WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Nuclear quality standards - national and international developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes briefly the historical development of international nuclear and general quality assurance standards, in particular ISO 6215, the ISO 9000 series, and the documents IAEA 50-SG-QA of the Nuclear Safety Standards Program. A survey of the approx. 200 national standards and regulations in use in almost twenty countries is also presented. (orig.)

1993-12-01

2

ISO: international standards development for nuclear technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of internationally recognized standards for nuclear technology and safety is rapidly increasing for technical as well as economical and political reasons such as public acceptance and nuclear technology transfer to developing countries. The need for such standards is also evident because of the large number of nuclear installations sited close to international borders, and the export of nuclear installations from relatively few supplier countries to a large number of user countries. It is the purpose of this report to describe briefly the history, organizational structures and procedures, goals, accomplishments, problems, and future needs of the relevant activities of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO is composed of the partly governmental, partly non-governmental national standards bodies of 86 countries including China. The work of its Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' is mostly concerned with industrial applications, contractual aspects and international communication, for the benefit of both developed and developing countries. It works in close liaison with IAEA, which develops Codes and Guides addressed mainly to the regulatory aspects of nuclear power plants in developing countries. ISO/TC 85 has four sub-committees dealing with: (a) Terminology, Definitions, Units and Symbols (Secretariat USA, four working groups (WGs)); (b) Radiation Protection (Secretariat France, ten WGs); (c) Power Reactor Technology (Secretariat Sweden, nine WGs); (d) Nuclear Fuel Technology (Secretariat F.R. Germany, seven WGs). (author)

1980-10-24

3

International physical protection standards: support for development and implementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Since 1972, the IAEA has been a recognized organization in promoting the development of international standards on the physical protection of nuclear materials. This responsibility has continued through the present in the 1999 publication of the fourth revision of INFCIRC/225, the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities and in being the repository for the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material which was originally published in 1980 as INFCIRC/274. The IAEA has also published other reference documents in support these two standards. With changing world events and greater concern for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities, IAEA member states have increased IAEA physical protection responsibilities. Currently, the IAEA is serving as the secretariat for drafting revisions to the physical protection convention. The proposed revisions will strengthen international physical protection standards through the incorporation of physical protection fundamentals that should apply to all nuclear materials in international or domestic use, storage and transport. Furthermore, the physical protection fundamentals would also extend to include nuclear facilities. Presently, the physical protection convention applies only to nuclear materials that are in international transport. To complement efforts to develop and promote international physical protection standards, the IAEA is actively involved in assisting member states with the implementation of the standards. This is accomplished through the delivery of training courses, workshops and hosting other international forums for the exchange of information. Through review services such as the international physical protection advisory service (IPPAS), the IAEA provides advice to member states on the application of international standards at national and facility-specific levels. These services can be followed up with technical support to implement the recommendations developed during the IPPAS review. (author)

2002-08-01

4

IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological safety of the equipment. The main characteristics of IEC 62463 and IEC 62523 standards are presented and as well as the IEC methodology of standard development and approval

2008-01-27

5

Development of Proliferation Resistance Assessment Methodology based on International Standard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proliferation resistance is one of the requirement to be met in GEN IV and INPRO for next generation nuclear energy system. Internationally, the evaluation methodology on PR had been already initiated from 1980, but the systematic development was started at 2000s. In Korea, for the export of nuclear energy system and the increase of international credibility and transparence of domestic nuclear system and fuel cycle development, the independent development of PR evaluation methodology was started in 2007 as a nuclear long term R and D project and the development is being performed for the model of PR evaluation methodology. In 1st year, comparative study of GEN-IV/INPRO, PR indicator development, quantification of indicator and evaluation model development, analysis of technology system and international technology development trend had been performed. In 2nd and 3rd year, feasibility study of indicator, allowable limit of indicator, review of technical requirement of indicator, technical standard, design of evaluation model were done. The results of PR evaluation must be applied in the beginning of conceptual design of nuclear system. Through the technology development of PR evaluation methodology, the methodology will be applied in the regulatory requirement for authorization and permission to be developed

Lee, Yong Deok; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Jung Won; Ko, Won Il; Chang, Hong Lae; Ryu, Jae Soo; Ko, Han Suk; Park, Joo Hwan; Kim, Young In; So, Dong Sup

2010-04-15

6

The development of international standards for irradiated foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety for human consumption of irradiated food items has been exhaustively studied on a large scale for at least two decades. It is thought to establish internationally accepted standards on irradiated foods within the framework of Codex Alimentarius as set up by the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme

1978-01-01

7

Development of Proliferation Resistance Assessment Methodology Based on International Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proliferation resistance is one of the requirement to be met in GEN IV and INPRO for next generation nuclear energy system. Internationally, the evaluation methodology on PR had been already initiated from 1980, but the systematic development was started at 2000s. In Korea, for the export of nuclear energy system and the increase of international credibility and transparence of domestic nuclear system and fuel cycle development, the independent development of PR evaluation methodology was started in 2007 as a nuclear long term R and D project and the development is being performed for the model of PR evaluation methodology. In 1st year, comparative study of GEN-IV/INPRO, PR indicator development, quantification of indicator and evaluation model development, analysis of technology system and international technology development trend had been performed. In 2nd year, feasibility study of indicator, allowable limit of indicator, review of technical requirement of indicator were done. The results of PR evaluation must be applied in the beginning of conceptual design of nuclear system. Through the technology development of PR evaluation methodology, the methodology will be applied in the regulatory requirement for authorization and permission to be developed.

Lee, Yong Deok; Lee, Jung Won; Lee, Kwang Seok

2009-03-15

8

Development of proliferation resistance assessment methodology based on international standard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nonproliferation is one of the main requirements to be satisfied by the advanced future nuclear energy systems that have been developed in the Generation IV and INPRO studies. The methodologies to evaluate proliferation resistance has been developed since 1980s, however, the systematic evaluation approach has begun from around 2000. Domestically a study to develop national method to evaluate proliferation resistance (PR) of advanced future nuclear energy systems has started in 2007 as one of the long-term nuclear R and D subjects in order to promote export and international credibility and transparency of national nuclear energy systems and nuclear fuel cycle technology development program. In the first phase (2007-2010) development and improvement of intrinsic evaluation parameters for the evaluation of proliferation resistance, quantification of evaluation parameters, development of evaluation models, and development of permissible ranges of evaluation parameters have been carried out. In the second phase (2010-2012) generic principle of to evaluate PR was established, and techincal guidelines, nuclear material diversion pathway analysis method, and a method to integrate evaluation parameters have been developed. which were applied to 5 alternative nuclear fuel cycles to estimate their appicability and objectivity. In addition, measures to enhance PR of advanced future nuclear energy systems and technical guidelines of PR assessment using intrinsic PR evaluation parameters were developed. Lastly, requlatory requirements to secure nonproliferation requirements of nuclear energy systems from the early design stage, operation and to decommissioning which will support the export of newly developed advanced future nuclear energy system.

Ko, W. I.; Chang, H. L.; Lee, Y. D.; Lee, J. W.; Park, J. H.; Kim, Y. I.; Ryu, J. S.; Ko, H. S.; Lee, K. W.

2012-04-15

9

Biobanking of CSF: international standardization to optimize biomarker development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reflects pathophysiological aspects of neurological diseases, where neuroprotective strategies and biomarkers are urgently needed. Therefore, biobanking is very relevant for biomarker discovery and evaluation of neurological diseases. Important and unique features of CSF biobanking are intensive collaboration in international networks and the tight application of standardized protocols. The current adoption of standardized protocols for CSF and blood collection as presented in this review enables biomarker studies in large cohorts of patients and controls. Another topic of this review is the selection of control groups, which influences the outcome of biomarker investigations. Control groups in CSF biobanks mainly consist of different disease controls. This is in part due to the fact that lumbar punctures are mostly performed for clinical indications and rarely for research purposes only, as it is a relatively invasive procedure. Moreover, there is a lack of homogenous criteria and definition of control groups. We therefore propose uniform consensus definitions for such control groups in biomarker research, i.e. Healthy controls (HC), Spinal anesthesia subjects (SAS), Symptomatic controls (SC), Inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (CINDC), Peripheral Inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (PINDC) and Non-inflammatory Neurological Disease Controls (NINDC). Another important aspect of CSF biobanking is quality control. Systematic studies to address effects of pre-analytical and storage variation on a broad range of CSF proteins are needed. In conclusion, biomarker research in neurodegenerative diseases has entered a new era due to the collaborative and multicenter efforts of many groups. The streamlining of biobanking procedures, including quality control, and the selection of optimal control groups for investigating biomarkers are important improvements to perform high quality biomarker studies. PMID:24389077

Teunissen, Charlotte E; Tumani, Hayrettin; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Mollenhauer, Brit

2014-03-01

10

THE ADOPTION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES- The Case of Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most countries in the world have revolutionized their accounting practices especially during the last few decades of the 21st century. Such revolutions encompass the adoption and adaptation of local accounting practices and harmonizing it with that of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) – formerly International Accounting Standards (IAS). The study seeks to analyze how developing countries and in particular Ghana adopted the International Financial Reporting Standards. Th...

Antwi, Kofi

2010-01-01

11

Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Developing Countries: The Case of Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study focused on the adoption process of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on a
developing economy, with particular reference to Nigeria. The paper is based on the data obtained from literature
survey and archival sources in the context of the globalization of International Financial Reporting and the
adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).Nigeria has embraced IFRS in order to
participate in the benefits ...

Abdulkadir Madawaki

2012-01-01

12

Experience with nuclear safety standards development in non-governmental international organizations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Besides the IAEA as a 'governmental' organization dealing with basic safety recommendations addressed primarily to the national regulatory bodies in developing countries, two closely related non-governmental international standards organizations have gained extensive experience in the field of nuclear standardization. Over more than 25 years since their formation, both (a) the International Organization for Standardization's (ISO) Technical Committee 85 'Nuclear Energy', in particular in its Sub-Committee 3 'Reactor Technology and Safety' and (b) the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) Technical Committee 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' have published numerous standards. A brief review is given of these, draft standards, and other documents planned to become international standards. Many of them deal with rather specialized topics typical for 'industrial' standards such as standardized procedures, instruments, methods, materials, test methods, terminology, and signs and symbols, but others are directly related to more basic safety issues. In some areas such as quality assurance, seismic aspects of siting and terminology, there has been in the past occasional overlap in the activities of the NUSS programme, IEC and ISO. Letters of Understanding have since 1981 contributed to clarifying the borderlines and to avoiding redundant efforts. Also, some experiences and problems are described arising, for example, from the harmonization of different national safety philosophies and traditions into universally accepted international standards, and the transfer of international standards into national standards systems. Finally, based on a recent comprehensive compilation of some 3300 nuclear standards and standards projects, an attempt is made to present a cost/benefit analysis and an outlook on future developments. (author)

1984-11-02

13

Development of an international standard for electromagnetic interference (EMI)/radio frequency interference (RFI)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper covers the development of an international standard that establishes the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility testing of instrumentation and control equipment supplied for use in systems important to safety at nuclear power plants. The standard lists the applicable IEC standards (principally the IEC 61000 series) which define the general test methods, and provides the necessary application-specific parameters and criteria to ensure that nuclear safety requirements are met. This standard was prepared with the leadership by the Russian National Committee representatives to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). (authors)

2006-11-12

14

International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

2011-10-29

15

Development of an international standard on instruments setpoints based on ISA S67.04 - 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a summary of the application for and development of an international standard on instrument setpoints, based on the Instrument Society of America (ISA) Standard S67.04 - 1994. The forum this new standard was proposed in is the International Electrotechnique Commission (IEC), based in Geneva, Switzerland, which is the international commission which oversees electrical and instrumentation standards for all applications around the world. The Instrument Society of America (ISA) is a United States based Society for the advancement of instrumentation and controls related science and technology and has 30,000 members. A division within the ISA is the Standard and Practices board which has over 5000 members actively involved in standards development and approval. In 1994, the ISA SP67, Nuclear Power Plant Standards Committee authorized that the IEC be approached to develop and issue an IEC standard on Instrument Setpoints. This application was formally submitted in January, 1995 to the IEC and approved for ballot to member countries in June, 1995. Approval for standard development by IEC was received in October, 1995 and the first draft vas issued in February, 1996, and is currently under review by the IEC working group. It is very important to focus on the approach that the U.S. and other countries are taking toward development of IEC standards that can apply to all nuclear instrumentation applications around the world. By referencing IEC standards in design specification, vendors can be solicited from many different countries, thereby ensuring that the highest quality products can be used. This also offsets the need to specify individual standards in the specification, based on the country that each vendor solicited, represents. In summary, this standard development process, with support from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) will assist U.S. suppliers in competing in the global market for products and services into the next century. (author)

1996-09-16

16

Standardising through concepts: scientific experts and the international development of the HACCP Food Safety Standard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with international standard-setting. Using the HACCP food safety standard as the basis of discussion, this paper considers the influence of scientific experts on the regulatory process. What is usually referred to as the diffusion or dissemination of soft or voluntary standards is here explained in terms of transferability of a regulatory concept. It is the ability of scientific experts to transform practices into a universal concept and, conversely, to develop technologies f...

Demortain, David

2007-01-01

17

Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'

2006-05-15

18

Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three IEC standards are published. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: IEC 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', IEC 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and IEC 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'

2009-01-01

19

Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc.

Powell, C.J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Surface and Microanalysis Science Division

1999-12-01

20

International standards for nuclear technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of history, current status and possible future developments in the field of international nuclear standards, with emphasis on the relevant activities of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). After a brief history of standardization in general and description of the 'hierarchy' of legal and technical nuclear standars, the reasons for international nuclear standardization and the efforts of various international organizations in this field are described, in particular the Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' of ISO (with tables of its organization, output and projects); the TC 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC); the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Program, and some other international organizations. Finally, some problems in this important and difficult field which remain to be solved are being discussed. (orig.)

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

International standards for the exploration and production industry -- Their development and use  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A single global market for procurement is of crucial importance to the E and P industry. The resulting benefits, including cost reductions and shorter delivery times, could even be the key to the economic development of marginal fields. International Standards that cater for the needs of users, manufacturers and the public at large can provide a common basis for companies to procure and provide goods and services that will deliver the required performance throughout the field life. The savings to industry could be billions of dollars per year. The E and P Forum, on behalf of the industry, has developed proposals to increase the efficiency of this managerial procedure and to speed up the ``internationalization`` of selected standards. Details are given at the end of the paper. It is argued that the E and P industry should rally to the cause of international standardization. Companies should lend their full support by committing their valuable expert resources. It is in the interests of the industry to do this for, without suitably skilled expert representation in ISO and the elimination of duplication as well as waste of resources through performing similar work at company or national level, the large potential benefits of international standardization will elude the E and P industry.

Johansen, A.R.; Loppinet, A.; Reeve, P.T.N.; Thomas, G.A.N.; Thorp, G.; Vanzini, R.

1995-12-01

22

International hearing protector standardization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance in impulse noise, protectors with active noise reduction). Furthermore, an overview of the present European standards (CEN) and the relation to American and Australian/New Zealand standards will be discussed.

Poulsen, Torben

2002-01-01

23

International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process. Fourth, sufficient program resources for program implementation and evaluation are critical to the effectiveness of standards and labeling programs and cost-sharing between national and local governments can help ensure adequate resources and uniform implementation. Lastly, check-testing and punitive measures are important forms of enforcement while the cancellation of registration or product sales-based fines have also proven effective in reducing non-compliance. The international comparative analysis also revealed the differing degree to which the level of government decentralization has influenced S&L programs and while no single country has best practices in all elements of standards and labeling development and implementation, national examples of best practices for specific elements do exist. For example, the U.S. has exemplified the use of rigorous analyses for standard-setting and robust data source with the RECS database while Japan?s Top Runner standard-setting principle has motivated manufacturers to exceed targets. In terms of standards implementation and enforcement, Australia has demonstrated success with enforcement given its long history of check-testing and enforcement initiatives while mandatory information-sharing between EU jurisdictions on compliance results is another important enforcement mechanism. These examples show that it is important to evaluate not only the drivers of different paths of standards and labeling development, but also the country-specific context for best practice examples in order to understand how and why certain elements of specific S&L programs have been effective.

Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

2012-02-28

24

Radiation safety: New international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article highlights an important result of this work for the international harmonization of radiation safety: specifically, it present an overview of the forthcoming International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - the so-called BSS. They have been jointly developed by six organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

1994-01-01

25

An Index of International Standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

The computer-produced Index, based on the Key-Word-In-Context (KWIC) system, contains over 2,700 standards titles of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Commissio...

S. J. Chumas

1974-01-01

26

Radiation protection instrumentation standards developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' of the IEC produces International Standards defining the requirements to which the instrumentation used for the radiation protection must satisfy. The compliance to these requirements is a guaranty of the quality of the instrument, of its good performance in the nuclear environment. Type testing equipment to the recommendations and requirements of the standards also provides the equipment user with reliable and internationally acceptable performance data which they can use for the accurate interpretation and comparisons of their operational measurements. The list of the published SC 45B standards is given in this paper. (author)

2003-07-01

27

Safety practices and standards, developments and incentives for international co-operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some main points arising during the safety assessments carried out on a consultative basis by the CEC are explained. The authors stress the importance of studies of depressurization accidents and the appearance of probabilistic analysis methods in safety assessments. They indicate whether these safety evaluations, by the Commission's own experts as well as by external experts, bring up possible pragmatic approaches to improving the harmonization of the safety rules and practices at the European level. Some major safety concerns and activities systematically considered by the CEC are surveyed and how they relate to the initiatives in other international organizations and in industrially developed third countries. Emphasis is placed on the efforts towards a gradual harmonization of the many different techniques and standards applied on a world scale and within the European Community, in particular for reactors of the industrially developed type. Comparative information is provided on some national practices for technico-administrative authorization procedures (with examples) and on national work on the development of regulatory and voluntary standards. Of the technical issues that influence the health and safety aspects of nuclear power, the following are dealt with more specifically in the scope of a more harmonized approach: measures to prevent or mitigate accident conditions of internal or external origin; the application of the regulatory 'strictly radiological' and 'as low as reasonably achievable' population dose limits for normal effluent releases; and the validity of the permissible doses for occupational exposure. Finally, the various possibilities and limitations of probabilistic risk analysis methods in systems design, in regulatory requirements, in operational requirements, and in the definition of safety research programmes are discussed. Some implications of such methods, e.g. in the matter of equipment failure rate data collection, are examined. (author)

1977-05-13

28

Advantages and difficulties of implementation of the international GNA standards in sustainable mining development. (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Conflicts in the development of mining projects are now common between the mining proponents, NGO's and communities. These conflicts can sometimes be alleviated by early development of modes of communication, and a formal discussion format that allows airing of concerns and potential resolution of problems. One of the methods that can formalize this process is to establish a Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA), which deals specifically with challenges in relationships between mining operations and the local communities. It is a new practice related to mining operations that are oriented toward social needs and concerns of local communities that arise during the normal life of a mine, which can achieve sustainable mining practices in both developing and developed countries. The GNA project being currently developed at the University of Nevada, Reno in cooperation with the Newmont Mining Corporation has a goal to create an open company/community dialog that is based on the international standards and that will help identify and address sociological and environmental concerns associated with mining, as well as find methods for communication and conflict resolution. GNA standards should be based on trust doctrine, open information access, and community involvement in the decision making process. It should include the following components: emergency response and community communications; environmental issues, including air and water quality standards; reclamation and recultivation; socio-economic issues: transportation, safety, training, and local hiring; and financial issues, particularly related to mitigation offsets and community needs. The GNA standards help identify and evaluate conflict criteria in mining/community relationships; determine the status of concerns; focus on the local political and government systems; separate the acute and the chronic concerns; determine the role and responsibilities of stakeholders; analyze problem resolution feasibility; maintain the community involvement and support through economic benefits and environmental safeguards; develop options for the concerns resolution; develop and manage short and long-term plans. Difficulties in establishing the GNA standards include identification of the full list of stakeholders, lack of responsible environmental protection practices, dependence on the government and political system, lack of will to disclose full information to the public. It is further complicated by the lack of insurance/bonding policies, and by the lack of audit and monitoring that could determine the level of exposure of the local community and the environment to the contaminants released at the mine sites. Since many problems of mines can occur during closure and post-closure, GNA's should address those issues also. Determined the process for the GNA implementation as a conflict prevention/resolution tool, analyzed conflict/concerns criteria associated with mining operations, determined the role of the stakeholders, worked out the process of stakeholders monitoring, carried out the sociological survey of the stakeholders and the community. Frequent conflicts between mining companies and surrounding communities that lead to work disruptions or even mine closures show the necessity of a less confrontational approach to environmental and social justice. Establishment of GNA standards for use in both developed and developing nations can decrease these conflicts.

Masaitis, A.

2013-12-01

29

Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Developing Countries: The Case of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study focused on the adoption process of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS on adeveloping economy, with particular reference to Nigeria. The paper is based on the data obtained from literaturesurvey and archival sources in the context of the globalization of International Financial Reporting and theadoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS.Nigeria has embraced IFRS in order toparticipate in the benefits it offers, including attracting foreign direct investment, reduction of the cost of doingbusiness, and cross border listing. In implementing IFRS Nigeria will face challenges including the developmentof a legal and regulatory framework, awareness campaign, and training of personnel. Recommendations weremade to forestall such challenges which include strengthening education and training, establishment of anindependent body to monitor and enforce accounting and auditing standards.

Abdulkadir Madawaki

2012-01-01

30

Development of quantitative NMR method with internal standard for the standard solutions of paralytic shellfish toxins and characterisation of gonyautoxin-5 and gonyautoxin-6.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) requires standard solutions with accurate concentration. The mouse toxicity in each toxin is also essential knowledge for the introduction of chemical analysis as an alternative method to mouse bioassay (MBA) in routine monitoring of shellfish. In this study, we developed the quantitative analysis of PSTs by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), using tert-butanol as an internal standard. Only proton signals with longitudinal relaxation time (T(1)) of less than 2.5 s, including the internal standard, were used for quantitation of toxins. Our method showed good precision (Gymnodinium catenatum predominantly produces both toxins. PMID:20538011

Watanabe, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Oshima, Yasukatsu

2010-09-15

31

Using the CEN/ISO standard for categorial structure to harmonise the development of WHO international terminologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic interoperability (SIOp) is a major issue for health care systems having to share information across professionals, teams, legacies, countries, languages and citizens. The World Health Organisation (WHO) develops and updates a family of health care terminologies (ICD, ICF, ICHI and ICPS) and has embarked on an open web-based cooperation to revise ICD 11 using ontology driven tools. The International Health Terminology Standard Development Organisation (IHTSDO) updates, translates and maps SNOMED CT to ICD 10. We present the application of the CEN/ISO standard on categorial structure to bind terminologies and ontologies to harmonise and to map between these international terminologies. PMID:19745309

Rodrigues, Jean M; Kumar, Anand; Bousquet, Cédric; Trombert, Béatrice

2009-01-01

32

Assay of HNS by liquid chromatography with the use of an internal standard. Process development endeavor No. 101  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved method for the assay of hexanitrostilbene (HNS) by liquid chromatography was developed using an internal standard of benzotrifuraxan (BTF). An eluant of 75% heptane, 5% acetonitrile and 20% glyme was found to give the highest resolution of those eluants investigated using a ..mu..Bondapak NH/sub 2/ column.

Schaffer, C.L.

1981-01-01

33

Criticality safety and international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There appears to be a worldwide increase in interest in international standards. Indications are that international standards will tend to replace or overshadow national standards. An illustration of this tendency was seen recently. During the recent (February 1996) meeting of the International Organization for Standardization Technical Committee 85 (ISO TC 85, Nuclear Energy) in Albuquerque, representatives from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) requested ISO TC 85 to accept responsibility for conversion of 19 ASTM high-level dosimetry standards to ISO standards using the open-quotes fasttrackclose quotes procedure. This unprecedented request was stimulated by a need to have these procedures in an ISO document to make them more useful to the international community. Recognizing the increased status that international standards enjoy today, TC 85 unanimously agreed to accept this responsibility

1996-11-10

34

International harmonization of nuclear standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safety and reliability must be turned into measurable quantities. This old requirement, which has been revived after the Chernobyl accident, is to make nuclear installations comparable on the basis of objective criteria. However, the concept is still far from being put into practice. The development along theses lines is prepared by national and international bodies of rules, the harmonization of which is a tedious but worthwhile-effort in the interest of the higher safety level sought for nuclear facility. There are limits to harmonization, but the work done by the responsible organizations does indicate some progress nevertheless. Over the next few years, there will be no dramatic changes, but rather a policy of relatively small steps in areas where this is found to be desirable. Cases in point are inspections of nuclear power plants by international teams of experts, improvements in the unsatisfactory radiation protection conditions in developing countries, and plans for extensive and fast exchanges of experience. In the field of standards, it is especially the activities of TC 85 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and of TC 45 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), which are of far reaching importance. (orig./HP)

1987-10-01

35

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO)  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently set up a Metadata Working Group to take responsibility for standards for specification and management of metadata. The scope of the Working Group includes metadata elements, classification and coding schemes, a...

36

Overview of International Space Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation reviews space standards as put forth by the International Organization for Standardization, additionally the organizational structure for both the international and US groups are presented. A new technical committee for space is proposed, areas of technical coverage are highlighted and models of space communications protocol and space link access service are presented.

Hooke, Adrian J.

2005-01-01

37

International standards for reactor technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of normative standards is to enhance the economic competitiveness of a nation by facilitating the free exchange of goods and services. Approximately 80 percent of all globally traded products are affected by standards and regulations that embody standards. In the present paper we provide a general discussion about the role of normative standards both in the United States and globally, and conclude with a specific discussion of international standards in the area of reactor technology. (authors)

2006-09-10

38

Development of a techniques of the performance test for a radiation protection devices and it's international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International Standardization in all technical area is gaining its momentum as its impact and implication over global trade is directly linked. The worldwide competition to secure a dominant position in the standardization process is ever growing over the years. In 2005, the International Technical Committee on nuclear instrumentation, which is a subunit of International Electro-technical Commission (IEC), was held in Korea under the auspices of MOST (Ministry Of Science and Technology). Korea has adopted its rule and regulation as the national standard. As a part of a link to national mid-and long-term atomic energy R and D program of MOST, the technical development of a performance test for the radiation monitors was carried out under mechanical environment and electromagnetic immunity conditions. The characteristics of the radiation fields were also evaluated under the conditions and introduced to a techniques of performance test for the radiation protection instrumentation adopted IEC61526 standards and it's results was analyzed. We would like to share the experience gained in these efforts, failure as well as success, and to discuss the problems encountered and serious consideration to be taken into account in the future endeavor

2008-03-01

39

Importance of international standards on hydrogen technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation provided some basic information regarding standards and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It also explained the importance of standardization activities, particularly ISO/TC 197 which applies to hydrogen technologies. Standards are established by consensus. They define the minimum requirements that will ensure that products and services are reliable and effective. Standards contribute to the elimination of technical barriers to trade (TBT). The harmonization of standards around the world is desirable in a free trade environment. The influence of the TBT on international standardization was discussed with particular reference to the objectives of ISO/TC 197 hydrogen technologies. One of the priorities for ISO/TC 197 is a hydrogen fuel infrastructure which includes refuelling stations, fuelling connectors, and storage technologies for gaseous and liquid hydrogen. Other priorities include an agreement between the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the ISO, in particular the IEC/TC 105 and ISO/TC 197 for the development of fuel cell standards. The international standards that have been published thus far include ISO 13984:1999 for liquid hydrogen, land vehicle fuelling system interface, and ISO 14687:1999 for hydrogen fuel product specification. Standards are currently under development for: liquid hydrogen; airport hydrogen fuelling facilities; gaseous hydrogen blends; basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems; gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and gaseous hydrogen for land vehicle filling connectors. It was concluded that the widespread use of hydrogen is dependent on international standardization

2001-06-01

40

TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR EDUCATION AND  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Forum Orthopaedic Educational Programs from the Netherlands and Belgium (Flanders)took the initiative to promote the developement of international standards for education and training in the field of orthopaedic shoe technology.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Working towards compliance with international standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing countries are increasingly coming under pressure to improve their delivery of veterinary services as a prerequisite for entering the competitive arena of international trade in animals and animal products. The demands placed on developing countries by predominantly developed countries to comply with international disease prevention standards have also resulted in increasing demands on the financial, human and technological resources of these developing countries. The minimum requirements of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and the standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard-setting organisations, such as the OIE (World organisation for animal health), are evaluated in terms of the opportunities embedded within these guidelines for developing countries. Such an evaluation indicates that the rights and obligations contained in these standards, guidelines and recommendations do not necessarily protect only the interests of developed countries but also encourage developing countries to work towards the levels of compliance and disease prevention required by their potential trade partners. The costs of this compliance can be reduced by exploiting more cost-effective alternatives for delivering services, when dictated by budgetary constraints. International organisations have illustrated on many occasions, and through a variety of development programmes, that they do indeed realise their responsibility towards developing countries in the areas of increased capacity building and technical assistance. If international organisations can refocus their interventions on the actual and specific needs of developing countries, then they can help to expedite the process of compliance with international standards. PMID:15200089

Brückner, G K

2004-04-01

42

International Standard Payload Rack volume  

Science.gov (United States)

Outer dimensions of the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) that will be used on the International Space Station (ISS) sets the envelope for scientists designing hardware for experiments in biological and physical sciences aboard ISS. The ISPR includes attachments to ISS utilities (electrical power, heating and cooling, data, fluids, vacuum, etc.) through standoffs that hold the racks in place in the lab modules. Usage will range from facilities that take entire racks to specialized drawers occupying a portion of a rack.

2001-01-01

43

Standardizing products for the international NSSS market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Westinghouse has responded to international differences in nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) design requirements by developing generic designs that meet particular national requirements to varying degrees. These standardized products represent a composite of the most common safety requirements in the international market. The way in which Westinghouse has coped with some of the obstacles to supplying nuclear equipment to meet the requirements of an international market with many national differences is discussed. (author)

1980-01-01

44

Room to Groove? : Standards of Civilization in the Development of International Financial Orders  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of a `standard of civilization', a preferred form of socio-political organization, in global capital markets presents both constraints and opportunities for creditors and borrowers. When imposed, civilizing standards may change how a borrower would prefer to conduct their affairs. Creditors, after all, do not have the time and money to check every little detail and want clear performance benchmarks in economic life. At the same time, borrowers may present themselves as conforming to a civilizing standard to access capital and give themselves a greater capacity to conduct their own affairs. As long as they stay within the parameters of legitimate financial practice to signal institutional isomorphism, the `groove', creditors may well allow borrowers room for change in self-determined ways. This paper maps out the historical and conceptual terrain concerning civilizing ideas about the legitimacy of financial practices within global capital markets, and investigates relationships between Western `civilizers' and Emerging Market Economies during the last two periods of financial globalization, the late-nineteenth/ early-twentieth centuries and the late-twentieth century.

Seabrooke, Leonard

2005-01-01

45

International standards and agreements in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing. (author)

2004-10-01

46

International standards and agreements in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing

2004-10-01

47

ISO-standards for marine fuels. [ISO = International Standardization Organization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors are reporting about the developments in the energy market where, on account of changes in refinery operations and processes, a change in future Marine Fuel qualities will be relevant. The logical consequences were initiatives for the introduction of standards for Marine Fuels. The report is about the work which international groups have performed in respect to these standardization efforts and about the consequences this work has on the future market for Marine Fuels. Furthermore, prospects are being discussed about the finalization and the implementation of these standards and the possible consequences that will arise regarding availability and quality of standardized Marine Fuels in future.

Thornton, R.H.; Breyer, H.

1983-10-01

48

On the International Convergence of Accounting Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The international convergence of accounting standards has become a hot topic in the international accounting field.The convergence is an irreversible developing trend of accounting internationalization development that began many years ago.Accounting,as a world-wide accepted business language,should naturally move towar...

Boka Moussa

2010-01-01

49

Accounting Management by International Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards – their contribution to harmonization and
globalization by purposing and tasking for accounting management. Measuring in details their pros and cons
effects on the division of labour, financial innovation, company transactions and cost of capital it could be
author’s recommendation for the business management inside and outside of one country’s border. Especially
the multinat...

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

50

Internal emitter research and standard setting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The history of the use of data from internal emitter research in the derivation of safety standards is reviewed. At first, observed biological effects were correlated with body burdens or exposure levels. This direct approach is illustrated by detailed accounts of the cases of uranium and plutonium. In the 1950's, when it was decided to provide standards for over 200 isotopes, the direct approach was replaced by a system of calculations. This necessitated changes in internal emitter research programs to provide metabolic data, and the development of models such as Reference Man and the Lung and Gastrointestinal Tract models. The continuing contribution of internal emitter research to standard setting can be seen in the references quoted in the metabolic data section of the new ICRP report (ICRP Publication 30). Present trends suggest a possible return to the direct use of internal emitter effects data for obtaining risk estimates. (U.K.)

1981-11-01

51

Towards International Standards for Language Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the Linguistic Annotation Framework (LAF) developed by the International Standards Organization TC37 SC4, which is to serve as a basis for harmonizing existing language resources as well as developing new ones. We then describe the use of the LAF to represent the American National Corpus and its linguistic annotations.

Ide, Nancy; Romary, Laurent

2007-01-01

52

Tutorial on International Telecommunications Standards for Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report, conducted by Bellcore, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report was prepared to show the results of a three-day tutorial regarding international telecommunications standards to the PT Telkom and the Ministry of Telecommu...

1995-01-01

53

Selenium determination in biscuits and pasta: development of chronopotentiometric stripping determination by using a sulphide as an internal standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

Being common in chromatographic techniques internal standard method is rarely applied in electrochemical stripping determinations. One of the reasons for such rare use of this elegant quantification method is because optimal conditions of accumulation at the electrode for individual compounds producing a reproducible signal may vary significantly. These criteria are much stricter when selenium is in question due to very complex mechanism of its accumulation at mercury electrodes which implies simultaneous cathodic mercury dissolution and chemical reaction. Elements that are in the analytical step stripped cathodically from mercury electrodes are rare, further limiting the application of the internal standard method when electrochemical selenium determination is in question. In this work the possibility of using sulphide for selenium quantification by chronopotentiometric stripping analysis was investigated. Optimal experimental parameters were defined in two-component systems. Dimensionless factors defining the ratio of proportionality constants of the two elements were calculated for different selenium concentration ranges at different sulphide contents. Sulphide content that was chosen as adequate for selenium concentrations reasonably to be expected in food samples was 500 µg/dm(3). Determined detection limit of chronopotentiometric stripping determination of selenium by using a sulphide as an internal standard was 0.04 µg/dm(3) (RSD=7.6%; n=5). Defined quantification method was confirmed by analysing spiked standard solutions and standard reference material. The method was used for selenium determination in biscuit and pasta samples. Calculated contents were statistically compared with those obtained by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. PMID:24054621

Svarc-Gaji?, Jaroslava; Stojanovi?, Zorica

2013-10-15

54

IAEA safety standards and international legal instruments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA safety standards constitute a comprehensive and consistent framework of reference for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks. As such, they are of fundamental importance for both regulators and technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) in their duties related to nuclear safety and radiation protection. International cooperation is also favoured by the IAEA safety standards, permitting the identification of final objectives and the steps necessary to achieve them in very different national and regional contexts. The fact that groups of experts, widely representing the Member States, developed the safety standards is an additional guarantee of their applicability in different situations. Nevertheless, it should be taken into account that nuclear and radiation safety and their regulation are national competencies, and hence the safety standards should be adopted and suitably modified by the States to become a national safety reference. The clear advantages of the technical assistance that some nations can receive from the IAEA in nuclear and radiation safety favour the adoption of the safety standards. In addition, the explicit mention of the IAEA safety standards in international conventions and codes of conduct signed by several countries also helps their implementation from a legal point of view. Unfortunately, from a practical point of view, the difficulties do not disappear by officially adopting the safety standards. Problems related to insufficient resources, shortcomings in the technical infrastructure and/or the limited experience of TSO staff are real problems that require additional efforts in order to effectively implement the safety standards. Renewed efforts to facilitate international cooperation among regional TSOs are necessary, for example, to promote specific harmonization of national situations. (author)

2007-08-01

55

Study of International Standards of Risk Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management, are of general character and differ with the degree of detailing. Their undoubted value in development of risk management in Ukraine is identification of a general direction of building corporate systems of risk management in practice. The said approaches at the national and corporate levels of standardisation in Ukraine within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management would allow improvement of risk management in corporations and enterprises. The prospect of further studies of domestic specialists in the field of risk management is development of the domestic standard of risk management with consideration of modern domestic specific features of development of risk management in Ukraine and leading foreign experience.

Dykan Volodymyr L.

2014-01-01

56

International Electrotechnical Commission standards - their use in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Sub-Committee (SC45B) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) was formed in 1966 and has since produced internationally agreed standards on a wide range of health physics instruments. A brief article describes the nature of the IEC standards, the procedure for the development of a new standard, the value of the standards in radiological protection and details of those standards issued so far by SC45B and also those under preparation. (U.K.)

1988-01-01

57

International labour standards and product differentiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last decades the interaction between labour standards and international trade has assumed new importance. We use an incentive based-approach to assess the efficiency of trade policy instruments and private schemes for the promotion of international labour standards in Southern Firms. We show that trade policy instruments may implement minimum standards. On the other hand, we find that private schemes may overcome minimum standards if and only if there is an exclusive contract between t...

2008-01-01

58

Development of internal company standards of good management practice and a task-based risk assessment tool for offshore work-related stressors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes a project which developed a set of fourteen internal, company-specific management standards for common work-related stressors. A ''bottom-up'' stress risk assessment approach was used to identify work-related stressors affecting team members in two organisations, BP and East of Scotland Water. The final versions of the standards, and a description of the process used in their development, are provided. In addition, a set of human factors triggers for use during a task-based risk assessment was developed and implemented. Although the standards and human factors triggers were developed within specific industries, it is likely that they will be relevant and useful to many organisations who wish to adopt a preventative approach to work-related stress. (author)

Briner, R.B.; Amati, C.; Lardner, R.

2003-07-01

59

Toward an International Standard for PCR-Based Detection of Food-Borne Thermotolerant Campylobacters: Assay Development and Analytical Validation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene were tested in all possible pairwise combinations, as well as two published primers targeting the 23S rRNA gene. A panel of 150 strains including target an...

Lu?beck, P. S.; Wolffs, P.; On, S. L. W.; Ahrens, P.; Ra?dstro?m, P.; Hoorfar, J.

2003-01-01

60

The final steps towards an international standard for land administration:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) moved forward to the FDIS stage (FDIS = Final Draft International Standard): ISO FDIS 19152. This is the last stage before becoming an International Standard (expected in July 2012), after a four year standards development process within ISO/TC211 (Geographic Information) and six years of preparation within the FIG, while the original idea for such a standard was launched at the 2002 FIG congress in Washington D.C. This paper presents an overview...

Lemmen, C. H. J.; Uitermark, H. T.; Oosterom, P. J. M.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise experimental data and improved developments in the methodology of analysis and evaluation. Initial efforts to produce a new evaluation were made by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group which formed a Task Force. It was realized that international cooperation would be needed to produce the evaluation. The Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee formed a Subgroup, and the International Atomic Energy Agency formed a Coordinated Research Project (CRP). These groups worked cooperatively to improve the evaluation process. The major effort in producing the evaluation was through the CRP. The evaluations of the neutron cross section standards were finalized in October 2005. Previous difficulties experienced with a data evaluation problem known as 'Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle' create biases in the fit of correlated data, and they have been addressed to reduce this phenomenon. The new evaluations of the cross section standards also include covariance matrices of the uncertainties that contain fully justifiable values. The product of this international effort has been adopted as the neutron standards for ENDF/B-VII.0.

2009-12-01

62

EPR meeting international safety standards with margin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification in with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

2005-06-12

63

EPR meeting international safety standards with margin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

2005-09-01

64

Toward an international standard for PCR-based detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacters: Assay development and analytical validation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene were tested in all possible pairwise combinations, as well as two published primers targeting the 23S rRNA gene. A panel of 150 strains including target and nontarget strains was used in an in-house validation. Only one primer pair, OT1559 plus 18-1, was found to be selective. The inclusivity and exclusivity were 100 and 97%, respectively. In an attempt to find a thermostable DNA polymerase more resistant than Taq to PCR inhibitors present in chicken samples, three DNA polymerases were evaluated. The DNA polymerase Tth was not inhibited at a concentration of 2% (vol/vol) chicken carcass rinse, unlike both Taq DNA polymerase and DyNAzyme. Based on these results, Tth was selected as the most suitable enzymefor the assay. The standardized PCR test described shows potential for use in large-scale screening programs for food-borne Campylobacter species under the assay conditions specified.

Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Wolffs, P.

2003-01-01

65

International Business Accounting Standardization and Hungarian Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. This paper showed that both businesses earnings and stock returns effect on the management turnover. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to adopt international accounting standards. Sensitivity of CEO turnover to accounting earnings increased after the adoption of international system. Businesses with higher leverage and lagged sales growth have more frequent employee layoffs. Standards user enterprises’ employee layoffs are more response to accounting performance in the post-adoption period.

Jeno Beke

2010-11-01

66

Highlights of the new international standard on home healthcare devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, leaders of the joint working group that developed a new international standard for medical equipment used in the home healthcare environment report on key provisions of the standard. A new AAMI committee is now considering adopting it as an American National Standard. PMID:22049604

Milamed, Debra R; Lasthaus, Hubertus; Hedley-Whyte, John

2010-01-01

67

International Financial Standards: Assessing Effectiveness from the Private Sector Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper investigates market participants’ endorsement of international financial standards. While the most part of scholarship works has focused on market incentives for states to comply, we shift the focus of the analysis to the incentives for market participants. Why do markets participants choose to follow through the standard and to incorporate states’ compliance with international standards in their investment decisions? In answering this question, the paper develops two hypotheses...

Moschella, Manuela

2009-01-01

68

International Business Accounting Standardization and Hungarian Practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this study is to describe and summarize the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. This paper showed that both bu...

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

69

Business management by international accounting standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards - their contribution to harmonization and globalization by purposing and tasking for business management. The differences between the national accounting rules and the international standards are compared and valued inside and outside of the European Union. The empirical results of measuring and analyzing in details theirs pros and cons effects on the business environment by mathematical-statistical methods there could be the author’s recommendation for the businesses’ management.

Jeno Beke

2010-10-01

70

Standards: An international framework for nuclear safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA, uniquely among international organizations concerned with the use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy, has statutory functions to establish safety standards and to provide for their application in Member States. The IAEA also contributes towards another major element of the 'global safety culture', namely the establishment of legally binding international agreements on safety related issues. (author)

2000-08-01

71

Radiation protection for personnel in international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Electrotechnical Commission' (IEC) Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' of the IEC produces International Standards defining the requirements to which the instrumentation used for the radiation protection must satisfy. The compliance to these requirements is a guaranty of the quality of the instrument, of its good performance in the nuclear environment. Type testing equipment to the recommendations and requirements of the standards also provides the equipment user with reliable and internationally acceptable performance data which they can use for the accurate interpretation and comparisons of their operational measurements

2003-07-01

72

Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standard...

2010-01-01

73

Evaluation of uranium and plutonium internal standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two internal standards have been synthesized and evaluated for application in mass spectrometric analysis of uranium. Each standard is a mixture of highly enriched "2"3"3U and "2"3"6U. One is used to refine "2"3"5U/"2"3"8U ratio measurements and the other for isotope dilution applications. An internal standard consisting of a mixture of "2"4"2Pu and "2"4"4Pu has been characterized for use in plutonium analyses. Precisions obtainable on pulse-counting instruments have been improved to about 0.1%. 21 refs., 13 tabs

1985-01-01

74

FY 1999 Report on the technical results. Research and development project for creation of the quick-effect type international standards (Comprehensive surveys); 1999 nendo sokkogata kokusai hyojun sosei kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Sogo chosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Safety, environment protection and internationality are most important product qualities, and international standardization of product qualities and testing methods are essential for strengthening international competitiveness. Viewed from this angle, the R and D project is conducted to propose the international standards for the following 5 areas related to environment and safety, selected in expectation that the results could be obtained in short time for preparation of the international proposals; (1) standardization of the wireless IC tags for logistics management, (2) standardization of quality and testing methods of automobile fuels and lubricants, (3) research and development for international standards in the field of safety of machinery, (4) standardization of evaluation methods for electronic data security system, and (5) standardization for the safety of light emitting diodes. The results are obtained for preparation of the international standard drafts, interim or final. The activities are directed to promotion of international interchangeability of radio frequency identification (RFID) systems for area (1); to standardization of the systems for emergency stopping/controlling machines for the area (3), to improvement of security evaluation standards of existing information systems for the area (4), and to unification of the ISO/IEC safety standards for the area (5). (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

75

Toward an international standard for PCR-based detection of Escherichia coli O157 - Part 1. Assay development and multi-center validation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As part of a major European research project, a diagnostic PCR assay, including an internal amplification control, was developed and validated in a collaborative trial for the detection of Escherichia coli O157. The assay is based on amplification of sequences of the rJbE O157 gene. The collaborative trial, including 12 international laboratories, was carried out in two phases: phase (a) was performed with identical PCR reagents, including the internal control, provided by the sending laboratory; phase (b) was performed on the same samples and internal control but using in-house PCR reagents of own choice. Phase (a) showed an inclusivity (detection of target strains) of 96.8% and the exclusivity (negative response from nontarget strains) was 100%. The overall performance resulted of phase (a) in an accordance of 98.8, concordance of 98.6, and a concordance odds ratio of 1.11. Phase (b) results showed an accuracy of 100% with all partners and by using different polymerase types and thermocycler models. This indicates that the assay, under consideration as an international standard, was just as reproducible between laboratories, as repeatable within a laboratory. The assay is taken further for validation on carcass-rinse samples.

Abdulmawjood, A.; Bulte, M.

2003-01-01

76

European and International Standards on health and safety in welding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes- Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone - Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

Howe, A, E-mail: alan.howe@hsl.gov.u [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire, SK17 9JN (United Kingdom)

2009-02-01

77

Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. The results of applied regression model support that the greater demand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to performance evaluations at more widely held by businesses stimulating to adopt international accounting standards. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to follow accounting standardization.Key words: Business practice; Accounting standards; Standardization process; Management performances; Comparable research; Hungary

Jeno Beke

2011-02-01

78

Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. The results of applied regression model support that the greater demand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to performance evaluations at more widely held by businesses stimulating to adopt international accounting standards. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to follow accounting standardization.
Key words: Business practice; Accounting standards; Standardization process; Management performances; Comparable research; Hungary

Jeno Beke

2010-12-01

79

Review international standards for grid connected photovoltaic systems in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grid connected PV is being applied on variety application including large centralised stations, commercial building and individual houses. There is a need for specific standard to address distinctive new issue created by grid connected PV power system. Internationally many countries are attempting to develop standards for building integration, Dc side issues and grid connection issues. This paper surveys the current development state of the major countries standards in this area, comparing and contrasting, standards and guideline under development, also addressing the need of standards for grid connected in Malaysia

2006-12-01

80

International Financial Reporting Standards : Expanding Standards, Expanding Geographically, Expanding Literature  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range of educational texts covering IFRS within the context of a review of the progress of IFRS themselves.

Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Results of the Work of the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) (and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)) on the 'Open-EDI Conceptual Model' and Its Importance for EDI Developments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the presentation to the 'World Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Forum' is five-fold; namely: to introduce the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and their responsibiliti...

J. V. T. Knoppers

1991-01-01

82

World Bank environmental guidelines: The new international standard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The World Bank's environmental standards are emerging as the consensus basis for environmental compliance by independent power projects in the developing world. The standards are mandatory for projects financed by The World Bank, whether financed directly, through the International Finance Corporation (IFC), or indirectly, through the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) under programs such as the Expanded Cofinancing Program. However, even for projects financed from other sources, compliance with World Bank environmental standards is becoming a widely recognized and accepted measure of environmental impact that project sponsors are expected to satisfy. Sometimes compliance is required by the host country, which is searching for a meaningful environmental standard in the face of poorly developed or nonexistent local environmental laws. In other instances, developers impose the requirement on themselves as a means of screening project opportunities and assuring investors that they are exercising due diligence to avoid environmental problems down the road. Unfortunately, developers seeking to comply with World Bank environmental standards are leaning that, notwithstanding the seemingly definitive nomenclature, these standards are not always easy to identify. The World Bank's environmental program is still evolving, and there may not be an environmental standard for a particular country or technology. Nevertheless, developers and investors in international projects should attempt to obtain as clear an understanding as possible of applicable environmental standards early in the development process in order to avoid unexpected costs and delays down the road.

Price, C.M.; Goodwin, L.M.; Weiner, K.B. (Reid Priest, Washington, DC (United States))

1994-09-01

83

The international development challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Markets are opening up to international competition and new opportunities will arise for companies. The first part of this international round table of the French gas association's annual conference was devoted to whether they have all necessary assets, especially in terms of know-how and new technologies. In the second part of this round table, gas industry leaders presented their ambitions and strategies on the international scene. The questions discussed related to the main areas of development from both business and geographic viewpoints; to the underlying factors such as expertise, technological know-how, market risks and potential, strategic alliances. (authors)

1998-09-09

84

National and international standards: creation and mutual influence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is empowered in its statue to elaborate safety standards for the sectors of nuclear power utilization and for the development and application of nuclear technologies in order to protect human lives and the environment and to minimize risk. It may apply these standards to its own activities and make them available to interested countries. Although existing standards are not binding upon the member states of IAEA, they are taken into account in national legislation and national regulations to different extents. Moreover, IAEA safety standards have achieved increasing significance in the past few years as a result of their serving as a basis for international agreements. On the way towards a standardized international agreement on safety standards for nuclear facilities, the 'Convention on Nuclear Safety' adopted in 1994 and entered into force in 1996 has achieved model character. On the basis of the experience accumulated with that Safety Convention, the 'Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management' is to become as important to the sector of radioactive materials management. Worldwide progress in the development of comprehensive, internationally acknowledged safety standards not only can help to derive gains in safety from the common background of experience, and to advance joint developments, but also can be instrumental in boosting confidence in nuclear technology worldwide. (orig.)

2001-01-01

85

International standards and quality control procedures applied to nuclear instruments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The survey of international standards related to Nuclear Instrumentation and QC tests was presented. From among the 29'336 active international standards published by such organizations as ISO, IEC, CEN and CENELEC, only 582 are devoted to nuclear instruments. The international classification of standards (ICS) is shown. Also, the list of 582 international standards related to nuclear instruments is attached. (author)

2008-11-01

86

Developing standardized facility contingency plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Texaco consists of several operating departments that are, in effect, independent companies. Each of these departments is responsible for complying with all environmental laws and regulations. This includes the preparation by each facility to respond to an oil spill at that location. For larger spills, however, management of the response will rest with corporate regional response teams. Personnel from all departments make up the regional teams. In 1990, Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act. In 1991, the US Coast Guard began developing oil spill response contingency plan regulations, which they are still working on. Meanwhile, four of the five west coast states have also passed laws requiring contingency plans. (Only Hawaii has chosen to wait and see what the federal regulations will entail). Three of the states have already adopted regulations. Given these laws and regulations, along with its corporate structure, Texaco addressed the need to standardize local facility plans as well as its response organization. This paper discusses how, by working together, the Texaco corporate international oil spill response staff and the Texaco western region on-scene commander developed: A standard contingency plan format crossing corporate boundaries and meeting federal and state requirements. A response organization applicable to any size facility or spill. A strategy to sell the standard contingency plan and response organization to the operating units

1993-04-01

87

Advancements in internationally accepted standards for radiation processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subcommittees of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) are developing standards on various aspects of radiation processing. Nine standards on how to select and calibrate dosimeters, where to put them, how many to use, and how to use individual types of dosimeter systems have been published. The group is also developing standards on how to use gamma, electron beam, and X-ray facilities for radiation processing, and a standard on how to treat dose uncertainties. Efforts are underway to promote inclusion of these standards into procedures now being developed by government agencies and by international groups such as the United Nations' International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in order to harmonize regulations and help avoid trade barriers. Standards on good irradiation practices for meat and poultry and for fresh fruits, and for the irradiation of seafood and spices have been developed. These food-related standards are based on practices previously published by ICGFI. Standards for determining doses for radiation hardness testing of electronics have been developed. Standards on the Fricke and TLD dosimetry systems are equally useful in other radiation processing applications. (Author)

1993-01-01

88

EPA STANDARDS NETWORK FACT SHEET: ISO 14000: INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS  

Science.gov (United States)

This flyer provides an overview of the ISO 14000 series of International standards, supplying a brief history, structure of the Technical Committee (TC) 207, structure of the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to ISO TC-207, status of the Standards development as of June 1997, w...

89

International Standards in the Field of Power Electronics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To understand standards in the field of power electronics, the organization of IEC(International Electrotechnical Commission)and the related international standards are described in this paper. All the international standards related to power electronics have been prepared by IEC Technical Committee No. 22 : Power Electronics. Also, the structure of standards and the standardization history in Korea are briefly presented. (author). 2 refs.

Hong, S.C.; Yoo, Y.S.; Cha, M.; Seo, Y.M. [Dankook University (Korea, Republic of); Park, Y.J. [Wonju Junior College (Korea, Republic of)

1997-04-01

90

Renewal Through Internal Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The product portfolios of the west European and US economies are aging as their firms have not been able to develop new business in growth areas fast enough. This has lowered the growth rate of the Western economies. This is a study of major Swedish companies that have renewed their product portfolios by internal development. Some of the ventures have been developed into successful business areas, which have guaranteed the survival of the company, others have failed. The book include case stu...

Segelod, Esbjo?rn

1995-01-01

91

Domestic and International Nuclear Energy Voluntary Consensus Standards Needs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report introduces the reader to the domestic and international standards development organizations (SDOs) and their structures and operations. It also identifies some of the support and subject matter needs for the development of standards on the subject of nuclear energy. The support needs are described with regard to organizational structure and subject-matter-expert (SME) participation that is required for producing voluntary consensus standards. The subject matter needs are described with regard to growing technologies and objectives that approach the boundaries of existing standards; implementation of knowledge; and safety of people, facilities, and the environment. Standards are proposed, developed, and produced by SMEs with the support of industry and government organizations. The voluntary consensus standards development process is, as its name implies, a voluntary effort. The problem in today's competitive market, impacted by global economic uncertainty, is that the voluntary participation is shifting from a collaborative industry and SME effort to a nearly SME-only one. This shift places a financial and/or time burden on the SMEs to the point that they are purposely withdrawing from the standards development process, both domestically and internationally. The standards development process desperately needs participation from more and younger SMEs. The report includes several suggestions on how this can be addressed.

2013-01-01

92

International Standards of Corporate Social Responsibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with internationally acknowledged standards and norms in the sphere of corporate socialresponsibility. It introduces the concept of social responsibility, the so-called triple-bottom line, in terms ofwhich the company focuses not only on the economic growth but it also takes into account environmental andsocial aspects of its business activities. The article presents five norms and standards which stem from the triplebottomline concept. The norms and standards are in the article briefly characterised, which is followed by theircomparison based on four previously stated criteria. The results of the comparison show that there is no suchnorm which would meet current company requirements.This paper resulted from contribution to a research project IGA FEM CULS 201011140057 "ModernManagement Approaches in the Field of Higher Education in the Czech Republic"

L. Stanislavská

2010-12-01

93

Thirty years of international nuclear standards in ISO and IEC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of over 4700 nuclear and radiation protection standards, laws, regulations, recommendations, etc., which have been issued by 52 countries and several governmental international organizations such as IAEA, or non-government organizations such as ICRP, ICRU, ISO and IEC, more than 90% are national, and more than half of those of a non-regulatory nature. Both number and importance of international standards are, however, increasing. The two most important non-governmental international standards organizations are the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which founded a Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' with several Sub-Committees in 1957, and the closely associated International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) with its TC 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' formed in 1960. There are over 20 member countries actively participating in the work in each of them, with additional observer countries and liaison to the relevant other international organizations. A brief review is given on some of the experience which has been gained by ISO/TC 85 and IEC/TC 45, and its work program and accomplishments, considering in particular recent developments. It covers nuclear safety and instrumentation, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as interface issues including definitions and terminology, interaction of the activities with the work of other national and international bodies, etc. Some problem areas are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

1991-06-01

94

Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James\\'s Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents—Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups—Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media.

Mee, Blanaid

2013-02-19

95

Coordinate Standard Measurement Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Shelton Precision Interferometer Base, which is used for calibration of coordinate standards, was improved through hardware replacement, software geometry error correction, and reduction of vibration effects. Substantial increases in resolution and reliability, as well as reduction in sampling time, were achieved through hardware replacement; vibration effects were reduced substantially through modification of the machine component dampening and software routines; and the majority of the machine's geometry error was corrected through software geometry error correction. Because of these modifications, the uncertainty of coordinate standards calibrated on this device has been reduced dramatically.

Hanshaw, R.A.

2000-02-18

96

Contributions of non-governmental international organizations to nuclear standardization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of over 4700 nuclear and radiation protection standards, laws, regulations, recommendations, etc., which have been issued by 52 countries and several governmental international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (OECD/NEA) or the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), or non-governmental organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International Commission on Radiation Units (ICRU), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), more than 90% are national, and more than one-half of those of a non-regulatory nature. Both the number and importance of international standards are, however, increasing. The two most important non-governmental international standards organizations are the ISO, which founded the Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'' with several subcommittees in 1957, and the closely associated IEC with its TC 45 ''Nuclear Instrumentation'' formed in 1966. There are over 20 member countries actively participating in the work in each of them, with additional observer countries and liaisons to the other relevant international organizations such as the IAEA. A brief review is given of some of the experience which has been gained by ISO/TC 85 and IEC/TC 45, and its work programme and accomplishments, considering, in particular, recent developments during the October 1988 Plenary Meetings of both IEC/TC 45 and ISO/TC 85. The paper covers nuclear safety and instrumentation, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as interface issues including definitions and terminology, interaction of the activities with the work of other national and international organizations, etc. Some problem areas are also briefly discussed. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

1988-11-07

97

Internal Standards For FTIR Analysis Of Isocyanurates  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentration of isocyanurate in polyurethane foam measured. Quantitative analysis important because concentration of isocyanurate affects chemical and physical properties of foam, and correlations between concentration and properties used to optimize foam formulations. Use of potassium ferricyanide as internal standard extended to other infrared spectral analyses of solids in which quantitative results required. Eliminates need to know thickness of sample. Synthesis of triphenylisocyanurate extended to production of pure compounds from substituted phenylisocyanates added to test foam formulations to determine improvements in thermal properties with pure or substituted triphenylisocyanurate.

Solomon, William C.; Pratz, Earl; Smith, Doris A.

1993-01-01

98

The relationship between the new IIA Standards and the internal auditing profession  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Institute of Internal Auditors is in the process of developing new standards for the internal auditing profession. The first set of these standards will be implemented with effect from 1 January 2002. The purpose of professional standards is to lay down the minimum requirements to be maintained for acceptable practice. In June 1999, a new formal definition of internal auditing was adopted to address relevant issues with which internal auditing is currently faced. Existing standards, when ...

2001-01-01

99

Method for developing environmental standards  

Method for developing environmental standards Under the guidance of the UK Technical Advisory Group (UKTAG), UK environment and conservation agencies have worked to develop the best technical view for the standards and conditions supporting the achievement of good ecological status. UKTAG is developing

100

Radiation protection: Implementation of the new international basic safety standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO, were published early in 1996. The new Standards incorporate the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, including the new dose limit to apply to occupational exposure to radiation. The background and justification for the new Standards is described, together with an outline of their principal requirements. The IAEA has embarked on major programmes of work to develop practical guidance on implementing the requirements of the Standards and to assist a number of Member States to establish effective legislative frameworks for administering national regulations concerning radiation protection and radioactive waste safety. It is hoped to have this work substantially completed by the year 2000. A brief review of these programmes is presented. (author).

Mason, G. C. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

1997-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effect of standards on new equipment design by new international standards and industry restraints  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of international standards to further trade is one of the objectives of creating a standard. By having form fit and function compatible the free interchange of manufactured goods can be handled without hindrance. Unfortunately by setting up standards that are peculiar to a particular country or district it is possible to exclude competition from a group of manufacturers. A major effort is now underway to develop international laser standards. In the May I 990 issue of Laser Focus World Donald R. Johnson the director of industrial technology services for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST formerly the National Bureau of Standards) is quoted as follows: " The common means of protectionism has been through certification for the market place. " The article goes on to say " Mr. Johnson expects this tradition to continue and that the new European Community (EC) will demand not just safety standards but performance standards as well. . . . the American laser industry must move very quickly on this issue or risk being left behind the European standards bandwagon. " The article continues laser companies must get involved in the actual standards negotiating process if they are to have a say in future policy. A single set of standards would reduce the need to repeatedly recalibrate products for different national markets. " As a member of ISO TC-72 SC9 I am

Endelman, Lincoln L.

1991-01-01

102

The status and development of PQ standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview of power quality standards was presented with reference to the role of power quality standards, why we need the standards, and what type of standards are needed for each type of power quality concern. Several slides addressed issue regarding who develops power quality standards, the structure and basis for standards, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and their activities, the International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRE) and technical input for standards development, and some important recent developments in power quality standards. Some of these developments were presented in greater detail. For example, emission limits for disturbing installations were critically reviewed along with several concepts such as compatibility levels, voltage characteristics, planning levels, and harmonics. Results of harmonics surveys and recommended harmonics indices were also discussed. Charts on recommended voltage characteristics, recommended planning levels, and voltage total harmonic distribution were provided and existing flicker recommendations, levels and indices were identified. The subject of unbalance was also examined in terms of existing recommendations, levels and indices. Last, the presentation examined voltage quality definitions, measurements, voltage sags and interruptions, voltage dips and recommendations. tabs., figs.

McGranaghan, M. [EPRI Solutions, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

2006-07-01

103

Standards development status. Summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Standards Development Status Summary Report is designed for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the process by which Regulatory Standards, Guides, Reports, Petitions, and Environmental Statements are written. It is a summary of the current schedule plans for development of the above products

1981-01-01

104

International standardization of instruments for neutron irradiation tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JMTR in JAEA and HANARO in KAERI are the foremost testing/research reactors in the world and these are expected to contribute to many nuclear fields. As a part of instrument development in irradiation field, information exchange of instruments started from 2010 under the cooperation agreements between KAERI and JAEA. The instruments developed in JMTR and HANARO are introduced and cooperation experiments as future plan are discussed for international standardization. (author)

2012-12-01

105

Recommended International General Standard for Irradiated Food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several (at present 22) countries have permitted the irradiation of one or more (altogether 39) foods for trade and human consumption. The clearances of these foods by the respective health authorities have generally been based on extensive wholesomeness studies. Many governments have been reluctant, however, to permit irradiation of food for human consumption and to permit trade of irradiated foods within their jurisdiction. Many individuals have felt that these restrictions were unreasonable hindrances to the free trade of wholesome food, and obstacles to the advancement of useful technology and the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Scientists, by their recommendations at scientific meetings, persuaded the international agencies, i.e. the United Nations’ Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to consider these matters. These organizations have stimulated exchange of scientific results, and have organized meetings dealing with these matters. Since 1971 they have sponsored, together with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and 27 participating countries, the International Food Irradiation Project (IFIP).

1981-09-01

106

Pronuclear scoring. Time for international standardization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zygote scoring is an efficient tool for embryo selection not only in countries where embryo selection is not permitted. Several different scoring systems have been published so far, making comparisons of assessments between investigators and laboratories extremely difficult. Pronuclear evaluation should be standardized in a manner analogous to the standardization of cleavage stage embryo scoring or of semen evaluation by the World Health Organization. The ideal score should be clear and easily applicable. The items that have the greatest influence on embryonic development seem to be alignment and size of pronuclei, alignment and number of nucleoli, halo effect and appearance of vacuoles. These morphologic parameters can be observed in different features and can be summarized as a zygote score. PMID:12815911

Zollner, Ursula; Zollner, Klaus-Peter; Steck, Thomas; Dietl, Johannes

2003-05-01

107

International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography  

Science.gov (United States)

The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

2010-03-01

108

Updated comparison of international standards for polymer piping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Responding to a request by ASME B31 Committee, Code for Pressure Piping, to assist in the development of guidelines for establishing uniform manufacturing and design requirements for plastic piping, the Committee on Polymers for Pressure Components of the Pressure Vessel Research Council, initiated a literature survey and interpretive study on plastic piping. This paper discusses existing methods used for designing plastic piping systems and their components by comparing major international codes and standards. The study recognizes that thermoplastic and reinforces thermosetting resins require different design criteria. ASME standards reviewed include ASME B31.3, B31.1, RTP-1 and Section X of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes. Particular emphasis was given to ASME B31.3 Code for Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping. Chapter VII of the ASME B31.3 Code covers non-metallic piping and metallic piping lined with non-metals and establishes much of the design basis for non-metallic piping design covered in other Sections of the B31 Code. ASTM documents discussed are limited to those referenced in ASME B31. British Standard Code for glass reinforced plastics piping system, BS7159, as well as, the German standard for thermoplastic piping systems DVS2210 were used for comparison to U.S. Standards. A cursory review of other standards is also included for the development of a uniform industry standard for plastic piping systems. (authors) 20 refs.

Leon, G.F. [Electric Boat Corporation, Groton, Connecticut (United States); Short, W.E. [Pressure Systems Engineering, Wilmington, Delaware (United States); Otto Widera, G.E. [Marquette Univ., Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

1996-12-31

109

Updated comparison of international standards for polymer piping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Responding to a request by ASME B31 Committee, Code for Pressure Piping, to assist in the development of guidelines for establishing uniform manufacturing and design requirements for plastic piping, the Committee on Polymers for Pressure Components of the Pressure Vessel Research Council, initiated a literature survey and interpretive study on plastic piping. This paper discusses existing methods used for designing plastic piping systems and their components by comparing major international codes and standards. The study recognizes that thermoplastic and reinforces thermosetting resins require different design criteria. ASME standards reviewed include ASME B31.3, B31.1, RTP-1 and Section X of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes. Particular emphasis was given to ASME B31.3 Code for Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping. Chapter VII of the ASME B31.3 Code covers non-metallic piping and metallic piping lined with non-metals and establishes much of the design basis for non-metallic piping design covered in other Sections of the B31 Code. ASTM documents discussed are limited to those referenced in ASME B31. British Standard Code for glass reinforced plastics piping system, BS7159, as well as, the German standard for thermoplastic piping systems DVS2210 were used for comparison to U.S. Standards. A cursory review of other standards is also included for the development of a uniform industry standard for plastic piping systems. (authors)

1996-09-17

110

Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Non halogen nannen cable no shiken hoho kaihatsu narabini cable kikaku no kento  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As for halogen-free flame-retardant cables with high recyclability and safety (HFFR cables), the development is being promoted in many countries as a next generation cable. The standard of HFFR cables has been set up by some countries and groups in the U.S. and Europe, but the international standard has not yet been established independently. The purpose of this R and D is the development of a test method to appropriately evaluate the performance of HFFR cables and its standardization, and the proposal of the international standardization on common items of the cable standard. A study group was sent to the U.S. and Europe to investigate the development, application status and test methods of the HFFR cable overseas. The ion chromatography and FT-IR method were studied as methods to evaluate corrosivity/toxicity of the gases emitted in combustion. The performance of HFFR cables in Japan and abroad was also evaluated mainly by IEC standards. Further, considering the results of the overseas surveys, the structure and details of the international standard plan on HFFR cables were studied, and approaches to the international standardization were studied. 32 refs., 31 figs., 54 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

111

International implications of nuclear Q.A. standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work of the International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) in the field of Quality Assurance is aimed at preparing a Code of Practice covering recommendations on safety aspects only which is designed to be usable by all nations. This Code is followed up by a series of Safety Guides as aids to developing nations faced with the need to regulate and assure safety, reliability and quality. The I.A.E.A. Code is not written as a mandatory document and it can only recommend and therefore the term 'should' is used throughout. The International Organization for Standardization (I.S.O.) is concerned with producing standards and as such the proposed I.S.O. draft standard on 'Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants' is written in mandatory language, it uses the word 'shall'. The I.S.O. standard will also cover not only safety aspects but also those of a successfully operating nuclear power plant. The I.S.O. Working Group is charged with producing standards on quality assurance covering the design, procurement, fabrication, construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning of structure, systems and components of nuclear power plants. The work of both organizations is discussed briefly. (author)

1976-10-21

112

Development of plant assessment standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future of nuclear power in the United Kingdom depends on the building of new plant. In order to secure that future, nuclear power must gain public and political confidence in terms of both safety and cost. It is therefore important that Nuclear Electric plc (NE), who operates the majority of nuclear power plants in the UK, maintains its impeccable safety record. It is also very important in the current climate to drive down costs in order for the electricity produced by NE's existing power stations to be lower than that from fossil fuels. Therefore, in view of the pressure to demonstrate compliance with modern safety standards at existing nuclear power stations, it is important that any financial investments should be targeted at cost/safety benefit effective areas. The paper outlines the history of the development of plant safety assessment standards in the company and how the current framework is allowing NE to approach modern safety standards in an effective manner. NE operates 11 gas cooled nuclear power plants, with ages ranging from 6 to 31 years. Early reactors in the UK were not designed against detailed standards. Initially, this was not a problem, but, as more complex designs were introduced, the debate with the regulator over the adequacy of the design led to modifications and costly delays. Design safety guidelines were developed for later reactors and used as a contractual specification of the safety requirements. This has proved to be a successful approach for the latest stations at Heysham 2 and Sizewell B. The standards that NE has developed for reviewing the safety of its operating stations are consistent with the standards of the regulatory authorities. These standards provide a systematic framework for targeting areas for any safety improvement and demonstrating that risk are as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), in a way that ensures that NE, and hence also the consumer, gets value for money. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs

1994-09-05

113

Development of Standard Digital Images for Pneumoconiosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We developed the standard digital images (SDIs) to be used in the classification and recognition of pneumoconiosis. From July 3, 2006 through August 31, 2007, 531 retired male workers exposed to inorganic dust were examined by digital (DR) and analog radiography (AR) on the same day, after being approved by our institutional review board and obtaining informed consent from all participants. All images were twice classified according to the International Labour Office (ILO) 2000 guidelines wit...

Lee, Won-jeong; Choi, Byung-soon; Kim, Sung Jin; Park, Choong-ki; Park, Jai-soung; Tae, Seok; Hering, Kurt Georg

2011-01-01

114

The development of criticality accident alarm system standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief summary of the historical development of criticality accident alarm system standards since the 1966 meeting of the American Nuclear Society is presented. Technological developments and improvements in standard ANS 8.3 in recent years have lead to a national standard and an international standard providing similar and compatible guidance for the installation, maintenance, and use of criticality alarm systems, and an international standard providing guidance on specification and testing characteristics of equipment to be used in such systems. Suggestions for further improving the standard, specifically, clarification of the detection criteria and evacuation procedures, are discussed

1988-09-20

115

Enabling Exploration Through the International Docking System Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will likely require international cooperation in order to leverage limited resources. International standards can help enable cooperative missions by providing well understood, predefined interfaces allowing compatibility between unique spacecraft and systems. The International Space Station (ISS) partnership has developed a publically available International Docking System Standard (IDSS) that provides a solution to one of these key interfaces by defining a common docking interface. The docking interface provides a way for even dissimilar spacecraft to dock for exchange of crew and cargo, as well as enabling the assembly of large space systems. This paper provides an overview of the key attributes of the IDSS, an overview of the NASA Docking System (NDS), and the plans for updating the ISS with IDSS compatible interfaces. The NDS provides a state of the art, low impact docking system that will initially be made available to commercial crew and cargo providers. The ISS will be used to demonstrate the operational utility of the IDSS interface as a foundational technology for cooperative exploration.

Hatfield, Caris A.

2011-01-01

116

Developing Standards for Constitutional Change.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maintains that the principle of self-restraint that has marked the amending practices since the creation of the U.S. Constitution may be in danger of being forgone. Offers eight standards developed by the Citizens for the Constitution that are designed to weigh the desirability of proposed amendments. (CMK)

Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

1998-01-01

117

International safety standards for radioactive waste management and decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (the Agency) is mandated to develop safety standards for nuclear, radiation, waste and transport safety. With the entry into force of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, internationally endorsed safety standards for waste management safety and decommissioning take on a more significant role. The safety standards are made up of fundamental principles, applicable to all waste management activities and facilities, safety requirements for particular facilities and activities and safety guides on compliance with the requirements. Radioactive waste from all types of nuclear activities or applications needs to be managed safely in the period before it is finally disposed of. Experience exists in this area, and procedures for safe pre-disposal management are well established in most areas. Nevertheless, there are a number of safety related issues that require attention, namely, the processing of legacy waste, the safety implications of longer storage of radioactive waste when repositories are not available or are built in a way that allows waste retrieval, the need for improved characterization and quality assurance of waste, the adoption of holistic national strategies for waste management and the assessment and demonstration of safety of predisposal waste management activities and facilities. The Agency is establishing safety standards covering the activities and facilities of pre-disposal radioactive waste management in which these safety issues are being addressed. Recognising the developments taking place around the world in the area of geological disposal, the Member States of the Agency agreed that the process of developing safety standards for these facilities should be accelerated. The safety requirements for geological disposal are now published and guidance on compliance is under development. Effluent discharges have the potential to cause national and transboundary impacts on people and the environment, and it is therefore important that internationally agreed standards and procedures are in place to control them - guidance on radioactive discharge control, e.g. setting discharge limits and continuing review of national and international trends is under implementation. IAEA safety standards provide guidance reflecting prevailing best practice and coherent with contemporary radiation protection principles and IAEA safety requirements, on the strategy of monitoring in relation to: (a) control of radionuclide discharges under practice conditions, and (b) intervention. IAEA Standards on monitoring cover three categories of monitoring: monitoring at the source of the discharge (source monitoring), monitoring in the environment (environmental monitoring) and monitoring of individual exposure in emergencies (individual monitoring). General guidance is also provided on assessment of the doses to critical groups of the population due to the presence of radioactive materials or radiation fields in the environment both from practice and from intervention activities. Decommissioning of a wide range of facilities using radioactive material (from nuclear power plants to small research laboratories) is increasing worldwide. In view of the increasing importance of decommissioning in Member States, a specific high level safety standard (a Safety Requirement) has been developed on the safety of decommissioning that provides a focal point for the subject. Existing guidance is under review to ensure consistency with the new Safety Requirements. The paper elaborates on the safety standards for waste management and decommissioning, their development process and their role in the global nuclear safety regime. (author)

2010-05-01

118

On the Construction of China’s Accounting Standard System with International Convergence in Accounting Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the international convergence of accounting standards becoming an irresistible trend, China’s new businessaccounting standards have reached substantive convergence with International Financial Report Standards(IFRS. However, due to some factors including economy, law and culture, there is still a narrow gap betweenchina’s accounting standards and IFRS. In order to further keep up with IFRS, China should attach greaterimportance to learning from it to establish or implement its accounting standards.

Hongman Zhang

2010-03-01

119

The Inclusion of Standard Terms in International Sales Contracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it isnecessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be madeavailable to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems, namely that a clear incorporation clause in the contract is sufficient for the effective incorporation of standard terms. The author critically examines the case law, the various approaches and the underlying arguments on which they are based, before reaching the conclusion that the two extreme approaches should be rejected in favour of the more moderate approach. This approach is founded on aproper interpretation of the provisions of the CISG as well as being in step with international trade practice.

S Eiselen

2011-04-01

120

The new international standard ISO 14001: 2004 environmental management system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ISO 14001 is one standard in the ISO 14000 series of standards developed by International Organization of Standardization (ISO). Since it was published in 19096, it has rapidly become the most important environmental standard in the world. ISO 14001 is an environmental management system (EMS) that can be classified into environmental technologies provides a systematic procedure to all kind of organizations to prevent pollutions, protect environment and to improve their overall environmental performance. This new standard ISO 14001 2004 was published on November 15, 2004. It cancels and replaced the old ISO 14001-1996. Because the important of the previous standard for our local industries, firms, ...etc, this paper presents ISO 14001 concepts, issues, benefits and focuses on the stages of implementation to achieve ISO 14001-2004 certification which includes general requirements environmental policy, planning (objectives, targets ..), implementation and operations, checking and management review ...etc and presents how to apply isotop time saver software to design records, and to save time to implement ISO 14001 2004 and finally a conclusion is provided.(Author)

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

AUDIT OF FINANCIAL REPORTS, BASED ON INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article are given main notion about international standard of financial reporting, order of the auditing on the base of IFRS, scheduling the report of the auditor, auditor conclusions and are given analysis of reporting based on the auditor procedures. At the audit of financial reporting are taken into account international standard to financial reporting 29 "Financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies".

Islom Kuziev

2013-01-01

122

International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

1997-01-01

123

78 FR 11793 - Minimum Internal Control Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...number for each financial instrument storage component...forwarded to accounting or placed in...department (cage or accounting) for reconciliation...Kiosk count standards. (1) Access...stored full kiosk financial instrument storage...

2013-02-20

124

NASA Occupant Protection Standards Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) occupant protection standards and requirements are based on extrapolations of biodynamic models, which were based on human tests performed under pre-Space Shuttle human flight programs where the occupants were in different suit and seat configurations than is expected for the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and Commercial Crew programs. As a result, there is limited statistical validity to the occupant protection standards. Furthermore, the current standards and requirements have not been validated in relevant spaceflight suit, seat configurations or loading conditions. The objectives of this study were to develop new standards and requirements for occupant protection and rigorously validate these new standards with sub-injurious human testing. To accomplish these objectives we began by determining which critical injuries NASA would like to protect for. We then defined the anthropomorphic test device (ATD) and the associated injury metrics of interest. Finally, we conducted a literature review of available data for the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint New Technology (THOR-NT) ATD to determine injury assessment reference values (IARV) to serve as a baseline for further development. To better understand NASA s environment, we propose conducting sub-injurious human testing in spaceflight seat and suit configurations with spaceflight dynamic loads, with a sufficiently high number of subjects to validate no injury during nominal landing loads. In addition to validate nominal loads, the THOR-NT ATD will be tested in the same conditions as the human volunteers, allowing correlation between human and ATD responses covering the Orion nominal landing environment and commercial vehicle expected nominal environments. All testing will be conducted without the suit and with the suit to ascertain the contribution of the suit to human and ATD responses. In addition to the testing campaign proposed, additional data analysis is proposed to mine existing human injury and response data from other sources, including military volunteer testing, automotive Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN), and IndyCar impact and injury data. These data sources can allow a better extrapolation of the ATD responses to off-nominal conditions above the nominal range that can safely be tested. These elements will be used to develop injury risk functions for each of the injury metrics measured from the ATD. These risk functions would serve as the basis for the NASA standards. Finally, we propose defining standard test methodology for evaluating future spacecraft designs against the IARVs, including developing a star-rating system to allow crew safety comparisons between vehicles.

Somers, Jeffrey T.; Gernhardt, Michael A.; Lawrence, Charles

2011-01-01

125

FY 1999 Report on the technical results. Research and development project for quick-effect type international standards for creating new industries (Standardization of the wireless IC tags for logistics management); 1999 nendo sokkogata kokusai hyojun sosei kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Butsuryuyo musen IC tag no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spread/expansion of the radio frequency identification (RFID) system application technologies needs the international standards. In order to internationally promote spread/expansion of the RFID system application technologies, Japan has established the examination promotion organization with the participation of the advanced Japanese makers in development of the RFID technologies, representative application users of the distribution logistics and RFID technology standardization deliberative council. The elementary and application RFID technologies are studied and developed, and the results are demonstrated. The organization plans to propose the application requirement profile (ARP) specification drafts to WD (WI/18001) of the ARP, currently deliberated by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC31/WG4/ARP of International Standardization Organization. The organization also plans to submit the Air Interface specification drafts with frequencies of 125kHz and 2.54GHz to the WD (WI/18000) of JTC1/SC31/WG4/SG3. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

126

International Standardization of the Clinical Dosimetry of Beta Radiation Brachytherapy Sources: Progress of an ISO Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2004 a new work item proposal (NWIP) was accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 85 (TC85 -- Nuclear Energy), Subcommittee 2 (Radiation Protection) for the development of a standard for the clinical dosimetry of beta radiation sources used for brachytherapy. To develop this standard, a new Working Group (WG 22 - Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry and Protocols in Medical Applications) was formed. The standard is based on the work of an ad-hoc working group initiated by the Dosimetry task group of the Deutsches Insitiut für Normung (DIN). Initially the work was geared mainly towards the needs of intravascular brachytherapy, but with the decline of this application, more focus has been placed on the challenges of accurate dosimetry for the concave eye plaques used to treat ocular melanoma. Guidance is given for dosimetry formalisms, reference data to be used, calibrations, measurement methods, modeling, uncertainty determinations, treatment planning and reporting, and clinical quality control. The document is currently undergoing review by the ISO member bodies for acceptance as a Committee Draft (CD) with publication of the final standard expected by 2007. There are opportunities for other ISO standards for medical dosimetry within the framework of WG22.

Soares, Christopher

2006-03-01

127

International comparison of standard-materials. 4. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present manual the metallic materials standardized in the highly developed industrial countries of the world and by regional and international standards bodies are compared with the German materials standardized in DIN or the Steel Iron Material Sheets (StEWb1.). The indication of chemical composition and mechanical properties also allows to compare materials of other countries with one another, even if the categories of equivalence indicated only refer to the basis of the German materials. Through a comprehensive list of all short designations or steel grades indicating the corresponding pages and the relevant standards, a quik identificatin of material indications in the drawings is possible. Where the information contained in this manual about the individual materials is not sufficient, it will be possible to procure the corresponding material standard. This issue contains the material groups steel and iron for the applications in automobile, machinery, equipment and vessel production, in the electrical and chemical industries. Boiler plates (plates and strips in heat-resisting steel) according to DIN 17155 have not been dealt with, because the comparability does not dependend on the physical properties e.g. tensile strength, welding performance, bending strength brittle fracture behaviour etc., but additional instructions for equipment to be supervised have to be observed (in Germany, these are TRD, TRG and TRB). (orig./MM)

1992-01-01

128

THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS IN FIELDS OF APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According International Classification for Standards (ICS Application of Information Technology is ranged in frame of group ICS=35.240, with 280 ISO or ISO/IEC and 45 IEC standards. In the paper is presented analysis of ISO, ISO/IEC and IEC standards for Application of Information Technology and structure Technical Committee (TC for fields of Information Technology

Predrag DASIC

2012-11-01

129

Interrogating Identity: The International Standard School in Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the impact of the International Standard School (ISS) on the identity of Indonesia as a postcolonial nation. According to the Indonesian Ministry of National Education, an ISS is "a school which complies with the National Standard of Education and enriches its standards from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

Sakhiyya, Zulfa

2011-01-01

130

Department for International Development  

Mar 31, 2010 ... The effects of global climate change will have serious implications for many ... \\Built capacity to integrate adaptation into stronger development plans and ... to \\help poor farmers respond to climate change;; support new water ...

131

Nuclear Data Center International Standard Towards TSO Initiative  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear Data Center is the main facility for Nuclear Malaysia Agency IT infrastructure comprising of main critical servers, research and operational data storage, HPC-clusters system and vital network core equipment. In recent years, international body such as TIA-Telecommunication Industry Association and Up time Institute have came out with proper international data center standards in order to ensure data center operation on achieving maximum operational up time and minimal downtime. The standard are currently being rated as tier level ranging from Data Center tier I up to tier IV, differentiate by facility standard and up time/ downtime percentage ratio. This paper will discuss Nuclear Data Center adopting international standards in supporting Nuclear Malaysia TSO initiative thus ensuring the critical core component of agency IT services availability and further more International standard recognitions. (author)

2011-09-13

132

Standardization of information systems development processes and banking industry adaptations  

CERN Document Server

This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms of compliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards to determine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into system development and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected. Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classical Waterfall life cycle model. Each question is made up of guidance and suggestions from the international system development standards. To collect data, people from the information technology departments of three major banks in Turkey were interviewed. Results have been aggregated by examining the current process status of the three banks together. Problematic issues were identified using the international system development standards.

Tanrikulu, Zuhal

2011-01-01

133

International Standardization of Pure Beta Emitters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the traditional methods of standardization of Pure Beta Emitters, their principal characteristics, advantage and drawbacks. It does comparisons between two metrological LSC methods: Triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method and the CIEMAT/NIST method and presents the result obtained with several Key Comparisons serving as practical test of both methods. Both of them represent the siferrit of methods of standardization of pure (and mixed decay) radionuclides. ESIR WG of CCRI(II) is to implement a reference exchange system for the permanent equivalence of ?, ? and electron capture nuclides, similar to traditional SIR gamma. ESIR project is currently testing a new XAN scintillator and operational tests of the whole system at BIPM are expected by the end of 2006 (test restricted to ESIR NMI members)

2006-03-22

134

Development of International Tourism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The total equivalent of exports, generated from the inbound tourism, including transportation of passengers, exceeded $ 1 trillion in 2010 or about $3 billion a day.Tourism and accompanying services for export are about 30 % of commercial services’ world export and 6 % of total goods and services’ export. Tourism as an export category, is ranked 4th in the world after the export of fuel, chemicals and automotive products. For many developing countries it is a major source of foreign currency earnings and is ranked 1st among export gaining that creates many job placements and opportunities for further economic development.

A. G. Zima

2011-12-01

135

CSNI International standard problems (ISP). Brief descriptions (1975-1999)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last twenty-five years the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored a considerable number of international activities to promote the exchange of experience between its Member countries in the use of nuclear safety codes and testing materials. A primary goal of these activities is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. International Standard Problems (ISPs) exercises are comparative exercises in which predictions or recalculations of a given physical problem with different best-estimate computer code are compared with each other and above all with the results of a carefully specified experimental study. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. In an open Standard Problem exercise the results of the experiment are available to the participants before performing the calculations, while in a blind Standard Problem exercise the experimental results are locked until the calculation results are made available for comparison. The CSNI-promoted ISP activity started in the early 70's and is still underway. Parallel to other national and international programs the CSNI has sponsored over more than 25 years forty-seven International Standard Problem exercises. This program has been focused mainly on the applicability of large thermal-hydraulic code systems simulating the behaviour of nuclear coolant and containment systems, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, hydrogen distribution, core-concrete interactions and fission product release and transport. One ISP exercise was organised in connection with a seismic ultimate dynamic response test. ISP exercises have proven to be very valuable to participating countries. They have been fruitful to identify code application problems and to amplify the contacts between the experimental and analytical working communities on an international level. Moreover, they enable code users to improve their ability, gain experience and demonstrate their competence. Technical proposals originating from laboratories in 13 countries were submitted and adopted serving as experimental background for the international activity. An activity complementary to the ISP programme but not directly related to it is the establishment of comprehensive sets of experimental data for use in validating proper code application by experts other than code developers. Known as a Code Validation Matrix, the results of such an extensive list of experiments are collected and stored in the NEA Data Bank for the purpose that they be made available to Member countries wishing to validate relevant codes. ISP tests are important elements of validation matrices for thermal-hydraulic codes. In the field of containment behaviour it has been recommended to preferably base a general code validation matrix on containment-related ISPs as well. The way of organizing ISP exercises has been described in CSNI Report No. 17, CSNI Standard Problem Procedures, revised for the third time in November 1989. The following report in some detail summarises the main objectives, the underlying experimental background and the main findings and conclusions of the ISPs to provide interested groups an overview on the accumulated experience in this matter. The document, which has been reviewed by members of CSNI's Principal Working on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2) and Principal Working on Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases (PWG4), summarises systematically the main features of all International Standard Problem exercises organised so far, from ISP-1 to ISP-43, namely: - Objectives of the ISP; - Brief Description of the Facility; - Scaling Information; - Parameters Offered for Comparison; - Dominating Experimental Uncertainties; - Findings; - Recommendations; - Total Duration of the ISP exercise; - Participation; - CSNI Report Reference

2000-01-01

136

Development of standard reference samples for diffractometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, samples of standard reference materials for diffractometry of polycrystals were developed. High-purity materials were submitted to mechanical and thermal treatments in order to present the adequate properties to be used as high-quality standard reference materials for powder diffraction, comparable to the internationally recognized produced by the USA National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST, but at lower costs. The characterization of the standard materials was performed by measurements in conventional X-ray diffraction diffractometers, high resolution neutron diffraction and high-resolution synchrotron diffraction. The lattice parameters were calculated by extrapolation of the values obtained from each X-ray reflection against cos2? by the Least-Squares Method. The adjustments were compared to the values obtained by the Rietveld Method, using program GSAS. The materials thus obtained were the ?-alumina, yttrium oxide, silicon, cerium oxide, lanthanum hexaboride and lithium fluoride. The standard reference materials produced present quality similar or, in some cases, superior to the standard reference materials produced and commercialized by the NIST. (author)

2011-01-01

137

SOLVIT AND EU INTERNAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Even though we are in full crisis period, Europeans live in their countries in wonderful places in terms of security, health and wellbeing. As shown by the Human Development Index (HDI, conducted by UN Development Program (UNDP which includes indicators such as life expectancy, literacy, education and standard of living, Europeans have the highest standards on the planet. Six of the ten most developed countries in the world are in Europe. EU assistance and advice services are accessed by the European citizens to find concrete answers and solutions to the problems they face on the European internal market.

EMILIAN M. DOBRESCU

2014-05-01

138

International Standard for a Linguistic Annotation Framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the Linguistic Annotation Framework under development within ISO TC37 SC4 WG1. The Linguistic Annotation Framework is intended to serve as a basis for harmonizing existing language resources as well as developing new ones.

Romary, Laurent; Ide, Nancy

2007-01-01

139

International standardization in the petroleum industry status from the subsea sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of standards in subsea production systems and how the standards should be developed has been a debate for some time in the industry. The initial standardization work springs from the work performed in the API 17 series of recommended practices and specifications. The development within this sector of the industry is still happening rapidly since it is a relative new area. The standardization effort is happening both on national, regional and international levels. This paper will give status of the international standardization ISO work ongoing in the subsea area and give some background for the work. The importance of the work to the industry will be highlighted

1995-05-01

140

Bill Lang's many contributions to international standardization in acoustics  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 40 years, Bill Lang has been a major force in Intl. Standards, not only as ongoing leader of the U.S. delegation, but in a personal capacity as project leader for the development of the pivotal group of standards on methods of determining sound power level. As Convenor of the previous Working Group 6 of Sub-Committee 1, Noise, of ISO Tech. Committee 43, Acoust., he oversaw the production of the ISO 3740 series of standards during the 1970s and early 1980s. A revision of this same series was made starting in the late 1980s, once more under Bill's supervision in the current Working Group 28. At the same time, this Group compiled the new series of ISO 11200 standards on determination of emission sound pressure levels, on declaration and verification of noise emission levels and on guidelines for writing noise test codes. As if this was not enough, the same group is now in the throes of another major short-term revision of all the documents and has plans for further more radical revisions in the future. This paper outlines Bill's contributions to this major international combined effort, which even after such sustained activity goes from strength to strength, gathering participation from a new generation of acousticians around the world.

Higginson, Roger

2005-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Internal standard versus external standard calibration: an uncertainty case study of a liquid chromatography analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally, in the cigarettes industry, the determination of ammonium ion in the mainstream smoke is performed by ion chromatography. This work studies this determination and compares the results of this technique with the use of external and internal standard calibration. A reference cigarette sample presented measurement uncertainty of 2.0 ?g/cigarette and 1.5 ?g/cigarette, with external and internal standard, respectively. It is observed that the greatest source of uncertainty is the bias correction factor and that it is even more significant when using external standard, confirming thus the importance of internal standardization for this correction.

Elcio Cruz de Oliveira

2010-01-01

142

5th international conference on certification and standardization in NDT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This CD-ROM contains 30 lectures (in form of manuscripts or abstracts) and 6 posters with the following topics: 1. Some Critical Remarks from German Chemical Industry on Certification and Accreditation in NDT. 2. Global Impact of International Standard ISO 9712. 3. Maintaining Concurrent Compliance with Multiple NDT Personnel Certification Standards. 4. The Revision of the New Approach. 5. Comparison between prEN 473 Currently Submitted to Formal Vote and ISO 9712:2005. 6. Accreditation and Certification - a Contradiction?. 7. The Way We Were. 8. EFNDT-Question-Data-Bank (QDB). 9. NDT Certification in Turkey as an European Country- How It Couldn't Work as the Only Example?. 10. Validation of Practical Examination Specimens. 11. Examination Bank Structure for Radiographic Testing (RT) - An Example. 12. About the New Classification of NDT Methods Based on Positions of Risks and Equipment Life Assessment. 13. Olympus NDT Training Academy. 14. Harmonisation of Personnel Certification Schemes for Non-destructive Testing in the Asia-Pacific Region. 15. How EFNDT Can Help in Accreditation or Recognition/Approval of NDT Certification Bodies? 16. SNT-TC-1A - 40 Years of Employer Certification for NDT Personnel. 17. The Same NDT Certification Scheme for Everybody: a Dream or a Need. 18. 19. Personnel Certification for Thermographers - Status and Trends. 20. Guided Wave Training and Certification. 21. Examination Radiographs and Master Reports for the Industrial Sectors 6 and 7. 22. New Standards ISO 24497 on the Metal Magnetic Memory Method. The Program of Personnel Training and Certification. 23. The Use of the Psychometrics in NDT Certification Programs. 24. EFNDT Guidelines ''Overall NDT Quality System''. 25. The Role of the Forum for National Aerospace NDT Boards. 26. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 27. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 28. The Need for Standardization in NDT Personnel Certification. 29. NDT Certification for Railway Maintenance Personnel in France; 10 Years of the CFCM. 30. NDT Personnel Certification - Service for Industry. 31. Certification of Personnel Performing Automated Non-destructive Testing of Pipes and Flat Products. Problems and Solutions. 32. Stress Testing is a New NDT Type in the Russian Standard GOST R 52330-2005 and International Standard ISO-9712. 33. Accreditation of Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement Methods - Practical Aspects. 34. Results of Approval of Certification Body ''SPEKTRCert'' by Auditors of EFNDT. 35. The Program for Specialists Training and Certification in Stress-Strained State Determination and Residual Life Assesment of Technical Devices and Contructions. 36. NDT Personnel Certification System at Turkish Standards Instiution (TSE) and Developments in Turkey. 37. Nondestructive Testing Personnel Certification in Turkish Aerospace Industries and National Aerospace Nondestructive Testing Board in the Turkey

2007-09-26

143

Vietnamese Accounting Reform and International Convergence of Vietnamese Accounting Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the economic globalization, the international convergence of accounting standards is inevitable. But the
level of economic globalization in among of countries are not the same. There are some differences in
accounting environment in the countries. This paper studies international convergence of Vietnamese accounting
standards. Firstly, the paper summarizes of the process of Vietnam's accounting reform, second analysis
differences bet...

AnhTuan Nguyen; Guangming Gong

2012-01-01

144

AUDIT OF FINANCIAL REPORTS, BASED ON INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article are given main notion about international standard of financial reporting, order of the auditing on the base of IFRS, scheduling the report of the auditor, auditor conclusions and are given analysis of reporting based on the auditor procedures. At the audit of financial reporting are taken into account international standard to financial reporting 29 "Financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies".

Islom Kuziev

2013-09-01

145

Nuclear reactor instrumentation. Survey of standards. International recommendations' validity as Swedish standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This standard gives a survey of norms for nuclear reactor instrumentation. It includes: 1. International recommendations published by International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC, valid as Swedish standard. The recommendations have not been translated into Swedish, but are available in English and French in teh IEC publications. 2. Information on other norms. Listed are standards on nuclear reactor instrumentation in general and instrumentation for BWR-, PWR- and gas cooled graphitemoderated reactors. (K.K.)

1976-01-01

146

Method for developing environmental standards  

…set a standard well below the toxic level. Other standards, such as ammonia, pH and temperature were set using reference sites in the 90th percentile for good status. It is acknowledged that there are limitations in setting standards based on lab or field conditions. A number of the proposed standards

147

International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

1997-10-27

148

International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

Roberts, P.B. [Industrial and Biological Section. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science. P.O. Box 31. Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

1997-12-31

149

The First International Standard for Antitetanus Immunoglobulin, Human; pharmaceutical evaluation and international collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The First International Standard (IS) for Antitetanus Immunoglobulin, Human (coded 26/488) was established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in October 1992 on the basis of an extensive pharmaceutical evaluation and an international collaborative study. Fifteen laboratories from 15 countries performed the toxin neutralization assay in vivo in the study. Twelve laboratories also performed an alternative in vitro assay. The new International Standard is a purified human immunoglobulin containing antibodies which are able to neutralize tetanus toxin. This new standard replaces the Second International Standard for Tetanus antitoxin, Equine, for testing of human antitetanus immunoglobulin preparations used clinically as well as for titration of human serum samples for tetanus antitoxin. The new International Standard was assigned a potency of 120 International Units (IU) of Tetanus Antitoxin per ampoule on the basis of its calibration in terms of the International Unit defined by the Second International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin, Equine by toxin neutralization assay in vivo. The same preparation was also established as the first European Pharmacopoeia Standard for Antitetanus Immunoglobulin, Human by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission, Biological Standardization Programme in March 1993. PMID:8217120

Sesardic, D; Wong, M Y; Gaines Das, R E; Corbel, M J

1993-03-01

150

Human Rights and Values Education: Using the International Standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asserts that, in teaching about human rights, the international standards should be the fundamental core of the content and values to be communicated. Recommends that teachers should use the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the standard by which the actions of individuals and governments should be compared. (CFR)

Reardon, Betty A.

1994-01-01

151

Development of an internal control for evaluation and standardization of a quantitative PCR assay for detection of Helicobacter pylori in drinking water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to metabolic and morphological changes that can prevent Helicobacter pylori cells in water from growing on conventional media, an H. pylori-specific TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was developed that uses a 6-carboxyfluorescein-labeled probe (A. E. McDaniels, L. Wymer, C. Rankin, and R. Haugland, Water Res. 39:4808-4816, 2005). However, proper internal controls are needed to provide an accurate estimate of low numbers of H. pylori in drinking water. In this study, the 135-bp amplicon described by McDaniels et al. was modified at the probe binding region, using PCR mutagenesis. The fragment was incorporated into a single-copy plasmid to serve as a PCR-positive control and cloned into Escherichia coli to serve as a matrix spike. It was shown to have a detection limit of five copies, using a VIC dye-labeled probe. A DNA extraction kit was optimized that allowed sampling of an entire liter of water. Water samples spiked with the recombinant E. coli cells were shown to behave like H. pylori cells in the qPCR assay. The recombinant E. coli cells were optimized to be used at 10 cells/liter of water, where they were shown not to compete with 5 to 3,000 cells of H. pylori in a duplex qPCR assay. Four treated drinking water samples spiked with H. pylori (100 cells) demonstrated similar cycle threshold values if the chlorine disinfectant was first neutralized by sodium thiosulfate. PMID:17905876

Sen, Keya; Schable, Nancy A; Lye, Dennis J

2007-11-01

152

Development of an Internal Control for Evaluation and Standardization of a Quantitative PCR Assay for Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Drinking Water?  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to metabolic and morphological changes that can prevent Helicobacter pylori cells in water from growing on conventional media, an H. pylori-specific TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was developed that uses a 6-carboxyfluorescein-labeled probe (A. E. McDaniels, L. Wymer, C. Rankin, and R. Haugland, Water Res. 39:4808-4816, 2005). However, proper internal controls are needed to provide an accurate estimate of low numbers of H. pylori in drinking water. In this study, the 135-bp amplicon described by McDaniels et al. was modified at the probe binding region, using PCR mutagenesis. The fragment was incorporated into a single-copy plasmid to serve as a PCR-positive control and cloned into Escherichia coli to serve as a matrix spike. It was shown to have a detection limit of five copies, using a VIC dye-labeled probe. A DNA extraction kit was optimized that allowed sampling of an entire liter of water. Water samples spiked with the recombinant E. coli cells were shown to behave like H. pylori cells in the qPCR assay. The recombinant E. coli cells were optimized to be used at 10 cells/liter of water, where they were shown not to compete with 5 to 3,000 cells of H. pylori in a duplex qPCR assay. Four treated drinking water samples spiked with H. pylori (100 cells) demonstrated similar cycle threshold values if the chlorine disinfectant was first neutralized by sodium thiosulfate.

Sen, Keya; Schable, Nancy A.; Lye, Dennis J.

2007-01-01

153

Developing the Framed Standard Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The framed standard model (FSM) suggested earlier, which incorporates the Higgs field and three fermion generations as part of the framed gauge theory (FGT) structure, is here developed further to show that it gives both quarks and leptons hierarchical masses and mixing matrices akin to what is experimentally observed. Among its many distinguishing features which lead to the above results are (i) the vacuum is degenerate under a global su(3) symmetry which plays the role of fermion generations, (ii) the fermion mass matrix is "universal," rank-one and rotates (changes its orientation in generation space) with changing scale ?, (iii) the metric in generation space is scale-dependent too, and in general nonflat, (iv) the theta-angle term in the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) action of topological origin gets transformed into the CP-violating phase of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix for quarks, thus offering at the same time a solution to the strong CP problem.

Baker, Michael J.; Bordes, José; Chan, Hong-Mo; Tsun, Tsou Sheung

2012-07-01

154

Method for developing environmental standards  

…level of toxicity was assessed, and then a safety factor was applied to set a standard well below the toxic level. Other standards, such as ammonia, pH and temperature were set using reference sites in the 90th percentile for good status. It is acknowledged that there are limitations in setting standards

155

International Accreditation of ASME Codes and Standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ASME established a Boiler Code Committee to develop rules for the design, fabrication and inspection of boilers. This year we recognize 75 years of that Code and will publish a history of that 75 years. The first Code and subsequent editions provided for a Code Symbol Stamp or mark which could be affixed by a manufacturer to a newly constructed product to certify that the manufacturer had designed, fabricated and had inspected it in accordance with Code requirements. The purpose of the ASME Mark is to identify those boilers that meet ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements. Through thousands of updates over the years, the Code has been revised to reflect technological advances and changing safety needs. Its scope has been broadened from boilers to include pressure vessels, nuclear components and systems. Proposed revisions to the Code are published for public review and comment four times per year and revisions and interpretations are published annually; it's a living and constantly evolving Code. You and your organizations are a vital part of the feedback system that keeps the Code alive. Because of this dynamic Code, we no longer have columns in newspapers listing boiler explosions. Nevertheless, it has been argued recently that ASME should go further in internationalizing its Code. Specifically, representatives of several countries, have suggested that ASME delegate to them responsibility for Code implementation within their national boundaries. The question is, thus, posed: Has the time come to franchise responsibility for administration of ASME's Code accreditation programs to foreign entities or, perhaps, 'institutes.' And if so, how should this be accomplished?

1989-04-01

156

The Operating Islamic Banks in Jordan Applying the International Internal Auditing Standards (IIA's  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aimed at identifying the operating Islamic banks in Jordan applying the international internal auditing standards, which are (4 banks. A questionnaire was designed for this purpose and distributed to internal auditors and un-executive board of directors members considered members of the Audit Committee in each bank, the number of questionnaires which were subjected to analysis were (35, resolution data was analyzed using (SPSS, and a number of statistical means through descriptive statistics, arithmetic means, standard deviations, and percentages. The study found that Islamic banks are applying international standards of internal audit in general. Qualities standards were the most applied, and then implementation standards in a high degree, while the performance standards do not apply in these banks, also there are some difficulties that limit the application, but moderately. The study recommends increasing the work on applying internal auditing standards on Islamic banks operating in Jordan, in particular standards of performance which brings together the efficiency and effectiveness of internal audit and contributes to improved risk management and creates additional value for those banks.

Jamal Adel Al-Sharairi

2012-01-01

157

Study on a Threat-Countermeasure Model Based on International Standard Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many international standards exist in the field of IT security. This research is based on the ISO/IEC 15408, 15446, 19791, 13335 and 17799 standards. In this paper, we propose a knowledge base comprising a threat countermeasure model based on international standards for identifying and specifying threats which affect IT environments. In addition, the proposed knowledge base system aims at fusing similar security control policies and objectives in order to create effective security guidelines for specific IT environments. As a result, a knowledge base of security objectives was developed on the basis of the relationships inside the standards as well as the relationships between different standards. In addition, a web application was developed which displays details about the most common threats to information systems, and for each threat presents a set of related security control policies from different international standards, including ISO/IEC 27002.

Guillermo Horacio Ramirez Caceres

2008-12-01

158

The development of consensus standards on dosimetry for radiation processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subcommittee E10.01 open-quotes Dosimetry for Radiation Processingclose quotes of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), comprised of 165 diverse experts from 45 countries, is developing standards on dosimetry for radiation processing. Eight standards will be published in the 1992 Annual Book of ASTM Standards and an additional 16 are under development. Three are specifically for food applications and the balance are relevant for all radiation processing applications, including food processing. When complete, the set will be published as a separate handbook. In addition, the group encourages the use of these standards through publications, workshops, and training courses; and identifies areas where new standards are needed. A related effort is underway to promote the inclusion of these standards into procedures now being developed by groups such as the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) and the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) to harmonize regulations and help avoid trade barriers

1992-08-23

159

The need for international seafarer medical fitness standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

The text of this paper is based on a presentation at the First International Congress of Maritime, Tropical, and Hyperbaric Medicine, 4th July 2009, Gdynia, Poland. The assessment of fitness to work at sea is an important aspect of maritime risk management. The risks in the industry, the approaches used for assessment, and the evidence on which they are based have changed over time. The transition from an industry in which the nationality of seafarers and the ships on which they worked were the same to one in which ownership and crewing have become global means that, as is true for most other aspects of maritime risk management, compatible international criteria for decisions regarding fitness to work are required. Many parties, including flag states, employers and their insurers, and seafarers and their trade unions, are involved in agreeing international medical fitness criteria. While all have a common interest in improved health and safety at sea, each has their own more detailed agenda of sectional interests. The scope for development of agreed standards and the role of the parties involved is reviewed, and the current arrangements for taking this process forward are discussed. Contributions from maritime health professionals and other medical and scientific experts are essential to the development of rational and valid criteria, but the decisions on the level of authority to be given to these and the means adopted for ensuring compliance with them are essentially political issues where the voice of those with subject knowledge is only one among many in the processes for adoption and implementation of any new arrangements. PMID:20205118

Carter, Tim

2009-01-01

160

Internal standard versus external standard calibration: an uncertainty case study of a liquid chromatography analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditionally, in the cigarettes industry, the determination of ammonium ion in the mainstream smoke is performed by ion chromatography. This work studies this determination and compares the results of this technique with the use of external and internal standard calibration. A reference cigarette sample presented measurement uncertainty of 2.0 ?g/cigarette and 1.5 ?g/cigarette, with external and internal standard, respectively. It is observed that the greatest source of uncertainty...

Elcio Cruz de Oliveira; Muller, Edson I.; Fernanda Abad; Juliana Dallarosa; Cristine Adriano

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Nuclear instruments. Survey of standards. International recommendations' validity as Swedish standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This standard gives a survey of norms for nuclear measuring instruments beta-, gamma- and x-radiation. Included are: 1. Normes in Swedish. 2. International recommendations published by the International Electrotechnical commission, IEC, which are valid as Swedish standards Translations into Swedish of these recommendations do not exist, but they are available in English and French in the IEC publications. 3. Information on other norms. (K.K.)

1976-01-01

162

Method for developing environmental standards  

…Environmental standards for Priority Substances and Specific Pollutants were set using ecotoxicological methods. For these the response of aquatic organisms to different concentrations of substances was tested. The level of toxicity was assessed, and then a safety factor was applied to set a standard well below…

163

Minutes: ANSI Steering Committee on Solar Energy Standards Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Minutes of the April 29, 1980, meeting of the American National Standards Institute steering committee on solar energy standards development are given. Attachments include correspondence from individuals and organizations which primarily describe the Solar Public Interest Coordination Committee (SPICC) and its recent activities. Also a report on the meeting of the ANSI subcommittee on international activity is attached. (WHK)

None

1980-04-29

164

Review of U.S. Participation in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the role of international standards, their importance in world trade, and the extent of U.S. participation in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) over the 3...

C. R. DeVaux

2000-01-01

165

CONVERGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL AUDIT STANDARDS AND AMERICAN AUDIT STANDARDS REGARDING SAMPLING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Sampling is widely used in market research, scientific analysis, market analysis, opinion polls and not least in the financial statement audit. We wonder what is actually sampling and how did it appear? Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Nowadays the technique is indispensable, the economic entities operating with sophisticated computer systems and large amounts of data. Economic globalization and complexity of capital markets has made possible not only the harmonization of international accounting standards with the national ones, but also the convergence of international accounting and auditing standards with the American regulations. International Standard on Auditing 530 and Statement on Auditing Standard 39 are the two main international and American normalized referentials referring to audit sampling. This article discusses the origin of audit sampling, mentioning a brief history of the method and different definitions from literature review. The two standards are studied using Jaccard indicators in terms of the degree of similarity and dissimilarity concerning different issues. The Jaccard coefficient measures the degree of convergence of international auditing standards (ISA 530 and U.S. auditing standards (SAS 39. International auditing standards and American auditing standards, study the sampling problem, both regulations presenting common points with regard to accepted sampling techniques, factors influencing the audit sample, treatment of identified misstatements and the circumstances in which sampling is appropriate. The study shows that both standards agree on application of statistical and non-statistical sampling in auditing, that sampling is appropriate for tests of details and controls, the factors affecting audit sampling being audit risk, audit objectives and population\\'s characteristics.

Chis Anca Oana

2013-07-01

166

International standardization of safety requirements for fast reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is conducting the FaCT (Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development) project in cooperation with Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) and Mitsubishi FBR systems inc. (MFBR), where an advanced loop-type fast reactor named JSFR (Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is being developed. It is important to develop software technologies (a safety guideline, safety design criteria, safety design standards etc.) of FBRs as well as hardware ones (a reactor plant itself) in order to address prospective worldwide utilization of FBR technology. Therefore, it is expected to establish a rational safety guideline applicable to the JSFR and harmonized with national nuclear-safety regulations as well, including Japan, the United States and the European Union. This report presents domestic and international status of safety guideline development for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), results of comparative study for safety requirements provided in existing documents and a proposal for safety requirements of future SFRs with a roadmap for their refinement and worldwide utilization. (author)

2011-01-01

167

International standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM), publication No. 15  

CERN Multimedia

GUIDELINES FOR REGULATING WOOD PACKAGING MATERIAL IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE SCOPE This standard describes phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests associated with wood packaging material (including dunnage), made of coniferous and non-coniferous raw wood, in use in international trade. For more information, contact the Shipping Service (FI-LS-SH) at 79947. Table of guidelines

Tom Wegelius

2006-01-01

168

Open development networked innovations in international development  

CERN Document Server

The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. Open network structures allow people to come together to share information, organize, and collaborate. Open development harnesses this power, to create new organizational forms and improve people's lives; it is not only an agenda for research and practice but also a statement about how to approach international development. In this volume, experts explore a variety of applications of openness, addressing challenges as well as opportunities. Open development requires new theoretical tools that focus on real world problems, consider a variety of solutions, and recognize the complexity of local contexts. After exploring the new theoretical terrain, the book describes a range of cases in which open models address such specific development issues as biotechnology research, improving education, and access to scholarly publications. Contributors then examine tensions between open model...

Reilly, Katherine M A

2014-01-01

169

Enabling conformity to international standards within SeaDataNet  

Science.gov (United States)

SeaDataNet objective is to construct a standardized system for managing the large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the new automatic observation systems. The aim is to network and enhance the currently existing infrastructures, which are the national oceanographic data centres and satellite data centres of 36 countries, active in data collection. The networking of these professional data centres, in a unique virtual data management system will provide integrated data sets of standardized quality on-line. The Common Data Index (CDI) is the middleware service adopted by SeaDataNet for discovery and access of the available data. In order to develop an interoperable and effective system, the use of international de facto and de jure standards is required. In particular the new goal object of this presentation is to introduce and discuss the solutions for making SeaDataNet compliant with the European Union (EU) INSPIRE directive and in particular with its Implementing Rules (IR). The European INSPIRE directive aims to rule the creation of an European Spatial Data Infrastructure (ESDI). This will enable the sharing of environmental spatial information among public sector organisations and better facilitate public access to spatial information across Europe. To ensure that the spatial data infrastructures of the European Member States are compatible and usable in a community and transboundary context, the directive requires that common IRs are adopted in a number of specific areas (Metadata, Data Specifications, Network Services, Data and Service Sharing and Monitoring and Reporting). Often the use of already approved digital geographic information standards is mandated, drawing from international organizations like the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the latter by means of its Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211). In the context of geographic data discovery a set of mandatory metadata information is identified by INSPIRE metadata regulations and recommended implementations appear in IRs, in particular the use of ISO 19139 Application Profile (ISO AP) of OGC Catalogue Service for the Web 2.0.2 (CSW), as well as the use of ISO19139 XML schemas (along with additional constraints) to encode and distribute the required INSPIRE metadata. SeaDataNet started its work in 2006, basing its metadata schema upon the ISO 19115 DTD, the available schema at that time. Overtime this was replaced with the present CDI v.1 XML schema, based on ISO 19115 abstract model with community specific features and constraints. In order to assure the INSPIRE conformity a GI-cat based solution was developed. GI-cat is a broker service able to mediate from different metadata sources and publish them through a consistent and unified interface. In this case GI-cat is used as a front end to the SeaDataNet portal publishing the available data, based on CDI v.1, through a CSW AP ISO interface. The first step consisted in the precise definition of a community profile of ISO19115, containing both INSPIRE and CDI driven constraints and extensions. This abstract model is ready to be implemented both in CDI v.1 and in ISO 19139; to this aim, guidelines were drafted. Then a mapping from the CDI v.1 to the ISO 19139 implementation was ready to be produced. The work resulted in the creation of a new CDI accessor within GI-cat. These type of components play the role of data model mediators within the framework. While a replacement of the CDI v.1 format with the ISO 19139 solution is planned for SeaDataNet in the future, this front-end solution make data discovery readily effective by clients within the INSPIRE community.

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Boldrini, Enrico; de Korte, Arjen; Santoro, Mattia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

2010-05-01

170

Development of strategies and sustainability standards for the certification of internationally traded biomass. Final report; Entwicklung von Strategien und Nachhaltigkeitsstandards zur Zertifizierung von Biomasse fuer den internationalen Handel. Zusammenfassender Endbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increased production of renewable raw materials for bioenergy and bio-materials needed to meet the ambitious targets of Germany, the EU and other countries implies tradeoffs which could oppose sustainability requirements. The project worked out the scientific base of and developed proposals for sustainability requirements for biomass and their implementation on national, European and global levels, in dialogue with relevant actors and provided inputs into respective processes. For that, discussions with experts from more than 20 countries were held, international networks created and extended, and political decision-makers supported. Besides answers to strategic questions, the issues focused on were greenhouse gas balances (calculation of GHG emissions from direct and indirect land use changes), biodiversity (a globally applicable risk minimization strategy was developed and tested in Brazil, China and South Africa for degraded lands), water scarcity and water quality (requirements for biomass cultivation were developed). The majority of project results was successfully implemented in legal and standardization processes (e.g., German Sustainability Ordinances for bioenergy, EU renewable energy directive, European Committee for Standardization, Global Bioenergy Partnership) and both scientific and environmental and development questions were discussed with - not only governmental - actors. The next steps should be the extension of the approaches developed to other biomass (especially for material use) and the critical review of the further implementation. (orig.)

Fritsche, Uwe R.; Hennenberg, Klaus J.; Hermann, Andreas; Huenecke, Katja; Herrera, Rocio [Oeko-Institut (Institut fuer angewandte Oekologie e.V.), Darmstadt (Germany); Fehrenbach, Horst; Roth, Elvira; Hennecke, Anna; Giegrich, Juergen [IFEU (Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung) gGmbh, Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-11-15

171

Introduction to the ISO 14000 international environmental management standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International standards for environmental management are being drafted through a consensus process by hundreds of technical experts from over forty nations. The first are expected to be finalized by mid-year 1996. They are being drafted in an attempt to stem the proliferation of national and regional environmental management standards, the perhaps unintentional side-effect of which is restraint of trade. The ISO 14000 series of standards may be grouped into two categories: {open_quotes}product evaluation{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}organization evaluation{close_quotes} standards. This paper deals primarily with the latter category, because the organizationally related standards are expected to have a more profound effect thorughout the organizations that adopt them. This paper will also describe some of the commercial, economic and performance benefits which organizations may derive thorugh adoption and use of the standards.

McVaugh, J. [Environmental Technology & Management, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

172

Diffusion of ISO 9000 standards and international trade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Investigating the link between ISO 9000 standards and bilateral exports, this paper contributes to the literature on standardization and international trade. A debate exists as to how ISO 9000 impacts trade. First, it has been argued that ISO 9000 is a “common language” that lowers information asymmetries between firms, thus allowing more efficient organization of inter-firm trade. Second, ISO 9000 has been criticized as a means of introducing market-entry barriers and a tariff on interna...

Grajek, Michal

2004-01-01

173

International Accounting Standards and Changes in Accounting Terminology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The language of accounting is subject to continuous change. One of the reasons for a change in terminology is the introduction of new legal requirements that bring about a change in the underlying concepts and therefore the need for new specific terms. Such a situation was created by the Regulation (EC) No. 1606/2002 on the application of international accounting standards (IAS). This regulation aims at harmonising ac-counting standards and procedures relating to the preparation and presentat...

Edelmann, Gerhard

2010-01-01

174

The first International Standard anti-Brucella melitensis Serum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) requested an International Standard anti-Brucella melitensis Serum (ISaBmS) to standardise diagnostic tests and reagents for sheep and goats. The agreed criteria were the highest dilution (in negative serum) of the standard which must give a positive result and the lowest dilution (in negative serum) which must simultaneously give a negative result. The two dilutions for each assay were, respectively: indirect enzyme-linked immu...

Mcgiven, J.; Taylor, A.; Duncombe, L.; Sayers, R.; Albert, D.; Banai, M.; Blasco Marti?nez, Jose? Mari?a; Elena, S.; Fretin, D.; Garin-bastuji, B.; Melzer, F.; Mun?oz Alvaro, Pilar Mari?a; Nielsen, K.; Nicola, A.; Scacchia, M.

2011-01-01

175

Efforts to obtain international consensus on dosimetry standards for radiation processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subcommittee E10.01 ''Dosimetry for Radiation Processing'' of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is a group of 145 experts from many fields, from 33 countries, developing methodologies and standards for dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. Apart from developing consensus standards, the group encourages their use through publications, workshops, and training courses, and identifies areas where new dosimetry methods are needed. To date, five dosimetry standards have been published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, and an additional 13 are under development. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. When completed, this set of standards will have the unanimous technical support of the worldwide radiation processing community, and together, the set will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing required irradiation treatments. An additional effort is under way to promote the inclusion of these standards into protocols and procedures now being developed by various international organizations such as the IAEA/FAO International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML), and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), in order to harmonize regulations and to avoid barriers to international trade. (author). 2 tabs

1990-11-05

176

International standards for tuberculosis care: Relevance and implications for laboratory professionals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On World Tuberculosis (TB) Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are s...

Pai M; Daley P; Hopewell P

2007-01-01

177

Role of international standards and international cooperation for effectiveness of national regulators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, though a national activity, have transboundary and international repercussions. Therefore, activities related to nuclear safety of nuclear power plants attract international interest. In this regard, agencies such as the IAEA have played a very constructive role. The paper examines the role international standards play along with international cooperation to enhance effectiveness of national regulators. Such national regulators usually belong to countries that import nuclear power plants and may lack an advanced industrial infrastructure at par with other exporting countries. International cooperation is, therefore, needed to assure an acceptably high level of safety keeping in view the economy, public acceptance of risks, vendor ease, utility benefit and regulatory effectiveness. Furthermore, international standards - which may be design or fabrication or installation standards - are prepared by large national and/or multinational groups of knowledgeable experts. However, these standards based on knowledge and experiences appear to be information for the regulators of a nuclear power plant importing country. International cooperation is needed to re-transform this information into knowledge at the user end. The paper includes a brief description of such cooperation under an IAEA technical cooperation project entitled Applicability of IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards for NPP in Pakistan-(PAK/9/29), which is an example of international cooperation in the use of international standards to enhance the regulatory effectiveness of the national regulator in Pakistan. The role international organizations play in helping regulators become more effective is also highlighted which is necessary in an expanding international market for nuclear power plants and achieving the common global goal of providing affordable, secure, sustainable and safe electricity without undue hazards to man and his environment. (author)

2006-09-01

178

ASTEC participation in the international standard problem on KAEVER  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the International Standard Problem no 44 was aerosol depletion behaviour under severe accident conditions in a LWR containment examined in the KAEVER test facility of Battelle (Germany). Nine organisations participated with 5 different codes in the ISP44, including a joint participation of GRS and IPSN with the integral code ASTEC (and in particular the CPA module) they have commonly developed. Five tests were selected from the KAEVER test matrix: K123, K148, K186 and K188 as open standard problems and the three-component test K187 as blind standard problem. All these tests were performed in supersaturated conditions and with slight fog formation, which are the most ambitious conditions for the coupled problem of thermal hydraulics and aerosol processes. The comparison between calculation and test showed a good agreement for all the tests with respect to the thermal-hydraulic conditions in the vessel, i.e. total pressure, atmosphere temperature, sump water and nitrogen mass, etc.... As for aerosol depletion, the ASTEC results were in a good overall agreement with the measured data. The code in particular predicted well the fast depletion of the hygroscopic and mixed aerosols and the slow depletion of insoluble silver aerosol. The important effects of bulk condensation, solubility and the Kelvin effect on the aerosol depletion were well predicted. However the code overestimation of steam condensation on hygroscopic aerosols in supersaturated conditions indicates that some slight improvements of the appropriate ASTEC models are needed in the future. In the final ISP44 workshop, the deviations of the ASTEC results with respect to the experiments were considered to be small compared to those of most other codes. (authors)

2001-01-01

179

Internal standard versus external standard calibration: an uncertainty case study of a liquid chromatography analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Traditionally, in the cigarettes industry, the determination of ammonium ion in the mainstream smoke is performed by ion chromatography. This work studies this determination and compares the results of this technique with the use of external and internal standard calibration. A reference cigarette s [...] ample presented measurement uncertainty of 2.0 ?g/cigarette and 1.5 ?g/cigarette, with external and internal standard, respectively. It is observed that the greatest source of uncertainty is the bias correction factor and that it is even more significant when using external standard, confirming thus the importance of internal standardization for this correction.

Elcio Cruz de, Oliveira; Edson I., Muller; Fernanda, Abad; Juliana, Dallarosa; Cristine, Adriano.

180

Audit of financial reports, based on international accounting standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article are given main notion about internationalstandard of financial reporting, order of the auditing on thebase of IFRS, scheduling the report of the auditor, auditorconclusions and are given analysis of reporting based onthe auditor procedures. At the audit of financial reporting aretaken into account international standard to financialreporting 29 "Financial reporting in hyperinflationaryeconomies".

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Method for developing environmental standards  

…across Europe. Environmental standards for Priority Substances and Specific Pollutants were set using ecotoxicological methods. For these the response of aquatic organisms to different concentrations of substances was tested. The level of toxicity was assessed, and then a safety factor was applied to…

182

Method for developing environmental standards  

…classification of the quality of water bodies across Europe. Environmental standards for Priority Substances and Specific Pollutants were set using ecotoxicological methods. For these the response of aquatic organisms to different concentrations of substances was tested. The level of toxicity was assessed,…

183

77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...

2012-06-21

184

International Developments of Food Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940's: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950's: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960's: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970's: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980's: establishment of national regulations; 1990's: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

1997-10-27

185

Developments in international bioenergy trade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, imported biomass contributes already significantly (between 21% and 43%) to total biomass use. Wood pellets are currently exported by Canada, Finland and (to a small extent) Brazil and Norway, and imported by Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK. In the Netherlands and Belgium, pellet imports nowadays contribute to a major share to total renewable electricity production. Trade in bio-ethanol is another example of a rapidly growing international market. With the EU-wide target of 5.75% biofuels for transportation in 2010 (and 10% in 2020), exports from Brazil and other countries to Europe are likely to rise as well. Major drivers for international bioenergy trade in general are the large resource potentials and relatively low production costs in producing countries such as Canada and Brazil, and high fossil fuel prices and various policy incentives to stimulate biomass use in importing countries. However, the logistic infrastructure both in exporting and importing countries needs to be developed to access larger physical biomass volumes and to reach other (i.e. smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded that international bioenergy trade is growing rapidly, far beyond what was deemed possible only a few years ago, and may in the future in some Task 40 countries surpass domestic biomass use, especially for specific applications (e.g. transport fuels). (author)

Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre; Wit, Marc de [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Bolkesjoe, Torjus [Point Carbon, P.O. Box 7120 St.Olav, N-0130 Oslo (Norway); Bradley, Douglas [Climate Change Solutions, 402 Third Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Dolzan, Paulo; Piacente, Erik; Walter, Arnaldo da Silva [State University of Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Heinimoe, Jussi [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Energy Technology Cluster Programme, Wredenkatu 2, FI-78250 Varkaus (Finland); Hektor, Bo [TallOil, Klarabergsviadukten 70, 7D, SE 111 64 Stockholm (Sweden); Leistad, Oeyvind [Enova, Abelsgate 5, 7030 Trondheim (Norway); Ling, Erik [Sveaskog AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Perry, Miles; Rosillo-Calle, Frank [Imperial College London, Centre for Energy Policy and Technology, Mechanical Engineering, 313A South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ryckmans, Yves [Laborelec/Electrabel, Rodestraat, 125, B-1630 Linkebeek (Belgium); Schouwenberg, Peter-Paul [Essent Energy Trading, P.O. Box 689, 5201 AR ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Solberg, Birger; Troemborg, Erik [Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management (INA), Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway)

2008-08-15

186

Developments in international bioenergy trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, imported biomass contributes already significantly (between 21% and 43%) to total biomass use. Wood pellets are currently exported by Canada, Finland and (to a small extent) Brazil and Norway, and imported by Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK. In the Netherlands and Belgium, pellet imports nowadays contribute to a major share to total renewable electricity production. Trade in bio-ethanol is another example of a rapidly growing international market. With the EU-wide target of 5.75% biofuels for transportation in 2010 (and 10% in 2020), exports from Brazil and other countries to Europe are likely to rise as well. Major drivers for international bioenergy trade in general are the large resource potentials and relatively low production costs in producing countries such as Canada and Brazil, and high fossil fuel prices and various policy incentives to stimulate biomass use in importing countries. However, the logistic infrastructure both in exporting and importing countries needs to be developed to access larger physical biomass volumes and to reach other (i.e. smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded that international bioenergy trade is growing rapidly, far beyond what was deemed possible only a few years ago, and may in the future in some Task 40 countries surpass domestic biomass use, especially for specific applications (e.g. transport fuels). (author)

2008-08-01

187

The adequacy, use and compliance with internal auditing standards – South African perceptions in comparison with other specific regions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article focusses on determining the adequacy of the International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing (Standards) for use in South Africa, as well as examining how local entities comply with the Standards as compared to those in other specific regions, from both emerging economies and developed economies. Data used in this article’s analysis, interpretation, and comparisons comes from the USA-based Institute of Internal Auditors Research Foundation?...

Erasmus, L. J.; Steyn, L. J.; Fourie, Houdini; Coetzee, G. P.

2013-01-01

188

Standardization of Information Systems Development Processes and Banking Industry Adaptations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms ofcompliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards todetermine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into systemdevelopment and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected.Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classicalWaterfall life cycle model. Each question is made up of guidance and suggestions from the internationalsystem development standards. To collect data, people from the information technology departments ofthree major banks in Turkey were interviewed. Results have been aggregated by examining the currentprocess status of the three banks together. Problematic issues were identified using the internationalsystem development standards.

Tuna Ozcer

2011-04-01

189

Spread of retailer food quality standards: an international perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Privately initiated food quality standards are currently important elements in the marketing of food and agricultural products. At the same time, they stand in the centre of a discussion about potential negative effects on small farmers and farmers in developing countries. This study aims at analysing the adoption of two private food standards, BRC Technical Food Standard and GlobalGAP, at an aggregated crosscountry level. The results of the econometric analysis reveal some (potential) barrie...

Herzfeld, T.; Drescher, L.; Grebitus, C.

2008-01-01

190

Developing Professional Standards for Accomplished Language Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

The Australian Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations (AFMLTA) has recently developed a set of professional standards for accomplished language teachers. Standards of teaching are statements of values about the processes of teaching, learning, and knowing, and of the practices of those who teach languages and cultures. These standards

Liddicoat, Anthony J.

2006-01-01

191

OSTA/ADS standards development process  

Science.gov (United States)

A phased approach to data systems standards was developed. The standards survey, user requirements, methodology survey, and evaluation criteria were completed. Remaining to be done are data system planning interim standards, a concept for implementation of a core applications data service, a data systems policy definition, and full capability data services definition.

Walton, B.

1981-01-01

192

Consequences of ICRP Publication 26 for internal contamination standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is given of the test for internal contamination standards, produced as a supplement to ICRP Publication 26 in August 1978. This consists of a general consideration of basic and deviating standards, an explanation of the models to be used for calculating radiation doses for various organs, metabolic data for 21 elements, and annual limits on intake (ALI's) and derived air concentrations (DAC's) for 10 elements (83 isotopes). An outline is given of the changes caused by these new models and calculation methods. (C.F.)

1979-01-01

193

Military Standard 1515 Development Plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a plan for the development of MIL-STD-1515. It considers the present organization and operation and proposes new procedures and guidelines. Goals and objectives are considered and document content, format, and organizational changes a...

S. C. Ford W. Drozda

1975-01-01

194

Radiation safety standards and their application: international policies and current issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper briefly describes the current policies of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the International Commission on Radiological Protection and how these policies are converted into international radiation safety standards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, which is the only global organization-within the United Nations family of international agencies-with a statutory mandate not only to establish such standards but also to provide for their application. It also summarizes the current status of the established corpus of such international standards, and of it foreseeable evolution, as well as of legally binding undertakings by countries around the world that are linked to these standards. Moreover, this paper also reviews some major current global issues related to the application of international standards, including the following: strengthening of national infrastructures for radiation safety, including technical cooperation programs for assisting developing countries; occupational radiation safety challenges, including the protection of pregnant workers and their unborn children, dealing with working environments with high natural radiation levels, and occupational attributability of health effects (probability of occupational causation); restricting discharges of radioactive substances into the environment: reviewing current international policies vis-a-vis the growing concern on the radiation protection of the "environment;" radiological protection of patients undergoing radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic procedures: the current International Action Plan; safety and security of radiation sources: post-11 September developments; preparedness and response to radiation emergencies: enhancing the international network; safe transport of radioactive materials: new apprehensions; safety of radioactive waste management: concerns and connections with radiation protection; and radioactive residues remaining after the termination of activities: radiation protection response to the forthcoming wave of decommissioning of installations with radioactive materials. The ultimate aim of this paper is to encourage information exchange, cooperation, and collaboration within the radiation protection professional community. In particular, the paper tries to facilitate consolidation of the growing international regime on radiation safety, including the expansion of legally binding undertakings by countries, the strengthening of the current corpus of international radiation safety standards, and the development of international provisions for ensuring the proper worldwide application of these standards, such as a system of international appraisals by peer review. PMID:15303062

González, Abel J

2004-09-01

195

Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL`s analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described.

Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chokshi, N. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-04-01

196

Standardized monitoring of Rangifer health during International Polar Year  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} Monitoring of individual animal health indices in wildlife populations can be a powerful tool for evaluation of population health, detecting changes, and informing management decisions. Standardized monitoring allows robust comparisons within and across populations, and over time and vast geographic regions. As an International Polar Year Initiative, the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment network established field protocols for standardized monitoring of caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus health, which included body condition, contaminants, and pathogen exposure and abundance. To facilitate use of the protocols, training sessions were held, additional resources were developed, and language was translated where needed. From March 2007 to September 2010, at least 1206 animals from 16 circumpolar herds were sampled in the field using the protocols. Four main levels of sampling were done and ranged from basic to comprehensive sampling. Possible sources of sampling error were noted by network members early in the process and protocols were modified or supplemented with additional visual resources to improve clarity when needed. This is the first time that such broad and comprehensive circumpolar sampling of migratory caribou and wild reindeer, using standardized protocols covering both body condition and parasite disease status, has been done.

Susan Kutz

2013-06-01

197

Good clinical practice: International quality standard for clinical trials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A clinical trial is one of the most important examples of experimental studies. Clinical trials represent an indispensable tool for testing, in a rigorous scientific manner, the efficacy of new therapies. Good Clinical Practice is an international ethical and scientific quality standard for clinical trials, concerning the design, conduct, performance, monitoring auditing, recording, analysis and reporting. This is an assurance to the public that the rights, safety and well-being of trial subj...

Radulovi? Siniša S.

2003-01-01

198

International Standards for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For a terminally sterilized medical device to be designated '' STERILE '', probability of finding the viable micro-organisms in the device shall be equal to or less than 1 x 10-6 (EN 556-1:2001: Sterilization of medical devices - Requirements for medical devices to be designated '' STERILE '' - Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices). Author presents the main legal aspects of the international standards for radiation sterilization of medical devices

2007-12-03

199

Housekeeping Genes as Internal Standards: Use and Limits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantitative studies are commonly realised in the biomedical research to compare RNA expression in different experimental or clinical conditions. These quantifications are performed through their comparison to the expression of the housekeeping gene transcripts like glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), albumin, actins, tubulins, cyclophilin, hypoxantine phsophoribosyltransferase (HRPT), L32. 28S, and 18S rRNAs are also used as internal standards. In this paper, it is recalled tha...

1999-01-01

200

International Fund for Agricultural Development  

Science.gov (United States)

As a special function and agency of the United Nations, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), which celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2003, "was created to mobilize resources on concessional terms for programmes that alleviate rural poverty and improve nutrition...to combat hunger and rural poverty in developing countries." To that end, the fund seeks to assist "the poorest of the world's poor" by offering long-term loans with exceptionally good terms of repayment (40 year loans with a 0.75% service charge per year). At this website, visitors can read about the fund's initiatives and its partners as well as perusing information supplied in the Rural Poverty Knowledgebase (including related links and an explanation of the grant programme offered by IFAD. Also of note are listings of upcoming events and meetings related to world hunger and links to several reports and documents available at the site.

 
 
 
 
201

Status of international HTGR development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Programs for the development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology over the past 30 years in eight countries are briefly described. These programs have included both government sector and industrial sector participation. The programs have produced four electricity-producing prototype/demonstration reactors, two in the United States, and two in the Federal Republic of Germany. Key design parameters for these ractors are compared with the design parameters planned for follow-on commercial-scale HTGRs. The development of HTGR technology has been enhanced by numerous cooperative agreements over the years, involving both government-sponsored national laboratories and industrial participants. Current bilateral cooperative agreements are described. A relatively new component in the HTGR international cooperation is that of multinational industrial alliances focused on supplying commercial-scale HTGR power plants. Current industrial cooperative agreements are briefly discussed

1988-08-05

202

International Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

International entrepreneurship is an important vehicle for firms to reap benefits from their high productivity levels and from economies of scale by reaching new customers. International enterprises tend to be larger and more innovative, but a key question of causality remains disputed in the international trade and international business studies literature. That is, does innovation and productivity drive firms towards international markets or does internationalization influence firm innovati...

Boermans, M. A.

2012-01-01

203

Review of international standards related to the design for control rooms on nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished world wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards as international standard. However, technological update is required due to the increased use of computerized control and monitoring equipment and systems in control rooms on NPP in recent years. Standards are becoming more important for computerized control rooms because there is more freedom to design than conventional hardware based system. For computerized control rooms, standards for hardware and software of HMI systems should be also considered. Standards and guidelines for computerized control rooms on NPP have been developed recently in each body such as IEC, ISO, and IEEE etc. Therefore, reviewing these standards and guidelines related to control rooms design of NPP can be useful not only for revision of the international standards such as IEC60964, but also for users of the standards and guidelines. In this paper, we reviewed the international standards related to the design for control rooms, in the two aspects of HMI design and hardware and software design, considering the undergoing revision work and their application. (author)

2005-04-01

204

Using XRF analysis results as internal standard for INAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: At the analysis of soil and sediment samples some of elements, which traditionally are determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis method (INAA), can be rather well determined with X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). These elements are Fe, Zn, Sr, Rb, Ba, La, Ce and some other. Determining the content of these elements and using these values at INAA carrying out it can be define the neutron flux and epithermal to thermal flux ratio for each of irradiated samples. The using of internal standard in INAA allows accounting for the matrix effects in a great degree, related with neutron flux degradation in the sample volume and its variation due to chemical composition material analyzed. Contrary to widely used flux neutron detectors (monitors) on basis of different alloys, such way allows to obtain the more accurate and stable analytical results, since the internal standard elements included in the sample material gives practically full required information about thermal and epithermal fluxes distortion. The most effective using of XRF analysis as internal standard for INAA is for analysis of samples, which have masses significant exceeding the traditionally used in activation analysis (2-4 g and more instead 200-500 mg)

2005-01-01

205

25 CFR 542.13 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming machines?  

Science.gov (United States)

...minimum internal control standards for gaming machines? 542.13 Section 542.13 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...minimum internal control standards for gaming machines? (a) Standards for...

2009-04-01

206

To standardize or not standardize international marketing : is it still a question?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The standardization versus adaptation argument has been raging for years and international marketing research about it has spanned some four decades, attesting to its far reaching theoretical and practical relevance. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on this debate. Major theoretical and empirical contributions from companies’ and consumers’ points of view are presented.

Soares, Ana Maria; Farhangmehr, Minoo; Shoham, Aviv

2003-01-01

207

International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

· Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials · Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

2010-01-01

208

International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

{center_dot} Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials {center_dot} Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

2010-02-15

209

Playing Against China : Global Value Chains and Labour Standards in the International Sports Goods Industry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The rise of China as the global factory raises challenges for many developing countries and their producers. The football-manufacturing sector is a case in which China has emerged as a global player. It is also a sector where compliance with international labour standards is considered critical. Leading international brands dominate the industry and control the global value chain for sports goods. In this article, we explore the relationship between the rise of China and international labour standards and consider how labour standards have affected the geography and organization of global football production. We draw on evidence from three of the main production locations â?? China, Pakistan and India. It appears that compliance with labour standards not only has different implications for the three production locations, but also that compliance alone is an insufficient basis for competing against China

Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

2011-01-01

210

Preradba norme ISO 3297 Information and documentation - international standard serial number = Revision of the Standard ISO 3297 Information and documentation - international standard serial number  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prikazuje se rad na normizaciji u podru?ju identifikacije i opisa dokumenata. Opisana je redovita preradba norme ISO 3297 Information and documentation – International Standard Serial Number (ISSN. Prikazan je tijek rada i razli?ite faze preradbe teksta norme. Izneseni su glavni elementi preradbe i rješenja Radne skupine. Navode se novine u tekstu nacrta odbora u odnosu na teku?e izdanje.The paper gives an outline of the work on standardization in the area of identification and description of documents. The regular revision of the standard ISO 3297 Information and documentation – International Standard Serial Number (ISSN is described. Different phases of revision are enumerated. The main issues of the revision and the solutions proposed by the ISSN Standard Revision Working Group are presented. The new elements in the text of the committee draft are described.

Jasenka Zajec

2006-01-01

211

Constructing Harmonious Development between International Trade and Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are many disharmonies with the development of international trade, which concentrates on trade comparative advantages, lagged trade standards, processing trade and international industry transferring. The disharmonies result from conflicts between endless demands of economic resources and limited natural resources. In addition, low environment cost and lagged environment standards deteriorate the nature. China should remove the over-consuming resources and environmental damage in the co...

Xiaoyin He; Suxia Liu; Xin Zhao

2009-01-01

212

Contributions of the ISO and IEC to international standardization in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of the world's total of about 2,600 radiation protection standards, only approximately ten per cent are international. The recommendations of international bodies such as the IAEA and the ICRP on the principles of radiation protection are supplemented by numerous detailed international technical standards. These deal with requirements for radiation monitoring instruments and methods as well as many other aspects of practical radiation protection. These standards are developed in working bodies by leading experts and represent highly condensed technical know-how. They are valuable sources of information and also serve as an instrument of technology transfer to developing countries. The main bodies devoted to the development of such international technical standards are: in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Subcommittee 2 ''Radiation Protection'' of its Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'', and in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), its TC 45B ''Radiation Protection Instrumentation''. Standards published so far include: the basic ionizing radiation symbol; nuclear energy glossary; requirements, classification and leakage testing of sealed radioactive sources; principles of criticality safety; personal photographic dosimeters; direct and indirect reading pocket dosimeters; leakage testing of radioactive materials, packaging, unsealed radioactive sources; different reference radiations for calibrating dosimeters and dose rate meters and determining their energy response; testing of exposure meters; sampling of airborne radioactive materials; and lead shielding. Standards published so far by the IEC include surface contamination meters and monitors, portable exposure rate meters and monitors, hand and foot contamination monitors, installed exposure rate meters, radioactive aerosol contamination meters and equipment for the measurement of airborne tritium and the continuous monitoring of radioactivity in gaseous effluents. Work on a large number of additional projects is currently in progress. (author). 7 refs, 9 tabs

1988-04-18

213

75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the International Codes...Starting with the 2009/2010 Cycle, ICC is transitioning to a development cycle...public participation in the system used by ICC to develop and maintain its codes and...

2010-04-16

214

Multiplicative effects model with internal standard in mobile phase for quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assays suffer from signal instability caused by the gradual fouling of the ion source, vacuum instability, aging of the ion multiplier, etc. To address this issue, in this contribution, an internal standard was added into the mobile phase. The internal standard was therefore ionized and detected together with the analytes of interest by the mass spectrometer to ensure that variations in measurement conditions and/or instrument have similar effects on the signal contributions of both the analytes of interest and the internal standard. Subsequently, based on the unique strategy of adding internal standard in mobile phase, a multiplicative effects model was developed for quantitative LC-MS assays and tested on a proof of concept model system: the determination of amino acids in water by LC-MS. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently mitigate the detrimental effects of continuous signal variation, and achieved quantitative results with average relative predictive error values in the range of 8.0-15.0%, which were much more accurate than the corresponding results of conventional internal standard method based on the peak height ratio and partial least squares method (their average relative predictive error values were as high as 66.3% and 64.8%, respectively). Therefore, it is expected that the proposed method can be developed and extended in quantitative LC-MS analysis of more complex systems. PMID:24840455

Song, Mi; Chen, Zeng-Ping; Chen, Yao; Jin, Jing-Wen

2014-07-01

215

International standards for the indoor environment. Where are we and do they apply to Asian countries?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

On the international level, ISO (International Organization for Standardization), CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) are writing and reviewing standards relating to the indoor environment on a regular basis. This presentation will focus on the development of standards for the indoor thermal environment and indoor air quality (ventilation). In the future, recommendations for acceptable indoor environments will be specified as classes. This allows for national differences in the requirements as well as for designing buildings for different quality levels. Several of these standards have been developed mainly by experts from Europe, North America and Japan. Are there, however, special considerations relating to South-East Asia (lifestyle, outdoor climate, economy) that are not dealt with in these standards and that will require the revision of existing standards? Critical issues are adaptation, the effect of increased air velocity, humidity, type of indoor pollutant sources, etc. The paper will present an overview of existing methods and discuss areas where revision of present standards or the development of new standards are needed, relating especially to conditions in Asia.

Olesen, Bjarne W.

2003-01-01

216

International standards for the oil and natural gas industries: A review paper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review paper describes the status of developments towards a complete set of international standards for the oil and natural gas industry. It builds on papers describing the intent of the program presented at the 1992 OTC by Thomas, Thorp and Denham; Wilson; and Arney. These papers state the objectives of developing a set of ISO standards predominantly within ISO/TC67. This paper places the development of the set of standards for the oil and natural gas industry in the context of the need for, and use of, standards by the industry. It describes the main standards organizations including their structure, procedures and relationships. It identifies ISO/TC67 as the key international standards committee for ''materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum and natural gas industries,'' and details its role and current work program. It concludes with a summary of the achievements to date. Significance: Common international standards should enable all stakeholders involved (users/suppliers/regulatory bodies) to conduct their business efficiently (lifecycle cost) with enhanced safety/integrity

1994-05-02

217

Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation's (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs

1998-01-01

218

A NEW APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY DECOMISSIONING STANDARDS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the Decontamination, Decommissioning, and Reutilization (DDR) Division of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) is to advance the technology of decontamination, decommissioning, and reutilization of nuclear and former nuclear installations, materials, facilities, and sites [1]. This includes sharing collective decommissioning experiences and lessons learned with others in the industry. An integral part of the work of the DDR Division is the preparation of voluntary decommissioning standards through its recently re-established DDR Standards Committee. This Committee intends to support development of various standards with other divisions of the ANS. The Committee also intends to participate with external organizations to disseminate information and lessons learned regarding decontamination activities, and participate in the development of voluntary decommissioning standards. External organizations, such as ASTM International, are involved in the development of consensus standards for nuclear decommissioning work. This paper describes the work of the DDR Standards Committee on a new co-operative initiative with ASTM International to develop voluntary consensus standards for nuclear decommissioning work.

Lawrence M. Zull; Richard H. Meservey; Lawrence E. Boing

2007-09-01

219

The role of international standards in managing business risks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Strategic standardization is an emerging management discipline which is gaining a slow but upward acceptance by many American business leaders. It is a management discipline widely followed by European business managers for a long time to ensure a strong competitive position in the global marketplace. American businesses are increasingly adapting this concept for effective management to open new markets, increase sales, reduce trade barriers, and ensure a competitive position both domestically as well as the international arena. Contrary to the view that standardization is only a technical strategy, there is a new reality that standardization is a critical business issue with implications for market access, anti-trust, product liability, patent policy and protection, occupational, health safety, environmental management, government acquisition reform, and even our quality of life. It is often stated, standards are like the air we breathe always accepted and taken for granted until there is a problem of supply or in the case of standards, when they are used as a trade barrier or competitive advantage for others or used to create substantial liabilities for businesses and for individuals.

Mazza, S.

1996-08-01

220

Standards development for the nuclear industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ushering of nuclear era in the Philippines with the construction of the PNPP-I (Philippine Nuclear Power Plant) necessitates the evolvement and use of nuclear standards as a tool for safety evaluation in the licensing process. The Department of Nuclear Regulation and Safeguards under the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission has as one of its responsibilities the establishment of regulatory standards to ensure safe operation of nuclear facilities. This article points out the needs for nuclear standards and the steps in standard development which involve an enormous amount of resources in terms of manpower, expertise and money. The staff of the Department of Nuclear Regulations and Safeguards (DNRS) does not intend to engage in the original development of standards; rather, it reviews standards in use elsewhere, specifically in the U.S. and adopts to local conditions. (author)

1979-12-04

 
 
 
 
221

The protection of migrant workers and international labour standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

International labor standards take the form of Conventions and Recommendations that embody the agreements reached by a 2/3 majority of the representatives of Governments, Employers, and Workers of International Labour Office (ILO) member states. Originally designed to guard against the danger that 1 country or other would keep down wages and working conditions to gain competitive advantage and thereby undermine advances elsewhere, international labor standards have also been inspired by humanitarian concerns--the visible plight of workers and the physical dangers of industrialization and by the notion of social justice, which embraces wellbeing and dignity, security, and equality as well as a measure of participation in economic and social matters. ILO standards apply to workers generally and therefore also to migrant workers, irrespective of the fact that the general standards are complemented by standards especially for migrant workers. The social security protection of migrant workers has been dealt with in ILO instruments primarily from the angle of equality of treatment but also from that of the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition, including the payment of benefits to entitled persons resident abroad. The ILO Conventions on migrant workers and the Recommendations which supplement them deal with practically all aspects of the work and life of non-nationals such as recruitment matters, information to be made available, contract conditions, medical examination and attention, customs, exemption for personal effects, assistance in settling into their new environment, vocational training, promotion at work, job security and alternative employment, liberty of movement, participation in the cultural life of the state as well as maintenance of their own culture, transfer of earnings and savings, family reunification and visits, appeal against unjustified termination of employment or expulsion, and return assistance. ILO's supervisory mechanism consists basically of a dialogue between the ILO and the Government that is responsible for a law, regulation, or practice alleged to be in contravention of principles it voluntarily accepted. The control machinery is often set in motion by workers' organizations. The UN General Assembly is currently elaborating a new instrument designed to cover both regular and irregular migrant workers and their families. PMID:12342038

Bohning, W R

1988-06-01

222

CCSDS Advanced Orbiting Systems - International data communications standards for the Space Station Freedom  

Science.gov (United States)

Established in 1982, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is an international organization that is staffed by data-handling experts from nearly all of the world's major space agencies. Its goal is to develop standard data-communications techniques so that several agencies may cross-support each other's data flow and thus allow complex, international missions to be flown. Under the general umbrella of Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS), an international CCSDS task force was formed in 1985 to develop standard data-communications concepts for manned missions, such as the Space Station Freedom and the Hermes space plane, and large unmanned vehicles, such as polar orbiting platforms. The history of the CCSDS and the development of the AOS recommendation are reviewed, and the user services and protocols embodied in its systems architecture are introduced.

Hooke, Adrian J.

1990-09-01

223

International labor standards and the political economy of child-labor regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child labor is a persistent phenomenon in many developing countries. In recent years, support has been growing among rich-country governments and consumer groups for the use of trade policies, such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards, to reduce child labor in

2009-01-01

224

Standard master matrix for development of standards to assist in safeguarding of nuclear materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this matrix is to provide a planning document that will allow for the orderly development of voluntary standards needed to help in the safeguarding of nuclear materials wherever located. The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of the diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The scope of the safeguards program relevant to this document includes systems for material control, material accounting, physical protection including containment/surveillance and designs for inspection for compliance to international/national or sub-national modes, or both, including industry as needed. It is recognized that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements will govern the applicability of the standards matrix, either in whole or in part, on an international basis

1984-01-01

225

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLIOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION (ISBD AS STANDARD FOR QUALITY BOOK PUBLISHING IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines international standard bibliographic description (ISBD as standard for quality book publishing in Nigeria. It discusses ISBD as it affects quality book publishing. Three Universities in the South-South region and 250 publishers sampled from six states of the federation were used for the study. The instruments used were validated questionnaire and standardized checklist of the book. One null hypothesis was formulated and tested. The data collected were analyzed using simple percentages and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC. The finding of the study shows that there is a significant relationship between ISBD and the quality of books published in Nigeria with regard to authorship, title, place of publication, year of publication, publisher’s name, ISBN, copyright, bibliography and index. The study concluded that ISBD adds quality to published books.

Eboro E. Umoren

2011-01-01

226

Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different languages and countries were discussed. Five steps to achieve optimal psychometric validation were proposed. In Step 1, test stimuli should be standardized for the target culture or language under consideration. In Step 2, examiner instructions must be standardized and translated, including all information from manuals necessary for administration and interpretation. In Step 3, samples of at least 65 healthy persons should be studied for normalization, matched to patients on demographics such as age, gender and education. The objective of Step 4 is test-retest reliability, which can be investigated in a small sample of MS and/or healthy volunteers over 1-3 weeks. Finally, in Step 5, criterion validity should be established by comparing MS and healthy controls. At this time, preliminary studies are underway in a number of countries as we move forward with this international assessment tool for cognition in MS. PMID:22799620

Benedict, Ralph H B; Amato, Maria Pia; Boringa, Jan; Brochet, Bruno; Foley, Fred; Fredrikson, Stan; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hartung, Hans; Krupp, Lauren; Penner, Iris; Reder, Anthony T; Langdon, Dawn

2012-01-01

227

Status of the International Neutron Cross-Section Standards File  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is given of the progress achieved in an IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) to improve the cross-section standards. The objectives of the CRP, started in 2002, were initially the understanding of the origin of the strong uncertainty reduction in R-matrix model fits and the improvement of the evaluation methodology. These aims were extended in 2003 to the preparation of new evaluations for the standard 6Li(n,t), 10B(n,?), 10B(n,?1), 197Au(n,?), 235U(n,f), and 238U(n,f) reactions. The methodology, codes, and experimental database developed by Poenitz and Hale for the ENDF/B-VI standards evaluation were taken as the basis for the new evaluation. The major results achieved by the CRP participants include the testing and intercomparison of a number of codes that can be used in the standards evaluation, updating the database of experimental results, analysis of the reasons leading to the strong uncertainty reduction in model fits, and a study of the bias in evaluated data caused by the Peelles's Pertinent Puzzle (PPP) effect, which has been widely discussed in the nuclear data community since the ENDF/B-VI standards evaluation was completed. Preliminary results of the new standards evaluation are shown. The use of the new 235U(n,f) cross section leads to better consistency in calculations of some important integral experiments

2005-05-24

228

Electric power needs in developing countries: Cogeneration and standardization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All of the developing countries need electric power for their industrial, commercial, and domestic use. The use of electricity will increase very rapidly in the underdeveloped countries as their economies improve, as it did in the developed nations during the sixties and seventies. This paper discusses the standardization of power plant design and construction as a means to achieve power plants with high overall efficiency, promote international competition to reduce power plant cost, and promote careful planning to safeguard the environment.

Bollini, R.; Youn, L.T. [Southern Illinois Univ., Edwardsville, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

229

International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab

1989-04-23

230

25 CFR 542.8 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?  

Science.gov (United States)

...minimum internal control standards for pull tabs? 542.8 Section 542.8 Indians...minimum internal control standards for pull tabs? (a) Computer applications...authority, will be acceptable. (b) Pull tab inventory. (1) Pull tab...

2010-04-01

231

MASS SPECTROMETRIC QUANTIFICATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS USING MULTIPLE CARBON-13 INTERNAL STANDARDS  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple carbon-13 internal standards improve the precision and accuracy of the mass spectrometric analysis of polychlorinatedbiphenyl (PCB) congeners compared to analyses using a single carbon-13 internal standard. The mean percentage error in PCB congener analysis on the microg...

232

25 CFR 542.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage?  

Science.gov (United States)

...minimum internal control standards for the cage? 542.14 Section 542.14 Indians...minimum internal control standards for the cage? (a) Computer applications...checks, or counter checks are cashed at the cage, the Tribal gaming regulatory...

2010-04-01

233

International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies the requirements of international and national regulatory bodies for patient safety. A culture of quality assurance and the need for scientific exchange at the international level have extended the requirements for standardization to many other areas. These include radiotherapy with heavy charged particles, brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. A major advance in radiotherapy over the past few years has been the growing use of proton and heavy ion irradiation facilities for cancer therapy. The increased use of brachytherapy, including the new application of intravascular brachytherapy, has resulted in the development of new standards and codes of practice in this area. In diagnostic radiology, including computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional procedures, the awareness of the importance of dose reduction to the patient has also lead to the development of codes of practice. In the field of nuclear medicine there is a need to increase the dissemination of standards and the development of international recommendations for dosimetry procedures. Every year there are several regional or international meetings on radiation physics applied to medicine or related areas. A meeting focused exclusively on dosimetry gives the unique opportunity to review in depth the developments and trends in this continuously changing field. By organizing this Symposium the IAEA maintains its longstanding tradition of disseminating knowledge, promoting expertise and supporting international co-operation in radiation dosimetry. The Symposium provided a forum where advances in radiation dosimetry during the past decade, not only in external beam radiotherapy but also in other areas of radiation medicine, can be disseminated and scientific knowledge exchanged. It will include areas that have been developed recently (e.g. intravascular therapy and hadron dosimetry), together with classic areas where the standardization of dosimetry may not have reached a mature stage (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). It will also summarize the present status

2002-11-25

234

Concrete blocks. Analysis of UNE, ISO en standards and comparison with other international standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to describe the recently approved UNE standards through a systematic analysis of the main specifications therein contained and the values considered for each of them, as well as the drafts for ISO and EN concrete block standards. Furthermore, the study tries to place the set of ISO standards in the international environment through a comparative analysis against a representative sample of the standards prevailing in various geographical regions of the globe to determine the analogies and differences among them. PALABRAS CLAVE: albañilería, análisis de sistemas, bloque de hormigón, muros de fábrica, normativa KEY WORDS: masonry, system analysis, concrete blocks, masonry walls, standards

En este trabajo se pretende describir la reciente aprobada normativa UNE, analizando sistemáticamente las principales prescripciones contempladas y los valores considerados para cada una de ellas, así como los proyectos de Norma ISO, y EN sobre bloques de hormigón. Asimismo se intenta situar la normativa UNE en al ámbito internacional, haciendo un análisis comparativo con una representación de Normas de distintas regiones geográficas del mundo, determinando sus analogías y diferencias.

Álvarez Alonso, Marina

1990-12-01

235

North-South Standards Harmonization and International Trade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent years have seen a surge in economic integration agreements (EIAs) and the development of non-tariff measures (NTMs). As a consequence, a growing number of EIAs include provisions on NTMs. However, little attention has been given in the literature to the effects of NTM liberalization in the context of EIAs. In this paper, we focus on provisions for technical regulations and analyze whether the North-South harmonization of technical barriers affects international trade. Using a gravity e...

2014-01-01

236

North-South Standards Harmonization and International Trade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent years have seen a surge in economic integration agreements (EIAs) and the development of non-tariff measures (NTMs). As a consequence, a growing number of EIAs include provisions on NTMs. This paper focuses on provisions on technical regulations. We investigate whether the technical requirements contained in North-South Agreements affect international trade. More particularly, using a gravity equation, we assess to what extent North-South harmonization of technical barriers creates or ...

2012-01-01

237

Some aspects of international nuclear standardization in the International Electrotechnical Commission and related bodies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some reasons for international standardisation in the nuclear industry are put forward and the work being done in the IEC and ISO is outlined. The structure of the IEC, methods of working in standards technical committees and sub-committees and the way in which national committees interface with them are described. Methods by which projects can be put forward and progressed are noted and some of the liaisons between IEC/TC45 and other bodies are mentioned. (author)

1993-01-01

238

Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy to Teach the Internal Standard Method  

Science.gov (United States)

The internal standard method is widely applied in quantitative analyses. However, most analytical chemistry textbooks either omit this topic or only provide examples of a single-point internal standardization. An experiment designed to teach students how to prepare an internal standard calibration curve is described. The experiment is a modified…

Bellamy, Michael K.

2010-01-01

239

77 FR 232 - Implementation of the 2010 Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training...  

Science.gov (United States)

...to the International Convention on Standards of Training...to the International Convention on Standards of Training...also visit the Docket Management Facility in Room W12-140...Purpose The International Convention on Standards of Training...engaged in commercial service that operate...

2012-01-04

240

Diesel Exhaust Standard Development: Phase 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes the third phase of an effort to develop a standard diesel exhaust which may be used in the future development of diesel exhaust aftertreatment. Phase I consisted of a literature review and creation of a database of engine-out diesel e...

E. R. Fanick

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Status Report of Solar Standards coordinated by the Steering Committee on Solar Energy Standards Development contents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar standards are listed for each of the standards writing organizations associated with the Steering Committee. A complete list of approved standards, standards under development, and standards under revision is provided. (WHK)

None

1980-08-18

242

Contribution from twenty two years of CSNI International Standard Problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a brief overview on the contribution of some CSNI International Standard Problems (ISPs) to nuclear reactor safety issues (41 ISPs performed over the last 22 years). This CSNI activity on ISPs has been one of the major activities of the Principal Working Group no.2 on Coolant System Behaviour. Its domain extended from thermal-hydraulics to several other accident domains following the main concerns of nuclear reactor safety, e.g., LOCA predictions fuel behaviour, operator procedures, containment thermal-hydraulics severe accidents, VVERs, etc. ISPs are providing unique material and benefits for some safety related issues. Clearly, all the technical findings and benefits provided by ISPs are still needed and contribute to advancement of nuclear safety. The report provides some overview on the general objectives of ISPs, content and types of ISPs, and technical domains covered by ISPs, followed by a synthesis of technical findings and benefits to the scientific community

1998-01-01

243

CAMAC-an international standard for data machine instrumentation  

CERN Multimedia

CAMAC is a standard for on-line computer instrumentation and control. Owing to the world-wide acceptance of CAMAC, standardized and mutually compatible equipment is now offered by a great number of manufacturers. CAMAC systems are modular, and with the range of modules commercially available, it is possible to build up flexible and complex data processing systems. Use of CAMAC requires a CAMAC- compatible entrance (interface) to the computer. Once established, users are later on completely independent of the type of computer used. General aspects, CAMAC systems for NORD-1 and NORD-10 are presented. The former is developed at Physics Institute, Oslo, and the latter is developed as a result of the CERN-contract gained by NORSK DATAELEKTRONIKK.

Johnsen, P J

1973-01-01

244

CSNI International standard problems (ISP): brief descriptions (1975-1997)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last twenty years (1975-1999) the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored more than forty International Standard Problems (ISPs) in the fields of in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulic, and iodine behaviour in the containment. ISPs are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. The main characteristics of 41 ISPs completed between 1975 and 1999, and 3 containment analysis standard problems (CASPs) are briefly presented

1997-01-01

245

IAEA new standards for taking into account the internal actions when NPP designing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA new standards for the NPP safety are considered. These standards concern the problems of internal actions (including fires) when NPP designing. It is noted that the considered standards mat be also useful for other nuclear facilities

2005-12-01

246

SPOTS project and development of a standard and reference material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ‘Standardization Project for Optical Techniques of Strain measurement’ (SPOTS was focused on the development of reference materials for calibrating optical systems for static strain measurement and standardized tests for evaluating the capabilities of such systems. The reference material consists of a beam in four-point bending within a monolithic frame that ensures reproducibility of the boundary and loading conditions. A procedure for the use of the reference material has been developed and leads to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties that allow the construction of confidence limits for the data obtained with the calibrated optical system. The design and methodology have been developed into a proposed draft standard which is being endorsed by VAMAS (Versailles Agreement on Materials And Standards for review by ISO (International Standards Organisation. An overview of philosophy underpinning the proposed draft standard is presented and serves as an introduction to the reference material and standardized test and their use in providing higher confidence in optical measurements of strain.

Patterson E.

2010-06-01

247

Center for International Development at Harvard University  

Science.gov (United States)

Established in 1998 by the Harvard Institute for International Development and the Kennedy School of Government, the Center for International Development (CID) is Harvard's primary center for research on sustainable international development. The CID is currently headed by Professor Dani Rodrik, who provides oversight and direction for the Center. On the site, visitors can learn about upcoming international development conferences sponsored by the Center, read about the various persons working at the Center, learn about various research programs, along with reading various reports associated with each area of inquiry. The site also contains a host of links to online research data sets for persons working in the field of international development, and to the Center's working papers and special reports. Some of the more compelling working papers address the situation of sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa and the rise and fall of the Indonesian economy.

248

Working group 2: regulatory and standards development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This second workshop explored regulatory standards and developments in the pipeline industry. New methods of improved damage prevention for regulators and pipelines to implement were presented. First, incident trends were discussed, using incident analysis to identify the possible causes and solutions of incidents. The determination of realistic goals was attempted. Next, leak detection was discussed with the presentation of current work in annex E which will form part of the new CSA Z662 standard in a few years time. New testing methods such as external methods of leak detection were studied. A third presentation showed the recent development in overpressure protection with reference to the new annex M incorporated in the CSA Z662-11 standard. The last presentation introduced the topic of public safety issues associated with CO2 pipelines with regard to different failure scenarios and the appropriate emergency responses.

Bunch, Chad; Lee, Shu; Peters, Mike; Parsonage, Kevin; Saad, Ziad

2011-07-01

249

Packaging in the New Product Development Process : An International Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis is conducted to investigate how packaging is taken into consideration within the new product development process and in which stages of the new product development process packaging actually is taken into consideration. Further we want to investigate if packaging has increased in importance within the activities of the new product development process, and how organizations deal with standardization of packaging for international markets in the new product development process. The p...

Nilsson, Pauline; Hult, Malin

2005-01-01

250

Secondary standard dosimetry laboratories: Development and trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication describes the work of the IAEA and the WHO in the establishment of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. Membership in the SSDL network has now risen to about 50 laboratories, of which 36 are in developing countries

1985-01-01

251

The role of international standards in the design of modern I ampersand C systems for nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper begins with a historical perspective on the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and their technical committees IEC TC 45 and ISO TC 85, which have developed mutual agreements to avoid duplication of effort in standardization development for reactor instrumentation. In 1976 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published safety standards and guides. In early 1981 agreements were reached between IAEA and IEC to avoid duplication of effort in regard to instrumentation and control systems used for protection, control, and monitoring nuclear power plants. Following these agreements, the IEC has made major efforts directed at development of I ampersand C standards for nuclear power plants. The paper then reviews standards work relevant to NPP I ampersand C systems. This has covered areas such as the application of digital computer control systems, classification and graded requirements for I ampersand C systems important to safety, design efforts for the main control room, and advanced measurement and monitoring systems

1993-10-01

252

International cooperation in detector research and development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The international collaboration dealing with the research and development (R and D) of detectors for TeV region physics is reported. In this report, it is attempted to analyze which and in what form interregional R and D on detectors may be suitable for the experiment at a hadron machine. Calorimetry was used as an example to illustrate the range of development required. An important and successful aspect of interregional collaboration concerns the definition of standard in the field of data acquisition. The reconstruction of the complete system is required, and this implies the measurement of all particles. This can be done only with calorimetric techniques. The methodical and technological development of calorimetry is presented. The role of the tracking and momentum analysis will require reassessment. Tracking will be essential for several auxiliary measurement. For the R and D, the collaboration between different groups has been made. For example, the ring-imaging Cherenkov tests, the uranium calorimeter tests and the test of a uranium-liquid argon hadron calorimeter were made by the collaboration of several groups. The collaboration with industry has been also made. (Kato, T.)

1984-09-01

253

Updating the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care. Entering the era of molecular diagnostics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care, first published in 2006 (Lancet Infect Dis 2006;6:710-725.) with a second edition in 2009 ( www.currytbcenter.ucsf.edu/international/istc_report ), was produced by an international coalition of organizations funded by the United States Agency for International Development. Development of the document was led jointly by the World Health Organization and the American Thoracic Society, with the aim of promoting engagement of all care providers, especially those in the private sector in low- and middle-income countries, in delivering high-quality services for tuberculosis. In keeping with World Health Organization recommendations regarding rapid molecular testing, as well as other pertinent new recommendations, the third edition of the Standards has been developed. After decades of dormancy, the technology available for tuberculosis care and control is now rapidly evolving. In particular, rapid molecular testing, using devices with excellent performance characteristics for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance, and that are practical and affordable for use in decentralized facilities in low-resource settings, is being widely deployed globally. Used appropriately, both within tuberculosis control programs and in private laboratories, these devices have the potential to revolutionize tuberculosis care and control, providing a confirmed diagnosis and a determination of rifampin resistance within a few hours, enabling appropriate treatment to be initiated promptly. Major changes have been made in the standards for diagnosis. Additional important changes include: emphasis on the recognition of groups at increased risk of tuberculosis; updating the standard on antiretroviral treatment in persons with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection; and revising the standard on treating multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:24673691

Hopewell, Philip C; Fair, Elizabeth L; Uplekar, Mukund

2014-03-01

254

Standards of radium-226: from Marie Curie to the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the early part of the 20th century, the pioneers of radioactivity research, led by Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford and Stefan Meyer, formed a Commission internationale des etalons de radium. The Commission made arrangements for the preparation and intercomparisons of the international standards of radium, which were identified as the Paris standard and the Vienna standard. Otto Hoenigschmid from Vienna prepared a first set of international secondary standards in 1912 and a second set in 1934. In both instances, these secondary standards were compared by gamma-ray measurements with the Paris and Vienna standards. The usage of these international standards of radium in the 20th century is described.

Coursey, B.M. E-mail: bert.coursey@nist.gov; Colle, R.; Coursey, J.S

2002-02-01

255

Standards of radium-226: from Marie Curie to the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the early part of the 20th century, the pioneers of radioactivity research, led by Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford and Stefan Meyer, formed a Commission internationale des étalons de radium. The Commission made arrangements for the preparation and intercomparisons of the international standards of radium, which were identified as the Paris standard and the Vienna standard. Otto Hönigschmid from Vienna prepared a first set of international secondary standards in 1912 and a second set in 1934. In both instances, these secondary standards were compared by gamma-ray measurements with the Paris and Vienna standards. The usage of these international standards of radium in the 20th century is described. PMID:11839059

Coursey, B M; Collé, R; Coursey, J S

2002-01-01

256

INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS: A WAY FOR GLOBAL CONSISTENCY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reverberations of Wall Street had to be felt across the global banking system. Last September, the world economy seemed to be hurtling down in a way that had initially raised the spectre of the Great Depression in America of the late 1920s. This is based largely on the performance of stock markets which are supposed to reflect future trends in the real economy. However, such knowledge embedded in the markets can be imperfect, as we have learnt by now. In some ways, the global financial crisis and its fallout are forcing economic agents to acquire new knowledge in regard to what might happen in the future. It was difficult to explain rationally why the stock markets were furiously running up even as company balance sheets were still bleeding. A few years ago, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS were a distant possibility. Today, the reality is far different. We are in a dramatic shift that is fast making IFRS the most widely accepted accounting model in the world. As the business environment becomes increasingly global and companies routinely list on stock exchanges in many countries, the need for consistent worldwide reporting standards intensifies. IFRS clearly addresses this issue; its goal is to create comparable, reliable, and transparent financial statements that will facilitate greater cross-border capital raising, trade and better corporate governance practices. Thus acceptance of IFRS is gaining momentum across the globe. IFRS transition program for any organization will have multi –dimensional effect because of differences which exist between IFRS and Local GAAPs. The objectives of the paper is to highlight the nature of such differences with examples along with analysing the provisions of IFRS, comparative analysis of IFRS with Indian GAAP system, benefits, and major issues in first time adoption of IFRS in Indian companies with the help of case study of Indian corporate.

Ravindra Tripathi

2011-05-01

257

Final comparison report for international standard problem n.22 (SPES)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

OECD-CSNI International Standard Problem 22 is a 'Loss of Feedwater with EFW delayed' test, performed in the SPES facility (SIET-Piacenza). The purpose of 'LOFW-EFW delayed' experiment is to obtain in the primary system of the facility the thermal-hydraulic conditions similar to the reference plant in the incidental transient of main feedwater total loss, in all the three steam generators, with a delayed intervention of the emergency feedwater system. It is a double blind exercise, characterized by a large participation of non-OECD countries sponsored by IAEA. The ISP22 Comparison Report is based on two fundamental elements: the comparison between the single Participants predictions and the experimental data, and the overall comparison among all calculations and test results. The conclusions drawn from these analyses highlight the major contributions to the observed discrepancies deriving from code limitations, user errors, experimental uncertainties. From a macroscopic point of view, it is concluded that most of the phenomena occurring in ISP22 experiment were generally predicted by the double blind predictions. A more accurate analysis of the single phenomena can nevertheless reveal relevant discrepancies between calculations and data. The document also contains a description of ISP22 Participants and input decks, and a collection of their comments on the differences between calculations and test results

1990-01-01

258

Do international labor standards contribute to the persistence of the child labor problem?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, a number of governments and consumer groups in rich countries have tried to discourage the use of child labor in poor countries through measures such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards. The purported objective of such measures is to reduce the incidence of child labor in developing countries and thereby improve children's welfare. In this paper, we examine the effects of such policies from a political-economy perspective. We show that thes...

2009-01-01

259

Do International Labor Standards Contribute to the Persistence of the Child Labor Problem?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, a number of governments and consumer groups in rich countries have tried to discourage the use of child labor in poor countries through measures such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards. The purported objective of such measures is to reduce the incidence of child labor in developing countries and thereby improve children’s welfare. In this paper, we examine the effects of such policies from a political-economy perspective. We show that th...

2010-01-01

260

Do international labor standards contribute to the persistence of the child-labor problem?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, a number of governments and consumer groups in rich countries have tried to discourage the use of child labor in poor countries through measures such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards. The purported objective of such measures is to reduce the incidence of child labor in developing countries and thereby improve children’s welfare. In this paper, we examine the effects of such policies from a political-economy perspective. We show that th...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

International labor standards and the political economy of child labor regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child labor is a persistent phenomenon in many developing countries. In recent years, support has been growing among rich-country governments and consumer groups for the use of trade policies, such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards, to reduce child labor in poor countries. In this paper, we discuss research on the long-run implications of such policies. In particular, we demonstrate that such measures may have the unintended side effect of lowering domest...

2008-01-01

262

Institutional Infrastructure and the Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nigeria has officially indicated her intention to adopt International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) from year 2012. Though a welcome development, it raises the question of the country's availability and readiness of relevant and appropriate institutional infrastructure. Using the perception of users and preparers of accounting information, the results of the descriptive study showed that only the professional accounting bodies have the relevant infrastructure to cope with t...

Iyoha, F. O.; Jafaru Jimoh

2011-01-01

263

Status of uranium fuel cycle standards and plutonium standard development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium fuel cycle standards were reviewed by federal agencies and an appendix to the document by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is discussed. The appendix pertains just to light-water cooled nuclear power plants. The EPA standard is proposed to limit doses to human populations and to limit the discharge of long-lived materials into the environment to prevent long-term buildup of significant radionuclides. The standard will limit the dose to man to 25 millirems per yr for the whole body and 75 millirems per yr to the thyroid

1975-04-27

264

The quantitative analysis of Bowen's kale by PIXE using the internal standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The internal standard method was used for non-destructive quantitative determination of trace elements by PIXE. The uniform distribution of the internal standard element in the Bowen's kale powder sample was obtained by using homogenization technique. Eleven elements are determined quantitatively for the sample prepared into self-supporting targets having lower relative standard deviations than non-self-supporting targets. (author)

1978-10-30

265

Specific Features of Reflection of Information Regarding Lease Operations in the National and International Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article identifies the degree of correspondence of the national Provisions (Standard of Business Accounting (PSBA Lease with the international standard and provides recommendations with respect to their closing up. On the results of the study the author provides specific features of international and national standards – the existing IFRS 17 Lease and national PSBA 14 Lease by the following components: definition of lease, its classification and reflection in accounting. Also the text of PSBA 31 Financial Expenditures is supplemented with provisions on capitalisation of financial expenditures prospectively, which would allow avoidance of correction of the balance of the retained income and provision of comparative information for previous periods. The article provides an algorithm of division of lease for accounting purposes on the basis of international standards. Its use would ensure correctness of reflection of lease operations in accounting and would serve as a basis for development of methodical provisions with respect to accounting. By the result of the study the author forms definition of the qualification asset as an asset which requires considerable time for its creation, preparation for target use, sales or acquisition of the ownership right. Capitalisation of such expenditures would allow non-reduction of the accounting income and also would provide a possibility to reflect financial expenditures in accordance with their economic essence.

Nikolenko Nataliya V.

2013-12-01

266

Breeder development in international cooperation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Federal Republic of Germany is gathering experience in operating the test power plant KNK II and in building the breeder prototype SNR 300. In this matter licensing- and financial problems have to be managed. For the further development planning studies also taking the French breeder concept into account are about to be effected. In France and the Soviet Union they are already passing over from breeder prototype power plants to larger demonstration breeders. The USA are making up for the delays they caused during the past years due to political reasons. Great Britain, Japan, India and Italy have their own breeding reactor projects, and Switzerland and some more countries do investigations concerning parts of the breeder development. (orig.)

1981-01-01

267

Biodiversity, international tourism and development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze whether biodiversity is increasing the receipts of tourism and beneficial for Least Developed Countries (LDCs). The underlying assumption is that a rich biodiversity provides a comparative advantage for most LDCs. We use a simple trade theory framework. The model is supported by an empirical analysis. The main findings are that first LDCs seem to have a comparative advantage in (sustainable) tourism, that second incidence of birds as the probably best explored taxonomic group has a...

Freytag, Andreas; Vietze, Christoph

2007-01-01

268

From 2G TO 3G The Evolution of International Cellular Standards  

CERN Multimedia

The purpose of this paper is to examine the major factors surrouding and contributing to the creation (and success) of Europe's 2nd generation 'GSM' cellular system, and compare and contrast it to key events and recent developments in 3rd generation 'IMT-2000' systems. The objective is to ascertain whether lessons from the development of one system can be applied to the other, and what implications 2G has for the development and assessment of 3G technologies. Among the major themes incorporated into this assessment is the concept of cooperation, and its role in bringing about the collaboration and integration necessary to support the success of an international cellular standard.

Selian, A N

2001-01-01

269

Performance Standards for Teachers supporting Nursing Students’ Reflection Skills Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How can nursing teachers improve students’ reflection skills? In the study performance standards for teachers were developed and validated. A ten-step procedure was followed to ensure procedural and internal validity. National competences and specific content standards for supporting nursing reflection skills development formed the foundation of a preliminary rubric framework which was piloted. Forty participants from six nursing institutes judged the developed rubric framework of eight competences covering thirty rubric attributes. They also discussed the prerequisite minimum performance level and judgmental models. These judgments and discussions resulted in consensus on the rubric framework, a cut-off score, and a conjunctive judgmental model that is convenient for assessing nursing teachers’ competences. The rubrics can be used in a teacher training program. Also institutes of nursing education can employ the rubrics as a tool for preparing and formatively assessing reflection skills.

Agaath Dekker- Groen

2012-01-01

270

Development of activity standard for 90Y microspheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

90Y microspheres are important therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals used in the treatment of liver cancer through a process known as selective internal radiation therapy. SIR-spheres[reg] is a radiopharmaceutical product that is comprised of 90Y microspheres suspended in sterile, pyrogen-free water for injection into patients. It is necessary to establish for the SIR-spheres[reg] production the capability of accurately measuring the activity of this product to a traceable national measurement standard. An activity standard for SIR-spheres[reg] was developed from a standard for 90Y solution, employing a highly quantifiable chemical digestion process. Calibration factors for the manufacturer's ionisation chambers were determined for 1 and 5 ml of the SIR-spheres[reg] product placed in Wheaton vials, for both 34% and 44% of 90Y microsphere concentration

2005-08-01

271

Reverse iontophoresis for noninvasive glucose monitoring: the internal standard concept.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reverse iontophoresis is used by the GlucoWatch Biographer to noninvasively extract glucose across the skin, allowing a diabetic's glycemia to be evaluated every 10 min over several hours. However, before each use, the device must be calibrated with a blood sample assayed in the conventional way. The objective of this study was to identify an approach by which to avoid this invasive step. The dermal (anodal) side of porcine skin in vitro was bathed in buffered (pH 7.4) solutions containing glucose, at concentrations from 3 to 10 mM, and physiological levels of sodium chloride. Constant current was applied and the cathodal solution contacting the outer skin surface was analyzed periodically for the quantities of Na(+) and glucose extracted by "reverse" electromigration and electroosmosis, respectively. Although the extracted Na(+) flux was invariant, as expected, given the essentially fixed NaCl concentration present in the physiological system, the glucose samples reflected proportionately the subdermal concentration. Equally, the extracted flux ratio (glucose/sodium) varied linearly with the subdermal glucose/sodium concentration ratio; knowing the gradient of this correlation, therefore, means that a measurement of the extraction flux ratio can be used to determine the subdermal glucose concentration (the physiological [Na(+)] being known and fixed). Thus, a refinement of the reverse iontophoresis technology using the simultaneous determination of the extracted fluxes of the analyte of interest (glucose) and of an "internal standard", whose level in the biological system is invariant (Na(+)), may permit a noninvasive sampling methodology free of the need for calibration with a blood sample. PMID:14603514

Sieg, Anke; Guy, Richard H; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña

2003-11-01

272

International financial markets and development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the ‘casino economy’. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated [...] by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new actors are surfacing, e.g. the institutional investor (hedge funds, private equity funds, etc.), while new instruments are leading to highly leveraged and destabilising derivatives. The casino system has been promoted by governments and intergovernmental institutions to liberalise and deregulate financial markets. Although developing countries have not participated in the casino system, they have been suffering most from the spill-over into the real economy. The main lesson learnt is that the casino has to be closed.

Peter, Wahl.

273

US agency for international development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author addresses the following questions in his presentation: what is USAID; where does the money go and who makes the decisions; where does USAID fund energy programs, and especially renewable energy; who are their `partners`; what is the approach to renewable energy; what in summary, has USAID funded that is relevant to village power. USAID is the foreign aid agency of the US Government. Approximately 75 countries receive regular assistance. The fiscal year 97 budget for the agency is approximately $5.8 billion. About half of the total budget goes to Israel, Egypt, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. These budgeting decisions are geopolitical. Congress earmarks total budgets for a few sectors or subjects, such as family planning. The goal of USAID`s renewable energy programs is simple: They are interested in accelerating the market penetration of commercial technologies. They do not engage in technology R&D. Developing countries have energy needs now, and commercial technologies are available now. USAID has taken note of the interest taken by subsidiaries of US utilities in the past couple of years in bringing their expertise and resources to bear on meeting the challenge of rural energy needs in developing countries. They believe that the entry into the market of these players could be one of the most important catalysts for making the rural energy revolution happen.

Pumfrey, R.

1997-12-01

274

Application of a powdered-internal-standard method to plant and seaweed samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preparation method making use of liquid nitrogen combined with a powdered-internal-standard method has been established for seaweed and plant samples, whose elemental concentration has been attracting attention in various research fields. It is found that a powdered-internal-standard method developed by us in applicable to the powdered samples treated with liquid nitrogen with good accuracy and reproducibility. The results were compared with those obtained by direct-powder method and by chemical-ashing method and good agreement was obtained. In addition, it is found that the whole sample of large quantities was almost uniformized by this preparation method. Moreover, it becomes possible to obtain concentrations of all the concerned elements including iodine, chlorine and bromine, which are essential elements in the fields of life-sciences and are difficult to be analyzed by the chemical-ashing method. It is expected that the application to other biological samples is also promising. (author)

2004-11-15

275

The Development Status Quo and Counter measures of Logistics Informationization Standards of China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The construction of logistics informationization standard system is related to the long-term development of the logistics industry. The domestic standard construction of logistics informationization is fairly lagged behind; problems such as few standards, incomplete systems, and low level of international conventions still exist. This paper studies the constitution of a logistics informationization standard system, differentiates ten categories of logistics informationization standards, and then elaborates on how to establish and improve various standards. Finally, this paper studies the countermeasures to promote the implementation of logistics informationization standards.
Key words: Logistics informationization; Standards; Status Quo; Countermeasures

Qian XU

2011-09-01

276

For a communicational analysis of international management standards in societal security  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction This proposal presents a communicational analysis of international management standards in the field of private and public organizations. We study the new communication policies and strategies transmitted by these texts.this work (part of the notSeG project, 2009-2012) takes place in the field of the international standardization of societal security. the aim of this project is to study management standards (international, european and national) in relation to the institutions an...

Juanals, Brigitte

2013-01-01

277

DEVELOPMENT OF UAV INTERNATIONAL REGULATION AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analysis of the development of unmanned aerial vehicles international regulation can reach a conclusion about the need for further integration and harmonization of aviation regulation and standards in the world and in  the European region. The involvement of Ukrainian experts,  scientists, universities and production representatives to participate in unmanned aerial vehicles development, regulation and standardization international organizations and committees are  recommended.?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ????????????? FAA, NASA, US Secretary of Defence, NATO, SC203 RTCA,F-38 ASTM International, SAE S-4 Unmanned Systems, AIAA, IEEE, EASA, EUROCONTROL,EUROCAE, CAA of United Kingdom, EDA.The principles of international UAV regulations and standardisations of FAA, NASA, USSecretary of Defence, NATO, SC203 RTCA, F-38 ASTM International, SAE S-4 Unmanned Systems,AIAA, IEEE, EASA, EUROCONTROL, EUROCAE, CAA of United Kingdom, EDA are considered.??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????????????? ????????? ????????????? FAA, NASA, US Secretary of Defence, NATO, SC203RTCA, F-38 ASTM International, SAE S-4 Unmanned Systems, AIAA, IEEE, EASA,EUROCONTROL, EUROCAE , CAA of United Kingdom, EDA.?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? FAA, NASA, US Secretary of Defence, NATO, SC203 RTCA, F-38 ASTM International, SAE S-4 Unmanned Systems, AIAA, IEEE, EASA, EUROCONTROL,EUROCAE, CAA of United Kingdom, EDA.The principles of international UAV regulations and standardisations of FAA, NASA, USSecretary of Defence, NATO, SC203 RTCA, F-38 ASTM International, SAE S-4 Unmanned Systems,AIAA, IEEE, EASA, EUROCONTROL, EUROCAE, CAA of United Kingdom, EDA are considered.??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? FAA, NASA, US Secretary of Defence, NATO, SC203 RTCA, F-38 ASTM International, SAE S-4 Unmanned Systems, AIAA, IEEE, EASA,EUROCONTROL, EUROCAE , CAA of United Kingdom, EDA.

?????? ??????????? ???????

2011-02-01

278

Development of American National Standard on External Event PRA Methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last ten years, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S. nuclear utilities have been developing methods and requirements for risk-informed applications making use of probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of nuclear power plants. Early in this process, it became clear that the existing PRAs were done with different objectives and methodologies by different analysts. For uniformity and consistency in future risk-informed applications, industry consensus standards on probabilistic risk assessments were deemed to be essential. Currently, the following standards have been published or under preparation: - ASME RA-S-2002: 'Standard for Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Nuclear Power Plant Applications', Addendum C, March 2005. - ANSI/ANS-58.21-2003 'External-Events PRA Methodology' March 2003. - ANS-58.22 'Low Power and Shutdown PRA Standard'. - ANS-58.23 'Fire PRA Methodology Standard'. - ANS Level 2 and Level 3 PRA Standards. The ASME Standard specifies the requirements for performing PRA for internal events under full power conditions. ANS 58.21 specifies the requirements for conducting PRA of external events under full power conditions. These standards have been published, whereas the other standards are under preparation. ANS 58.21 was prepared by a working group comprised of the following individuals: - Dr. R.J. Budnitz, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. - Dr. N.C. Chokshi, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. - W. Henries, Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company. - Dr. M.K. Ravindra, ABS Consulting, (Current Chair of Working Group). - Dr. J.D. Stevenson, J.D. Stevenson Consultants. - T. Yee, Southern California Edison Company. The development of this Standard was guided and approved by the Risk Informed Standards Committee (RISC) of American Nuclear Society. This committee has presently 22 members drawn from different sectors of the nuclear industry: utilities, reactor vendors, universities, research organizations, architect engineers, consultants and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In addition, the Working Group had sent early drafts of the Standard to a select group of peers in different elements of the external event PRA; this peer group included industry experts like Professor Allin Cornell, Dr. Robert Kennedy, and Mr. David Moore. The final requirements in the Standard hence represent the consensus of the industry. (author)

2007-11-14

279

INTERNATIONAL TENDENCIES OF INFOMATIZATION DEVELOPMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF EDUCATION QUALITY ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article actual tendencies of educational system informatization development in the world are analyzed. There are stated the basic advantages of information and communication technologies (ICT use in the educational process. It is presented experience of the coordination of national standards with international ones in the different countries of the world which will give the chance to Ukraine to be guided for improvement of education quality, that means improvement of information technologies (I? quality. As Ukraine is a part of the European and international information and educational space, therefore in this branch there should be a development responding to the level of other countries.? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????. ? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????-?????????????? ?????????? (??? ? ??????? ????????. ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????, ?????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? (?? ? ???????. ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ??????????.

A.?. ????

2011-02-01

280

Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures.

1992-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of method for evaluating mechanical stress of composite structures for aerospace use; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Koku uchuyo sentan fukugozai no kyodo hyoka hoho no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

R and D has been performed on methods to repair composite structures used in aerospace application, and on stress evaluation on repaired portions, targeting at establishment of international standardization. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. The current fiscal year has executed surveys on repair methods, selection of the repair methods, evaluation on the repairing processes, and compression strength evaluation on test samples given repairs. The method for repairing the sandwich-structure composite members was selected as a result surveys and discussions on published literatures. For the evaluation test on the repairing processes, specific repairing processes were established with reference to the result of surveys on the repair methods, which were applied to test samples having been given damages. In addition, discussions were given also on non-destructive inspection methods for sandwich panels. Regarding the strength test for repaired portions, a compression strength test was performed on test samples repaired by using adhesive after having been given damages, wherein data related to compression strength were obtained. Furthermore, a system was developed to analyze the scarf-like adhesive-repaired potions by using the two-dimensional finite element method model. (NEDO)

NONE

2001-03-01

282

Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of method for evaluating thermal properties test on polymeric materials; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kobunshi zairyo no netsutokusei shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Targeting at proposing to ISO as an international standard, R and D has been performed on a method of the alternating current heating of the non-constant method, with regard to a method to evaluate the thermal properties test on polymeric materials in molten condition reflecting thin film polymeric materials, and the forming and processing technology. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. The current fiscal year has executed surveys on literatures related to thermal properties, development and commercialization of a measuring device, establishment of the measurement procedure, and putting some of the materials into database. The database was prepared mainly for heat diffusion rate and heat conductivity, wherein about 1000 items of information were collected. The temperature range of the measuring device revealed that stabilized data can be obtained from as low temperature as liquid nitrogen temperature to as high as 200 degrees C. The commercially available measuring device has no restrictions if the test sample thickness is from 1 mm to 100 mm, if the temperature range is from room temperature to 350 degrees C, if the temperature rising rate is from 0.01 to 5 K/min, and if the test sample form is film. Measurement at temperatures including those in the melting zone in the forming stage of each polymer has achieved as close result as having been called for in the initial objective. (NEDO)

NONE

2001-03-01

283

Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization of fine ceramics test and evaluation method for communication equipment; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Tsushinkiki yo fain ceramics no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research and development is carried out aiming at the international standardization of methods for evaluating electric properties such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and surface resistance for fine ceramics for use in the high-frequency and ultrahigh-frequency bands. In this fiscal year, in the effort to establish an accurate measurement method for millimeter wave complex specific inductive capacity, the Fabry-Perot resonator was improved, and found to be capable of measuring 60-110 GHz. Efforts were made to improve on the accuracy of the cavity resonator excited by coaxial cable, for which various types of resonators were fabricated. For the calibration of evaluation apparatuses such as the Fabry-Perot resonator, cavity resonator excited by coaxial cable, and dielectric resonator excited by non-radiative waveguide, sapphire single crystals and PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) were selected as reference materials for measuring complex dielectric constant, and their dimensions and specifications were determined. In the study of the evaluation of basic surface properties, surface irregularity of the silver electrode was accurately measured by use of a thin-film surface geometry measurement apparatus, and the presence of a strong correlation between the jig silver electrode surface coarseness and the microwave band effective conductivity. (NEDO)

NONE

2001-03-01

284

International Standard Problem No. 48 - containment capacity. Synthesis Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In June 2002, the OECD-NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) initiated an International Standard Problem on containment integrity (ISP 48) based on the NRC/NUPEC/Sandia test. The objectives of the ISP are to extend the understanding of capacities of actual containment structures based on results of the recent PCCV Model test and other previous research. From 1997 through 2001 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a Cooperative Containment Integrity Program under the joint sponsorship of the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan, and the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The purpose of the program was to investigate the response of representative models of nuclear containment structures to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions to measured behavior. A uniform 1:4-scale model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) was constructed and tested at SNL. This model was representative of the containment structure of an actual pressurized water reactor plant in Japan. The ISP consists of four phases over a period of 2 years: Phase 1: Data Collection and Identification. Phase 2: Calculation of the Limit State Test (LST), i.e. static pressure loading. Phase 3: Calculation of response to both Thermal and Mechanical Loadings. Phase 4: Reporting Workshop Eleven organizations (or teams) from nine OECD member countries accepted the invitation to participate in the ISP and perform calculations to predict the structural response of the PCCV model to static and transient pressure and thermal loading. Each participating organization was provided with the model and loading data and was asked to perform independent analyses to simulate the response of the PCCV model. The results of each team's calculations were compiled and the results presented at a final workshop in April 2005. The prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model is a uniform 1:4-scale model of the containment structure of Unit 3 of the Ohi Nuclear Power Station in Japan. The approach to designing the model was to scale the design of the Ohi-3 containment to the extent possible and include as many representative features of the prototype as practical: liner, penetrations, reinforcement steel and tendons. Fifty-five response parameters, referred to as standard output locations (SOLs), were selected to facilitate initial comparison of the Phase 2 calculations with the test results. The calculated responses match the test results and each other reasonably well up to the onset of global or general membrane, yielding where the results begin to diverge. Also, most of the analyses capture the loss of stiffness due to cracking of the concrete at approximately 1.5 times the design pressure. In addition to submitting response predictions at the SOLs, each participant was also asked to provide a best estimate of failure pressure and mechanisms of the PCCV model. It is interesting to note that the differences in failure predictions are much more significant than the differences in the calculated responses would seem to suggest. Phase 3 of ISP48 extends the results of the model tests and calculations by investigating the addition of temperature to the pressure loading. The ISP participants agreed to consider two thermal load cases for Phase 3: - Case 1: Saturated Steam Conditions (mandatory for all Phase 3 participants) - Monotonically increasing static pressure and temperature (saturated steam). - Case 2: Station Blackout Scenario - A representative severe-accident scenario for a four-loop PWR including vessel failure and hydrogen detonation

2005-01-01

285

Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012.

Koo, I. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, I. W.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, J. C. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-04-15

286

Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012

2011-01-01

287

Application of ISO standard 27048: Dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future. (authors)

2010-03-08

288

Application of ISO standard 27048: dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future. PMID:21212077

Henrichs, K

2011-03-01

289

Harmonizing the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) sound level meter specification standards  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been over 20 years since the last major revision of the American National Standard Specification for Sound Level Meters, S1.4-1983 (R2002). This is the most extensively referenced ANSI acoustical standard, with wide application to architectural acoustics, soundscapes, environmental noise, and hearing conservation. A new revision is proposed that conforms as closely as possible to the recently developed International Electrotechnical Commission Standard for Electroacoustics-Sound Level Meters Part 1: Specifications, IEC 61672-1 (2002-05). This proposed revision represents an improvement over ANSI S1.4-1983, particularly in its frequency response tolerance limits at high frequencies, and impulse (toneburst) response. Also, it incorporates the high-frequency electrical design goals and tolerance limits for A-weighted response that were specified in Amendment S1.4A-1985, and it maintains the more restrictive low-frequency tolerance limits of the earlier (1983) specification, compared to IEC 61672-1. The proposed revision maintains the laboratory precision Type 0 specification, which is absent in IEC 61672-1, while incorporating the specifications for integrating-averaging sound level meters previously given in ANSI S1.43-1997. Sound level meters which meet the Type 1 and Type 2 specification requirements, respectively, in this S1.4 revision will also meet the Class 1 and Class 2 specification requirements of 61672-1.

Brooks, Bennett M.

2005-09-01

290

Developments in standards and other guidance for individual monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years there has been a huge increase in the development and publication of standards, documents of relevance and other guidance for individual monitoring (IM), particularly for external radiation. An extensive list of the main documents published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), International Organisation for Standardization (ISO), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), CEN/CENELEC, European Council (EC) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) can be found elsewhere [Fantuzzi, E., Alves, J.G., Ambrosi, P., Janzekovic, H., Vartiainen, E., 2004. Implementation of standards for individual monitoring in Europe. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 112 (1), 3-44; Fantuzzi, E., 2007. Standards, documents of relevance and directives in individual monitoring: is European individual monitoring in compliance with standards? Radiat. Prot. Dosim., doi: (10.1093/rpd/ncl568)]. In March 2007 ICRP approved a new set of fundamental recommendations that will replace ICRP Publication 60. Similarly to what has happened in the past with previous ICRP Publications 26 and 60, it is expected that this document will inspire the revision of the Basic Safety Standards of the IAEA [Safety Series 115, 1996. International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. IAEA, Vienna] and of the European Union (EC Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM) and consequently of national legislation in the respective member states. In order to implement the radiation protection principles laid down in the BSS both the IAEA and EC have regularly published guidance documents. EC published in 1994 EUR 14852 entitled Technical recommendations for monitoring individuals occupationally exposed to external radiation that was a powerful tool for all the participants to the field of IM (radiation protection authorities, individual monitoring services and users) summarizing concepts and contributing to the improvement of quality and the reliability of results. Particularly over the last decade, EURADOS WG2 has actively contributed to harmonization of IM in Europe, publishing reports (, ), organizing an intercomparison in 1999. A 'series' of workshops on IM to disseminate WG activity star, organizing an intercomparison in 1999. A 'series' of workshops on IM to disseminate WG activity started: IM-2000 was held in Helsinki organized by STUK, IM-2005 was held in Vienna organized by ARCS, EURADOS and IAEA (Radiat. Prot. Dosim. advance access). Recent WG2 actions included the review of EUR 14852 and the preparation of a proposal to organize self-sustained intercomparisons. In September 2006, EC issued a call for a tender on the establishment of European technical recommendations. A consortium comprising GAEC and EURADOS prepared and presented a proposal. Following the evaluation procedure EC awarded a contract to the consortium: the EU-Trimer project. This paper will cover the main ICRP and ICRU quantities and requirements, standards and other guidance documents recently published or in course of development in order to achieve harmonization of practices and procedures for IM of external radiation. The main aspects of the EU-Trimer project will also be addressed

2008-02-01

291

Globalization quickly increased need for moving from local to international standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

'Standardization' quickly changed in the past few years, due to the market's globalization that needs international standards as important instruments in eliminating technical barriers to trade. The 'Petroleum Sector' chose moving to international standards jointly processed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) that played the role of historical reference. Taking into account that oil industry wants only one Standard worldwide used, also Europe decided for adopting these ISO Standards as European Standards. The result is much better considering that also Russia and China seem to adopt these ISO documents as their national standards. It is so becoming much more significant the 'motto' that ISO TC 67 'Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries' adopted for its standardization activities: 'Do it once, do it right, do it internationally'. Examples of such international Standards worldwide used as National Standards are: ISO 11960:2004 - 'Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for wells' and; ISO/DIS 3183 - 'Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems' (under preparation). Standardization has so grown from technical to management tool and countries are also moving, including standards in more areas of its legislations. (author)

Cappelli, Cataldo

2005-07-01

292

The requirements for the inclusion of standard terms in international sales contracts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG) does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solutio [...] n to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it is necessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be made available to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems, namely that a clear incorporation clause in the contract is sufficient for the effective incorporation of standard terms. The author critically examines the case law, the various approaches and the underlying arguments on which they are based, before reaching the conclusion that the two extreme approaches should be rejected in favour of the more moderate approach. This approach is founded on a proper interpretation of the provisions of the CISG as well as being in step with international trade practice.

Eiselen, S.

293

75 FR 6070 - Notice of Public Meeting on the International Atomic Energy Agency Basic Safety Standards Version...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Public Meeting on the International Atomic Energy Agency Basic Safety Standards...Public Meeting on the International Atomic Energy Agency Basic Safety Standards...comments on this International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) draft...

2010-02-05

294

International standards for tuberculosis care: Relevance and implications for laboratory professionals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On World Tuberculosis (TB Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are suspected of having, TB and is intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all healthcare providers in delivering high quality care for patients of all ages, including those with smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB, TB caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TB/HIV coinfection. In this article, we present the ISTC, with a special focus on the diagnostic standards and describe their implications and relevance for laboratory professionals in India and worldwide. Laboratory professionals play a critical role in ensuring that all the standards are actually met by providing high quality laboratory services for smear microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing and other services such as testing for HIV infection. In fact, if the ISTC is widely followed, it can be expected that there will be a greater need and demand for quality assured laboratory services and this will have obvious implications for all laboratories in terms of work load, requirement for resources and trained personnel and organization of quality assurance systems.

Pai M

2007-01-01

295

78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government  

Science.gov (United States)

The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) is extending the comment period for the proposed revisions to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government, known as the ``Green Book,'' to January 15, 2014. We are requesting public comments on the proposed revisions in the exposure draft. The proposed changes contained in the 2013 Exposure Draft update to the Standards for Internal......

2013-11-14

296

The Realization of Tibetan Code Conversion between National and International Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper has expatiated the mutual conversion between national and international standards (ISO/IEC 10646, and realized UNICODE operation based on MATLAB. It has made code conversion between national and international standards, in order to provide an effective method for further Tibetan small-character code processing based on MATLAB.

Qiang Ma

2012-04-01

297

Internal Standards: A Source of Analytical Bias For Volatile Organic Analyte Determinations  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of internal standards in the determination of volatile organic compounds as described in SW-846 Method 8260C introduces a potential for bias in results once the internal standards (ISTDs) are added to a sample for analysis. The bias is relative to the dissimilarity betw...

298

Language Selection Policies in International Standardization – Perception of the IEC Member Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

International standards setting organizations have different language selection policies. These policies have, besides their financial aspects, also an important cultural/ political dimension. The standards setting organizations are either bilingual (English/ French), or unilingual (English), or multilingual (English, French and further languages). We have investigated the references of the 65 national members of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The main findings are a mod...

Teichmann, H.; Vries, H. J.

2009-01-01

299

The basic safety standards on diskette. International basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The program SS115 contains the text and data from Safety Series No. 115: 'International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources' published by the IAEA in Vienna in 1996. The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards

1997-01-01

300

Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).?METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Search words included "ISO", "CORESTA", "Barclay", "compensation and machine smoking", "tar and nicotine...

Bialous, S.; Yach, D.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Draft I.E.C. standard for monitoring PWR internal structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EDF has proposed to the I.E.C. (International Electrotechnical Commission) a draft standard for monitoring the vessel internal structures of PWRs. The standard applies to systems used for monitoring the vibratory behavior of the internal structures of PWRs (core barrel, thermal shield, fuel assemblies) on the basis of neutron fluctuations observed outside the vessel as well as of vessel vibrations. It covers the systems characteristics and the monitoring procedures. It should facilitate standardization of monitoring and comparisons on an international level. (author)

1995-06-19

302

Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Overall survey; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Sogo chosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper summed up the results of the survey of tackling with the international standardization by enterprises and organizations involved in the standardization in the U.S., Europe and Japan, the results of the R and D on 20 themes for the international standardization, and the development toward the international standardization. As the R and D themes, the following were selected: the development of chemical method to analyze/evaluate metallic coatings of surface treated steel coating sheets, R and D of the basic evaluation method of functional composite particles, international standards for computer/manikins, basic technology of color image management, study on optimizing design/evaluation technology using quality engineering, study of the international standardization by economic evaluation of environmental impacts, R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells, development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards, standard measuring methods of hormone effects of chemical substances, quantification of the sensory evaluation and international standardization in the paint field, experimental study on the international standardization for immunochemical measurement of chemical substances, etc. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

303

The Application of International Accounting Standard’s Requirements No. (20 in Jordanian Chemical Detergents Industry Companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aimed at identifying the extent to which Jordanian chemical detergents industry companies applying the requirements of international accounting standard No. (20. A questionnaire has been designed for this purpose and distributed to the external auditors of these companies of (50 auditors / questionnaire, (30 questionnaires were recovered and were suitable for analysis, with recovery rate reached to (60%. Resolution data was analyzed using (SPSS, and a number of statistical techniques through descriptive statistics, arithmetic means, standard deviations and percentages. The results of the study showed that Jordanian chemical detergents industry companies do not apply the requirements of international accounting standard No. (20, and there are difficulties that limit the application of the mentioned standard in a high degree. The study recommended urging Jordanian chemical detergents industry companies to implement the requirements of international accounting standard No. (20, in addition to helping Jordanian chemical detergents industry companies to reduce the difficulties of application of international accounting standard No, (20 and treated them radically.

Jamal Adel Al-Sharairi

2012-02-01

304

78 FR 72475 - Derivatives Clearing Organizations and International Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...and related governance arrangements; (3) enhancing system safeguards to facilitate the continuous operation and rapid recovery of activities; \\323\\ (4) enhancing risk management standards by creating new stress testing and sensitivity...

2013-12-02

305

78 FR 50259 - Derivatives Clearing Organizations and International Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...and related governance arrangements; (3) enhancing system safeguards to facilitate the continuous operation and rapid recovery of activities; \\214\\ (4) enhancing risk management standards by creating new stress testing and sensitivity...

2013-08-16

306

78 FR 37505 - International Standard-Setting Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...standard-setting activities of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), in accordance...Regulations_&_Policies/Codex_Alimentarius/index.asp. SUPPLEMENTARY...Government's activities relating to Codex Alimentarius. The United States...

2013-06-21

307

75 FR 31749 - International Standard-Setting Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...standard-setting activities of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), in accordance...Regulations_&_Policies/Codex_Alimentarius/index.asp. SUPPLEMENTARY...Government's activities relating to Codex Alimentarius. The United States...

2010-06-04

308

DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION OF ECOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE SCALE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was aimed to construct, develop and standardize Ecological Intelligence Scale (EIS. Investigators outlined the dimensions of ecological intelligence with a thorough reading of the literature and after analyzing the content framed 287 items related to the determined dimensions. After first tryout and seeking the opinion of the experts some of the items were reframed and deleted. After second tryout on a sample of 400 students of Kumaun University, S.S.J. Campus Almora 120 items were retained in the questionnaire. Reliability of the questionnaire was determined by split half method and that came out to be 0.95 that determines that EIS is a highly reliable tool. Due procedure was followed to ensure face validity, content validity and item validity of the tool.

G. S. Nayal

2014-06-01

309

Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different langu...

Benedict, Ralph Hb; Amato, Maria Pia; Boringa, Jan; Brochet, Bruno; Foley, Fred; Fredrikson, Stan; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hartung, Hans; Krupp, Lauren; Penner, Iris; Reder, Anthony T.; Langdon, Dawn

2012-01-01

310

Aid for development of international trade  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of international trade was very impressive in the second half of 20th century. But even with these great development opportunities that growth of international trade can bring the small number of developed economies had succeeded to ripe benefits from it in order to develop their economies and reduce poverty. Even with the establishment of the World Trade Organization it was apparent that developing countries need assistance in order to integrate fully in international trade system. The Aid for Trade, which is a part of Official Development Assistance focusing on trade, has an aim to help developing countries build their trade capacity and the transport infrastructure so they can use trade as a powerful engine for economic growth. This paper set out to describe this new programme of trade aid developed under the auspices of WTO, as a multilateral project, to point out the readiness of donor countries and aims of beneficiary countries. But we will explore the linkages of Aid for Trade programme with bilateral and regional aid initiatives in the area of trade. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179029: Srbija u savremenim me?unarodnim odnosima: Strateški pravci razvoja i u?vrš?ivanja položaja Srbije u me?unarodnim integrativnim procesima - spoljnopoliti?ki, me?unarodni ekonomski, pravni i bezbedonosni aspekti

Bjeli? Predrag

2012-01-01

311

International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), which documents the neurological examination of individuals with SCI. The Autonomic Standards Assessment Form is recommended to be completed during the evaluation of indiv...

Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William; Kennelly, Michael; Kirshblum, Steven; Krogh, Klaus; Alexander, Marca Sipski; Vogel, Lawrence; Wecht, Jill

2012-01-01

312

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 41 (IAS 41) – IMPLICATION FOR REPORTING CROP ASSETS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A series of articles were written regarding International Accounting Standard 41 (IAS 41) – Agriculture in order to outpost the the implication of this standard over valuating the different biological assets. Valuation of crop assets are also a part of the IAS 41 objective.  Anyway,  this paper investigates the implications of International Accounting Standard 41 for European Union (EU) entities reporting on holdings of crop asset from thre  points of view: implication of pr...

Cornel Gabriel Ni??; Petru ?tefea

2013-01-01

313

HARMONIZATION OF NATIONAL REGULATION AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS – PARTICULAR CASE OF NONCURRENT ASSETS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the scientific literature, accounting harmonization is a top topic because it helps to increase the comparability of financial statements. Also in Romania in the last 10 years becames a topic that is very often debated. The harmonization is trying to reduce differences of financial reporting statements between countries or, in the other words, it is trying to bring to a common denominator of existing rules when appear conflicts of comparability between them. The purpose of this paper is to measure the harmonisation between national and international regulation for a significant element of financial position statement, such as noncurrent assets. This paper provides an empirical research of information that must be presented by entities which apply national accounting standards or international ones when financial statements are prepared, trying to measure the harmonization between the two referential. Thus, in trying to determine the harmonisation, we use the Jaccard coefficient in order to provide an overview of the degree of harmonization of accounting practice. When measuring the degree of comparability of Romanian accounting regulations with International Accounting Standards we analyzed noncurrent assets and impairment of assets using the Jaccard coefficient for accounting treatments and we calculated an average of similarities between the two regulations. Further, the results suggest that there is an average level of harmonization for the accounting treatment of noncurrent assets and for determining the impairment of the assets, the methods are the same. The study contributes to the development of accounting literature about the harmonisation between national regulation and international standards regarding the noncurrent assets and impairment of the assets, which together with the other elements define the activity of the business. In addition, the study provides an analysis of how the regulations treats noncurrent assets, during the life of the asset, namely: the recognition phase, the evaluation and the depreciation.

Coste Andreea Ioana

2013-07-01

314

Quantification of cytokinins by selected ion monitoring using "1"5N labelled internal standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure has been developed for the synthesis of 6-chloropurine labelled with four "1"5N atoms. This compound can be used in the synthesis of a range of labelled cytokinin bases, which can be ribosylated by an enzymatic procedure. "1"5N labelled zeatin riboside was synthesized and used as an internal standard in the measurement by selected ion monitoring of the levels of this cytokinin in cultured crown gall and normal tissues of Vinca rosea, which were found to contain 402 and 2.5 ng per g fresh weight respectively. (author)

1980-01-01

315

The protection of the accused in international criminal law according to the Human Rights Law Standard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presented paper discusses the influence of international human rights law on international criminal law. It tries to give an answer to the question of whether rules protecting the accused in international criminal proceedings meet the human rights law standard provided by international declarations and covenants. Meaning, if the proceedings before the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (ICTY, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR and International Criminal Court (ICC meet the standard provided by international human rights law, in particular the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The paper proves that international human rights law has affected international criminal law tremendously. Moreover, it is argued that the protection of the accused in the law of the international courts and tribunals with regard to his rights has improved when compared to the international human rights law standard. In particular the Rome Statute of the ICC provides the accused with the most comprehensive protection. This is especially visible in the case of such rights as the presumption of innocence, right to an interpreter and right to remain silent. Nevertheless, some shortcomings in the law of the ad hoc tribunals and ICC can be observed, in particular when it comes to identifying the commencement of protection of the accused.

Karolina Kremens

2011-12-01

316

The international cooperation for sustainable development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article notices the importance of the environmental issue for the international cooperation and the legislative progress about it in Colombia. Also, it study the changes in the cooperation system, from one based in quotas to other based in the demand, and the adjustments required in developing countries to adapt to the new scheme

1997-12-01

317

The future of international development cooperation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

International development cooperation must be inspiratio- nally innovative if it is to be effective. The post-2015 agenda will be more inclusive and cooperative while emphasizing climate change and accountability, notably against corruption. South-South aid will grow and technological innovation could become the driving force for change.

Woodhatch, Tom

2012-01-01

318

Developing Global Perspectives through International Management Degrees  

Science.gov (United States)

Internationalisation has risen high on the agenda of many higher education institutions, and the need to develop graduates with global perspectives is well recognised. Much attention has been given to institutional strategies for internationalisation, international students, and dealing with culturally diverse learning styles. To date, however,…

Brookes, Maureen; Becket, Nina

2011-01-01

319

FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of evaluation method of the genetic testing system; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojunka kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Idenshi kensa system no hyoka hoho no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aiming at applying standards as international standards, an experimental study was conducted on the standardization of the genetic testing system in Japan and abroad. The FY 1999 results were summarized. As to the unification of testing data processing, analysis of the present state and experimental study were made on the following: sampling method for appropriate testing, selection of anti-coagulants, method to preserve specimens, method to transport them, description of clinical observations in test request paper, method to evaluate performance of test reagents including restriction enzyme, temperature calibration method for equipment, sterilization method, incineration method of specimens, long-term storage of DNA samples, etc. The results were proposed as standard operation procedures after study/discussion at the comprehensive survey committee. Concerning the setting of criteria values in data analysis and the standardization of report form, survey/study were conducted also on ethical/legal/social problems from an aspect of privacy protection of patients. As a result, a total system from the reception of genetic testing to the report making was prepared. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

320

Development of fire protection standards for the EPR project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1989 Framatome and Siemens decided by setting up their joint subsidiary NPI (Nuclear Power International) to co-operate in designing a new European Pressurised Water Reactor, the EPR. French and German utilities decided to participate in this project. In parallel to the co-operation on supplier's and utility's side, the French and German safety authorities and safety experts wanted to work closely together in order to harmonise and further develop the outstanding safety standards in France and Germany. An organisation has been set up to elaborate common codes related to the EPR design, at the level of the French design and construction rules (RCC) of the German KTA safety standards and DIN standards for nuclear technology, the so-called EPR technical codes (ETC). In this context the decision was made to develop a new fire protection code, the ETC-F, which should be harmonised between France and Germany. The article gives an insight in the developing process of the ETC-F and an outlook on existing and perhaps further national activities. (orig.) [German] Mit der Gruendung der NPI (Nuclear Power International) im Jahr 1989 haben Framatome und Siemens ihre Zusammenarbeit bei der Entwicklung eines neuen Europaeischen Druckwasser-Reaktors (EPR) vereinbart und fuer dieses Projekt eine Beteiligung von Energieversorgungsunternehmen aus Frankreich und Deutschland erreicht. Zeitgleich hierzu haben sich atomrechtliche Genehmigungsbehoerden und Gutachter beider Laender abgesprochen, ebenfalls eng zusammen zu arbeiten, um ihre zukuenftigen Anforderungen nach Moeglichkeit zu harmonisieren. Fuer den EPR sollten deshalb gemeinsame Vorschriften, sog. 'EPR technical codes (ETCs)' erarbeitet werden, welche einen vergleichbaren Tiefgang, wie die bestehenden franzoesischen (RCC) und deutschen (KTA) sicherheitstechnischen Regeln sowie die deutschen kerntechnischen Industrienormen (DIN) haben sollten. Hierzu gehoerte auch eine Brandschutzvorschrift, der ETC-F. Dieser Beitrag gibt Informationen ueber den zugehoerigen Erarbeitungsprozess und gibt einen Ausblick auf eventuelle zukuenftige Anpassungen der jeweiligen nationalen Regelwerke. (orig.)

Frank, H.J. [Nuclear Power International, Paris (France); Kaercher, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Wittmann, R. [Siemens AG Energieerzeugung KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

2000-05-01

 
 
 
 
321

Transferable learning from international primary care developments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alternative approaches to the comparative analysis of international health systems developments are reviewed in relation to the advent of new primary care organizations in countries with parallel 'modernizing' policies. A framework for transferable learning between these is articulated and its design described. This is derived from priorities defined by lead policy and practice representatives in UK primary care. It points to the benefits of examining the interaction of critical new public management and planning functions as an effective vehicle for identifying both individual country role models and shared international experiences. Illustrative examples are provided in five subject areas ranging from local engagement to multiple forms of financing. PMID:16138738

Meads, Geoffrey; Iwami, Michiyo; Wild, Andrea

2005-01-01

322

New International Reference Standards of Voltage and Resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The introduction of the quantum standards of resistance and voltage, based on the Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) and the Josephson Effect, can be used to establish highly reproducible and uniform representations of the ohm and volt worldwide. Discussed are the QHE and the Josephson Effect. (KR)

Sirvastava, V. P.

1991-01-01

323

Recently aspects regarding International Auditing Standard 200 „Overall Objectives of the Independent Auditor and the Conduct of an Audit in Accordance with International Standards on Auditing”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. This is achieved by the expression of an opinion by the auditor on whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with an applicable financial reporting framework. The International Standard on Auditing 200 (ISA 200 deals with the independent auditor’s overall responsibilities when conducting an audit of financial statements in accordance with International Standards on Auditing (ISAs.

Daniel Botez

2009-12-01

324

International legal standards for the protection from refoulement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Every year, millions of people are seeking protection from countries other than their own for fear of being tortured, persecuted or killed. Finding protection is not easy. States are closely guarding their borders, making it difficult for aliens to seek and enjoy protection from serious harm. No matter where they are or why they flee, people seeking international protection are vulnerable and insecure; in dire need of knowing, understanding and receiving their rights. This book explores the b...

Wouters, Cornelis Wolfram

2009-01-01

325

Normalization method for metabolomics data using optimal selection of multiple internal standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Success of metabolomics as the phenotyping platform largely depends on its ability to detect various sources of biological variability. Removal of platform-specific sources of variability such as systematic error is therefore one of the foremost priorities in data preprocessing. However, chemical diversity of molecular species included in typical metabolic profiling experiments leads to different responses to variations in experimental conditions, making normalization a very demanding task. Results With the aim to remove unwanted systematic variation, we present an approach that utilizes variability information from multiple internal standard compounds to find optimal normalization factor for each individual molecular species detected by metabolomics approach (NOMIS. We demonstrate the method on mouse liver lipidomic profiles using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compare its performance to two commonly utilized normalization methods: normalization by l2 norm and by retention time region specific standard compound profiles. The NOMIS method proved superior in its ability to reduce the effect of systematic error across the full spectrum of metabolite peaks. We also demonstrate that the method can be used to select best combinations of standard compounds for normalization. Conclusion Depending on experiment design and biological matrix, the NOMIS method is applicable either as a one-step normalization method or as a two-step method where the normalization parameters, influenced by variabilities of internal standard compounds and their correlation to metabolites, are first calculated from a study conducted in repeatability conditions. The method can also be used in analytical development of metabolomics methods by helping to select best combinations of standard compounds for a particular biological matrix and analytical platform.

Yetukuri Laxman

2007-03-01

326

Normalization method for metabolomics data using optimal selection of multiple internal standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Success of metabolomics as the phenotyping platform largely depends on its ability to detect various sources of biological variability. Removal of platform-specific sources of variability such as systematic error is therefore one of the foremost priorities in data preprocessing. However, chemical diversity of molecular species included in typical metabolic profiling experiments leads to different responses to variations in experimental conditions, making normalization a very demanding task. Results With the aim to remove unwanted systematic variation, we present an approach that utilizes variability information from multiple internal standard compounds to find optimal normalization factor for each individual molecular species detected by metabolomics approach (NOMIS). We demonstrate the method on mouse liver lipidomic profiles using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compare its performance to two commonly utilized normalization methods: normalization by l2 norm and by retention time region specific standard compound profiles. The NOMIS method proved superior in its ability to reduce the effect of systematic error across the full spectrum of metabolite peaks. We also demonstrate that the method can be used to select best combinations of standard compounds for normalization. Conclusion Depending on experiment design and biological matrix, the NOMIS method is applicable either as a one-step normalization method or as a two-step method where the normalization parameters, influenced by variabilities of internal standard compounds and their correlation to metabolites, are first calculated from a study conducted in repeatability conditions. The method can also be used in analytical development of metabolomics methods by helping to select best combinations of standard compounds for a particular biological matrix and analytical platform.

Sysi-Aho, Marko; Katajamaa, Mikko; Yetukuri, Laxman; Oresic, Matej

2007-01-01

327

International harmonization of radiation protection and safety standards. The role of the United Nations system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As we enter the 21st century, the vast amount of new information accumulated on the levels and effects of exposures to ionizing radiation and on the safety of radiation sources and a number of developments have brought radiation protection to the attention of the public and its political representatives. New radio epidemiological and radiobiological findings roughly corroborate previous estimates of the risks attributable to radiation exposure. A number of events have had a lasting effect on public perception of the potential danger from radiation exposure. These were primarily the nuclear accidents at Three Mile Island in 1979 and at Chernobyl in 1986 with its unprecedented transboundary contamination. In some countries, the public were concerned about the safe transport of radioactive materials. The safe management of radioactive waste also developed into an issue of public debate and the disposal of high level radioactive waste came to a standstill because of concern over potential radiation exposure. Accidents with radiation sources used in medicine and industry also attracted widespread attention from the public and governments. Furthermore, the 1980s saw the rediscovery of natural radiation as a cause of concern for health: some dwellings were found to have surprisingly high levels of radon in air; natural radiation exposure of some non-radiation-related workers were discovered to be at levels much higher than the occupational limits specified in radiation protection standards. In line with these developments, a number of significant scientific strides were taken in the 1990s at the international level. On the one hand, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) reviewed the global levels and effects of radiation exposure. This highly respected body is responsible for keeping the highest UN body, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), informed about these levels and effects. In 1993, UNSCEAR presented its extensive 928-page report, and in 1994 its supplementary 272-page report, to the UNGA. A new UNSCEAR report is expected by the end of 2000. On the other hand, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which in 1990 had revised its standing recommendations, has now issued a number of documents to apply these recommendations in specific situations. In 1991 six organizations - FAO, ILO, NEA/OECD, PAHO, WHO, and IAEA - created a Joint Secretariat coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Organization (IAEA) with the purpose of establishing the International Basic Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and the Safety of Radiation Sources (the so-called BSS). This was the peak of decades of work and marked an unprecedented international co-operation that involved hundreds of experts from the Member States of the sponsoring organizations establishing the BSS. Within this framework, the objective of this paper is to present the significant role that the United Nations system of international organizations could play to achieve a genuine international consensus on radiation protection and safety standards. Not surprisingly, the paper will concentrate on the role and functions of the IAEA. The IAEA, is the only organization in the UN family with specific statutory functions, duties and responsibilities in the establishing international standards for radiation protection and safety. By analysing the functions and roles of UNSCEAR and the IAEA, it is clear how the UN policy on this matter has been built up and where it now stands. It should be emphasized that both UNSCEAR and the IAEA are not free 'think tanks'. They are governmental organizations. Their policies therefore reflect those of their constituencies, namely their Member States. Thus, the paper summarizes the status of UN policies on the health effects of radiation exposure, particularly on the controversial issue of the effects of low level radiation, as well as on the approach for protecting individuals and society against radiation exposure, as recommended by ICRP. The paper fu

2000-05-01

328

Knowledge sharing in international product development teams  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many companies are facing an increasing need to compete on a global scale. But as companies move into multiple markets, the process of developing new products becomes increasingly complex. Coping successfully with the increased internationalization forces companies to excel at collaboration and knowledge sharing, also across geographical distances. The capability to develop new transnational products depends largely on the multinational company's ability to transfer and deploy knowledge from its multiple country sources. The challenges of the transfer of knowledge between departments in the same company are far from trivial and the problems associated with transfer will increase with geographical and cultural difference (Bresman et al., 1999). Especially tacit knowledge is difficult to transport across national boarders (Kogut & Zander, 1992) and not much research exists on how companies overcome these barriers and harvest knowledge from geographical dispersed areas (Subramaniam & Venkatraman, 2001). The product development literature prescribes that knowledge sharing is desirable throughout the whole product development process (Craig & Hart, 1992; Hansen, 1999). Although this sharing is desirable, previous research found that it is the exception rather than the rule in most companies (Golder, 2000:329). Hence, it is relevant to research how companies can improve their ability to share knowledge in connection with international product development. One way to increase knowledge sharing in the product development process is by using teams. Teams are considered one of the best tools for exchanging especially tacit knowledge, since this kind of knowledge is transferred best through personal interaction and face-to-face meetings (Madhavan & Grover, 1998; Nonaka, 1994). In accordance with this, more and more multinational firms rely on international product development teams (McDonough et al., 2001) as a means to make the most effective use of the company's resources scattered around the world. While a substantial amount of research exists on groups in general, research into new product development teams is more limited and especially empirical research on global new product development teams is sparse (McDonough, et al., 2001). Findings from research on teams cannot automatically be generalized and applied to multinational product development teams, since these differ on a range of parameters from domestic teams. Multinational teams are often separated geographically and are culturally diverse, which affects their knowledge processes. Given the increased importance of multinational product development teams and the limited amount of research within this area, this therefore appears to be a topic worthy of further investigation. Hence the objective of the full paper is to discuss the challenges associated with knowledge sharing in international product development teams. A case study of a Danish international food company has been conducted and interviews with team members located in different geographical cites are currently being analyzed.

Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne

329

The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise

2009-02-01

330

Highly accurate and precise multielement determination of environmental samples by means of photon activation using the internal standard method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to examine the effective applications of the newly developed internal standard method, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ce and Pb in three environmental materials such as pond, lake and estuarine sediments were determined by means of photon activation. In these examinations, some major constituent elements in the above sediments were properly used as excellent and effective internal standards. In consequence, it was confirmed that highly accurate and precise determinations of the above 13 elements were achieved easily and favourably. (author)

1986-08-01

331

Development in Danish international air traffic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper is describing the development in international air traffic made by Danes and for all travellers out of Denmark in the period 2002 - 2012. Development in passengers, destination countries and prices is illustrated. The person kilometres by Danes have increased 80% or 7.2% per year in mean during the 10 years. This increase has been analysed by a panel data model. The conclusion found by modelling is the increasing travel activity first of all is driven by increasing income and to less extent by decreasing prices. The paper is furthermore showing how the international air traffic has got more effective and to what extent Low Cost Carriers have taken over an important part of the travel market.

Christensen, Linda

332

A New International Standard for "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures"  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is going to issue a new standard concerning "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures," which becomes the first international standard in coastal engineering. It is composed of a normative part (29 pages), an informative part (80 pages) and Bibliography ( 17 pages). The normative part describes what is considered as the norm of the matters in concern, while the informative part provides the information on recommended practice. The paper introduces the main points of the normative part and discusses the influence of the new standard on coastal engineering practice.

Tørum, Alf; Burcharth, Hans F.

2007-01-01

333

Developments and future philosophy in nuclear engineering standardization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Standards Commission for Nuclear Engineering (NKe) of DIN had its 25th anniversary, its quarterly bulletin had its 10th anniversary in 1983. On this particular occasion, a summary of trends, cost-benefit-analysis, international interrelations and problems of nuclear engineering standardization is given, considering in particular the past 5 years. (orig.)

1983-12-01

334

ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list…

Byrum, John D.

335

Proposing a 6+3 Model for Developing Information Literacy Standards for Schools: A Case for Singapore  

Science.gov (United States)

Several comprehensive information literacy (IL) standards have been developed worldwide for use in the education sector, specifically for students and teachers. Apart from the more generic International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) IL standards, such standards are more appropriate for their countries of origins. If these standards are…

Mokhtar, Intan Azura; Foo, Schubert; Majid, Shaheen; Theng, Yin Leng; Luyt, Brendan; Chang, Yun-Ke

2009-01-01

336

Low-Carbon Development through International Specialization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A major concern in climate negotiations is that decarbonization may signi cantly hurt the development process. This paper shows that international specialization can contribute to making environmental and economic objectives compatible. When carbon effi ciency di ffers between two trading partners, environmental policy a ffects production cost di fferentially, so that the comparative advantage in technology is endogenous. Under a global climate agreement, a universal carbon tax would shift th...

Schwerhoff, Gregor; Edenhofer, Ottmar

2013-01-01

337

International competition policy and economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the past half century many nations have adopted policies whose function is to discourage cartels and other restrictive practices. Industrialized nations led the movement toward pro-competition policies, but more recently, developing nations have begun to join the parade. Initial steps have also been taken toward the implementation of competition policies spanning national borders, and proposals for their extension have been made. This paper analyzes the consequences national and intern...

Scherer, Frederic Michael

1996-01-01

338

Overview of the NASA Docking System (NDS) and the International Docking System Standard (IDSS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA/JSC Engineering Directorate has been developing the technology for a Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) for many years. LIDS had been chosen to be the Constellation Program baseline. In February 2009, the International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral control Board (MCB) began an initiative to develop an International Docking System Standard (IDSS) to facilitate greater international cooperation in space and enable emergency crew rescue missions. Discussions as to whether the LIDS could be made compatible with the IDSS were under way. With the cancellation of the Constellation Program, NASA made a policy decision to convert both of the docking ports on the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) to IDSS ports and NASA moved the LIDS project under the ISS Program. LIDS was redesigned to become the NASA implementation of the emerging IDSS, and its name was changed to the NASA Docking System (NDS). The NDS design will be certified as a gblack box h which can be integrated onto vehicles planning to dock to the ISS IDSS ports. This presentation will discuss the evolution of the IDSS from both the LIDS and the Androgynous Peripheral Assembly System (APAS) and outline the interface requirements which are given in the IDSS Interface Definition Document (IDD). It also will give an overview of the current NDS design, and touch on ISS plans for converting its docking ports to be IDSS compliant.

Parma, George F.

2011-01-01

339

NACE International standard practice SP0169 : control of external corrosion on underground or submerged metallic piping systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviewed a standard practice developed by NACE International to control external corrosion on underground or submerged metallic piping systems. The review was conducted by a task group formed by the NACE International technical coordination committee to address ambiguities and discrepancies noted in a previous study of the standard and to provide guidance for cathodic protection (CP) criteria for controlling micro-biologically influenced corrosion and corrosion at elevated temperatures. The review also discussed the development of upper limits on CP criteria for coating damage for high strength steels. A series of 8 questions and answered was developed to provide further guidance to industry members. The results of a voting pool conducted with 110 commentators to revisions and proposed changes to various sections of the standard were also presented. 1 tab.

Chmilar, J.F. [Chmilar and Associates Consulting Ltd., Cochrane, AB (Canada)

2010-07-01

340

77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37...Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Final rule; delay of...

2012-10-04

 
 
 
 
341

75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37...Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Delay of effective...

2010-09-10

342

76 FR 53817 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION: Final...

2011-08-30

343

Criteria and Standards Monograph for Review of Internal Medicine/Surgery Inpatient Services.  

Science.gov (United States)

The monograph contains internal medicine/surgery criteria and standards for planning and project review of health services. The purpose of this document is to assist Health Systems Agencies and health facilities throughout the country both in planning for...

1977-01-01

344

Energy and international trade: toward sustainable development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper summarises the Meeting of Experts on Energy Service and International Trade: Consequences for Development. Energy is central to achieving the interrelated economic, social and environmental aims of sustainable human development and energy services play a crucial role in providing efficient access to energy in support of development. They also constitute the value added in the energy chain, from exploration to consumption. Developing countries are thus faced with the challenge, on the one hand, of achieving more reliable and efficient access to energy and, on the other hand, of obtaining a greater share of the energy 'business'. The pursuit of both goals requires access to knowledge, expertise, technology and managerial know-how. The Expert Meeting on Energy Services and International Trade: Consequences for Development, held in Geneva, Switzerland in July 2001, addressed the elements of an energy services sector strategy for development countries, with the following objectives: a) to ensure efficient access to energy by all segments of the population; b) to strengthen their competitive position in the supply of energy services at the various stages of the energy chain; and c) to negotiate commitments and additional provisions in the ongoing multilateral negotiations on trade in services supportive of these objectives. 3 photos.

Figueredo, R.

2002-03-01

345

Auditors Compliance with International Standards on Auditing (ISAs): Evidence form Jordan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The continuous new amendments of the International Standards on Auditing (ISAs) in the beginning of 2007 formed a pressure on auditors to follow up and comply with them. The present study attempted to examine to what extent auditors complied with ISA according to the last pronouncement by the International Auditing and Assurance Standard Board (IAASB). Data was collected through a questionnaire administered to a random sample of external auditors in Jordan. The study revealed that Jordanian a...

Obaidat, Ahmad N.

2007-01-01

346

Selecting International Standards for Accrual-Based Accounting in the Public Sector : IPSAS or IFRS?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The article discusses the definition of a government business enterprise (GBE), as provided in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), as a determinant for applying IPSAS or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for a public sector entity. The work of the IPSASB is focused on the accounting and financial reporting needs of national, regional and local governments, and related governmental agencies, while the IFRS serves the private sector.

Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

2011-01-01

347

MEASURING THE IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS (IFRS) TO FINANCIAL INFORMATION OF PORTUGUESE COMPANIES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To increase efficiency of the European finance market, the European Union (EU) recently forced all public companies to publish their financial disclosures with the support of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), emanated by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), beginning January 1, 2005. In this paper, we measure the impact of the application of IFRS to financial information of Portuguese public companies belonging to the Eurolist by Euronext Lisbon. The resu...

Francisco José Ferreira Silva; Gualter Manuel Medeiros do Couto; Ruben Mota Cordeiro

2008-01-01

348

Standardization of negative controls in diagnostic immunohistochemistry: recommendations from the international ad hoc expert panel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide "best practice recommendations" for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on "fit-for-use" principles. PMID:24714041

Torlakovic, Emina E; Francis, Glenn; Garratt, John; Gilks, Blake; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Ibrahim, Merdol; Miller, Rodney; Nielsen, Søren; Petcu, Eugen B; Swanson, Paul E; Taylor, Clive R; Vyberg, Mogens

2014-04-01

349

Application of k0-based internal mono-standard PGNAA for compositional characterization of cement samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The k0-based internal mono-standard prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (IM-PGNAA) method was used for compositional analysis of a cement standard provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency as a part of inter-laboratory comparison exercise. The PGNAA was also applied to a local cement sample for comparison purpose. The concentration ratios of elements with respect Ca were determined using the internal mono-standard method. The concentration ratios were then converted to the absolute concentrations by determining concentration of Ca in the cement using relative method. Concentrations of 11 elements were determined in both sample and standard of cement. The results of cement standard are found to be in good agreement with the certified values. The uncertainties on the elemental concentrations were in the range of 5-10 %. (author)

2014-06-01

350

Internal standardization in atomic-emission spectrometry using inductively coupled plasma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principle of internal standardization has been used in quantitative analytical emission spectroscopy since 1925 to minimize the errors arising from fluctuations in sample preparation, excitation-source conditions, and detection parameters. Although modern spectroscopic excitation sources are far more stable and electronic detection methods are more precise than before, the system for the introduction of the sample in spectrometric analysis using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) introduces significant errors, and internal standardization can still play a useful role in improving the overall precision of the analytical results. The criteria for the selection of the elements to be used as internal standards in arc and spark spectrographic analysis apply to a much lesser extent in ICP-spectrometric analysis. Internal standardization is recommended for use in routine ICP-simultaneous spectrometric analysis to improve its accuracy and precision and to provide a monitor for the reassurance of the analyst. However, the selection of an unsuitable reference element can result in misuse of the principle of internal standardization and, although internal standardization can be applied when a sequential monochromator is used, the main sources of error will not be minimized

1985-01-01

351

International development workshops. Final technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) began to act on their recognition of the importance of education in nuclear literacy, specifically in radioactive waste management (RWM), several years ago. To address this Goal for nuclear literacy, the US DOE; through the Information and Education Division of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and in cooperation with the OECD/NEA, organized an ''International Workshop on Education in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management'' in Engelberg, Switzerland in June of 1991. To this end, a grant to support nuclear literacy and RWM was written and funded by the OCRWM and the education division of the DOE Yucca Mountain Office in 1990. The over-riding Goal of that workshop and the DOE grant was to find ways of raising the level of nuclear literacy in the general public through educational programs in radioactive waste management (RWM). The two Main Objectives of the workshop were: first, to contribute to an information base for education systems, on global aspects of radioactive waste management; and second, to achieve international consensus on the basic tools and methods required to develop the information base. These two objectives also became the principal objectives of the DOE International Workshops grant. In other words, the global and local (Nevada) objectives were one and the same. Workshop overviews and accomplishments are summarized in this report

1997-01-01

352

Comparison report for CSNI International Standard Problem 12 (ROSA-III Run 912)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ROSA-III Run 912 was identified as International Standard Problem 12 by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations. Run 912 simulated a 5% split break LOCA condition in a BWR at the pump suction in the recirculation line with the HPCS failure. Comparisons between the test data and the calculations by eight international participants were made and discussed. (author)

1982-01-01

353

The Successful Scientific Publication: The Bulgarian Practice Against the International Standards [In Bulgarian  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper describes the world system of indexing, abstracting and evaluation of the primary scholarly journals. The international standards of academic publishing are listed and commented. The particularities of the Bulgarian publication practice are discussed. The harmonization of both systems, Bulgarian and international, will facilitate the process of inclusion of Bulgaria in the common European research and education area.

2008-01-01

354

Transnational Standards of Social Protection : Contrasting European and International Governance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Report presents the proceedings of the cooperational work, which illuminates the intertwinements of European regulatory policies and global governance arrangements. By pinning down the exact nature of the interaction between these two levels, the EUâ??s dilemma becomes obvious: On the one hand, stronger global governance can be a chance, through which the EU can clarify its own raison dâ??être of increased integration to the wider world. On the other hand, the design of the European project is being challenged by more assertive global structures. This is especially the case in relation to the WTO regime, which is constraining the decisional autonomy of the EU, regarding the appropriateness of its content and its external effects. Thus, the regulation of services in the EU and the WTO are discussed in the first section of this report. Section two focuses on labour standards, which are analysed from different angles in order to clarify the functions of the WTO and the ILO, multinational companies as well as other private actors within this specific field. The final section deals with the legitimacy problematic of transnational governance.

2008-01-01

355

Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China first adopted minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in 1989. Today, there are standards for a wide range of domestic, commercial and selected industrial equipment. In 1999, China launched a voluntary endorsement label, which has grown to cover over 40 products including water-saving products (See Figure 1). Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label (also referred to as the 'Energy Label'). Today, the Energy Label is applied to four products including: air conditioners; household refrigerators; clothes washers; and unitary air conditioners (See Figure 2). MEPS and the voluntary endorsement labeling specifications have been updated and revised in order to reflect technology improvements to those products in the market. These programs have had an important impact in reducing energy consumption of appliances in China. Indeed, China has built up a strong infrastructure to develop and implement product standards. Historically, however, the government's primary focus has been on the technical requirements for efficiency performance. Less attention has been paid to monitoring and enforcement with a minimal commitment of resources and little expansion of administrative capacity in this area. Thus, market compliance with both mandatory standards and labeling programs has been questionable and actual energy savings may have been undermined as a result. The establishment of a regularized monitoring system for tracking compliance with the mandatory standard and energy information label in China is a major area for program improvement. Over the years, the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) has partnered with several Chinese institutions to promote energy-efficient products in China. CLASP, together with its implementing partner Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), has assisted China in developing and updating the above-mentioned standards and labeling programs. Because of the increasing need for the development of a monitoring system to track compliance with standards and labeling, CLASP, with support from Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), has expanded its ongoing collaboration with the China National Institute of Standards (CNIS) to include enforcement and monitoring. CNIS has already begun working on the issue of compliance. CNIS has conducted modest sample testing in 2006 for refrigerators, freezers and room air-conditioners, and repeated the same task in 2007 with a similar sample size for three products (refrigerators, freezers, air-conditioners and clothes washers). And, CNIS, with technical support from LBNL, has analyzed the data collected through testing. At the same time, parallel effort has also been paid to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. In conjunction with CNIS, CLASP technical experts reviewed the standards development timeline of the four products currently subject to the mandatory energy information label. CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing: technical input to the process; comment and advice on particular technical issues; as well as evaluation of the results. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. This short report summarizes the status of Standards and Labeling program, current enforcement and monitoring mechanism in China, and states the importance of international collaborations.

Zhou, Nan

2008-03-01

356

International Space Station Radiation Shielding Model Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The projected radiation levels within the International Space Station (ISS) have been criticized by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in their report to the NASA Administrator. Methods for optimal reconfiguration and augmentation of the ISS shielding are now being developed. The initial steps are to develop reconfigurable and realistic radiation shield models of the ISS modules, develop computational procedures for the highly anisotropic radiation environment, and implement parametric and organizational optimization procedures. The targets of the redesign process are the crew quarters where the astronauts sleep and determining the effects of ISS shadow shielding of an astronaut in a spacesuit. The ISS model as developed will be reconfigurable to follow the ISS. Swapping internal equipment rack assemblies via location mapping tables will be one option for shield optimization. Lightweight shield augmentation materials will be optimally fit to crew quarter areas using parametric optimization procedures to minimize the augmentation shield mass. The optimization process is being integrated into the Intelligence Synthesis Environment s (ISE s) immersive simulation facility at the Langley Research Center and will rely on High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) for rapid evaluation of shield parameter gradients.

Qualls, G. D.; Wilson, J. W.; Sandridge, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Nealy, J. E.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Hugger, C. P.; Verhage, J.; Anderson, B. M.; Atwell, W.

2001-01-01

357

Center for International and Development Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Located at UCLA, the mission of the Center for International and Development Education (CIDE) is "to provide quality information on a variety of issues related to international and development education." To help achieve this goal, the CIDE has developed this Web site which contains a number of publications, information about ongoing research projects, material on practical initiatives and a detailed list of links to other relevant institutions and organizations. The news section of the site is useful, as it contains brief news pieces about recent events dealing with study abroad programs, new networks between universities across the world, and the role of universities in developing nations. The reports section is divided into sections dedicated to study abroad, humanitarian relief, and teacher training reform (among others) and contains recent works on these various subjects. The site is rounded out by a good selection of outside links to like-minded institutions and centers, such as the Comparative Educational Society of Europe and the Center for Higher Education Policy Studies.

358

Developing Laboratory Exercise in IEC 61850 Standard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of this thesis is to integrate the knowhow related to the IEC61850 standard to the laboratory exercises of a data transmission course. This is done through a careful design of the experimental set up, selection of tools and devices and description of laboratory tasks and objectives.

Wu, Liang

2010-01-01

359

[The electromagnetic compatibility test requirements for cardiac pacemaker in international standards].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the latest international standards about implantable pacemakers, describing the main test requirements, especially for the EMC test requirements in details, and comparing the differences between the different standards, making readers having a clear understanding for the tests on pacemakers, especially for the EMC tests. PMID:21179715

Liu, Lei; Gao, Zhong

2010-09-01

360

FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of a method to evaluate the performance of open robot use communication interface in production system, etc.; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Seisan system nado ni okeru open robot yo tsushin interface no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the purpose of standardizing the communication interface system between personal computers and robots, the R and D were conducted on ORiN (Open Robot Interface for the Network), and the FY 1999 results were summed up. ORiN is composed of the provider part, kernel part and application logic part. The provider absorbs differences in expression and protocols of robot controller data of each company and conveys them to the kernel part. The kernel part is composed of RAO and RDF. RAO adopts the disperse object model DCOM technology and supplies the network transparency and common access method to robot. RDF supplies files with expansion of robot structure models using XML. By this, ORiN was made adoptable for future, permitting differences in each robot. In the International Robot Exhibition held in October 26-29, 1999, the prototype of ORiN was jointly demonstrated by each company. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

On the Challenge of Accounting Standards for Enterprise towards Enterprise Internal Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With arrival of the information age, as well as the ever-changing and complicated capital and financial markets and financial instruments, the policy –making requirements of the enterprises on the faithful, accurate, reasonable, and effective financial and accounting information become more demanding. Enterprise internal control proves to be the basic safeguard to ensure the regular and reliable operation of the accounting information system. At the same time, the Ministry of Finance issued the Internal Control Standards - the Basic Norms and opinion-open drafts for 17 norms. The promulgation of accounting standards for enterprise has brought tougher internal control challenges.

Wenjun Chen

2009-02-01

362

GMO Regulations, International Trade and the Imperialism of Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with the quantification of GMO regulations on bilateral trade flows. A composite index of the complexity of such regulations for sixty countries as well as an objective score for six GMO regulatory sub-dimensions has been developed. Using a gravity model, we show how bilateral similarity?in GMO regulations, affect trade flows for the composite index and its components. Results show that bilateral distance in GMO regulations negatively affect trade flows, especially as an effe...

2010-01-01

363

New trends in the field of nuclear standardization on national, European and international level with the background of the German 'Energiewende'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Participation in standardization in the nuclear energy field in Germany is still very high, because the involved parties have recognized that standards in the context of the energy transition in Germany will remain very important. However, in the last few years, international standardization has been carried out without German participation. Existing international bodies are currently greatly influenced by the leadership of France, which is also reflected in the content of international standards. In addition, on French initiative, a European body (CEN/TC 430 'Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection') has been set up with the remit to replace all national standards in Europe with international standards. The present article summarizes this development and offers an overview for German experts on how they can respond to this trend. (orig.)

2014-04-01

364

A Culture of compliance: developing standards for fighting corruption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract.Over the past decade, a new global regime of anti-corruption has taken shape. Pushed by NGOs such as Transparency International, and with coalitions of international organizations, Western governments, and private business circles, we now have a framework of conventions and regulations that impel governments and international firms to act with integrity and to prevent corruption in business and international development. New anti-bribery laws reward whistleblowers and penalize firms ...

Sampson, Steven

2012-01-01

365

CSA's update on development of Canadian codes and standards for solar energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) is accredited by the Standards Council of Canada (SCC) which oversees Canada's national standards systems. The CSA is the administrator to the Canadian subcommittee on the IEC Technical Committee 82 for solar PV energy systems. Standards and codes are tools used by government policy makers to protect public health, safety and the environment. They also influence technology development and trade. The SCC also accredits organizations that provide conformity assessment services based on Canadian and international standards. The distinct operating units within the CSA include CSA International which conducts certification testing; OnSpex which conducts product evaluation; and, QMI which performs quality and environmental management registration. The CSA administers the census building process, approval processes and conformance to SCC approved standardization guidelines. This paper described the CSA standards development process from the preliminary evaluation stage, the proposal stage and preparatory stage in which a working draft is prepared and a project schedule is established. This is followed by the committee stage, enquiry stage, approval stage, publication stage and the maintenance stage in which the standard is subjected to a systematic five year review. The CSA Renewable Energy Committee develops standards for safety and performance of specific specialized energy conversion equipment and systems. The CSA solar energy codes and standards in the Canadian Electrical Code refer to solar domestic hot water systems; seasonal use solar domestic hot water systems; the installation code for solar domestic hot water systems; and solar collectors. New editions of these codes and standards that are currently under development were also listed. Some codes are being modified to harmonize with American and international standards. A new standard has been proposed for the installation of non-packaged solar hot water systems

2006-11-01

366

The internal consistency of the standard gamble: tests after adjusting for prospect theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reports a study that tests whether the internal consistency of the standard gamble can be improved upon by incorporating loss weighting and probability transformation parameters in the standard gamble valuation procedure. Five alternatives to the standard EU formulation are considered: (1) probability transformation within an EU framework; and, within a prospect theory framework, (2) loss weighting and full probability transformation, (3) no loss weighting and full probability tr...

Oliver, Adam

2003-01-01

367

Draft I.E.C. standard for monitoring PWR internal structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EDF has proposed to the International Electrotechnical Commission a draft standard for monitoring the vessel internal structures of PWRs. The standard applies to systems used for monitoring the vibratory behavior of the internal structures of PWRs (core barrel, thermal shield, fuel assemblies) on the basis of neutron fluctuations observed outside the vessel as well as of vessel vibrations. It covers the systems characteristics and the monitoring procedures. It should facilitate standardization of monitoring and comparisons on an international level. This paper presents the main features of the draft standard: -principles of measurement: correlation between movements of internals and ex core neutron noise on the one hand, forced vibrations of the vessel on the other hand; -sampling and conditioning of the signals; -monitoring equipment and in particular spectral analysis device; -functions of the monitoring software used for spectral analysis, peak detection and calculation of structure displacement; -studies preliminary to setting up the monitoring (calculation of internal vibratory modes, defect simulation on mockup, qualification on reactor during hot test...); -monitoring procedures (periodicity of analysis and what to do in case of anomaly); -documentation necessary to the monitoring. A diagnostic procedure is given as an example. The draft standard, written in 1994, will be presented in Frankfurt (Germany) in February 1995. (author). 1 annexe

1994-01-01

368

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 41 (IAS 41 – IMPLICATION FOR REPORTING CROP ASSETS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A series of articles were written regarding International Accounting Standard 41 (IAS 41 – Agriculture in order to outpost the the implication of this standard over valuating the different biological assets. Valuation of crop assets are also a part of the IAS 41 objective.  Anyway,  this paper investigates the implications of International Accounting Standard 41 for European Union (EU entities reporting on holdings of crop asset from thre  points of view: implication of production forecast over the accurate accounting, the impact over cash flow and the possibility like companies to use acoounting methodology on own interests.

Petru ?tefea

2013-05-01

369

Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography  

CERN Multimedia

The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

2012-01-01

370

Quantification of pseudoephedrine in human plasma by LC-MS/MS using mosapride as internal standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple, sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography/positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of pseudoephedrine in human plasma using mosapride as internal standard. Following solid-phase extraction, the analytes were separated using an isocratic mobile phase on a reverse-phase column and analyzed by MS/MS in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using the respective [M + H](+) ions, m/z 166/148 for pseuoephedrine and m/z 422/198 for the IS. The method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 2-1000 ng/mL pseudoephedrine in human plasma. The lower limit of quantification was 2 ng/mL with a relative standard deviation of less than 9% for pseudoephedrine. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve range. The total chromatographic run time of 2 min for each sample made it possible to analyze more than 400 human plasma samples per day. The validated method has been successfully used to analyze human plasma samples for application in pharmacokinetic, bioavailability or bioequivalence studies. PMID:17230461

Nirogi, Ramakrishna V S; Kandikere, Vishwottam N; Shukla, Manoj; Mudigonda, Koteshwara; Maurya, Santosh; Komarneni, Prashanth

2007-03-01

371

Standards for PV Modules and Components -- Recent Developments and Challenges: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International standards play an important role in the Photovoltaic industry. Since PV is such a global industry it is critical that PV products be measured and qualified the same way everywhere in the world. IEC TC82 has developed and published a number of module and component measurement and qualification standards. These are continually being updated to take advantage of new techniques and equipment as well as better understanding of test requirements. Standards presently being updated include the third edition of IEC 61215, Crystalline Silicon Qualification and the second edition of IEC 61730, PV Module Safety Requirements. New standards under development include qualification of junction boxes, connectors, PV cables, and module integrated electronics as well as for testing the packaging used during transport of modules. After many years of effort, a draft standard on Module Energy Rating should be circulated for review soon. New activities have been undertaken to develop standards for the materials within a module and to develop tests that evaluate modules for wear-out in the field (International PV Module QA Task Force). This paper will discuss these efforts and indicate how the audience can participate in development of international standards.

Wohlgemuth, J. H.

2012-10-01

372

Recently aspects regarding International Auditing Standard 200 „Overall Objectives of the Independent Auditor and the Conduct of an Audit in Accordance with International Standards on Auditing”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. This is achieved by the expression of an opinion by the auditor on whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with an applicable financial reporting framework. The International Standard on Auditing 200 (ISA 200) deals with the independent auditor’s overall responsibilities when conducting an audit of financial statements in accordance wit...

2009-01-01

373

THE BASES OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Capitalism started as a consequence of the urban phenomena development, as well as of the commercial activities development. Thus, over this period of time, the attitude towards business also changed. This change was based also on certain economic reasons. The term „business” is defined in numerous dictionaries released until the present day in a restrictive and subjective manner, both from the perspective of the totalitarian communist ideology, which happened up to the year 1989, and also from the perspective of the different categories of meanings that were taken into consideration when compiling dictionaries in different international circulation languages. If an enterprise conducts business at an international level, then it will take into consideration the performance of different types of activities which differ greatly from the activities conducted at a national level. All these elements must be carefully studied by the company's management, in order to be able to act with high economic efficiency. It must be said that, in contemporary times, that „invisible hand of the market” from the past is none other than competition. As a consequence of the competitive phenomenon's manifestation, the prices are lower, the services are of a better quality and they are increasingly more diverse. Because of these positive arguments, Adam Smith was named „the father of economy”.

DOBRIN IONEL GABRIEL

2014-05-01

374

Developments to supplant CAMAC with industry standard technology at NSTX  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), like other research programs, is facing an inevitable crisis due to end-of-life issues for its 20-year-old CAMAC instrumentation. In many cases, replacement components are not available, effectively rendering a CAMAC module unusable after a failure. The proliferation of high performance, reliable, low-cost commodity computing hardware and software based on industry standard technology can provide the basis for a new generation of instrumentation. At NSTX, there have been several advances towards developing a PCI-based model for data acquisition and control systems. New hardware developments include a High Performance Signal Conditioning board and an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based Multifunction Timing System (MTS). Extensible software interfaces have been developed to integrate these boards into the NSTX computing environment [P. Sichta, J. Dong, G. Oliaro, P. Roney 'Overview of the NSTX Control System,' 8th International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems, San Jose, CA (2001)]. This paper will illustrate these developments and how they could be used to benefit collaborative fusion research

2004-06-01

375

International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), which documents the neurological examination of individuals with SCI. The Autonomic Standards Assessment Form is recommended to be completed during the evaluation of individuals with SCI, but is not a part of the ISNCSCI. A web-based training course (Autonomic Standards Training E Program (ASTeP)) is available to assist clinicians with understanding autonomic dysfunctions following SCI and with completion of the Autonomic Standards Assessment Form (www.ASIAlearningcenter.com).

Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

2012-01-01

376

Developing International Business Managers through International Study Visits to China  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalization is a key factor in the success of business organizations today, impacting many aspects of management performance. Understanding the global business environment has therefore become a key objective in the teaching of international business on Executive MBA programs. Drawing on the theory of experiential learning, this study examines…

Tang, Yiming; Rose, Susan

2014-01-01

377

Quantification of rhodium in a series of inorganic and organometallic compounds using cobalt as internal standard  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english An analytical method for the quantification of rhodium using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cobalt as internal standard was developed. Rhodium recovery was determined in different samples, which included a certified reference material (CRM), pure rhodium metal [...] , inorganic RhCl.3H2O salt as well as different organometallic compounds. Excellent rhodium recoveries of 100,100, 99.0 and 99.7 % with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.0,1.0, 0.3 and 0.4 % were obtained for the CRM, rhodium metal sample, RhCl3·3H2O and [Rh(cupf)(PPh3)(CO)(CH3)(I)], respectively. The accurate recovery of rhodium was, however, affected by the presence of easily ionized elements (EIE) and unmatched acid matrixes with a decrease in rhodium recovery of up to 16 %. Validation parameters such as accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and robustness were all investigated to confirm the suitability of this newly developed analytical procedure for rhodium determination.

Chiweshe, Trevor T.; Purcell, Walter; Venter, Johan A..

378

Anything New Since the End of the Cold War? or International Law Goes Domestic: International Electoral Standards and Their Legitimacy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: After the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union, democratic Zeitgeist swept the globe. International law seemed no longer indifferent to how domestic regimes were formed. Part of this post-1989 development was a considerable increase in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights concerning the right to political participation as well as a proliferation of election observation missions by the OSCE/ODIHR. Both developed and implemented international...

Binder, C.

2011-01-01

379

Development of quality assurance requirements - an international comparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total quality management strategy and the worldwide introduction of the DIN/ISO 9000 (EN 29 000) series of standards have given new impetus to traditional quality assurance. The most important change must surely be seen in the holistic approach of total quality management and its strict orientation towards customer requirements and satisfaction. International codes and standards for the nuclear industry will also have to be brought into line as part of the process of harmonizing quality assurance system standards. One possible approach is simply to specify a supplementary 'delta' of nuclear-specific requirements to be appended to the broad range of conventional requirements. It is a particular feature of quality-assured procedures in Germany that product and/or component related quality requirements and quality verifications are defined in the specifications of the architect engineer so that full implementation of the requirements from the design phase through to the manufacturing phase is assured. Looking at the development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) and the elaboration of 'Common Rules', it is to be anticipated that a major step will be made toward international harmonization of safety criteria. (orig.)

1993-12-01

380

ACCOUNTING STANDARD SETTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL ARENA: UPDATE ON THE CONVERGENCE PROJECT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our paper contributes to the literature on international accounting by focusing on the standard setting process. As documented by research literature, accounting regulation can enhance corporate governance (Melis and Carta, 2010, corporate reporting being expected to reduce information asymmetry. Based on accounting research and trade literature we first synthesize recent evolutions in the international accounting arena. We therefore position our study within current realities significantly marked by uncertainty in relation to the world wide globalization process. The objective of our paper is to perform an analysis that would help assess further developments of the convergence project. This is done by looking at the current status of the projects being developed under the IASB –FASB collaboration, as well as by developing a comparison between IFRS and US GAAP. The employed research methodology relies on analyzing data provided through the IASB and the FASB’s websites, as well as other official documents being issued by the two Boards. The assessment of the projects was done by reviewing exposure documents and monitoring the Boards’ deliberations, while the developed comparison requires accounting regulations content analysis. Concluding upon the Boards’ ongoing projects, we might identify areas in which convergence seems to be quite close (such as revenue recognition and leasing, but also areas in which convergence becomes even more challenging (such as financial instruments or the particular case of offsetting. Similar to other studies being developed within accounting research and trade literature (SEC 2011: 8 we may conclude that, generally, US GAAP present more detailed, specific requirements than IFRS.

Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

A unified international risk management standard as a response to the challenges of globalization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article an international standard of risk-management ISO 31000:2009 is investigated, particulary interconnection between principles, system and process of risk management and changes in a terminology base are considered. The comparative analysis of ISO 31000:2009 standard with Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4360:2004 and the standard of the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO is conducted. The basic directions of application of ISO 31000:2009 in Ukraine are detected.

Strelbitska, Natalya Yevhenivna

2011-11-01

382

The Process of Developing National Standards That Meet ANSI Guidelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

American national standards for the evaluation of educational programs were developed by the Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation in 1994. This paper describes the Joint Committee's standard setting process. The Joint Committee is a coalition of professional organizations concerned with the quality of evaluations in education.…

Sanders, James R.

383

36 CFR 28.12 - Development standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...district defined by a local zoning authority. (b) Commercial or industrial...business districts defined by a zoning authority within the Community Development...requirements of the applicable zoning authority and may not result in...

2010-07-01

384

Quantitative methods for choosing internal standard elements in ICP-AES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of statistical methods to choose an internal standard is described. A matrix of linear correlation coefficients is relatively simple to obtain, and it contains important information that predicts whether the emission signal of a particular element will function adequately as an internal standard for a particular analyte line. The results of the correlation analysis indicate that the emission lines can be arranged into groups that show similar behavior in the plasma. These groupings are consistent with the results of principal component analysis, which shows that the second principal component is a good predictor of analytical behavior and predicts which lines exhibit highly correlated behavior. Further analysis indicates that a relatively simple model, using only the energy of the excited state, serves to help choose internal standard lines with surprising effectiveness.

Goode, S.R. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1996-09-01

385

Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Development of technology to measure thermal conductivity of construction materials in the high-temperature range; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Kenzai no koon`iki ni okeru netsudendoritsu sokutei gijutsu no kaihatsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method to measure thermal conductivity in the high-temperature range was established for evaluation of ceramic/construction material high temperature thermal insulation materials and fire-resistant materials. Further, thermal conductivity standard materials were developed and studied for the proposal to the international standardization. The simulation of heat transfer is important to energy efficiency and flame heat transfer forecast. Facilities were manufactured which measure thermal conductivity from 100degC up to about 1000degC based on the protective heat plate method as the stationary method and are composed of the heat plate and electric furnace of material with heat resistance and durability. The facilities can surely realize one dimensional heat flow inside the specimen and have a function of measurement with high accuracy. Construction was also conducted of a control system to automatically set up the state of optimized control for realizing the stationary state in a short time and of a measuring system to automatically judge the stationary state of temperature and heating value, to calculate the mean temperature and thermal conductivity of specimens, and set up conditions of stageable measuring temperatures. A standard material usable in the normal- and high-temperature range was developed which has thermal conductivity of 0.03-0.05 (W/mK) and 0.08-0.2 (W/mK) and was considered of durability, safety and handling. 19 refs., 114 figs., 14 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

386

International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) Benefits, Obstacles and Intrigues for Implementation in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

IFRS is International Financial Reporting System and International Accounting Standard Board - (IASB) provided the framework for its working. IFRS adopted by IASB has gained worldwide acceptance amongst many countries and some listed companies in European nations have embraced it. IFRS employs a uniform, single consistent accounting framework that is gravitating towards General Accepted Accounting Practice (GAPP) in the future. IFRS since its introduction in 2001 had provi...

Ikpefan, Ochei Ailemen; Akande, A. O.

2012-01-01

387

ACCOUNTING STANDARD SETTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL ARENA: UPDATE ON THE CONVERGENCE PROJECT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our paper contributes to the literature on international accounting by focusing on the standard setting process. As documented by research literature, accounting regulation can enhance corporate governance (Melis and Carta, 2010), corporate reporting being expected to reduce information asymmetry. Based on accounting research and trade literature we first synthesize recent evolutions in the international accounting arena. We therefore position our study within current realities significantly ...

Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana; Mustata Razvan V.; Matis Dumitru

2012-01-01

388

International Conference on Population and Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) attracted delegates from many walks of life and from all over the world. The main thrust of the meeting was to contain world population growth by making family planning universally available and by giving women the power to make decisions about their own lives. The UN estimates that if the ICPD meets its goals, world population will be 7.27 billion in the year 2015 instead of 7.92 billion. The ICPD generated a great deal of controversy, especially as the Vatican and some Muslim countries protested against abortion and some methods of birth control. The anti-abortion stance was embodied by Mother Theresa who likened abortion to war and violence. It was unfortunate that India did not make a strong showing at the ICPD. India seemed to react rather than pro-act to ICPD issues. Since India is projected to become the most populous country in the world by the year 2035, India could have assumed a leading role at the ICPD. India may have been able to lead a developing country initiative to link population control with sustainable social and economic development. Instead, debate centered on the meaning of certain terms such as fertility regulation, family planning, and reproductive health. Despite these disagreements, however, the ICPD ended on an optimistic note. How much the ICPD resolutions will influence the behavior of individual countries remains to be seen. PMID:12179181

1994-09-30

389

Development of thermodynamic potentials for fluid water, ice and seawater: a new standard for oceanography  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new seawater standard has been developed for oceanographic and engineering applications that consists of three independent thermodynamic potential functions, derived from extended distinct sets of very accurate experimental data. The results have been formulated as Releases of the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS (1996, 2006, 2008) and are to be adopted internationally by other organizations in subsequent years. In order to successfully perform computat...

Feistel, R.; Wright, D. G.; Miyagawa, K.; Hruby, J.; Jackett, D. R.; Mcdougall, T. J.; Wagner, W.

2008-01-01

390

The Effects of International Accounting Standardization on Business Performance: Evidence from Hungary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the differences between national rules and the international standards,evaluating and analyzing their effects on the shifting business environment. The unified business informationsystem will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicatorsfrom the business environment of certain countries. The results show that those businesses which have adoptedinternational standards achieved higher and statistically significant positive coefficients than those followinglocal accounting rules. Companies which had adopted accounting standards also provided higher quality andvalue relevant accounting information systems. As a further consequence of international accounting standardsadoption, corporate policy and requirements became gradually more clear and transparent – in the same way asthe application and implementation of the standards became more user-friendly.

Gyorgy Csebfalvi

2012-04-01

391

The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study revie