology for devices and components design, fabrication, and international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Kyunghwan

    2012-01-01

    From basic physics to new products, Silica Optical Fiber Technology for Device and Components examines all aspects of specialty optical fibers. Moreover, the inclusion of the latest international standards governing optical fibers enables you to move from research to fabrication to commercialization. Reviews all the latest specialty optical fiber technologies, including those developed for high capacity WDM applications; broadband fiber amplifiers; fiber filleters based on periodic coupling; fiber branching devices; and fiber terminations Discusses key differences among sing

  12. Developing Ethics and Standards in Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Boog

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a globalizing world, what role can social science research – particularly action research – play in order to address the risks of exclusion, poverty, social and physical insecurity and environmental deprivation? More specifically, how can this type of research be conducted in a participatory, responsible, transparent and scientific way? In other words: what about the ethics and standards in action research? This was the main focus of the World Congress on Action Research and Action Learning (August 2006 organized by the University of Groningen and the Higher Education Group of the Northern Netherlands. We begin by discussing the core characteristics of action research with reference to theory and practice. Reflection and action are key constituents of the process through the enactment of action research. The middle section draws upon the research findings presented at the congress and published in a book [B. Boog, J. Preece, M. Slagter and J. Zeelen (Eds. (2008 Towards Quality Improvement of Action Research. Developing Ethics and Standards, Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers]. Citing authors who contributed chapters to the book mentioned above, we analyze four important subthemes: ‘participation, power and rapport’; ‘quality of research and quality management’; ‘learning to solve your own problems in complex responsive social systems, and ‘heuristics (rules of thumb for action research practice’. Finally, we comment on possible quality improvements for action research. Our remarks relate to the problems of implementing the concept of participation, the ambition of action research to contribute to both knowledge production and social change and the need for systematic reconstruction (scientific validation of action research.

  13. Contribution from twenty two years of CSNI International Standard Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a brief overview on the contribution of some CSNI International Standard Problems (ISPs) to nuclear reactor safety issues (41 ISPs performed over the last 22 years). This CSNI activity on ISPs has been one of the major activities of the Principal Working Group no.2 on Coolant System Behaviour. Its domain extended from thermal-hydraulics to several other accident domains following the main concerns of nuclear reactor safety, e.g., LOCA predictions fuel behaviour, operator procedures, containment thermal-hydraulics severe accidents, VVERs, etc. ISPs are providing unique material and benefits for some safety related issues. Clearly, all the technical findings and benefits provided by ISPs are still needed and contribute to advancement of nuclear safety. The report provides some overview on the general objectives of ISPs, content and types of ISPs, and technical domains covered by ISPs, followed by a synthesis of technical findings and benefits to the scientific community

  14. International comparison of calibration standards for exposure and absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was performed of the primary calibration standards for 60Co gamma radiation dose from Czechoslovakia (UDZ CSAV, Prague), Austria (OEFZS/BEV Seibersdorf) and Hungary (OMH Budapest) using ND 1005 (absolute measurement) and V-415 (by means of Nx) graphite ionization chambers. BEV achieved agreement better than 0.1%, OMH 0.35%. Good agreement was also achieved for the values of exposure obtained in absolute values and those obtained via Nx, this for the ND 1005/8105 chamber. The first ever international comparison involving Czechoslovakia was also performed of the unit of absorbed gamma radiation in a water and/or graphite phantom. The participants included Czechoslovakia (UDZ CSAV Prague), the USSR (VNIIFTRI Moscow) and Austria (OEFZS/BEV Seibersdorf). In all measurements, the agreement was better than 1%, which, in view of the differences in methodologies (VNIIFTRI, BEV: calorimetry, UDZ, UVVVR: ionometry) and the overall inaccuracies in determining the absorbed dose values, is a good result. (author)

  15. Good clinical practice: International quality standard for clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulovi? Siniša S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical trial is one of the most important examples of experimental studies. Clinical trials represent an indispensable tool for testing, in a rigorous scientific manner, the efficacy of new therapies. Good Clinical Practice is an international ethical and scientific quality standard for clinical trials, concerning the design, conduct, performance, monitoring auditing, recording, analysis and reporting. This is an assurance to the public that the rights, safety and well-being of trial subjects are protected, and that clinical trial data is credible. The above definitions are consistent with the principles that have their origin in the declaration of Helsinki. The objectives of Good Clinical Practice are to protect the rights of trial subjects, to enhance credibility of data and to improve the quality of science.

  16. International Migration, Remittances and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Mahmud; Md. Abdus Sabur; Sharmin Tamanna

    2009-01-01

    The increasing remittance flows to the labor sending developing countries in recent years have generated huge optimism in the contemporary development discourse about the possibility of development at the grassroots levels which has been an overwhelming challenge for the development actors for decades. However, the realization of such potential proves difficult due to a lack of common understanding of the phenomenon of labor migration and its causes and consequences. This study focuses on the...

  17. Marketing Instructional Development Internally, Externally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lied, James

    This description of the marketing process as a practical way to manage the function of instruction development emphasizes the importance of the identification and evaluation of customer needs before developing objectives. To assist the instructional development agency in focusing on this aspect of planning, a check list of possible marketing…

  18. Comparison of Different Internationally Accepted Reference Standards to Measure Childhood Adiposity Rates in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kup?a Sarm?te

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adiposity is increasingly affecting developed and developing countries alike. Body Mass Index (BMI is a good first approximation of body weight, but interpretation in specific patient populations may be inconsistent. The aim of this study was to compare adiposity rates using three internationally accepted weight reference standards – World Health Organisation (WHO, International Obesity Task Force (IOTF, and US Centers for Disease Control (CDC, plus a local national scale (LV, evaluating 465, 6-to-9-year old school children in Latvia. After obtaining height and weight, BMI was calculated, and the four scales were individually applied by gender and age. Highly significant differences between LV and CDC, LV and IOTF, LV and WHO were found in all age groups (P < 0.01, and between WHO and IOTF reference standards (P < 0.01 in 7- and 8-year olds. We conclude that reference standards should be used with great caution. Reference standards for local ethnic populations are needed to avoid disagreements between scales, as this can lead to incorrect choice of therapy; reliance on any single reference standard may not consider a patient's unique set of circumstances that have resulted in excess weight and information that is vital for a good clinical outcome.

  19. CSNI International standard problems (ISP): brief descriptions (1975-1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last twenty years (1975-1999) the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored more than forty International Standard Problems (ISPs) in the fields of in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulic, and iodine behaviour in the containment. ISPs are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. The main characteristics of 41 ISPs completed between 1975 and 1999, and 3 containment analysis standard problems (CASPs) are briefly presented

  20. New nuclear technology; International developments. Review 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary review is given, describing the international development in the fields of stationary and mobile nuclear power reactors and associated fuel cycles, including news concerning safety, environment and waste management. 45 refs

  1. Specific Features of Reflection of Information Regarding Lease Operations in the National and International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolenko Nataliya V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies the degree of correspondence of the national Provisions (Standard of Business Accounting (PSBA Lease with the international standard and provides recommendations with respect to their closing up. On the results of the study the author provides specific features of international and national standards – the existing IFRS 17 Lease and national PSBA 14 Lease by the following components: definition of lease, its classification and reflection in accounting. Also the text of PSBA 31 Financial Expenditures is supplemented with provisions on capitalisation of financial expenditures prospectively, which would allow avoidance of correction of the balance of the retained income and provision of comparative information for previous periods. The article provides an algorithm of division of lease for accounting purposes on the basis of international standards. Its use would ensure correctness of reflection of lease operations in accounting and would serve as a basis for development of methodical provisions with respect to accounting. By the result of the study the author forms definition of the qualification asset as an asset which requires considerable time for its creation, preparation for target use, sales or acquisition of the ownership right. Capitalisation of such expenditures would allow non-reduction of the accounting income and also would provide a possibility to reflect financial expenditures in accordance with their economic essence.

  2. The quantitative analysis of Bowen's kale by PIXE using the internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal standard method was used for non-destructive quantitative determination of trace elements by PIXE. The uniform distribution of the internal standard element in the Bowen's kale powder sample was obtained by using homogenization technique. Eleven elements are determined quantitatively for the sample prepared into self-supporting targets having lower relative standard deviations than non-self-supporting targets. (author)

  3. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Overall survey; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Sogo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of tackling with the international standardization by enterprises and organizations involved in the standardization in the U.S., Europe and Japan, the results of the R and D on 20 themes for the international standardization, and the development toward the international standardization. As the R and D themes, the following were selected: the development of chemical method to analyze/evaluate metallic coatings of surface treated steel coating sheets, R and D of the basic evaluation method of functional composite particles, international standards for computer/manikins, basic technology of color image management, study on optimizing design/evaluation technology using quality engineering, study of the international standardization by economic evaluation of environmental impacts, R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells, development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards, standard measuring methods of hormone effects of chemical substances, quantification of the sensory evaluation and international standardization in the paint field, experimental study on the international standardization for immunochemical measurement of chemical substances, etc. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Strategic Partnerships in International Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, Tod; Hartenstine, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides a framework and recommendations for development of strategic partnerships in a variety of cultural contexts. Additionally, this study elucidates barriers and possibilities in interagency collaborations. Without careful consideration regarding strategic partnerships' approaches, functions, and goals, the ability to…

  5. INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS: A WAY FOR GLOBAL CONSISTENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Tripathi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The reverberations of Wall Street had to be felt across the global banking system. Last September, the world economy seemed to be hurtling down in a way that had initially raised the spectre of the Great Depression in America of the late 1920s. This is based largely on the performance of stock markets which are supposed to reflect future trends in the real economy. However, such knowledge embedded in the markets can be imperfect, as we have learnt by now. In some ways, the global financial crisis and its fallout are forcing economic agents to acquire new knowledge in regard to what might happen in the future. It was difficult to explain rationally why the stock markets were furiously running up even as company balance sheets were still bleeding. A few years ago, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS were a distant possibility. Today, the reality is far different. We are in a dramatic shift that is fast making IFRS the most widely accepted accounting model in the world. As the business environment becomes increasingly global and companies routinely list on stock exchanges in many countries, the need for consistent worldwide reporting standards intensifies. IFRS clearly addresses this issue; its goal is to create comparable, reliable, and transparent financial statements that will facilitate greater cross-border capital raising, trade and better corporate governance practices. Thus acceptance of IFRS is gaining momentum across the globe. IFRS transition program for any organization will have multi –dimensional effect because of differences which exist between IFRS and Local GAAPs. The objectives of the paper is to highlight the nature of such differences with examples along with analysing the provisions of IFRS, comparative analysis of IFRS with Indian GAAP system, benefits, and major issues in first time adoption of IFRS in Indian companies with the help of case study of Indian corporate.

  6. For a communicational analysis of international management standards in societal security

    OpenAIRE

    Juanals, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This proposal presents a communicational analysis of international management standards in the field of private and public organizations. We study the new communication policies and strategies transmitted by these texts.this work (part of the notSeG project, 2009-2012) takes place in the field of the international standardization of societal security. the aim of this project is to study management standards (international, european and national) in relation to the institutions an...

  7. Analysis of International and National Hotel Chains Development in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gorina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the national hotel chains development in Ukraine and the sponsorship for the international hotel chains functioning are not only due to the country’s business and tourist attractiveness formation, taking into account Euro-2012, but also due to the necessity of high-quality expansion of dwelling and resort places choice for foreign and Ukrainian guests in accordance with their aims of arrival and individual preferences.In comparison with the international hotel chains, the national hotel chains have the following advantages: the local market adaptation; the country’s legislative base awareness; the best understanding of local traditions and customs; the standards development independence; the ability to react to the market changes quickly.The development of national hotel chains in Ukraine is in the initial stage. The formation of Ukrainian hotel chains is arising from the following objectives: support of increasing volumes of inbound tourism; service according to the international hotel service standards; employment in a services sector; enterprises support in the hotel business while developing hotel chains. The favorable geographic location of Ukraine, the low level of market saturation and the high hotel service demand favor the appearance of the international hotel chains in Ukraine.

  8. WHY DOES THE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDIZATION HAVE TO PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN SUSTAINABLE ECONOMICS AND FINANCIAL STRATEGIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeno Beke, Ph.D, CMA, CPA, CTA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards and their contribution to harmonization in business economics and financial practice. In this review, the goal is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards promote financial decisions and influence the business environment in a global scale. It is expected that the unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business economics and financialpractice of certain countries. Standardization of financial accounting has tended to follow the integration of the markets served by the accounts. The present impetus for global accounting standards follows the accelerating integration of the word economy. The global accounting standards would enable the world’s stock markets to become more closely integrated. It is important for companies to develop coherent and consistent financialstrategies and to utilize international accounting methods to support strategic planning, decision-making and control.

  9. Breeder development in international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Republic of Germany is gathering experience in operating the test power plant KNK II and in building the breeder prototype SNR 300. In this matter licensing- and financial problems have to be managed. For the further development planning studies also taking the French breeder concept into account are about to be effected. In France and the Soviet Union they are already passing over from breeder prototype power plants to larger demonstration breeders. The USA are making up for the delays they caused during the past years due to political reasons. Great Britain, Japan, India and Italy have their own breeding reactor projects, and Switzerland and some more countries do investigations concerning parts of the breeder development. (orig.)

  10. Overweight and Obesity among Children (10-13 years) in Bahrain:A comparison between Two International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    O Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Al-mannai, Mariam; Al-marzog, Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obesity has become one of the main public health problems worldwide. Childhood obesity rate is growing very fast in both developed and developing countries. This paper aimed to explore the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children aged 10-13 years in Bahrain, and to find out the difference in this prevalence when using two international standards.

  11. Harvard Institute for International Development (HIID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Institute for International Development.

    1998-01-01

    Founded in 1974, the Harvard Institute for International Development (HIID) is an interdisciplinary center at Harvard University whose mission is to assist the economic growth of developing nations. Publications on-site include an extensive compilation of Development Discussion Papers (1974-present) with selected full text on agricultural and food policy, education, taxation, economic reform, and environmental issues (1995-present), as well as research stemming from the Consulting Assistance on Economic Reform project (CAER) and International Tax Program. Recent HIID book reviews are also available, and interested parties may examine compilations on the East Asian Financial Crisis and the External Debt Problem in Central America at the Research page.

  12. An International Marketing Curriculum - Development and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboushi, Suhail; Lackman, Conway; Peace, A. Graham

    1999-01-01

    Describes the process of market-driven curriculum design in the development of an undergraduate International Marketing (IM) major at Duquesne University (Pennsylvania) School of Business Administration. Reports on a market study revealing profiles and IM curriculum design preferences of exporting companies. Discusses the curriculum development,…

  13. Final comparison report for international standard problem n.22 (SPES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OECD-CSNI International Standard Problem 22 is a 'Loss of Feedwater with EFW delayed' test, performed in the SPES facility (SIET-Piacenza). The purpose of 'LOFW-EFW delayed' experiment is to obtain in the primary system of the facility the thermal-hydraulic conditions similar to the reference plant in the incidental transient of main feedwater total loss, in all the three steam generators, with a delayed intervention of the emergency feedwater system. It is a double blind exercise, characterized by a large participation of non-OECD countries sponsored by IAEA. The ISP22 Comparison Report is based on two fundamental elements: the comparison between the single Participants predictions and the experimental data, and the overall comparison among all calculations and test results. The conclusions drawn from these analyses highlight the major contributions to the observed discrepancies deriving from code limitations, user errors, experimental uncertainties. From a macroscopic point of view, it is concluded that most of the phenomena occurring in ISP22 experiment were generally predicted by the double blind predictions. A more accurate analysis of the single phenomena can nevertheless reveal relevant discrepancies between calculations and data. The document also contains a description of ISP22 Participants and input decks, and a collection of their comments on the differences between calculations and test results

  14. International financial markets and development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Peter, Wahl.

    Full Text Available The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the ‘casino economy’. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated [...] by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new actors are surfacing, e.g. the institutional investor (hedge funds, private equity funds, etc.), while new instruments are leading to highly leveraged and destabilising derivatives. The casino system has been promoted by governments and intergovernmental institutions to liberalise and deregulate financial markets. Although developing countries have not participated in the casino system, they have been suffering most from the spill-over into the real economy. The main lesson learnt is that the casino has to be closed.

  15. US agency for international development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumfrey, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author addresses the following questions in his presentation: what is USAID; where does the money go and who makes the decisions; where does USAID fund energy programs, and especially renewable energy; who are their `partners`; what is the approach to renewable energy; what in summary, has USAID funded that is relevant to village power. USAID is the foreign aid agency of the US Government. Approximately 75 countries receive regular assistance. The fiscal year 97 budget for the agency is approximately $5.8 billion. About half of the total budget goes to Israel, Egypt, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. These budgeting decisions are geopolitical. Congress earmarks total budgets for a few sectors or subjects, such as family planning. The goal of USAID`s renewable energy programs is simple: They are interested in accelerating the market penetration of commercial technologies. They do not engage in technology R&D. Developing countries have energy needs now, and commercial technologies are available now. USAID has taken note of the interest taken by subsidiaries of US utilities in the past couple of years in bringing their expertise and resources to bear on meeting the challenge of rural energy needs in developing countries. They believe that the entry into the market of these players could be one of the most important catalysts for making the rural energy revolution happen.

  16. Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012

  17. Harmonizing the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) sound level meter specification standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Bennett M.

    2005-09-01

    It has been over 20 years since the last major revision of the American National Standard Specification for Sound Level Meters, S1.4-1983 (R2002). This is the most extensively referenced ANSI acoustical standard, with wide application to architectural acoustics, soundscapes, environmental noise, and hearing conservation. A new revision is proposed that conforms as closely as possible to the recently developed International Electrotechnical Commission Standard for Electroacoustics-Sound Level Meters Part 1: Specifications, IEC 61672-1 (2002-05). This proposed revision represents an improvement over ANSI S1.4-1983, particularly in its frequency response tolerance limits at high frequencies, and impulse (toneburst) response. Also, it incorporates the high-frequency electrical design goals and tolerance limits for A-weighted response that were specified in Amendment S1.4A-1985, and it maintains the more restrictive low-frequency tolerance limits of the earlier (1983) specification, compared to IEC 61672-1. The proposed revision maintains the laboratory precision Type 0 specification, which is absent in IEC 61672-1, while incorporating the specifications for integrating-averaging sound level meters previously given in ANSI S1.43-1997. Sound level meters which meet the Type 1 and Type 2 specification requirements, respectively, in this S1.4 revision will also meet the Class 1 and Class 2 specification requirements of 61672-1.

  18. Further development of international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A promising area for technical development, leading to new safeguards approaches, is the further use of unattended instruments to make more effective use of inspector resources and to reduce intrusiveness. An unattended liquid-level monitor for reprocessing-plant accountability tanks was tested under the TASTEX program. With secure data recording, it can provide continuous coverage while the resident inspector is engaged in other tasks. Another development is for monitoring the feed and withdrawal streams at centrifuge enrichment plants. Unattended and protected instruments to measure enrichment of the feed, product, and tails streams, and the identification, gross and tare weights of cyclinders can provide a continuous record with only intermittent inspector presence. To reduce the number of interim inspections at LWR's, we are studying collection of surveillance information in secure, detachable TV data packages and having the operator send them to the Agency for review to detect any changes in the spent-fuel inventory. If it could not be verified that there had been no changes, an interim inspection would be made within the present three-month limit. Otherwise, the inspection could be deferred, with the annual inspection performed on schedule. We are looking at the hardware feasibility and tamper-resistance aspects, and the expected savings of inspector effort. After we have a clearer understanding of what might be done, the questions of adequacy and acceptability e questions of adequacy and acceptability can be addressed by the proper authorities. These examples demonstrate how innovation by the technical community can open new safeguards approaches for consideration by the Agency

  19. Comparison requirements of national and international standards for stainless steel pipes of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents review of standards and specification for stainless steel of X18H10T series used in NPP structures. The article is aimed at displaying mismatches between pipes under different standards. National standards should be put in compliance with European regulations. Therefore, requirements for national NPP pipes should be put in compliance with international standards, rules and regulations

  20. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LOCAL AND FOREIGN BANKS USING INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD AND STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTING STANDARD: Case of Nigeria Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Makinde, Olaniyi

    2009-01-01

    The research focuses on three bank’s financial reporting and why they had adopted the different accounting standards. The banks are Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, First Bank of Nigeria Plc and Standards chartered of Nigeria Ltd. I chose the topic because of my interest in international accounting and way of reporting financial statement in different cultures. The aim of the thesis is to show how companies use different kinds of accounting standards to publish their annual report, the effects of...

  1. The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kareš

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with institutional aspects of auditing profession, mostly their impact on international harmonization concept of auditing services. The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services behavior and development, mostly in context of providing the auditing services. The authors mention on the IAASB priorities in this area set for period 2009 - 2011.

  2. The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Kareš; Petra Krišková

    2008-01-01

    The article dealt with institutional aspects of auditing profession, mostly their impact on international harmonization concept of auditing services. The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services behavior and development, mostly in context of providing the auditing services. The authors mention on the IAASB priorities in this area set for period...

  3. 79 FR 50741 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With International Standards (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-25

    ...equipment with an internal combustion engine that uses liquid fuel...equipment with an internal combustion engine powered by fuel cells...2 (substances liable to spontaneous combustion); Division 4.3...

  4. 80 FR 1075 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With International Standards (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-08

    ...2 (substances liable to spontaneous combustion); Division 4.3 (substances...mechanical equipment has an internal combustion engine using liquid fuel that...mechanical equipment has an internal combustion engine using liquid fuel...

  5. The requirements for the inclusion of standard terms in international sales contracts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Eiselen.

    Full Text Available The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG) does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solutio [...] n to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it is necessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be made available to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems, namely that a clear incorporation clause in the contract is sufficient for the effective incorporation of standard terms. The author critically examines the case law, the various approaches and the underlying arguments on which they are based, before reaching the conclusion that the two extreme approaches should be rejected in favour of the more moderate approach. This approach is founded on a proper interpretation of the provisions of the CISG as well as being in step with international trade practice.

  6. International standards for tuberculosis care: Relevance and implications for laboratory professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On World Tuberculosis (TB Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are suspected of having, TB and is intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all healthcare providers in delivering high quality care for patients of all ages, including those with smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB, TB caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TB/HIV coinfection. In this article, we present the ISTC, with a special focus on the diagnostic standards and describe their implications and relevance for laboratory professionals in India and worldwide. Laboratory professionals play a critical role in ensuring that all the standards are actually met by providing high quality laboratory services for smear microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing and other services such as testing for HIV infection. In fact, if the ISTC is widely followed, it can be expected that there will be a greater need and demand for quality assured laboratory services and this will have obvious implications for all laboratories in terms of work load, requirement for resources and trained personnel and organization of quality assurance systems.

  7. Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products

    OpenAIRE

    Bialous, S.; Yach, D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).?METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Search words included "ISO", "CORESTA", "Barclay", "compensation and machine smoking", "tar and nicotine del...

  8. Globalization quickly increased need for moving from local to international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Cataldo

    2005-07-01

    'Standardization' quickly changed in the past few years, due to the market's globalization that needs international standards as important instruments in eliminating technical barriers to trade. The 'Petroleum Sector' chose moving to international standards jointly processed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) that played the role of historical reference. Taking into account that oil industry wants only one Standard worldwide used, also Europe decided for adopting these ISO Standards as European Standards. The result is much better considering that also Russia and China seem to adopt these ISO documents as their national standards. It is so becoming much more significant the 'motto' that ISO TC 67 'Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries' adopted for its standardization activities: 'Do it once, do it right, do it internationally'. Examples of such international Standards worldwide used as National Standards are: ISO 11960:2004 - 'Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for wells' and; ISO/DIS 3183 - 'Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems' (under preparation). Standardization has so grown from technical to management tool and countries are also moving, including standards in more areas of its legislations. (author)

  9. With labor safety sanitation, an international standard; Roudo anzen eisei de kokusai kikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    An international management control standard (OHS/EMS about the labor safety sanitation) started enactment with the consortium form that both standard society in England and Japan and so on participated. Standard society has already proceeded with the translation work in the form of `the standard` under the folk`s leadership as `OHS/AS18001` even in Japan the codification. It finally shifts to the ISO18000 series, and aims at the international standard realization. Both a country and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Labor aim at the initiative of the international standard preparation in support of this movement in the base the group standard that a car, chemistry, steel and central prevention of disasters society settled on the Ministry of Labor notice in the shaft. (translated by NEDO)

  10. Staff Development: Standards That Influence Teacher Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Steve; Kostine, Callista; Powers, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Schools across the country are implementing professional development initiatives with the intent of improving student outcomes. Over the past twenty years the criterion for measuring professional development has shifted from identifying what schools quantify to how professional development impacts students' performance. Teachers are under a…

  11. Aid for development of international trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjeli? Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of international trade was very impressive in the second half of 20th century. But even with these great development opportunities that growth of international trade can bring the small number of developed economies had succeeded to ripe benefits from it in order to develop their economies and reduce poverty. Even with the establishment of the World Trade Organization it was apparent that developing countries need assistance in order to integrate fully in international trade system. The Aid for Trade, which is a part of Official Development Assistance focusing on trade, has an aim to help developing countries build their trade capacity and the transport infrastructure so they can use trade as a powerful engine for economic growth. This paper set out to describe this new programme of trade aid developed under the auspices of WTO, as a multilateral project, to point out the readiness of donor countries and aims of beneficiary countries. But we will explore the linkages of Aid for Trade programme with bilateral and regional aid initiatives in the area of trade. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179029: Srbija u savremenim me?unarodnim odnosima: Strateški pravci razvoja i u?vrš?ivanja položaja Srbije u me?unarodnim integrativnim procesima - spoljnopoliti?ki, me?unarodni ekonomski, pravni i bezbedonosni aspekti

  12. 75 FR 31749 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...the GSFA (Brazil). Prepare proposed draft provisions for lauric arginate ethyl esters, steviol glycosides, and sulfites...the Standard for Olive Oils and Olive Pomace Oils: Linolenic acid. Proposed draft amendments to the Standard for Named...

  13. 25 CFR 542.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for card games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...minimum internal control standards for card games? 542.9 Section 542.9 Indians...minimum internal control standards for card games? (a) Computer applications...procedures for the collection of the card game drop and the count thereof shall comply...

  14. Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September, Human Rights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. This report, Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards, reports on nationwide repeated violations, across all levels of employment, of federal laws and international standards protecting workers's rights to organize, to bargain collectively, and to strike.

  15. Precise determination of bromine in PP resin pellet by instrumental neutron activation analysis using internal standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis with the internal standardization was applied the precise determination of bromine in PP resin. Gold was used as an internal standard. The analytical results of Br were in excellent agreement with the values obtained by ID-ICPMS. The relative expanded uncertainty (k=2) was 1.9 %, and it was comparable to that of ID-ICP-MS. (author)

  16. The development of internal fixation: Historical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leši? Aleksandar R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the ancient times, man was faced with the problem of fracture treatment, which is first described in the records from ancient Egypt. Ever since, many treatment methods have been developed, but the real revolution in the fracture treatment was achieved by internal fixation. Since it was described for the first time, at the end of the 18th century, this method has continuously developed, but sterilization, radiographies, anaesthesiology, antibiotics made this surgery modern and safe. The great ideas and practical solutions of the new methods were done by Albin Lambotte, William Arbuthnot Lane, Robert Danis, William Hey Groves. They lead to the expansion of this method and truly made the principles for the future AO school. New methods, biological internal fixation, minimally invasive procedures, new technologies and devices for internal fixation are introduced in the surgical practice daily. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175095 i br. 45005

  17. International trade, minimum quality standards and the prisoners' dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulou, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    Unilateral minimum quality standards are endogenously determined as the outcome of a non-cooperative standard-setting game between the governments of two countries. Cross-country externalities from the implementation of minimum quality standards are shown to give rise to a Prisoners' Dilemma structure in the incentives of policy-makers leading to inefficient policy outcomes. The role of minimum quality standards as non-tariff barriers is examined and the scope for mutual gains from reciprocal...

  18. International comparison of a hydrocarbon gas standard at the picomol per mol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoderick, George C; Duewer, David L; Apel, Eric; Baldan, Annarita; Hall, Bradley; Harling, Alice; Helmig, Detlev; Heo, Gwi Suk; Hueber, Jacques; Kim, Mi Eon; Kim, Yong Doo; Miller, Ben; Montzka, Steve; Riemer, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Studies of climate change increasingly recognize the diverse influences of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere, including roles in particulates and ozone formation. Measurements of key nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) suggest atmospheric mole fractions ranging from low picomoles per mol (ppt) to nanomoles per mol (ppb), depending on location and compound. To accurately establish mole fraction trends and to relate measurement records from many laboratories and researchers, it is essential to have accurate, stable, calibration standards. In February of 2008, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed and reported on picomoles per mol standards containing 18 nonmethane hydrocarbon compounds covering the mole fraction range of 60 picomoles per mol to 230 picomoles per mol. The stability of these gas mixtures was only characterized over a short time period (2 to 3 months). NIST recently prepared a suite of primary standard gas mixtures by gravimetric dilution to ascertain the stability of the 2008 picomoles per mol NMHC standards suite. The data from this recent chromatographic intercomparison of the 2008 to the 2011 suites confirm a much longer stability of almost 5 years for 15 of the 18 hydrocarbons; the double-bonded alkenes of propene, isobutene, and 1-pentene showed instability, in line with previous publications. The agreement between the gravimetric values from preparation and the analytical mole fractions determined from regression illustrate the internal consistency of the suite within ±2 pmol/mol. However, results for several of the compounds reflect stability problems for the three double-bonded hydrocarbons. An international intercomparison on one of the 2008 standards has also been completed. Participants included National Metrology Institutes, United States government laboratories, and academic laboratories. In general, results for this intercomparison agree to within about ±5% with the gravimetric mole fractions of the hydrocarbons. PMID:24555659

  19. Development of thermodynamic potentials for fluid water, ice and seawater: a new standard for oceanography

    OpenAIRE

    Feistel, R; D. G. Wright; Miyagawa, K; Hruby, J; D. R. Jackett; T. J. McDougall; Wagner, W

    2008-01-01

    A new seawater standard has been developed for oceanographic and engineering applications that consists of three independent thermodynamic potential functions, derived from extended distinct sets of very accurate experimental data. The results have been formulated as Releases of the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS (1996, 2006, 2008) and are to be adopted internationally by other organizations in subsequent years. In order to successfully perform computat...

  20. The future of international development cooperation.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhatch, Tom

    2012-01-01

    International development cooperation must be inspiratio- nally innovative if it is to be effective. The post-2015 agenda will be more inclusive and cooperative while emphasizing climate change and accountability, notably against corruption. South-South aid will grow and technological innovation could become the driving force for change.

  1. Motor Development International: Compressed Air Technology Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    How does a car that boasts "zero pollution" and even "cleans the air it uses" work? This website provides information on the air compression cars developed by Motor Development International. Aside from the general overview of the mechanics of air compression, the FAQ section provides additional information on the air tanks, filter system, body frame, electric system and MDI's business model. A key target for this website seems to be potential buyers and investors.

  2. Recent developments in negotiating international petroleum agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in negotiating international petroleum agreements are discussed. It is concluded that three major developments will influence future mineral licensing and negotiating practices. Firstly the large potential of the former USSR linked to the likely chaos there will be a major focus for the world's mineral industries. Secondly restructuring, privatization and internationalization of the most advanced state-owned oil companies is likely to continue. Finally, the environment will continue to dominate government policies. (UK)

  3. Financial development, International Trade and welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Michel; Peltrault, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    Differences between domestic financial systems can lead to international trade. A country with relatively developed or decentralized financial systems will export innovative commodities while a country with less developed and centralized financial systems will export traditional commodities. Trade is always welfare improving before the resolution of uncertainty but the country with the more risk averse financial system and the world as a whole can be worse off with trade after ...

  4. HARMONIZATION OF NATIONAL REGULATION AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS – PARTICULAR CASE OF NONCURRENT ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coste Andreea Ioana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature, accounting harmonization is a top topic because it helps to increase the comparability of financial statements. Also in Romania in the last 10 years becames a topic that is very often debated. The harmonization is trying to reduce differences of financial reporting statements between countries or, in the other words, it is trying to bring to a common denominator of existing rules when appear conflicts of comparability between them. The purpose of this paper is to measure the harmonisation between national and international regulation for a significant element of financial position statement, such as noncurrent assets. This paper provides an empirical research of information that must be presented by entities which apply national accounting standards or international ones when financial statements are prepared, trying to measure the harmonization between the two referential. Thus, in trying to determine the harmonisation, we use the Jaccard coefficient in order to provide an overview of the degree of harmonization of accounting practice. When measuring the degree of comparability of Romanian accounting regulations with International Accounting Standards we analyzed noncurrent assets and impairment of assets using the Jaccard coefficient for accounting treatments and we calculated an average of similarities between the two regulations. Further, the results suggest that there is an average level of harmonization for the accounting treatment of noncurrent assets and for determining the impairment of the assets, the methods are the same. The study contributes to the development of accounting literature about the harmonisation between national regulation and international standards regarding the noncurrent assets and impairment of the assets, which together with the other elements define the activity of the business. In addition, the study provides an analysis of how the regulations treats noncurrent assets, during the life of the asset, namely: the recognition phase, the evaluation and the depreciation.

  5. Can context justify an ethical double standard for clinical research in developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Landes Megan

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The design of clinical research deserves special caution so as to safeguard the rights of participating individuals. While the international community has agreed on ethical standards for the design of research, these frameworks still remain open to interpretation, revision and debate. Recently a breach in the consensus of how to apply these ethical standards to research in developing countries has occurred, notably beginning with the 1994 placebo-controlled trials to reduc...

  6. International Standard Problem No. 48 - containment capacity. Synthesis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2002, the OECD-NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) initiated an International Standard Problem on containment integrity (ISP 48) based on the NRC/NUPEC/Sandia test. The objectives of the ISP are to extend the understanding of capacities of actual containment structures based on results of the recent PCCV Model test and other previous research. From 1997 through 2001 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a Cooperative Containment Integrity Program under the joint sponsorship of the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan, and the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The purpose of the program was to investigate the response of representative models of nuclear containment structures to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions to measured behavior. A uniform 1:4-scale model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) was constructed and tested at SNL. This model was representative of the containment structure of an actual pressurized water reactor plant in Japan. The ISP consists of four phases over a period of 2 years: Phase 1: Data Collection and Identification. Phase 2: Calculation of the Limit State Test (LST), i.e. static pressure loading. Phase 3: Calculation of response to both Thermal and Mechanical Loadings. Phase 4: Reporting Workshop Eleven organizations (or teams) from nine OECD member countries accepted the invitation to participate in the ISP and perform calculations to predict the structural response of the PCCV model to static and transient pressure and thermal loading. Each participating organization was provided with the model and loading data and was asked to perform independent analyses to simulate the response of the PCCV model. The results of each team's calculations were compiled and the results presented at a final workshop in April 2005. The prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model is a uniform 1:4-scale model of the containment structure of Unit 3 of the Ohi Nuclear Power Station in Japan. The approach to designing the model was to scale the design of the Ohi-3 containment to the extent possible and include as many representative features of the prototype as practical: liner, penetrations, reinforcement steel and tendons. Fifty-five response parameters, referred to as standard output locations (SOLs), were selected to facilitate initial comparison of the Phase 2 calculations with the test results. The calculated responses match the test results and each other reasonably well up to the onset of global or general membrane, yielding where the results begin to diverge. Also, most of the analyses capture the loss of stiffness due to cracking of the concrete at approximately 1.5 times the design pressure. In addition to submitting response predictions at the SOLs, each participant was also asked to provide a best estimate of failure pressure and mechanisms of the PCCV model. It is interesting to note that the differences in failure predictions are much more significant than the differences in the calculated responses would seem to suggest. Phase 3 of ISP48 extends the results of the model tests and calculations by investigating the addition of temperature to the pressure loading. The ISP participants agreed to consider two thermal load cases for Phase 3: - Case 1: Saturated Steam Conditions (mandatory for all Phase 3 participants) - Monotonically increasing static pressure and temperature (saturated steam). - Case 2: Station Blackout Scenario - A representative severe-accident scenario for a four-loop PWR including vessel failure and hydrogen detonation

  7. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William; Kennelly, Michael; Kirshblum, Steven; Krogh, Klaus; Alexander, Marca Sipski; Vogel, Lawrence; Wecht, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), which documents the neurological examination of individuals with SCI. The Autonomic Standards Assessment Form is recommended to be completed during the evaluation of indiv...

  8. Diesel engine development in view of reduced emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diesel engine development for use in light-, medium- and heavy-duty road vehicles is mainly driven by more and more stringent emission standards. Apart from air quality related emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulates, also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to become of more and more importance. Furthermore, oil-based fuel availability might become a problem due to limited reserves or due to political influences which leads to significantly increased fuel costs. Based on the above aspects, advanced engine technologies become essential and are discussed. Fuel injection with rate shaping capability and elevated injection pressures, air handling systems to increase the brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) and specific power with a downsizing approach, while retaining a good dynamic response using possibly two-stage turbocharging. Heterogeneous and near-homogeneous combustion processes where the latter could possibly reduce the requirements on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Improvement and further development of engine management and control systems, exhaust gas aftertreatment for a reduction of nitrogen oxides and especially particulates and last but not least, energy recovery from the exhaust gas. Furthermore, alternative fuel usage in road vehicles is becoming important and their application in internal combustion engines is discussed

  9. International Coordination of Quality Standards and Vertical Product Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    I study the influence of minimum quality standards in a partial-equilibrium model of vertical product differentiation and trade in which duopolistic firms face quality-dependent costs and compete in quality and price in two segmented markets. Three alternative standard setting arrangements are Full Harmonization, National Treatment and Mutual Recognition. Under either alternative, standards can be found that increase welfare in both regions. The analysis integrates the choice of a particular ...

  10. Exemption from regulatory control - International developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has been involved in attempts to develop international guidance on criteria for exemption from regulatory control for many years. In 1984 a new programme of international meetings was started and resulted in the publication of interim guidance on principles for exemption from regulatory control in 1987. In March 1988 a final meeting was held to review the interim guidance in the light of the comments and criticisms received. The new guidance accommodates most of the criticisms made on the original document. A distinction is made between radiation sources which would normally be excluded from regulations because they are naturally occurring and those which would normally be under regulatory control but which can be exempted when certain criteria are met. Essentially the principles for exempting the latter category are that exemption should be allowed if it is the option which optimizes radiation protection and if individual risks are appropriately low. (author). 7 refs

  11. Developing Standards-Based Geography Curricular Materials from Overseas Field Experiences for K-12 Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Alex; Palacios, Fabian Araya

    2012-01-01

    Overseas experiences provide educators with exceptional opportunities to incorporate field study, firsthand experiences, and tangible artifacts into the classroom. Despite this potential, teachers must consider curricular standards that direct how such international endeavors can be integrated. Furthermore, geography curriculum development is more…

  12. Knowledge sharing in international product development teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne

    Many companies are facing an increasing need to compete on a global scale. But as companies move into multiple markets, the process of developing new products becomes increasingly complex. Coping successfully with the increased internationalization forces companies to excel at collaboration and knowledge sharing, also across geographical distances. The capability to develop new transnational products depends largely on the multinational company's ability to transfer and deploy knowledge from its multiple country sources. The challenges of the transfer of knowledge between departments in the same company are far from trivial and the problems associated with transfer will increase with geographical and cultural difference (Bresman et al., 1999). Especially tacit knowledge is difficult to transport across national boarders (Kogut & Zander, 1992) and not much research exists on how companies overcome these barriers and harvest knowledge from geographical dispersed areas (Subramaniam & Venkatraman, 2001). The product development literature prescribes that knowledge sharing is desirable throughout the whole product development process (Craig & Hart, 1992; Hansen, 1999). Although this sharing is desirable, previous research found that it is the exception rather than the rule in most companies (Golder, 2000:329). Hence, it is relevant to research how companies can improve their ability to share knowledge in connection with international product development. One way to increase knowledge sharing in the product development process is by using teams. Teams are considered one of the best tools for exchanging especially tacit knowledge, since this kind of knowledge is transferred best through personal interaction and face-to-face meetings (Madhavan & Grover, 1998; Nonaka, 1994). In accordance with this, more and more multinational firms rely on international product development teams (McDonough et al., 2001) as a means to make the most effective use of the company's resources scattered around the world. While a substantial amount of research exists on groups in general, research into new product development teams is more limited and especially empirical research on global new product development teams is sparse (McDonough, et al., 2001). Findings from research on teams cannot automatically be generalized and applied to multinational product development teams, since these differ on a range of parameters from domestic teams. Multinational teams are often separated geographically and are culturally diverse, which affects their knowledge processes. Given the increased importance of multinational product development teams and the limited amount of research within this area, this therefore appears to be a topic worthy of further investigation. Hence the objective of the full paper is to discuss the challenges associated with knowledge sharing in international product development teams. A case study of a Danish international food company has been conducted and interviews with team members located in different geographical cites are currently being analyzed.

  13. Development And Standardization Of Leadership Behavior Scale

    OpenAIRE

    A.C. LAL KUMAR; R.MUTHUMANICKAM

    2012-01-01

    The present study is designed to construct a Self Control Scale for B.Ed.,(Bachelor of Education) Teacher Trainees. A Self Control Scale was developed andstandardized by investigators (2012), by taking 300 samples randomly selected inteacher training institutions in Vellore and Cuddalore Districts. The item analysis wasconducted to eliminate the inconsistent items in a tool. The final form of Self ControlScale consists of 75 items, classified in to three dimensions namely - classroom situatio...

  14. Development and standardization of Mysore Tridosha scale

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa, S.; Murthy, C. G. Venkatesha

    2011-01-01

    The authors have developed a personality scale to assess Tridoshas i.e. Vata, Pitta, and Kapha from psychological perspective in human beings. The Tridoshas are composed of the Pancha Mahabhutas, but one or the other Dosha is dominant singularly or in combination. There can never be a state when one or the other Pancha Mahabhutas and consequently the Tridoshas are absent totally. All five are essential to sustain life. Vata Dosha is composed of Akasa and Vayu Mahabhuta. Pitta Dosha is compose...

  15. Pollutant Emissions and Energy Efficiency under Controlled Conditions for Household Biomass Cookstoves and Implications for Metrics Useful in Setting International Test Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realistic metrics and methods for testing household biomass cookstoves are required to develop standards needed by international policy makers, donors, and investors. Application of consistent test practices allows emissions and energy efficiency performance to be benchmarked and...

  16. The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise

  17. New trends in the field of nuclear standardization on national, European and international level with the background of the German 'Energiewende'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Participation in standardization in the nuclear energy field in Germany is still very high, because the involved parties have recognized that standards in the context of the energy transition in Germany will remain very important. However, in the last few years, international standardization has been carried out without German participation. Existing international bodies are currently greatly influenced by the leadership of France, which is also reflected in the content of international standards. In addition, on French initiative, a European body (CEN/TC 430 'Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection') has been set up with the remit to replace all national standards in Europe with international standards. The present article summarizes this development and offers an overview for German experts on how they can respond to this trend. (orig.)

  18. International competition policy and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Frederic Michael

    1996-01-01

    During the past half century many nations have adopted policies whose function is to discourage cartels and other restrictive practices. Industrialized nations led the movement toward pro-competition policies, but more recently, developing nations have begun to join the parade. Initial steps have also been taken toward the implementation of competition policies spanning national borders, and proposals for their extension have been made. This paper analyzes the consequences national and intern...

  19. Application of international safety standards to work involving exposure to natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Basic Safety Standards (BSS), published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1996, provide the basis for the control of exposure to both artificial and natural sources of radiation. The IAEA is engaged in a programme to provide additional guidance and information on the application of the BSS to natural sources, and this programme is focusing increasingly on work activities involving naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This paper describes the current status of this programme and, in particular, the progress being made in the development of guidance and supporting information to help national authorities to decide which NORM activities should be regulated and how they should be regulated. Data on activity concentrations, radiation doses and appropriate control measures for various industrial processes involving NORM are being gathered as part of the development of sector-specific Safety Reports and associated training packages. Some examples are given to illustrate how these data provide support for a growing international consensus on criteria for defining the scope of regulatory control and on the need for, and the nature of, a graded approach to regulation. (author)

  20. Business and Management Aspects of International Accounting Standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerialdecisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system willlead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from thebusiness management of certain countries. The results of applied regression model support that the greaterdemand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to pe...

  1. Appropriateness of international heat stress standards for use in tropical agricultural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, M B; Parsons, K C

    1999-06-01

    Where a danger to health from heat stress is identified, standards allow decisions for implementing measures to reduce the heat stress to be made. These standards, specifically ISO 7243 (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index, WBGT) and ISO 7933 (Sweat Required, SWreq) were designed with European and American subjects, primarily for use in those countries. While the scope of the standards is international, little consideration has been made about how valid and usable they are in industrially developing countries. This investigation evaluated ISO 7933 and ISO 7243 in terms of validity and usability. A tropical agricultural task was simulated; 16 subjects plucking tea leaves for 2 h, (ta = tr = 37.18 degrees C; va = 0.16 m/s; rh = 70.17%). While ISO 7243 was valid (if slightly over protective) and usable, ISO 7933 was over protective and underestimated sweat and evaporation rates in its predictions. The discrepancies between predicted and observed results were attributed primarily to the calculations related to clothing in the standard. Furthermore, ISO 7933 was unusable without a computer; in regions where access to such technology may be limited, a simpler method of presentation is required. PMID:10340024

  2. Towards a Framework for Developing Semantic Relatedness Reference Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Pedersen, Ted; Mcinnes, Bridget; Melton, Genevieve B.; Ruggieri, Alexander; Chute, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Our objective is to develop a framework for creating reference standards for functional testing of computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Currently, research on computerized approaches to semantic relatedness between biomedical concepts relies on reference standards created for specific purposes using a variety of methods for their analysis. In most cases, these reference standards are not publicly available and the published information provided in manuscripts that evaluate computeri...

  3. Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation

    OpenAIRE

    Benedict, Ralph HB; Amato, Maria Pia; Boringa, Jan; Brochet, Bruno; Foley, Fred; Fredrikson, Stan; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hartung, Hans; Krupp, Lauren; Penner, Iris; REDER, Anthony T.; Langdon, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different langu...

  4. User's Guide: Innovation Configurations for NSDC's Standards for Staff Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    This 75-page guidebook is a companion to "Moving NSDC's Staff Development Standards into Practice: Innovation Configurations" Volumes I (ED522734) and II (ED522581). Innovation Configurations are a tool that helps educators better understand what the standards look like in practice. Roy, who co-authored the original volumes, introduces a process…

  5. Training Manual: NSDC's Standards for Staff Development [CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This 60-page guidebook presents a plan for a one-day workshop to introduce NSDC's standards to educators. The sessions are designed to encourage participant involvement to develop greater understanding of the standards. The slide presentation plus materials needed to conduct activities are included as PDF files on a CD-ROM. This guidebook may be…

  6. Standardization of negative controls in diagnostic immunohistochemistry: recommendations from the international ad hoc expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlakovic, Emina E; Francis, Glenn; Garratt, John; Gilks, Blake; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Ibrahim, Merdol; Miller, Rodney; Nielsen, Søren; Petcu, Eugen B; Swanson, Paul E; Taylor, Clive R; Vyberg, Mogens

    2014-04-01

    Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide "best practice recommendations" for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on "fit-for-use" principles. PMID:24714041

  7. Standardization of negative controls in diagnostic immunohistochemistry : recommendations from the international ad hoc expert panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torlakovic, Emina E; Francis, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide "best practice recommendations" for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on "fit-for-use" principles.

  8. Development of prognostic occupational air standards for nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radilov, Andrey S.; Glushkova, Anzhela V.; Dulov, Sergej A.; Khlebnikova, Nataliya S.

    2011-07-01

    The intensive progress of nanoindustry in the Russian Federation makes quite urgent the problem of development and especially express development of occupational exposure standards for nanoparticles and nanoaerosols in the workplace air. We developed an approach to comparative toxicity assessment and express calculation of occupational exposure standards for nanoaerosols, based on criteria for the development of maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) of aerosols in the workplace air. The developed approach was used to obtain prognostic MACs of certain aerosols in the workplace air, mg/m3: nano-Ag 0.08, nano-TiO2 0.19, and C60 0.08.

  9. Development of prognostic occupational air standards for nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensive progress of nanoindustry in the Russian Federation makes quite urgent the problem of development and especially express development of occupational exposure standards for nanoparticles and nanoaerosols in the workplace air. We developed an approach to comparative toxicity assessment and express calculation of occupational exposure standards for nanoaerosols, based on criteria for the development of maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) of aerosols in the workplace air. The developed approach was used to obtain prognostic MACs of certain aerosols in the workplace air, mg/m3: nano-Ag 0.08, nano-TiO2 0.19, and C60 0.08.

  10. Development of prognostic occupational air standards for nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radilov, Andrey S; Glushkova, Anzhela V; Dulov, Sergej A; Khlebnikova, Nataliya S, E-mail: aglushkova_rihope@hotmail.com, E-mail: radilov@rihophe.ru [Research Institute of Hygiene, Occupational Pathology and Human Ecology Federal State Unitary Enterprise, Federal Medical Biological Agency, Kuz' molovsky g/p, Vsevolozhsky District, Leningrad Region, 188663 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-06

    The intensive progress of nanoindustry in the Russian Federation makes quite urgent the problem of development and especially express development of occupational exposure standards for nanoparticles and nanoaerosols in the workplace air. We developed an approach to comparative toxicity assessment and express calculation of occupational exposure standards for nanoaerosols, based on criteria for the development of maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) of aerosols in the workplace air. The developed approach was used to obtain prognostic MACs of certain aerosols in the workplace air, mg/m{sup 3}: nano-Ag 0.08, nano-TiO{sub 2} 0.19, and C{sub 60} 0.08.

  11. International development workshops. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) began to act on their recognition of the importance of education in nuclear literacy, specifically in radioactive waste management (RWM), several years ago. To address this Goal for nuclear literacy, the US DOE; through the Information and Education Division of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and in cooperation with the OECD/NEA, organized an ''International Workshop on Education in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management'' in Engelberg, Switzerland in June of 1991. To this end, a grant to support nuclear literacy and RWM was written and funded by the OCRWM and the education division of the DOE Yucca Mountain Office in 1990. The over-riding Goal of that workshop and the DOE grant was to find ways of raising the level of nuclear literacy in the general public through educational programs in radioactive waste management (RWM). The two Main Objectives of the workshop were: first, to contribute to an information base for education systems, on global aspects of radioactive waste management; and second, to achieve international consensus on the basic tools and methods required to develop the information base. These two objectives also became the principal objectives of the DOE International Workshops grant. In other words, the global and local (Nevada) objectives were one and the same. Workshop overviews and accomplishments are summarized in this report

  12. A new internal standard for HPLC assay of conjugated linoleic acid in animal tissues and milk.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan; Michalski, J. P.; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, A. J.; Krajewska, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 56, ?. 1 (2011), s. 23-29. ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : sorbic acid * internal standard * CLA isomers Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2011

  13. 77 FR 9859 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ...importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of harmonizing rules...addresses the change in the international standard for occupant weight used...Certificate can be issued. Costs While this interim rule...

  14. 25 CFR 542.19 - What are the minimum internal control standards for accounting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...pertaining to revenue and gaming activities...records identifying revenues, expenses...internal control standards; (6) Journal...safeguarded; (2) Financial records are accurate...permit proper reporting of gaming revenue and of fees...

  15. International Space Station Radiation Shielding Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, G. D.; Wilson, J. W.; Sandridge, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Nealy, J. E.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Hugger, C. P.; Verhage, J.; Anderson, B. M.; Atwell, W.

    2001-01-01

    The projected radiation levels within the International Space Station (ISS) have been criticized by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in their report to the NASA Administrator. Methods for optimal reconfiguration and augmentation of the ISS shielding are now being developed. The initial steps are to develop reconfigurable and realistic radiation shield models of the ISS modules, develop computational procedures for the highly anisotropic radiation environment, and implement parametric and organizational optimization procedures. The targets of the redesign process are the crew quarters where the astronauts sleep and determining the effects of ISS shadow shielding of an astronaut in a spacesuit. The ISS model as developed will be reconfigurable to follow the ISS. Swapping internal equipment rack assemblies via location mapping tables will be one option for shield optimization. Lightweight shield augmentation materials will be optimally fit to crew quarter areas using parametric optimization procedures to minimize the augmentation shield mass. The optimization process is being integrated into the Intelligence Synthesis Environment s (ISE s) immersive simulation facility at the Langley Research Center and will rely on High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) for rapid evaluation of shield parameter gradients.

  16. Center for International and Development Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Located at UCLA, the mission of the Center for International and Development Education (CIDE) is "to provide quality information on a variety of issues related to international and development education." To help achieve this goal, the CIDE has developed this Web site which contains a number of publications, information about ongoing research projects, material on practical initiatives and a detailed list of links to other relevant institutions and organizations. The news section of the site is useful, as it contains brief news pieces about recent events dealing with study abroad programs, new networks between universities across the world, and the role of universities in developing nations. The reports section is divided into sections dedicated to study abroad, humanitarian relief, and teacher training reform (among others) and contains recent works on these various subjects. The site is rounded out by a good selection of outside links to like-minded institutions and centers, such as the Comparative Educational Society of Europe and the Center for Higher Education Policy Studies.

  17. 24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...including efforts to stimulate the development or expansion of microenterprises...assistance meets the economic development standard only if the EZ's...governance board members or staff of the EZ's lead agency...roles with respect to economic development projects expected to be...

  18. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, John D.

    This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list…

  19. Development of a definitive internal dosimetry code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal dosimetry may be divided into tow main problems: (1) the forward (scientific) problem of determining biokinetics models that describe how radionuclides are taken into the body, distributed in body tissues, and excreted, and (2) the inverse (mathematical) problem: given the measured amounts in excreta and assuming a biokinetic model, to determine the times and amounts of intakes into the body. The inverse problem of internal dosimetry is, in fact, a generic problem studied in other fields (e.g., image reconstruction, spectral deconvulution, and model parameter fitting). We have developed a code for plutonium internal dosimetry using the maximum entropy method, a method for solving underdetermined inverse problems with a positivity constraint. Within the framework of Bayesian statistics, we believe the definitive approach is to examine the Bayesian posterior probability describing the probability of an intake scenario (Xi) read ( ... ) as open-quotes the set of,close quotes where Xi denotes the intake amount that occurs on the with day. For plutonium, for a worker with a long employment history, this is a very high dimensional probability space, since there may be on the order of 10,000 days when intakes may have occurred. Within this high dimensional space, we calculate the mean intake scenario as i> where denotes the expectation value over the posterior probability distribution. Similarly, we calculate uncertainties on. Similarly, we calculate uncertainties and other relevant quantities, such as X2, as expectation values over the posterior distribution. Thanks to a recent breakthrough in describing the mathematical structure of the intake process (a Poisson sum representation of intakes), we have developed the initial version of a Bayesian expectation-value algorithm for internal dosimetry reconstructions

  20. Qualification of Programmable Electronic System (PES) equipment based on international nuclear I and C standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly faced with the challenge of qualifying procured equipment, sub-components, and systems that contain digital programmed electronics for use in safety-related applications. Referred to as a 'programmable electronic system' (PES), such equipment typically contains both complex logic that is vulnerable to systematic design faults, and low voltage electronics hardware that is subject to random faults. Procured PES products or components are often only commercial grade, yet can offer reliable cost effective alternatives to custom-designed or nuclear qualified equipment, provided they can be shown to meet the quality assurance, functional safety, environmental, and reliability requirements of a particular application. The process of confirming this is referred to as application-specific product qualification (ASPQ) and can be challenging and costly. This paper provides an overview of an approach that has been developed at Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and successfully applied to PES equipment intended for use in domestic Candu R 6 nuclear power plants and special purpose reactors at Chalk River Laboratories. The approach has evolved over the past decade and has recently been adapted to be consistent with, and take advantage of new standards that are applicable to nuclear safety-related I and C systems. Also discussed are how recognized third-party safety-certifications of PES equipment to International Electrotechnical Commint to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and the assessment methods employed, may be used to reduce ASPQ effort. (authors)

  1. Selecting International Standards for Accrual-Based Accounting in the Public Sector : IPSAS or IFRS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the definition of a government business enterprise (GBE), as provided in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), as a determinant for applying IPSAS or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for a public sector entity. The work of the IPSASB is focused on the accounting and financial reporting needs of national, regional and local governments, and related governmental agencies, while the IFRS serves the private sector.

  2. Global, National, and Local Goals: English Language Policy Implementation in an Indonesian International Standard School

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy Haryanto; Amirul Mukminin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the achievement of students in math and science subjects as the impact of using English as a medium of instruction at an international standard school. A questionnaire was used as a research instrument to 190 students at one international standard school in Jambi Province, Indonesia. A focus group discussion (FGD) approach was undertaken to validate and verify the data gathered through the questionnaire and clarify some issues raised in the questionnai...

  3. International radiation protection standards and recommendations and their revisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revisions, partly completed, partly still in progress, of the ICRP Recommendations 2007, the respective European Directives and the IAEA Basic Safety Standards are discribed, and the interconnections between them as well as the impacts to be expected on the operational radiation protection from the practical point of view are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Application of k0-based internal mono-standard PGNAA for compositional characterization of cement samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The k0-based internal mono-standard prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (IM-PGNAA) method was used for compositional analysis of a cement standard provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency as a part of inter-laboratory comparison exercise. The PGNAA was also applied to a local cement sample for comparison purpose. The concentration ratios of elements with respect Ca were determined using the internal mono-standard method. The concentration ratios were then converted to the absolute concentrations by determining concentration of Ca in the cement using relative method. Concentrations of 11 elements were determined in both sample and standard of cement. The results of cement standard are found to be in good agreement with the certified values. The uncertainties on the elemental concentrations were in the range of 5-10 %. (author)

  5. Accredited Standards Committee N15 Developments And Future Directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) N15, Methods of Nuclear Material Control, is sponsored by the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) to develop standards for protection, control and accounting of special nuclear materials in all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, including analytical procedures where necessary and special to this purpose, except that physical protection of special nuclear material within a nuclear power plant is not included. Voluntary consensus standards complement federal regulations and technical standards and fulfill an important role for the nuclear regulatory agencies. This paper describes the N15 standards development process, with INMM as the Standards Developing Organization (SDO) and the N15 Committee responsible for implementation. Key components of the N15 standards development process include ANSI accreditation; compliance with the ANSI Essential Requirements (ER), coordination with other SDOs, communication with stakeholders, maintenance of balance between interest categories, and ANSI periodic audits. Recent and future ASC N15 activities are discussed, with a particular focus on new directions in anticipation of renewed growth in nuclear power.

  6. Comparison report for CSNI International Standard Problem 12 (ROSA-III Run 912)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSA-III Run 912 was identified as International Standard Problem 12 by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations. Run 912 simulated a 5% split break LOCA condition in a BWR at the pump suction in the recirculation line with the HPCS failure. Comparisons between the test data and the calculations by eight international participants were made and discussed. (author)

  7. Development of quality assurance requirements - an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total quality management strategy and the worldwide introduction of the DIN/ISO 9000 (EN 29 000) series of standards have given new impetus to traditional quality assurance. The most important change must surely be seen in the holistic approach of total quality management and its strict orientation towards customer requirements and satisfaction. International codes and standards for the nuclear industry will also have to be brought into line as part of the process of harmonizing quality assurance system standards. One possible approach is simply to specify a supplementary 'delta' of nuclear-specific requirements to be appended to the broad range of conventional requirements. It is a particular feature of quality-assured procedures in Germany that product and/or component related quality requirements and quality verifications are defined in the specifications of the architect engineer so that full implementation of the requirements from the design phase through to the manufacturing phase is assured. Looking at the development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) and the elaboration of 'Common Rules', it is to be anticipated that a major step will be made toward international harmonization of safety criteria. (orig.)

  8. Exemption from regulatory control - international developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years international groups have worked towards achieving a consensus on criteria for exemption of radiation sources and practices from regulatory control. A significant fraction of the wastes from the applications of radionuclides in industry, research and medicine, and from the nuclear fuel cycle is contaminated to such low activity levels that the associated risks to health are trivial and therefore that the application of regulatory processes seems to be unwarranted. A summary is given of a recent IAEA report on the progress made both in the development of the general principles for the exemption of radiation sources and in exercises aimed at evaluating their practical applicability. (UK)

  9. New international and national standards concerning quality systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history and contents of the latest standards DIN ISO 9000 through DIN ISO 9004 concerning quality systems are outlined. Information is given referring to the establishment of an in-house quality system, and to quality assurance requirements put down in a three-step quality assurance system for contractual purposes. The services available for certification of quality systems by the 'DQS' and legal aspects are mentioned. (HP)

  10. Using Collaborative Course Development to Achieve Online Course Quality Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ining Tracy Chao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of quality is becoming front and centre as online and distance education moves into the mainstream of higher education. Many believe collaborative course development is the best way to design quality online courses. This research uses a case study approach to probe into the collaborative course development process and the implementation of quality standards at a Canadian university. Four cases are presented to discuss the effects of the faculty member/instructional designer relationship on course quality, as well as the issues surrounding the use of quality standards as a development tool. Findings from the study indicate that the extent of collaboration depends on the degree of course development and revision required, the nature of the established relationship between the faculty member and designer, and the level of experience of the faculty member. Recommendations for the effective use of quality standards using collaborative development processes are provided.

  11. Standardization of Size, Shape and Internal Structure of Spinal Cord Images: Comparison of Three Transformation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Yasuhisa; Yokota, Shigefumi; Okada, Yasumasa; Oku, Yoshitaka; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Ishiguro, Makio; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu

    2013-01-01

    Functional fluorescence imaging has been widely applied to analyze spatio-temporal patterns of cellular dynamics in the brain and spinal cord. However, it is difficult to integrate spatial information obtained from imaging data in specific regions of interest across multiple samples, due to large variability in the size, shape and internal structure of samples. To solve this problem, we attempted to standardize transversely sectioned spinal cord images focusing on the laminar structure in the gray matter. We employed three standardization methods, the affine transformation (AT), the angle-dependent transformation (ADT) and the combination of these two methods (AT+ADT). The ADT is a novel non-linear transformation method developed in this study to adjust an individual image onto the template image in the polar coordinate system. We next compared the accuracy of these three standardization methods. We evaluated two indices, i.e., the spatial distribution of pixels that are not categorized to any layer and the error ratio by the leave-one-out cross validation method. In this study, we used neuron-specific marker (NeuN)-stained histological images of transversely sectioned cervical spinal cord slices (21 images obtained from 4 rats) to create the standard atlas and also to serve for benchmark tests. We found that the AT+ADT outperformed other two methods, though the accuracy of each method varied depending on the layer. This novel image standardization technique would be applicable to optical recording such as voltage-sensitive dye imaging, and will enable statistical evaluations of neural activation across multiple samples. PMID:24223702

  12. A Study on the Development of Service Quality Index for Incheon International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Seok; Lee, Seung Chang; Hong, Soon Kil

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is located at developing Ominibus Monitors System(OMS) for internal management, which will enable to establish standards, finding out matters to be improved, and appreciation for its treatment in a systematic way. It is through developing subjective or objective estimation tool with use importance, perceived level, and complex index at international airport by each principal service items. The direction of this study came towards for the purpose of developing a metric analysis tool, utilizing the Quantitative Second Data, Analysing Perceived Data through airport user surveys, systemizing the data collection-input-analysis process, making data image according to graph of results, planning Service Encounter and endowing control attribution, and ensuring competitiveness at the minimal international standards. It is much important to set up a pre-investigation plan on the base of existent foreign literature and actual inspection to international airport. Two tasks have been executed together on the base of this pre-investigation; one is developing subjective estimation standards for departing party, entering party, and airport residence and the other is developing objective standards as complementary methods. The study has processed for the purpose of monitoring services at airports regularly and irregularly through developing software system for operating standards after ensuring credibility and feasibility of estimation standards with substantial and statistical way.

  13. Towards a framework for developing semantic relatedness reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Pedersen, Ted; McInnes, Bridget; Melton, Genevieve B; Ruggieri, Alexander; Chute, Christopher G

    2011-04-01

    Our objective is to develop a framework for creating reference standards for functional testing of computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Currently, research on computerized approaches to semantic relatedness between biomedical concepts relies on reference standards created for specific purposes using a variety of methods for their analysis. In most cases, these reference standards are not publicly available and the published information provided in manuscripts that evaluate computerized semantic relatedness measurement approaches is not sufficient to reproduce the results. Our proposed framework is based on the experiences of medical informatics and computational linguistics communities and addresses practical and theoretical issues with creating reference standards for semantic relatedness. We demonstrate the use of the framework on a pilot set of 101 medical term pairs rated for semantic relatedness by 13 medical coding experts. While the reliability of this particular reference standard is in the "moderate" range; we show that using clustering and factor analyses offers a data-driven approach to finding systematic differences among raters and identifying groups of potential outliers. We test two ontology-based measures of relatedness and provide both the reference standard containing individual ratings and the R program used to analyze the ratings as open-source. Currently, these resources are intended to be used to reproduce and compare results of studies involving computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Our framework may be extended to the development of reference standards in other research areas in medical informatics including automatic classification, information retrieval from medical records and vocabulary/ontology development. PMID:21044697

  14. Conservation and human rights: the need for international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oviedo, Gonzalo [International Union for the Conservation of Nature (International organizations without location); Pabon, Luis [The Nature Conservancy (United States); Painter, Michael; Redford, Kent [The Wildlife Conservation Society (United States); Siegele, Linda [Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (United Kingdom); Springer, Jenny [WWF-US (United States); Thomas, David [Birdlife International (International organizations without location); Painemilla, Kristen Walker [Conservation International (United States); Roe, Dilys

    2010-05-15

    Conservation doesn't happen in a vacuum. In recent years, awareness has grown of the relationship of international conservation practice to indigenous peoples and local communities, and especially the links between conservation and human rights. The impacts protected areas can have on rural communities – such as evictions and lost access to natural resources – are now under particular scrutiny. Concern is meanwhile rising over the human rights implications of some climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. But awareness is also growing of the positive contributions of nature conservation to the rights of people to secure their livelihoods, enjoy healthy and productive environments, and live with dignity. International NGOs can play a central role in supporting and promoting conservation actions that respect the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, and help sustain their livelihoods. Many conservation organisations have long worked towards this. It is vital that they hold to consistent principles and implement measures that ensure their application, so their action on conservation remains accountable, transparent and sustainable.

  15. The internal consistency of the standard gamble: tests after adjusting for prospect theory

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Adam

    2003-01-01

    This article reports a study that tests whether the internal consistency of the standard gamble can be improved upon by incorporating loss weighting and probability transformation parameters in the standard gamble valuation procedure. Five alternatives to the standard EU formulation are considered: (1) probability transformation within an EU framework; and, within a prospect theory framework, (2) loss weighting and full probability transformation, (3) no loss weighting and full probability tr...

  16. Personnel involved in nuclear standards development: 1980 directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S.J. (ed.)

    1980-03-01

    The development of nuclear standards is an active and necessary endeavor that is concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of nuclear potential. There are almost 4100 people from the teachnical community who are presently involved either in writing nuclear standards, including codes, or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document identifies the current participation of each individual as member, chairman, cochairman (vice-chairman), or secretary of about 700 standards development committees and groups. The standards committees and groups are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. This directory includes four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a Key-Word-in-Context (KWIC) Index of committee titles. It can also be used to identify the participation of employers as well as to recognize the contributions of individuals to the often interdisciplinary activity of standards development.

  17. Personnel involved in nuclear standards development: 1980 directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of nuclear standards is an active and necessary endeavor that is concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of nuclear potential. There are almost 4100 people from the teachnical community who are presently involved either in writing nuclear standards, including codes, or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document identifies the current participation of each individual as member, chairman, cochairman (vice-chairman), or secretary of about 700 standards development committees and groups. The standards committees and groups are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. This directory includes four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a Key-Word-in-Context (KWIC) Index of committee titles. It can also be used to identify the participation of employers as well as to recognize the contributions of individuals to the often interdisciplinary activity of standards development

  18. THE BASES OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRIN IONEL GABRIEL

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Capitalism started as a consequence of the urban phenomena development, as well as of the commercial activities development. Thus, over this period of time, the attitude towards business also changed. This change was based also on certain economic reasons. The term „business” is defined in numerous dictionaries released until the present day in a restrictive and subjective manner, both from the perspective of the totalitarian communist ideology, which happened up to the year 1989, and also from the perspective of the different categories of meanings that were taken into consideration when compiling dictionaries in different international circulation languages. If an enterprise conducts business at an international level, then it will take into consideration the performance of different types of activities which differ greatly from the activities conducted at a national level. All these elements must be carefully studied by the company's management, in order to be able to act with high economic efficiency. It must be said that, in contemporary times, that „invisible hand of the market” from the past is none other than competition. As a consequence of the competitive phenomenon's manifestation, the prices are lower, the services are of a better quality and they are increasingly more diverse. Because of these positive arguments, Adam Smith was named „the father of economy”.

  19. Draft I.E.C. standard for monitoring PWR internal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF has proposed to the International Electrotechnical Commission a draft standard for monitoring the vessel internal structures of PWRs. The standard applies to systems used for monitoring the vibratory behavior of the internal structures of PWRs (core barrel, thermal shield, fuel assemblies) on the basis of neutron fluctuations observed outside the vessel as well as of vessel vibrations. It covers the systems characteristics and the monitoring procedures. It should facilitate standardization of monitoring and comparisons on an international level. This paper presents the main features of the draft standard: -principles of measurement: correlation between movements of internals and ex core neutron noise on the one hand, forced vibrations of the vessel on the other hand; -sampling and conditioning of the signals; -monitoring equipment and in particular spectral analysis device; -functions of the monitoring software used for spectral analysis, peak detection and calculation of structure displacement; -studies preliminary to setting up the monitoring (calculation of internal vibratory modes, defect simulation on mockup, qualification on reactor during hot test...); -monitoring procedures (periodicity of analysis and what to do in case of anomaly); -documentation necessary to the monitoring. A diagnostic procedure is given as an example. The draft standard, written in 1994, will be presented in Frankfurt (Germany) in February 1995. (author). 1 annexe

  20. INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 41 (IAS 41 – IMPLICATION FOR REPORTING CROP ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru ?tefea

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of articles were written regarding International Accounting Standard 41 (IAS 41 – Agriculture in order to outpost the the implication of this standard over valuating the different biological assets. Valuation of crop assets are also a part of the IAS 41 objective.  Anyway,  this paper investigates the implications of International Accounting Standard 41 for European Union (EU entities reporting on holdings of crop asset from thre  points of view: implication of production forecast over the accurate accounting, the impact over cash flow and the possibility like companies to use acoounting methodology on own interests.

  1. Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

    2012-01-01

    The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

  2. The Application of International Accounting Standard’s Requirements No. (20) in Jordanian Chemical Detergents Industry Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Adel Al-Sharairi; Alsharayri, Majed A.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying the extent to which Jordanian chemical detergents industry companies applying the requirements of international accounting standard No. (20). A questionnaire has been designed for this purpose and distributed to the external auditors of these companies of (50) auditors / questionnaire, (30) questionnaires were recovered and were suitable for analysis, with recovery rate reached to (60%). Resolution data was analyzed using (SPSS), and a number of statistical tech...

  3. 40 CFR 60.4203 - How long must my engines meet the emission standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? 60.4203 ...Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers...standards if I am a stationary CI internal combustion engine manufacturer? Engines...

  4. Standardization and future directions in pattern identification research: International brainstorming session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeeyoun; Park, Bongki; Lee, Ju Ah; You, Sooseong; Alraek, Terje; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Birch, Stephen; Kim, Tae-Hun; Xu, Hao; Zaslawski, Chris; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2014-12-01

    An international brainstorming session on standardizing pattern identification (PI) was held at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine on October 1, 2013 in Daejeon, South Korea. This brainstorming session was convened to gather insights from international traditional East Asian medicine specialists regarding PI standardization. With eight presentations and discussion sessions, the meeting allowed participants to discuss research methods and diagnostic systems used in traditional medicine for PI. One speaker presented a talk titled "The diagnostic criteria for blood stasis syndrome: implications for standardization of PI". Four speakers presented on future strategies and objective measurement tools that could be used in PI research. Later, participants shared information and methodology for accurate diagnosis and PI. They also discussed the necessity for standardizing PI and methods for international collaborations in pattern research. PMID:25491542

  5. Prediction of ROSA-III test RUN 912 (International Standard Problem-12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ROSA-III test RUN 912 is conducted at JAERI for ISP-12 (International Standard Problem-12) of CSNI (Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations). RUN 912 simulates a 5% split break at the recirculation pump inlet side of a BWR with the assumption of HPCS single failure. Prediction of the ROSA-III test RUN 912 was performed by using RELAP4J, RELAP4/MOD6 and RELAP5/MOD0 computer codes developed to analyze thermal hydraulic phenomena during loss of coolant accidents and transients of a light water reactor. Both RELAP4J and RELAP4/MOD6 are codes based on a one-dimensional homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow model, whereas RELAP5/MOD0 is an advanced code based on a one-dimensional nonhomogeneous nonequilibrium two-phase flow model. The present prediction is useful to evaluate the predictability of LOCA analysis codes and for a better understanding of the codes. (author)

  6. Implementation of the new international standards in Swiss legislation on radon protection in dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios Gruson, Martha; Barazza, Fabio; Murith, Christophe; Ryf, Salome

    2015-04-01

    The current revision of the Swiss Radiological Protection Ordinance aims to bring Swiss legislation in line with new international standards. In future, the control of radon exposure in dwellings will be based on a reference level of 300 Bq m(-3). Since this value is exceeded in >10 % of the buildings so far investigated nationwide, the new strategy requires the development of efficient measures to reduce radon-related health risks at an acceptable cost. The minimisation of radon concentrations in new buildings is therefore of great importance. This can be achieved, for example, through the enforcement of building regulations and the education of construction professionals. With regard to radon mitigation in existing buildings, synergies with the ongoing renewal of the building stock should be exploited. In addition, the dissemination of knowledge about radon and its risks needs to be focused on specific target groups, e.g. notaries, who play an important information role in real estate transactions. PMID:25342610

  7. Comparative analysis of international standards for the characterization of the seismic hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of site investigation for the selection, characterization, licensing and construction of a nuclear power plant requires the use of detailed methodologies described in technical manual. This kind of guidelines were performed mainly in USA, Japan and by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with the aim to provide standards for the collection and analysis of geological, geotechnical, geophysical, hydrological, seismological data, etc. This article debates how the present guides of characterization of the seismic hazard, performed mainly by USA and IAEA, are used in the regulatory framework in France, Japan, USA and other countries without their own regulation in this subject, after the challenges from the accident of Fukushima Daiichi NPP (Japan 2011). (Author)

  8. The USCG/environment Canada/ASTM standards development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Engineering Division (EED) has been charged, as a result of the Public Review Panel on Tanker Safety and Marine Emergency Response report, with increased R ampersand D in marine oil spills. This activity will, of necessity, include development of standards and guidelines for the testing and/or usage of oil spill cleanup equipment. The United States Coast Guard (USCG) has been charged with implementing the provisions of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90), as it pertains to marine transportation vessels and facilities. Among the provisions are requirements for vessel and facility owners and operators to develop comprehensive response plans that specifically match response resources to spill removal requirements. Meeting the response plan provisions of OPA-90 requires common standards for testing, selecting and assigning resources to anticipated response needs and objectively evaluating response plans for adequacy. In August of 1991, the USCG OPA-90 office approached ASTM to determine the feasibility of developing standards through that organizations procedures. Meetings were then held between the OPA-90 staff and members of the ASTM Committee F-20 on Hazardous Substances and Oil Spill Response. An agreement was reached to commence standards development in the areas of: Barriers, Skimmers, Treating Agents, Pumps, Beach Clean-up, Sorbents, Bioremediation, In-situ Burning, Temporary Storage Devices, Communications, Remote Sensing. It waces, Communications, Remote Sensing. It was recognized that ASTM and other organizational standards existed in several of these areas, but there were those where none were known to exist. Standards development was, therefore, expected to be a complicated and time-consuming process. Both the USCG OPA-90 and EC/EED offices required standards to be developed quickly, without subverting the ASTM process. Mechanical containment and recovery was considered to be the primary area of concern for both groups

  9. Performance standards and meat safety--developments and direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Ian; Sumner, John

    2012-11-01

    Performance standards have been developed to express, for regulatory purposes, an acceptable level of food safety afforded by either a product or a process. These performance standards have reflected the development of scientific thought on food safety management through setting of microbiological criteria, implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems, process control and risk-based management. In meat safety management, some performance standards reflect current risk-based thinking which sets objectives and/or criteria and allows freedom on how those objectives/criteria can be met. However, many performance standards do not reflect current thinking and some perpetuate the idea that meat can be consumed with zero risk. PMID:22560457

  10. SPOTS project and development of a standard and reference material

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson E.; Burguete R.

    2010-01-01

    The ‘Standardization Project for Optical Techniques of Strain measurement’ (SPOTS) was focused on the development of reference materials for calibrating optical systems for static strain measurement and standardized tests for evaluating the capabilities of such systems. The reference material consists of a beam in four-point bending within a monolithic frame that ensures reproducibility of the boundary and loading conditions. A procedure for the use of the reference material has been de...

  11. Quantification of rhodium in a series of inorganic and organometallic compounds using cobalt as internal standard

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Trevor T., Chiweshe; Walter, Purcell; Johan A., Venter.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method for the quantification of rhodium using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cobalt as internal standard was developed. Rhodium recovery was determined in different samples, which included a certified reference material (CRM), pure rhodium metal [...] , inorganic RhCl.3H2O salt as well as different organometallic compounds. Excellent rhodium recoveries of 100,100, 99.0 and 99.7 % with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.0,1.0, 0.3 and 0.4 % were obtained for the CRM, rhodium metal sample, RhCl3·3H2O and [Rh(cupf)(PPh3)(CO)(CH3)(I)], respectively. The accurate recovery of rhodium was, however, affected by the presence of easily ionized elements (EIE) and unmatched acid matrixes with a decrease in rhodium recovery of up to 16 %. Validation parameters such as accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and robustness were all investigated to confirm the suitability of this newly developed analytical procedure for rhodium determination.

  12. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  13. ACCOUNTING STANDARD SETTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL ARENA: UPDATE ON THE CONVERGENCE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper contributes to the literature on international accounting by focusing on the standard setting process. As documented by research literature, accounting regulation can enhance corporate governance (Melis and Carta, 2010, corporate reporting being expected to reduce information asymmetry. Based on accounting research and trade literature we first synthesize recent evolutions in the international accounting arena. We therefore position our study within current realities significantly marked by uncertainty in relation to the world wide globalization process. The objective of our paper is to perform an analysis that would help assess further developments of the convergence project. This is done by looking at the current status of the projects being developed under the IASB –FASB collaboration, as well as by developing a comparison between IFRS and US GAAP. The employed research methodology relies on analyzing data provided through the IASB and the FASB’s websites, as well as other official documents being issued by the two Boards. The assessment of the projects was done by reviewing exposure documents and monitoring the Boards’ deliberations, while the developed comparison requires accounting regulations content analysis. Concluding upon the Boards’ ongoing projects, we might identify areas in which convergence seems to be quite close (such as revenue recognition and leasing, but also areas in which convergence becomes even more challenging (such as financial instruments or the particular case of offsetting. Similar to other studies being developed within accounting research and trade literature (SEC 2011: 8 we may conclude that, generally, US GAAP present more detailed, specific requirements than IFRS.

  14. 3. Standardization of food irradiation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need is stressed for clearly defined guidelines and regulations for the consumption of irradiated foods and the operation of irradiation facilities. This requires the establishment of a responsible body. The example of Ghana is used as illustration. Food standards are mandatory. The Ghana Standards Board was established under NLC Decree 199, subsequently superseded by NRC Decree 173:1973 as amended by AFRC Decree 44:1977. The aims and functions of the Board are described, and forms in which its powers are operative. Two types of certificate are granted: the Certification Mark and the Exemption Certificate. The formulation of food standards is done through technical committees. The National Codex (Alimentarius) Committee is responsible for establishing food standards for Board approval. Membership of this committee is drawn from available expertise from industry, research institutions, government departments, the universities, etc. The various steps in the preparation of Codex Standards are outlined. For the certification of irradiated food in Ghana the international requirements as outlined by CXFA (Codex Committee on Food Additives) need to be met

  15. Analysis of Belgian Public Accounting and Its Compliance with International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) 1, 6 and 22

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Bellanca; Julien Vandernoot

    2013-01-01

    Belgian public accounting, which is continuously evolving, has to meet international standards. The aim of thispaper is to describe the current Belgian public accounting systems and to analyze their compliance with IPSAS1, 6 and 22, key points of modern accounting.We first describe the development of Belgian public accounting since 1846. We then focus on the 2003accounting reform, and more specifically its content and its triggering factors. The level of implementation ofthis reform in the di...

  16. Constraints and Improvement: A case Study of the Indonesia’s International Standard School in Improving its Capacity Building

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Sumintono; Hamdan Said; Nora Mislan

    2012-01-01

    Improving school capacity building becomes one of the major themes in the educational effectiveness research. This paper investigates implementation of the International Standard School (SBI) policy in Indonesia which as an effort of school capacity building improvement in the country. Using framework that is developed by King and Newman (2001), several dimensions of capacity building with relation to knowledge, skill and disposition of individual staff, and professional learning com...

  17. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-SØrensen, Fin

    2012-01-01

    This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), which documents the neurological examination of individuals with SCI. The Autonomic Standards Assessment Form is recommended to be completed during the evaluation of individuals with SCI, but is not a part of the ISNCSCI. A web-based training course (Autonomic Standards Training E Program (ASTeP)) is available to assist clinicians with understanding autonomic dysfunctions following SCI and with completion of the Autonomic Standards Assessment Form (www.ASIAlearningcenter.com).

  18. Test Standard Developed for Determining the Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1998-01-01

    The service life of structural ceramic components is often limited by the process of slow crack growth. Therefore, it is important to develop an appropriate testing methodology for accurately determining the slow crack growth design parameters necessary for component life prediction. In addition, an appropriate test methodology can be used to determine the influences of component processing variables and composition on the slow crack growth and strength behavior of newly developed materials, thus allowing the component process to be tailored and optimized to specific needs. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, work to develop a standard test method to determine the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics was initiated by the authors in early 1994 in the C 28 (Advanced Ceramics) committee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). After about 2 years of required balloting, the draft written by the authors was approved and established as a new ASTM test standard: ASTM C 1368-97, Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Ambient Temperature. Briefly, the test method uses constant stress-rate testing to determine strengths as a function of stress rate at ambient temperature. Strengths are measured in a routine manner at four or more stress rates by applying constant displacement or loading rates. The slow crack growth parameters required for design are then estimated from a relationship between strength and stress rate. This new standard will be published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, in 1998. Currently, a companion draft ASTM standard for determination of the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures is being prepared by the authors and will be presented to the committee by the middle of 1998. Consequently, Lewis will maintain an active leadership role in advanced ceramics standardization within ASTM. In addition, the authors have been and are involved with several international standardization organizations including the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS), the International Energy Agency (IEA), and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The associated standardization activities involve fracture toughness, strength, elastic modulus, and the machining of advanced ceramics.

  19. The emergence of international food safety standards and guidelines: understanding the current landscape through a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh, Brigit

    2014-07-01

    Following the Second World War, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) teamed up to construct an International Codex Alimentarius (or 'food code') which emerged in 1963. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) was charged with the task of developing microbial hygiene standards, although it found itself embroiled in debate with the WHO over the nature these standards should take. The WHO was increasingly relying upon the input of biometricians and especially the International Commission on Microbial Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) which had developed statistical sampling plans for determining the microbial counts in the final end products. The CCFH, however, was initially more focused on a qualitative approach which looked at the entire food production system and developed codes of practice as well as more descriptive end-product specifications which the WHO argued were 'not scientifically correct'. Drawing upon historical archival material (correspondence and reports) from the WHO and FAO, this article examines this debate over microbial hygiene standards and suggests that there are many lessons from history which could shed light upon current debates and efforts in international food safety management systems and approaches. PMID:24990138

  20. Comparative study of Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures on radiation and nuclear safety with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the results of the critical reviews, analysis, and comparison of the regulatory infrastructures for radiation and nuclear safety of Malaysis and the Philippines usi ng the IAEA safety requirements, GSR Part 1, Government, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety'' as the main basis and in part, the GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. The scope of the comparison includes the elements of the relevant legislations, the regulatory system and processes including the core functions of the regulatory body (authorization, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, development of regulations and guides); and the staffing and training of regulatory body. The respective availabe data of the Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures and current practices were gathered and analyzed. Recommendations to fill the gaps and strengthen the existing regulatory infrastructure of each country was given using as bases relevant IAEA safety guides. Based on the analysis made, the main findings are: the legislations of both countries do not contain al the elements of teh national policy and strategy for safety as well as those of teh framework for safety in GR Part I. Among the provision that need to be included in the legislations are: emergency planning and response; decommissioning of facilities safe management of radioactive wastes and spent fuel; competence for safety; and technical sevices. Provisions on coordination of different authorities with safety responsibilities within the regulatory framework for safety as well as liaison with advisory bodies and support organizations need to be enhanced. The Philippines needs to establish an independent regulatory body, ie. separate from organizations charged with promotion of nuclear technologies and responsible for facilitiesand activities. Graded approach on the system of notification and authorization by registration and licensing needs to be considered in the regulatory system and processes of both countries. Enforcement policy of AELB and PNRI needs to be enhanced taking into account the factors in GS-G-1.5. Examples of key learning areas and good practices identified are: AELB's e-learning system represents an innovative means of its regulatory processes; the style and language used in the code of PNRI Regulations is in acordance with international standards, i.e. use of shall statements. The results of this study could be used by both countries in revisiting or further reviewing and updating their respective legislations in order to be consistent and coherent with international standards. (author)

  1. Spillover effects of international standards: Work conditions in Vietnamese small and medium enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firm–employee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium enterprises in Vietnam. Certified firms pay higher wages on average. They are also more likely to offer formal contracts and to pay social and health insurance to workers. The estimation accounts for endogenous matching of workers with firms and unobserved heterogeneity using an instrumental variable approach. The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards.

  2. Spillover effects of international standards : Work conditions in Vietnamese small and medium enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firm–employee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium enterprises in Vietnam. Certified firms pay higher wages on average. They are also more likely to offer formal contracts and to pay social and health insurance to workers. The estimation accounts for endogenous matching of workers with firms and unobserved heterogeneity using an instrumental variable approach. The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards.

  3. Development and testing of standardized procedures and reference data for LWR surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resources and talents of many national and international organizations and laboratories, both governmental and industrial, are being used to establish analysis methods for predicting the embrittlement condition of light water reactor (LWR) primary systems. The exact interrelationships and responsibilities between those developing, understanding, combining, and applying state-of-the-art technology in dosimetry, metallurgy, and fracture mechanics for reactor systems analysis are being carefully reviewed and studied. This has resulted in a more comprehensive definition of the scope of new and updated ASTM standards required for the analysis and interpretation of LWR pressure vessel surveillance results. Fifteen new and updated ASTM standards have now been identified, together with a restructuring of the main interfaces between the individual standard practices, guides, and methods. The paper briefly discusses these standards and the initial results of multi-laboratory research work involved in their validation and calibration

  4. Trends of international standard procedures on dosimetry systems and irradiated foods applied in the multi-purpose radiation processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, with new radiation technology being developed and used in advanced industries, the business opportunity of radiation processing has been increasing. For the industrial application of developed products, it is required to review scientific and technical aspects of standard procedures applied to radiation processes. Standard procedures describe requirements of products manufactured under standard processing conditions. In fields related to the operation control of the multi-purpose radiation processing facilities, the ISO 11137 and Codex stan-106 are famous standards adopted as national standards in the advanced countries. The ISO 11137 is applied to supply criteria of medical devices for the validation and routine control of radiation sterilization including variability and uncertainty of dosimetry systems. Korean national standards on the food irradiation are significantly different from Codex stan-106 in parts such as the labelling. Therefore, prior to implementation of the labelling on the labelling on irradiated foods starting from year 2010, it is necessary to revise the inconsistent labelling to the reasonable level of international standard for the promotion and reenforcement of competition in industries using radiation processing technology

  5. The Canadian approach to nuclear codes and standards. A CSA forum for development of standards for CANDU: radioactive waste management and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Together with the Canadian Standards Association (CSA), industry stakeholders, governments, and the public have developed a suite of standards for CANDU nuclear power plants that generate electricity in Canada and abroad. In this paper, we will describe: CSA's role in national and international nuclear standards development; the key issues and priority projects that the nuclear standards program has addressed; the new CSA nuclear committees and projects being established, particularly those related to waste management and decommissioning; the hierarchy of nuclear regulations, nuclear, and other standards in Canada, and how they are applied by AECL; the standards management activities; and the future trends and challenges for CSA and the nuclear community. CSA is an accredited Standards Development Organization (SDO) and part of the international standards system. CSA's Nuclear Strategic Steering Committee (NSSC) provides leadership, direction, and support for a standards committee hierarchy comprised of members from a balanced matrix of interests. The NSSC strategically focuses on industry challenges; a new nuclear regulatory system, deregulated energy markets, and industry restructuring. As the first phase of priority projects is nearing completion, the next phase of priorities is being identified. These priorities address radioactive waste management, environmental radiation management, decommissioning, structural, and seismic issues. As the CSA committees get estabic issues. As the CSA committees get established in the coming year, members and input will be solicited for the technical committees, subcommittees, and task forces for the following related subjects: Radioactive Waste Management; a) Dry Storage of Irradiated Fuel; b) Short-Term Radioactive Waste Management; c) Long-Term Storage and Disposal of Radioactive Waste. 2. Decommissioning Nuclear Power is highly regulated, and public scrutiny has focused Codes and Standards on public and worker safety. Licensing and regulation serves to control design and operation of Nuclear Power Systems, while ensuring effective exploitation of this vital energy source. The regulatory system includes federal requirements, provincial inspections, and a suite of Nuclear standards. These standards provide tools for technical guidance, management processes, operation, assessment, and regulation. Future CSA plans will address the regulatory environment, standards harmonization, and enhanced public and international input, in a competitive industry. Stakeholders and governments; however, need to support SDO viability by addressing nuclear liability protection, member availability, and funding support. Opportunities for synergies with other nuclear related industries and international activities should be considered. (author)

  6. ISO TS/15216; an international standard method for the detection and quantification of norovirus in high risk foodstuffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowther, James; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    Norovirus is one of the principal agents of food-related gastroenteritis. Outbreaks have been associated with a number of different food vehicles, most notably bivalve molluscan shellfish and soft fruit. Contamination of prepared food through contact with infected food handlers also presents a major safety risk. The introduction of testing for norovirus into food hygiene legislation and standard operating procedures for investigating foodborne outbreaks is a priority for many national and international authorities. Until recently this has been prevented by the lack of availability of standardised methods, however in March 2013 the International Standards Organisation (ISO) and European Committee for Standardization (CEN) published a joint technical specification for detection and quantification of viruses including norovirus GI and GII in foods using real-time RT-PCR (ISO/TS 15216). This paper will describe the development and validation of this method by an international working group of expert food virologists from twenty institutes in thirteen countries (CEN TC275/WG6 TAG4), the current and future implications of this method for European and International Food Hygiene Legislation and the application of the method to the testing of food samples implicated in outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis.

  7. Requirements relating to radon in the International Basic Safety Standards: information, measurement and national strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fifth edition of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) has recently been established as Part 3 of the General Safety Requirements of the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The BSS applies to all exposure situations and to all categories of exposure. As such, the BSS addresses both occupational exposure due to radon in workplaces and public exposure due to radon in dwellings. In workplaces, exposure due to radon is treated either as a planned exposure situation or as an existing exposure situation, depending on the circumstances. With regard to exposure due to radon in dwellings, the BSS requires that general information on radon, including information on health risks and the synergy with smoking, be made available to the public and other interested parties. Countries are also required to determine whether an action plan for controlling exposure due to radon indoors is necessary, and, if so, to establish and implement such an action plan. Guidance material, covering the establishment of reference levels, national and regional radon surveys, identification of radon prone areas, building codes for new buildings, corrective actions for existing buildings, information campaigns and programme evaluation and effectiveness is currently being developed. (paper)

  8. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International basic safety standards. General safety requirements. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  9. Development of a coincidence system for radio-nuclide standardization using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for the standardization of alpha-gamma or electron-X radionuclide emitters has been developed in the present work. The system consists of one or two surface barrier detectors for alpha or electron detection which are coupled to thin-window NaI (T1) crystals suitable for low energy X or gamma ray detection. The performance of the system has been verified by means of the standardization of 241Am, 137Cs and 109Cd solutions. The activity has been obtained using the extrapolation method applied to the 4??-? and 2?ec-X coincidence technique. The surface barrier detection efficiency was varied by placing absorbers over the radioactive sources or by changing the source to detector distance. The results were compared to those obtained using conventional absolute systems based on gas-flow and pressurized 4? proportional counters, or using radioactive solutions standardized in international comparisons spondored by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. The expect and measured activities agree within the experimental uncertainties which were: 0.2 % for 241Am, 0.7% for 137Cs and 0.6% for 109Cd. The ratio between the probabilities of (electron capture + internal conversion) and internal conversion for the K-shell of 109Cd has been determined. The result is: 2.8883 ± 0.016. (author)

  10. Improving the Virtual Learning Development Processes Using XML Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt Suss; Thomas Oberhofer

    2002-01-01

    Distributed Icarning environments and content often lack a common basis for the cxchange of learning materials. This delays, or even hinders, both innovation and delivery of learning tecnology. Standards for platforms and authoring may provide a way to improve interoperability and cooperative development. This article provides an XML-based approach to this problem creaied by the IMS Global Learning Consortium.

  11. IMPROVING THE VIRTUAL LEARNING DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES USING XML STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Suss

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Icarning environments and content often lack a common basis for the cxchange of learning materials. This delays, or even hinders, both innovation and delivery of learning tecnology. Standards for platforms and authoring may provide a way to improve interoperability and cooperative development. This article provides an XML-based approach to this problem creaied by the IMS Global Learning Consortium.

  12. Standards of Care for Juvenile Sexual Offenders of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Minimal standards for treatment of adult sexual offenders were adopted by the membership of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Offenders (IATSO at its first membership General Assembly in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in May 2000 (Coleman, Dwyer, Abel, Berner, Breiling, Eher, et al., 2000; 2003. These standards, initially developed in 1990 with input from attendees at the Second International Conference on Sexual Offender Treatment held in Minneapolis, Minnesota (Coleman & Dwyer, 1990; Coleman, Dwyer, Abel, Berner, Breiling, Hindman, et al. 1996, were refined by a committee of professionals at the Fifth International Conference on Sexual Offender Treatment (Coleman et al., 2000.With these standards in place, the Governing Board of IATSO designated a committee in summer 2004 to develop similar standards for treatment of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. This committee consisted of representatives from a number of countries with differing traditions of sexual offender treatment and juvenile justice, including Austria, Germany, Norway, South Africa, Switzerland, and the United States. Developing standards of care for juvenile populations can be a challenging endeavor. Adolescence is a time of rapid change, and thus, there is great heterogeneity in those youths who commit acts that can be defined as sexual offenses. These differences are influenced by the developmental stage of the youth, which may roughly parallel age, and multiple environmental factors. Additionally, studies conducted outside North America find higher base rates of re-offense than those within North America (e.g. Nisbet, Wilson, & Smallbone, 2004; Langstrom & Grann, 2000. This is likely the case because definitions of who is a juvenile offender, what behaviors are sexual crimes, and how the juvenile justice system is organized can differ substantially across countries. These Standards of Care, which were adopted by the membership at the General Assembly of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Offenders in Hamburg, Germany, September 7, 2006, are designed to be minimal guidelines for those developing and implementing treatment interventions for Juvenile Sexual Offenders. These Standards are based on the current state of knowledge on adolescents who commit sexual offences. Most of the available data are from adolescent males and the state of science in this field is still evolving. Thus, the Committee avoided making specific recommendations about particular procedures, techniques, or instrumentation.

  13. ISO 14000 - the International Environmental Management Standard: Potential impacts on environmental management and auditing in the electric power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of environmental management, the concept of voluntary environmental compliance auditing is not in itself a new development. Environmentally conscious firms have for more than a decade, undertaken voluntary audits to help achieve and maintain compliance with environmental regulations and to help identify and correct unregulated or poorly regulated environmental hazard. The firms undertaking the audits were motivated by a desire to mitigate legal and financial risks and/or the desire to be a highly responsible member of the corporate community. Much of the early attention to environmental auditing was in the chemical process industries. Today, there are four current trends affecting environmental auditing: (1) the practice is becoming widespread in all industry groups in both large and small firms; (2) environmental management and audit methodolgies and approaches are being codified in the form of written national and International standards; (3) environmental management programs and in-house audits are increasingly being certified by independent auditors (who are not associated with regulatory agencies); and (4) the certifications are being viewed as marketing and public relations tools. The adoption of ISO 14000 is destined to become the most significant development in international environmental management and auditing. International standards for the development of Environmental Management Systems and the execution of environmental audits do not curecution of environmental audits do not currently exist. Individual countries, such as England and France, have national standards. One multi-national standard currently exists--the European Economic Community's Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). The United States does not have a national environmental management and auditing standard

  14. Developing an International and Technology-Driven Business School Program: Perspectives from the International Business Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel; Bush, Victoria; Bush, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed the international business and technological community about the skills it requires of recent business school graduates. Findings provide insights for developing action plans to address international and technological needs. (EV)

  15. International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) Benefits, Obstacles and Intrigues for Implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ikpefan, Ochei Ailemen; Akande, A. O.

    2012-01-01

    IFRS is International Financial Reporting System and International Accounting Standard Board - (IASB) provided the framework for its working. IFRS adopted by IASB has gained worldwide acceptance amongst many countries and some listed companies in European nations have embraced it. IFRS employs a uniform, single consistent accounting framework that is gravitating towards General Accepted Accounting Practice (GAPP) in the future. IFRS since its introduction in 2001 had provi...

  16. Time for a Paradigm Shift? Exploring Maximum Standards in International Intellectual Property Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan

    2009-01-01

    International intellectual property (IP) protection is at the heart of controversies over the impact of economic interests on social or environmental concerns. Some see IP rights as unduly encroaching upon human rights and societal interests, others argue for stronger enforcement and additional exclusivity to incentivize new innovations and creations. Underlying these debates is the perception that international IP treaties set out minimum standards of protection - which presumably allow for ...

  17. Instrumental photon activation analysis of environmental materials using the internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effective applications of the photon activation analysis using the internal standard method, determinations of Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce and Pb in two marine sediments as environmental materials were examined by the use of a personal computer-based gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a micro-robot for sample changing. Some major and minor constituents in the samples were properly used as effective internal standards to check the roles with each other. As a result, it was demonstrated that accurate and precise determinations of the above 15 elements were achieved efficiently and favourably. (author)

  18. Precise determination of bromine in PP resin pellet by instrumental neutron activation analysis using internal standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis with the internal standardization was applied to the precise determination of Br in polypropylene resin of candidate certified reference material. The known amount of 197Au was used as an internal standard to compensate for neutron flux inhomogeneity, to improve the ? ray measurement uncertainty and the linearity of the calibration curves. The reliability of the proposed method validated using analytical results of BCR-681. The analytical result of Br in the sample was consistent with that obtained by ID-ICPMS. The relative expanded uncertainty (k = 2) was 1.5 %, and it was equivalent to that of ID-ICPMS. (author)

  19. Developing International Business Managers through International Study Visits to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yiming; Rose, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is a key factor in the success of business organizations today, impacting many aspects of management performance. Understanding the global business environment has therefore become a key objective in the teaching of international business on Executive MBA programs. Drawing on the theory of experiential learning, this study examines…

  20. Bismuth as a general internal standard for lead in atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechlin, Marcos A.; Fortunato, Felipe M.; Ferreira, Edilene C. [São Paulo State University - Unesp, Analytical Chemistry Department, P.O. Box 355, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Neto, José A. Gomes, E-mail: anchieta@iq.unesp.br [São Paulo State University - Unesp, Analytical Chemistry Department, P.O. Box 355, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Nóbrega, Joaquim A. [Federal University of São Carlos, Department of Chemistry, São Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Donati, George L.; Jones, Bradley T. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27106 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Single internal standard is commonly proposed for definite application in AAS. • Internal standard for general use in AAS techniques is original. • Bi showed efficiency as internal standard for Pb determinations by FAAS and GFAAS. • Assorted samples were analyzed and accurate results were found. - Abstract: Bismuth was evaluated as internal standard for Pb determination by line source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (LS FAAS), high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS) and line source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (LS GFAAS). Analysis of samples containing different matrices indicated close relationship between Pb and Bi absorbances. Correlation coefficients of calibration curves built up by plotting A{sup Pb}/A{sup Bi}versus Pb concentration were higher than 0.9953 (FAAS) and higher than 0.9993 (GFAAS). Recoveries of Pb improved from 52–118% (without IS) to 97–109% (IS, LS FAAS); 74–231% (without IS) to 96–109% (IS, HR-CS FAAS); and 36–125% (without IS) to 96–110% (IS, LS GFAAS). The relative standard deviations (n = 12) were reduced from 0.6–9.2% (without IS) to 0.3–4.3% (IS, LS FAAS); 0.7–7.7% (without IS) to 0.1–4.0% (IS, HR-CS FAAS); and 2.1–13% (without IS) to 0.4–5.9% (IS, LS GFAAS)

  1. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the literature on resilience in the area of disaster risk (see corresponding abstract of another session). The research gap, which was also highlighted in the 2012 National Academies of Sciences Paper (Disasters, Committee on Science and Public Policy, & Academies, 2012), is the lack of a consistent way to measure resilience, which is a complex systems concept, across different communities and over time. Without this measurement, evaluating the impact of projects, programs and policies on a community's resilience cannot be consistently made. In turn, the relative costs and benefits of potential interventions cannot be properly assessed to determine those which ought to be prioritized. The measurement of resilience contains both theoretical and practical components, but much of the research to date has been limited to the theoretical realm. There is a need for a set of indicators that can be systematically collected in the field to practically measure resilience. This presentation will examine both the theoretical and practical challenges this involves, and how this is being approached through a unique alliance between the research community, a private partner and field practitioners. We aim to help build consistency amongst those working on assessing and prioritizing effective resilience strategies. The Alliance between research partners and NGOs will be highlighted to show how such collaborations can support a continuous learning process in communities and contribute to improved flood resilience at community level and beyond. This includes the development and use of innovative evaluation tools that can aid communities in prioritizing projects and policies as well as demonstrating effectiveness to donors.

  2. Procedural Bio-Medical Waste Management - A Comparison with International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    B. Rajeswari

    2012-01-01

    Though India has the state of art medical facilities on par with global standards for a comparatively cheaper cost with best knowledge, the bio-waste management protocols of many hospitals are far below the international standards. An effort was made to understand the bio-waste management procedures of big hospitals by making a critical analysis of bio waste generated. Biomedical waste includes syringes, live vaccines, laboratory samples, body parts, bodily fluids and waste, sharp needles, cu...

  3. THE NEW BASEL CAPITAL ACCORD - AN INTERNATIONAL CONVERGENCE OF CAPITAL MEASUREMENTS AND CAPITAL STANDARDS IN BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIG?

    2007-01-01

    The International Convergence of Capital Measurements and Capital Standards was finally published on June 26, 2004 by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. This framework is known in the market as Basel II and it replaces the current framework (Basel I) for banks as to how they calculate their capital requirements. The Basel II describes a more comprehensive measure and minimum standard for capital adequacy that national supervisory authorities are implementing through domestic rule-mak...

  4. The Effects of International Accounting Standardization on Business Performance: Evidence from Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Gyorgy Csebfalvi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the differences between national rules and the international standards,evaluating and analyzing their effects on the shifting business environment. The unified business informationsystem will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicatorsfrom the business environment of certain countries. The results show that those businesses which have adoptedinternational standards achieved higher and statisticall...

  5. Impact of Adopting International Financial Reporting Standards: Empirical Evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Terzi; Recep Oktem; Ilker Kiymetli Sen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of adopting International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) on listed companies in Turkey was examined. We observed the financial statements that were prepared in accordance with IFRS and local GAAP and researched the standards which included more relevant information. We worked on the financial statements of the companies in the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) that operated in the manufacturing industry. In our findings, we determined that the financial statements...

  6. Prospects and challenges of International Financial Reporting Standards in Indian Context

    OpenAIRE

    Patange, Dr H. S.

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm shift in the economic environment in India during last few years has led to increasing attention being devoted to accounting standards as a means towards ensuring potent and transparent financial reporting by any corporate.ICAI, being a premier accounting body in the country, took upon itself the leadership role by establishing ASB, more than twenty five years back, to fall in line with the international and national expectations. Today, accounting standards i...

  7. A change of course: The importance to DoD of international standards for electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Judith E.

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is committed to using electronic commerce in the future with the over 300,000 vendors interested in doing business with DoD. Electronic commerce will move DoD from a paper-based world to one based on electronic transactions enabled by the exchange of formatted, electronic messages referred to as electronic data interchange (EDI). With electronic commerce, DoD plans to reduce costs, increase effectiveness, and make it easier for vendors to deal with DoD. Benefits from electronic commerce are enhanced when many businesses use the same standards for EDI messages themselves and their transmission. The fewer standards used, the less time and resources must be spent translating messages and agreeing on how to use different standards. To enhance benefits and smooth the transition to electronic commerce for itself and its vendors, DoD has chosen to use the widely accepted American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X12 standards for EDI messages, coupled with international standards for delivering messages and organizing addresses. In the past 18 months, EDI standards sponsored by a United Nations body and serving the same purpose as ANSI X12 message standards have begun to gain wider acceptance internationally.

  8. International survey on d-dimer test reporting: a call for standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Armando; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2015-04-01

    D-dimer is the biochemical gold standard for diagnosing a variety of thrombotic disorders, but result reporting is heterogeneous in clinical laboratories. A specific five-item questionnaire was developed to gain a clear picture of the current standardization of D-dimer test results. The questionnaire was opened online (December 24, 2014-February 10, 2015) on the platform "Google Drive (Google Inc., Mountain View; CA)," and widely disseminated worldwide by newsletters and alerts. A total of 409 responses were obtained during the period of data capture, the largest of which were from Italy (136; 33%), Australia (55; 22%), Croatia (29; 7%), Serbia (26; 6%), and the United States (21; 5%). Most respondents belonged to laboratories in general hospitals (208; 51%), followed by laboratories in university hospitals (104; 26%), and the private sector (94; 23%). The majority of respondents (i.e., 246; 60%) indicated the use of fibrinogen equivalent unit for expressing D-dimer results, with significant heterogeneities across countries and health care settings. The highest prevalence of laboratories indicated they were using "ng/mL" (139; 34%), followed by "mg/L" (136; 33%), and "µg/L" (73; 18%), with significant heterogeneity across countries but not among different health care settings. Expectedly, the vast majority of laboratories (379; 93%) declared to be using a fixed cutoff rather than an age-adjusted threshold, with no significant heterogeneity across countries and health care settings. The results of this survey attest that at least 28 different combinations of measurement units are currently used to report D-dimer results worldwide, and this evidence underscores the urgent need for more effective international joined efforts aimed to promote a worldwide standardization of D-dimer results reporting. PMID:25839870

  9. Proceedings of the international symposium on radioactive waste disposal: Health and environmental criteria and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The co-organisers of the International Symposium on Health and Environmental Criteria and Standards for Radioactive Waste Disposal are pleased to present these proceedings. This Symposium succeeded in bringing together a wide range of participants and perspectives in order to address in a common forum the technical and non-technical issues related to long-term storage of radioactive waste. The papers presented herein reflect both the diversity of the participants and the complexity of the issues addressed. The sessions, panels, and papers developed for the symposium focused on some of the daunting challenges posed by long-term isolation and storage of high level radioactive waste. Panel sessions addressed the basic principles of criteria and standards, the context of the risks involved, and an overview of relevant philosophical, social, and ethical issues. Paper sessions considered national laws, policies and experiences; criteria formulation; environmental protection; compliance; human intrusion; and fundamental philosophical, social, and ethical issues. The presentations stimulated lively discussion and debate, and the contributors received valuable feedback. The interplay between technical and social aspects reflected in some papers and in the discussion highlights the changing role of the public in radioactive waste issues. The average citizen has become more aware of and more involved in radioactive waste matters in recent years. Solutions that were previously ant years. Solutions that were previously analysed through a technological lens are now being viewed in a much broader perspective that better addresses the concerns of local communities as well as national and international interests. Public involvement must begin earlier, last longer, and improve in quality so as to create an ongoing dialogue and debate rather than cycles of dictates and discord. The symposium has offered suggestions as to how government, industry, and the public can foster a broader dialogue on the formulation and implementation of criteria and standards. The long timeframe associated with high-level radioactive waste also requires looking beyond the usual indicators of well-being and recognising that human health is inextricable from the overall quality of the biosphere. There is now a challenge to the scientific community to develop indicators that reflect conflicting temporal needs and can draw on the strength and resilience of ecological systems to improve our confidence in the safeguards we can offer to future generations. The symposium has made important contributions in this regard, but there remains a great deal to be done. Ecologically-based criteria and standards could serve as a valuable future theme for meetings, research, and policy discussions. A process is currently taking place around the world for developing criteria and standards to protect the health of humans and the environment from the hazards of radioactive waste. This process must incorporate a wide range of perspectives and recognize the interests of future generations as well as the current one. This process has been advanced through the efforts of the symposium contributors and the papers contained in these proceedings. We will not attempt to summarise their excellent work here, but will let the authors speak for themselves in the papers presented herein. Separate abstracts have been performed for all the 54 papers

  10. Gestión de proyectos ecoturísticos orientados al mercado internacional con impacto en el desarrollo local mediante aplicación del estándar PMBOK / Gestion de projets d'écotourisme internationaux ayant un impact sur les économies locales grâce à la mise en place du standard pmbook / The ecotourism project management market, oriented to the international market, which impacts regional development through the application of PMBOK standards / Gestão de projetos ecoturísticos orientados ao marketing internacional com impacto no desenvolvimento local através da aplicação do padrão pmbok

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime Alberto, Romero-Infante; H. Mauricio, Diez-Silva.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo descreve-se a aplicação de práticas de gestão de projetos no setor ecoturístico da Colômbia, que está orientado ao mercado internacional e gera um impacto considerável no desenvolvimento local. Aplicaram-se processos do padrão internacional do Project Management Institute (PMI) em um pr [...] ojeto para a identificação e validação de métodos sustentáveis de comercialização do serviço ecoturístico em áreas protegidas de alto valor ecológico e cultural. Utilizou-se uma metodologia exploratória, apoiada na revisão e interpretação da literatura com respeito as melhores práticas internacionais para a gestão de projetos. A partir disto desenvolveu-se um marco estrutural que pode ser aplicado em projetos do setor ecoturístico colombiano, para melhorar a gestão dessas intervenções. Abstract in spanish En este artículo, se describe la aplicación de prácticas de gestión de proyectos en el sector ecoturístico de Colombia, el cual está orientado al mercado internacional y genera un impacto considerable en el desarrollo local. Se aplicaron procesos del estándar internacional del Project Management Ins [...] titute (PMI), en un proyecto para la identificación y validación de métodos sustentables de comercialización del servicio ecoturístico en áreas protegidas de alto valor ecológico y cultural. Se utilizó una metodología exploratoria, apoyada en la revisión e interpretación de literatura con respecto a las mejores prácticas internacionales para la gestión de proyectos. A partir de lo anterior se desarrolló un marco estructural que pudiese ser aplicable en proyectos del sector ecoturístico colombiano, con el propósito de mejorar la gestión de dichas intervenciones. Abstract in english This article describes the application of project management practices in the ecotourism sector of Colombia, which is oriented to the international market and which impacts considerably regional development. Different processes of the Project Management Institute International Standards (PMI) have b [...] een applied during this project which aims at identifying and validating sustainable methods of ecotourism trading services in protected areas of high ecological and cultural value. An exploration methodology was used, based on the review and interpretation of literature about the best international practices of project management. From the above, we have developed a structural frame that could be applied to different projects involving the Colombian ecotourism sector, aiming at improving the management of such interventions.

  11. The role of food standards in development : an empirical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2013-01-01

    The thesis consists of three papers based on the original data collected through fieldwork in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. It is focused on understanding the implications of modern agri-food sector restructuring for farmers in developing countries. The thesis particularly looks at (i) the impact of the emergence of food standards on farmers’ wellbeing, (ii) the effects of various forms of vertical coordination on household welfare and (iii) the consequences of the concurrent emergence of food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. The first paper, Food Standards are Good — for Middle-Class Farmers, joint with Henrik Hansen, estimates the impact of food standards on farmers’ wellbeing using the data from the Vietnamese pangasius sector. In this paper we estimate both the average effect as well as the effects on poorer and richer farmers using the instrumental variable quantile regression. We find that large returns from food standards are possible but the gains are substantial only for the ‘middle-class’ farmers, occupying the range between 50% and 85% quantiles of the expenditure distribution. Overall, this result points to an exclusionary impact of food standards for the poorest farmers. The richest farmers do not apply standards because the added gain is too small. In the second paper, Welfare Effects of Vertical Integration and Contracts in Pangasius Sector in Vietnam, I analyse the impact of different vertical integration options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of integration for the success of the whole sector. Contract farming and employment on rocessorowned estate farms are in this context considered as two distinct options of ertical integration. The welfare gain from contracts and estate employment is estimated using a maximum simulated likelihood estimator. The results show positive welfare effects from participating in contract farming, but not from employment on processor-owned estate farms. The results imply that contract farming creates opportunities for economic growth, but the additional effort is required to make the contracts more accessible to smallholders. The third paper titled Food Standards and Vertical Coordination in aquaculture: The Case of Pangasius from Vietnam investigates the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination. Farmers and processors in the Vietnamese pangasius sector the adopt food standards to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging the application of standards and contract farming, processing companies prefer to vertically integrate primary production largely due to concerns over the stable supply of pangasius with satisfactory quality and safety attributes. These tendencies increase the market dominance of industrial farming and worsen the position of small household farms.

  12. Development of internal communication : case Cosfim

    OpenAIRE

    Anashkin, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The goal for this thesis is to evaluate the status of the current internal communication in a small business Cosfim OY. The company is an agent to a global enterprise with multiple agents on different continents. The objective is to make a survey based on relevant theories. The final goal is to present the results and the thesis for the company as an example of how to evaluate internal communication. The theoretical part discusses the everyday internal communication in the company between...

  13. Standards and Intellectual Property Rights in the Age of Global Communication - A Review of the International Standardization of Third-Generation Mobile System

    CERN Document Server

    Hjelm, B

    2001-01-01

    When the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) selected a radio access technology based on Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA), sponsored by European telecommunications equipment manufactures Ericsson and Nokia, for its third-generation wireless communications system, a bitter dispute developed between ETSI and Qualcommm Inc. Qualcomm threatened to withhold its intellectual property on the CDMA technology unless the Europeans agreed to make the radio access technology backward compatible with cdmaOne, Qualcomm's favored version of CDMA. A dispute over intellectual property rights over key CDMA techniques also erupted between Ericsson and Qualcomm and both filed patent infringement in US Court. The dispute halted the standards activity and has troubled operators worldwide as well as the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).

  14. Can international development in nuclear technology be successful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the pros and cons of international development, the problems of collaboration, and the general experience of collaborative development. International co-operation in research and development in the nuclear industry is discussed with respect to: the Dragon high temperature reactor, fusion and the JET project, centrifuge technology, and fast reactor collaboration. (U.K.)

  15. Development of standard ionization chamber counting system for activity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pyun, W B; Lee, H Y; Park, T S

    1998-01-01

    This study is to set up the activity measuring system using a 4 pi gamma ionization chamber as used mainly in national standards laboratories that are responsible for radionuclide metrology. The software for automatic control between the electrometer and personal computer is developed using Microsoft visual basic 4.0 and IEEE488 Interface. The reproducibility of this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is about 0.02% and the background current is 0.054+-0.024 pA. this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is calibrated by 6 standard gamma emitting radionuclides from KRISS. According to the result of this study, it is revealed that this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber counting system can be used as a secondary standard instrument for radioactivity measurement.

  16. A Study of the Adoption and Implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards in the Two EU Countries of Denmark and Ireland and New Zealand, a Non EU Country

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Claus; Schøler, Finn; Lønne, Henrik; Maingot, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The International Accounting Standards Board has as its mission the development of a singlet set of high quality standards to be applied consistently by companies globally.  The purpose of this paper is to examine the implementation process to integrate IFRS in the smaller and developed countries of Denmark, Ireland and New Zealand.  The paper examines the enablers for successful IFRS implementation, namely, Legislative changes, Accounting profession, Stock exchanges, Enforcement, Early ado...

  17. The need for the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS): some explanations for the pace of implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Whilst the impact of globalisation and harmonisation is currently being witnessed around the globe, and the need to embrace the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) is becoming increasingly evident, certain jurisdictions have been much quicker in their embrace, adoption and adaptation of International Financial Reporting Standards, than others. As well as highlighting the need for the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards, this paper also aims...

  18. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa Ann; Bahr, Juergen F.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) currently provides a Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS) as crew quarters for one crewmember in the Laboratory Module. The Russian Segment provides permanent crew quarters (Kayutas) for two crewmembers in the Service Module. The TeSS provides limited electrical, communication, and ventilation functionality. A new permanent rack sized USOS ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) is being developed. Up to four CQs can be installed into the Node 2 element to increase the ISS crewmember size to six. The new CQs will provide private crewmember space with enhanced acoustic noise mitigation, integrated radiation reduction material, controllable airflow, communication equipment, redundant electrical systems, and redundant caution and warning systems. The rack sized CQ is a system with multiple crewmember restraints, adjustable lighting, controllable ventilation, and interfaces that allow each crewmember to personalize their CQ workspace. Providing an acoustically quiet and visually isolated environment, while ensuring crewmember safety, is critical for obtaining crewmember rest and comfort to enable long term crewmember performance. The numerous human factor, engineering, and program considerations during the concept, design, and prototyping are outlined in the paper.

  19. Swap transactions as a financial tool, their recognition as international accounting standard 39 and display in financial statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kablan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Developments in international financial markets concern both developed countries and developing countries closely. The transactions of institutions arising from of commercial activities display a more complex and more risky state in line with international economic developments. The globalization trend in the world economy, the extreme fluctuations in currencies, interests and product prices have rendered closely following up the developments in financial tools mandatory. Taking advantage of derivative financial tools which increase the revenue of assets by taking future risks into consideration, impact a decrease in debt costs and has the purpose of transferring risks are of vital importance with respect to the successful management of companies. At the present time in which international commerce, free market economy and globalization has gained in importance, one of the derivative products used in risk management and have a wide implementation area is swap transactions. Swap transactions can be expressed as a financial transaction including the exchange of interest, foreign currency or both between two or more parties. Swap transactions in particular are used for purposes such as protection against risks due to interest rates and exchange rates, ensuring low cost financing, changing the debt structure and entering different markets. In this study, the generally defined characteristics of swap transactions, which have an important standing within financial risk management and have been rapidly developing in the world in recent years and their recognition according to the International Accounting Standard 39 concerning the recognition of swap transactions, which has in particular termed the study have been focused on. In the framework of the standard, interest swap and foreign currency swap implementation study were included with respect to the matter.

  20. Development in Children's Thinking about International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Mark C.; Lephardt, Noreen

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results of how children reason about international trade. Explains that open ended questions were posed to students in grades 1-11 asking why nations trade, the benefits of trade, and their understanding of barriers to trade. Concludes that teaching fundamentals of international trade can be introduced as early as grade six. (DK)

  1. Developing Successful International Faculty Led Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabregas Janeiro, Maria G.; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Rosete, Rodrigo Tello

    2012-01-01

    Faculty Led Programs are study abroad experiences led by university professors. Faculty Led Programs are considered as an opportunity for college students, especially in the United States to attend a short-term international experience (Mills, 2010). Faculty Led Program is an international experience which is different from the traditional…

  2. Application of current national and international standards during radioactive waste treatment in Vinca Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Vinca Institute is the biggest nacional institute in the field of nuclear research. In the past, it was the major place for production of radioisotopes. After the research reactor RA went into extended shot down phase and long period of stagnation, in 2004. Serbia Government, with technical assistance of IAEA, has been started the program of decommissioning of reactor that has been mentioned. Through the stages that has been planed for realisation of decommissioning, we undertook large activities for intensive sanation of radioactive waste that has been stored inside the Vinca Institute. Following the rapid development of nacional regulatory system and according to the conditions of radioactive waste, we have started to examine possibilities for clearance of some of those materials from regulatory control. Clearance from Regulatory control has been given as example since regulatory practice in Republic Serbia hasn't got the chance to meet similar situations before. The methods for treatment of radioactive waste according to national and international standards that were applied inside Vinca Institute has been presented. The procedure for clearance of milk powder has been developed by SORS department of Vinca Institute. Current situation, sampling strategy, methods for its characterisation and interaction with Nacional regulatory commission has been presented in this paper. (author)

  3. Adopting the international financial reporting standards: a positive impact on 2004 income and consolidated equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides preliminary information on the quantitative impact of transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on AREVA 2004 financial position, in accordance with AMF recommendations regarding financial communications during the transition period.The basis for preparing 2004 information on transition to the IFRS comes from: the International Accounting Standards (IAS)/IFRS, as approved by the European Union. The impact of IAS 32/39 and IFRS 4 will not be recognized in shareholders equity until January 1, 2005; AREVA anticipation of the resolution of technical issues and ongoing projects under discussion by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). Uncertainty factors on practical methods for applying certain standards and ongoing interpretations by IFRIC and regulatory organizations could impact the exactness of restatements identified at this stage. For all of these reasons, it is conceivable that the opening balance sheet at January 1, 2004, as presented in this document, will not be the balance sheet actually used to establish the consolidated financial statements for 2005. (author)

  4. Adopting the international financial reporting standards: a positive impact on 2004 income and consolidated equity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallet, O

    2005-03-01

    This document provides preliminary information on the quantitative impact of transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on AREVA 2004 financial position, in accordance with AMF recommendations regarding financial communications during the transition period.The basis for preparing 2004 information on transition to the IFRS comes from: the International Accounting Standards (IAS)/IFRS, as approved by the European Union. The impact of IAS 32/39 and IFRS 4 will not be recognized in shareholders equity until January 1, 2005; AREVA anticipation of the resolution of technical issues and ongoing projects under discussion by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). Uncertainty factors on practical methods for applying certain standards and ongoing interpretations by IFRIC and regulatory organizations could impact the exactness of restatements identified at this stage. For all of these reasons, it is conceivable that the opening balance sheet at January 1, 2004, as presented in this document, will not be the balance sheet actually used to establish the consolidated financial statements for 2005. (author)

  5. Financial Reporting Based On International Financial Reporting Standards : Challenges and Opportunities (UT Bank Ghana, Limited)

    OpenAIRE

    Adjei, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli analysoida haasteita ja mahdollisuuksia Tilinpäätöksen laatiminen perustuu International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Myös toinen Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää, missä määrin tilinpäätöksiin yhdenmukaistaminen on tärkeää kirjanpito ympäri maailmaa. Tutkimuksessa keskityttiin liittyvää teoriaa ja artikkeleita IFRS ja kirjanpito. Tutkimuksessa kvantitatiivinen Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin lähettämällä kyselylomakkeet. ...

  6. INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE MANAGEMENT OF A COMPANY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA - MARIA M?L?ESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The accounting standardization process is in progress at international and regional level, more and more countries have reached the same conclusion of enforcing high quality accounting standards like IAS / IFRS. There are various reasons for Romania adopting the international accounting referential most of them subordinated to its central aim, respectively EU accession. In our country the accounting system is subordinated to the taxation system, financing still comes prevalent from banks and very few Romanian companies are listed on foreign capital markets. Romania is an ex-communist emergent country in wich changes in the economic and political environment merely started only after the end of the communist regime in the early 1990s. Many European companies already observed that by enforcing IFRS standards they have access to international capital markets, they could reduce expenses and unroll international transactions easier. It is improbable that a financial reporting, which is not easy understood by all its users, would offer new business opportunities or additional capital.Therefore, a significant number of companies, either voluntarily enforce IFRS standards, or they are pledged by the government to do this.

  7. The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on Accounting Curriculum in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallapragada, RamMohan R.; Toma, Alfred G.; Roe, C. William

    2011-01-01

    According to the time line presently specified by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), business firms in the United States (US) should switch from the existing US accounting reporting guidelines of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by the year 2014. The US business…

  8. A Principles-Based Approach to Teaching International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Obeua

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the principles-based approach that emphasizes a "why" question by using the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) "Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting" to question and understand the basis for specific differences between IFRS and U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S.…

  9. The Effect of International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence on U. S. Accounting Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Homer L.; Waldrup, Bobby E.; Shea, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Major changes are coming to U.S. financial accounting and accounting education as U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards (IFRS) converge within the next few years. In 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) published a proposed "road map" for the potential…

  10. Development of KRISS standard reference photometer (SRP) for ambient ozone measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lee, J.

    2014-12-01

    Surface ozone has adverse impacts on human health and ecosystem. Accurate measurement of ambient ozone concentration is essential for developing effective mitigation strategies and understanding atmospheric chemistry. Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) has developed new ozone standard reference photometers (SRPs) for the calibration of ambient ozone instruments. The basic principle of the KRISS ozone SRPs is to determine the absorption of ultraviolet radiation at a specific wavelength, 253.7 nm, by ozone in the atmosphere. Ozone concentration is calculated by converting UV transmittance through the Beer-Lambert Law. This study introduces the newly developed ozone SRPs and characterizes their performance through uncertainty analysis and comparison with BIPM (International Bureau of Weights and Measures) SRP.

  11. Developing the Internal Service Quality in Organisation Y

    OpenAIRE

    Ja?rvi, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyze the quality of internal service at Organization Y by researching internal customer relationships. The objectives were to identify areas for development and strengths, as well as to make employees aware of the importance of the internal customers. The research problem concerned the extent to which internal service quality should be improved, and if so, the ways in which this could be achieved. Solutions were researched by determining the expectations a...

  12. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  13. MARC International

    OpenAIRE

    Coward, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    The cooperative development of the Library of Congress MARC II Profect and the British National Bibliography MARC II Project is described and presented as the forerunner of an international MARC network. Emphasis is placed on the necessity for a standard MARC record for international exchange and for acceptance of international standards of cataloging.

  14. International standard problem No 30 beta test V5.1 on core concrete interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition of International Standard Problem (ISP) Exercises organized by OECD-CSNI is the systematic comparison between experimental and analytical results for a given physical problem, especially in the field of nuclear safety. For the analytical simulation, only computer code should be considered which are used or planned to use in designing an licensing of nuclear plants. The calculations for a standard problem are generally performed best estimate with or without previous knowledge of the experimental results. The detailed comparison of the results permits the determination of the reliability and precision of analytical models as well as guidance for the selection of code options and input parameters. Moreover it contributes to an intensive international know how exchange between the parties involved. Suggested by OECD-CSNI and sponsored by the German Ministry for Research and Technology the open International Standard Problem No. 30 was carried out on the basis of the molten core-concrete interaction experiment BETA V 5.1. The special objective of this experiment is to investigate the influence of high Zr metal content in a steel melt interacting with a siliceous concrete crucible. Seven organization from five countries submitted their results for ISP30. They used the codes CORCON and WECHSL for the thermal-hydraulic calculation and VANESA for the aerosol release. ISP30 is the second ISP on molten core-concrete aspects. The first one was ISP24 performed in 1ts. The first one was ISP24 performed in 1988, which dealt with the SURC (Sustained Urania-Concrete) - 4 test conducted at Sandia National Laboratory. Molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) can occur during a core meltdown accident in light water reactors if the core debris penetrates the reactor vessel lower head and is deposited onto the concrete basement. This results in four major consequences which are essential for risk evaluation: - Pressure increase of containment atmosphere due to gas release, - accumulation of burnable gases in the containment, especially H2 and CO, - release of aerosol and fission products from the melt, - melting and erosion of the basement and other important internal containment structures. In test BETA V 5.1 particular interest is given to the oxidation process of Zr. While earlier chemical modelling considers Zr oxidation by gases (H2O, CO2) only the SURC-4 experiment identified the existence of a so-called condensed phase chemistry that is the Zr oxidation by reduction of SiO2. This situation leads to the following objectives of ISP30: - Contribution to the development, improvement and assessment of computer codes for MCCI and aerosol release. - Improvement of the understanding of the physical and chemical phenomena involved: thermal-hydraulic behavior of metallic melt with high zirconium content, zirconium chemistry esp. in the condensed phase, two dimensional concrete erosion, aerosol release. The comparison of the analytical and experimental data yields to the observation that, in general, the calculations give the right tendency of the experimental results. Some important variables, however, show significant discrepancies between each other and from the experimental results. Since the experimental results were known to the participants prior to the calculation the reason for the discrepancies is mainly due to deficiencies in the physical models. The calculated temperature of the metallic melt deviates from the measurement in some important aspects. While the early temperature drop of the WECHSL calculations agrees reasonably with the measured temperature shape, WECHSL over-predicts the long term freezing temperature of the metal by about 100 K. CORCON predicts a much slower temperature drop than measured. The calculated results for the melt composition differ considerably between the different calculations. The main reason is the Zr-reaction in the condensed phase, which only three participants took into account. VANESA over-predicts the early aerosol rates but gives satisfactory agreement after the depletion of Zr meta

  15. Quantitative analysis of oxide materials by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with argon as an internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is demonstrated as a quantitative technique for geochemical analysis. This study demonstrates the applicability of LIBS to multielemental analysis of minerals using argon as an internal standard. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been applied to measure elements in oxide form. In the present study, the contents of several oxides, such as Fe2O3, CaO and MgO, in geological samples from the Tierga Mine (Zaragoza, Spain) were analyzed by LIBS. An argon environment was used to eliminate interference from air at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, argon was used as an internal standard. The result was enhanced signal and enhanced linearity of the calibration curves. The Fe2O3, CaO and MgO concentrations determined by LIBS were compared with the results obtained using another analytical technique, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The concentrations found using LIBS were in good agreement with the values obtained by ICP-OES. - Highlights: ? Multi-elemental quantitative analysis of oxide material using LIBS was developed. ? A buffer gas was used to minimize the matrix effect and as an internal standard. ? The LIBS results were compared with ICP, successfully

  16. Quantitative analysis of oxide materials by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with argon as an internal standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasheras, R.J.; Bello-Gálvez, C.; Anzano, J.M., E-mail: janzano@unizar.es

    2013-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is demonstrated as a quantitative technique for geochemical analysis. This study demonstrates the applicability of LIBS to multielemental analysis of minerals using argon as an internal standard. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been applied to measure elements in oxide form. In the present study, the contents of several oxides, such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO and MgO, in geological samples from the Tierga Mine (Zaragoza, Spain) were analyzed by LIBS. An argon environment was used to eliminate interference from air at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, argon was used as an internal standard. The result was enhanced signal and enhanced linearity of the calibration curves. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO and MgO concentrations determined by LIBS were compared with the results obtained using another analytical technique, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The concentrations found using LIBS were in good agreement with the values obtained by ICP-OES. - Highlights: ? Multi-elemental quantitative analysis of oxide material using LIBS was developed. ? A buffer gas was used to minimize the matrix effect and as an internal standard. ? The LIBS results were compared with ICP, successfully.

  17. The global labour standards controversy: critical issues for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit; Zammit, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Overview For some time now, the governments of a few advanced countries,as well as their unions and some parts of the business sector, have been pressing proposals to establish multilateral rules permitting punitive trade measures to be taken against countries deemed to be failing to uphold core labour standards. The countries most likely to be arraigned would be developing countries. The latter have,however, firmly rebutted these initiatives, which they argue are protectionist both in...

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION OF TURMERIC CREAM BY HPTLC

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhya Rani; Devang Khamar; Saleemulla Khan; Makhija, Inder K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate turmeric cream and to standardize it by HPTLC using pure curcumin as a bioactive chemical marker. It was developed by incorporating extract of curcuma longa (rhizome) in a cream base by a w/o emulsification technique. Preformulation and drug-excipients interactions were studied by HPTLC finger printing. Chromatography was performed on silica gel 60 F254 TLC plate using chloroform: ethanol: acetic acid ...

  19. The IAEA Standards for the Radioactive Discharge Control: Present Status and Future Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the organization within the UN family with a statutory mandate to establish standards for the protection of health and environment against ionizing radiation, and to provide for the application of those standards. As part of these functions, the IAEA periodically reviews the status and continued relevance of the standards to the needs of its Member States. Recent work on the development of standards for the radioactive discharge control includes development of practical guidance for setting discharge limits, elaboration on methodology for the radiation protection of non-human species, and preparation of guidance on environmental monitoring for radiation protection purposes. Development of these safety documents is influenced by recent international and regional tendencies, based on social initiatives, to reduce radioactive discharges substantially below levels justified by radiological criteria. The IAEA has developed preliminary guidance on practical aspects of setting discharge limits, which included a review of national regulatory experience in this regard. This review suggested that societal pressures and regulatory practicalities results in discharge controls that were likely to be more restrictive that those that would be implied by formal optimization techniques. Regulatory review of authorizations includes a number of considerations, including predicted doses to members of the critical group, but the suitability of abatement forms a greater part in the decision-making process than allowed for in previous safety guidance. The IAEA has, in recent years, established a programme of work specifically addressing the development of safety standards on assessing the impact of ionizing radiation on non-human species, in co-operation with other relevant international organizations. The main issues arising will be summarised in the paper with the main focus on an exploration of the possible form of future regulatory criteria; the application of biota dose rate data and derived activity concentrations, and their relationship to discharge regulation and derived criteria for human protection. The new Safety Guide on strategies for the Monitoring of Radionuclides in the Environment has been recently developed by the IAEA. Its aim is to establish strategies for radiation monitoring at the source and in the environment coherent with contemporary radiation protection principles. The strategy of monitoring has been developed in relation to: a) control of radionuclide discharges under practice conditions, and b) intervention, such as in cases of nuclear or radiological emergencies or past contamination of areas with long-lived radionuclides. Practical guidance specific to different facilities and situations is being developed in a number of accompanying Safety Reports, both of generic and facility-specific nature. (author)

  20. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development, Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen. Steve

    2010-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." The proposed future C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system, referred to as the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS), is anticipated to increase overall air-to-ground data communications systems capacity by using a new spectrum (i.e., not very high frequency (VHF)). Although some critical services could be supported, AeroMACS will also target noncritical services, such as weather advisory and aeronautical information services as part of an airborne System Wide Information Management (SWIM) program. AeroMACS is to be designed and implemented in a manner that will not disrupt other services operating in the C-band. This report defines the AeroMACS concepts of use, high-level system requirements, and architecture; the performance of supporting system analyses; the development of AeroMACS test and demonstration plans; and the establishment of an operational AeroMACS capability in support of C-band aeronautical data communications standards to be advanced in both international (International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO) and national (RTCA) forums. This includes the development of system parameter profile recommendations for AeroMACS based on existing Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE) 802.16e- 2009 standards

  1. Procedures and Arrangement for Dispute Resolution Management in International Construction Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu Ikea Chinyere

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with issues relating to procedures and arrangement dispute resolution and management in international construction development projects. In the last twenty five years, Chinese economic environmenthas grown by leap high and bounds and from strength to strength with numerous international structural engineers, architects and companies benefiting from the challenges and prospects of international construction development projects in China. But on the other hand, some construction development projects are struggling to break even in the monotonous disputes, conflicts and unsuccessful projects. Habitually the disputes are prevalent in many international development projects because in most situations the participants / actors find it difficult to clearly comprehend to the local complexity, intricate way of life or adjust to the administrative arrangement in such a limited period. Since Chinese administration arrangement makes provision for an efficient and standard approach to local construction development dispute resolution and management, international construction development dispute could be resolved amicably by this administration arrangement more effectively rather than resolving it through the medium of international adjudication, arbitration or international court. The paper highlighted a dispute resolution and management approach to international development projects based on the context of Chinese administration arrangement, whereby dispute management, dispute arbitration and procedures are discussed accordingly. Thus, this paper also illustrated a valuable and efficient dispute resolution technique together with other issues relating to arbitrators and local government authorities. However, dispute management is not the final solution or mandatory method in resolving construction development dispute, the administration arrangement might offer positive impact on construction development project management. Presently, in the Chinese construction development industry,dispute management is still a distinctive formula and favourable alternative in dispute resolution of international construction development projects in China.

  2. Development of international law concerning nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short overview is given of the most important international conventions relating to civil liability for damage to, or loss of, life of persons or property, caused by nuclear incidents during the operation of stationary and non-stationary nuclear installations or transport of nuclear material. In accord with the international provisions, in the German Democratic Republic too, nuclear operators are exclusively liable for such damage unless it has been caused intentionally by the injury party. (author)

  3. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. International standards for computers/manikins; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Computer manikin ni kansuru kokusai hyojun kikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Through the development of computer manikins (CM) which assess human adaptability to products and environments, a draft for international standardization was worked out to propose to ISO. A draft for the international standardization was presented to ISO through a development of `a structure model` changing based on human attributes, a study of `a motion model` enabling changes in posture and movement, a study of `an evaluation model` evaluating attainment ranges and ecodynamic loads, and a development of `computer functions` realizing the above-mentioned functions. The development of CM having the following characteristics: a function to reproduce `the structure model` based on the ISO7250 human body dimensional measuring values which were regulated in items for the human body dimensional measuring, a function to change posture/movement based on the joint movable range data, a function to evaluate geometrical human adaptability such as attainment ranges. As a plug-in to Autodesk Mechanical Desktop 2.0, the above-mentioned functions were realized, and the modular structure platform was constructed which enables the wide-range cross-industry option and functional expansion by the advance of CM. 7 refs., 41 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Standardized cell samples for midIR technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Lena; Rommel, Christina E.; Kemper, Björn; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    The application of midIR spectroscopy towards human cell and tissue samples is impaired by the need for technical solutions and lacking sample standards for technology development. We here present the standardization of stable test samples for the continuous development and testing of novel optical system components. We have selected cell lines representing the major cellular skin constituents keratinocytes and fibroblasts (NIH-3T3, HaCaT). In addition, two skin cancer cell types (A-375 and SK-MEL-28 cells) were analyzed. Cells were seeded on CaF2 substrates and measured dried and under aqueous medium as well as fixated and unfixated. Several independent cell preparations were analyzed with an FTIR spectrometer in the wave number range from 1000 - 4000 cm-1. The obtained data demonstrate that fixed and dehydrated cells on CaF2 can be stored in pure ethanol for several weeks without significant losses in quality of the spectral properties. The established protocol of cell seeding on CaF2 substrates, chemical fixation, dehydration, storage under ethanol and air-drying is suitable for the production of reliable midIR standards. The retrieved spectra demonstrate that fixed cells on CaF2 can be prepared reproducibly; with stable midIR spectral properties over several weeks and properties mimicking reliable unfixed cells. Moreover, the fixated samples on CaF2 show clear differences in the cell type specific spectra that can be identified by principle component analysis. In summary, the standardized cell culture samples on CaF2 substrates are suitable for the development of a midIR device and the optimization of the specific midIR spectra.

  5. The evaluation of radiation instrumentation used for the detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material. According to the standards of the American National Standards Institute and the International Electrotechnical Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last quarter of 2002, an effort was started to develop performance requirements for radiation instrumentation used for the detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material. Coordinated by the US National Institute of Science and Technology, a team was formed to establish writing committees for the development of these requirements as American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards. The core of the new area was developed as ANSI N42, Homeland Security Instruments. A series of standards were developed followed by testing and evaluation (T and E) protocols that would be used for specific testing. Four US national laboratories provided T and E support, and work commenced to test instruments provided by manufacturers at no cost. During this time, discussions began regarding the formation of a new work group within the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This new work group would be located within TC 45/SC 45B which addresses radiation protection instrumentation. The new work group, B15, also began developing international standards to address the same instrument types. Since 2006, three IEC standards concerning the detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material were published and four more are now in development. A summary of the most important characteristics of these IEC standards is presented. (author)

  6. International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) Benefits, Obstacles and Intrigues for Implementation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikpefan, Ochei Ailemen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available IFRS is International Financial Reporting System and International Accounting Standard Board - (IASB) provided the framework for its working. IFRS adopted by IASB has gained worldwide acceptance amongst many countries and some listed companies in European nations have embraced it. IFRS employs a uniform, single consistent accounting framework that is gravitating towards General Accepted Accounting Practice (GAPP) in the future. IFRS since its introduction in 2001 had provided uniform accounting in financial reporting which would enable investors to interpreted financial statements with minimum effort. Other countries, including Canada and India are expected to transit to IFRS by 2011. The Nigerian Accounting Standard Board (NASB) is not expected to lag behind in the implementation. This paper looks at the benefits of adopting IFRS, obstacles and intrigues expected from the implementation of IFRS. The article also analyzed the requirements that would assists in the implementation of IFRS in Nigeria. Using content analysis method, the paper amongst others recommended a continuous research in order to harmonize and converge with the international standards through mutual international understanding of corporate objectives and the building of human capacity that will support the preparation of financial statements in organization.

  7. New AICPA standards aid accounting for the costs of internal-use software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, R W; Meeting, D T; Klingshirn, R G

    1999-05-01

    Statement of Position (SOP) No. 98-1, "Accounting for the Costs of Computer Software Developed or Obtained for Internal Use," issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants in March 1998, provides financial managers with guidelines regarding which costs involved in developing or obtaining internal-use software should be expensed and which should be capitalized. The SOP identifies three stages in the development of internal-use software: the preliminary project stage, the application development stage, and the postimplementation-operation stage. The SOP provides that all costs incurred during the preliminary project stage should be expensed as incurred. During the application development stage, costs associated with developing or obtaining the software should be capitalized, while costs associated with preparing data for use within the new system should be expensed. Costs incurred during the postimplementation-operation stage, typically associated with training and application maintenance, should be expensed. PMID:10557991

  8. Advancement of human rights standards for LGBT people through the perspective of international human rights law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cviklová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue how various religious and legal systems cope with current developments that undermine binary opposition of man and woman including definition of their sexual and cultural identities. More concretely, it tries to explain, how concrete societies and legislations deal with claims of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals (LGBT that claim broader recognition. It elucidates differences among Western provisions and policies of the relevant legal bodies such as the General Assembly of the United Nations, the European Court of Human Rights and the Supreme Court concerning these issues. It also points to the nature and real impact of international civil society forces such as Yogyakarta principles that formulate extension of rights concerning lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals. On the basis of comparison of various legal and religious discourses it explains current practices of direct and indirect discrimination and in some non-European national systems even extra-judicial killings, torture and ill-treatment, sexual assault, rape and other violations of human rights. When emphasizing substantial differences among current European states and non-European ones concerning policies toward lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (LGBT, it shows current tendencies of advancement in the field by common policies of Council of Europe, recent judgments issued by the European Court of Human Rights as well as civil society efforts such as Yogyakarta principles. Swedish standards have been introduced in order to emphasize existing progressive attitudes to LGBT people concerning gay marriages and adoption procedures.

  9. International performance-oriented packaging standards adopted in the united states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On January 1, 1991, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) initiated a transition to adopting a modified version of current international standards for packaging and transporting hazardous materials and hazardous wastes. This transition permits a 5-year phase-in period that will impact all phases of hazardous material transportation including material classification and description, packaging for shipment, and hazard communication standards. These changes are being enacted through the DOT Federal Docket HM-181, 'Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards.' These regulatory standards will have dramatic impact on nearly 5 billion tons of hazardous materials transported within the United States each year. This paper summarizes the principal elements of the new DOT regulations, the latest implementation schedule and impacts on U.S. shipping activities, and discusses outstanding issues that remain to be solved through the next 5 years. (author)

  10. International comparisons of Foundation Phase number domain mathematics knowledge and practice standards

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anja, Human; Marthie, van der Walt; Barbara, Posthuma.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor mathematics performance in schools is both a national and an international concern. Teachers ought to be equipped with relevant subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge as one way to address this problem. However, no mathematics knowledge and practice standards have as yet bee [...] n defined for the preparation of Foundation Phase student teachers in South Africa. To make recommendations for the drafting of such standards for final year Foundation Phase teachers, we compared different policy documents. We performed a document analysis on policy documents from South Africa, The Netherlands, Australia and North Carolina (United States of America), all of which addressed the number domain in mathematics. Our findings indicate that knowledge standards ought to include subject matter knowledge, while practice standards require pedagogical content knowledge, noting that neither of these are fulfilled in the education system in South Africa at present.

  11. International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards. Tabs

  12. Starworld: Preparing Accountants for the Future: A Case-Based Approach to Teach International Financial Reporting Standards Using ERP Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Joseph M.; Savino, Christopher J.; Parashac, Paul; Hosler, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    International Financial Reporting Standards now constitute an important part of educating young professional accountants. This paper looks at a case based process to teach International Financial Reporting Standards using integrated Enterprise Resource Planning software. The case contained within the paper can be used within a variety of courses…

  13. Approach toward development of release standards for D and D cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of materials containing residual radioactivity from a controlled environment in decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities has been problematic. The primary impediment to such a release is the lack of a suitable framework within which release standards can be developed. The concept of clearance for radioactive materials was recently introduced by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (l). This concept is being evaluated by the international regulatory communities as a basis for setting standards for releasing from control solid materials containing residual radioactivity. Accordingly, both the IAEA (2) and the European Commission (EC) (3) have recently proposed clearance standards. In the US, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has just begun its rule-making process on clearance. The term ''clearance'' was introduced as a regulatory process for releasing radioactive materials posing negligible risks. A trivial risk level has been determined to be a 10-6 to 10-7 annual risk to an exposed individual, and a population risk of no more than 0.1 for an annual practice. Under these strict constraints, exposure scenarios would be developed to estimate potential doses to affected individuals. Such scenarios may account for processing, disposal, and product end-use of materials. This paper discusses these scenarios and also describes the technical basis for deriving release levels under the suggested risk for dose constraints

  14. An analysis of capital punishment in Uganda in light of international standards and comparable case law

    OpenAIRE

    Karugonjo, Rose

    2003-01-01

    "The study, considering international law and comparable case law on the subject in Africa, argues that Uganda does not comply with international standards in the use of the death penalty for countries that retain it. It h penalty in Uganda can be challenged. It is argued that it may not be easy to challenge the death penalty in Uganda as unconstitutional, but it can certainly be confronted based on the failure to comply with procedural safeguards for those on death row at the domestic, regio...

  15. Development theory and changes in the international system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Alonso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Development theory has undergone several changes over the last two decades. However, the international reality has changed more profoundly. The increased heterogeneity of the developing world, the diverse experience of economic success among some developing countries, the new geography of global poverty, the increased multipolarity of the international system and the wider spheres of international public assets are just some of these changes. Thus, it is necessary to think again about the development process and the strategies that are required to promote economic and social change. This article represents an attempt to contribute to that reflection.

  16. Can context justify an ethical double standard for clinical research in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landes Megan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The design of clinical research deserves special caution so as to safeguard the rights of participating individuals. While the international community has agreed on ethical standards for the design of research, these frameworks still remain open to interpretation, revision and debate. Recently a breach in the consensus of how to apply these ethical standards to research in developing countries has occurred, notably beginning with the 1994 placebo-controlled trials to reduce maternal to child transmission of HIV-1 in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. The design of these trials sparked intense debate with the inclusion of a placebo-control group despite the existence of a 'gold standard' and trial supporters grounded their justifications of the trial design on the context of scarcity in resource-poor settings. Discussion These 'contextual' apologetics are arguably an ethical loophole inherent in current bioethical methodology. However, this convenient appropriation of 'contextual' analysis simply fails to acknowledge the underpinnings of feminist ethical analysis upon which it must stand. A more rigorous analysis of the political, social, and economic structures pertaining to the global context of developing countries reveals that the bioethical principles of beneficence and justice fail to be met in this trial design. Conclusion Within this broader, and theoretically necessary, understanding of context, it becomes impossible to justify an ethical double standard for research in developing countries.

  17. Survey on the Recent Movements of the International Standard about High-Voltage Load Break Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Jae; Kim, Maeng Hyun; Park, Byung Rak; Shin, Young June [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea); Kho, Hee Seok [Kyungnam University (Korea); Na, Dong Chae [KEPCO (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    IEC 265-1(1983) which covers the testing requirements on the High-voltage load break switches was newly republished as IEC 60265-1(1998). And a lot of parts related to the switching performance was amended and added newly. The most important item among these amended parts will be gas pressure of the SF{sub 6} which is used as the arc extinguishing medium to increase durability, stability and current-breaking capability of the switches. This paper suggesters the differences among IEC 265-1(1983), IEC 60265(1998) and KEPCO standards, and proposed new testing method compatible with international standard. (author). 5 refs., 9 tabs.

  18. Development of Integration in Manufacturing : Interoperability of CAD Standards and Robotics in CIME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Torben; Trostmann, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Current international developments in the broad field of Product Data Technology are advancing rapidly and are leading up to new levels of technology in product model definition, product model communications, enterprise integration and cooperation. These developments will be of strategic significance to all manufacturing industries.International standardization based on the product model definition standard STEP (ISO10303) is playing a key role in promoting a modern approach to Product Data Technology. The initial release of STEP, consisting of twelve essential parts, has recently been approved and published as International Standard. The introduction of STEP based software and its application in industry is thus on the verge of being broadly realized.In this initial release, STEP mainly addresses geometric and kinematic product model data properties whichare sufficient 'static' model features for covering the area of conventional CAD design. However, the developing areas of advanced CAD design, simulation, and program-ming of dynamic systems are not yet covered by STEP. A static model description is not sufficient to cover such model features, and this implies for instance, that STEP must be extended to cope with descriptions of functional behavior of products.In the robotics area, Computer Aided Robotics (CAR) systems for design, off-line programming, and simulation are currently increasing their model features with new topics, such as multi-body dynamics, realistic motion planning and control. From dealing with pure geometric motions of mechanisms described by shape and kinematics, these computer based systems can now handle more complete system models in order to obtain more reliable designs, and provide simulation results for more feasible robot off-line programming.

  19. EPA's development of high level waste disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A representative of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) describes the objectives of the national program to develop disposal methods for high-level radioactive waste and to define EPA's role in the new multi-agency approach. EPA's contributions include environmental standards for the selection, operation, and closing of nuclear waste storage sites. Its charge, as expressed in new rulings, is to see that waste disposal is prompt and effective, and that containment and assurance requirements are complementary. Enforcement comes through the Nuclear Regulatory Commission rather than the EPA. The author reviews several issues raised during the public comment period because of concern over public health and safety

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION OF SELF- CONFIDENCE SCALE IN MATHEMATICS

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchi Manchanda; Ramana Sood

    2014-01-01

    This paper explains the procedure of developing and standardizing a self-confidence scale in mathematics to measure the level of self-confidence in mathematics among school students falling in the age-group of 10-12 years. The scale has been constructed by using Likert's method of summation to obtain a five point judgement on each item. After critical study of the related literature of self-confidence, four dimensions viz. self-satisfaction, self-composed, optimism and self-be...

  1. Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Implementing Procedures Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures.

  2. Developments in standard model: electroweak theory/phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors review new developments in four topics. Higgs detection D in the intermediate mass range (100 GeV 2M/sub W/) is discussed in detail. It is found that the backgrounds are a serious problem in hadronic colliders except for purely leptonic signals, which unfortunately have low event rates. Recent work on topological solutions to standard model, with new states in TeV range are discussed. Large rate of BB vector production at SSC may allow determination of rare modes of B decay. The fourth topic concerns the feasibility of detecting Horizontal gauge bosons at SSC. 17 references, 9 figures

  3. Development And Standardization Of An Emotional Confidence Scale (ecs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakama Sundari . T

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Emotion is the generic term for subjective, conscious experience that is characterized primarily by psycho physiological expressions, biological reactions, and mental states. Confidence is generally described as a state of being certain either that a hypothesis or prediction is correct or that a chosen course of action is the best or most effective. Self-confidence is having confidence in oneself. The study of emotional confidence is a significant one and for which the investigator has decided to develop and standardize a scale to measure it.

  4. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: : Cases With Classification Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-SØrensen, Fin

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Case scenarios that were submitted to the committee are presented with the responses as well as the thought processes considered by the committee members. The importance of this documentation is to clarify some points as well as update the SCI community regarding possible revisions that will be needed in the future based upon some rules that require clarification.

  5. Dosimetric and exposure reference levels in national and international guidelines/standards for low-frequency electric & magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contemporary guidelines and standards on exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields consider- that induced currents/electric fields inside the human body (principally neural tissues) are relevant dosimetric quantities for setting protective limits against undesirable electrostimulation potentially leading to adverse effects. Additional consideration is given for surface electric charge effects such as discharges and contact currents for exposure to electric fields. These effects, with known interaction mechanisms providing sufficient basis for deriving human exposure limits, differ from effects connecting with the reported association of cancer or other illness with chronic exposure to ambient magnetic fields or proximity to electrical infrastructures The latter are considered associated with proposed- mechanisms that presently do not provide sufficient basis for deriving protective exposure limits. The International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has published relevant guidelines in 1998 and in 2010, and the Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers (IEEE) has published its first standard StdC95.6 in 2002 and reaffirmed in 2007. In Australia, there was NHMRC* 'Interim guidelines on limits of exposure to 50/60Hz electric & magnetic fields' in 1989, and the Australian Radiation Protection & Nuclear Safety Agency (APPANSA) released for public consultation an ELF4 draft standard 'Exposure Limits for Electric & Magnetic Fields - ID Hz to 3 kHz' in 2006&. Its rationale is similar to the international documents with added information on precautionary approach and compliant verification. This paper reviews the historical development and presents a comparison of limits specified in the contemporary national and international standards/ guidelines. Although having a similar principal rationale, there are significant differences in specified dosimetric and exposure reference levels due to variation in available experimental data on effect thresholds, dosimetry & modelling, and in methodology for selection of safety acceptance margins. Discussion will also be given on future R&D that may help providing further data to improve these numeric differences.

  6. Investigations on international standardization of environmental management systems. 3; Kankyo kanri system no kokusai hyojunka ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Japan as an ISO member country identifies the state of discussions in the environmental management standard deliberation committee at ISO. Investigations were performed on international standardization of environmental management systems for the purpose of participating and cooperating in preparing and establishing international standards related to environmental management, and playing part in working, solving and improving environmental problems. Under the circumstances that environmental problems are drawing worldwide interest, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has been carrying out since 1993 deliberations on environmental management standards to institutionalize environmental management rules to check effects of business activities on the environment. The International Organization for Standardization/Environmental Management Technical Committee (ISO/TC207) was installed, at which series number of 1400 order was allotted for environmental management related standards, and major standards have come to a final stage of standard formulation at the TC207 Oslo conference in June 1995. In Japan, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry has established an environmental management standard deliberation committee composed of people of experience or academic standing to advance discussions on how the environmental management should be in business entities through deliberations on ISO standards.

  7. A sociology of international research partnerships for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Zingerli, C

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the partnership concept has not only shaped international development assistance but also the organisation of knowledge production processes in development research. This article looks beyond the rhetoric of the partnership concept by discussing institutional conditions and individual choices of North-South research collaborations in an international development research network. By drawing on ideas of the Sociology of Knowledge and by distinguishing between three lenses on p...

  8. The Adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards in Portugal: Can Expected Costs be Reduced?

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Paulo A. P.; Moreira, Jose? A. C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we use a cost-benefit framework to discuss some of the expected effects related to the Portuguese adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Given the circumstances underlying this implementation, we anticipate that the overall net result following an analysis of costs and benefits will be negative. Therefore, we also examine what seems to be the causal factor behind this outcome and a potential way of reducing the net cost of adopting the IFRS. The cost...

  9. Accreditation under the International Standard ISO 15189: Experience of a Genetics Laboratory in DNA Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Catarina; Cardoso, Ana; A Sampaio, Daniel; Carpinteiro, Dina; Mendonça, Joana; Duarte, Sílvia; Barreiro, Paula; Torgal, Helena; Isidro, Glória; Vieira, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Health care is to some extent influenced by the results of laboratory tests. In order to provide the best care for the patient, laboratories must seek to achieve high levels of quality and competence. International Standard ISO 15189 specifies these requirements and may be used by laboratories to perform accredited genetic tests of materials derived from the human body. Here we describe the procedures to establish Accreditation of DNA sequencing in our laboratory and the first A...

  10. Compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards by Listed Companies in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Marfo Yiadom; Wisdom Atsunyo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which companies listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) comply withInternational Financial Reporting Standards’ (IFRSs) presentation and disclosure requirement. With the aid of achecklist, an index of compliance was devised to quantify the level of compliance. This was applied to the 2010financial statement of 31 companies listed on the GSE. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the extent ofcompliance by companies categorised in line with industry cl...

  11. Review of practical implementation issues relating to international financial reporting standards: Case study on Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Eberle, Reto; et al,

    2008-01-01

    This case study presents the context, application and enforcement of international financial reporting standards (IFRS) in Switzerland. It begins with an introduction to the Swiss legal framework by presenting the requirements for accounting, reporting, and auditing. It then examines the application and enforcement of IFRS in Switzerland, particularly for listed companies. It concludes with a summary and an overview of expected amendments to the legal framework. The study no...

  12. Connecting worlds: the translation of international auditing standards into post-Soviet audit practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mennicken, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the use and circulation of nternational auditing standards within a large post-Soviet Russian audit firm, as it faces up to the challenges of international harmonisation. It describes this process as one of ‘connecting worlds’ and translation. In a detailed field study based investigation, it traces various attempts to articulate and link Soviet and post-Soviet worlds, old and new imagined audit worlds. The paper underscores the fragile and precarious nature of interna...

  13. Price stability and inflation persistence during the international gold standard :the Scandinavian case

    OpenAIRE

    Grytten, Ola Honningdal; Hunnes, Arngrim

    2009-01-01

    In the 1870s the three Scandinavian countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden formed the Scandinavian Currency Union. Both the adoption of gold and the monetary union were supposed to lead to price stability in and between these countries. By drawing on new indices of consumer prices the present paper offers an examination of inflation dynamics, defined as price stability and inflation persistence, in the periphery of Scandinavia during the heyday of the international gold standard.

  14. Multicenter validation of the analytical accuracy of Salmonella PCR: towards an international standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    As part of a major international project for the validation and standardization of PCR for detection of five major food-borne pathogens, four primer sets specific for Salmonella species were evaluated in-house for their analytical accuracy (selectivity and detection limit) in identifying 43 Salmonella spp. and 47 non-Salmonella strains. The most selective primer set was found to be 139-141 (K. Rahn, S. A. De Grandis, R. C. Clarke, S. A. McEwen, J. E. Galan, C. Ginocchio, R. Curtiss 111, and C. L. Gyles, Mol. Cell. Probes 6:271-279, 1992), which targets the invA gene. An extended determination of selectivity by using 364 strains showed that the inclusivity was 99.6% and the exclusivity was 100% for the invA primer set. To indicate possible PCR inhibitors derived from the sample DNA, an internal amplification control (IAC), which was coamplified with the invA target gene, was constructed. In the presence of 300 DNA copies of the IAC, the detection probability for primer set 139-141 was found to be 100% when a cell suspension containing 10(4) CFU/ml was used as the template in the PCR (50 CFU per reaction). The primer set was further validated in an international collaborative study that included 16 participating laboratories. Analysis with 28 coded ("blind") DNA samples revealed an analytical accuracy of 98%. Thus, a simple PCR assay that is specific for Salmonella spp. and amplifies a chromosomal DNA fragment detected by gel electrophoresis was established through extensive validation and is proposed as an international standard. This study addresses the increasing demand of quality assurance laboratories for standard diagnostic methods and presents findings that can facilitate the international comparison and exchange of epidemiological data.

  15. A schedule for fusion research development and international collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reach their goal of commercial fusion power reactors, development must proceed in a series of basic stages. Each step is expected to incur an increased level of cost. The cost-sharing benefits of international collaboration will become increasingly important and attractive with each successive step preceding commercialization. Outstanding examples of implementation of international collaboration in fusion include the JET project and the INTOR workshop which lend encouragement for the prospects for international collaboration in fusion in the future. (author)

  16. Developing Internal Communication in Fast-changing Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Rajala, Inkeri

    2011-01-01

    Developing internal communication in fast-changing organizations is a current topic, which seems to exercise the minds of corporate people in different positions. Well-functioning internal communication and business success seem to be strongly linked. It motivates people, and only people who are motivated and enthusiastic about their work are able to perform well in their jobs and to secure the success of their employers. The purpose of this study was to increase the understanding of internal...

  17. International Labor Mobility and Child Work in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Paoli, Anna; Mendola, Mariapia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the labor market effect of international migration on child work in countries of origin. We use an original cross-country survey dataset, which combines information on international migration with detailed individual-level data on child labor at age 5-14 in a wide range of developing countries. By exploiting both within- and cross-country variation and controlling for country fixed effects, we find a strong empirical regularity about the role of international mobility ...

  18. Collective Success or Collective Failure? : The Sialkot Football Manufacturing Industry’s Response to International Labor Standards Pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum

    In this article, I make a contribution to the literature on how industrial clusters in developing countries respond to corporate responsibility demands from international buyers in Europe and North America. I outline an analytical framework that integrates insights from the global value chain, industrial cluster, and corporate social responsibility literatures with the aim of explaining why collective cluster action through industry associations and/or public private partnerships succeed or fail in facilitating cluster-wide compliance with CSR standards. I then use this framework to analyze a case study of soccer village project to learn how various attempts at facilitating joint CSR action in the Pakistani football manufacturing have consistently failed in addressing international CSR compliance demands. I conclude that this form of collective failure – along with technological changes, lack of innovation, and government failure - can partly explain why Sialkot has been marginalized in terms of its overall share of world football manufacturing in the last decade.

  19. Choosing a standard reactor: International competition and domestic politics in Chinese nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has ambitious plans to expand its nuclear power capacity. One of the policy goals that high-level policymakers have desired is to base the nuclear program on a standardized reactor design. However, this has not materialized so far. By examining its nuclear reactor choices for individual projects, we argue that China’s policymaking process has been greatly influenced by international competition and domestic politics. Multiple international nuclear vendors are intent upon maintaining their respective niches in the expanding Chinese reactor market, and they have used various forms of economic and political pressure to achieve their objectives. On the other hand, China’s policymaking process is fragmented and the shifting power balances among powerful domestic actors do not allow a fixed path to be followed. Further, because of the high costs and potential profits involved, nuclear reactor choices in China have been driven not just by technical considerations but also by foreign and trade policy objectives. All of these make it unlikely that China will standardize the reactor type it constructs in the near future. -- Highlights: ? China’s nuclear power policymaking has been fragmented and without central control. ? Multiple domestic actors have pursued independent agendas. ? International nuclear vendors have intensely competed for Chinese reactor contracts. ? Economic, political and foreign policy goals have driven reactor contract decisions. ? China is unlikely to construct only a standardized reactor design.

  20. Evaluation of internal standards for the analysis of ignitable liquids in fire debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Amanda K; Basara, Gene J; Sandercock, P Mark L

    2009-03-01

    An evaluation of eight compounds for use as an internal standard in fire debris analysis was conducted. Tests were conducted on tetrachloroethylene, chlorobenzene, n-octylbenzene, 3-phenyltolune, and deuterated compounds toluene-d8, styrene-d8, naphthalene-d8, and diphenyl-d10 to measure the extraction efficiency of each compound in the presence of an interfering volatile compound (carbon disulfide). Other tests were conducted to evaluate whether or not the presence of an ignitable liquid or pyrolysis/combustion products from fire debris would interfere with the identification of these compounds when used as an internal standard. The results showed that while any of the eight compounds could be used as an internal standard in fire debris analysis, the more volatile compounds (toluene-d8, tetrachloroethylene, chlorobenzene, and styrene-d8) showed better extraction efficiencies at room temperature than when heated to 60 degrees C. Each of the less volatile compounds (naphthalene-d8, diphenyl-d10, n-octylbenzene, and 3-phenyltolune) performed well during extraction at 60 degrees C, while naphthalene-d8 showed better extraction efficiency in the presence of competing volatiles when extracted at room temperature. PMID:19175707

  1. Global, National, and Local Goals: English Language Policy Implementation in an Indonesian International Standard School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Haryanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the achievement of students in math and science subjects as the impact of using English as a medium of instruction at an international standard school. A questionnaire was used as a research instrument to 190 students at one international standard school in Jambi Province, Indonesia. A focus group discussion (FGD approach was undertaken to validate and verify the data gathered through the questionnaire and clarify some issues raised in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was found that the students’ demographic profile, attitude toward English and grades in math and science subjects were significantly related with their academic achievement. However, students’ perception on methods and techniques was not significantly related with their academic achievement in English, math, and the science subjects. The result showed that the implementation of English as a medium of instruction was not done well in the international standard school. This is perhaps due to the difficulty of learning science and math in English. This study provided information for policy makers, school leaders, researchers, and teacher educators to understand how the policy is implemented at the school level. The challenges of attempting too ambitious linguistic and academic goals in the school were discussed as were policy implications and future research.

  2. Earth Sciences' Capacity Building In Developing Countries through International Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, W.

    2007-12-01

    Within the framework of "traditional" programmes, like the joint UNESCO-IUGS "International Geoscience Programme" (IGCP), the "International Continental Scientific Drilling Program" (ICDP), the "Integrated Ocean Drilling Program" (IODP) or the "International Lithosphere Programme" (ILP) numerous opportunities are provided to strengthen postgraduate geo-scientific education of representatives from developing countries. Recently established new initiatives, such as the "International Year of Planet Earth" (IYPE) or UNESCO's Global Network of Geoparks complement these in addition as important components to UNESCO's 'Education for All' programme, notably the youth, as well as to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005 - 2014). The "International Year of Planet Earth" is a joint initiative of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and UNESCO. The central aims and ambitions of the Year, proclaimed for 2008 by the UN General Assembly, are to demonstrate the great potential of the Earth sciences in building a safer, healthier and wealthier society, and to encourage more widespread and effective application of this potential by targeting politicians and other decision-makers, educational systems, and the general public. Promotion of international collaboration, as well as capacity building and training of students of developing countries in all fields of Earth Sciences seem to be the most appropriate way to meet also the challenges of the IYPE. Another opportunity to improve the international recognition of Earth Scinces, also in developing countries, is the use of Geoparks as a promotional tool for education and popularization of Earth Sciences. Geoparks, notably those included in the European and/or Global Geoparks Networks, provide an international platform of cooperation and exchange between experts and practitioners in geological heritage matters, and are as such excellent instruments in highlighting Earth sciences. The general goal of Geoparks to integrate the preservation of geological heritage into a strategy for regional sustainable socio-economic and cultural development serves ideally the overall objective of the "International Year of Planet Earth" with its subtitle "Earth Sciences for Society". International geo-related cooperation projects, run under the umbrella of international NGOs (like IUGS, IUGG, IGU, IUSS and others) are often supported financially by international and national funding agencies. Out of the broad international spectrum, some German projects devoted to developing countries - summer schools, training and capacity building courses in Earth Sciences, funded by the DFG (German Research Foundation), DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service), InWent (Capacity Building International, Germany) and others - are selected as examples in improving the geo-research capacity and education of developing countries.

  3. Fixation of Radiological Contamination; International Collaborative Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer

    2013-03-01

    A cooperative international project was conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to integrate a capture coating with a high performance atomizing process. The initial results were promising, and lead to further trials. The somewhat longer testing and optimization process has resulted in a product that could be demonstrated in the field to reduce airborne radiological dust and contamination.

  4. An Argument against Using Standardized Test Scores for Placement of International Undergraduate Students in English as a Second Language (ESL) Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhan, Kateryna

    2013-01-01

    Development and administration of institutional ESL placement tests require a great deal of financial and human resources. Due to a steady increase in the number of international students studying in the United States, some US universities have started to consider using standardized test scores for ESL placement. The English Placement Test (EPT)…

  5. Development and implementation of international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique institution of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards has been commented on at length by both technicians and politicians. IAEA safeguards have variously been extolled as a great international break-through and model for other arms control verification regimes and alternatively as a not very credible arrangement with many weaknesses and contradictions and which cannot, essentially by definition, do the job it's supposed to do. The 1981 bombing by Israel of the safeguarded Iraqi research reactor at Tuwaitha is used by both extremes to support their positions. As a physicist who has been working in this area, among others, for several years it seems to me that neither side is giving the reality of IAEA safeguards a fair deal. The bottom line on safeguards is to ensure that nuclear material, especially plutonium or highly enriched uranium (>20% U-236 but usually 93% U-235) under safeguards, is not used to make nuclear explosives or to further other military purposes. In the first instance they are pretty good and do represent a major concession by sovereign states; but the structure of the safeguards regime was designed in another era. The system has its flaws technically, but it is also a political system which, because of its dual nature can and does do a very useful and important job for the international community

  6. International co-operation in the field of standardization of apparatus using radioactive sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioactive sources and equipment or devices emitting ionizing radiation covers a very large field of applications (nuclear and conventional industries, medical purposes) and needs therefore the compliance with a serial of fundamental safety requirements in order to protect the personal and the public. The detention and the use of radioactive substances and machinery or devices containing radioactive sources are strictly controlled in the most industrial countries. In order to harmonize the principle of use an the respect of the essential safety requirements, an international co-operation has been established since the last two or three decades in the fields of standardization and regulation implementation. It has effectively been proved that only a comparison at an international level with all of the interested people (manufacturers, safety authorities, end users, test houses, ...) will permit the publication of a set of relevant and coherent recommendations which could be adapted later on in national or international regulations by the different member bodies or international organizations. These regulations will then lead the design, the detention, the use and the elimination of the radioactive sources in an appropriate manner. France, as well as the most important industrial countries, participates actively to this effort of harmonization of good practices, namely in the field of ISO, CEN and AFNOR standardization areas, in the following domains. (author)

  7. International standardization of nuclear reactor designs - View of the global nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry, through the World Nuclear Association (WNA), believes that steady progress toward standardization of reactor designs is essential if the world wants to achieve success in the decades ahead in exploiting the full potential of nuclear power as a large-scale source of clean energy. Industry gave the WNA CORDEL (Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing) group the mandate to work toward this goal. International standardization implies that regulatory practice must be harmonized as well on an international level. As the regulators in the MDEP-group work together for new build projects, CORDEL is the industry counterpart in this effort. The CORDEL proposal is a set of actions envisaged in three phases. Phase 1: Share design assessment (Once a design is licensed in one country, the approving regulator should share information with other national regulators). Phase 2: validate and accept design approval (Once a design is licensed in certain countries, such design approval could be taken by other countries' authorities after validation as sufficient for licensing there). Phase 3: Issue international design certification. By international agreement, a procedure could be created whereby a design could be certified by a team of national regulators (from countries with a direct interest in the design). Under the agreement, participating countries would accept this certification

  8. EPA's development of high-level waste disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the objectives of the national program to develop disposal methods for high-level radioactive waste and the role of EPA in that program. Since the expansion of the Federal high-level waste program in 1976, EPA has been charged to develop generally applicable standards for the management and disposal of these wastes. EPA's basic authorities come from the Atomic Energy Act and the duties assigned to EPA at the time of its creation in 1970. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 reaffirmed EPA's responsibility in this area. EPA is thus part of a new, carefully constructed multi-agency approach which the Congress has devised to solve the problem of high-level nuclear waste. EPA's role in this process is a limited, but at the same time, a very important one. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission will have the responsibility for the implementation and site-specific application of the generally applicable standards we prescribe. EPA has no direct role in the selection of actual sites for high-level waste repositories. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act assigns that responsibility to the Department of Energy, with oversight by NRC, and it must be done in consultation with affected States and Indian tribes

  9. Considerations in the development of subsurface containment barrier performance standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting subsurface barriers as an alternative remedial option for management of contamination problems at their facilities. Past cleanup initiatives have sometimes proven ineffective or extremely expensive. Economic considerations coupled with changing public and regulatory philosophies regarding remediation techniques makes subsurface barriers a promising technology for future cleanup efforts. As part of the initiative to develop subsurface containment barriers as an alternative remedial option, DOE funded MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to conduct a comprehensive review to identify performance considerations for the acceptability of subsurface barrier technologies as a containment method. Findings from this evaluation were intended to provide a basis for selection and application of containment technologies to address waste problems at DOE sites. Based on this study, the development of performance standards should consider: (1) sustainable low hydraulic conductivity; (2) capability to meet applicable regulations; (3) compatibility with subsurface environmental conditions; (4) durability and long-term stability; (5) repairability; and (6) verification and monitoring. This paper describes the approach for determining considerations for performance standards

  10. The Level of Development and the Implementation of Accounting Standards in Kosovo - Problems and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Accounting Lecturer Nexhmie Vokshi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study will show an analysis of the current development in the accounting in Kosova and the overall financial reports. Financial reports, based on the accounting processes of the highest quality and accepted worldwide has been evaluated as comprehensive by all users of the accounting information. This will fill in all the gaps in the Kosovar financial reports, so there would be no doubt, fore mostly for the financial reports prepared and published by the Kosova business community. The financial reports with international accounting standards based on national standards that are coherent with the international ones, supplies decision makers in business with complete information, financially accurate, which results to efficient decision making on their behalf.Such a task is of utmost importance, given that Kosovo is now at a crucial phase, given that the foundation of a new state have just been laid with all the sacrifices that have to be overcome, with all the hard and serious work that that awaits us in all fields for creating a sound economic and social basis. To achieve this we need for everyone to work hard and sacrifice, so this will reflect in an economic and social development and all other fields, among the most important ones is the development of the accounting profession, thus giving the possibility for credible and acceptable financial reports by all.

  11. Good practices in preparation of a new internal laboratory standard in Environmental Isotopes Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Chilean Commission (CCHEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The purpose of this presentation is to show through a poster our laboratory information management and experience, facilities and the good practices for sampling, sample preparation and calibration of a new internal laboratory standard (LR2-2) to analyze 2H and 18Oaccord to our resources. Methodology used since 1978 has allowed to guarantee the quality and precision of the isotopic results, in daily analysis. The Laboratory calibrate their laboratory standards for 2H and 18O using IAEA reference material (VSMOW, SLAP, GISP). This new laboratory standard (LR2-2) is one of the internal standard will be used in our isotopic data calculation and it will replace the actual internal laboratory reference LR2. Was taken 120 liters of sea water (off shore) in the zone of 'Los Molles' IV Region, 193 Km NW Santiago (S: 32 deg. 14' 24''; W: 71 deg. 30'42'') to prepare the new standard LR2-2. The collected water was storage in two polyethylene drum double capped. The collected sea water was distilled under vacuum, bottled in amber glass bottle and sealed with solid paraffin to avoid evaporation or contamination risk during storage in a dark place at room temperature (20 deg. C). Aliquots of new standard were analyzed in Automatic Equilibration System for measure 2H and 18O (Parcom) on line with IRMS, MAT 252. The mean values and standard deviation were calculated considering daily variations and variationconsidering daily variations and variations between measurement days. The Environmental Isotopes laboratory from CCHEN has developed analysis methods for light stables isotopes such 2H, 18O, 13C (into inorganic and organic matter) and 15N. Along all this time have been very important to guarantee the quality and precision of the results. This laboratory is only one in Chile and one of the few of the region so has a great responsibility with the scientific community. The CCHEN has a Management Quality System Program and the laboratory has protocols to each techniques, maintenance of instruments and sampling are under Chilean ISO-17025 Guide. The Laboratory has been participating in the Interlaboratory Comparison exercises organized for Hydrology Section from IAEA. (author)

  12. International comparison of energy standards in the building area; Internationaler Vergleich von Energiestandards im Baubereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, S.; Balthasar, A. [Institut fuer Politikstudien Interface GmbH, Lucerne (Switzerland); Eichhammer, W.; Reichert, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined the creation, implementation and effectiveness of energy standards in Switzerland and the four European countries Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark. The results of the research, which was based on interviews, documents and the literature available, are presented and commented on. The authors are of the opinion that the development of energy-standards and regulations proved to be most difficult in Switzerland as a result of heavily decentralised legislation competencies. Developments in Europe are discussed. As far as the 'sharpness' of legislation is concerned, large differences can be found between the five countries looked at. The possible export of the Swiss 'MINERGIE' standard in other European countries is examined. Recommendations are made for the further development of energy standards.

  13. International Journal of Behavioral Development: Scope and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepflin, Urs; Muller-Brettel, Marianne

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a bibliometric analysis of the first 12 volumes of the International Journal of Behavioral Development (IJBD) that used data from PSYCINFO and Social Scisearch. The IJBD is compared to other journals in the field. Changes in IJBD's focus, and the internationality of its authorship and reception, are discussed. (GH)

  14. International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

  15. Development and use of international nuclear data library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and present situation of the domestic and international nuclear data libraries, especially experimental neutron library and evaluated neutron library for general purpose are introduced. The internationally used formats concerned and how to use them for home users are presented

  16. International Students and Their Experiences of Personal Development Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate L.; Perkins, Joy; Comber, Darren P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Taught postgraduate students are a unique group, undergoing a short, intensive period of study. Many taught postgraduate students are international, engaging for the first time with new learning approaches, including Personal Development Planning (PDP). This article provides analysis of the views of international taught postgraduates about the…

  17. New nuclear technology; International developments. Review 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary review of the development of new nuclear rector technology is presented in this report. Fuel cycle strategies and waste handling developments are also commented. Different plans for dismantling nuclear weapons are presented. 18 refs

  18. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.

    2015-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. The filter element for this system has a non-standard cross-section with a length-to-width ratio (LW) of 6.6. A filter test setup was designed and built to meet industry testing standards. A CFD analysis was performed to initially determine the optimal duct geometry and flow configuration. Both a screen and flow straighter were added to the test duct design to improve flow uniformity and face velocity profiles were subsequently measured to confirm. Flow quality and aerosol mixing assessments show that the duct flow is satisfactory for the intended leak testing. Preliminary leak testing was performed on two different ISS filters, one with known perforations and one with limited use, and results confirmed that the testing methods and photometer instrument are sensitive enough to detect and locate compromised sections of an ISS BFE.Given the engineering constraints in designing spacecraft life support systems, it is anticipated that non-industry standard filters will be required in future designs. This work is focused on developing test protocols for testing the ISS BFE filters, but the methodology is general enough to be extended to other present and future spacecraft filters. These techniques for characterizing the test duct and perform leak testing can be applied to conducting acceptance testing and inventory testing for future manned exploration programs with air revitalization filtration needs, possibly even for in-situ filter element integrity testing for extensively long-duration missions. We plan to address the unique needs for test protocols for crewed spacecraft particulate filters by preparing the initial version of a standard, to be documented as a NASA Technical Memorandum (TM).

  19. International nuclear emergency exercises: Current lessons and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has a long tradition of expertise in the area of nuclear emergency policy and preparedness. Nuclear emergencies may have consequences over wide areas, highlighting the need for international cooperation and coordination. As an international organisation, the NEA's focus of work has been on improving the effectiveness of international nuclear emergency preparedness and management. A pillar of this work has been the preparation and organisation of the International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) series. Since 1993, the NEA's INEX 1, 2 and 2000 series, which focussed primarily on early phase emergency response, have provided a unique forum for testing and further developing arrangements and concepts for nuclear emergency management at the international and national levels, and succeeded in establishing a recognised international nuclear emergency exercise culture that is now supported by several international exercise frameworks. A third generation of INEX exercises, INEX 3, was developed in response to international interest in the longer term issues that will arise after an emergency. The INEX 3 exercise, conducted in 2005-2006, focused on consequence management issues in the later phases following the discovery of serious radiological contamination in the environment. Following the completion of the exercises, the NEA hosted an international evaluation workshop to examine the outcomes, lessons and issues raised during the nationessons and issues raised during the national exercises and to identify areas for further work, as presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Thirty Years of "International Journal of Behavioral Development": Scope, Internationality, and Impact since Its Inception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schui, Gabriel; Krampen, Gunter

    2010-01-01

    The article presents 30-year bibliometrical results on trends in the scope, internationality, and impact of the "International Journal of Behavioral Development" ("IJBD") from its inception in 1978 to 2007. Bibliometric data were collected using the databases PsycINFO and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), and the "IJBD" itself. In comparison…