WorldWideScience
 
 
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ISO: international standards development for nuclear technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of internationally recognized standards for nuclear technology and safety is rapidly increasing for technical as well as economical and political reasons such as public acceptance and nuclear technology transfer to developing countries. The need for such standards is also evident because of the large number of nuclear installations sited close to international borders, and the export of nuclear installations from relatively few supplier countries to a large number of user countries. It is the purpose of this report to describe briefly the history, organizational structures and procedures, goals, accomplishments, problems, and future needs of the relevant activities of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO is composed of the partly governmental, partly non-governmental national standards bodies of 86 countries including China. The work of its Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' is mostly concerned with industrial applications, contractual aspects and international communication, for the benefit of both developed and developing countries. It works in close liaison with IAEA, which develops Codes and Guides addressed mainly to the regulatory aspects of nuclear power plants in developing countries. ISO/TC 85 has four sub-committees dealing with: (a) Terminology, Definitions, Units and Symbols (Secretariat USA, four working groups (WGs)); (b) Radiation Protection (Secretariat France, ten WGs); (c) Power Reactor Technology (Seten WGs); (c) Power Reactor Technology (Secretariat Sweden, nine WGs); (d) Nuclear Fuel Technology (Secretariat F.R. Germany, seven WGs). (author)

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International physical protection standards: support for development and implementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Since 1972, the IAEA has been a recognized organization in promoting the development of international standards on the physical protection of nuclear materials. This responsibility has continued through the present in the 1999 publication of the fourth revision of INFCIRC/225, the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities and in being the repository for the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material which was originally published in 1980 as INFCIRC/274. The IAEA has also published other reference documents in support these two standards. With changing world events and greater concern for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities, IAEA member states have increased IAEA physical protection responsibilities. Currently, the IAEA is serving as the secretariat for drafting revisions to the physical protection convention. The proposed revisions will strengthen international physical protection standards through the incorporation of physical protection fundamentals that should apply to all nuclear materials in international or domestic use, storage and transport. Furthermore, the physical protection fundamentals would also extend to include nuclear facilities. Presently, the physical protection convention applies only to nuclear materials that are in international transport. To complement efforts to develop and promote international physical protection standards, the IAEA is actively involved in assisting member states with the implementation of the standards. This is accomplished through the delivery of training courses, workshops and hosting other international forums for the exchange of information. Through review services such as the international physical protection advisory service (IPPAS), the IAEA provides advice to member states on the application of international standards at national and facility-specific levels. These services can be followed up with technical support to implement the recommendations developed during the IPPAS review. (author)

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Development of proliferation resistance assessment methodology based on international standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nonproliferation is one of the main requirements to be satisfied by the advanced future nuclear energy systems that have been developed in the Generation IV and INPRO studies. The methodologies to evaluate proliferation resistance has been developed since 1980s, however, the systematic evaluation approach has begun from around 2000. Domestically a study to develop national method to evaluate proliferation resistance (PR) of advanced future nuclear energy systems has started in 2007 as one of the long-term nuclear R and D subjects in order to promote export and international credibility and transparency of national nuclear energy systems and nuclear fuel cycle technology development program. In the first phase (2007-2010) development and improvement of intrinsic evaluation parameters for the evaluation of proliferation resistance, quantification of evaluation parameters, development of evaluation models, and development of permissible ranges of evaluation parameters have been carried out. In the second phase (2010-2012) generic principle of to evaluate PR was established, and techincal guidelines, nuclear material diversion pathway analysis method, and a method to integrate evaluation parameters have been developed. which were applied to 5 alternative nuclear fuel cycles to estimate their appicability and objectivity. In addition, measures to enhance PR of advanced future nuclear energy systems and technical guidelines of PR assessment using intrinsic PR evaluation parameters were developed. Lastly, requlatory requirements to secure nonproliferation requirements of nuclear energy systems from the early design stage, operation and to decommissioning which will support the export of newly developed advanced future nuclear energy system

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THE ADOPTION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES- The Case of Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most countries in the world have revolutionized their accounting practices especially during the last few decades of the 21st century. Such revolutions encompass the adoption and adaptation of local accounting practices and harmonizing it with that of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) – formerly International Accounting Standards (IAS). The study seeks to analyze how developing countries and in particular Ghana adopted the International Financial Reporting Standards. Th...

Antwi, Kofi

2010-01-01

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The development of international safety standards on geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA is developing a set of safety requirements for geologic disposal to be used by both developers and regulators for planning, designing, operating, and closing a geologic disposal facility. Safety requirements would include quantitative criteria for assessing safety of geologic disposal facilities as well as requirements for development of the facility and the safety strategy including the safety case. Geologic disposal facilities are anticipated to be developed over a period of at least a few decades. Key decisions, e.g., on the disposal concept, siting, design, operational management and closure, are expected to be made in a series of steps. Decisions will be made based on the information available at each step and the confidence that may be placed in that information. A safety strategy is important for ensuring that at each step during the development of the disposal facility, an adequate understanding of the safety implications of the available options is developed such that the ultimate goal of providing an acceptable level of operational and post closure safety will be met. A safety case for a geologic disposal facility would present all the safety relevant aspects of the site, the facility design and the managerial and regulatory controls. The safety case and its supporting assessments illustrates the level of protection provided and shall give reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. Overall, the safety case provides confidence in the feasafety case provides confidence in the feasibility of implementing the disposal system as designed, convincing estimates of the performance of the disposal system and a reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. (author)

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Experience with nuclear safety standards development in non-governmental international organizations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Besides the IAEA as a 'governmental' organization dealing with basic safety recommendations addressed primarily to the national regulatory bodies in developing countries, two closely related non-governmental international standards organizations have gained extensive experience in the field of nuclear standardization. Over more than 25 years since their formation, both (a) the International Organization for Standardization's (ISO) Technical Committee 85 'Nuclear Energy', in particular in its Sub-Committee 3 'Reactor Technology and Safety' and (b) the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) Technical Committee 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' have published numerous standards. A brief review is given of these, draft standards, and other documents planned to become international standards. Many of them deal with rather specialized topics typical for 'industrial' standards such as standardized procedures, instruments, methods, materials, test methods, terminology, and signs and symbols, but others are directly related to more basic safety issues. In some areas such as quality assurance, seismic aspects of siting and terminology, there has been in the past occasional overlap in the activities of the NUSS programme, IEC and ISO. Letters of Understanding have since 1981 contributed to clarifying the borderlines and to avoiding redundant efforts. Also, some experiences and problems are described arising, for example, from the harmonization of different national safety armonization of different national safety philosophies and traditions into universally accepted international standards, and the transfer of international standards into national standards systems. Finally, based on a recent comprehensive compilation of some 3300 nuclear standards and standards projects, an attempt is made to present a cost/benefit analysis and an outlook on future developments. (author)

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International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

2011-10-29

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Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'

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Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three IEC standards are published. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: IEC 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', IEC 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and IEC 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'

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Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

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Developing international safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme to create a corpus of internationally accepted Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS), focus is currently being placed on establishing standards for the 'geological disposal of radioactive waste'. This is a challenging task and to help the standards development process there is a need to stimulate discussion of some of the associated scientific and technical issues. A number of position papers developed in recent years by a subgroup of the Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal, address many of the relevant issues. These include a common safety based framework for radioactive waste disposal, appropriate time frames for safety assessment, different possible indicators of long-term safety, the safety implications of reversibility and retrievability, the assessment of possible human intrusion into the repository, the role and limitations of institutional control, establishing reference critical groups and biospheres for long-term assessment, and what is meant by 'compliance' with the standards. These papers will be discussed at a Specialists Meeting to be held at the IAEA in June 2001 as a means of establishing the extent to which they enjoy the general support of experts. In order to broaden that consensus, the conclusions reached at the Specialists Meeting on the issues listed above will be presented and discussed with participants at a number of international meetings. Later this year, a draft safety standard on the geological disposal of radioactive waste which takes account of the consensus positions reached through the various consultations will be submitted for the consideration of Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the officially approved body within the IAEA for the review and approval of waste safety standards. The Committee is made up of government appointed radioactive waste regulators. Subsequent steps include the provision of formal comments by governments, final approval by WASSC, and by the IAEA's Commission on Safety Standards (CSS) and finally by the IAEA's Board of Governors. (author)

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Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'.

Voytchev, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DSU/SERAC/CTHIR), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Chiaro, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Radev, R. [LLNL, Livermore, CA (United States)

2006-07-01

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International standards for nuclear technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of history, current status and possible future developments in the field of international nuclear standards, with emphasis on the relevant activities of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). After a brief history of standardization in general and description of the 'hierarchy' of legal and technical nuclear standars, the reasons for international nuclear standardization and the efforts of various international organizations in this field are described, in particular the Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' of ISO (with tables of its organization, output and projects); the TC 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC); the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Program, and some other international organizations. Finally, some problems in this important and difficult field which remain to be solved are being discussed. (orig.)

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The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

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Development Of International Data Standards For The COSMOS/PEER-LL Virtual Data Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The COSMOS -PEER Lifelines Project 2L02 completed a Pilot Geotechnical Virtual Data Center (GVDC) system capable of both archiving geotechnical data and of disseminating data from multiple linked geotechnical databases. The Pilot GVDC system links geotechnical databases of four organizations: the California Geological Survey, Caltrans, PG&E, and the U. S. Geological Survey The System was presented and reviewed in the COSMOS-PEER Lifelines workshop on June 21 - 23, 2004, which was co-sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and included participation by the United Kingdom Highways Agency (UKHA) , the Association of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Specialists in the United Kingdom (AGS), the United States Army Corp of Engineers (USACOE), Caltrans, United States Geological Survey (USGS), California Geological Survey (CGS), a number of state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), county building code officials, and representatives of academic institutions and private sector geotechnical companies. As of February 2005 COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Project 2L03 is currently funded to accomplish the following tasks: 1) expand the Pilot GVDC Geotechnical Data Dictionary and XML Schema to include data definitions and structures to describe in-situ measurements such as shear wave velocity profiles, and additional laboratory geotechnical test types; 2) participate in an international cooperative working group developing a single geotechnical data exchange standard that has broad international acceptance; and 3) upgrade the GVDC system to support corresponding exchange standard data dictionary and schema improvements. The new geophysical data structures being developed will include PS-logs, downhole geophysical logs, cross-hole velocity data, and velocity profiles derived using surface waves. A COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Geophysical Data Dictionary Working Committee constituted of experts in the development of data dictionary standards and experts in the specific data to be captured are presently working on this task. The international geotechnical data dictionary and schema development is a highly collaborative effort funded by a pooled fund study coordinated by state DOTs and FHWA. The technical development of the standards called DIGGS (Data Interchange for Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Specialists) is lead by a team consisting of representatives from the University of Florida, Department of Civil Engineering (UF), AGS, Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA), UKHA, Ohio DOT, and COSMOS. The first draft of DIGGS is currently in preparation. A Geotechnical Management System Group (GMS group), composed of representatives from 13 State DOTs, FHWA, US EPA, USACOE, USGS and UKHA, oversees and approves the development of the standards. The ultimate goal of both COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Project 2L03 and the international GMS working group is to produce open and flexible, GML-compliant XML schema-based data structures and data dictionaries for review and approval by DOTs, other public agencies, and the international engineering and geoenvironmental community at large, leading to adoption of internationally accepted geotechnical and geophysical data transfer standards. Establishment of these standards is intended to significantly facilitate the accessibility and exchange of geotechnical information world wide.

Swift, J. N.

2005-12-01

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International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process. Fourth, sufficient program resources for program implementation and evaluation are critical to the effectiveness of standards and labeling programs and cost-sharing between national and local governments can help ensure adequate resources and uniform implementation. Lastly, check-testing and punitive measures are important forms of enforcement while the cancellation of registration or product sales-based fines have also proven effective in reducing non-compliance. The international comparative analysis also revealed the differing degree to which the level of government decentralization has influenced S&L programs and while no single country has best practices in all elements of standards and labeling development and implementation, national examples of best practices for specific elements do exist. For example, the U.S. has exemplified the use of rigorous analyses for standard-setting and robust data source with the RECS database while Japan?s Top Runner standard-setting principle has motivated manufacturers to exceed targets. In terms of standards implementation and enforcement, Australia has demonstrated success with enforcement given its long history of check-testing and enforcement initiatives while mandatory information-sharing between EU jurisdictions on compliance results is another important enforcement mechanism. These examples show that it is important to evaluate not only the drivers of different paths of standards and labeling development, but also the country-specific context for best practice examples in order to understand how and why certain elements of specific S&L programs have been effective.

Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

2012-02-28

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The Emerging Global Bibliographic Network: The Era of International Standardization in the Development of Cataloging Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the growing interdependence of catalogers to provide uniform bibliographic control and access. Topics include the international applications of AACR2 (Anglo American Cataloging Rules 2); the PCC (Program for Cooperative Cataloging); ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description); and activities of IFLA (International Federation…

Byrum, John D., Jr.

2000-01-01

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Radiation protection instrumentation standards developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' of the IEC produces International Standards defining the requirements to which the instrumentation used for the radiation protection must satisfy. The compliance to these requirements is a guaranty of the quality of the instrument, of its good performance in the nuclear environment. Type testing equipment to the recommendations and requirements of the standards also provides the equipment user with reliable and internationally acceptable performance data which they can use for the accurate interpretation and comparisons of their operational measurements. The list of the published SC 45B standards is given in this paper. (author)

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Radiation safety: New international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article highlights an important result of this work for the international harmonization of radiation safety: specifically, it present an overview of the forthcoming International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - the so-called BSS. They have been jointly developed by six organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

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Advantages and difficulties of implementation of the international GNA standards in sustainable mining development. (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Conflicts in the development of mining projects are now common between the mining proponents, NGO's and communities. These conflicts can sometimes be alleviated by early development of modes of communication, and a formal discussion format that allows airing of concerns and potential resolution of problems. One of the methods that can formalize this process is to establish a Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA), which deals specifically with challenges in relationships between mining operations and the local communities. It is a new practice related to mining operations that are oriented toward social needs and concerns of local communities that arise during the normal life of a mine, which can achieve sustainable mining practices in both developing and developed countries. The GNA project being currently developed at the University of Nevada, Reno in cooperation with the Newmont Mining Corporation has a goal to create an open company/community dialog that is based on the international standards and that will help identify and address sociological and environmental concerns associated with mining, as well as find methods for communication and conflict resolution. GNA standards should be based on trust doctrine, open information access, and community involvement in the decision making process. It should include the following components: emergency response and community communications; environmental issues, including air and water quality standards; reclamation and recultivation; socio-economic issues: transportation, safety, training, and local hiring; and financial issues, particularly related to mitigation offsets and community needs. The GNA standards help identify and evaluate conflict criteria in mining/community relationships; determine the status of concerns; focus on the local political and government systems; separate the acute and the chronic concerns; determine the role and responsibilities of stakeholders; analyze problem resolution feasibility; maintain the community involvement and support through economic benefits and environmental safeguards; develop options for the concerns resolution; develop and manage short and long-term plans. Difficulties in establishing the GNA standards include identification of the full list of stakeholders, lack of responsible environmental protection practices, dependence on the government and political system, lack of will to disclose full information to the public. It is further complicated by the lack of insurance/bonding policies, and by the lack of audit and monitoring that could determine the level of exposure of the local community and the environment to the contaminants released at the mine sites. Since many problems of mines can occur during closure and post-closure, GNA's should address those issues also. Determined the process for the GNA implementation as a conflict prevention/resolution tool, analyzed conflict/concerns criteria associated with mining operations, determined the role of the stakeholders, worked out the process of stakeholders monitoring, carried out the sociological survey of the stakeholders and the community. Frequent conflicts between mining companies and surrounding communities that lead to work disruptions or even mine closures show the necessity of a less confrontational approach to environmental and social justice. Establishment of GNA standards for use in both developed and developing nations can decrease these conflicts.

Masaitis, A.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Developing Countries: The Case of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study focused on the adoption process of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS on adeveloping economy, with particular reference to Nigeria. The paper is based on the data obtained from literaturesurvey and archival sources in the context of the globalization of International Financial Reporting and theadoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS.Nigeria has embraced IFRS in order toparticipate in the benefits it offers, including attracting foreign direct investment, reduction of the cost of doingbusiness, and cross border listing. In implementing IFRS Nigeria will face challenges including the developmentof a legal and regulatory framework, awareness campaign, and training of personnel. Recommendations weremade to forestall such challenges which include strengthening education and training, establishment of anindependent body to monitor and enforce accounting and auditing standards.

Abdulkadir Madawaki

2012-01-01

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Protection of emergency workers and helpers: recent developments in international standards in emergency preparedness and response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in abstract form only. IAEA safety requirements in preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, were endorsed in 2002 in a joint sponsorship of seven international intergovernmental organizations. Building on experience from responses to actual emergencies, these safety requirements set common goals to be achieved and the common concepts and approaches to be taken for an adequate preparedness to effectively respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency irrespective of the cause. Ensuring an adequate protection of emergency workers is an important aspect of emergency arrangements considered in this publication. In 2011, a revision of these safety requirements was initiated in order to take into account past experience and developments since 2002 with due consideration (but not limited to) the experience gained in the emergency response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Protection of emergency workers got particular attention during this revision in the light of the lessons identified in past emergencies resulting in strengthened and more comprehensive, yet simple, system for protection of emergency workers of different organizations and services. The revised safety requirements are expected to be published in 2015 as Part 7 of the General Safety Requirements (GSR Part 7) within the IAEA Safety Standards Series. In this presentation, the latest updates and developments with regard to emergency workers in the light of the revision of the Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 are presented. Issues such as who are to be considered as emergency workers, the importance of their designation prior to an emergency, how to deal during an emergency response with those emergency workers not recognized as such at preparedness stage, protection aspects to be considered for all emergency workers and dose criteria to be used for restricting their further exposures in an emergency response are addressed. The specifics associated with the protection of female emergency workers are also highlighted. Moreover, the approach to dealing and protecting helpers on the part of the public willing to contribute to the emergency response on a voluntarily basis is covered in this presentation too. (author)

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Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Triple Bottom Line Reports Using International Standards on Reporting  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is twofold. First, evaluation scoring systems for triple bottom line (TBL) reports to date are examined and potential methodological weaknesses and problems are highlighted. In this context, a new assessment methodology is presented based explicitly on the most widely acknowledged standard on non-financial reporting worldwide, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The set of GRI topics and performance indicators was converted into scoring criteria while the generic scoring devise was set from 0 to 4 points. Secondly, the proposed benchmark tool was applied to the TBL reports published by Greek companies. Results reveal major gaps in reporting practices, stressing the need for the further development of internal systems and processes in order to collect essential non-financial performance data. A critical overview of the structure and rationale of the evaluation tool in conjunction with the Greek case study is discussed while recommendations for future research on the field of this relatively new form of reporting are suggested.

Skouloudis, Antonis; Evangelinos, Konstantinos; Kourmousis, Fotis

2009-08-01

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On the International Convergence of Accounting Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The international convergence of accounting standards has become a hot topic in the international accounting field.The convergence is an irreversible developing trend of accounting internationalization development that began many years ago.Accounting,as a world-wide accepted business language,should naturally move towards internationalization.This paper discusses the international convergence of accounting standards focusing on its development stages,necessity and analyse the international status.

Boka Moussa

2010-03-01

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The development of natural matrix standards by the International Committee on Radionuclide Metrology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, the Low-Level Measurement Techniques Group of the International Committee on Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) recommended that national metrology and environmental laboratories cooperate in providing standards in natural matrices to quality assurance laboratories, as well as to the public, for the purpose of establishing the traceability of radiochemical procedures to the National and International Measurements System. This group recommended that only through the measurement of such standards can one obtain definite proof that assays of environmental samples are being performed correctly. Bowen (International Journal of the Environment, to be published) has suggested that of the order of seven carefully chosen materials would serve as a basis for the adequate testing of most environmental radioactivity measurements. The ICRM, in cooperation with environmental laboratories, has embarked on a program to produce an initial group of such materials which have been chosen on the basis that (i) they should contain a variety of ?-, ?-, and ?-ray emitting radionuclides, (ii) they can be used to test the effect of the presence of calcium carbonate on radiochemical assaying, and (iii) that both organic and inorganic materials be available. It is necessary that the test samples be able to be mixed with each other easily by quality assurance laboratories which can thereby produce 'made-to-order' test samples. The status of the program will be discussed and this discussioam will be discussed and this discussion will include the choices of natural matrices and a description of the work performed so far. (author)

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International standards for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents. (authors)

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Criticality safety and international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There appears to be a worldwide increase in interest in international standards. Indications are that international standards will tend to replace or overshadow national standards. An illustration of this tendency was seen recently. During the recent (February 1996) meeting of the International Organization for Standardization Technical Committee 85 (ISO TC 85, Nuclear Energy) in Albuquerque, representatives from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) requested ISO TC 85 to accept responsibility for conversion of 19 ASTM high-level dosimetry standards to ISO standards using the open-quotes fasttrackclose quotes procedure. This unprecedented request was stimulated by a need to have these procedures in an ISO document to make them more useful to the international community. Recognizing the increased status that international standards enjoy today, TC 85 unanimously agreed to accept this responsibility

28

Development of a techniques of the performance test for a radiation protection devices and it's international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International Standardization in all technical area is gaining its momentum as its impact and implication over global trade is directly linked. The worldwide competition to secure a dominant position in the standardization process is ever growing over the years. In 2005, the International Technical Committee on nuclear instrumentation, which is a subunit of International Electro-technical Commission (IEC), was held in Korea under the auspices of MOST (Ministry Of Science and Technology). Korea has adopted its rule and regulation as the national standard. As a part of a link to national mid-and long-term atomic energy R and D program of MOST, the technical development of a performance test for the radiation monitors was carried out under mechanical environment and electromagnetic immunity conditions. The characteristics of the radiation fields were also evaluated under the conditions and introduced to a techniques of performance test for the radiation protection instrumentation adopted IEC61526 standards and it's results was analyzed. We would like to share the experience gained in these efforts, failure as well as success, and to discuss the problems encountered and serious consideration to be taken into account in the future endeavor

29

Towards International Pellet Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The European Commission gave in 2000 a mandate to the European Committee for Standardization, CEN under committee TC335 to prepare standards for solid biofuels. In total 36 standards for terminology, fuel specification and classes, quality assurance, sampling, analysis physical and mechanical and chemical properties will be published.

Alakangas, Eija [VTT, Espoo (Finland)

2012-11-01

30

Development of quantitative NMR method with internal standard for the standard solutions of paralytic shellfish toxins and characterisation of gonyautoxin-5 and gonyautoxin-6.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) requires standard solutions with accurate concentration. The mouse toxicity in each toxin is also essential knowledge for the introduction of chemical analysis as an alternative method to mouse bioassay (MBA) in routine monitoring of shellfish. In this study, we developed the quantitative analysis of PSTs by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), using tert-butanol as an internal standard. Only proton signals with longitudinal relaxation time (T(1)) of less than 2.5 s, including the internal standard, were used for quantitation of toxins. Our method showed good precision (Gonyautoxin-5 (GTX5) and gonyautoxin-6 (GTX6) isolated from mussels were quantified by our method, and the toxicities of GTX5 and GTX6 were obtained by the MBA in which mice were standardized by STX provided from FDA. The specific toxicities of GTX5 and GTX6 newly calculated by the MBA were 120 MU/micromol (29 microg STX equiv./micromol) and 105 MU/micromol (25 microg STX equiv./micromol), respectively. These results are useful to convert the amount of GTX5 and GTX6 into the mouse toxicity, especially in the areas where the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum predominantly produces both toxins. PMID:20538011

Watanabe, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Oshima, Yasukatsu

2010-09-15

31

International standards for reactor technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of normative standards is to enhance the economic competitiveness of a nation by facilitating the free exchange of goods and services. Approximately 80 percent of all globally traded products are affected by standards and regulations that embody standards. In the present paper we provide a general discussion about the role of normative standards both in the United States and globally, and conclude with a specific discussion of international standards in the area of reactor technology. (authors)

32

On the International Convergence of Accounting Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The international convergence of accounting standards has become a hot topic in the international accounting field.The convergence is an irreversible developing trend of accounting internationalization development that began many years ago.Accounting,as a world-wide accepted business language,should naturally move towards internationalization.This p...

Boka Moussa

2010-01-01

33

Importance of international standards on hydrogen technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation provided some basic information regarding standards and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It also explained the importance of standardization activities, particularly ISO/TC 197 which applies to hydrogen technologies. Standards are established by consensus. They define the minimum requirements that will ensure that products and services are reliable and effective. Standards contribute to the elimination of technical barriers to trade (TBT). The harmonization of standards around the world is desirable in a free trade environment. The influence of the TBT on international standardization was discussed with particular reference to the objectives of ISO/TC 197 hydrogen technologies. One of the priorities for ISO/TC 197 is a hydrogen fuel infrastructure which includes refuelling stations, fuelling connectors, and storage technologies for gaseous and liquid hydrogen. Other priorities include an agreement between the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the ISO, in particular the IEC/TC 105 and ISO/TC 197 for the development of fuel cell standards. The international standards that have been published thus far include ISO 13984:1999 for liquid hydrogen, land vehicle fuelling system interface, and ISO 14687:1999 for hydrogen fuel product specification. Standards are currently under development for: liquid hydrogen; airport hydrogen fuelling facilities; gaseous hydrogen blends; basic considerations for the safety of hydrosic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems; gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and gaseous hydrogen for land vehicle filling connectors. It was concluded that the widespread use of hydrogen is dependent on international standardization

34

Importance of international standards on hydrogen technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation provided some basic information regarding standards and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It also explained the importance of standardization activities, particularly ISO/TC 197 which applies to hydrogen technologies. Standards are established by consensus. They define the minimum requirements that will ensure that products and services are reliable and effective. Standards contribute to the elimination of technical barriers to trade (TBT). The harmonization of standards around the world is desirable in a free trade environment. The influence of the TBT on international standardization was discussed with particular reference to the objectives of ISO/TC 197 hydrogen technologies. One of the priorities for ISO/TC 197 is a hydrogen fuel infrastructure which includes refuelling stations, fuelling connectors, and storage technologies for gaseous and liquid hydrogen. Other priorities include an agreement between the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the ISO, in particular the IEC/TC 105 and ISO/TC 197 for the development of fuel cell standards. The international standards that have been published thus far include ISO 13984:1999 for liquid hydrogen, land vehicle fuelling system interface, and ISO 14687:1999 for hydrogen fuel product specification. Standards are currently under development for: liquid hydrogen; airport hydrogen fuelling facilities; gaseous hydrogen blends; basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems; gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and gaseous hydrogen for land vehicle filling connectors. It was concluded that the widespread use of hydrogen is dependent on international standardization.

Bose, T.K.; Gingras, S. [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada). Institut de recherche sur l' hydrogene; Gingras, S. [Bureau de normalisation du Quebec, Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada)

2001-06-01

35

International standardization compliance in aviation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The commercial aviation industry is global in the sense that passengers travel around the world from destination to destination. It is also global in that the states of the world (countries) regulate the industry domestically and internationally. There is a unique stage where the world comes together to promote aviation, discuss ideas and establish international standards. This stage is the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The 191 current member states signed treaties acknowl...

Spence, Tyler B.

2013-01-01

36

Study and development of methodologies for qualification of waste products in repositories according to international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the processes to treat dangerous wastes is to immobilise them in cement. At CDTN/CNEN some researches are carried out on cementation in order to establish process parameters, materials, and equipment, aiming at the safe disposal of these wastes, protecting of the human being and the environment of possible risks. To establish the compressive strength of cemented products is important because it implies in its suitability for handling, transportation and storage without risks for the human bodies or environment. It is urgent to obtain the certification of the compressive strength test providing reproducible, trustful and suitable results, mainly to assure its traceability. At Cementation Laboratory (LABCIM/CDTN) the certification process of the compressive strength was begun in the year 2000. It was completed the necessary adequacies, the staff training, and the first internal audit. It is previewed for the current year another internal audit, the external audit, and the certification request. (author)

37

77 FR 58707 - Minimum Internal Control Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...25 CFR Part 543 Minimum Internal Control Standards; Final Rule...Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY: National...Gaming Commission (NIGC) amends its minimum internal control standards for Class...

2012-09-21

38

Standardizing products for the international NSSS market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Westinghouse has responded to international differences in nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) design requirements by developing generic designs that meet particular national requirements to varying degrees. These standardized products represent a composite of the most common safety requirements in the international market. The way in which Westinghouse has coped with some of the obstacles to supplying nuclear equipment to meet the requirements of an international market with many national differences is discussed. (author)

39

Adoption determinants of the International Accounting Standards IAS/IFRS by the developing countries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: English Abstract in spanish El principal objetivo de este documento es identificar ciertos factores que probablemente esclarezcan la opción de aplicar IAS/IFRS adoptadas por los países en desarrollo hasta el año 2008. Basados en una muestra de 74 países en desarrollo, los resultados empíricos han demostrado que la mayoría de e [...] llos probablemente tienen un alto nivel de crecimiento económico, junto con un sistema jurídico de derecho consuetudinario y un nivel de educación avanzado. Abstract in english This paper’s main objective is to identify certain explanatory factors that likely clarify the choice of applying IAS/IFRS adopted by developing countries (DCs) up until the year 2008. Based on a sample consisting of 74 DCs, the empirical results have indicated that the DCs most likely to adopt IAS/ [...] IFRS have a high level of economic growth, along with a legal system of common law and an advanced educational level.

Fatma, Zehri; Jamel, Chouaibi.

2013-12-01

40

International standards and agreements in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing. (author)

 
 
 
 
41

International standards and agreements in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing

42

Towards International Standards for Language Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the Linguistic Annotation Framework (LAF) developed by the International Standards Organization TC37 SC4, which is to serve as a basis for harmonizing existing language resources as well as developing new ones. We then describe the use of the LAF to represent the American National Corpus and its linguistic annotations.

Ide, Nancy; Romary, Laurent

2007-01-01

43

Development of precise spectrophotometric method with internal standardization for determination of platinum and other metals fragments. I. Palladium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Precision method of spectrophotometry with internal standardization is used for analysis of Pd - one of the fission fragments of platinum metals. Pd(II) is determined using two-channel spectrophotometer with reagents of arsenazo III group - sulfonitrophenol M. During Pd(II) determination in pure solution with 1.5 mol/l H2SO4 relative standard deviation is 0.2 %, and in the case of solution simulating high-level radioactive wastes - 0.4 mol/l

44

International Lessons about National Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether to adopt national standards and tests has long been a subject of lively debate in the United States. With 47 states now participating in the Common Core State Standards Initiative, and a commitment from Education Secretary Arne Duncan to allocate hundreds of millions in stimulus funds to the development of common tests, the country is…

Schmidt, William H.; Houang, Richard; Shakrani, Sharif

2009-01-01

45

Accounting Management by International Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards – their contribution to harmonization andglobalization by purposing and tasking for accounting management. Measuring in details their pros and conseffects on the division of labour, financial innovation, company transactions and cost of capital it could beauthor’s recommendation for the business management inside and outside of one country’s border. Especiallythe multinational companies whose su...

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

46

International standard for design basis threat (DBT)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A design basis threat (DBT) has been used by the United States since the 1970's as a basis for the design of a facility physical protection system, a basis for the evaluation of the facility physical protection system, and as a standard against which to compare the continuously changing threat. In the last two years substantial effort has been made to develop an international standard for the development of a design basis threat. This approach is the result of a year's worth of discussions between the United States, Germany, United Kingdom, France, and most recently the Russian Federation. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supported these discussions and the resulting process, which culminated in a three day workshop on the development of a state DBT. The IAEA was directly involved in this process due to the latest revision of INFCIRC 225, which recommends the use of a DBT in the state physical protection regime. This international standard for the development of a DBT is a significant milestone in the international community. This was necessary because Sandia National Laboratory had developed material for a 'DBT Workshop', and a standard, international approach had to be established before the workshop could be finalized and the instructional material provided to the IAEA for general use. This paper presents a summary of the new international approach to the creation and use of a design basis threat. The paper describes how a DBT is created within a state. This paper also explains the advantages and disadvantages of using this internationalized approach to the DBT. Each state may, of course, choose to modify their use of the DBT to better fit their culture, technical experience of the facilities and authorities, and strengths and weaknesses of their regulatory systems. The internationalized version of the creation and use of the DBT is a major milestone in the international effort of the United States and the IAEA, and this paper is a summary of that milestone. (author)

47

Development of fusion safety standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) standards have been prepared to assist in the design and regulation of magnetic fusion facilities. They are DOE-STD-6002-96, 'Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities - Requirements,' and DOE-STD-6003-96 'Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities - Guidance.' The first standard sets forth requirements, mostly based on the Code of Federal Regulations, deemed necessary for the safe design and operation of fusion facilities and a set of safety principles to use in the design. The second standard provides guidance on how to meet the requirements identified in DOE-STD-6002-96. It is written specifically for a facility such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in the DOE regulatory environment. As technical standards, they are applicable only to the extent that compliance with these standards is included in the contracts of the developers. 7 refs., 1 fig

48

Operations of TESLA VUPJT standardization centre in international standardization activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The centre is primarily involved in technical standardization management in the sector Instruments for detection, measurement and control of radioactive radiation. It is responsible for compiling sector and state standards, for international standardization activities, for the introduction, observance and application of technical standards, participation in the preparation of new technology, for quality and metrology control, and for securing the enterprise metrology tasks. Within international standardization activities it mainly cooperates with CMEA and the IEC TC 45 commission. (J.B.)

49

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR LIBRARY AUTOMATION AND NETWORKING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper presents the library automation and networking in the 21st century. It also defines standards and standardization internationally required for library automation and networking. Further the comparative statement of international standards adopted universally, which gives us names, purpose, establishment, record elements, following standards internationally, components, structures, tags and their importance in their implementation of library automation and networking. The conclusion is that, ISO is the standards body that establishes standards for the international exchange of goods and services.

Uddhav R. Aghav

2014-08-01

50

International Electrotechnical Commission standards - their use in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Sub-Committee (SC45B) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) was formed in 1966 and has since produced internationally agreed standards on a wide range of health physics instruments. A brief article describes the nature of the IEC standards, the procedure for the development of a new standard, the value of the standards in radiological protection and details of those standards issued so far by SC45B and also those under preparation. (U.K.)

51

IAEA safety standards and international legal instruments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA safety standards constitute a comprehensive and consistent framework of reference for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks. As such, they are of fundamental importance for both regulators and technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) in their duties related to nuclear safety and radiation protection. International cooperation is also favoured by the IAEA safety standards, permitting the identification of final objectives and the steps necessary to achieve them in very different national and regional contexts. The fact that groups of experts, widely representing the Member States, developed the safety standards is an additional guarantee of their applicability in different situations. Nevertheless, it should be taken into account that nuclear and radiation safety and their regulation are national competencies, and hence the safety standards should be adopted and suitably modified by the States to become a national safety reference. The clear advantages of the technical assistance that some nations can receive from the IAEA in nuclear and radiation safety favour the adoption of the safety standards. In addition, the explicit mention of the IAEA safety standards in international conventions and codes of conduct signed by several countries also helps their implementation from a legal point of view. Unfortunately, from a practical point of view, the difficulties do not disappear by officially adopting the safety standardby officially adopting the safety standards. Problems related to insufficient resources, shortcomings in the technical infrastructure and/or the limited experience of TSO staff are real problems that require additional efforts in order to effectively implement the safety standards. Renewed efforts to facilitate international cooperation among regional TSOs are necessary, for example, to promote specific harmonization of national situations. (author)

52

Study of International Standards of Risk Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management, are of general character and differ with the degree of detailing. Their undoubted value in development of risk management in Ukraine is identification of a general direction of building corporate systems of risk management in practice. The said approaches at the national and corporate levels of standardisation in Ukraine within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management would allow improvement of risk management in corporations and enterprises. The prospect of further studies of domestic specialists in the field of risk management is development of the domestic standard of risk management with consideration of modern domestic specific features of development of risk management in Ukraine and leading foreign experience.

Dykan Volodymyr L.

2014-01-01

53

Role of international standardization for the safe practice of hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The question of standards in general and of international standards in particular, was discussed. Standards were considered useful instruments in promoting interchangeability, compatibility and interoperability of interfaces in today`s global market. International standards were favoured because free trade is a key issue in the widespread dissemination of hydrogen technologies, because international standards make trade between countries easier and fairer, and because the harmonization of standards helps to curb accidents. Various relevant ISO standards (ISO/CD 13984 for liquid hydrogen-land vehicle fuelling system interfaces, ISO/WD 13985 for liquid hydrogen-land vehicle fuel tanks, and ISO/WD 13986 for tank containers for multi-modal transportation of liquid hydrogen) were described. Procedures for proposing new standards and the ISO process for developing a standard were described. On the average, the process from proposal to final publication of an international standard takes about 40 months.

Bose, T. K; Allard, D.

1997-05-01

54

Review of international standards for dosemeters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International standards for radiation protection dosemeters are published by the International Electrotechnical Commission and the International Organization for Standardization. Several standards exist side by side, although they treat the same measuring task, and specify different requirements, so that dosemeters of different quality result. In this paper, the quality of dosemeters is compared by calculating the uncertainty of dose measurements for dosemeters, which just basely fulfil the respective standard. The results are related to general yardsticks on uncertainty laid down by international organisations. Furthermore, technical differences are standards and addressed and a method to make them conform is presented. (authors)

55

Review of international standards for dosemeters.  

Science.gov (United States)

International standards for radiation protection dosemeters are published by the International Electrotechnical Commission and the International Organization for Standardization. Several standards exist side by side, although they treat the same measuring task, and specify different requirements, so that dosemeters of different quality result. In this paper, the quality of dosemeters is compared by calculating the uncertainty of dose measurements for dosemeters, which just basely fulfil the respective standard. The results are related to general yardsticks on uncertainty laid down by international organisations. Furthermore, technical differences are standards and addressed and a method to make them conform is presented. PMID:17627960

Behrens, R; Ambrosi, P

2008-01-01

56

77 FR 32444 - Minimum Internal Control Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY: National...Commission (NIGC) proposes to amend its minimum internal control standards for Class II...it applies to establishing an alternate minimum standard; amend the bingo,...

2012-06-01

57

Toward an International Standard for PCR-Based Detection of Food-Borne Thermotolerant Campylobacters: Assay Development and Analytical Validation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene were tested in all possible pairwise combinations, as well as two published primers targeting the 23S rRNA gene. A panel of 150 strains including target an...

Lu?beck, P. S.; Wolffs, P.; On, S. L. W.; Ahrens, P.; Ra?dstro?m, P.; Hoorfar, J.

2003-01-01

58

The final steps towards an international standard for land administration:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) moved forward to the FDIS stage (FDIS = Final Draft International Standard): ISO FDIS 19152. This is the last stage before becoming an International Standard (expected in July 2012), after a four year standards development process within ISO/TC211 (Geographic Information) and six years of preparation within the FIG, while the original idea for such a standard was launched at the 2002 FIG congress in Washington D.C. This paper presents an overview...

Lemmen, C. H. J.; Uitermark, H. T.; Oosterom, P. J. M.

2012-01-01

59

EPR meeting international safety standards with margin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification in with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

60

International standardization in the field of environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is an international federation of national standards bodies. Its activities increasingly take health and environmental effects into account; in the future, standardization will also focus on identification systems that could facilitate recycling and proper disposal. Three technical committees in particular are concerned with standardization as it relates to air, water and soil quality. Other ISO work concerns product-oriented standardization, e.g. in the fields of fire protection equipment, refrigeration, thermal insulation, fibre-reinforced cement, and material and equipment used in the petroleum and natural gas industries. (author)

 
 
 
 
61

Universal Postal Union (UPU) International Postal Addressing Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Developing and maintaining an International Addressing Standard is an important prerequisite for effective postal operation and for interconnecting the global network. The Post, the end customers and the overall mailing community benefit from well defined addressing standards and the use of country-based templates. Adopting and using address standards leads to the following benefits: • Improves the value of mail as a means of communication • Provides for the efficient processing of intern...

Jones, Ruth; Lubenow, Joe

2008-01-01

62

International Financial Standards: Assessing Effectiveness from the Private Sector Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper investigates market participants’ endorsement of international financial standards. While the most part of scholarship works has focused on market incentives for states to comply, we shift the focus of the analysis to the incentives for market participants. Why do markets participants choose to follow through the standard and to incorporate states’ compliance with international standards in their investment decisions? In answering this question, the paper develops two hypotheses...

Moschella, Manuela

2009-01-01

63

International standards pertaining to thermography practices, training and certification  

Science.gov (United States)

American, European and International societies establish standards for individuals and companies within the field of infrared thermography. Historically addressing non-destructive testing (NDT) applications and personnel, standards exist and are being developed within the fields of condition monitoring (CM) and building diagnostics. Incorrect reference to or application of standards and guidelines create widespread market confusion. What type of claim can be made against which standards? Does the standard apply to a company or an individual? To what or whom is the standard intended? Does reference to a standard guarantee compliance or imply quality? How does one become educated or involved in standards? An overview of international standards within the field of thermography (with brief reference to recognizable guidelines and standards such as ASNT SNT-TC-1A and CEN 473), their status and application will be presented.

West Åkerblom, Lisa

2008-03-01

64

International Business Accounting Standardization and Hungarian Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. This paper showed that both businesses earnings and stock returns effect on the management turnover. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to adopt international accounting standards. Sensitivity of CEO turnover to accounting earnings increased after the adoption of international system. Businesses with higher leverage and lagged sales growth have more frequent employee layoffs. Standards user enterprises’ employee layoffs are more response to accounting performance in the post-adoption period.

Jeno Beke

2010-11-01

65

Business management by international accounting standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards - their contribution to harmonization and globalization by purposing and tasking for business management. The differences between the national accounting rules and the international standards are compared and valued inside and outside of the European Union. The empirical results of measuring and analyzing in details theirs pros and cons effects on the business environment by mathematical-statistical methods there could be ...

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

66

International Business Accounting Standardization and Hungarian Practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this study is to describe and summarize the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. This paper showed that both business...

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

67

Ensuring good governance to address emerging and re-emerging animal disease threats: supporting the veterinary services of developing countries to meet OIE international standards on quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

As an effect of increased globalisation, animal diseases, in particular those transmissible to man, have an immediate global economic and social impact. This fact, dramatically illustrated by the current avian influenza epizootic in South-East Asia and Eastern Europe, clearly demonstrates the crucial importance of the national Veterinary Services (VS) for the prevention, early detection and response for the efficient control of animal diseases. Complying with this mission for the VS presupposes the existence of appropriate governance and legislation and of an official system to control their quality and reliability- an obvious weakness in many developing and in transition countries. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has therefore developed a project aiming at strengthening the VS in those countries facing the greatest animal health threats and to bring them into line with OIE international standards already adopted by the same countries. Based on the evaluation of the VS and subsequent actions at the global, regional and national levels, the project will have a significant beneficial impact on the targeted countries as well as the international community as a whole, not only in the fields of agriculture, food security and production, and food safety, but also for the local and global prevention of emerging and re-emerging diseases of veterinary and public health importance. The project will be implemented in strong collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization. The actions proposed must be considered eligible for the concept of International Public Good. PMID:16796063

Vallat, B; Mallet, E

2006-04-01

68

Standards: An international framework for nuclear safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA, uniquely among international organizations concerned with the use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy, has statutory functions to establish safety standards and to provide for their application in Member States. The IAEA also contributes towards another major element of the 'global safety culture', namely the establishment of legally binding international agreements on safety related issues. (author)

69

Radiation protection for personnel in international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Electrotechnical Commission' (IEC) Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' of the IEC produces International Standards defining the requirements to which the instrumentation used for the radiation protection must satisfy. The compliance to these requirements is a guaranty of the quality of the instrument, of its good performance in the nuclear environment. Type testing equipment to the recommendations and requirements of the standards also provides the equipment user with reliable and internationally acceptable performance data which they can use for the accurate interpretation and comparisons of their operational measurements

70

Improved nuclear safety through international standards  

Science.gov (United States)

In this shrinking world, what happens in an industry in one country can significantly affect the same industry elsewhere around the globe. In April 1986, a nuclear accident destroyed Unit 4 of Ukraine's Chernobyl nuclear power plant, focusing worldwide attention on the dozens of Soviet-designed reactors still in operation. The Chemobyl accident led to public concerns about all operating nuclear power plants and, in some countries (e.g., Italy and Sweden), to proposals for nationwide plant closures or moratoriums on new construction. However, for most former Soviet Union countries, plant shutdown was and still is not a viable option—the plants produce a significant percentage of each nation's total electricity, and those countries do not have sufficient economic resources to develop alternative power sources. In cooperation with similar programs initiated in Canada, Japan, and western European countries, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive effort to reduce risks at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants until they can be shut down or brought into compliance with international standards. This paper describes DOE-supported initiatives with participating host countries to: • improve reliability and accuracy of nondestructive evaluation equipment used for in-service inspection • transfer technologies and infrastructure to improve in-service inspections • enhance management systems for training and certifying host-country in-service inspection personnel The goal of these initiatives to enhance the use of international standards (ASME, ASNT, European Standards EN, and ISO) in operating and regulatory practices at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants.

Doctor, S. R.; Moffitt, R. L.; Taylor, T. T.; Trosman, G.

2000-05-01

71

Improved nuclear safety through international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this shrinking world, what happens in an industry in one country can significantly affect the same industry elsewhere around the globe. In April 1986, a nuclear accident destroyed Unit 4 of Ukraine's Chernobyl nuclear power plant, focusing worldwide attention on the dozens of Soviet-designed reactors still in operation. The Chernobyl accident led to public concerns about all operating nuclear power plants and, in some countries (e.g., Italy and Sweden), to proposals for nationwide plant closures or moratoriums on new construction. However, for most former Soviet Union countries, plant shutdown was and still is not a viable option--the plants produce a significant percentage of each nation's total electricity, and those countries do not have sufficient economic resources to develop alternative power sources. In cooperation with similar programs initiated in Canada, Japan, and western European countries, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive effort to reduce risks at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants until they can be shut down or brought into compliance with international standards. This paper describes DOE-supported initiatives with participating host countries to: improve reliability and accuracy of nondestructive evaluation equipment used for in-service inspection transfer technologies and infrastructure to improve in-service inspections enhance management systems for training and certifying host-country in-service inspection person host-country in-service inspection personnel The goal of these initiatives to enhance the use of international standards (ASME, ASNT, European Standards EN, and ISO) in operating and regulatory practices at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants

72

Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standard...

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

73

Evaluation of uranium and plutonium internal standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two internal standards have been synthesized and evaluated for application in mass spectrometric analysis of uranium. Each standard is a mixture of highly enriched 233U and 236U. One is used to refine 235U/238U ratio measurements and the other for isotope dilution applications. An internal standard consisting of a mixture of 242Pu and 244Pu has been characterized for use in plutonium analyses. Precisions obtainable on pulse-counting instruments have been improved to about 0.1%. 21 refs., 13 tabs

74

International standards in mitigating trade risks.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards. PMID:21809769

Thiermann, A B

2011-04-01

75

Coordinate Standard Measurement Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Shelton Precision Interferometer Base, which is used for calibration of coordinate standards, was improved through hardware replacement, software geometry error correction, and reduction of vibration effects. Substantial increases in resolution and reliability, as well as reduction in sampling time, were achieved through hardware replacement; vibration effects were reduced substantially through modification of the machine component dampening and software routines; and the majority of the machine's geometry error was corrected through software geometry error correction. Because of these modifications, the uncertainty of coordinate standards calibrated on this device has been reduced dramatically.

Hanshaw, R.A.

2000-02-18

76

Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. The results of applied regression model support that the greater demand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to performance evaluations at more widely held by businesses stimulating to adopt international accounting standards. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to follow accounting standardization.Key words: Business practice; Accounting standards; Standardization process; Management performances; Comparable research; Hungary

Jeno Beke

2011-02-01

77

Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. The results of applied regression model support that the greater demand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to performance evaluations at more widely held by businesses stimulating to adopt international accounting standards. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to follow accounting standardization.
Key words: Business practice; Accounting standards; Standardization process; Management performances; Comparable research; Hungary

Jeno Beke

2010-12-01

78

The international development challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Markets are opening up to international competition and new opportunities will arise for companies. The first part of this international round table of the French gas association's annual conference was devoted to whether they have all necessary assets, especially in terms of know-how and new technologies. In the second part of this round table, gas industry leaders presented their ambitions and strategies on the international scene. The questions discussed related to the main areas of development from both business and geographic viewpoints; to the underlying factors such as expertise, technological know-how, market risks and potential, strategic alliances. (authors)

79

International thermal reactor development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The worldwide development of nuclear power plants is reviewed. Charts are presented which show the commitment to light-water reactor capacity construction with breakdown by region and country. Additional charts show the major nuclear research centers which have substantial scope in light water reactor development and extensive international activities

80

SHORT COMMUNICATION: Josephson Voltage Standard International Comparison  

Science.gov (United States)

An international voltage standard comparison has been carried out by six metrological laboratories using a Zener diode as the travelling voltage standard. The results show agreement within the uncertainty of the measurements: this is limited only by the stability of the Zener, which shows a very linear drift. The data present a residual standard deviation of 0,047 ?V from the linear regression fit for the 1,018 V output. This makes it possible to confirm the performance of the new 1V TPYCEA Josephson voltage standard.

López, M.; Camón, A.; Balmisa, J. M.; Coterón, M.; de la Court, P.; Erard, L.; Lo-Hive, J. P.; Genevès, G.; Grimm, L.; Lorenzo, L.; Pöpel, R.; Rillo, C.

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James\\'s Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents—Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups—Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media.

Mee, Blanaid

2013-02-19

82

Contributions of non-governmental international organizations to nuclear standardization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of over 4700 nuclear and radiation protection standards, laws, regulations, recommendations, etc., which have been issued by 52 countries and several governmental international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (OECD/NEA) or the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), or non-governmental organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International Commission on Radiation Units (ICRU), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), more than 90% are national, and more than one-half of those of a non-regulatory nature. Both the number and importance of international standards are, however, increasing. The two most important non-governmental international standards organizations are the ISO, which founded the Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'' with several subcommittees in 1957, and the closely associated IEC with its TC 45 ''Nuclear Instrumentation'' formed in 1966. There are over 20 member countries actively participating in the work in each of them, with additional observer countries and liaisons to the other relevant international organizations such as the IAEA. A brief review is given of some of the experience which has been gained by ISO/TC 85 and IEC/TC 45, and its work programme and accomplishments, considering, in particular, recent developments during the October r, recent developments during the October 1988 Plenary Meetings of both IEC/TC 45 and ISO/TC 85. The paper covers nuclear safety and instrumentation, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as interface issues including definitions and terminology, interaction of the activities with the work of other national and international organizations, etc. Some problem areas are also briefly discussed. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

83

Thirty years of international nuclear standards in ISO and IEC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of over 4700 nuclear and radiation protection standards, laws, regulations, recommendations, etc., which have been issued by 52 countries and several governmental international organizations such as IAEA, or non-government organizations such as ICRP, ICRU, ISO and IEC, more than 90% are national, and more than half of those of a non-regulatory nature. Both number and importance of international standards are, however, increasing. The two most important non-governmental international standards organizations are the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which founded a Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' with several Sub-Committees in 1957, and the closely associated International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) with its TC 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' formed in 1960. There are over 20 member countries actively participating in the work in each of them, with additional observer countries and liaison to the relevant other international organizations. A brief review is given on some of the experience which has been gained by ISO/TC 85 and IEC/TC 45, and its work program and accomplishments, considering in particular recent developments. It covers nuclear safety and instrumentation, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as interface issues including definitions and terminology, interaction of the activities with the work of other national and international bodies, etc. Some problem areas are also briefly discussed. (orig.)as are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

84

Minimum quality standards and international trade  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which a domestic and a foreign firm are identical except that the foreign firm faces positive transport costs. Asymmetric information generates a market failure, which the government attempts to alleviate with a MQS. It is found that although firms face the exact same costs of compliance, they will generally prefer different levels of regulation. As a result, international trade disputes are likely to arise even when regulation is non-discriminating.

Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

2011-01-01

85

The relationship between the new IIA Standards and the internal auditing profession  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Institute of Internal Auditors is in the process of developing new standards for the internal auditing profession. The first set of these standards will be implemented with effect from 1 January 2002. The purpose of professional standards is to lay down the minimum requirements to be maintained for acceptable practice. In June 1999, a new formal definition of internal auditing was adopted to address relevant issues with which internal auditing is currently faced. Existing standards, when ...

Coetzee, G. P.; Du Bruyn, Rudrik

2001-01-01

86

International Development Project Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This interdisciplinary classroom exercise from GreenApps at Red Rocks Community College presented by Mike Smith and Irina Strelnikova is designed for second year or experienced students in Water Quality technician programs. Each student is â??given insight into the needs for planning for an International Development project in water, wastewater, collection system, distribution system, or solid waste management.â?? Students are then required to pick from a list of locations to find development need and create a planning project. This site contains materials required, prerequisite skills necessary, and a breakdown of the activity by role.

Smith, Mike

87

An international effort towards developing standards for best practices in analysis, interpretation and reporting of clinical genome sequencing results in the CLARITY Challenge  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background : There is tremendous potential for genome sequencing to improve clinical diagnosis and care once it becomes routinely accessible, but this will require formalizing research methods into clinical best practices in the areas of sequence data generation, analysis, interpretation and reporting. The CLARITY Challenge was designed to spur convergence in methods for diagnosing genetic disease starting from clinical case history and genome sequencing data. DNA samples were obtained from three families with heritable genetic disorders and genomic sequence data were donated by sequencing platform vendors. The challenge was to analyze and interpret these data with the goals of identifying disease-causing variants and reporting the findings in a clinically useful format. Participating contestant groups were solicited broadly, and an independent panel of judges evaluated their performance. Results : A total of 30 international groups were engaged. The entries reveal a general convergence of practices on most elements of the analysis and interpretation process. However, even given this commonality of approach, only two groups identified the consensus candidate variants in all disease cases, demonstrating a need for consistent fine-tuning of the generally accepted methods. There was greater diversity of the final clinical report content and in the patient consenting process, demonstrating that these areas require additional exploration and standardization. Conclusions : The CLARITY Challenge provides a comprehensive assessment of current practices for using genome sequencing to diagnose and report genetic diseases. There is remarkable convergence in bioinformatic techniques, but medical interpretation and reporting are areas that require further development by many groups.

Brownstein, Catherine A; Beggs, Alan H

2014-01-01

88

The international basic safety standards (the BSS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA Safety Standard SS115: International Basic Safety Standards for the Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources was published in 1996. Following a review of the BSS in 2005-2006, the revision of SS115 started in 2007. The revision of the BSS was coordinated by a BSS Secretariat consisting of representatives of the IAEA, FAO, EC, ILO, UNEP, PAHO, WHO and NEA/OECD. The BSS takes into account the findings of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the 2007 recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP), the ICRP Statement on Radon that was issued in November 2009, and the ICRP Statement on Tissue Reactions that was released in May 2011. A draft of the revised BSS was submitted to the Member States of the IAEA and of the potential cosponsoring organizations in early 2010 for comment. More than 1500 comments were received. The BSS was approved by the IAEA Safety Standards Committees in late 2010, by the Commission on Safety Standards in May 2011, and by the IAEA Board of Governors on 12 September 2011. The presentation will focus on the main changes to the BSS from the 1996 edition, and on the key issues encountered during the revision of the BSS.

89

Standardization of 192Ir for international intercomparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: As a part of International Intercomparison Program of activity measurements organized by BIPM, France, NMIJ, Japan sent us an ampoule containing radioactive solution of 192Ir for standardization at BARC. The 192Ir radioactive solution was standardized on primary and secondary standards using 4??-? coincidence and 4??( counting technique respectively. The specific activity of the 192Ir solution as measured by efficiency extrapolation technique was scaled to 81.26 kBq/g. with an uncertainty of ±0.3%. The BARC results as reported to BIPM deviated by 0.21% from the arithmetic mean value of the scaled specific activity of all the participating laboratories. The BIPM scaled the results of the first set of participants by an arbitrary factor so that the other participants who have not communicated their results would not be influenced by these results. The detailed uncertainty budget for both the primary and secondary methods is also presented

90

Vietnamese Accounting Reform and International Convergence of Vietnamese Accounting Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the economic globalization, the international convergence of accounting standards is inevitable. But thelevel of economic globalization in among of countries are not the same. There are some differences inaccounting environment in the countries. This paper studies international convergence of Vietnamese accountingstandards. Firstly, the paper summarizes of the process of Vietnam's accounting reform, second analysisdifferences between Vietnamese accounting standards and International accounting standards. Finally, proposedstrategy convergence of Vietnamese accounting standards and International accounting standards.

AnhTuan Nguyen

2012-05-01

91

International Economic Development Council  

Science.gov (United States)

Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the International Economic Development Council (IEDC), was created through the merger of existing economic development organizations, effectively creating the nation's largest association working in this realm of public policy. The IEDC's mission is "to provide leadership and excellence in economic development for our communities, members and partners to build economically strong, sustainable communities." While some of the online materials are available only to association members, there is a good deal of material that may be accessed by the general public. Through the online resource center, visitors may access such materials as the Economic Developer's Reference Guide (which provides an overview of such key topics as tourism, venture capital, and empowerment zones) and an overview of ongoing legislative matters that may impact the landscape of economic development. Finally, the site is rounded out by an excellent section dedicated to brownfields redevelopment, which includes a general manual of redevelopment techniques and links to external websites, such as those offered by the Environmental Protection Agency.

92

Internationally Standardized Cost Item Definitions for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) have agreed to jointly prepare and publish a standardized list of cost items and related definitions for decommissioning projects. Such a standardized list would facilitate communication, promote uniformity, and avoid inconsistency or contradiction of results or conclusions of cost evaluations for decommissioning projects carried out for specific purposes by different groups. Additionally, a standardized structure would also be a useful tool for more effective cost management. This paper describes actual work and result thus far

93

[Addition internal standard method in chromatographic quantitative analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Internal standard method is a conventional chromatographic quantitative method which requires one or several internal standards added. The internal standard component must not be contained in the sample and need a good separation between the internal standard and sample components. In many cases selecting an internal standard is not convenient or even restricted by the seperation of components. In this paper, we try to combine the internal standard method and the addition method to form a new chromatographic quantitation method named addition internal standard method. The principles of addition internal standard method are suitable to not only chromatographic quantitation but also polarography etc. The related theory and foundation of the method are defined. The operation steps and the conditions suitable to the method are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of this method are explained in detail. PMID:12545448

Zheng, Y J; Kang, Y; Feng, Y Z; Zhang, R; Zhang, W B

2001-09-01

94

Internal Standards For FTIR Analysis Of Isocyanurates  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentration of isocyanurate in polyurethane foam measured. Quantitative analysis important because concentration of isocyanurate affects chemical and physical properties of foam, and correlations between concentration and properties used to optimize foam formulations. Use of potassium ferricyanide as internal standard extended to other infrared spectral analyses of solids in which quantitative results required. Eliminates need to know thickness of sample. Synthesis of triphenylisocyanurate extended to production of pure compounds from substituted phenylisocyanates added to test foam formulations to determine improvements in thermal properties with pure or substituted triphenylisocyanurate.

Solomon, William C.; Pratz, Earl; Smith, Doris A.

1993-01-01

95

Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Non halogen nannen cable no shiken hoho kaihatsu narabini cable kikaku no kento  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As for halogen-free flame-retardant cables with high recyclability and safety (HFFR cables), the development is being promoted in many countries as a next generation cable. The standard of HFFR cables has been set up by some countries and groups in the U.S. and Europe, but the international standard has not yet been established independently. The purpose of this R and D is the development of a test method to appropriately evaluate the performance of HFFR cables and its standardization, and the proposal of the international standardization on common items of the cable standard. A study group was sent to the U.S. and Europe to investigate the development, application status and test methods of the HFFR cable overseas. The ion chromatography and FT-IR method were studied as methods to evaluate corrosivity/toxicity of the gases emitted in combustion. The performance of HFFR cables in Japan and abroad was also evaluated mainly by IEC standards. Further, considering the results of the overseas surveys, the structure and details of the international standard plan on HFFR cables were studied, and approaches to the international standardization were studied. 32 refs., 31 figs., 54 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

96

International Development Association  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Development Association (IDA) is a program of the World bank, and since 1960 has aimed to help the very poorest countries, by "help[ing] people help themselves and their environment by providing resources, sharing knowledge, building capacity and forging partnerships in the public and private sectors." At the same time, the World Bank is working to engage in development that produces results, reform unsuccessful ways of operating, and secure capital resources. The most recent project, which visitors can find under "Projects & Operations" on the bottom half of the page, is additional funding of $326.775USD for construction of state feeder roads in Brazil. The project description, terms of the loan, and the contact at the World Bank are given. A recent project involving "Economic & Sector Work" is "Zambia - Impact Assessment of the Fertilizer Support Program: Analysis of Effectiveness and Efficiency". An official 87-page report on the project is available as a pdf file; related documents can also be found under the "Related Links" heading.

97

Russian seismic standards and demands for equipment and their conformity with international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principle regulations of standard documents concerning seismic safety of NPPs and demands for reactor equipment conformity with international standards are presented in this report. General state of NPP safety standards is reviewed, with a special emphasis on the state of seismic design standards for NPP equipment and piping. Russian standards documents on seismic resistance of NPPs and requirements are compared to international ones

98

International Standards on stability of digital prints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

Adelstein, Peter Z, E-mail: pzapph@rit.ed [Image Permanence Institute at Rochester Institute of Technology, 70 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

2010-06-01

99

International Standards on stability of digital prints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent uives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

100

NASA Occupant Protection Standards Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) occupant protection standards and requirements are based on extrapolations of biodynamic models, which were based on human tests performed under pre-Space Shuttle human flight programs where the occupants were in different suit and seat configurations than is expected for the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and Commercial Crew programs. As a result, there is limited statistical validity to the occupant protection standards. Furthermore, the current standards and requirements have not been validated in relevant spaceflight suit, seat configurations or loading conditions. The objectives of this study were to develop new standards and requirements for occupant protection and rigorously validate these new standards with sub-injurious human testing. To accomplish these objectives we began by determining which critical injuries NASA would like to protect for. We then defined the anthropomorphic test device (ATD) and the associated injury metrics of interest. Finally, we conducted a literature review of available data for the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint New Technology (THOR-NT) ATD to determine injury assessment reference values (IARV) to serve as a baseline for further development. To better understand NASA s environment, we propose conducting sub-injurious human testing in spaceflight seat and suit configurations with spaceflight dynamic loads, with a sufficiently high number of subjects to validate no injury during nominal landing loads. In addition to validate nominal loads, the THOR-NT ATD will be tested in the same conditions as the human volunteers, allowing correlation between human and ATD responses covering the Orion nominal landing environment and commercial vehicle expected nominal environments. All testing will be conducted without the suit and with the suit to ascertain the contribution of the suit to human and ATD responses. In addition to the testing campaign proposed, additional data analysis is proposed to mine existing human injury and response data from other sources, including military volunteer testing, automotive Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN), and IndyCar impact and injury data. These data sources can allow a better extrapolation of the ATD responses to off-nominal conditions above the nominal range that can safely be tested. These elements will be used to develop injury risk functions for each of the injury metrics measured from the ATD. These risk functions would serve as the basis for the NASA standards. Finally, we propose defining standard test methodology for evaluating future spacecraft designs against the IARVs, including developing a star-rating system to allow crew safety comparisons between vehicles.

Somers, Jeffrey T.; Gernhardt, Michael A.; Lawrence, Charles

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Standardization of information systems development processes and banking industry adaptations  

CERN Document Server

This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms of compliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards to determine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into system development and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected. Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classical Waterfall life cycle model. Each question is made up of guidance and suggestions from the international system development standards. To collect data, people from the information technology departments of three major banks in Turkey were interviewed. Results have been aggregated by examining the current process status of the three banks together. Problematic issues were identified using the international system development standards.

Tanrikulu, Zuhal

2011-01-01

102

Standardization of Information Systems Development Processes and Banking Industry Adaptations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms of compliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards to determine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into system development and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected. Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the cla...

Tuna Ozcer; Zuhal Tanrikulu

2011-01-01

103

International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography  

Science.gov (United States)

The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

2010-03-01

104

Views on the applicability of the internal audit standards and competencies for internal auditors : an African perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Through its Research Foundation, the Institute of Internal Auditors has engaged in various studies to develop a common body of knowledge for internal auditors. These results were reported on from a global perspective; however, local context also has an influence, and there are country-specific forces that influence the application of the International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing and the core competencies needed by internal auditors. Views expressed...

Steyn, B.; Barac, Karin; Motubatse, Kgobalale Nebbel; Plant, Kato

2013-01-01

105

Comparative proteomics based on global internal standard labeling technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concept of studying comparative proteomics through stable isotope labeling was evaluated in this research. The work described here started with the development of global internal standard technology (GIST) for quantification of relative changes in protein expression. The GIST protocol involved tryptic digestion of proteins from control and experimental samples followed by differential isotopic labeling of the resulting peptides with N-acetoxysuccinimide and N-acetoxy-2H3-succinimide separ...

Chakraborty, Asish B.

2002-01-01

106

Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)  

Science.gov (United States)

A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

2011-01-01

107

Development of standard reference samples for diffractometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, samples of standard reference materials for diffractometry of polycrystals were developed. High-purity materials were submitted to mechanical and thermal treatments in order to present the adequate properties to be used as high-quality standard reference materials for powder diffraction, comparable to the internationally recognized produced by the USA National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST, but at lower costs. The characterization of the standard materials was performed by measurements in conventional X-ray diffraction diffractometers, high resolution neutron diffraction and high-resolution synchrotron diffraction. The lattice parameters were calculated by extrapolation of the values obtained from each X-ray reflection against cos2? by the Least-Squares Method. The adjustments were compared to the values obtained by the Rietveld Method, using program GSAS. The materials thus obtained were the ?-alumina, yttrium oxide, silicon, cerium oxide, lanthanum hexaboride and lithium fluoride. The standard reference materials produced present quality similar or, in some cases, superior to the standard reference materials produced and commercialized by the NIST. (author)

108

75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice...proposals, committee action, public comment and...and publication of the standard. ICC's Standard...

2010-04-16

109

International implications of nuclear Q.A. standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work of the International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) in the field of Quality Assurance is aimed at preparing a Code of Practice covering recommendations on safety aspects only which is designed to be usable by all nations. This Code is followed up by a series of Safety Guides as aids to developing nations faced with the need to regulate and assure safety, reliability and quality. The I.A.E.A. Code is not written as a mandatory document and it can only recommend and therefore the term 'should' is used throughout. The International Organization for Standardization (I.S.O.) is concerned with producing standards and as such the proposed I.S.O. draft standard on 'Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants' is written in mandatory language, it uses the word 'shall'. The I.S.O. standard will also cover not only safety aspects but also those of a successfully operating nuclear power plant. The I.S.O. Working Group is charged with producing standards on quality assurance covering the design, procurement, fabrication, construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning of structure, systems and components of nuclear power plants. The work of both organizations is discussed briefly. (author)

110

Constitutionalism Without Governance : International Standards in the Afghan Legal System  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There has been a lot of attention in recent years about improving the quality of legal systems in overseas jurisdictions. This is reflected in the growing proportion of rule of law components in development assistance and, especially, in post-conflict stabilisation missions. External actors endeavour to strengthen the role of international legal standards in the courts and, more broadly, the political life of societies emerging from violent conflict. Virtually all stabilisation missions contain today important rule of law components, a shift in emphasis that is mirrored in bilateral financial assistance. The international engagement in Afghanistan since December 2001 has been no exception, having placed a heavy emphasis on introducing international legal norms into the Afghan legal and political system.

Afsah, Ebrahim

2012-01-01

111

25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for internal...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.42 What are the minimum internal control standards for...

2010-04-01

112

25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for internal...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.22 What are the minimum internal control standards for...

2010-04-01

113

25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for internal...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.32 What are the minimum internal control standards for...

2010-04-01

114

International safety standards for radioactive waste management and decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (the Agency) is mandated to develop safety standards for nuclear, radiation, waste and transport safety. With the entry into force of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, internationally endorsed safety standards for waste management safety and decommissioning take on a more significant role. The safety standards are made up of fundamental principles, applicable to all waste management activities and facilities, safety requirements for particular facilities and activities and safety guides on compliance with the requirements. Radioactive waste from all types of nuclear activities or applications needs to be managed safely in the period before it is finally disposed of. Experience exists in this area, and procedures for safe pre-disposal management are well established in most areas. Nevertheless, there are a number of safety related issues that require attention, namely, the processing of legacy waste, the safety implications of longer storage of radioactive waste when repositories are not available or are built in a way that allows waste retrieval, the need for improved characterization and quality assurance of waste, the adoption of holistic national strategies for waste management and the assessment and demonstration of safety of predisposal waste management activities and facilities. The Agency is establishing safety standards covering the activities and fty standards covering the activities and facilities of pre-disposal radioactive waste management in which these safety issues are being addressed. Recognising the developments taking place around the world in the area of geological disposal, the Member States of the Agency agreed that the process of developing safety standards for these facilities should be accelerated. The safety requirements for geological disposal are now published and guidance on compliance is under development. Effluent discharges have the potential to cause national and transboundary impacts on people and the environment, and it is therefore important that internationally agreed standards and procedures are in place to control them - guidance on radioactive discharge control, e.g. setting discharge limits and continuing review of national and international trends is under implementation. IAEA safety standards provide guidance reflecting prevailing best practice and coherent with contemporary radiation protection principles and IAEA safety requirements, on the strategy of monitoring in relation to: (a) control of radionuclide discharges under practice conditions, and (b) intervention. IAEA Standards on monitoring cover three categories of monitoring: monitoring at the source of the discharge (source monitoring), monitoring in the environment (environmental monitoring) and monitoring of individual exposure in emergencies (individual monitoring). General guidance is also provided on assessment of the doses to critical groups of the population due to the presence of radioactive materials or radiation fields in the environment both from practice and from intervention activities. Decommissioning of a wide range of facilities using radioactive material (from nuclear power plants to small research laboratories) is increasing worldwide. In view of the increasing importance of decommissioning in Member States, a specific high level safety standard (a Safety Requirement) has been developed on the safety of decommissioning that provides a focal point for the subject. Existing guidance is under review to ensure consistency with the new Safety Requirements. The paper elaborates on the safety standards for waste management and decommissioning, their development process and their role in the global nuclear safety regime. (author)

115

International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

116

Standardized interventions in international health: Procrustes, where are you now?  

Science.gov (United States)

Two opposing views on implementing interventions in international health are represented on the one hand by 'one size doesn't fit all' and on the other by the promotion of standard approaches. Successes in scaling up access to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment and access to antiretroviral therapy provide examples of the benefits of a standardized approach to disease management. These benefits may be extended to the management of the emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. An enthusiastic advocate of standardization, Procrustes (a figure in Greek mythology) went to extreme lengths but his tendencies can be a useful reminder that one size may not fit all, but does fit enough. PMID:19708901

Maher, Dermot

2009-10-01

117

On the Construction of China’s Accounting Standard System with International Convergence in Accounting Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the international convergence of accounting standards becoming an irresistible trend, China’s new businessaccounting standards have reached substantive convergence with International Financial Report Standards(IFRS. However, due to some factors including economy, law and culture, there is still a narrow gap betweenchina’s accounting standards and IFRS. In order to further keep up with IFRS, China should attach greaterimportance to learning from it to establish or implement its accounting standards.

Hongman Zhang

2010-03-01

118

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR RESEARCH INTEGRITY: AN IDEA WHOSE TIME HAS COME?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A movement to promulgate international ethics standards covering areas of conduct other than research with human subjects has now begun to gain momentum. This commentary explains why it is important to develop international research integrity standards and some of the problems that must be overcome to bring them to fruition.

Resnik, David B.

2009-01-01

119

The Inclusion of Standard Terms in International Sales Contracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it isnecessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be madeavailable to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems, namely that a clear incorporation clause in the contract is sufficient for the effective incorporation of standard terms. The author critically examines the case law, the various approaches and the underlying arguments on which they are based, before reaching the conclusion that the two extreme approaches should be rejected in favour of the more moderate approach. This approach is founded on aproper interpretation of the provisions of the CISG as well as being in step with international trade practice.

S Eiselen

2011-04-01

120

International Standardization of the Clinical Dosimetry of Beta Radiation Brachytherapy Sources: Progress of an ISO Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2004 a new work item proposal (NWIP) was accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 85 (TC85 -- Nuclear Energy), Subcommittee 2 (Radiation Protection) for the development of a standard for the clinical dosimetry of beta radiation sources used for brachytherapy. To develop this standard, a new Working Group (WG 22 - Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry and Protocols in Medical Applications) was formed. The standard is based on the work of an ad-hoc working group initiated by the Dosimetry task group of the Deutsches Insitiut für Normung (DIN). Initially the work was geared mainly towards the needs of intravascular brachytherapy, but with the decline of this application, more focus has been placed on the challenges of accurate dosimetry for the concave eye plaques used to treat ocular melanoma. Guidance is given for dosimetry formalisms, reference data to be used, calibrations, measurement methods, modeling, uncertainty determinations, treatment planning and reporting, and clinical quality control. The document is currently undergoing review by the ISO member bodies for acceptance as a Committee Draft (CD) with publication of the final standard expected by 2007. There are opportunities for other ISO standards for medical dosimetry within the framework of WG22.

Soares, Christopher

2006-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

On the Construction of China’s Accounting Standard System with International Convergence in Accounting Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the international convergence of accounting standards becoming an irresistible trend, China’s new businessaccounting standards have reached substantive convergence with International Financial Report Standards(IFRS). However, due to some factors including economy, law and culture, there is still a narrow gap betweenchina’s accounting standards and IFRS. In order to further keep up with IFRS, China should attach greaterimportance to learning from it to establis...

Hongman Zhang; Xianfeng Liu

2010-01-01

122

International comparison of standard-materials. 4. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present manual the metallic materials standardized in the highly developed industrial countries of the world and by regional and international standards bodies are compared with the German materials standardized in DIN or the Steel Iron Material Sheets (StEWb1.). The indication of chemical composition and mechanical properties also allows to compare materials of other countries with one another, even if the categories of equivalence indicated only refer to the basis of the German materials. Through a comprehensive list of all short designations or steel grades indicating the corresponding pages and the relevant standards, a quik identificatin of material indications in the drawings is possible. Where the information contained in this manual about the individual materials is not sufficient, it will be possible to procure the corresponding material standard. This issue contains the material groups steel and iron for the applications in automobile, machinery, equipment and vessel production, in the electrical and chemical industries. Boiler plates (plates and strips in heat-resisting steel) according to DIN 17155 have not been dealt with, because the comparability does not dependend on the physical properties e.g. tensile strength, welding performance, bending strength brittle fracture behaviour etc., but additional instructions for equipment to be supervised have to be observed (in Germany, these are TRD, TRG and TRB). (orig./MM)rig./MM)

123

Radiation protection standards: Their development and current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discusses basic standards for radiological protection, the practical application of standards, current issues, and future developments. The last few years have seen a major review of the basic standards for radiation protection as well as the introduction in many countries of new legislation laying down standards with regard to practices giving rise to radiation exposure, particularly that of electricity production from nuclear power. Topics covered include the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation effects and risk estimates, dose limits for occupational exposure, dose limits for individual members of the public, cost-benefit analysis, exposure of populations, the control of internal exposure, monitoring of exposures, the role of international bodies other than ICRP, and national standards. A glossary of dosimetric quantities and units is provided

124

Interrogating Identity: The International Standard School in Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the impact of the International Standard School (ISS) on the identity of Indonesia as a postcolonial nation. According to the Indonesian Ministry of National Education, an ISS is "a school which complies with the National Standard of Education and enriches its standards from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

Sakhiyya, Zulfa

2011-01-01

125

SPOTS project and development of a standard and reference material  

Science.gov (United States)

The ‘Standardization Project for Optical Techniques of Strain measurement’ (SPOTS) was focused on the development of reference materials for calibrating optical systems for static strain measurement and standardized tests for evaluating the capabilities of such systems. The reference material consists of a beam in four-point bending within a monolithic frame that ensures reproducibility of the boundary and loading conditions. A procedure for the use of the reference material has been developed and leads to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties that allow the construction of confidence limits for the data obtained with the calibrated optical system. The design and methodology have been developed into a proposed draft standard which is being endorsed by VAMAS (Versailles Agreement on Materials And Standards) for review by ISO (International Standards Organisation). An overview of philosophy underpinning the proposed draft standard is presented and serves as an introduction to the reference material and standardized test and their use in providing higher confidence in optical measurements of strain.

Burguete, R.; Patterson, E.

2010-06-01

126

CSNI International standard problems (ISP). Brief descriptions (1975-1999)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last twenty-five years the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored a considerable number of international activities to promote the exchange of experience between its Member countries in the use of nuclear safety codes and testing materials. A primary goal of these activities is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. International Standard Problems (ISPs) exercises are comparative exercises in which predictions or recalculations of a given physical problem with different best-estimate computer code are compared with each other and above all with the results of a carefully specified experimental study. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. In an open Standard Problem exercise the results of the experiment are available to the participants before performing the calculations, while in a blind Standard Problem exercise the experimental results are locked until the calculation results are made available for comparison. The CSNI-promoted ISP activity started in the early 70's and is still underway. Parallel to other national and international programs the CSNI has sponsored over more than 25 years forty-seven International Standard Problem exercises. This program has been focused mainly on the applicability of large thermal-hydraulic code systems simulating the behaviour of nuclear coolant and containment systems, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, hydrogen distribution, core-concrete interactions and fission product release and transport. One ISP exercise was organised in connection with a seismic ultimate dynamic response test. ISP exercises have proven to be very valuable to participating countries. They have been fruitful to identify code application problems and to amplify the contacts between the experimental and analytical working communities on an international level. Moreover, they enable code users to improve their ability, gain experience and demonstrate their competence. Technical proposals originating from laboratories in 13 countries were submitted and adopted serving as experimental background for the international activity. An activity complementary to the ISP programme but not directly related to it is the establishment of comprehensive sets of experimental data for use in validating proper code application by experts other than code developers. Known as a Code Validation Matrix, the results of such an extensive list of experiments are collected and stored in the NEA Data Bank for the purpose that they be made available to Member countries wishing to validate relevant codes. ISP tests are important elements of validation matrices for thermal-hydraulic codes. In the field of containment behaviour it has been recommended to preferably base a general code validation matrix on containment-related ISPs as well. The way of organizing ISP exercises has been described in CSNI Report No. 17, CSNI Standard Problem Procedures, revised for the third time in November 1989. The following report in some detail summarises the main objectives, the underlying experimental background and the main findings and conclusions of the ISPs to provide interested groups an overview on the accumulated experience in this matter. The document, which has been reviewed by members of CSNI's Principal Working on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2) and Principal Working on Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases (PWG4), summarises systematically the main features of all International Standard Problem exercises organised so far, from ISP-1 to ISP-43, namely: - Objectives of the ISP; - Brief Description of the Facility; - Scaling Information; - Parameters Offered for Comparison; - Dominating Experimental Uncertainties; - Findings; - Recommendations; - Total Duration of the ISP exercise; - Participation; - CSNI Report Reference

127

Internal standard versus external standard calibration: an uncertainty case study of a liquid chromatography analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally, in the cigarettes industry, the determination of ammonium ion in the mainstream smoke is performed by ion chromatography. This work studies this determination and compares the results of this technique with the use of external and internal standard calibration. A reference cigarette sample presented measurement uncertainty of 2.0 ?g/cigarette and 1.5 ?g/cigarette, with external and internal standard, respectively. It is observed that the greatest source of uncertainty is the bias correction factor and that it is even more significant when using external standard, confirming thus the importance of internal standardization for this correction.

Elcio Cruz de Oliveira

2010-01-01

128

International evaluation of neutron cross-section standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron cross-section standards are important in the valid measurement and evaluation of all other neutron reaction cross-sections. Not many cross-sections can be defined as absolute - most cross-sections are measured relative to the cross-section standards for normalization to absolute values. Previous evaluations of the neutron cross-section standards were completed in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B standards. R matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least squares fits for the heavy elements were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross-sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The experimental database prepared by Poenitz included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. GMA is a least squares code developed by Poenitz to fit all types of cross section (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum averaged cross-sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. Unfortunately, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987.ase in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by experts for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross-section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise experimental data and developments in the methodology of analysis and evaluation. An IAEA consultants meeting was held in 2001 to consider the major tasks to be undertaken in order to improve the 1987 standards evaluation. The recommendation to formulate an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) entitled Improvement of Standards Cross-Sections for Light Elements was strongly endorsed by the International Nuclear Data Committee (technical advisory body to the IAEA), and this project was initiated in 2002. The main objective was to study and determine the reasons leading to the significant reduction in the uncertainties as derived by the R matrix model fits of the data. Three research coordination meetings were held between 2002 and 2004, and the scope of the CRP was substantially extended through debate in 2003 with the inclusion of tasks to evaluate the cross-section standards for heavy elements. The evaluations of the neutron cross-section standards were finalized in October 2005. Previous difficulties experienced with a data evaluation problem known as Peelle's pertinent puzzle create biases in the fit of correlated data, and have been addressed to reduce this phenomenon. The new evaluations of the cross-section standards also include covariance matrices of the uncertainties that contain fully justifiable values. Significant contributions to the experimental database were made by participants of Subgroup 7 of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation WPEC). Furthermore, the evaluations could not have been carried out without access to the original GMA database and related computer codes given to the IAEA by the US Cross Section Evaluation Working Group CSEWG). The IAEA officer responsible for this report was A.L. Nichols of the Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences

129

Nuclear reactor instrumentation. Survey of standards. International recommendations' validity as Swedish standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This standard gives a survey of norms for nuclear reactor instrumentation. It includes: 1. International recommendations published by International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC, valid as Swedish standard. The recommendations have not been translated into Swedish, but are available in English and French in teh IEC publications. 2. Information on other norms. Listed are standards on nuclear reactor instrumentation in general and instrumentation for BWR-, PWR- and gas cooled graphitemoderated reactors. (K.K.)

130

International standard problem 50: The university of Pisa contribution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present paper deals with the participation of the University of Pisa in the last International Standard Problem (ISP) focused on system thermal hydraulic, which was led by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institution (KAERI). The selected test was a Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) line break carried out at the ATLAS facility. University of Pisa participated, together with other eighteen institutions, in both blind and open phase of the analytical exercise pursuing its methodology for developing and qualifying a nodalization. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the code results have been performed for both ISP-50 phases, the latter adopting the Fast Fourier Transfer Based Method (FFTBM). The experiment has been characterized by three dimensional behavior in downcomer and core region. Even though an attempt to reproduce these phenomena, by developing a fictitious three-dimensional nodalization has been realized, the obtained results were generally acceptable but not fully satisfactory in replicating 3D behavior.

Cherubini, Marco; Lazzerini, Davide; Giannotti, Walter; D' auria, Francesco [University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

2012-08-15

131

International standard problem 50: The university of Pisa contribution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper deals with the participation of the University of Pisa in the last International Standard Problem (ISP) focused on system thermal hydraulic, which was led by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institution (KAERI). The selected test was a Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) line break carried out at the ATLAS facility. University of Pisa participated, together with other eighteen institutions, in both blind and open phase of the analytical exercise pursuing its methodology for developing and qualifying a nodalization. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the code results have been performed for both ISP-50 phases, the latter adopting the Fast Fourier Transfer Based Method (FFTBM). The experiment has been characterized by three dimensional behavior in downcomer and core region. Even though an attempt to reproduce these phenomena, by developing a fictitious three-dimensional nodalization has been realized, the obtained results were generally acceptable but not fully satisfactory in replicating 3D behavior.

132

Development of strategies and sustainability standards for the certification of internationally traded biomass. Final report; Entwicklung von Strategien und Nachhaltigkeitsstandards zur Zertifizierung von Biomasse fuer den internationalen Handel. Zusammenfassender Endbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increased production of renewable raw materials for bioenergy and bio-materials needed to meet the ambitious targets of Germany, the EU and other countries implies tradeoffs which could oppose sustainability requirements. The project worked out the scientific base of and developed proposals for sustainability requirements for biomass and their implementation on national, European and global levels, in dialogue with relevant actors and provided inputs into respective processes. For that, discussions with experts from more than 20 countries were held, international networks created and extended, and political decision-makers supported. Besides answers to strategic questions, the issues focused on were greenhouse gas balances (calculation of GHG emissions from direct and indirect land use changes), biodiversity (a globally applicable risk minimization strategy was developed and tested in Brazil, China and South Africa for degraded lands), water scarcity and water quality (requirements for biomass cultivation were developed). The majority of project results was successfully implemented in legal and standardization processes (e.g., German Sustainability Ordinances for bioenergy, EU renewable energy directive, European Committee for Standardization, Global Bioenergy Partnership) and both scientific and environmental and development questions were discussed with - not only governmental - actors. The next steps should be the extension of the approaches developed to other biomass (especially for material use) and the critical review of the further implementation. (orig.)

Fritsche, Uwe R.; Hennenberg, Klaus J.; Hermann, Andreas; Huenecke, Katja; Herrera, Rocio [Oeko-Institut (Institut fuer angewandte Oekologie e.V.), Darmstadt (Germany); Fehrenbach, Horst; Roth, Elvira; Hennecke, Anna; Giegrich, Juergen [IFEU (Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung) gGmbh, Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-11-15

133

AUDIT OF FINANCIAL REPORTS, BASED ON INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article are given main notion about international standard of financial reporting, order of the auditing on the base of IFRS, scheduling the report of the auditor, auditor conclusions and are given analysis of reporting based on the auditor procedures. At the audit of financial reporting are taken into account international standard to financial reporting 29 "Financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies".

Islom Kuziev

2013-09-01

134

The International Urban Development Association  

Science.gov (United States)

Established in 1974 in Paris, The International Urban Development Association (INTA) is an international network that "encourages the exchange of information, experiences and best practices on urban development and renewal across the world." The site's homepage offers access to the three sections that will be of greatest interest to most visitors, namely "Forum", "Services", and "Institute". In the "Forum" area, visitors can review documents from various meetings and congresses that have looked at the redevelopment of public urban spaces, heritage development, and cross-border cooperation in the Caucasian region. The "Services" area contains commentaries by urban experts on proposed urban development plans, such as the proposed master plan for two sport sites in northeastern Paris and a regeneration scheme for the city of Nador in Morocco. Finally, the "Institute" section brings together documents from seminars and conferences held by INTA, such as those that have dealt with urban-based sports complexes and the competitive advantages of urban regions.

135

Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of communication interface for open robots in production system; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Seisan system nado ni okeru open robot yo tsushin interface no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to realize the open use between robot controllers and personal computers on the communication level, R and D has been performed on the standard API required for structuring the applications to use robot information on the personal computers. A draft of the international standard was prepared. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. The current fiscal year has executed improvements on the standard API software, as well as the demonstration tests. The following achievements were obtained: problems in practical use based on the demonstration tests of RAO ver. 0.5 were extracted and rectified; the standard API (Ver0.9) given additional functions including file transfer was developed; the specifications for the standard API (Ver1.0) were compiled based on the result of discussions on the major application functions; as a result of the demonstration test on reliability of the standard API (Ver0.9), performances were verified when the API is connected under different structural and using conditions; and a resolution was made at the ISO/TC184/SC2 international conference that 'continuation is encouraged on the present R and D expected as a proposal for the new work items'. (NEDO)

NONE

2001-03-01

136

International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

137

International Migration, Remittances and Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing remittance flows to the labor sending developing countries in recent years have generated huge optimism in the contemporary development discourse about the possibility of development at the grassroots levels which has been an overwhelming challenge for the development actors for decades. However, the realization of such potential proves difficult due to a lack of common understanding of the phenomenon of labor migration and its causes and consequences. This study focuses on the existing literature on international labor migration, its causes and consequences with a view to identify a common line of theorizing about the issue in question. 

Hasan Mahmud

2009-02-01

138

Vietnamese Accounting Reform and International Convergence of Vietnamese Accounting Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the economic globalization, the international convergence of accounting standards is inevitable. But thelevel of economic globalization in among of countries are not the same. There are some differences inaccounting environment in the countries. This paper studies international convergence of Vietnamese accountingstandards. Firstly, the paper summarizes of the process of Vietnam's accounting reform, second analysisdifferences between Vietnamese accounting sta...

AnhTuan Nguyen; Guangming Gong

2012-01-01

139

The main requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main requirements of the new international basic safety standards are discussed, including such topics as health effects of ionizing radiations, the revision of basic safety standards, the requirements for radiation protection practices, the requirements for intervention,and the field of regulatory infrastructures. (A.K.)

140

[Vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane: classification and assessment of carcinogenicity, guidelines, threshold values, and standards developed by national and international entities, organizations, and agencies].  

Science.gov (United States)

International, national and regulatory classification, evaluation, guidelines and occupational exposure values regarding vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane, carried out by European Union (EU). Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), World Health Organization (WHO), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and other institutions, have been considered with particular reference to the carcinogenic effects. Moreover information is reported in support of classification and evaluation and a short historical review since early 1970s, when first evidence that occupational exposure to VC could lead to angiosarcoma was published. PMID:11296535

Binetti, R; Costamagna, F M; Marcello, I

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

International standard problem for consequence modeling: results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The standard problem consists of a series of calculations designed to allow a step-by-step comparison of individual model components as well as consequence and risk estimates. Detailed data describing a hypothetical site and several hypothetical accident releases were provided. Seven problems were defined to compare submodels for atmospheric dispersion, dosimetry, health effects and land contamination, and the consequence frequency distributions calculated for a specific site both with and without emergency response. Examples of results and preliminary observations from the study are presented

142

77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New...

2012-06-21

143

Ensuring global standards for medical graduates: a pilot study of international standard-setting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing physician and patient mobility has led to a move toward internationalization of standards for physician competence. The Institute for International Medical Education proposed a set of outcome-based standards for student performance, which were then measured using three assessment tools in eight leading schools in China: a 150-item multiple-choice examination, a 15-station OSCE and a 16-item faculty observation form. The purpose of this study was to empanel a group of experts to determine whether international student-level performance standards could be set. The IIME convened an international panel of experts in student education with specialty and geographic diversity. The group was split into two, with each sub-group establishing standards independently. After a discussion of the borderline student, the sub-groups established minimally acceptable cut-off scores for performance on the multiple-choice examination (Angoff and Hofstee methods), the OSCE station and global rating performance (modified Angoff method and holistic criterion reference), and faculty observation domains (holistic criterion reference). Panelists within each group set very similar standards for performance. In addition, the two independent parallel panels generated nearly identical performance standards. Cut-off scores changed little before and after being shown pilot data but standard deviations diminished. International experts agreed on a minimum set of competences for medical student performance. In addition, they were able to set consistent performance standards with multiple examination types. This provides an initial basis against which to compare physician performance internationally. PMID:16011943

Stern, David T; Ben-David, Miriam Friedman; De Champlain, Andre; Hodges, Brian; Wojtczak, Andrzej; Schwarz, M Roy

2005-05-01

144

25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

...standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? 542.42 Section 542.42 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? (a) Internal...

2010-04-01

145

25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

...standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? 542.22 Section 542.22 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? (a) Internal...

2010-04-01

146

25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

...standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? 542.32 Section 542.32 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? (a) Internal...

2010-04-01

147

Internal standard versus external standard calibration: an uncertainty case study of a liquid chromatography analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditionally, in the cigarettes industry, the determination of ammonium ion in the mainstream smoke is performed by ion chromatography. This work studies this determination and compares the results of this technique with the use of external and internal standard calibration. A reference cigarette sample presented measurement uncertainty of 2.0 ?g/cigarette and 1.5 ?g/cigarette, with external and internal standard, respectively. It is observed that the greatest source of uncertainty...

Elcio Cruz de Oliveira; Muller, Edson I.; Fernanda Abad; Juliana Dallarosa; Cristine Adriano

2010-01-01

148

Nuclear instruments. Survey of standards. International recommendations' validity as Swedish standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This standard gives a survey of norms for nuclear measuring instruments beta-, gamma- and x-radiation. Included are: 1. Normes in Swedish. 2. International recommendations published by the International Electrotechnical commission, IEC, which are valid as Swedish standards Translations into Swedish of these recommendations do not exist, but they are available in English and French in the IEC publications. 3. Information on other norms. (K.K.)

149

The Operating Islamic Banks in Jordan Applying the International Internal Auditing Standards (IIA's  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aimed at identifying the operating Islamic banks in Jordan applying the international internal auditing standards, which are (4 banks. A questionnaire was designed for this purpose and distributed to internal auditors and un-executive board of directors members considered members of the Audit Committee in each bank, the number of questionnaires which were subjected to analysis were (35, resolution data was analyzed using (SPSS, and a number of statistical means through descriptive statistics, arithmetic means, standard deviations, and percentages. The study found that Islamic banks are applying international standards of internal audit in general. Qualities standards were the most applied, and then implementation standards in a high degree, while the performance standards do not apply in these banks, also there are some difficulties that limit the application, but moderately. The study recommends increasing the work on applying internal auditing standards on Islamic banks operating in Jordan, in particular standards of performance which brings together the efficiency and effectiveness of internal audit and contributes to improved risk management and creates additional value for those banks.

Jamal Adel Al-Sharairi

2012-01-01

150

International Developments of Food Irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

1997-12-31

151

International Developments of Food Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940's: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950's: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960's: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970's: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980's: establishment of national regulations; 1990's: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

152

CONVERGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL AUDIT STANDARDS AND AMERICAN AUDIT STANDARDS REGARDING SAMPLING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Sampling is widely used in market research, scientific analysis, market analysis, opinion polls and not least in the financial statement audit. We wonder what is actually sampling and how did it appear? Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Nowadays the technique is indispensable, the economic entities operating with sophisticated computer systems and large amounts of data. Economic globalization and complexity of capital markets has made possible not only the harmonization of international accounting standards with the national ones, but also the convergence of international accounting and auditing standards with the American regulations. International Standard on Auditing 530 and Statement on Auditing Standard 39 are the two main international and American normalized referentials referring to audit sampling. This article discusses the origin of audit sampling, mentioning a brief history of the method and different definitions from literature review. The two standards are studied using Jaccard indicators in terms of the degree of similarity and dissimilarity concerning different issues. The Jaccard coefficient measures the degree of convergence of international auditing standards (ISA 530 and U.S. auditing standards (SAS 39. International auditing standards and American auditing standards, study the sampling problem, both regulations presenting common points with regard to accepted sampling techniques, factors influencing the audit sample, treatment of identified misstatements and the circumstances in which sampling is appropriate. The study shows that both standards agree on application of statistical and non-statistical sampling in auditing, that sampling is appropriate for tests of details and controls, the factors affecting audit sampling being audit risk, audit objectives and population\\'s characteristics.

Chis Anca Oana

2013-07-01

153

Standards development for the nuclear industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ushering of nuclear era in the Philippines with the construction of the PNPP-I (Philippine Nuclear Power Plant) necessitates the evolvement and use of nuclear standards as a tool for safety evaluation in the licensing process. The Department of Nuclear Regulation and Safeguards under the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission has as one of its responsibilities the establishment of regulatory standards to ensure safe operation of nuclear facilities. This article points out the needs for nuclear standards and the steps in standard development which involve an enormous amount of resources in terms of manpower, expertise and money. The staff of the Department of Nuclear Regulations and Safeguards (DNRS) does not intend to engage in the original development of standards; rather, it reviews standards in use elsewhere, specifically in the U.S. and adopts to local conditions. (author)

154

Developments in international bioenergy trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, imported biomass contributes already significantly (between 21% and 43%) to total biomass use. Wood pellets are currently exported by Canada, Finland and (to a small extent) Brazil and Norway, and imported by Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK. In the Netherlands and Belgium, pellet imports nowadays contribute to a major share to total renewable electricity production. Trade in bio-ethanol is another example of a rapidly growing international market. With the EU-wide target of 5.75% biofuels for transportation in 2010 (and 10% in 2020), exports from Brazil and other countries to Europe are likely to rise as well. Major drivers for international bioenergy trade in general are the large resource potentials and relatively low production costs in producing countries such as Canada and Brazil, and high fossil fuel prices and various policy incentives to stimulate biomass use in importing countries. However, the logistic infrastructure both in exporting and importing countries needs to be developed to access larger physical biomass volumes and to reach other (i.e. smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded . smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded that international bioenergy trade is growing rapidly, far beyond what was deemed possible only a few years ago, and may in the future in some Task 40 countries surpass domestic biomass use, especially for specific applications (e.g. transport fuels). (author)

155

International standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM), publication No. 15  

CERN Multimedia

GUIDELINES FOR REGULATING WOOD PACKAGING MATERIAL IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE SCOPE This standard describes phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests associated with wood packaging material (including dunnage), made of coniferous and non-coniferous raw wood, in use in international trade. For more information, contact the Shipping Service (FI-LS-SH) at 79947. Table of guidelines

Tom Wegelius

2006-01-01

156

International migration: security concerns and human rights standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last two decades, the reinforcement of security-related migration policies has resulted in the perception of the foreigner, and especially the irregular migrant, as a category outside the circle of legality. The rights of foreigners in host countries have deteriorated due to the connection made between immigration and criminality. Restrictions imposed upon irregular migrants' basic political and civil rights have been accompanied by major obstacles to their access to economic and social rights, including the right to health. The events of 9/11 further contributed to this trend, which contradicts the basic premises of the human rights paradigm. Recent policy developments and ongoing international cooperation implementing systematic interception and interdiction mechanisms have led to the securitization of migration. The preventive and deterrent measures reinforce the security paradigm. By contrast, various national and international actors have been successful in defending irregular migrants' rights. At the domestic level, the involvement of the judiciary and civil society enhances the rights-based approach to foreigners. The role of judges is vital in holding policy-makers accountable for respecting the high national standards of human rights protection. This article elaborates on the dichotomy between the state's legitimate interest to ensure national security, and its domestic and international obligations to protect human rights for all, including irregular migrants. It focuses on the changing relationship between migration and security, on the one hand, and between state and individual, on the other hand. It affirms the necessity to recognize the pre-eminence of fundamental rights upon security concerns. PMID:17938150

Crépeau, François; Nakache, Delphine; Atak, Idil

2007-09-01

157

The adequacy, use and compliance with internal auditing standards – South African perceptions in comparison with other specific regions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article focusses on determining the adequacy of the International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing (Standards) for use in South Africa, as well as examining how local entities comply with the Standards as compared to those in other specific regions, from both emerging economies and developed economies. Data used in this article’s analysis, interpretation, and comparisons comes from the USA-based Institute of Internal Auditors Research Foundation?...

Erasmus, L. J.; Steyn, L. J.; Fourie, Houdini; Coetzee, G. P.

2013-01-01

158

Science initiative for international development  

Science.gov (United States)

A new initiative to use science to address global development challenges was launched by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) on 7 July. Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (PEER) will capitalize on competitively awarded investments to support and build scientific and technical capacity in the developing world, according to the agencies. USAID has allocated $7 million for PEER, which the agencies indicate could leverage an additional $25-50 million in NSFfunded research at U.S. institutions to focus on issues including climate change, disaster mitigation, water, renewable energy, and food security. The program is beginning with six pilot programs in Asia and Africa, including fostering a Bangladeshi seismological community, studying the impacts of land use on biodiversity dynamics in Burkina Faso, and examining climate change and integrated resource management around Agougou Natural Pond in Mali.

Showstack, Randy

2011-07-01

159

Internal standard versus external standard calibration: an uncertainty case study of a liquid chromatography analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Traditionally, in the cigarettes industry, the determination of ammonium ion in the mainstream smoke is performed by ion chromatography. This work studies this determination and compares the results of this technique with the use of external and internal standard calibration. A reference cigarette s [...] ample presented measurement uncertainty of 2.0 ?g/cigarette and 1.5 ?g/cigarette, with external and internal standard, respectively. It is observed that the greatest source of uncertainty is the bias correction factor and that it is even more significant when using external standard, confirming thus the importance of internal standardization for this correction.

Elcio Cruz de, Oliveira; Edson I., Muller; Fernanda, Abad; Juliana, Dallarosa; Cristine, Adriano.

160

Constructing Harmonious Development between International Trade and Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are many disharmonies with the development of international trade, which concentrates on trade comparative advantages, lagged trade standards, processing trade and international industry transferring. The disharmonies result from conflicts between endless demands of economic resources and limited natural resources. In addition, low environment cost and lagged environment standards deteriorate the nature. China should remove the over-consuming resources and environmental damage in the co...

Xin Zhao; Suxia Liu; Xiaoyin He

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

International Accounting Standards and Changes in Accounting Terminology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The language of accounting is subject to continuous change. One of the reasons for a change in terminology is the introduction of new legal requirements that bring about a change in the underlying concepts and therefore the need for new specific terms. Such a situation was created by the Regulation (EC) No. 1606/2002 on the application of international accounting standards (IAS). This regulation aims at harmonising ac-counting standards and procedures relating to the preparation and presentat...

Edelmann, Gerhard

2010-01-01

162

Evaluation of information in nanomaterial safety data sheets and development of international standard for guidance on preparation of nanomaterial safety data sheets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Safety data sheets (SDSs) and labelling are the basic hazard communication tools for hazardous chemicals as regards their manufacture, storage, transport and other handling activities. Thus, in the context of the growing use of nanomaterials and nanomaterial-containing materials, this study evaluated the information provided in 97 nanomaterial-related SDSs according to the criteria set by the GHS (Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals) and found that most of the SDSs did not include sufficient information on the safety of nanomaterials, such as their toxicity and physicochemical properties. The reasons for this lack of information in the nanomaterial SDSs can mainly be attributed to (1) a lack of toxicity and physicochemical property information on nanomaterials, (2) unawareness of the effectiveness of conventional exposure controls, such as local exhaust ventilation and encapsulation, and personal protective equipment (PPE), in protecting against nanomaterial exposure, (3) a lack of information on emergency and firefighting measures and (4) a lack of knowledge on how existing regulations apply to nanomaterials. Therefore, to create a consistent standard for the information provided on safety, health and environmental matters for manufactured nanomaterial-containing products, guidance for the preparation of nanomaterial-specific SDSs, including both nanomaterials and mixtures of nanomaterials with conventional non-nanoscale materials, was recently initiated by the ISO TC 229. Their guidance, in the form of a technical report, recommends that nanomaterial-related SDSs should be prepared based on a precautionary approach in terms of the toxicity and other risks associated with the nanomaterial contents within the mixture in question. One of the key recommendations in the technical report is to include additional physicochemical properties, including the particle size (average and range), size distribution aggregation/agglomeration state, shape and aspect ratio, crystallinity, specific surface area, dispersibility and dustiness, which help to distinguish the characteristics of nanomaterials from those of non-nanoscale materials. The technical report also recommends the preparation of SDSs for all nanomaterials and mixtures that meet the GHS criteria for physical, health or environmental hazards, and for all mixtures containing nanomaterials that meet the criteria for carcinogenic, toxic to reproduction or specific target organ toxicity in concentrations exceeding the cut-off limits for an SDS specified by the criteria for mixtures. Finally, the technical report recommends that SDSs be prepared for all nanomaterials, unless there is evidence that they are not hazardous. PMID:22263625

Lee, Ji Hyun; Kuk, Won Kwen; Kwon, Miran; Lee, Jong Han; Lee, Kwon Sub; Yu, Il Je

2013-05-01

163

5th international conference on certification and standardization in NDT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This CD-ROM contains 30 lectures (in form of manuscripts or abstracts) and 6 posters with the following topics: 1. Some Critical Remarks from German Chemical Industry on Certification and Accreditation in NDT. 2. Global Impact of International Standard ISO 9712. 3. Maintaining Concurrent Compliance with Multiple NDT Personnel Certification Standards. 4. The Revision of the New Approach. 5. Comparison between prEN 473 Currently Submitted to Formal Vote and ISO 9712:2005. 6. Accreditation and Certification - a Contradiction?. 7. The Way We Were. 8. EFNDT-Question-Data-Bank (QDB). 9. NDT Certification in Turkey as an European Country- How It Couldn't Work as the Only Example?. 10. Validation of Practical Examination Specimens. 11. Examination Bank Structure for Radiographic Testing (RT) - An Example. 12. About the New Classification of NDT Methods Based on Positions of Risks and Equipment Life Assessment. 13. Olympus NDT Training Academy. 14. Harmonisation of Personnel Certification Schemes for Non-destructive Testing in the Asia-Pacific Region. 15. How EFNDT Can Help in Accreditation or Recognition/Approval of NDT Certification Bodies? 16. SNT-TC-1A - 40 Years of Employer Certification for NDT Personnel. 17. The Same NDT Certification Scheme for Everybody: a Dream or a Need. 18. 19. Personnel Certification for Thermographers - Status and Trends. 20. Guided Wave Training and Certification. 21. Examination Radiographs and Master Reports for the Industrial Sectors 6 and 7.eports for the Industrial Sectors 6 and 7. 22. New Standards ISO 24497 on the Metal Magnetic Memory Method. The Program of Personnel Training and Certification. 23. The Use of the Psychometrics in NDT Certification Programs. 24. EFNDT Guidelines ''Overall NDT Quality System''. 25. The Role of the Forum for National Aerospace NDT Boards. 26. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 27. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 28. The Need for Standardization in NDT Personnel Certification. 29. NDT Certification for Railway Maintenance Personnel in France; 10 Years of the CFCM. 30. NDT Personnel Certification - Service for Industry. 31. Certification of Personnel Performing Automated Non-destructive Testing of Pipes and Flat Products. Problems and Solutions. 32. Stress Testing is a New NDT Type in the Russian Standard GOST R 52330-2005 and International Standard ISO-9712. 33. Accreditation of Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement Methods - Practical Aspects. 34. Results of Approval of Certification Body ''SPEKTRCert'' by Auditors of EFNDT. 35. The Program for Specialists Training and Certification in Stress-Strained State Determination and Residual Life Assesment of Technical Devices and Contructions. 36. NDT Personnel Certification System at Turkish Standards Instiution (TSE) and Developments in Turkey. 37. Nondestructive Testing Personnel Certification in Turkish Aerospace Industries and National Aerospace Nondestructive Testing Board in the Turkey

164

ASTEC participation in the international standard problem on KAEVER  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the International Standard Problem no 44 was aerosol depletion behaviour under severe accident conditions in a LWR containment examined in the KAEVER test facility of Battelle (Germany). Nine organisations participated with 5 different codes in the ISP44, including a joint participation of GRS and IPSN with the integral code ASTEC (and in particular the CPA module) they have commonly developed. Five tests were selected from the KAEVER test matrix: K123, K148, K186 and K188 as open standard problems and the three-component test K187 as blind standard problem. All these tests were performed in supersaturated conditions and with slight fog formation, which are the most ambitious conditions for the coupled problem of thermal hydraulics and aerosol processes. The comparison between calculation and test showed a good agreement for all the tests with respect to the thermal-hydraulic conditions in the vessel, i.e. total pressure, atmosphere temperature, sump water and nitrogen mass, etc.... As for aerosol depletion, the ASTEC results were in a good overall agreement with the measured data. The code in particular predicted well the fast depletion of the hygroscopic and mixed aerosols and the slow depletion of insoluble silver aerosol. The important effects of bulk condensation, solubility and the Kelvin effect on the aerosol depletion were well predicted. However the code overestimation of steam condensation on hygroscopic aerosols in supersaturated conditions indicates that some slight improvements of the appropriate ASTEC models are needed in the future. In the final ISP44 workshop, the deviations of the ASTEC results with respect to the experiments were considered to be small compared to those of most other codes. (authors)

165

ASTEC participation in the international standard problem on KAEVER  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the International Standard Problem no 44 was aerosol depletion behaviour under severe accident conditions in a LWR containment examined in the KAEVER test facility of Battelle (Germany). Nine organisations participated with 5 different codes in the ISP44, including a joint participation of GRS and IPSN with the integral code ASTEC (and in particular the CPA module) they have commonly developed. Five tests were selected from the KAEVER test matrix: K123, K148, K186 and K188 as open standard problems and the three-component test K187 as blind standard problem. All these tests were performed in supersaturated conditions and with slight fog formation, which are the most ambitious conditions for the coupled problem of thermal hydraulics and aerosol processes. The comparison between calculation and test showed a good agreement for all the tests with respect to the thermal-hydraulic conditions in the vessel, i.e. total pressure, atmosphere temperature, sump water and nitrogen mass, etc.... As for aerosol depletion, the ASTEC results were in a good overall agreement with the measured data. The code in particular predicted well the fast depletion of the hygroscopic and mixed aerosols and the slow depletion of insoluble silver aerosol. The important effects of bulk condensation, solubility and the Kelvin effect on the aerosol depletion were well predicted. However the code overestimation of steam condensation on hygroscopic aerosols in supersaturated conditions indicates that some slight improvements of the appropriate ASTEC models are needed in the future. In the final ISP44 workshop, the deviations of the ASTEC results with respect to the experiments were considered to be small compared to those of most other codes. (authors)

Spitz, P.; Van Dorsselaere, J.P. [CEA Cadarache, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Recherches en Securite, 13 - Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Schwinges, B.; Schwarz, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Cologne (Germany)

2001-07-01

166

Role of international standards and international cooperation for effectiveness of national regulators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, though a national activity, have transboundary and international repercussions. Therefore, activities related to nuclear safety of nuclear power plants attract international interest. In this regard, agencies such as the IAEA have played a very constructive role. The paper examines the role international standards play along with international cooperation to enhance effectiveness of national regulators. Such national regulators usually belong to countries that import nuclear power plants and may lack an advanced industrial infrastructure at par with other exporting countries. International cooperation is, therefore, needed to assure an acceptably high level of safety keeping in view the economy, public acceptance of risks, vendor ease, utility benefit and regulatory effectiveness. Furthermore, international standards - which may be design or fabrication or installation standards - are prepared by large national and/or multinational groups of knowledgeable experts. However, these standards based on knowledge and experiences appear to be information for the regulators of a nuclear power plant importing country. International cooperation is needed to re-transform this information into knowledge at the user end. The paper includes a brief description of such cooperation under an IAEA technical cooperation project entitled Applicability of IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards for NPP in Pakistan-(PAK/9/29), which is for NPP in Pakistan-(PAK/9/29), which is an example of international cooperation in the use of international standards to enhance the regulatory effectiveness of the national regulator in Pakistan. The role international organizations play in helping regulators become more effective is also highlighted which is necessary in an expanding international market for nuclear power plants and achieving the common global goal of providing affordable, secure, sustainable and safe electricity without undue hazards to man and his environment. (author)

167

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR NEUTRAL TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.25)  

Science.gov (United States)

This standard operating procedure describes the method used for preparing internal standard, surrogate recovery standard and calibration standard solutions for neutral analytes used for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis....

168

Review of IEC/ISO international standard related to HMI design for control rooms on NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished work wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards by IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) as international standard. On the other hand, ISO (International Standard Organization) issues ergonomic standards in HCI (Human Computer Interaction) for general industrial use. ISO11064 series are the process oriented standards specify procedures and processes to be followed. IEC60964 and supplemental standards have been effectively used and the design process required in IEC 60964 is the basis of the design process of ISO11064-1. However, IEC60964 is under revision, for example, to make technological update for taking into account the computerized control rooms, and to improve the human factor requirements. The revised version will consistent with the other IEC standards and similar standards or guidelines of another bodies. For hardware and software of computerized I and C system, a series of international standards have been systematically developed. In Japan, Japan electric association is developing industry association level guideline for the human-machine interface designs of the computerized main control rooms of nuclear power plants, as well as regulatory agencies of nuclear power plants in Japan are preparing technical basis for reviewers of controng technical basis for reviewers of control rooms of nuclear power plants. In this paper, we present the review of not only the state of international activities for revising IEC60964 and the state of ISO11064 series, but also the state and relationship to the related standards. (author)

169

International Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

International entrepreneurship is an important vehicle for firms to reap benefits from their high productivity levels and from economies of scale by reaching new customers. International enterprises tend to be larger and more innovative, but a key question of causality remains disputed in the international trade and international business studies literature. That is, does innovation and productivity drive firms towards international markets or does internationalization influence firm innovati...

Boermans, M. A.

2012-01-01

170

Einführung in die Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Das Internal Auditing Standards Board (IASB) des Insitute of Internal Auditors ist verantwortlich für die Normengebung und Publikation der Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing SPPIA (= Standards) und die Statements on Internal Auditing Standards. Beide bilden für die Praxis der Internen Revision wichtige Referenzpunkte.

Flemming Ruud; Alexander Linsi

1998-01-01

171

The Operating Islamic Banks in Jordan Applying the International Internal Auditing Standards (IIA's)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study aimed at identifying the operating Islamic banks in Jordan applying the international internal auditing standards, which are (4) banks. A questionnaire was designed for this purpose and distributed to internal auditors and un-executive board of directors members considered members of the Audit Committee in each bank, the number of questionnaires which were subjected to analysis were (35), resolution data was analyzed using (SPSS), and a number of statistical means through descrip...

Jamal Adel Al-Sharairi; Alsharayri, Majed A.

2012-01-01

172

Development of NASA's Models and Simulations Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

From the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation, there were several NASA-wide actions that were initiated. One of these actions was to develop a standard for development, documentation, and operation of Models and Simulations. Over the course of two-and-a-half years, a team of NASA engineers, representing nine of the ten NASA Centers developed a Models and Simulation Standard to address this action. The standard consists of two parts. The first is the traditional requirements section addressing programmatics, development, documentation, verification, validation, and the reporting of results from both the M&S analysis and the examination of compliance with this standard. The second part is a scale for evaluating the credibility of model and simulation results using levels of merit associated with 8 key factors. This paper provides an historical account of the challenges faced by and the processes used in this committee-based development effort. This account provides insights into how other agencies might approach similar developments. Furthermore, we discuss some specific applications of models and simulations used to assess the impact of this standard on future model and simulation activities.

Bertch, William J.; Zang, Thomas A.; Steele, Martin J.

2008-01-01

173

25 CFR 542.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.15 What are the minimum internal control standards for credit? ...a random basis by the accounting or internal audit departments, or statements are...

2010-04-01

174

77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to solicit...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New...

2012-10-03

175

Playing Against China : Global Value Chains and Labour Standards in the International Sports Goods Industry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The rise of China as the global factory raises challenges for many developing countries and their producers. The football-manufacturing sector is a case in which China has emerged as a global player. It is also a sector where compliance with international labour standards is considered critical. Leading international brands dominate the industry and control the global value chain for sports goods. In this article, we explore the relationship between the rise of China and international labour standards and consider how labour standards have affected the geography and organization of global football production. We draw on evidence from three of the main production locations – China, Pakistan and India. It appears that compliance with labour standards not only has different implications for the three production locations, but also that compliance alone is an insufficient basis for competing against China

Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

2011-01-01

176

To recognize the use of international standards for making harmonized regulation of medical devices in Asia-pacific.  

Science.gov (United States)

'Medical Devices' include everything from highly sophisticated, computerized, medical equipment, right down to simple wooden tongue depressors. Regulations embody the public expectations for how buildings and facilities are expected to perform and as such represent public policy. Regulators, who develop and enforce regulations, are empowered to act in the public's interest to set this policy and are ultimately responsible to the public in this regard. Standardization contributes to the basic infrastructure that underpins society including health and environment, while promoting sustainability and good regulatory practice. The international organizations that produce International Standards are the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). With the increasing globalization of markets, International Standards (as opposed to regional or national standards) have become critical to the trading process, ensuring a level playing field for exports, and ensuring that imports meet the internationally recognized levels of performance and safety. The development of standards is done in response to sectors and stakeholders that express a clearly established need for them. An industry sector or other stakeholder group typically communicates its requirement for standards to one of the national members. To be accepted for development, a proposed work item must receive a majority support of the participating members, who verify the global relevance of the proposed item. The regulatory authority (RA) should provide a method for the recognition of international voluntary standards and for public notification of such recognition. The process of recognition may vary from country to country. Recognition may occur by periodic publication of lists of standards that a regulatory authority has found will meet the Essential Principles. In conclusion, International standards, such as, basic standards, group standards, and product standards, are a tool for harmonizing regulatory processes, to assure the safety, quality, and performance of medical devices. Standards represent the opinion of experts from all interested parties, including industry, regulators, users, and others. PMID:21042494

Anand, K; Saini, Ks; Chopra, Y; Binod, Sk

2010-07-01

177

Institute of International Social Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The Institute of International Social Development (IISD) encourages "holistic development and empowerment of disadvantaged communities and societies and improving the quality of life all around." There are several welfare projects the organization runs, in India and Switzerland, as well as training for their programs, in New York. The "Programs" tab near the top of any page, allows visitors to see a list of the long-term projects of the Institute, as well as read the "objective" of each project, a "description" of it, and the "achievements". Each program is run to accomplish one or more of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) of the UN, and visitors can read the MDG listed in the objective of each program. Visitors shouldn't miss the link on the far right hand side of the programs page "Arts and Craft", which is a ten-page PDF that showcases one of the projects in West Bengal, India. The report includes photos, a map, and text that explain how IISD has encouraged teams of women artisans to create and execute traditional embroidery to be used in the creation of hats, saris, and coin purses. The items are then sold by the artisans themselves, in order to empower their community.

178

25 CFR 542.13 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming machines?  

Science.gov (United States)

...minimum internal control standards for gaming machines? 542.13 Section 542.13 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...minimum internal control standards for gaming machines? (a) Standards for...

2010-04-01

179

International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

{center_dot} Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials {center_dot} Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

2010-02-15

180

International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

· Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials · Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

 
 
 
 
181

Contributions of the ISO and IEC to international standardization in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of the world's total of about 2,600 radiation protection standards, only approximately ten per cent are international. The recommendations of international bodies such as the IAEA and the ICRP on the principles of radiation protection are supplemented by numerous detailed international technical standards. These deal with requirements for radiation monitoring instruments and methods as well as many other aspects of practical radiation protection. These standards are developed in working bodies by leading experts and represent highly condensed technical know-how. They are valuable sources of information and also serve as an instrument of technology transfer to developing countries. The main bodies devoted to the development of such international technical standards are: in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Subcommittee 2 ''Radiation Protection'' of its Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'', and in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), its TC 45B ''Radiation Protection Instrumentation''. Standards published so far include: the basic ionizing radiation symbol; nuclear energy glossary; requirements, classification and leakage testing of sealed radioactive sources; principles of criticality safety; personal photographic dosimeters; direct and indirect reading pocket dosimeters; leakage testing of radioactive materials, packaging, unsealed radioactive sources; different reference radiations for calibrating dosimeters and dose tions for calibrating dosimeters and dose rate meters and determining their energy response; testing of exposure meters; sampling of airborne radioactive materials; and lead shielding. Standards published so far by the IEC include surface contamination meters and monitors, portable exposure rate meters and monitors, hand and foot contamination monitors, installed exposure rate meters, radioactive aerosol contamination meters and equipment for the measurement of airborne tritium and the continuous monitoring of radioactivity in gaseous effluents. Work on a large number of additional projects is currently in progress. (author). 7 refs, 9 tabs

182

Manual of engineering drawing to british and international standards  

CERN Document Server

The Manual of Engineering Drawing has long been recognised as the student and practising engineer''s guide to producing engineering drawings that comply with ISO and British Standards. The information in this book is equally applicable to any CAD application or manual drawing. The second edition is fully in line with the requirements of the new British Standard BS8888: 2002, and will help engineers, lecturers and students with the transition to the new standards.BS8888 is fully based on the relevant ISO standards, so this book is also ideal for an international readership. The comprehensive scope of this book encompasses topics including orthographic, isometric and oblique projections, electric and hydraulic diagrams, welding and adhesive symbols, and guidance on tolerancing.Written by a member of the ISO committee and a former college lecturer, the Manual of Engineering Drawing combines up-to-the-minute technical accuracy with clear, readable explanations and numerous diagrams. This approach makes this an id...

Simmons, Colin H

2003-01-01

183

Multiplicative effects model with internal standard in mobile phase for quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assays suffer from signal instability caused by the gradual fouling of the ion source, vacuum instability, aging of the ion multiplier, etc. To address this issue, in this contribution, an internal standard was added into the mobile phase. The internal standard was therefore ionized and detected together with the analytes of interest by the mass spectrometer to ensure that variations in measurement conditions and/or instrument have similar effects on the signal contributions of both the analytes of interest and the internal standard. Subsequently, based on the unique strategy of adding internal standard in mobile phase, a multiplicative effects model was developed for quantitative LC-MS assays and tested on a proof of concept model system: the determination of amino acids in water by LC-MS. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently mitigate the detrimental effects of continuous signal variation, and achieved quantitative results with average relative predictive error values in the range of 8.0-15.0%, which were much more accurate than the corresponding results of conventional internal standard method based on the peak height ratio and partial least squares method (their average relative predictive error values were as high as 66.3% and 64.8%, respectively). Therefore, it is expected that the proposed method can be developed and extended in quantitative LC-MS analysis of more complex systems. PMID:24840455

Song, Mi; Chen, Zeng-Ping; Chen, Yao; Jin, Jing-Wen

2014-07-01

184

International standards for the oil and natural gas industries: A review paper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review paper describes the status of developments towards a complete set of international standards for the oil and natural gas industry. It builds on papers describing the intent of the program presented at the 1992 OTC by Thomas, Thorp and Denham; Wilson; and Arney. These papers state the objectives of developing a set of ISO standards predominantly within ISO/TC67. This paper places the development of the set of standards for the oil and natural gas industry in the context of the need for, and use of, standards by the industry. It describes the main standards organizations including their structure, procedures and relationships. It identifies ISO/TC67 as the key international standards committee for ''materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum and natural gas industries,'' and details its role and current work program. It concludes with a summary of the achievements to date. Significance: Common international standards should enable all stakeholders involved (users/suppliers/regulatory bodies) to conduct their business efficiently (lifecycle cost) with enhanced safety/integrity

185

International standards for the indoor environment. Where are we and do they apply to Asian countries?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

On the international level, ISO (International Organization for Standardization), CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) are writing and reviewing standards relating to the indoor environment on a regular basis. This presentation will focus on the development of standards for the indoor thermal environment and indoor air quality (ventilation). In the future, recommendations for acceptable indoor environments will be specified as classes. This allows for national differences in the requirements as well as for designing buildings for different quality levels. Several of these standards have been developed mainly by experts from Europe, North America and Japan. Are there, however, special considerations relating to South-East Asia (lifestyle, outdoor climate, economy) that are not dealt with in these standards and that will require the revision of existing standards? Critical issues are adaptation, the effect of increased air velocity, humidity, type of indoor pollutant sources, etc. The paper will present an overview of existing methods and discuss areas where revision of present standards or the development of new standards are needed, relating especially to conditions in Asia.

Olesen, Bjarne W.

2003-01-01

186

Standardization of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Developing countries should take food standardization seriously so that they do not become a dumping ground for foods that some developed countries refuse to admit for human consumption. Let us take saccharin for example. Whereas saccharin would normally not be allowed for use in flour preparations and ice-cream in certain developed countries, because saccharin is now known to be slightly carcinogenic, multinational companies from these same countries have been known to promote the use of saccharin in flour preparations and ice-cream in developing countries. When saccharin is used in soft drinks produced in developing countries, this is often not even declared on the label although manufacturers may be required by law in developed countries to declare the presence of saccharin in such drinks, which in any case must never exceed certain limits. It is against this background that the question of standardization of irradiated foods needs to be considered in developing countries. Like all food standardization questions, developing countries must have clearly defined guidelines and regulations for the consumption of irradiated foods and the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods.

187

Regulatory practices and standards: the international scene and trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At national level, codification of standards governing the licensing and operation of nuclear installations is very different, ranging from criteria to regulations, according to the degree of the obligation imposed by national authorities; it also reflects the variety of national situations and the peculiarities of the legal and political systems. The need to agree upon a level of nuclear safety which is generally recognised as satisfactory and to exchange scientific and technological information in this field has greatly stimulated international co-operation, in particular within the framework of specialized international organisations such as IAEA, ISO, Euratom and OECD/NEA. Harmonization of such standards is particularly important from the viewpoint of public opinion in the countries concerned. In addition, the intrinsic safety of nuclear power plants, assurances as to the duration of plant life should increasingly be highlighted in future. (NEA)

188

67Ga: a novel internal standard for LSC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The liquid scintillation spectrum of 67Ga exhibits two monoenergetic peaks that correspond to the average energies of 3H and 14C. This interesting feature prompted experiments designed to use 67Ga as an internal standard for either 3H or 14C or dual-labelled samples. A parameter based upon the ratio of the measured activity of the two 67Ga peaks was chosen to reflect the degree of sample quenching. As an example, a dual-labelled experiment was performed and the equations relating the counting efficiency to the 67Ga ratio are presented. The main advantages of this technique include the ability to recover the sample after the 67Ga has decayed, and the elimination of accurate pipetting of the internal standards as only the ratio of activity between the two peaks need to be considered

189

Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL's analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described

190

76 FR 32933 - International Standard-Setting Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...Practice. Develop MLs for Arsenic in rice, specifying whether they apply to total and/or inorganic Arsenic in rice. The Committee decided to continue...Standard for Named Vegetable Oils; Rice Bran Oil. The Commission will...

2011-06-07

191

Working group 2: regulatory and standards development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This second workshop explored regulatory standards and developments in the pipeline industry. New methods of improved damage prevention for regulators and pipelines to implement were presented. First, incident trends were discussed, using incident analysis to identify the possible causes and solutions of incidents. The determination of realistic goals was attempted. Next, leak detection was discussed with the presentation of current work in annex E which will form part of the new CSA Z662 standard in a few years time. New testing methods such as external methods of leak detection were studied. A third presentation showed the recent development in overpressure protection with reference to the new annex M incorporated in the CSA Z662-11 standard. The last presentation introduced the topic of public safety issues associated with CO2 pipelines with regard to different failure scenarios and the appropriate emergency responses.

Bunch, Chad; Lee, Shu; Peters, Mike; Parsonage, Kevin; Saad, Ziad

2011-07-01

192

Austrian results at the international standard problem 19  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extended computer code BALO-2A and the thermal-hydraulic code RELAP IV/Mod 6 were applied to perform the International Standard Problem ISP-19. It was possible to model the system simply and to obtain the thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions for BALO-2A. The results are satisfying which is remarkable because loss of coolant accident analyses are performed usually with larger computer codes. (Author)

193

Good clinical practice: International quality standard for clinical trials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A clinical trial is one of the most important examples of experimental studies. Clinical trials represent an indispensable tool for testing, in a rigorous scientific manner, the efficacy of new therapies. Good Clinical Practice is an international ethical and scientific quality standard for clinical trials, concerning the design, conduct, performance, monitoring auditing, recording, analysis and reporting. This is an assurance to the public that the rights, safety and well-being of trial subj...

Radulovi? Siniša S.

2003-01-01

194

CODE OF ETHICS FOR INTERNAL AUDITORS HARMONISED WITH THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR INTERNAL AUDIT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Code of Ethics is binding for the internal auditor profession, since, at the end of the internal audit activity, the internal auditors, based on the tests and analyses carried out, express their opinion on the quality of the internal control system of the audited activity. The Code of Ethics stipulates four fundamental principles, as follows: integrity, constitutes the base for the trust granted to internal auditors; objectivity, directly related to independence; confidentiality, absolute...

GEORGE CALOT?

2008-01-01

195

Secondary standard dosimetry laboratories: Development and trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication describes the work of the IAEA and the WHO in the establishment of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. Membership in the SSDL network has now risen to about 50 laboratories, of which 36 are in developing countries

196

Evaluation of mechanical properties of structural materials at cryogenic temperatures and international standardization for those methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Testing methods for mechanical properties of structural materials at cryogenic temperatures had been developed rapidly after 1980, however, until 1985 many researches on cryogenic structural materials have been reported using their own methods and new materials have been developed for ITER. Since 1986, a series of international inter-laboratory comparisons on the evaluation of mechanical properties of cryogenic structural materials have been performed among the participants of US-Japan cooperation project and VAMAS (the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) in order to establish unified test methods. Through these international collaborations and Round-Robin Tests, we have accumulated knowledge about mechanical tests at 4 K, and have prepared a draft of an international standard for tensile testing in liquid helium. After testing conditions, strain measurements and other technical points have been discussed, those drafts were submitted to ISO. The outline, development, and discussion of the documents so far, with the results of RRTs, were discussed.

Ogata, T.

2014-01-01

197

Research and standardization in Alzheimer's trials: reaching international consensus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an epidemic facing the entire world. Increased knowledge gained during the past 25 years indicates that AD falls along a clinical and neuropathological spectrum represented as a continuum that extends from preclinical disease in which there are no symptoms, through early symptomatic phases, and finally to AD dementia. The Alzheimer's research community recognizes that imaging, body fluids, and cognitive biomarkers contribute to enhanced diagnostic confidence for AD. There has also been emerging consensus regarding the use of AD biomarkers in clinical trials. The use of biomarkers in clinical trials and practice is hampered by the lack of standardization. In response to the emerging need for standardization, an international meeting of AD researchers was held in Melbourne, Australia, in March 2012 to bring together key researchers, clinicians, industry, and regulatory stakeholders with the aim of generating consensus on standardization and validation of cognitive, imaging, and fluid biomarkers, as well as lifestyle parameters used in research centers worldwide. PMID:23266004

Carrillo, Maria C; Rowe, Christopher C; Szoeke, Cassandra; Masters, Colin L; Ames, David; O'Meara, Tim; Macaulay, S Lance; Milner, Andrew; Ellis, Kathryn A; Maruff, Paul; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Martins, Ralph N; Bain, Lisa J; Head, Richard J

2013-03-01

198

Descriptors for Competence: Towards an International Standard Classification for Skills and Competences  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential of already existing skills and competence ontologies to benefit European transparency tools and especially the implementation of the European Qualification Framework. Furthermore, it asks whether any of them could serve as a starting point to develop an International Standard

Markowitsch, Jorg; Plaimauer, Claudia

2009-01-01

199

Replicating success: developing a standard FETP curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field epidemiology training programs have been successful models to address a country's needs for a skilled public health workforce, partly due to their responsiveness to the countries' unique needs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has partnered with ministries of health to strengthen their workforce through customized competency-based training programs. While desirable, emphasis on program flexibility can result in redundancy and inconsistency. To address this challenge, the ADDIE model (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) of instructional design was used by a cross-functional team to guide completion of a standard curriculum based on 15 competencies. The standard curriculum has supported the development and expansion of programs while still allowing for adaptation. This article describes the process that was used to develop the curriculum, which, together with needs assessment and evaluation, is crucial for successful training programs. PMID:18497016

Traicoff, Denise A; Walke, Henry T; Jones, Donna S; Gogstad, Eric K; Imtiaz, Rubina; White, Mark E

2008-01-01

200

Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation's (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs

 
 
 
 
201

Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

1998-04-01

202

The Development Status Quo and Counter measures of Logistics Informationization Standards of China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The construction of logistics informationization standard system is related to the long-term development of the logistics industry. The domestic standard construction of logistics informationization is fairly lagged behind; problems such as few standards, incomplete systems, and low level of international conventions still exist. This paper studies the constitution of a logistics informationization standard system, differentiates ten categories of logistics informationization standards, and t...

Xu, Qian

2011-01-01

203

Development of a scatterometry reference standard  

Science.gov (United States)

Scatterometry is a common technique for dimensional characterisation of nanostructures in the semiconductor industry. Currently this technique is limited to relative measurements for process development and process control. Although the high sensitivity of scatterometry is well known, it is not yet applied for absolute measurements of critical dimensions (CD) and quality control due to the lack of traceability. Thus we aim to establish scatterometry as traceable and absolute metrological method for dimensional measurements. Suitable high quality calibrated scatterometry reference standard samples are currently developed as one important step to enable traceable absolute measurements in industrial applications. The reference standard materials will base either on Si or on Si3N4. A traceable calibration of these standards will be provided by applying and combining different scatterometric as well as imaging calibration methods. First Silicon test samples have been manufactured and characterised for this purpose. The etched Si gratings have periods down to 50 nm and contain areas of reduced density to enable AFM measurements for comparison. We present the current design and first characterisations of structure details and the grating quality based on AFM measurements, optical, EUV and X-Ray scatterometry as well as spectroscopic ellipsometry. Finally we discuss possible final designs and the aimed specifications of the standard samples to face the tough requirements for future technology nodes in lithography.

Bodermann, Bernd; Loechel, Bernd; Scholze, Frank; Dai, Gaoliang; Wernecke, Jan; Endres, Johannes; Probst, Juergen; Schoengen, Max; Krumrey, Michael; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Soltwisch, Victor

2014-05-01

204

Performance Standards for Teachers supporting Nursing Students’ Reflection Skills Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How can nursing teachers improve students’ reflection skills? In the study performance standards for teachers were developed and validated. A ten-step procedure was followed to ensure procedural and internal validity. National competences and specific content standards for supporting nursing reflection skills development formed the foundation of a preliminary rubric framework which was piloted. Forty participants from six nursing institutes judged the developed rubric framework of eight competences covering thirty rubric attributes. They also discussed the prerequisite minimum performance level and judgmental models. These judgments and discussions resulted in consensus on the rubric framework, a cut-off score, and a conjunctive judgmental model that is convenient for assessing nursing teachers’ competences. The rubrics can be used in a teacher training program. Also institutes of nursing education can employ the rubrics as a tool for preparing and formatively assessing reflection skills.

Agaath Dekker- Groen

2012-01-01

205

The Development Status Quo and Counter measures of Logistics Informationization Standards of China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The construction of logistics informationization standard system is related to the long-term development of the logistics industry. The domestic standard construction of logistics informationization is fairly lagged behind; problems such as few standards, incomplete systems, and low level of international conventions still exist. This paper studies the constitution of a logistics informationization standard system, differentiates ten categories of logistics informationization standards, and then elaborates on how to establish and improve various standards. Finally, this paper studies the countermeasures to promote the implementation of logistics informationization standards.
Key words: Logistics informationization; Standards; Status Quo; Countermeasures

Qian XU

2011-09-01

206

International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies the requirements of international and national regulatory bodies for patient safety. A culture of quality assurance and the need for scientific exchange at the international level have extended the requirements for standardization to many other areas. These include radiotherapy with heavy charged particles, brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. A major advance in radiotherapy over the past few years has been the growing use of proton and heavy ion irradiation facilities for cancer therapy. The increased use of brachytherapy, including the new application of intravascular brachytherapy, has resulted in the development of new standards and codes of practice in this area. In diagnostic radiology, including computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional procedures, the awareness of the importance of dose reduction to the patient has also lead to the development of codes of practice. In the field of nuclear medicine there is a need to increase the dissemination of standards and the development of international recommendations for dosimetry procedures. Every year there are several regional or international meetings on radiation physics applied to medicine or related areas. A meeting focused exclusively on dosimetry gives the unique opportunity to review in depth the developments and trends in this continuously changing field. By organizing this Symposium the IAEA maintains its longstanding tradition of disseminating knowledge, promoting expertise and supporting international co-operation in radiation dosimetry. The Symposium provided a forum where advances in radiation dosimetry during the past decade, not only in external beam radiotherapy but also in other areas of radiation medicine, can be disseminated and scientific knowledge exchanged. It will include areas that have been developed recently (e.g. intravascular therapy and hadron dosimetry), together with classic areas where the standardization of dosimetry may not have reached a mature stage (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). It will also summarize the present status

207

75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection...national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for reciprocating internal combustion engines and requesting public...

2010-12-23

208

25 CFR 542.8 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?  

Science.gov (United States)

...minimum internal control standards for pull tabs? 542.8 Section 542.8 Indians...minimum internal control standards for pull tabs? (a) Computer applications...authority, will be acceptable. (b) Pull tab inventory. (1) Pull tab...

2010-04-01

209

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLIOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION (ISBD AS STANDARD FOR QUALITY BOOK PUBLISHING IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines international standard bibliographic description (ISBD as standard for quality book publishing in Nigeria. It discusses ISBD as it affects quality book publishing. Three Universities in the South-South region and 250 publishers sampled from six states of the federation were used for the study. The instruments used were validated questionnaire and standardized checklist of the book. One null hypothesis was formulated and tested. The data collected were analyzed using simple percentages and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC. The finding of the study shows that there is a significant relationship between ISBD and the quality of books published in Nigeria with regard to authorship, title, place of publication, year of publication, publisher’s name, ISBN, copyright, bibliography and index. The study concluded that ISBD adds quality to published books.

Eboro E. Umoren

2011-01-01

210

25 CFR 542.19 - What are the minimum internal control standards for accounting?  

Science.gov (United States)

...by this part and by the Tribal internal control standards; (6) Journal...gaming operation shall establish internal control systems sufficient to...statistical reports; (viii) Internal audit documentation and reports;...

2010-04-01

211

25 CFR 542.19 - What are the minimum internal control standards for accounting?  

Science.gov (United States)

...part and by the Tribal internal control standards...as compensation for conducting the game. (i) A...operation shall establish internal control systems sufficient...reports; (viii) Internal audit documentation and...

2010-04-01

212

75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY...existing stationary compression ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The amendments...existing stationary compression ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. 40...

2010-06-30

213

The role of international standards in the design of modern I ampersand C systems for nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper begins with a historical perspective on the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and their technical committees IEC TC 45 and ISO TC 85, which have developed mutual agreements to avoid duplication of effort in standardization development for reactor instrumentation. In 1976 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published safety standards and guides. In early 1981 agreements were reached between IAEA and IEC to avoid duplication of effort in regard to instrumentation and control systems used for protection, control, and monitoring nuclear power plants. Following these agreements, the IEC has made major efforts directed at development of I ampersand C standards for nuclear power plants. The paper then reviews standards work relevant to NPP I ampersand C systems. This has covered areas such as the application of digital computer control systems, classification and graded requirements for I ampersand C systems important to safety, design efforts for the main control room, and advanced measurement and monitoring systems

214

Development of Standardized Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Lunar exploration requires scientific and engineering studies using standardized testing procedures that ultimately support flight certification of technologies and hardware. It is necessary to anticipate the range of source materials and environmental constraints that are expected on the Moon and Mars, and to evaluate in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) coupled with testing and development. We describe here the development of standardized lunar regolith simulant (SLRS) materials that are traceable inter-laboratory standards for testing and technology development. These SLRS materials must simulate the lunar regolith in terms of physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. A summary of these issues is contained in the 2005 Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials [l]. Lunar mare basalt simulants MLS-1 and JSC-1 were developed in the late 1980s. MLS-1 approximates an Apollo 11 high-Ti basalt, and was produced by milling of a holocrystalline, coarse-grained intrusive gabbro (Fig. 1). JSC-1 approximates an Apollo 14 basalt with a relatively low-Ti content, and was obtained from a glassy volcanic ash (Fig. 2). Supplies of MLS-1 and JSC-1 have been exhausted and these materials are no longer available. No highland anorthosite simulant was previously developed. Upcoming lunar polar missions thus require the identification, assessment, and development of both mare and highland simulants. A lunar regolith simulant is manufactured from terrestrial components for the purpose of simulating the physical and chemical properties of the lunar regolith. Significant challenges exist in the identification of appropriate terrestrial source materials. Lunar materials formed under comparatively reducing conditions in the absence of water, and were modified by meteorite impact events. Terrestrial materials formed under more oxidizing conditions with significantly greater access to water, and were modified by a wide range of weathering processes. The composition space of lunar materials can be modeled by mixing programs utilizing a low-Ti basalt, ilmenite, KREEP component, high-Ca anorthosite, and meteoritic components. This approach has been used for genetic studies of lunar samples via chemical and modal analysis. A reduced composition space may be appropriate for simulant development, but it is necessary to determine the controlling properties that affect the physical, chemical and mineralogical components of the simulant.

Carpenter, P.; Sibille, L.; Meeker, G.; Wilson, S.

2006-01-01

215

Development of Korean Standard Brain Templates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We developed age, gender and ethnic specific brain templates based on MR and Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) images of Korean normal volunteers. Seventy-eight normal right-handed volunteers (M/F=49/29) underwent 3D T1-weighted SPGR MR and F-18-FDG PET scans. For the generation of standard templates, an optimal target brain that has the average global hemispheric shape was selected for each gender. MR images were then spatially normalized by linear transformation to the target brains, and n...

Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Jinsu; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Jae-jin; Park, Hae-jeong; Kwon, Jun Soo; Kim, Sun I.; Yoo, Tae Woo; Chang, Kee-hyun; Lee, Myung Chul

2005-01-01

216

Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures

217

[The revelation from three international medical education standards to education of physician-patient communication].  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of manipulating physician-patient communication is of great significance in medical practice and undoubtedly needed to be developed during medical education. The importance and request of physician-patient communication in medical education has been definitely prescribed in three international standards stipulated respectively by three international medical education organizations. In this article, the author attempted to reveal the deficiency of Chinese medical education on physician-patient communication by studying the three international standards as mentioned. And some measures had also been recommended to improve the conditions: setting up physician-patient communication curriculums among students; emphasizing the training of the skills in internship during undergraduate study period; adding physician-patient communication contents in the Practice Physician Qualification Test; and so on. The improvement of communication skills in basic medical education is the primary part for the progress of whole medical area. Supported by Teaching Reform Project of Shandong University (Grant No.200954,2009174,2009226). PMID:21431271

Li, Jia-Jia; Sun, Hui-Qiang; Shao, Qi; Deng, Yan-Nan

2010-12-01

218

Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different languages and countries were discussed. Five steps to achieve optimal psychometric validation were proposed. In Step 1, test stimuli should be standardized for the target culture or language under consideration. In Step 2, examiner instructions must be standardized and translated, including all information from manuals necessary for administration and interpretation. In Step 3, samples of at least 65 healthy persons should be studied for normalization, matched to patients on demographics such as age, gender and education. The objective of Step 4 is test-retest reliability, which can be investigated in a small sample of MS and/or healthy volunteers over 1-3 weeks. Finally, in Step 5, criterion validity should be established by comparing MS and healthy controls. At this time, preliminary studies are underway in a number of countries as we move forward with this international assessment tool for cognition in MS. PMID:22799620

Benedict, Ralph H B; Amato, Maria Pia; Boringa, Jan; Brochet, Bruno; Foley, Fred; Fredrikson, Stan; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hartung, Hans; Krupp, Lauren; Penner, Iris; Reder, Anthony T; Langdon, Dawn

2012-01-01

219

Developments in standards and other guidance for individual monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years there has been a huge increase in the development and publication of standards, documents of relevance and other guidance for individual monitoring (IM), particularly for external radiation. An extensive list of the main documents published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), International Organisation for Standardization (ISO), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), CEN/CENELEC, European Council (EC) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) can be found elsewhere [Fantuzzi, E., Alves, J.G., Ambrosi, P., Janzekovic, H., Vartiainen, E., 2004. Implementation of standards for individual monitoring in Europe. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 112 (1), 3-44; Fantuzzi, E., 2007. Standards, documents of relevance and directives in individual monitoring: is European individual monitoring in compliance with standards? Radiat. Prot. Dosim., doi: (10.1093/rpd/ncl568)]. In March 2007 ICRP approved a new set of fundamental recommendations that will replace ICRP Publication 60. Similarly to what has happened in the past with previous ICRP Publications 26 and 60, it is expected that this document will inspire the revision of the Basic Safety Standards of the IAEA [Safety Series 115, 1996. International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. IAEA, Vienna] and of the European Union (EC Council Directivef the European Union (EC Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM) and consequently of national legislation in the respective member states. In order to implement the radiation protection principles laid down in the BSS both the IAEA and EC have regularly published guidance documents. EC published in 1994 EUR 14852 entitled Technical recommendations for monitoring individuals occupationally exposed to external radiation that was a powerful tool for all the participants to the field of IM (radiation protection authorities, individual monitoring services and users) summarizing concepts and contributing to the improvement of quality and the reliability of results. Particularly over the last decade, EURADOS WG2 has actively contributed to harmonization of IM in Europe, publishing reports (, ), organizing an intercomparison in 1999. A 'series' of workshops on IM to disseminate WG activity star, organizing an intercomparison in 1999. A 'series' of workshops on IM to disseminate WG activity started: IM-2000 was held in Helsinki organized by STUK, IM-2005 was held in Vienna organized by ARCS, EURADOS and IAEA (Radiat. Prot. Dosim. advance access). Recent WG2 actions included the review of EUR 14852 and the preparation of a proposal to organize self-sustained intercomparisons. In September 2006, EC issued a call for a tender on the establishment of European technical recommendations. A consortium comprising GAEC and EURADOS prepared and presented a proposal. Following the evaluation procedure EC awarded a contract to the consortium: the EU-Trimer project. This paper will cover the main ICRP and ICRU quantities and requirements, standards and other guidance documents recently published or in course of development in order to achieve harmonization of practices and procedures for IM of external radiation. The main aspects of the EU-Trimer project will also be addressed

220

ASTM international workshop on standards and measurements for tissue engineering scaffolds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds" was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN, and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active "guide" documents for educational purposes, but few standard "test methods" or "practices." Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition, and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Workshop participants emphasized the need to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization. Finally, participants noted that standards would be more broadly accepted if their impact in the TEMPs community could be quantified. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus is turning to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014. PMID:25220952

Simon, Carl G; Yaszemski, Michael J; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A

2014-09-15

 
 
 
 
221

25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

...general ledger; (ix) Information technology functions, including review for compliance with information technology standards; (x) Complimentary... (xi) Any other internal audits as required by the...

2010-04-01

222

25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

...general ledger; (ix) Information technology functions, including review for compliance with information technology standards; (x) Complimentary... (xi) Any other internal audits as required by the...

2010-04-01

223

25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

...general ledger; (ix) Information technology functions, including review for compliance with information technology standards; (x) Complimentary... (xi) Any other internal audits as required by the...

2010-04-01

224

Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances in scientific and engineering understanding. We present a draft outline that can be used as the basis for such a standard.

Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

225

25 CFR 542.33 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier B gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.33 What are the minimum internal control standards for...

2010-04-01

226

25 CFR 542.17 - What are the minimum internal control standards for complimentary services or items?  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for complimentary...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.17 What are the minimum internal control standards for...

2010-04-01

227

25 CFR 542.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier A gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.23 What are the minimum internal control standards for...

2010-04-01

228

25 CFR 542.43 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for a Tier C gaming operation?  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.43 What are the minimum internal control standards for...

2010-04-01

229

Some aspects of international nuclear standardization in the International Electrotechnical Commission and related bodies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some reasons for international standardisation in the nuclear industry are put forward and the work being done in the IEC and ISO is outlined. The structure of the IEC, methods of working in standards technical committees and sub-committees and the way in which national committees interface with them are described. Methods by which projects can be put forward and progressed are noted and some of the liaisons between IEC/TC45 and other bodies are mentioned. (author)

230

The protection of the accused in international criminal law according to the Human Rights Law Standard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presented paper discusses the influence of international human rights law on international criminal law. It tries to give an answer to the question of whether rules protecting the accused in international criminal proceedings meet the human rights law standard provided by international declarations and covenants. Meaning, if the proceedings before the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and International Criminal ...

Karolina Kremens

2011-01-01

231

Good clinical practice: International quality standard for clinical trials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A clinical trial is one of the most important examples of experimental studies. Clinical trials represent an indispensable tool for testing, in a rigorous scientific manner, the efficacy of new therapies. Good Clinical Practice is an international ethical and scientific quality standard for clinical trials, concerning the design, conduct, performance, monitoring auditing, recording, analysis and reporting. This is an assurance to the public that the rights, safety and well-being of trial subjects are protected, and that clinical trial data is credible. The above definitions are consistent with the principles that have their origin in the declaration of Helsinki. The objectives of Good Clinical Practice are to protect the rights of trial subjects, to enhance credibility of data and to improve the quality of science.

Radulovi? Siniša S.

2003-01-01

232

Science and International Development inquiry  

led by and involving researchers in developing countries and collaborations \\between UK and overseas ... people in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. They \\have ..... climate change and the impact that this will have in South Asia. Capacity\\ ...

233

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE INQUIRY INTO ...  

Research underpinning the development of new technologies, mechanisms to \\put .... eliminating under-nutrition with particular reference to women, children \\and other .... Competition for land use – including for biofuels, cash crops, \\livestock or.

234

Fluorescein thiocarbamyl amino acids as internal standards for migration time correction in capillary sieving electrophoresis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A number of algorithms have been developed to correct for migration time drift in capillary electrophoresis. Those algorithms require identification of common components in each run. However, not all components may be present or resolved in separations of complex samples, which can confound attempts for alignment. This paper reports the use of fluorescein thiocarbamyl derivatives of amino acids as internal standards for alignment of 3-(2-furoyl)quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (FQ)-labeled proteins...

Pugsley, Haley R.; Swearingen, Kristian E.; Dovichi, Norman J.

2009-01-01

235

Do international labor standards contribute to the persistence of the child labor problem?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, a number of governments and consumer groups in rich countries have tried to discourage the use of child labor in poor countries through measures such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards. The purported objective of such measures is to reduce the incidence of child labor in developing countries and thereby improve children’s welfare. In this paper, we examine the effects of such policies from a political-economy perspective. We show that th...

Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

2009-01-01

236

International labor standards and the political economy of child labor regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child labor is a persistent phenomenon in many developing countries. In recent years, support has been growing among rich-country governments and consumer groups for the use of trade policies, such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards, to reduce child labor in poor countries. In this paper, we discuss research on the long-run implications of such policies. In particular, we demonstrate that such measures may have the unintended side effect of lowering dom...

Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

2008-01-01

237

Silica optical fiber technology for devices and components design, fabrication, and international standards  

CERN Document Server

From basic physics to new products, Silica Optical Fiber Technology for Device and Components examines all aspects of specialty optical fibers. Moreover, the inclusion of the latest international standards governing optical fibers enables you to move from research to fabrication to commercialization. Reviews all the latest specialty optical fiber technologies, including those developed for high capacity WDM applications; broadband fiber amplifiers; fiber filleters based on periodic coupling; fiber branching devices; and fiber terminations Discusses key differences among sing

Oh, Kyunghwan

2012-01-01

238

AGRARIAN ACCOUNTANCY IN THE VISUAL CONE OF INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After a long period during which agriculture did not have a standard of its own and applied for that matter the IAS 2 rules regarding inventories; IAS 16 regarding property, plant and equipment and IAS 18 regarding revenues, one last standard is being born – IAS 41. The late appearance of this standard is compensated by the great attention granted from the IASC, as agriculture is very important for those countries in course of development. IAS 41 is operative for those financial statements starting with the 1 of January 2003. The current standard is applied to account those elements regarding agricultural activities. IAS 41 is does not deal: with genuine exploiting activities, with harvested agricultural products, which are non biological products, or with the agricultural production, which is incorporated in the processing process. The activity will follow the financial reporting guidelines imposed by IAS 41 if: (athe plants or animals, that represent the object of the activities, are living and suitable for transformation; (b the change must be controlled, a fact which implies a range of activities like ground fertilizing and crop cultivation, feeding and medical assistance while breeding animals;(cthere have to exist fundamentals for evaluating changes like: the degree at which plants ripen, the animals weight, the trees circumference. The most important feature of this standard is the request for evaluating the biological assets at each balance sheet date at its fair value. Taking into consideration the limited framework of the current standard, beside of the explicit exceptions, all IAS must also be applied in agriculture.

Daniela SIMTION

2014-04-01

239

The international collaborative study on the first international standard of birch (Betula verrucosa)-pollen extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

A selected candidate international standard preparation of birch (Betula verrucosa)-pollen extract was studied together with other birch-pollen extracts in a multinational study involving 20 laboratories in 11 countries. The biologic activity of the extract had previously been demonstrated in quantitative skin prick testing. The study methods comprised RAST inhibition, histamine release, quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and other methods. The results from RAST inhibition were calculated as parallel-line assays with statistical tests for linearity and parallelism. Analysis of variance was applied to test the significance of differences between potency estimates. In all assay methods, the candidate standard could be used to assign relative potencies to other birch-pollen extracts. The candidate standard was adequately stable during 36 months of storage at or below 5 degrees C. On the basis of this study, the World Health Organization has established the preparation as the International Standard for birch-pollen extract with assigned units of 100,000 IU per ampule. PMID:2464016

Arntzen, F C; Wilhelmsen, T W; Løwenstein, H; Gjesing, B; Maasch, H J; Strömberg, R; Einarsson, R; Backman, A; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Ford, A

1989-01-01

240

A systems process lifecycle standard for very small entities: development and pilot trials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Very small entities, organizations with up to 25 people, are very important to the worldwide economy. The products they develop are either developed specifically for a customer or are integrated into products made by larger enterprises. To address the needs of Very small entities, a set of standards and guides have been developed using the systems engineering lifecycle standard ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 as the main framework. The systems engineering handbook, developed by the International Council o...

Laporte, Claude; O Connor, Rory

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Upgrade of internal events PSA model using the AESJ level-1 PSA standard for operating state  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2003, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) started to develop the Level-1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) standard of internal events for operating state (AESJ standard). The AESJ standard has been finished to be asked for public comment. Using the AESJ standard (draft version), the authors have upgraded the PSA model for Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) BWR-5 plant not only to reflect latest knowledge but also to ensure high quality of PSA model (not yet peer-reviewed) for the purpose of better operation and maintenance management of TEPCO BWR plants. For example, the categorization of structures, systems and components (SSCs) will be performed to improve nuclear reactor safety using information of risk importance. (author)

242

Affirming the Goal: Is College and Career Readiness an Internationally Competitive Standard? Executive Summary  

Science.gov (United States)

ACT examined the international competitiveness of college and career ready standards in the policy research report, Affirming the Goal: Is College and Career Readiness an Internationally Competitive Standard? In this study, ACT performed a linking analysis to identify the PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) scores in reading and…

ACT, Inc., 2011

2011-01-01

243

Development of area monitors confirming to ANSI/IEC standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Area monitoring instruments manufactured by Nucleonix have evolved over time from simple digital circuits based designs to a state of art micro controller based, ruggedized plant worthy designs. Subsequent to switch to micro-controller designs, lot of features have been incorporated like 4-20mA, o/p Relay contacts., fault diagnostics and RS-485 connectivity over MODBUS-RTU. Customization to user specific demands were also made possible by these designs. The products have now reached a stabilization point meeting most of the customers requirements. During the course of time it was felt that the products developed needed to be performance tested as per some international standards especially for their radiation performance, environmental and electromagnetic compatibility. ANSI N.42-17A standard was found to be most appropriate and generic in nature. Hence this standard along with some other additional standards/ procedures applicable for nuclear installations like seismic tests, IP54 tests and radiation hardness tests were adopted and type test procedures were created in association with user agency. Subsequent to which type tests were taken up and carried out on all types of area monitors and completed over a period of one year after solving all sorts of problems in electrical performance, radiation performance, mechanical engineering issues during the course of the testing. (author)

244

From 2G TO 3G The Evolution of International Cellular Standards  

CERN Document Server

The purpose of this paper is to examine the major factors surrouding and contributing to the creation (and success) of Europe's 2nd generation 'GSM' cellular system, and compare and contrast it to key events and recent developments in 3rd generation 'IMT-2000' systems. The objective is to ascertain whether lessons from the development of one system can be applied to the other, and what implications 2G has for the development and assessment of 3G technologies. Among the major themes incorporated into this assessment is the concept of cooperation, and its role in bringing about the collaboration and integration necessary to support the success of an international cellular standard.

Selian, A N

2001-01-01

245

Development and standardization of Mysore Tridosha scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors have developed a personality scale to assess Tridoshas i.e. Vata, Pitta, and Kapha from psychological perspective in human beings. The Tridoshas are composed of the Pancha Mahabhutas, but one or the other Dosha is dominant singularly or in combination. There can never be a state when one or the other Pancha Mahabhutas and consequently the Tridoshas are absent totally. All five are essential to sustain life. Vata Dosha is composed of Akasa and Vayu Mahabhuta. Pitta Dosha is composed of Tejas or Agni and Ap Mahabhuta. Kapha Dosha is composed of Ap and Prithvi Mahabhuta. Although Tridosha is studied, understood, and applied in Ayurveda, the present authors have tried to validate the same from the domain of psychology. Since the authors are not from the domain of Ayurveda but of Psychology, there are some constructs that are not amenable for psychological testing which have been ignored. Only those constructs that can be used by psychologists to assess the psychological aspects of the Dosha Prakriti have been used to build items for the assessment of personality. In this process, the psychometric properties of the scale are established. The scale assesses the psychological manifestation of the Tridoshas, which was the basic objective. The standardization procedure involved in the development of the Mysore Psychological Tridosha Scale is herewith delineated. PMID:22529642

Shilpa, S; Murthy, C G Venkatesha

2011-07-01

246

US agency for international development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author addresses the following questions in his presentation: what is USAID; where does the money go and who makes the decisions; where does USAID fund energy programs, and especially renewable energy; who are their `partners`; what is the approach to renewable energy; what in summary, has USAID funded that is relevant to village power. USAID is the foreign aid agency of the US Government. Approximately 75 countries receive regular assistance. The fiscal year 97 budget for the agency is approximately $5.8 billion. About half of the total budget goes to Israel, Egypt, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. These budgeting decisions are geopolitical. Congress earmarks total budgets for a few sectors or subjects, such as family planning. The goal of USAID`s renewable energy programs is simple: They are interested in accelerating the market penetration of commercial technologies. They do not engage in technology R&D. Developing countries have energy needs now, and commercial technologies are available now. USAID has taken note of the interest taken by subsidiaries of US utilities in the past couple of years in bringing their expertise and resources to bear on meeting the challenge of rural energy needs in developing countries. They believe that the entry into the market of these players could be one of the most important catalysts for making the rural energy revolution happen.

Pumfrey, R.

1997-12-01

247

Some issues with the international basic safety standards - a time for reflection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency has statutory functions for the development of radiation safety standards. Its basic safety standards have, for many years, been based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, taking account of the information on the biological effects of radiation exposure provided by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The latest version - the International Basic Safety Standards - was published in its final form in 1996, and, since then the Agency has been assisting with their implementation in a large number of States. The experience gained, combined with a more general reflection on these Standards, has led to the identification of a number of issues that will need to be considered in any future revision. A number of these issues arise largely through an insufficient recognition of the problems associated with turning the principles of protection into regulatory style requirements, which, out of necessity, need to be legally precise, but at the same time, enforceable. Some of these issues are discussed here. (orig.)

248

Specific Features of Reflection of Information Regarding Lease Operations in the National and International Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article identifies the degree of correspondence of the national Provisions (Standard of Business Accounting (PSBA Lease with the international standard and provides recommendations with respect to their closing up. On the results of the study the author provides specific features of international and national standards – the existing IFRS 17 Lease and national PSBA 14 Lease by the following components: definition of lease, its classification and reflection in accounting. Also the text of PSBA 31 Financial Expenditures is supplemented with provisions on capitalisation of financial expenditures prospectively, which would allow avoidance of correction of the balance of the retained income and provision of comparative information for previous periods. The article provides an algorithm of division of lease for accounting purposes on the basis of international standards. Its use would ensure correctness of reflection of lease operations in accounting and would serve as a basis for development of methodical provisions with respect to accounting. By the result of the study the author forms definition of the qualification asset as an asset which requires considerable time for its creation, preparation for target use, sales or acquisition of the ownership right. Capitalisation of such expenditures would allow non-reduction of the accounting income and also would provide a possibility to reflect financial expenditures in accordance with their economic essence.

Nikolenko Nataliya V.

2013-12-01

249

Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization of fine ceramics test and evaluation method for communication equipment; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Tsushinkiki yo fain ceramics no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research and development is carried out aiming at the international standardization of methods for evaluating electric properties such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and surface resistance for fine ceramics for use in the high-frequency and ultrahigh-frequency bands. In this fiscal year, in the effort to establish an accurate measurement method for millimeter wave complex specific inductive capacity, the Fabry-Perot resonator was improved, and found to be capable of measuring 60-110 GHz. Efforts were made to improve on the accuracy of the cavity resonator excited by coaxial cable, for which various types of resonators were fabricated. For the calibration of evaluation apparatuses such as the Fabry-Perot resonator, cavity resonator excited by coaxial cable, and dielectric resonator excited by non-radiative waveguide, sapphire single crystals and PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) were selected as reference materials for measuring complex dielectric constant, and their dimensions and specifications were determined. In the study of the evaluation of basic surface properties, surface irregularity of the silver electrode was accurately measured by use of a thin-film surface geometry measurement apparatus, and the presence of a strong correlation between the jig silver electrode surface coarseness and the microwave band effective conductivity. (NEDO)

NONE

2001-03-01

250

Proposing a 6+3 Model for Developing Information Literacy Standards for Schools: A Case for Singapore  

Science.gov (United States)

Several comprehensive information literacy (IL) standards have been developed worldwide for use in the education sector, specifically for students and teachers. Apart from the more generic International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) IL standards, such standards are more appropriate for their countries of origins. If these standards are…

Mokhtar, Intan Azura; Foo, Schubert; Majid, Shaheen; Theng, Yin Leng; Luyt, Brendan; Chang, Yun-Ke

2009-01-01

251

Analysis of International and National Hotel Chains Development in Ukraine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of the national hotel chains development in Ukraine and the sponsorship for the international hotel chains functioning are not only due to the country’s business and tourist attractiveness formation, taking into account Euro-2012, but also due to the necessity of high-quality expansion of dwelling and resort places choice for foreign and Ukrainian guests in accordance with their aims of arrival and individual preferences.In comparison with the international hotel chains, the national hotel chains have the following advantages: the local market adaptation; the country’s legislative base awareness; the best understanding of local traditions and customs; the standards development independence; the ability to react to the market changes quickly.The development of national hotel chains in Ukraine is in the initial stage. The formation of Ukrainian hotel chains is arising from the following objectives: support of increasing volumes of inbound tourism; service according to the international hotel service standards; employment in a services sector; enterprises support in the hotel business while developing hotel chains. The favorable geographic location of Ukraine, the low level of market saturation and the high hotel service demand favor the appearance of the international hotel chains in Ukraine.

G. Gorina

2011-03-01

252

INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS: A WAY FOR GLOBAL CONSISTENCY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reverberations of Wall Street had to be felt across the global banking system. Last September, the world economy seemed to be hurtling down in a way that had initially raised the spectre of the Great Depression in America of the late 1920s. This is based largely on the performance of stock markets which are supposed to reflect future trends in the real economy. However, such knowledge embedded in the markets can be imperfect, as we have learnt by now. In some ways, the global financial crisis and its fallout are forcing economic agents to acquire new knowledge in regard to what might happen in the future. It was difficult to explain rationally why the stock markets were furiously running up even as company balance sheets were still bleeding. A few years ago, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS were a distant possibility. Today, the reality is far different. We are in a dramatic shift that is fast making IFRS the most widely accepted accounting model in the world. As the business environment becomes increasingly global and companies routinely list on stock exchanges in many countries, the need for consistent worldwide reporting standards intensifies. IFRS clearly addresses this issue; its goal is to create comparable, reliable, and transparent financial statements that will facilitate greater cross-border capital raising, trade and better corporate governance practices. Thus acceptance of IFRS is gaining momentum across the globe. IFRS transition program for any organization will have multi –dimensional effect because of differences which exist between IFRS and Local GAAPs. The objectives of the paper is to highlight the nature of such differences with examples along with analysing the provisions of IFRS, comparative analysis of IFRS with Indian GAAP system, benefits, and major issues in first time adoption of IFRS in Indian companies with the help of case study of Indian corporate.

Ravindra Tripathi

2011-05-01

253

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR POLAR TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.26)  

Science.gov (United States)

This SOP describes the method used for preparing surrogate recovery standard and internal standard solutions for the analysis of polar target analytes. It also describes the method for preparing calibration standard solutions for polar analytes used for gas chromatography/mass sp...

254

International migration, uneven regional development and polarization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explores four aspects of the underdeveloped conceptualization of the role of international migration in uneven regional development and polarization in cities. First, it emphasizes the way in which human mobility transfers not only human capital but also knowledge and material capital, and that these are interrelated. Second, it considers how changes in the nature of mobility have implications for uneven regional development. Third, it develops the concept of enfolded mobilities,...

Williams, Am

2009-01-01

255

Final comparison report for international standard problem n.22 (SPES)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

OECD-CSNI International Standard Problem 22 is a 'Loss of Feedwater with EFW delayed' test, performed in the SPES facility (SIET-Piacenza). The purpose of 'LOFW-EFW delayed' experiment is to obtain in the primary system of the facility the thermal-hydraulic conditions similar to the reference plant in the incidental transient of main feedwater total loss, in all the three steam generators, with a delayed intervention of the emergency feedwater system. It is a double blind exercise, characterized by a large participation of non-OECD countries sponsored by IAEA. The ISP22 Comparison Report is based on two fundamental elements: the comparison between the single Participants predictions and the experimental data, and the overall comparison among all calculations and test results. The conclusions drawn from these analyses highlight the major contributions to the observed discrepancies deriving from code limitations, user errors, experimental uncertainties. From a macroscopic point of view, it is concluded that most of the phenomena occurring in ISP22 experiment were generally predicted by the double blind predictions. A more accurate analysis of the single phenomena can nevertheless reveal relevant discrepancies between calculations and data. The document also contains a description of ISP22 Participants and input decks, and a collection of their comments on the differences between calculations and test results

256

Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Overall survey; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Sogo chosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper summed up the results of the survey of tackling with the international standardization by enterprises and organizations involved in the standardization in the U.S., Europe and Japan, the results of the R and D on 20 themes for the international standardization, and the development toward the international standardization. As the R and D themes, the following were selected: the development of chemical method to analyze/evaluate metallic coatings of surface treated steel coating sheets, R and D of the basic evaluation method of functional composite particles, international standards for computer/manikins, basic technology of color image management, study on optimizing design/evaluation technology using quality engineering, study of the international standardization by economic evaluation of environmental impacts, R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells, development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards, standard measuring methods of hormone effects of chemical substances, quantification of the sensory evaluation and international standardization in the paint field, experimental study on the international standardization for immunochemical measurement of chemical substances, etc. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

257

WHY DOES THE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDIZATION HAVE TO PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN SUSTAINABLE ECONOMICS AND FINANCIAL STRATEGIES?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards and their contribution to harmonization in business economics and financial practice. In this review, the goal is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards promote financial decisions and influence the business environment in a global scale. It is expected that the unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business economics and financialpractice of certain countries. Standardization of financial accounting has tended to follow the integration of the markets served by the accounts. The present impetus for global accounting standards follows the accelerating integration of the word economy. The global accounting standards would enable the world’s stock markets to become more closely integrated. It is important for companies to develop coherent and consistent financialstrategies and to utilize international accounting methods to support strategic planning, decision-making and control.

Jeno Beke, Ph.D, CMA, CPA, CTA

2011-10-01

258

Aid for development of international trade  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of international trade was very impressive in the second half of 20th century. But even with these great development opportunities that growth of international trade can bring the small number of developed economies had succeeded to ripe benefits from it in order to develop their economies and reduce poverty. Even with the establishment of the World Trade Organization it was apparent that developing countries need assistance in order to integrate fully in international trade system. The Aid for Trade, which is a part of Official Development Assistance focusing on trade, has an aim to help developing countries build their trade capacity and the transport infrastructure so they can use trade as a powerful engine for economic growth. This paper set out to describe this new programme of trade aid developed under the auspices of WTO, as a multilateral project, to point out the readiness of donor countries and aims of beneficiary countries. But we will explore the linkages of Aid for Trade programme with bilateral and regional aid initiatives in the area of trade. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179029: Srbija u savremenim me?unarodnim odnosima: Strateški pravci razvoja i u?vrš?ivanja položaja Srbije u me?unarodnim integrativnim procesima - spoljnopoliti?ki, me?unarodni ekonomski, pravni i bezbedonosni aspekti

Bjeli? Predrag

2012-01-01

259

Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012

260

The development of internal fixation: Historical overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the ancient times, man was faced with the problem of fracture treatment, which is first described in the records from ancient Egypt. Ever since, many treatment methods have been developed, but the real revolution in the fracture treatment was achieved by internal fixation. Since it was described for the first time, at the end of the 18th century, this method has continuously developed, but sterilization, radiographies, anaesthesiology, antibiotics made this surgery modern and safe. The great ideas and practical solutions of the new methods were done by Albin Lambotte, William Arbuthnot Lane, Robert Danis, William Hey Groves. They lead to the expansion of this method and truly made the principles for the future AO school. New methods, biological internal fixation, minimally invasive procedures, new technologies and devices for internal fixation are introduced in the surgical practice daily. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175095 i br. 45005

Leši? Aleksandar R.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article dealt with institutional aspects of auditing profession, mostly their impact on international harmonization concept of auditing services. The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services behavior and development, mostly in context of providing the auditing services. The authors mention on the IAASB priorities in this area set for period...

Ladislav Kareš; Petra Krišková

2008-01-01

262

Harmonizing the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) sound level meter specification standards  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been over 20 years since the last major revision of the American National Standard Specification for Sound Level Meters, S1.4-1983 (R2002). This is the most extensively referenced ANSI acoustical standard, with wide application to architectural acoustics, soundscapes, environmental noise, and hearing conservation. A new revision is proposed that conforms as closely as possible to the recently developed International Electrotechnical Commission Standard for Electroacoustics-Sound Level Meters Part 1: Specifications, IEC 61672-1 (2002-05). This proposed revision represents an improvement over ANSI S1.4-1983, particularly in its frequency response tolerance limits at high frequencies, and impulse (toneburst) response. Also, it incorporates the high-frequency electrical design goals and tolerance limits for A-weighted response that were specified in Amendment S1.4A-1985, and it maintains the more restrictive low-frequency tolerance limits of the earlier (1983) specification, compared to IEC 61672-1. The proposed revision maintains the laboratory precision Type 0 specification, which is absent in IEC 61672-1, while incorporating the specifications for integrating-averaging sound level meters previously given in ANSI S1.43-1997. Sound level meters which meet the Type 1 and Type 2 specification requirements, respectively, in this S1.4 revision will also meet the Class 1 and Class 2 specification requirements of 61672-1.

Brooks, Bennett M.

2005-09-01

263

The International Reference Ionosphere - Climatological Standard for the Ionosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) a joint project of URSI and COSPAR is the defacto standard for a climatological specification of ionospheric parameters. IRI is based on a wide range of ground and space data and has been steadily improved since its inception in 1969 with the ever-increasing volume of ionospheric data and with better mathematical descriptions of the observed global and temporal variation patterns. The IRI model has been validated with a large amount of data including data from the most recent ionospheric satellites (KOMPSAT, ROCSAT and TIMED) and data from global network of ionosondes. Several IRI teams are working on specific aspects of the IRI modeling effort including an improved representation of the topside ionosphere with a seamless transition to the plasmasphere, a new effort to represent the global variation of F2 peak parameters using the Neural Network (NN) technique, and the inclusion of several additional parameters in IRI, e.g., spread-F probability and ionospheric variability. Annual IRI workshops are the forum for discussions of these efforts and for all science activities related to IRI as well as applications of the IRI model in engineering and education. In this paper I will present a status report about the IRI effort with special emphasis on the presentations and results from the most recent IRI Workshops (Paris, 2004; Tortosa, 2005) and on the most important ongoing IRI activities. I will discuss the latest version of the IRI model, IRI-2006, highlighting the most recent changes and additions. Finally, the talk will review some of the applications of the IRI model with special emphasis on the use for radiowave propagation studies and communication purposes.

Bilitza, Dieter

2006-01-01

264

The development of internal fixation: Historical overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the ancient times, man was faced with the problem of fracture treatment, which is first described in the records from ancient Egypt. Ever since, many treatment methods have been developed, but the real revolution in the fracture treatment was achieved by internal fixation. Since it was described for the first time, at the end of the 18th century, this method has continuously developed, but sterilization, radiographies, anaesthesiology, antibiotics made this surgery modern and safe...

Leši? Aleksandar R.; Zagorac Slaviša; Bumbaširevi? Vesna; Z?, Bumbas?irevic? Marko

2012-01-01

265

Financial development, International Trade and welfare  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Differences between domestic financial systems can lead to international trade. A country with relatively developed or decentralized financial systems will export innovative commodities while a country with less developed and centralized financial systems will export traditional commodities. Trade is always welfare improving before the resolution of uncertainty but the country with the more risk averse financial system and the world as a whole can be worse off with trade after ...

Blanchard, Michel; Peltrault, Frederic

2009-01-01

266

Motor Development International: Compressed Air Technology Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

How does a car that boasts "zero pollution" and even "cleans the air it uses" work? This website provides information on the air compression cars developed by Motor Development International. Aside from the general overview of the mechanics of air compression, the FAQ section provides additional information on the air tanks, filter system, body frame, electric system and MDI's business model. A key target for this website seems to be potential buyers and investors.

267

Standards for PV Modules and Components -- Recent Developments and Challenges: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International standards play an important role in the Photovoltaic industry. Since PV is such a global industry it is critical that PV products be measured and qualified the same way everywhere in the world. IEC TC82 has developed and published a number of module and component measurement and qualification standards. These are continually being updated to take advantage of new techniques and equipment as well as better understanding of test requirements. Standards presently being updated include the third edition of IEC 61215, Crystalline Silicon Qualification and the second edition of IEC 61730, PV Module Safety Requirements. New standards under development include qualification of junction boxes, connectors, PV cables, and module integrated electronics as well as for testing the packaging used during transport of modules. After many years of effort, a draft standard on Module Energy Rating should be circulated for review soon. New activities have been undertaken to develop standards for the materials within a module and to develop tests that evaluate modules for wear-out in the field (International PV Module QA Task Force). This paper will discuss these efforts and indicate how the audience can participate in development of international standards.

Wohlgemuth, J. H.

2012-10-01

268

A Culture of compliance: developing standards for fighting corruption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract.Over the past decade, a new global regime of anti-corruption has taken shape. Pushed by NGOs such as Transparency International, and with coalitions of international organizations, Western governments, and private business circles, we now have a framework of conventions and regulations that impel governments and international firms to act with integrity and to prevent corruption in business and international development. New anti-bribery laws reward whistleblowers and penalize firms ...

Sampson, Steven

2012-01-01

269

Westinghouse uses USAF-developed standards  

Science.gov (United States)

Westinghouse has applied digital standards advantageously for the U.S. Air Force on its latest weapon systems. At present Westinghouse is applying MIL-STD-1750A (ISA), MIL-STD-1589B (JOVIAL 73 HOL), and MIL-STD-1553B (multiplex busing) to three major programs: B-1B Offensive Radar System, Improved AN/APG-66 Radar for the F-16, and AFTI F-16 Electro-Optical Sensor/Tracker. Westinghouse has gone one step further than the digital standards. With U.S. Air Force encouragement Westinghouse has a program for maximum radar commonality among the B-1B ORS, F-16C, and the U.S. Army Sgt. York DIVAD Gun System. This paper will cover Westinghouse's approach toward managing the application of the military standards across multiple programs with different prime contractors and services. Additionally, the method by which configuration control of standard module hardware (i.e., rational standardization) maintained at Westinghouse will be discussed.

Shyman, C. S.

1982-11-01

270

Development of standard reference materials for radioassay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The standardization of a measurement system is crucial. Most measurement systems rely on direct comparisons between a standard and the unknown sample. Therefore, it is important for the standard to be as similar as possible to the sample. The reliability and limitations of an SRM in its application to the intended measurement system, along with any precautions that should be observed in its use, are explicitly stated on the certificate that accompanies each SRM. Obvious information appearing on the certificate would include intended use, specific radionuclide composition or the properties certified, methods used, the size of samples that should be used to insure homogeneity, etc. Not so obvious, but highly important, is the inclusion of information about precautions that should be observed in the use of an SRM to achieve accurate measurements. Standard Reference Materials for radioassay are essential in today's measurement process. Many SRM's are routinely used in the quality assurance programs of well known laboratories. The authors' opinion, NBS (National Bureau of Standards) will continue to support this category of SRM's as long as the measurement need exists

271

Globalization quickly increased need for moving from local to international standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

'Standardization' quickly changed in the past few years, due to the market's globalization that needs international standards as important instruments in eliminating technical barriers to trade. The 'Petroleum Sector' chose moving to international standards jointly processed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) that played the role of historical reference. Taking into account that oil industry wants only one Standard worldwide used, also Europe decided for adopting these ISO Standards as European Standards. The result is much better considering that also Russia and China seem to adopt these ISO documents as their national standards. It is so becoming much more significant the 'motto' that ISO TC 67 'Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries' adopted for its standardization activities: 'Do it once, do it right, do it internationally'. Examples of such international Standards worldwide used as National Standards are: ISO 11960:2004 - 'Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for wells' and; ISO/DIS 3183 - 'Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems' (under preparation). Standardization has so grown from technical to management tool and countries are also moving, including standards in more areas of its legislations. (author)

Cappelli, Cataldo

2005-07-01

272

Development of nuclear power standards and relevant system in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By analyzing the history of nuclear power development and the status of nuclear power codes and standards in China, the significance and necessity to quicken the development of nuclear power standards system in China are pointed out, and the guiding ideology, development thoughts, working doctrine and development objectives are put forward in this paper. (authors)

273

Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).?METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Search words included "ISO", "CORESTA", "Barclay", "compensation and machine smoking", "tar and nicotine del...

Bialous, S.; Yach, D.

2001-01-01

274

The Role of Planetary Data System Archive Standards in International Planetary Data Archives  

Science.gov (United States)

A major objective of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) is to efficiently archive and make accessible digital data produced by NASA's planetary missions, research programs, and data analysis programs. The PDS is comprised of a federation of groups known as nodes, with each node focused on archiving and managing planetary data from a given science discipline. PDS nodes include Atmospheres, Geosciences, Small Bodies (asteroids, comets, and dust), Rings, Planetary Plasma Interactions, and Imaging. There are also support nodes for engineering, radio science, and ancillary data, such as geometry information. The PDS archives include space-borne, ground-based, and laboratory experiment data from several decades of NASA exploration of comets, asteroids, moons, and planets. PDS archives are peer-reviewed, welldocumented, and accessible online via web sites, catalogs, and other user-interfaces that provide search and retrieval capabilities. Current holdings within the PDS online repositories total approximately 50 TB of data. Over the next few years, the PDS is planning for a rapid expansion in the volume of data being delivered to its archives. The archive standards developed by the PDS are crucial elements for producing planetary data archives that are consistent across missions and planetary science disciplines and that yield archives that are useable by the planetary research community. These standards encompass the full range of archiving needs. They include standards for the format of data products and the metadata needed to detail how observations were made. They also specify how data products and ancillary information such as documentation, calibration, and geometric information are packaged into data sets. The PDS standards are documented in its Planetary Science Data Dictionary and in its Standards Reference Document and Archive Preparation Guide. The PDS standards are being used to design and implement data archives for current and future NASA planetary missions. Over the next several years, there will be additional planetary missions to the Moon and Mars led by countries such as Japan, China, India, and Russia, along with the European Space Agency (ESA). Planetary missions are also beginning to involve more international collaboration. Thus, it is important that the archives produced by these missions have some common standards so that the data can be readily used in research by the international planetary science community. In addition, the adoption of common archive standards would save time and effort for agencies in terms of data archive design and development. ESA has successfully adopted PDS standards for archives from a suite of missions that includes Mars Express, Venus Express, Cassini-Huygens, and Rosetta. An approach for advancing the use of a common set of archiving standards for planetary data was the creation of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA). Representatives from the PDS are active participants in the IPDA. One of the PDS contributions to the IPDA is to work on IPDA projects that seek to develop a core set of archiving standards for use by the international space agencies.

Guinness, Edward; Slavney, Susan; Beebe, Reta; Crichton, Daniel

275

The Realization of Tibetan Code Conversion between National and International Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper has expatiated the mutual conversion between national and international standards (ISO/IEC 10646), and realized UNICODE operation based on MATLAB. It has made code conversion between national and international standards, in order to provide an effective method for further Tibetan small-character code processing based on MATLAB.

Qiang Ma; Yonghong Li

2012-01-01

276

Precise determination of bromine in PP resin pellet by instrumental neutron activation analysis using internal standardization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis with the internal standardization was applied the precise determination of bromine in PP resin. Gold was used as an internal standard. The analytical results of Br were in excellent agreement with the values obtained by ID-ICPMS. The relative expanded uncertainty (k=2) was 1.9 %, and it was comparable to that of ID-ICP-MS. (author)

277

Language Selection Policies in International Standardization – Perception of the IEC Member Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

International standards setting organizations have different language selection policies. These policies have, besides their financial aspects, also an important cultural/ political dimension. The standards setting organizations are either bilingual (English/ French), or unilingual (English), or multilingual (English, French and further languages). We have investigated the references of the 65 national members of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The main findings are a mod...

Teichmann, H.; Vries, H. J.

2009-01-01

278

The Realization of Tibetan Code Conversion between National and International Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper has expatiated the mutual conversion between national and international standards (ISO/IEC 10646, and realized UNICODE operation based on MATLAB. It has made code conversion between national and international standards, in order to provide an effective method for further Tibetan small-character code processing based on MATLAB.

Qiang Ma

2012-04-01

279

Mathematics Teacher TPACK Standards and Development Model  

Science.gov (United States)

What knowledge is needed to teach mathematics with digital technologies? The overarching construct, called technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK), has been proposed as the interconnection and intersection of technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge. Mathematics Teacher TPACK Standards offer guidelines for thinking about this…

Niess, Margaret L.; Ronau, Robert N.; Shafer, Kathryn G.; Driskell, Shannon O.; Harper, Suzanne R.; Johnston, Christopher; Browning, Christine; Ozgun-Koca, S. Asli; Kersaint, Gladis

2009-01-01

280

Draft I.E.C. standard for monitoring PWR internal structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EDF has proposed to the I.E.C. (International Electrotechnical Commission) a draft standard for monitoring the vessel internal structures of PWRs. The standard applies to systems used for monitoring the vibratory behavior of the internal structures of PWRs (core barrel, thermal shield, fuel assemblies) on the basis of neutron fluctuations observed outside the vessel as well as of vessel vibrations. It covers the systems characteristics and the monitoring procedures. It should facilitate standardization of monitoring and comparisons on an international level. (author)

 
 
 
 
281

Collaborative study for the establishment of the third international standard for nystatin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the depletion in stocks of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2nd International Standard (IS) for nystatin, an international collaborative study was organised by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) to establish a replacement batch. Seventeen laboratories participated in the collaborative study, performing the microbiological diffusion assay to estimate the potency of the candidate 3rd International Standard for nystatin. The 2nd International Standard for nystatin was used as a standard to ensure the continuity of the unitage. Follow-up accelerated degradation studies demonstrated that the IS is stable when at the customary storage temperature of - 20 °C. The 3rd IS for nystatin was adopted by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2006 with an assigned potency of 5710 International Units per mg (IU/mg). The 3rd IS for nystatin is available from the EDQM. PMID:21144490

Rautmann, G; Charton, E; Daas, A; Buchheit, K-H

2010-10-01

282

Knowledge sharing in international product development teams  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many companies are facing an increasing need to compete on a global scale. But as companies move into multiple markets, the process of developing new products becomes increasingly complex. Coping successfully with the increased internationalization forces companies to excel at collaboration and knowledge sharing, also across geographical distances. The capability to develop new transnational products depends largely on the multinational company's ability to transfer and deploy knowledge from its multiple country sources. The challenges of the transfer of knowledge between departments in the same company are far from trivial and the problems associated with transfer will increase with geographical and cultural difference (Bresman et al., 1999). Especially tacit knowledge is difficult to transport across national boarders (Kogut & Zander, 1992) and not much research exists on how companies overcome these barriers and harvest knowledge from geographical dispersed areas (Subramaniam & Venkatraman, 2001). The product development literature prescribes that knowledge sharing is desirable throughout the whole product development process (Craig & Hart, 1992; Hansen, 1999). Although this sharing is desirable, previous research found that it is the exception rather than the rule in most companies (Golder, 2000:329). Hence, it is relevant to research how companies can improve their ability to share knowledge in connection with international product development. One way to increase knowledge sharing in the product development process is by using teams. Teams are considered one of the best tools for exchanging especially tacit knowledge, since this kind of knowledge is transferred best through personal interaction and face-to-face meetings (Madhavan & Grover, 1998; Nonaka, 1994). In accordance with this, more and more multinational firms rely on international product development teams (McDonough et al., 2001) as a means to make the most effective use of the company's resources scattered around the world. While a substantial amount of research exists on groups in general, research into new product development teams is more limited and especially empirical research on global new product development teams is sparse (McDonough, et al., 2001). Findings from research on teams cannot automatically be generalized and applied to multinational product development teams, since these differ on a range of parameters from domestic teams. Multinational teams are often separated geographically and are culturally diverse, which affects their knowledge processes. Given the increased importance of multinational product development teams and the limited amount of research within this area, this therefore appears to be a topic worthy of further investigation. Hence the objective of the full paper is to discuss the challenges associated with knowledge sharing in international product development teams. A case study of a Danish international food company has been conducted and interviews with team members located in different geographical cites are currently being analyzed.

Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne

283

Evaluating psychoanalytic papers. Towards the development of common editorial standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychoanalysis has insecure foundations. Many of its core theories and therapeutic principles are contested from both within and without the discipline. While it often has little difficulty embracing new ideas it has terrible trouble rejecting old ones. Typically those within the discipline have dealt with this situation by destructive rationalisation, denial, splitting and idealization. Foremost is the tendency to multiply schools and paradigms and to rely on rhetoric and argument by authority. It is argued that to counter such inevitably destructive processes we need to find a way of improving constructive engagement with each other and to achieve a discipline that can grow on the secure foundations of gradually accumulating knowledge. Giving examples, the author describes the ongoing development of a methodology for evaluating psychoanalytic papers according to a common standard. It is proposed that it is possible to conduct reasoned international and cross-cultural peer review. This means that we can in principle evaluate and reach agreement as to the merit of psychoanalytic papers even though their authors may have backgrounds in profoundly different local style and local traditions of argument. Moreover, it is suggested, this can be done without creating the monster of an internationally homogenised style that would numb creativity and original thought. PMID:9717094

Tuckett, D

1998-06-01

284

Developing Laboratory Exercise in IEC 61850 Standard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of this thesis is to integrate the knowhow related to the IEC61850 standard to the laboratory exercises of a data transmission course. This is done through a careful design of the experimental set up, selection of tools and devices and description of laboratory tasks and objectives. The experimental setup provides step by step configuration of the devices to be used in different tasks. Selection of tools is according to the configuration required for a specific lab sess...

Wu, Liang

2010-01-01

285

Developing Ethics and Standards in Action Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a globalizing world, what role can social science research – particularly action research – play in order to address the risks of exclusion, poverty, social and physical insecurity and environmental deprivation? More specifically, how can this type of research be conducted in a participatory, responsible, transparent and scientific way? In other words: what about the ethics and standards in action research? This was the main focus of the World Congress on Action Research and Action Lea...

Ben Boog; Meindert Slagter; Jacques Zeelen

2009-01-01

286

Vitamin D status as an international issue: national surveys and the problem of standardization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wide spread variation in measurement results of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) confounds international efforts to develop evidence-based clinical guidelines. Accordingly, NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) in collaboration with CDC National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Ghent University established the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) in November 2010. VDSP objectives include: (1) standardize 25(OH)D concentration measurements in national health surveys around the world, (2) evaluate survey differences, (3) extend standardization efforts to assay manufacturers, and to clinical, commercial, and research laboratories, (4) promote standardization of emerging metabolites of vitamin D status, and (5) enable the use of standardized data in patient care and public health. An interlaboratory comparison study is being conducted to assess measurement variability among current assays. Participants include national health surveys from Australia, Canada, Germany, Ireland, Mexico, South Korea, UK and USA, 15 assay manufacturers, and two external quality assurance programs. CDC will implement a formal laboratory certification program. Standardization activities will use single-donor, fresh-frozen serum collected using the CLSI C37 protocol. Initial assay performance criteria, based on biological variability data, are ? 10 % imprecision and ? 5 % bias in relation to the reference values. An ancillary study on commutability of NIST SRM 972a, external quality assurance testing materials is included. To increase the comparability of existing data from different national surveys, master equations will be developed to facilitate the conversion of already existing national survey data to the NIST-Ghent University reference measurement procedures. PMID:22536760

Sempos, Christopher T; Vesper, Hubert W; Phinney, Karen W; Thienpont, Linda M; Coates, Paul M

2012-01-01

287

Development in Danish international air traffic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper is describing the development in international air traffic made by Danes and for all travellers out of Denmark in the period 2002 - 2012. Development in passengers, destination countries and prices is illustrated. The person kilometres by Danes have increased 80% or 7.2% per year in mean during the 10 years. This increase has been analysed by a panel data model. The conclusion found by modelling is the increasing travel activity first of all is driven by increasing income and to less extent by decreasing prices. The paper is furthermore showing how the international air traffic has got more effective and to what extent Low Cost Carriers have taken over an important part of the travel market.

Christensen, Linda

288

Specific Features of Reflection of Information Regarding Lease Operations in the National and International Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article identifies the degree of correspondence of the national Provisions (Standard) of Business Accounting (PSBA) Lease with the international standard and provides recommendations with respect to their closing up. On the results of the study the author provides specific features of international and national standards – the existing IFRS 17 Lease and national PSBA 14 Lease by the following components: definition of lease, its classification and reflection in accounting. Also the text...

Nikolenko Nataliya V.

2013-01-01

289

Russia's Role in International Transportation Corridors Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article reviews the prospects of Russia's transportation system development within transcontinental transportation links, the role of Siberian territories in the process, logistics as a perspective branch of national economy. The author weighs the advantages and drawbacks of cross-Russian transits, as compared to other marine and land transportation corridors, and analyzes the idea to create full-functioning international transportation corridors in Russia as a strategic task, whose reali...

???????, ?. ?.; Baldano, M. N.

2011-01-01

290

The Process of Developing National Standards That Meet ANSI Guidelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

American national standards for the evaluation of educational programs were developed by the Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation in 1994. This paper describes the Joint Committee's standard setting process. The Joint Committee is a coalition of professional organizations concerned with the quality of evaluations in education.…

Sanders, James R.

291

IPSAS 1 - 17, International Public Sector Accounting Standards (Beschreibung in deutscher Sprache).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die International Federation of Accountants (Public Sector Committee) veröffentlichen seit Neuerem Standards für die öffentliche Rechnungslegung. Diese Standards dürften auch für den deutschsprachigen Raum von Bedeutung sein. Zur Unterstützung der aktuellen Diskussion über die IPSAS im deutschsprachigen Raum, haben wir uns entschieden, im vorliegenden Workingpaper die 17 momentan gültigen IPSAS Standards (Stand Anfang April 2002) in deutscher Sprache zu beschreiben. Es handelt sich da...

Werner Wohlwend; Bernhard Knechtenhofer

2002-01-01

292

Development of thermodynamic potentials for fluid water, ice and seawater: a new standard for oceanography  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new seawater standard has been developed for oceanographic and engineering applications that consists of three independent thermodynamic potential functions, derived from extended distinct sets of very accurate experimental data. The results have been formulated as Releases of the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS (1996, 2006, 2008) and are to be adopted internationally by other organizations in subsequent years. In order to successfully perform computat...

Feistel, R.; Wright, D. G.; Miyagawa, K.; Hruby, J.; Jackett, D. R.; Mcdougall, T. J.; Wagner, W.

2008-01-01

293

PV Standards Work: Photovoltaic System and Component Certification, Test Facility Accreditation, and Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems International Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses efforts led by two companies (PowerMark Corporation and Sunset Technologies Inc.) to support both U.S. domestic and international photovoltaic (PV) system and component certification and test facility accreditation programs and the operation of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC-82) Photovoltaic Energy Systems. International and national PV certification/accreditation programs are successfully facilitating entry of only the highest quality PV products into the marketplace. Standards also continue to be a cornerstone for assuring global PV product conformity assessment, reducing non-tariff trade barriers, and ultimately improving PV products while lowering cost.

Basso, T. S.; Chalmers, S.; Barikmo, H. O.

2005-11-01

294

International development workshops. Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) began to act on their recognition of the importance of education in nuclear literacy, specifically in radioactive waste management (RWM), several years ago. To address this Goal for nuclear literacy, the US DOE; through the Information and Education Division of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and in cooperation with the OECD/NEA, organized an ``International Workshop on Education in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management`` in Engelberg, Switzerland in June of 1991. To this end, a grant to support nuclear literacy and RWM was written and funded by the OCRWM and the education division of the DOE Yucca Mountain Office in 1990. The over-riding Goal of that workshop and the DOE grant was to find ways of raising the level of nuclear literacy in the general public through educational programs in radioactive waste management (RWM). The two Main Objectives of the workshop were: first, to contribute to an information base for education systems, on global aspects of radioactive waste management; and second, to achieve international consensus on the basic tools and methods required to develop the information base. These two objectives also became the principal objectives of the DOE International Workshops grant. In other words, the global and local (Nevada) objectives were one and the same. Workshop overviews and accomplishments are summarized in this report.

NONE

1997-08-06

295

International development workshops. Final technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) began to act on their recognition of the importance of education in nuclear literacy, specifically in radioactive waste management (RWM), several years ago. To address this Goal for nuclear literacy, the US DOE; through the Information and Education Division of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and in cooperation with the OECD/NEA, organized an ''International Workshop on Education in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management'' in Engelberg, Switzerland in June of 1991. To this end, a grant to support nuclear literacy and RWM was written and funded by the OCRWM and the education division of the DOE Yucca Mountain Office in 1990. The over-riding Goal of that workshop and the DOE grant was to find ways of raising the level of nuclear literacy in the general public through educational programs in radioactive waste management (RWM). The two Main Objectives of the workshop were: first, to contribute to an information base for education systems, on global aspects of radioactive waste management; and second, to achieve international consensus on the basic tools and methods required to develop the information base. These two objectives also became the principal objectives of the DOE International Workshops grant. In other words, the global and local (Nevada) objectives were one and the same. Workshop overviews and accomplishments are summarized in this report

296

The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise.

Roe, S. [CSD, British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing (BINDT) (United Kingdom); Mba, D. [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.mba@cranfield.ac.uk

2009-02-15

297

The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise

298

Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different langu...

Benedict, Ralph Hb; Amato, Maria Pia; Boringa, Jan; Brochet, Bruno; Foley, Fred; Fredrikson, Stan; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hartung, Hans; Krupp, Lauren; Penner, Iris; Reder, Anthony T.; Langdon, Dawn

2012-01-01

299

Business and Management Aspects of International Accounting Standardization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerialdecisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system willlead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from thebusiness management of certain countries. The results of applied regression model support that the greaterdemand for more informative and conservative accou...

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

300

Diesel engine development in view of reduced emission standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diesel engine development for use in light-, medium- and heavy-duty road vehicles is mainly driven by more and more stringent emission standards. Apart from air quality related emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulates, also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to become of more and more importance. Furthermore, oil-based fuel availability might become a problem due to limited reserves or due to political influences which leads to significantly increased fuel costs. Based on the above aspects, advanced engine technologies become essential and are discussed. Fuel injection with rate shaping capability and elevated injection pressures, air handling systems to increase the brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) and specific power with a downsizing approach, while retaining a good dynamic response using possibly two-stage turbocharging. Heterogeneous and near-homogeneous combustion processes where the latter could possibly reduce the requirements on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Improvement and further development of engine management and control systems, exhaust gas aftertreatment for a reduction of nitrogen oxides and especially particulates and last but not least, energy recovery from the exhaust gas. Furthermore, alternative fuel usage in road vehicles is becoming important and their application in internal combustion engines is discussed

 
 
 
 
301

Developing Standards-Based Geography Curricular Materials from Overseas Field Experiences for K-12 Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Overseas experiences provide educators with exceptional opportunities to incorporate field study, firsthand experiences, and tangible artifacts into the classroom. Despite this potential, teachers must consider curricular standards that direct how such international endeavors can be integrated. Furthermore, geography curriculum development is more…

Oberle, Alex; Palacios, Fabian Araya

2012-01-01

302

[Thermal water for recreational use: overview of international standards].  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of thermal waters in swimming pools for recreational use is widespread in Europe and in the rest of the world. The biological and chemical properties of spa waters make it difficult to treat them with conventional disinfection methods. The authors present an overview of European and international laws and regulations on this subject and highlight their strengths and gaps. PMID:23369998

Giampaoli, Saverio; Valeriani, Federica; Romano Spica, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

303

FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of a method to evaluate the performance of open robot use communication interface in production system, etc.; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Seisan system nado ni okeru open robot yo tsushin interface no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the purpose of standardizing the communication interface system between personal computers and robots, the R and D were conducted on ORiN (Open Robot Interface for the Network), and the FY 1999 results were summed up. ORiN is composed of the provider part, kernel part and application logic part. The provider absorbs differences in expression and protocols of robot controller data of each company and conveys them to the kernel part. The kernel part is composed of RAO and RDF. RAO adopts the disperse object model DCOM technology and supplies the network transparency and common access method to robot. RDF supplies files with expansion of robot structure models using XML. By this, ORiN was made adoptable for future, permitting differences in each robot. In the International Robot Exhibition held in October 26-29, 1999, the prototype of ORiN was jointly demonstrated by each company. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

304

25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?  

Science.gov (United States)

...THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.11 What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering...auditing functions: (1) The parimutuel audit shall be conducted by personnel...

2010-04-01

305

Developing pipeline reclamation standards in Alberta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of Alberta's oil and gas industry has led to a proliferation of pipelines in the province. All Alberta pipelines require a reclamation certificate before the proponent is released of reclamation liabilities. This has led to much discussion of how to assess oil and gas wellsites and pipeline reclamation success since the early 1980s. The requirement for reclamation certification is that land have equivalent capability to that which existed prior to the disturbance. The approach that has been used for wellsite reclamation success evaluation is a parameter by parameter comparison and pass/fail system. In this case each parameter must pass or the site fails. NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd. undertook, in late 1996, to put together a group of government regulatory and non-regulatory personnel, industry and third party individuals to develop a more integrated capability based evaluation system. Various approaches were field tested in 1997 and 1998. This paper reports on the process used, the field results and current status of the project

306

Selection, Training, and Development for Female International Executives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interviews with 50 female expatriate managers addressed the lack of women in international management positions and focused on processes of selecting, training, and developing female executives for international assignments. Strategies for internationalizing female managers were developed. (Contains 28 references.) (JOW)

Linehan, Margaret; Scullion, Hugh

2001-01-01

307

Standardization of negative controls in diagnostic immunohistochemistry : recommendations from the international ad hoc expert panel  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide "best practice recommendations" for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on "fit-for-use" principles.

Torlakovic, Emina E; Francis, Glenn

2014-01-01

308

Development of the National Bureau of Standards low-energy-photon-emission-rate radioactivity standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Bureau of Standards has recently developed point source low-energy-photon-emission-rate standards of 55Fe, 85Sr, 109Cd and 125I. The standardizations were performed using a defined solid angle, NaI(Tl) spectrometer that can be operated with gas fillings at atmospheric and reduced pressure. The corrections applicable to such a spectrometer have been discussed by W. B. Bambynek

309

76 FR 53817 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION: Final...

2011-08-30

310

75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37...Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Delay of effective...

2010-09-10

311

77 FR 36984 - International Standard-Setting Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...Proposed draft Maximum Levels for cassava and cassava products. Proposed draft levels for...GL 2-1985). Use of ethylene as flowering agent for pineapples and for degreening...Standard for Named Vegetable Oils: Sunflower Seed Oils. New work proposal to...

2012-06-20

312

The development of international tourism in Lithuania: a comparative analysis of regional aspects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The processes related to the development of international tourism in Lithuania are of importance for the growth of economic, social, and cultural welfare. The increasing tourist and recreational attractiveness of such cities as Druskininkai, Trakai, Palanga, Vilnius, and Klaipeda to international tourists, as well as an advantageous quality-price ratio of the services offered contribute to the growth of competitiveness on the international tourism market. Service standards applied in Lithuani...

Spiriajevas E.

2013-01-01

313

Selecting International Standards for Accrual-Based Accounting in the Public Sector : IPSAS or IFRS?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The article discusses the definition of a government business enterprise (GBE), as provided in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), as a determinant for applying IPSAS or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for a public sector entity. The work of the IPSASB is focused on the accounting and financial reporting needs of national, regional and local governments, and related governmental agencies, while the IFRS serves the private sector.

Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

2011-01-01

314

MEASURING THE IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS (IFRS) TO FINANCIAL INFORMATION OF PORTUGUESE COMPANIES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To increase efficiency of the European finance market, the European Union (EU) recently forced all public companies to publish their financial disclosures with the support of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), emanated by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), beginning January 1, 2005. In this paper, we measure the impact of the application of IFRS to financial information of Portuguese public companies belonging to the Eurolist by Euronext Lisbon. The resu...

Francisco José Ferreira Silva; Gualter Manuel Medeiros do Couto; Ruben Mota Cordeiro

2008-01-01

315

Institutions Involved in International Convergence of Accounting Standards : A Neo-Institutional and Historical Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After the implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in the European Union in 2005, many countries including Canada, United States and Mexico have now announced that they will adopt IFRSs for all listed entities from 2011, 2014 and 2012 respectively. Thus, the process of international convergence of accounting standards appears to be entering a culminating stage. There are three theoretical and contextual premises which form the basis of this research. The first is t...

Barbu, E.; Baker, C. Richard

2009-01-01

316

International Osteoporosis Foundation and International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine position on bone marker standards in osteoporosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Working Group on Bone Marker Standards (WG-BMS) has evaluated the clinical potential of bone turnover markers (BTMs) in the prediction of fracture risk and for monitoring treatment. Research evidence suggests that BTMs may provide information on fracture risk independently from BMD, so that fracture risk prediction might be enhanced by their inclusion in assess...

Vasikaran, S.; Cooper, C.; Eastell, R.; Griesmacher, A.; Morris, Ha; Trenti, T.; Kanis, Ja

2011-01-01

317

Qualification of Programmable Electronic System (PES) equipment based on international nuclear I and C standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly faced with the challenge of qualifying procured equipment, sub-components, and systems that contain digital programmed electronics for use in safety-related applications. Referred to as a 'programmable electronic system' (PES), such equipment typically contains both complex logic that is vulnerable to systematic design faults, and low voltage electronics hardware that is subject to random faults. Procured PES products or components are often only commercial grade, yet can offer reliable cost effective alternatives to custom-designed or nuclear qualified equipment, provided they can be shown to meet the quality assurance, functional safety, environmental, and reliability requirements of a particular application. The process of confirming this is referred to as application-specific product qualification (ASPQ) and can be challenging and costly. This paper provides an overview of an approach that has been developed at Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and successfully applied to PES equipment intended for use in domestic Candu R 6 nuclear power plants and special purpose reactors at Chalk River Laboratories. The approach has evolved over the past decade and has recently been adapted to be consistent with, and take advantage of new standards that are applicable to nuclear safety-related I and C systems. Also discussed are how recognized third-party safety-certifications of PES equipment to International Electrotechnical Commint to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and the assessment methods employed, may be used to reduce ASPQ effort. (authors)

318

THE BASES OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Capitalism started as a consequence of the urban phenomena development, as well as of the commercial activities development. Thus, over this period of time, the attitude towards business also changed. This change was based also on certain economic reasons. The term „business” is defined in numerous dictionaries released until the present day in a restrictive and subjective manner, both from the perspective of the totalitarian communist ideology, which happened up to the year 1989, and also from the perspective of the different categories of meanings that were taken into consideration when compiling dictionaries in different international circulation languages. If an enterprise conducts business at an international level, then it will take into consideration the performance of different types of activities which differ greatly from the activities conducted at a national level. All these elements must be carefully studied by the company's management, in order to be able to act with high economic efficiency. It must be said that, in contemporary times, that „invisible hand of the market” from the past is none other than competition. As a consequence of the competitive phenomenon's manifestation, the prices are lower, the services are of a better quality and they are increasingly more diverse. Because of these positive arguments, Adam Smith was named „the father of economy”.

DOBRIN IONEL GABRIEL

2014-05-01

319

Application of k0-based internal mono-standard PGNAA for compositional characterization of cement samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The k0-based internal mono-standard prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (IM-PGNAA) method was used for compositional analysis of a cement standard provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency as a part of inter-laboratory comparison exercise. The PGNAA was also applied to a local cement sample for comparison purpose. The concentration ratios of elements with respect Ca were determined using the internal mono-standard method. The concentration ratios were then converted to the absolute concentrations by determining concentration of Ca in the cement using relative method. Concentrations of 11 elements were determined in both sample and standard of cement. The results of cement standard are found to be in good agreement with the certified values. The uncertainties on the elemental concentrations were in the range of 5-10 %. (author)

320

Internal standardization in atomic-emission spectrometry using inductively coupled plasma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principle of internal standardization has been used in quantitative analytical emission spectroscopy since 1925 to minimize the errors arising from fluctuations in sample preparation, excitation-source conditions, and detection parameters. Although modern spectroscopic excitation sources are far more stable and electronic detection methods are more precise than before, the system for the introduction of the sample in spectrometric analysis using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) introduces significant errors, and internal standardization can still play a useful role in improving the overall precision of the analytical results. The criteria for the selection of the elements to be used as internal standards in arc and spark spectrographic analysis apply to a much lesser extent in ICP-spectrometric analysis. Internal standardization is recommended for use in routine ICP-simultaneous spectrometric analysis to improve its accuracy and precision and to provide a monitor for the reassurance of the analyst. However, the selection of an unsuitable reference element can result in misuse of the principle of internal standardization and, although internal standardization can be applied when a sequential monochromator is used, the main sources of error will not be minimized

 
 
 
 
321

Comparison report for CSNI International Standard Problem 12 (ROSA-III Run 912)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ROSA-III Run 912 was identified as International Standard Problem 12 by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations. Run 912 simulated a 5% split break LOCA condition in a BWR at the pump suction in the recirculation line with the HPCS failure. Comparisons between the test data and the calculations by eight international participants were made and discussed. (author)

322

Help for the Developers of Control System Cyber Security Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Catalog of Control Systems Security: Recommendations for Standards Developers (Catalog), aimed at assisting organizations to facilitate the development and implementation of control system cyber security standards, has been developed. This catalog contains requirements that can help protect control systems from cyber attacks and can be applied to the Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources of the United States and other nations. The requirements contained in the catalog are a compilation of practices or various industry bodies used to increase the security of control systems from both physical and cyber attacks. They should be viewed as a collection of recommendations to be considered and judiciously employed, as appropriate, when reviewing and developing cyber security standards for control systems. The recommendations in the Catalog are intended to be broad enough to provide any industry using control systems the flexibility needed to develop sound cyber security standards specific to their individual security requirements.

Robert P. Evans

2008-05-01

323

Development of prognostic occupational air standards for nanoparticles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The intensive progress of nanoindustry in the Russian Federation makes quite urgent the problem of development and especially express development of occupational exposure standards for nanoparticles and nanoaerosols in the workplace air. We developed an approach to comparative toxicity assessment and express calculation of occupational exposure standards for nanoaerosols, based on criteria for the development of maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) of aerosols in the workplace air. The developed approach was used to obtain prognostic MACs of certain aerosols in the workplace air, mg/m{sup 3}: nano-Ag 0.08, nano-TiO{sub 2} 0.19, and C{sub 60} 0.08.

Radilov, Andrey S; Glushkova, Anzhela V; Dulov, Sergej A; Khlebnikova, Nataliya S, E-mail: aglushkova_rihope@hotmail.com, E-mail: radilov@rihophe.ru [Research Institute of Hygiene, Occupational Pathology and Human Ecology Federal State Unitary Enterprise, Federal Medical Biological Agency, Kuz' molovsky g/p, Vsevolozhsky District, Leningrad Region, 188663 (Russian Federation)

2011-07-06

324

Development of a transient internal probe diagnostic  

Science.gov (United States)

The transient internal probe (TIP) diagnostic is a novel method for probing the interior of hot magnetic fusion plasmas. In the TIP scheme, a probe is fired, using a two-stage light gas gun, through a hot plasma at velocities up to 5 km/s, and makes direct, local measurements of the internal magnetic field structure. The data are relayed to the laboratory optical detection system using an incident laser that is directed through a Faraday rotator payload acting as a magneto-optic sensor. Ablative effects are avoided by minimizing the probe size, limiting the time that the probe is in the hot plasma, and encasing the probe with a diamond cladding. The degree to which the diamond probe cladding is susceptible to ablative effects will determine the plasma density and temperature regime in which the TIP diagnostic can be used. If the TIP suffers significant ablation it is an indication that the diagnostic is not usable on this hot and dense of a plasma (or that greater velocity must be imparted to the probe to further minimize the time that it is in the plasma). A quantitative experimental study of the ablation rates of diamond is planned as part of the TIP development. The integrated TIP system will be functional in 1992 and installed on the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) [T. R. Jarboe, Fusion Tech. 15, 9 (1989)] at the University of Washington.

Spanjers, G. G.; Galambos, J. P.; Bohnet, M. A.; Jarboe, T. R.; Christiansen, W. H.; Wurden, G. A.; Wright, B. L.; Smith, R. J.

1992-10-01

325

International Education and Development: Histories, Parallels, Crossroads  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Education has been a priority sector when considering foreign aid allocationsince the 1970s. The stated objective has been to ensure universal access to basic education, with a more recent emphasis on quality and outcomes. Aware that these goals will not be met universally, the major actors involved in the post-2015 debate are turning back to the concept of learning. In this chapter, we briefly review major scholarly work and strategic papers that have shaped the discourse and policies of international development organisations and national actors over the past four decades. We discuss how the central notions of skills, learning, and both formal and non-formal education have evolved in conjunction with ideological shifts. We examine the tensions between public and private education as well as between individualised and standardised delivery modes. We further look at (big data and online education promises. To conclude, we question the current focus of major stakeholders on post-2015, post-EFA agendas. As several articles in this special issue underscore, national policies and local practices are largely driven by persistent political economy dynamics while the influence of ‘the global agenda’ tends to remain confined to the international cooperation community itself.

Gilles Carbonnier

2014-11-01

326

Accelerating nuclear power standards development and promoting sound nuclear power development in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper expounds the importance of quickening establishment and perfection of nuclear power standard system in China, analyzes achievements made and problems existed during the development of nuclear power standards, put forward proposals to actively promote the work in this regard, and indicates that CNNC will further strengthen the standardization work, enhance coordination with those trades related to nuclear power standards, and jointly promote the development of nuclear power standards. (authors)

327

The internal consistency of the standard gamble: tests after adjusting for prospect theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reports a study that tests whether the internal consistency of the standard gamble can be improved upon by incorporating loss weighting and probability transformation parameters in the standard gamble valuation procedure. Five alternatives to the standard EU formulation are considered: (1) probability transformation within an EU framework; and, within a prospect theory framework, (2) loss weighting and full probability transformation, (3) no loss weighting and full probability tr...

Oliver, Adam

2003-01-01

328

Draft I.E.C. standard for monitoring PWR internal structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EDF has proposed to the International Electrotechnical Commission a draft standard for monitoring the vessel internal structures of PWRs. The standard applies to systems used for monitoring the vibratory behavior of the internal structures of PWRs (core barrel, thermal shield, fuel assemblies) on the basis of neutron fluctuations observed outside the vessel as well as of vessel vibrations. It covers the systems characteristics and the monitoring procedures. It should facilitate standardization of monitoring and comparisons on an international level. This paper presents the main features of the draft standard: -principles of measurement: correlation between movements of internals and ex core neutron noise on the one hand, forced vibrations of the vessel on the other hand; -sampling and conditioning of the signals; -monitoring equipment and in particular spectral analysis device; -functions of the monitoring software used for spectral analysis, peak detection and calculation of structure displacement; -studies preliminary to setting up the monitoring (calculation of internal vibratory modes, defect simulation on mockup, qualification on reactor during hot test...); -monitoring procedures (periodicity of analysis and what to do in case of anomaly); -documentation necessary to the monitoring. A diagnostic procedure is given as an example. The draft standard, written in 1994, will be presented in Frankfurt (Germany) in February 1995. (author). 1 annexe

329

Development of Industrial Information Systems based on Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis has studied how ISO STEP application protocols can be used as a base for development of enterprise information systems that provides information sharing capabilities in a collaborative environment. In this thesis, five papers have been selected and are presented in the context of four themes that characterize the whole research body. The four themes are: - Standard models as a base for development of IT systems - Applications operating on integrated (standard) models - Sharing of ...

Rose?n, Jonas

2010-01-01

330

Development and calibration of a plate type eddy current standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eddy current standard for the calibration of absolute type surface probe and the technique of measurement of the dimensions of artificial slot in the standard was developed. The ultrasonic test method was applied for measuring depth of the artificially machined slot of which width and depth were 0.1 mm and 0.5 mm respectively. The developed technique of measuring such narrow and deep slot with uncertainty of 0.02 mm for depth has been unattainable by this time.

331

Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography  

CERN Document Server

The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

2012-01-01

332

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 41 (IAS 41 – IMPLICATION FOR REPORTING CROP ASSETS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A series of articles were written regarding International Accounting Standard 41 (IAS 41 – Agriculture in order to outpost the the implication of this standard over valuating the different biological assets. Valuation of crop assets are also a part of the IAS 41 objective.  Anyway,  this paper investigates the implications of International Accounting Standard 41 for European Union (EU entities reporting on holdings of crop asset from thre  points of view: implication of production forecast over the accurate accounting, the impact over cash flow and the possibility like companies to use acoounting methodology on own interests.

Petru ?tefea

2013-05-01

333

National and international drawing standards: moving toward better alignment with Y14. 5  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The task of revising the national standard on Dimensioning and Tolerancing, begun seven years ago, required close coordination between the Y14.5 Subcommittee and the US expert members who participated in related activities of the International Organization for Standardization. The revised drawing standard about to be issued reflects additional international alignments in areas of metrication, symbology, and conventions. Differences remain in the prescribed symbol for indicating a datum feature and in a Principle of Independency, the latter unacceptably absolving size limits from controlling the geometric form of an individual feature. More US member experts will be needed on the Y14.5 Subcommittee to uphold US viewpoints in the writing of international drawing standards of a pragmatic kind.

Nicovich, P A

1980-01-01

334

Standardization and future directions in pattern identification research: International brainstorming session.  

Science.gov (United States)

An international brainstorming session on standardizing pattern identification (PI) was held at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine on October 1, 2013 in Daejeon, South Korea. This brainstorming session was convened to gather insights from international traditional East Asian medicine specialists regarding PI standardization. With eight presentations and discussion sessions, the meeting allowed participants to discuss research methods and diagnostic systems used in traditional medicine for PI. One speaker presented a talk titled "The diagnostic criteria for blood stasis syndrome: implications for standardization of PI". Four speakers presented on future strategies and objective measurement tools that could be used in PI research. Later, participants shared information and methodology for accurate diagnosis and PI. They also discussed the necessity for standardizing PI and methods for international collaborations in pattern research. PMID:25491542

Jung, Jeeyoun; Park, Bongki; Lee, Ju Ah; You, Sooseong; Alraek, Terje; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Birch, Stephen; Kim, Tae-Hun; Xu, Hao; Zaslawski, Chris; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Lee, Myeong Soo

2014-12-01

335

Accredited Standards Committee N15 Developments And Future Directions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) N15, Methods of Nuclear Material Control, is sponsored by the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) to develop standards for protection, control and accounting of special nuclear materials in all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, including analytical procedures where necessary and special to this purpose, except that physical protection of special nuclear material within a nuclear power plant is not included. Voluntary consensus standards complement federal regulations and technical standards and fulfill an important role for the nuclear regulatory agencies. This paper describes the N15 standards development process, with INMM as the Standards Developing Organization (SDO) and the N15 Committee responsible for implementation. Key components of the N15 standards development process include ANSI accreditation; compliance with the ANSI Essential Requirements (ER), coordination with other SDOs, communication with stakeholders, maintenance of balance between interest categories, and ANSI periodic audits. Recent and future ASC N15 activities are discussed, with a particular focus on new directions in anticipation of renewed growth in nuclear power.

336

Prediction of ROSA-III test RUN 912 (International Standard Problem-12)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ROSA-III test RUN 912 is conducted at JAERI for ISP-12 (International Standard Problem-12) of CSNI (Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations). RUN 912 simulates a 5% split break at the recirculation pump inlet side of a BWR with the assumption of HPCS single failure. Prediction of the ROSA-III test RUN 912 was performed by using RELAP4J, RELAP4/MOD6 and RELAP5/MOD0 computer codes developed to analyze thermal hydraulic phenomena during loss of coolant accidents and transients of a light water reactor. Both RELAP4J and RELAP4/MOD6 are codes based on a one-dimensional homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow model, whereas RELAP5/MOD0 is an advanced code based on a one-dimensional nonhomogeneous nonequilibrium two-phase flow model. The present prediction is useful to evaluate the predictability of LOCA analysis codes and for a better understanding of the codes. (author)

337

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NEW INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS IN SWISS LEGISLATION ON RADON PROTECTION IN DWELLINGS.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current revision of the Swiss Radiological Protection Ordinance aims to bring Swiss legislation in line with new international standards. In future, the control of radon exposure in dwellings will be based on a reference level of 300 Bq m(-3). Since this value is exceeded in >10 % of the buildings so far investigated nationwide, the new strategy requires the development of efficient measures to reduce radon-related health risks at an acceptable cost. The minimisation of radon concentrations in new buildings is therefore of great importance. This can be achieved, for example, through the enforcement of building regulations and the education of construction professionals. With regard to radon mitigation in existing buildings, synergies with the ongoing renewal of the building stock should be exploited. In addition, the dissemination of knowledge about radon and its risks needs to be focused on specific target groups, e.g. notaries, who play an important information role in real estate transactions. PMID:25342610

Palacios Gruson, Martha; Barazza, Fabio; Murith, Christophe; Ryf, Salome

2014-10-23

338

25 CFR 542.31 - What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and count for Tier B gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.31 What are the minimum internal control standards for drop...

2010-04-01

339

25 CFR 542.21 - What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and count for Tier A gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.21 What are the minimum internal control standards for drop...

2010-04-01

340

25 CFR 542.41 - What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and count for Tier C gaming operations?  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.41 What are the minimum internal control standards for drop...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

International standards for newborn weight, length, and head circumference by gestational age and sex: the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: In 2006, WHO published international growth standards for children younger than 5 years, which are now accepted worldwide. In the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, our aim was to complement them by developing international standards for fetuses, newborn infants, and the postnatal growth period of preterm infants. METHODS: INTERGROWTH-21(st) is a population-based project that assessed fetal growth and newborn size in eight geographically defined urban populations. These groups were selec...

Villar, J.; Cheikh Ismail, L.; Victora, CG; Ohuma, Eo; Bertino, E.; Altman, Dg; Lambert, A.; Papageorghiou, At; Carvalho, M.; Jaffer, Ya; Gravett, Mg; Purwar, M.; Frederick, Io; Noble, Aj; Pang, R.

2014-01-01

342

International standards for fetal growth based on serial ultrasound measurements: the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: In 2006, WHO produced international growth standards for infants and children up to age 5 years on the basis of recommendations from a WHO expert committee. Using the same methods and conceptual approach, the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS), part of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, aimed to develop international growth and size standards for fetuses. METHODS: The multicentre, population-based FGLS assessed fetal growth in geographically defined urban populations in eight cou...

Papageorghiou, At; Ohuma, Eo; Altman, Dg; Todros, T.; Cheikh Ismail, L.; Lambert, A.; Jaffer, Ya; Bertino, E.; Gravett, Mg; Purwar, M.; Noble, Ja; Pang, R.; Victora, CG; Barros, Fc; Carvalho, M.

2014-01-01

343

Importance of using highly pure internal standards for successful liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric bioanalytical assays.  

Science.gov (United States)

Internal standards (IS) with similar physicochemical properties to the analyte provide multiple advantages in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) bioanalytical methods such as: reduction of the analysis run time, improvement in the intra-injection reproducibility, impact reduction of matrix and ionization effects. However, it is important to evaluate the purity of the IS prior to their use. Indeed, a minor impurity in the IS may lead to an important issue during bioanalytical method development. Stable labelled internal standards are usually appropriate IS for bioanalysis. The use of oxycodone-D3, ursodiol-D5 and atovaquone-D4 as internal standards in three different bioanalytical methods was evaluated. During oxycodone, oxymorphone and noroxycodone simultaneous quantification method development, oxymorphone was identified as a contaminant in oxycodone-D3. Since the limit of quantification for oxymorphone was very low (10 pg/mL), the presence of an even low percentage of oxymorphone in oxycodone-D3 leads to the change of the stable labelled IS for an analogue, ethylmorphine. 23-Nordeoxycholic acid was preferred to ursodiol-D5 as internal standard for the ursodiol, tauroursodiol and glycoursodiol simultaneous quantification method. Indeed, more than 7% of ursodiol was identified in the ursodiol-D5 which could not be bypassed by decreasing the IS concentration without compromising the linearity. An atovaquone-D4 reference standard revealed the non-negligible presence of atovaquone-D5 to atovaquone-D8 that has a large impact on the method validation. Therefore, atovaquone-D4 was sent for recertification since its isotopic purity was found to be much less than the isotopic purity mentioned on its certificate of analysis. Consequently, during bioanalytical method development, the purity of the IS should be scrutinized. PMID:19308966

Bergeron, Annik; Furtado, Milton; Garofolo, Fabio

2009-05-01

344

Professional development for the early learning content social studies standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes early childhood educators’ responses to a professional development series aimed at helping them to understand and incorporate early learning standards for social studies. While the primary aim of the professional development was to focus on thesocial studies content standards, the secondary aim was to introduce early childhood educators to culturally relevant pedagogical strategies that take into account the unique learning needs of diverse children, particularly children of colour, English languagelearners and children with special needs. The findings suggest that early childhood educators can benefit from sustained professional development that not only addresses content standards but also helps them to understand how to incorporate the standards into their existing curriculum using developmentally and culturally appropriate pedagogy.

Laurie KATZ

2010-03-01

345

ACCOUNTING STANDARD SETTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL ARENA: UPDATE ON THE CONVERGENCE PROJECT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our paper contributes to the literature on international accounting by focusing on the standard setting process. As documented by research literature, accounting regulation can enhance corporate governance (Melis and Carta, 2010, corporate reporting being expected to reduce information asymmetry. Based on accounting research and trade literature we first synthesize recent evolutions in the international accounting arena. We therefore position our study within current realities significantly marked by uncertainty in relation to the world wide globalization process. The objective of our paper is to perform an analysis that would help assess further developments of the convergence project. This is done by looking at the current status of the projects being developed under the IASB –FASB collaboration, as well as by developing a comparison between IFRS and US GAAP. The employed research methodology relies on analyzing data provided through the IASB and the FASB’s websites, as well as other official documents being issued by the two Boards. The assessment of the projects was done by reviewing exposure documents and monitoring the Boards’ deliberations, while the developed comparison requires accounting regulations content analysis. Concluding upon the Boards’ ongoing projects, we might identify areas in which convergence seems to be quite close (such as revenue recognition and leasing, but also areas in which convergence becomes even more challenging (such as financial instruments or the particular case of offsetting. Similar to other studies being developed within accounting research and trade literature (SEC 2011: 8 we may conclude that, generally, US GAAP present more detailed, specific requirements than IFRS.

Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana

2012-07-01

346

Developing International Business Managers through International Study Visits to China  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalization is a key factor in the success of business organizations today, impacting many aspects of management performance. Understanding the global business environment has therefore become a key objective in the teaching of international business on Executive MBA programs. Drawing on the theory of experiential learning, this study examines…

Tang, Yiming; Rose, Susan

2014-01-01

347

The development and functions of the Indian secondary standards dosimetry laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the International Atomic Energy Agency Symposium on ''National and International Standardization of Radiation Dosimetry'' held in Atlanta during 5-9 December 1977, it became quite evident that the institutions in the IAEA/WHO network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) have become recognized as having a necessary and well-defined objective. The link they have established with the primary standardization laboratories and with the radiation users is quite commendable within the metrology system. A number of SSDLs are well established around the world and have started to organize national and regional dose intercomparison programmes, closely following the IAEA recommendations. The development and functioning of the Indian SSDL which has brought about considerable improvement in clinical dosimetry through a dose intercomparison programme, is outlined

348

GMO Regulations, International Trade and the Imperialism of Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with the quantification of GMO regulations on bilateral trade flows. A composite index of the complexity of such regulations for sixty countries as well as an objective score for six GMO regulatory sub-dimensions has been developed. Using a gravity model, we show how bilateral similarity?in GMO regulations, affect trade flows for the composite index and its components. Results show that bilateral distance in GMO regulations negatively affect trade flows, especially as an effe...

Vigani, Mauro; Raimondi, Valentina; Olper, Alessandro

2010-01-01

349

Personnel involved in nuclear standards development: 1980 directory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of nuclear standards is an active and necessary endeavor that is concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of nuclear potential. There are almost 4100 people from the teachnical community who are presently involved either in writing nuclear standards, including codes, or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document identifies the current participation of each individual as member, chairman, cochairman (vice-chairman), or secretary of about 700 standards development committees and groups. The standards committees and groups are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. This directory includes four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a Key-Word-in-Context (KWIC) Index of committee titles. It can also be used to identify the participation of employers as well as to recognize the contributions of individuals to the often interdisciplinary activity of standards development.

Carr, S.J. (ed.)

1980-03-01

350

Analysis of Belgian Public Accounting and Its Compliance with International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) 1, 6 and 22  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Belgian public accounting, which is continuously evolving, has to meet international standards. The aim of thispaper is to describe the current Belgian public accounting systems and to analyze their compliance with IPSAS1, 6 and 22, key points of modern accounting.We first describe the development of Belgian public accounting since 1846. We then focus on the 2003accounting reform, and more specifically its content and its triggering factors. The level of implementat...

Sabrina Bellanca; Julien Vandernoot

2013-01-01

351

Comparative study of Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures on radiation and nuclear safety with international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents the results of the critical reviews, analysis, and comparison of the regulatory infrastructures for radiation and nuclear safety of Malaysis and the Philippines usi ng the IAEA safety requirements, GSR Part 1, Government, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety'' as the main basis and in part, the GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. The scope of the comparison includes the elements of the relevant legislations, the regulatory system and processes including the core functions of the regulatory body (authorization, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, development of regulations and guides); and the staffing and training of regulatory body. The respective availabe data of the Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures and current practices were gathered and analyzed. Recommendations to fill the gaps and strengthen the existing regulatory infrastructure of each country was given using as bases relevant IAEA safety guides. Based on the analysis made, the main findings are: the legislations of both countries do not contain al the elements of teh national policy and strategy for safety as well as those of teh framework for safety in GR Part I. Among the provision that need to be included in the legislations are: emergency planning and response; decommissioning of facilities safe management of radioactive wastes and spent fuel; competence for safety; and technical sevices. Provisions on coordination of different authorities with safety responsibilities within the regulatory framework for safety as well as liaison with advisory bodies and support organizations need to be enhanced. The Philippines needs to establish an independent regulatory body, ie. separate from organizations charged with promotion of nuclear technologies and responsible for facilitiesand activities. Graded approach on the system of notification and authorization by registration and licensing needs to be considered in the regulatory system and processes of both countries. Enforcement policy of AELB and PNRI needs to be enhanced taking into account the factors in GS-G-1.5. Examples of key learning areas and good practices identified are: AELB's e-learning system represents an innovative means of its regulatory processes; the style and language used in the code of PNRI Regulations is in acordance with international standards, i.e. use of shall statements. The results of this study could be used by both countries in revisiting or further reviewing and updating their respective legislations in order to be consistent and coherent with international standards. (author)

352

Trends for International Standards of the High Speed Powerline Communication Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

The high speed powerline communication (PLC) technology is useful for a variety of applications especially for Smart Grid. Although the standardization of this technology has been desired for a long time, recently IEEE P1901 and ITU-T SG15 made significant progress and both of the Standards are expected to be completed by the end of 2010. The frame work of the coexistence mechanism among the different types of PLC technologies is also going to be resolved with the collaborative work between IEEE and ITU-T. In this paper, the authors introduce the summary of the International Standardizations of this technology, and also the future prospects of the Standards.

Aramaki, Michimasa; Koga, Hisao; Atsuta, Akira

353

Development of internal communication : case Cosfim  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal for this thesis is to evaluate the status of the current internal communication in a small business Cosfim OY. The company is an agent to a global enterprise with multiple agents on different continents. The objective is to make a survey based on relevant theories. The final goal is to present the results and the thesis for the company as an example of how to evaluate internal communication. The theoretical part discusses the everyday internal communication in the company between...

Anashkin, Andrei

2013-01-01

354

The emergence of international food safety standards and guidelines: understanding the current landscape through a historical approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the Second World War, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) teamed up to construct an International Codex Alimentarius (or 'food code') which emerged in 1963. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) was charged with the task of developing microbial hygiene standards, although it found itself embroiled in debate with the WHO over the nature these standards should take. The WHO was increasingly relying upon the input of biometricians and especially the International Commission on Microbial Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) which had developed statistical sampling plans for determining the microbial counts in the final end products. The CCFH, however, was initially more focused on a qualitative approach which looked at the entire food production system and developed codes of practice as well as more descriptive end-product specifications which the WHO argued were 'not scientifically correct'. Drawing upon historical archival material (correspondence and reports) from the WHO and FAO, this article examines this debate over microbial hygiene standards and suggests that there are many lessons from history which could shed light upon current debates and efforts in international food safety management systems and approaches. PMID:24990138

Ramsingh, Brigit

2014-07-01

355

Development of Hydrocarbon Flow Calibration Facility as a National Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

A new primary standard for hydrocarbon flow measurements has been constructed at National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The facility was designed for the calibration of hydrocarbon flowmeters in the flow rate range between 3 and 300 m3/h. The expanded uncertainty is estimated to be 0.03 % for volumetric flow rate and 0.02 % for mass flow rate (coverage factor: k = 2). The primary standard is based on a static and gravimetric method with a flying start and finish. The facility consists of two test rigs using kerosene and light oil as working fluids. The test lines for the flowmeters are 50, 100 and 150 mm in diameter and three servo positive displacement meters are used as working standards. To verify the calibration performance, a Coriolis flowmeter, a turbine meter and a positive displacement flowmeter have been calibrated at both test rigs. Furthermore, an international comparison with SP, Swedish National Testing Research Institute, was carried out. A screw-type positive displacement flowmeter was selected as the transfer standard and was calibrated at NMIJ and SP. The result shows that the two national standards at the two institutes agree within the quoted expanded uncertainties.

Shimada, Takashi; Doihara, Ryouji; Terao, Yoshiya; Takamoto, Masaki

356

3. Standardization of food irradiation in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need is stressed for clearly defined guidelines and regulations for the consumption of irradiated foods and the operation of irradiation facilities. This requires the establishment of a responsible body. The example of Ghana is used as illustration. Food standards are mandatory. The Ghana Standards Board was established under NLC Decree 199, subsequently superseded by NRC Decree 173:1973 as amended by AFRC Decree 44:1977. The aims and functions of the Board are described, and forms in which its powers are operative. Two types of certificate are granted: the Certification Mark and the Exemption Certificate. The formulation of food standards is done through technical committees. The National Codex (Alimentarius) Committee is responsible for establishing food standards for Board approval. Membership of this committee is drawn from available expertise from industry, research institutions, government departments, the universities, etc. The various steps in the preparation of Codex Standards are outlined. For the certification of irradiated food in Ghana the international requirements as outlined by CXFA (Codex Committee on Food Additives) need to be met

357

Task group to develop list of environmental standards  

Science.gov (United States)

A new task group designed to develop a list of existing and potential standards that are applicable to environmental contamination problems in soil, rock, and groundwater has been established by the American Society for Testing a n d Materials (ASTM) Subcommittee on Geotechnics of Waste Management. The list currently includes over 60 existing and draft ASTM standards from ASTM committees in the areas of site characterization, construction evaluation, and geosynthetics.

358

Vehicle to Grid Communication Standards Development, Testing and Validation - Status Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the US, more than 10,000 electric vehicles (EV) have been delivered to consumers during the first three quarters of 2011. A large majority of these vehicles are battery electric, often requiring 220 volt charging. Though the vehicle manufacturers and charging station manufacturers have provided consumers options for charging preferences, there are no existing communications between consumers and the utilities to manage the charging demand. There is also wide variation between manufacturers in their approach to support vehicle charging. There are in-vehicle networks, charging station networks, utility networks each using either cellular, Wi-Fi, ZigBee or other proprietary communication technology with no standards currently available for interoperability. The current situation of ad-hoc solutions is a major barrier to the wide adoption of electric vehicles. SAE, the International Standards Organization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), ANSI, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and several industrial organizations are working towards the development of interoperability standards. PNNL has participated in the development and testing of these standards in an effort to accelerate the adoption and development of communication modules.

Gowri, Krishnan; Pratt, Richard M.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

2011-09-01

359

Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International basic safety standards. General safety requirements. Pt. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

360

International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) currently provides a Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS) as crew quarters for one crewmember in the Laboratory Module. The Russian Segment provides permanent crew quarters (Kayutas) for two crewmembers in the Service Module. The TeSS provides limited electrical, communication, and ventilation functionality. A new permanent rack sized USOS ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) is being developed. Up to four CQs can be installed into the Node 2 element to increase the ISS crewmember size to six. The new CQs will provide private crewmember space with enhanced acoustic noise mitigation, integrated radiation reduction material, controllable airflow, communication equipment, redundant electrical systems, and redundant caution and warning systems. The rack sized CQ is a system with multiple crewmember restraints, adjustable lighting, controllable ventilation, and interfaces that allow each crewmember to personalize their CQ workspace. Providing an acoustically quiet and visually isolated environment, while ensuring crewmember safety, is critical for obtaining crewmember rest and comfort to enable long term crewmember performance. The numerous human factor, engineering, and program considerations during the concept, design, and prototyping are outlined in the paper.

Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa Ann; Bahr, Juergen F.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Adjustment of the Brazilian radioprotection standards to the safety principles of the International Atomic Energy Agency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a recommendation with 10 basic safety principles (Fundamental Safety Principles Safety Fundamentals series, number SF-1), which are: 1) Responsibility for safety; 2) Role for government; 3) Leadership and management for safety; 4) Justification of facilities and activities; 5) Optimization of protection; 6) Limitation of risk to individuals; 7) Protection of present and futures generations; 8) Prevention of accidents; 9) Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protection actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiations risk. The aim of this study is to verify that the Brazilian standards of radiation protection meet the principles described above and how well suited to them. The analysis of the national radiation protection regulatory system, developed and deployed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), showed that out of the ten items, two are covered partially, the number 2 and 10. The others are fully met. The item 2 the fact that the regulatory body (CNEN) be stock controller of a large company in the sector put in check its independence as a regulatory body. In item 10 the Brazilian standard of radiation protection does not provide explicit resolution of environmental liabilities

362

Requirements relating to radon in the International Basic Safety Standards: information, measurement and national strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fifth edition of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) has recently been established as Part 3 of the General Safety Requirements of the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The BSS applies to all exposure situations and to all categories of exposure. As such, the BSS addresses both occupational exposure due to radon in workplaces and public exposure due to radon in dwellings. In workplaces, exposure due to radon is treated either as a planned exposure situation or as an existing exposure situation, depending on the circumstances. With regard to exposure due to radon in dwellings, the BSS requires that general information on radon, including information on health risks and the synergy with smoking, be made available to the public and other interested parties. Countries are also required to determine whether an action plan for controlling exposure due to radon indoors is necessary, and, if so, to establish and implement such an action plan. Guidance material, covering the establishment of reference levels, national and regional radon surveys, identification of radon prone areas, building codes for new buildings, corrective actions for existing buildings, information campaigns and programme evaluation and effectiveness is currently being developed. (paper)

363

Developing Successful International Faculty Led Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Faculty Led Programs are study abroad experiences led by university professors. Faculty Led Programs are considered as an opportunity for college students, especially in the United States to attend a short-term international experience (Mills, 2010). Faculty Led Program is an international experience which is different from the traditional…

Fabregas Janeiro, Maria G.; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Rosete, Rodrigo Tello

2012-01-01

364

Trends of international standard procedures on dosimetry systems and irradiated foods applied in the multi-purpose radiation processing facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, with new radiation technology being developed and used in advanced industries, the business opportunity of radiation processing has been increasing. For the industrial application of developed products, it is required to review scientific and technical aspects of standard procedures applied to radiation processes. Standard procedures describe requirements of products manufactured under standard processing conditions. In fields related to the operation control of the multi-purpose radiation processing facilities, the ISO 11137 and Codex stan-106 are famous standards adopted as national standards in the advanced countries. The ISO 11137 is applied to supply criteria of medical devices for the validation and routine control of radiation sterilization including variability and uncertainty of dosimetry systems. Korean national standards on the food irradiation are significantly different from Codex stan-106 in parts such as the labelling. Therefore, prior to implementation of the labelling on the labelling on irradiated foods starting from year 2010, it is necessary to revise the inconsistent labelling to the reasonable level of international standard for the promotion and reenforcement of competition in industries using radiation processing technology.

Kim, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Kwan Soo; Park, Soon Yeon [Greenpia Technology Inc., Yeojoo (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Keun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-06-15

365

Trends of international standard procedures on dosimetry systems and irradiated foods applied in the multi-purpose radiation processing facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, with new radiation technology being developed and used in advanced industries, the business opportunity of radiation processing has been increasing. For the industrial application of developed products, it is required to review scientific and technical aspects of standard procedures applied to radiation processes. Standard procedures describe requirements of products manufactured under standard processing conditions. In fields related to the operation control of the multi-purpose radiation processing facilities, the ISO 11137 and Codex stan-106 are famous standards adopted as national standards in the advanced countries. The ISO 11137 is applied to supply criteria of medical devices for the validation and routine control of radiation sterilization including variability and uncertainty of dosimetry systems. Korean national standards on the food irradiation are significantly different from Codex stan-106 in parts such as the labelling. Therefore, prior to implementation of the labelling on the labelling on irradiated foods starting from year 2010, it is necessary to revise the inconsistent labelling to the reasonable level of international standard for the promotion and reenforcement of competition in industries using radiation processing technology

366

THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT DIVISION OF ICA AND INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION.  

Science.gov (United States)

IN 1961, JUST BEFORE THE INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ADMINISTRATION WAS REORGANIZED AS THE AGENCY OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED THE ROLE OF EDUCATION IN INTERGOVERNMENTAL PROGRAMS IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT. IT IS BASED ON THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT DIVISION'S FILES, ITS PUBLISHED AND UNPUBLISHED REPORTS, DOCUMENTS IN ITS…

SHIELDS, JAMES J., JR.

367

Can international development in nuclear technology be successful  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of the pros and cons of international development, the problems of collaboration, and the general experience of collaborative development. International co-operation in research and development in the nuclear industry is discussed with respect to: the Dragon high temperature reactor, fusion and the JET project, centrifuge technology, and fast reactor collaboration. (U.K.)

368

Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

2008-01-01

369

The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

Luciana Marques Vieira

2006-01-01

370

The role of food standards in international trade: assessing the brazilian beef chain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this [...] study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challenges facing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

Luciana Marques, Vieira.

2006-06-01

371

The international collaborative study establishing the first international standard for timothy (Phleum pratense) grass pollen allergenic extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

A selected candidate international reference preparation of timothy grass (Phleum pratense)-pollen extract was studied together with two other freeze-dried timothy pollen allergenic extracts in a multinational study. The collaborators used RAST inhibition, histamine release, quantitative immunoelectrophoresis (crossed immunoelectrophoresis/crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis and rockets), isoelectric focusing, and other methods. The total allergenic potencies measured in RAST inhibition were evaluated for validity of linearity and parallel-line response. The relative concentrations of some important individual allergenic components were measured. The relative potencies for the total allergenic activity and the timothy components studied in each preparation were expressed relative to the selected candidate. This preparation was established in 1983 by the World Health Organization expert committee on biologic standardization as the international standard for timothy grass-pollen extracts with assigned units of 100,000 IU per ampule. PMID:2578495

Gjesing, B; Jäger, L; Marsh, D G; Løwenstein, H

1985-02-01

372

Test Standard Developed for Determining the Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature  

Science.gov (United States)

The service life of structural ceramic components is often limited by the process of slow crack growth. Therefore, it is important to develop an appropriate testing methodology for accurately determining the slow crack growth design parameters necessary for component life prediction. In addition, an appropriate test methodology can be used to determine the influences of component processing variables and composition on the slow crack growth and strength behavior of newly developed materials, thus allowing the component process to be tailored and optimized to specific needs. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, work to develop a standard test method to determine the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics was initiated by the authors in early 1994 in the C 28 (Advanced Ceramics) committee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). After about 2 years of required balloting, the draft written by the authors was approved and established as a new ASTM test standard: ASTM C 1368-97, Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Ambient Temperature. Briefly, the test method uses constant stress-rate testing to determine strengths as a function of stress rate at ambient temperature. Strengths are measured in a routine manner at four or more stress rates by applying constant displacement or loading rates. The slow crack growth parameters required for design are then estimated from a relationship between strength and stress rate. This new standard will be published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, in 1998. Currently, a companion draft ASTM standard for determination of the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures is being prepared by the authors and will be presented to the committee by the middle of 1998. Consequently, Lewis will maintain an active leadership role in advanced ceramics standardization within ASTM. In addition, the authors have been and are involved with several international standardization organizations including the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS), the International Energy Agency (IEA), and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The associated standardization activities involve fracture toughness, strength, elastic modulus, and the machining of advanced ceramics.

Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

1998-01-01

373

Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of piperaquine in plasma stable isotope labeled internal standard does not always compensate for matrix effects.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A bioanalytical method for the analysis of piperaquine in human plasma using off-line solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to positive tandem mass spectroscopy has been developed and validated. It was found that a mobile phase with high pH (i.e. 10) led to better sensitivity than mobile phase combinations with low pH (i.e. 2.5-4.5) despite the use of positive electrospray and a basic analyte. The method was validated according to published FDA guidelines and showed excelle...

Lindegardh, N; Annerberg, A.; White, NJ; Day, Np

2008-01-01

374

ISO 14000 - the International Environmental Management Standard: Potential impacts on environmental management and auditing in the electric power generation industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of environmental management, the concept of voluntary environmental compliance auditing is not in itself a new development. Environmentally conscious firms have for more than a decade, undertaken voluntary audits to help achieve and maintain compliance with environmental regulations and to help identify and correct unregulated or poorly regulated environmental hazard. The firms undertaking the audits were motivated by a desire to mitigate legal and financial risks and/or the desire to be a highly responsible member of the corporate community. Much of the early attention to environmental auditing was in the chemical process industries. Today, there are four current trends affecting environmental auditing: (1) the practice is becoming widespread in all industry groups in both large and small firms; (2) environmental management and audit methodolgies and approaches are being codified in the form of written national and International standards; (3) environmental management programs and in-house audits are increasingly being certified by independent auditors (who are not associated with regulatory agencies); and (4) the certifications are being viewed as marketing and public relations tools. The adoption of ISO 14000 is destined to become the most significant development in international environmental management and auditing. International standards for the development of Environmental Management Systems and the execution of environmental audits do not curecution of environmental audits do not currently exist. Individual countries, such as England and France, have national standards. One multi-national standard currently exists--the European Economic Community's Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). The United States does not have a national environmental management and auditing standard

375

Procedural Bio-Medical Waste Management - A Comparison with International Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Though India has the state of art medical facilities on par with global standards for a comparatively cheaper cost with best knowledge, the bio-waste management protocols of many hospitals are far below the international standards. An effort was made to understand the bio-waste management procedures of big hospitals by making a critical analysis of bio waste generated. Biomedical waste includes syringes, live vaccines, laboratory samples, body parts, bodily fluids and waste, sharp needles, cu...

Rajeswari, B.

2012-01-01

376

The Effects of International Accounting Standardization on Business Performance: Evidence from Hungary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to measure the differences between national rules and the international standards,evaluating and analyzing their effects on the shifting business environment. The unified business informationsystem will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicatorsfrom the business environment of certain countries. The results show that those businesses which have adoptedinternational standards achie...

Gyorgy Csebfalvi

2012-01-01

377

The impacts of International Financial Reporting Standards Adoption on Financial Statements : The case of Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) has changed the way and manner in which financial statements are prepared, reported or presented. Globalization of capital markets requires a unified global accounting, reporting and disclosure set of standards. As a result of increasing volume of cross border capital flows and the growing number of foreign direct investments via mergers and acquisitions in the globalization era, the need for the harmonization of different pra...

Akinyemi, Olumide Akindele

2012-01-01

378

Professionalism apparent from South African internal audit functions’ use of the Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When stakeholders perceive that members of a profession do not live up to their professional obligations, the profession loses prestige. Professions use various measures, including professional standards, disciplinary processes and dedicated quality assurance standards to remain relevant to their clients and to the greater business community. The internal audit profession often expresses a desire to improve its standing as a profession. This paper asserts that members’ complianc...

Staden, J. M.; Barac, Karin; Erasmus, L. J.; Motubatse, Kgobalale Nebbel

2013-01-01

379

Developing the Internal Service Quality in Organisation Y  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this thesis was to analyze the quality of internal service at Organization Y by researching internal customer relationships. The objectives were to identify areas for development and strengths, as well as to make employees aware of the importance of the internal customers. The research problem concerned the extent to which internal service quality should be improved, and if so, the ways in which this could be achieved. Solutions were researched by determining the expectations a...

Ja?rvi, Susanna

2012-01-01

380

Proceedings of the international symposium on radioactive waste disposal: Health and environmental criteria and standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The co-organisers of the International Symposium on Health and Environmental Criteria and Standards for Radioactive Waste Disposal are pleased to present these proceedings. This Symposium succeeded in bringing together a wide range of participants and perspectives in order to address in a common forum the technical and non-technical issues related to long-term storage of radioactive waste. The papers presented herein reflect both the diversity of the participants and the complexity of the issues addressed. The sessions, panels, and papers developed for the symposium focused on some of the daunting challenges posed by long-term isolation and storage of high level radioactive waste. Panel sessions addressed the basic principles of criteria and standards, the context of the risks involved, and an overview of relevant philosophical, social, and ethical issues. Paper sessions considered national laws, policies and experiences; criteria formulation; environmental protection; compliance; human intrusion; and fundamental philosophical, social, and ethical issues. The presentations stimulated lively discussion and debate, and the contributors received valuable feedback. The interplay between technical and social aspects reflected in some papers and in the discussion highlights the changing role of the public in radioactive waste issues. The average citizen has become more aware of and more involved in radioactive waste matters in recent years. Solutions that were previously ant years. Solutions that were previously analysed through a technological lens are now being viewed in a much broader perspective that better addresses the concerns of local communities as well as national and international interests. Public involvement must begin earlier, last longer, and improve in quality so as to create an ongoing dialogue and debate rather than cycles of dictates and discord. The symposium has offered suggestions as to how government, industry, and the public can foster a broader dialogue on the formulation and implementation of criteria and standards. The long timeframe associated with high-level radioactive waste also requires looking beyond the usual indicators of well-being and recognising that human health is inextricable from the overall quality of the biosphere. There is now a challenge to the scientific community to develop indicators that reflect conflicting temporal needs and can draw on the strength and resilience of ecological systems to improve our confidence in the safeguards we can offer to future generations. The symposium has made important contributions in this regard, but there remains a great deal to be done. Ecologically-based criteria and standards could serve as a valuable future theme for meetings, research, and policy discussions. A process is currently taking place around the world for developing criteria and standards to protect the health of humans and the environment from the hazards of radioactive waste. This process must incorporate a wide range of perspectives and recognize the interests of future generations as well as the current one. This process has been advanced through the efforts of the symposium contributors and the papers contained in these proceedings. We will not attempt to summarise their excellent work here, but will let the authors speak for themselves in the papers presented herein. Separate abstracts have been performed for all the 54 papers

 
 
 
 
381

links for international sustainable development - ARCHIVE: Defra  

Jul 23, 2010 ... Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as \\Waterfowl Habitat ... United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (HABITAT) \\www.unchs. ... United Nations Population Information Network (POPIN)

382

Gestión de proyectos ecoturísticos orientados al mercado internacional con impacto en el desarrollo local mediante aplicación del estándar PMBOK / Gestion de projets d'écotourisme internationaux ayant un impact sur les économies locales grâce à la mise en place du standard pmbook / The ecotourism project management market, oriented to the international market, which impacts regional development through the application of PMBOK standards / Gestão de projetos ecoturísticos orientados ao marketing internacional com impacto no desenvolvimento local através da aplicação do padrão pmbok  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo descreve-se a aplicação de práticas de gestão de projetos no setor ecoturístico da Colômbia, que está orientado ao mercado internacional e gera um impacto considerável no desenvolvimento local. Aplicaram-se processos do padrão internacional do Project Management Institute (PMI) em um pr [...] ojeto para a identificação e validação de métodos sustentáveis de comercialização do serviço ecoturístico em áreas protegidas de alto valor ecológico e cultural. Utilizou-se uma metodologia exploratória, apoiada na revisão e interpretação da literatura com respeito as melhores práticas internacionais para a gestão de projetos. A partir disto desenvolveu-se um marco estrutural que pode ser aplicado em projetos do setor ecoturístico colombiano, para melhorar a gestão dessas intervenções. Abstract in spanish En este artículo, se describe la aplicación de prácticas de gestión de proyectos en el sector ecoturístico de Colombia, el cual está orientado al mercado internacional y genera un impacto considerable en el desarrollo local. Se aplicaron procesos del estándar internacional del Project Management Ins [...] titute (PMI), en un proyecto para la identificación y validación de métodos sustentables de comercialización del servicio ecoturístico en áreas protegidas de alto valor ecológico y cultural. Se utilizó una metodología exploratoria, apoyada en la revisión e interpretación de literatura con respecto a las mejores prácticas internacionales para la gestión de proyectos. A partir de lo anterior se desarrolló un marco estructural que pudiese ser aplicable en proyectos del sector ecoturístico colombiano, con el propósito de mejorar la gestión de dichas intervenciones. Abstract in english This article describes the application of project management practices in the ecotourism sector of Colombia, which is oriented to the international market and which impacts considerably regional development. Different processes of the Project Management Institute International Standards (PMI) have b [...] een applied during this project which aims at identifying and validating sustainable methods of ecotourism trading services in protected areas of high ecological and cultural value. An exploration methodology was used, based on the review and interpretation of literature about the best international practices of project management. From the above, we have developed a structural frame that could be applied to different projects involving the Colombian ecotourism sector, aiming at improving the management of such interventions.

Jaime Alberto, Romero-Infante; H. Mauricio, Diez-Silva.

2013-07-01

383

Development of a coincidence system for radio-nuclide standardization using surface barrier detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A system for the standardization of alpha-gamma or electron-X radionuclide emitters has been developed in the present work. The system consists of one or two surface barrier detectors for alpha or electron detection which are coupled to thin-window NaI (T1) crystals suitable for low energy X or gamma ray detection. The performance of the system has been verified by means of the standardization of 241Am, 137Cs and 109Cd solutions. The activity has been obtained using the extrapolation method applied to the 4??-? and 2?ec-X coincidence technique. The surface barrier detection efficiency was varied by placing absorbers over the radioactive sources or by changing the source to detector distance. The results were compared to those obtained using conventional absolute systems based on gas-flow and pressurized 4? proportional counters, or using radioactive solutions standardized in international comparisons spondored by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. The expect and measured activities agree within the experimental uncertainties which were: 0.2 % for 241Am, 0.7% for 137Cs and 0.6% for 109Cd. The ratio between the probabilities of (electron capture + internal conversion) and internal conversion for the K-shell of 109Cd has been determined. The result is: 2.8883 ± 0.016. (author)

384

Establishment of the first international standard for PEGylated granulocyte colony stimulating factor (PEG-G-CSF): Report of an international collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the feasibility of developing a suitable international reference standard for determination of in vitro biological activity of human sequence recombinant PEG-G-CSF products with a 20kD linear PEG linked to the N-terminal methionyl residue of G-CSF (INN Filgrastim), produced using a conjugation process and coupling chemistry similar to that employed for the lead PEGfilgrastim product. Based on initial data which showed that the current WHO 2nd international standard, IS for G-CSF (09/136) or alternatively, a PEG-G-CSF standard with a unitage traceable to the G-CSF IS may potentially serve as the IS for PEG-G-CSF products, two candidate preparations of PEG-G-CSF were formulated and lyophilized at NIBSC. These preparations were tested by 23 laboratories using in vitro bioassays in a multi-centre collaborative study. Results indicated that on the basis of parallelism, the current WHO 2nd IS for G-CSF or any of the PEG-G-CSF samples could be used as the international standard for PEG-G-CSF preparations. However, because of the variability in potency estimates seen when PEG-G-CSF preparations were compared with the current WHO 2nd IS for G-CSF, a candidate PEG-G-CSF was suitable as the WHO IS. The preparation 12/188 was judged suitable to serve as the WHO IS based on in vitro biological activity data. Therefore, the preparation coded 12/188 was established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2013 as the WHO 1st IS for human PEGylated G-CSF with an assigned in vitro bioactivity of 10,000IU per ampoule. PMID:25450254

Wadhwa, Meenu; Bird, Chris; Dougall, Thomas; Rigsby, Peter; Bristow, Adrian; Thorpe, Robin

2014-10-25

385

Harmonization of standards in Europe. Advantages of international and European standardization for the oil and natural gas industry in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The developing Single European Market has created conditions which call for a harmonization of standards. This means that national standards, in Germany the DIN standards, will have to be replaced by European CEN standards. This has caused a number of business sectors with extensive technological and hence economic relations with countries outside Europe - for example, the oil and natural gas industry - to push on with the development of ISO standards. An essential objective of standardization is the improvement of products and services. At the same time efforts are being directed towards opening up the market of the European Community to competition on the basis of uniform standards. With a view to coordinating standarization activities, relevant agreements have been reached between the CEN and ISO committees, including provisions for the mutual acceptance of standards. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der sich formierende EG-Binnenmarkt hat Voraussetzungen geschaffen, die eine Harmonisierung von technischen Normen bedingen. Das bedeutet, dass eine Abloesung der nationalen Normen, in Deutschland DIN-Normen, durch europaeische CEN-Normen zu erfolgen hat. Wirtschaftszweige mit starken technischen und damit auch wirtschaftlichen Bindungen ueber die europaeischen Grenzen hinaus - z.B. die Erdgas- und Erdoelgewinnungsindustrie - haben dieses zum Anlass genommen, die Entwicklung von ISO-Normen zu forcieren. Ein wesentliches Normungsziel ist u.a. auch die Verbesserung von Produkten und Leistungen. Gleichzeitig soll sich der Markt der europaeischen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft dem Wettbewerb auf Basis einheitlicher Normen oeffnen. Zur Koordination der Normungsaktivitaeten wurden entsprechende Vereinbarungen zwischen den CEN- und ISO-Gremien getroffen, und die gegenseitige Uebernahme von Normen wurde geregelt. (orig.)

Schlemm, F. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

1994-03-01

386

Improving the Virtual Learning Development Processes Using XML Standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggests that distributed learning environments and content often lack a common basis for the exchange of learning materials, which can hinder or even delay innovation and delivery of learning technology. Standards for platforms and authoring may provide a way to improve interoperability and cooperative development. Provides an XML-based approach…

Suss, Kurt; Oberhofer, Thomas

2002-01-01

387

Development of Regional Standard of General Education Social Quality Concept  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the project of Moscow Quality Standard of General Education, offered by the author as a member of the relevant working group under Moscow Department of Education. The data can be of interest for the developers of the similar regional projects, researchers and experts in the field of education, as well as to a wide educational public.

Vitol'd A. Yasvin

2012-01-01

388

IMPROVING THE VIRTUAL LEARNING DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES USING XML STANDARDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Distributed Icarning environments and content often lack a common basis for the cxchange of learning materials. This delays, or even hinders, both innovation and delivery of learning tecnology. Standards for platforms and authoring may provide a way to improve interoperability and cooperative development. This article provides an XML-based approach to this problem creaied by the IMS Global Learning Consortium.

Kurt Suss

2002-06-01

389

Adopting the international financial reporting standards: a positive impact on 2004 income and consolidated equity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides preliminary information on the quantitative impact of transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on AREVA 2004 financial position, in accordance with AMF recommendations regarding financial communications during the transition period.The basis for preparing 2004 information on transition to the IFRS comes from: the International Accounting Standards (IAS)/IFRS, as approved by the European Union. The impact of IAS 32/39 and IFRS 4 will not be recognized in shareholders equity until January 1, 2005; AREVA anticipation of the resolution of technical issues and ongoing projects under discussion by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). Uncertainty factors on practical methods for applying certain standards and ongoing interpretations by IFRIC and regulatory organizations could impact the exactness of restatements identified at this stage. For all of these reasons, it is conceivable that the opening balance sheet at January 1, 2004, as presented in this document, will not be the balance sheet actually used to establish the consolidated financial statements for 2005. (author)

390

25 CFR 542.13 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming machines?  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS...The lock or seal shall necessitate the presence of a person independent of the gaming...However, the time between readings may extend beyond one week in order for a...

2010-04-01

391

Reduction of Internal Standard Signals in Quantitative MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The advantages of combining qualitative and quantitative analysis on a single analytical technique have further extended the applications of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS to the quantitation of various biomolecules. To achieve absolute quantitation, it is necessary to perform a calibration with standard dilutions. For the purpose of measuring DNA samples, a pure DNA oligonucleotide at different concentrations was chosen as a standard to perform the calibration of MALDI-TOF MS. In order to overcome the variation of signal intensity from repeated measurements of each DNA standard dilution, fixed amount of an internal standard was added into each DNA standard dilution. Instead of maintaining at a constant level, the signals of fixed amount of internal standard were decreased 73% from its initial level while the signals of DNA standard continued to increase within a linear dynamic range for quantitation from 0.20 ?M to 12.5 ?M of DNA. Attempts to identify the cause of signal reduction were systematically carried out. This is the first report on the extent of signal reduction in quantitative MALDI-TOF MS. These results represent a limitation on using MALDI-TOF MS to monitor the changes in concentration of two different compounds within a chemical or biological system.

Walter B. Wilson

2012-09-01

392

Collaborative study for the establishment of the 3rd international standard for dihydrostreptomycin.  

Science.gov (United States)

An international collaborative study was organised to establish the World Health Organization (WHO) 3rd International Standard (IS) for dihydrostreptomycin. Eleven laboratories from different countries participated in the collaborative study. The potency of the candidate batch, a freeze-dried preparation, was estimated by microbiological assays with sensitive microorganisms. To ensure continuity between consecutive batches of the WHO IS, the 2nd IS for dihydrostreptomycin was used as standard. Based on the results of the study, the 3rd IS for dihydrostreptomycin was adopted at the meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardisation (ECBS) in 2011 with an assigned anti-microbiological activity of 19425 International Units (IU) per vial. The 3rd IS for dihydrostreptomycin is available from the EDQM. PMID:23327890

Rautmann, G; Daas, A; Buchheit, K-H

2012-04-01

393

Concept of Draft International Standard for a Unified Approach to Space Program Quality Assurance  

Science.gov (United States)

For want of the unified approach to guaranteed space project and product quality assurance, implementation of many international space programs has become a challenge. Globalization of aerospace industry and participation of various international ventures with diverse quality assurance requirements in big international space programs requires for urgent generation of unified international standards related to this field. To ensure successful fulfillment of space missions, aerospace companies should design and process reliable and safe products with properties complying or bettering User's (or Customer's) requirements. Quality of the products designed or processed by subcontractors (or other suppliers) should also be in compliance with the main user (customer)'s requirements. Implementation of this involved set of unified requirements will be made possible by creating and approving a system (series) of international standards under a generic title Space Product Quality Assurance based on a system consensus principle. Conceptual features of the baseline standard in this system (series) should comprise: - Procedures for ISO 9000, CEN and ECSS requirements adaptation and introduction into space product creation, design, manufacture, testing and operation; - Procedures for quality assurance at initial (design) phases of space programs, with a decision on the end product made based on the principle of independence; - Procedures to arrange incoming inspection of products delivered by subcontractors (including testing, audit of supplier's procedures, review of supplier's documentation), and space product certification; - Procedures to identify materials and primary products applied; - Procedures for quality system audit at the component part, primary product and materials supplier facilities; - Unified procedures to form a list of basic performances to be under configuration management; - Unified procedures to form a list of critical space product components, and unified procedures to define risks related to the specific component application and evaluate safety for the entire program implementation. In the eyes of the authors, those features together with a number of other conceptual proposals should constitute a unified standard-technical basis for implementing international space programs.

Stryzhak, Y.; Vasilina, V.; Kurbatov, V.

2002-01-01

394

Collaborative study for the establishment of the 3rd international standard for neomycin.  

Science.gov (United States)

An international collaborative study was organised to establish the World Health Organization (WHO) 3(rd) International Standard (IS) for neomycin. Ten laboratories from different countries participated in the collaborative study. The potency of the candidate material, a freeze-dried preparation, was estimated by microbiological assays with sensitive micro-organisms. To ensure continuity between consecutive batches, the 2(nd) IS for neomycin was used as a standard. Based on the results of the study, the 3(rd) IS for neomycin was adopted at the meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2012 with an assigned potency of 19,050 IU per vial. The 3(rd) IS for neomycin is available from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM). PMID:24447724

Rautmann, G; Daas, A; Buchheit, K-H

2013-01-01

395

The Routledge International Handbook of Teacher and School Development. Routledge International Handbooks of Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Handbook of Teacher and School Development brings together a collection of research and evidence-based authoritative writings which focus on international teacher and school development. Drawing on research from 18 countries across 7 continents, the 40 chapters are grouped into 10 themes which represent key aspects of teacher and…

Day, Christopher, Ed.

2011-01-01

396

Developing Intercultural Learners through the International Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

Intercultural competence is an increasingly desired and necessary skill in a globalized world. While competence is a complex concept to define and assess, this study examines specific dimensions of the intercultural learning of students in the School of International Studies (SIS) at the University of the Pacific. Students undergo both an…

Sample, Susan G.

2013-01-01

397

Development of a National Standard for Microwave Brightness Temperature at NIST  

Science.gov (United States)

Microwave radiometers are a critical part of space-based sensor suites that make global observations of the Earth’s atmosphere, land, and oceans. Microwave sensors contribute to such measurements as atmospheric moisture profiles, sea surface wind speed and direction, sea surface temperature, soil moisture, and sea ice characterization. As climate measurements increasingly call for environmental data records that span years or even decades, and rely on data from multiple instruments on multiple platforms spanning different operational time periods, the need for rigorously and independently validated traceability to the International System of Units (SI), is also increased. There are currently no national standards for microwave brightness temperature either in the U.S. or elsewhere. Many realizations of microwave brightness temperature standards exist in the form of heated or cooled calibration targets, but none is maintained as a national standard by a National Measurement Institute (NMI). This is in contrast to the visible and infrared (IR) portions of the spectrum in which radiance standards exist—and have proven very useful. There are many reasons to want a national microwave-brightness temperature standard based on fundamental physical quantities. It would provide a constant reference for comparison of different instruments over long time series. It would provide a means for resolving differences between different instruments or programs including instruments based on entirely different measurement parameters, since those other measurements would also be traceable back to fundamental physical quantities. It would support the goals of merging data from multiple measurement systems from different nations. Also there is a framework maintained by the international committee on weights and measures (CIPM), to compare and harmonize such fundamental standards among the NMIs of different countries. The Fundamental Guided Wave Metrology Program and the Antenna Metrology Project at NIST are engaged in an effort to improve calibration methods and tools for microwave remote-sensing radiometry. A principal component of this effort is the development of a standard for brightness temperature at microwave frequencies, as well as two different methods for transferring this standard to the microwave remote-sensing community. NIST already has a battery of microwave radiometers that measure noise temperature at a coaxial or waveguide reference plane. The radiometers are converted (reversibly) to standard remote-sensing radiometers by connecting characterized antennas to the plane at which the device under test is connected in normal use. Current activities in the development will be presented along with recent experimental results. Once developed, the brightness-temperature standard and the method for comparison will allow microwave remote-sensing measurements to be traceable to the primary noise standards maintained by NIST.

Cox, A. E.; Walker, D. K.

2009-12-01

398

Advantages of international and European standardization for natural gas and petroleum industry in Germany. Vorteile einer internationalen und europaeischen Normung fuer die Erdgas- und Erdoelindustrie in Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ongoing formation of the Single European Market has created conditions which call for a harmonization of technical standards. This means that national norms, the DIN standards in Germany, must be replaced by European standards. This situation has led industrial sectors whose technical and thus economic influence reaches beyond the European borders, for example the natural gas and petroleum industry, to make efforts to accelerate the development of International Standards (ISO). One of the goals of standardization is the improvement of products and services. At the same time it is intended that the market of the European Economic Community will open to competition in conditions of uniform standards. The CEN and ISO committees have made agreements for the coordination of standardizing activities and have laid down rules for the reciprocal acceptance of standards. (orig.)

Schlemm, F. (BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany))

1993-09-01

399

Calibration of replacement international standard and European pharmacopoeia biological reference preparation for tetanus toxoid, adsorbed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we report the characterisation of a preparation of tetanus toxoid, adsorbed, and its calibration by 27 laboratories in 19 countries in a joint international collaborative study co-sponsored by World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee of Biological Standardization (ECBS) and the European Biological Standardisation Programme of European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM), Council of Europe. Calibration was in terms of the Second International Standard (I.S.) for Tetanus Toxoid, Adsorbed, by the established WHO/European Pharmacopoeia (Ph Eur) challenge methods. The replacement standard preparation was found to have a unitage of 469 IU/ampoule on the basis of its calibration in guinea-pigs and 496 IU/ampoule on the basis of its calibration in mice. Assessment, both within the collaborative study and as part of candidate characterisation, indicated satisfactory stability of the candidate preparation. This study also provided some information on the effect of mouse strain on potency testing of tetanus vaccines. A limited assessment of the impact of the replacement standard on testing of current production batches of vaccines was also carried out by four manufacturers. This study did not directly address the serological approaches to potency testing. However, one laboratory offered data from mouse serology assay, which gave comparable estimates to in vivo mouse bioassay. Based on the results of this study and with the agreement of participants, the candidate standard was established as the Third International Standard for Tetanus Toxoid, Adsorbed (coded 98/552) by the WHO Expert Committee of Biological Standardization (ECBS) in November 2000. The same preparation was also established as the second Ph Eur Biological Reference Preparation (Ph Eur BRP, batch no. 2) by the Steering Committee of the Biological Standardisation Programme of the EDQM and approved by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission. PMID:11846430

Sesardic, D; Winsnes, R; Rigsby, P; Tierney, R; Gaines-Das, R

2002-03-01

400

The Development of International Tourism in Lithuania: a Comparative Analysis of Regional Aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The processes related to the development of international tourism in Lithuania are of importance for the growth of economic, social, and cultural welfare. The increasing tourist and recreational attractiveness of such cities as Druskininkai, Trakai, Palanga, Vilnius, and Klaipeda to international tourists, as well as an advantageous quality-price ratio of the services offered contribute to the growth of competitiveness on the international tourism market. Service standards applied in Lithuania at the international tourism market uphold and improve the image of Lithuania in the Baltic Sea region. The interregional cooperation between Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia in the field of international tourism development is based on the principle of public private partnership. It has been recently acknowledged that the three Baltic States form an integrating region in the field of international tourism and thus affect the Kaliningrad region, North-east Poland, Southern Finland, and partially Belarus. Therefore, Lithuania plays an important role in the integration of the tourist infrastructure of the Kaliningrad region into the tourist system of the Baltics. This study aims to conduct a comparative analysis of the processes relating to the development of international tourism in Lithuania in the context of the Baltic States. We also carry out the comparison of regional competitive factors and trace the patterns for further development of international tourism in Lithuania in the framework of cross-border and transborder cooperation.

Spiriajevas E.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. International standards for computers/manikins; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Computer manikin ni kansuru kokusai hyojun kikaku  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Through the development of computer manikins (CM) which assess human adaptability to products and environments, a draft for international standardization was worked out to propose to ISO. A draft for the international standardization was presented to ISO through a development of `a structure model` changing based on human attributes, a study of `a motion model` enabling changes in posture and movement, a study of `an evaluation model` evaluating attainment ranges and ecodynamic loads, and a development of `computer functions` realizing the above-mentioned functions. The development of CM having the following characteristics: a function to reproduce `the structure model` based on the ISO7250 human body dimensional measuring values which were regulated in items for the human body dimensional measuring, a function to change posture/movement based on the joint movable range data, a function to evaluate geometrical human adaptability such as attainment ranges. As a plug-in to Autodesk Mechanical Desktop 2.0, the above-mentioned functions were realized, and the modular structure platform was constructed which enables the wide-range cross-industry option and functional expansion by the advance of CM. 7 refs., 41 figs., 18 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

402

Development Of Infrared Thermographic Standards For New Jersey State Buildings  

Science.gov (United States)

New Jersey has become the first state to specify infrared thermographic building diagnostic surveys of State buildings. Concern over high energy consumption and the inability to maintain comfortable temperatures within the Justice Complex, Trenton, New Jersey, led to a thermographic survey of the building. The results of this thermographic survey revealed significant deficiencies in the thermal envelope of the structure. This raised further questions about the thermal integrity of other new building construction for the state. It has been specified that all new buildings presently under construction for the State of New Jersey, within the Capitol of Trenton, must have a thermographic survey prior