WorldWideScience
 
 
1

IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological safety of the equipment. The main characteristics of IEC 62463 and IEC 62523 standards are presented and as well as the IEC methodology of standard development and approval.

2007-01-01

2

IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological safety of the equipment. The main characteristics of IEC 62463 and IEC 62523 standards are presented and as well as the IEC methodology of standard development and approval.

Voytchev, M; Radev, R; Chiaro, P; Thomson, I; Dray, C; Li, J

2007-12-06

3

Development of comprehensive remediation standards at San Francisco International Airport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ongoing expansion at the San Francisco International Airport (Airport) will result in a 35 percent increase in both terminal square footage and passenger handling capability. Facility relocation and construction are set to begin in October, 1995. Appropriate cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater must be completed prior to this activity. Remedial goals for this major industrial facility must be protective of both human health and the environment. A risk-based strategy for the development of recommended cleanup objectives has been developed with the support of state regulatory agencies. This strategy includes Remediation Management Zones (RMZs), distinct regions at the Airport with different remedial goals based on the associated risk to water quality, human health, and the environment. The RMZs and the final cleanup objectives for the Airport will be finalized by mid-1995, and will be used to govern future cleanup efforts at the site. This presentation will describe the history of the project, the determination of human health and ecological buffer zones, and the integration of these two concepts to produce cleanup objectives fully supported by the state regulatory authority.

Grosso, A.; Lawler, M.; Meek, S.; Tisoncik, D.

1995-12-31

4

International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

NONE

2007-07-01

5

The developments of international hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards and the response strategies in Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The application of hydrogen and fuel cells has expanded as the technology in international markets has improved. Leading countries have focused on establishing hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards. Both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) continuously release new hydrogen and fuel cell related standards. Although the government of Taiwan is promoting the development of a hydrogen and fuel cell industry, it may delay the commercialized schedule if there are no hydrogen and fuel cell related standards and regulations in place. Standards and regulations must be established as quickly as possible in order to accelerate the progress of the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. This presentation reviewed the international progress in hydrogen and fuel cell development and explained Taiwan's response strategies regarding the adoption of hydrogen and fuel cell products in niche Taiwanese markets

2009-06-03

6

International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

2011-10-29

7

Development of an international standard for electromagnetic interference (EMI)/radio frequency interference (RFI)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper covers the development of an international standard that establishes the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility testing of instrumentation and control equipment supplied for use in systems important to safety at nuclear power plants. The standard lists the applicable IEC standards (principally the IEC 61000 series) which define the general test methods, and provides the necessary application-specific parameters and criteria to ensure that nuclear safety requirements are met. This standard was prepared with the leadership by the Russian National Committee representatives to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). (authors)

Sarylov, V. [EMC Test Center, NUIT, FSUE RIPT, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shumov, S. [FSUE SEC SNIIP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Quinn, E. [ANS, Dana Point, CA (United States)

2006-07-01

8

Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subcommittee 45B Radiation Protection Instrumentation of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three IEC standards are published. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: IEC 62327 Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation , IEC 62401 Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material and IEC 62244 Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders .

Chiaro Jr, Peter John [ORNL

2009-01-01

9

Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Developing Countries: The Case of Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study focused on the adoption process of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on a
developing economy, with particular reference to Nigeria. The paper is based on the data obtained from literature
survey and archival sources in the context of the globalization...

Abdulkadir Madawaki

10

Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'.

Voytchev, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DSU/SERAC/CTHIR), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Chiaro, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Radev, R. [LLNL, Livermore, CA (United States)

2006-07-01

11

Developing international safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the context of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme to create a corpus of internationally accepted Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS), focus is currently being placed on establishing standards for the 'geological disposal of radioactive waste'. This is a challenging task and to help the standards development process there is a need to stimulate discussion of some of the associated scientific and technical issues. A number of position papers developed in recent years by a subgroup of the Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal, address many of the relevant issues. These include a common safety based framework for radioactive waste disposal, appropriate time frames for safety assessment, different possible indicators of long-term safety, the safety implications of reversibility and retrievability, the assessment of possible human intrusion into the repository, the role and limitations of institutional control, establishing reference critical groups and biospheres for long-term assessment, and what is meant by 'compliance' with the standards. These papers will be discussed at a Specialists Meeting to be held at the IAEA in June 2001 as a means of establishing the extent to which they enjoy the general support of experts. In order to broaden that consensus, the conclusions reached at the Specialists Meeting on the issues listed above will be presented and discussed with participants at a number of international meetings. Later this year, a draft safety standard on the geological disposal of radioactive waste which takes account of the consensus positions reached through the various consultations will be submitted for the consideration of Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the officially approved body within the IAEA for the review and approval of waste safety standards. The Committee is made up of government appointed radioactive waste regulators. Subsequent steps include the provision of formal comments by governments, final approval by WASSC, and by the IAEA's Commission on Safety Standards (CSS) and finally by the IAEA's Board of Governors. (author)

Metcalf, P. [International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

2001-07-01

12

Development and pilot of an internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management in European primary care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care can play an important role in providing cardiovascular risk management in patients with established Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD), patients with a known high risk of developing CVD, and potentially for individuals with a low risk of developing CVD, but who have unhealthy lifestyles. To describe and compare cardiovascular risk management, internationally valid quality indicators and standardized measures are needed. As part of a large project in 9 European countries (EPA-Cardio), we have developed and tested a set of standardized measures, linked to previously developed quality indicators. Methods A structured stepwise procedure was followed to develop measures. First, the research team allocated 106 validated quality indicators to one of the three target populations (established CVD, at high risk, at low risk) and to different data-collection methods (data abstraction from the medical records, a patient survey, an interview with lead practice GP/a practice survey). Secondly, we selected a number of other validated measures to enrich the assessment. A pilot study was performed to test the feasibility. Finally, we revised the measures based on the findings. Results The EPA-Cardio measures consisted of abstraction forms from the medical-records data of established Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)-patients - and high-risk groups, a patient questionnaire for each of the 3 groups, an interview questionnaire for the lead GP and a questionnaire for practice teams. The measures were feasible and accepted by general practices from different countries. Conclusions An internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management, linked to validated quality indicators and tested for feasibility in general practice, is now available. Careful development and pilot testing of the measures are crucial in international studies of quality of healthcare.

Ludt Sabine; Campbell Stephen M; van Lieshout Jan; Grol Richard; Szecsenyi Joachim; Wensing Michel

2011-01-01

13

International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process. Fourth, sufficient program resources for program implementation and evaluation are critical to the effectiveness of standards and labeling programs and cost-sharing between national and local governments can help ensure adequate resources and uniform implementation. Lastly, check-testing and punitive measures are important forms of enforcement while the cancellation of registration or product sales-based fines have also proven effective in reducing non-compliance. The international comparative analysis also revealed the differing degree to which the level of government decentralization has influenced S&L programs and while no single country has best practices in all elements of standards and labeling development and implementation, national examples of best practices for specific elements do exist. For example, the U.S. has exemplified the use of rigorous analyses for standard-setting and robust data source with the RECS database while Japan?s Top Runner standard-setting principle has motivated manufacturers to exceed targets. In terms of standards implementation and enforcement, Australia has demonstrated success with enforcement given its long history of check-testing and enforcement initiatives while mandatory information-sharing between EU jurisdictions on compliance results is another important enforcement mechanism. These examples show that it is important to evaluate not only the drivers of different paths of standards and labeling development, but also the country-specific context for best practice examples in order to understand how and why certain elements of specific S&L programs have been effective.

Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

2012-02-28

14

Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Developing Countries: The Case of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study focused on the adoption process of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on adeveloping economy, with particular reference to Nigeria. The paper is based on the data obtained from literaturesurvey and archival sources in the context of the globalization of International Financial Reporting and theadoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).Nigeria has embraced IFRS in order toparticipate in the benefits it offers, including attracting foreign direct investment, reduction of the cost of doingbusiness, and cross border listing. In implementing IFRS Nigeria will face challenges including the developmentof a legal and regulatory framework, awareness campaign, and training of personnel. Recommendations weremade to forestall such challenges which include strengthening education and training, establishment of anindependent body to monitor and enforce accounting and auditing standards.

Abdulkadir Madawaki

2012-01-01

15

Process, Promise, Problems: Developing WiMAX as an International Standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

The WiMAX set of wireless broadband standards (IEEE 802.16x) represents a joint effort between a traditional standards development organization and industry stakeholders, with facilitation and leadership by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Tec...

E. Puskar T. A. Aanstoos

2008-01-01

16

THE ADOPTION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES- The Case of Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most countries in the world have revolutionized their accounting practices especially during the last few decades of the 21st century. Such revolutions encompass the adoption and adaptation of local accounting practices and harmonizing it with that of the International Financial Reporting Standards ...

Antwi, Kofi

17

International standards for radiation protection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents.

Ambrosi P

2011-03-01

18

Towards International Pellet Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The European Commission gave in 2000 a mandate to the European Committee for Standardization, CEN under committee TC335 to prepare standards for solid biofuels. In total 36 standards for terminology, fuel specification and classes, quality assurance, sampling, analysis physical and mechanical and chemical properties will be published.

Alakangas, Eija [VTT, Espoo (Finland)

2012-11-01

19

International standards for reactor technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of normative standards is to enhance the economic competitiveness of a nation by facilitating the free exchange of goods and services. Approximately 80 percent of all globally traded products are affected by standards and regulations that embody standards. In the present paper we provide a general discussion about the role of normative standards both in the United States and globally, and conclude with a specific discussion of international standards in the area of reactor technology. (authors)

Adams, J. M.; Londono, C. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 28099 (United States)

2006-07-01

20

International standards for reactor technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of normative standards is to enhance the economic competitiveness of a nation by facilitating the free exchange of goods and services. Approximately 80 percent of all globally traded products are affected by standards and regulations that embody standards. In the present paper we provide a general discussion about the role of normative standards both in the United States and globally, and conclude with a specific discussion of international standards in the area of reactor technology. (authors)

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

International Standard for Erythromycin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A batch of highly purified erythromycin A has been examined by 9 laboratories in 6 different countries, and has been assayed against the erythromycin standard of the Food and Drug Administration of the US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The material examined has been established as the...

Humphrey, J. H.; Lightbown, J. W.; Mussett, Marjorie V.

22

The international standard for colistin*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An International Standard for Colistin has been established and the International Unit defined as the activity contained in 0.00004878 mg of this preparation. The unit was defined on the basis of a collaborative assay in which nine laboratories from six different countries participated. The material...

Lightbown, J. W.; Bond, J. M.; Grab, B.

23

TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR EDUCATION AND  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Forum Orthopaedic Educational Programs from the Netherlands and Belgium (Flanders)took the initiative to promote the developement of international standards for education and training in the field of orthopaedic shoe technology.

Vries, Wolter de; Holtkamp, Fred

24

International standards for the indoor environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: On the international level, International Organization for Standardization (ISO), European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) are writing and reviewing standards relating to the indoor environment on a regular basis. This presentation will focus on the development of standards for the indoor thermal environment and indoor air quality (ventilation). In the future, recommendations for acceptable indoor environments will be specified as classes. This allows for national differences in the requirements as well as for designing buildings for different quality levels. Several of these standards have been developed mainly by experts from Europe, North America and Japan. Are there, however, special considerations relating to South-East Asia (lifestyle, outdoor climate, economy) that are not dealt with in these standards and that will require the revision of existing standards? Critical issues are: adaptation, the effect of increased air velocity, humidity, type of indoor pollutant sources, etc. This paper will present an overview of existing methods, and discuss areas where revision of present standards or the development of new standards, are needed. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The international standards for the indoor environment provide the designer with criteria, which are internationally recognized, for the design of buildings and systems.

Olesen BW

2004-01-01

25

Development of an international standard (IEC) for the measurement of mechanical loads of wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Draft `Technical Report` has been prepared by a group of experts (WG11) under IEC TC88, specifying methods and techniques for the experimental determination of mechanical loads on wind turbines. The draft standard will be subject to comments and voting in 1999. The present paper presents the work of WG11 and highlights the philosophy and methodology recommended in the report for the execution and analysis of mechanical load measurements in view of wind turbine design. 6 refs.

Van Hulle, F. [ECN Solar and Wind, Petten (Netherlands)

1999-03-01

26

International standards for brucellosis prevention and management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

International standards are a crucial element in brucellosis prevention and management. They allow policy-makers, scientists, epidemiologists, laboratories and trade entities to have a common vocabulary for communication and understanding of the disease. These standards cover the entire spectrum of activities from surveillance, testing, prophylaxis, transport and trade to policy development, research and reporting. Developing, adhering to and monitoring standards increases both the effectiveness and efficiency of prevention and management programmes. Creating standards with the input of all stakeholders ensures that the standards do not adversely affect the requirements of any of the multiple parties involved. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), in conjunction with its Member Countries, and through its standing and ad hoc committees plus expert input, has taken a key leadership role in developing and reviewing brucellosis standards. These standards are used to harmonise testing, prevention processes, vaccines and reporting, to support trade and to protect human and animal health.

Ragan V; Vroegindewey G; Babcock S

2013-04-01

27

International standards for brucellosis prevention and management.  

Science.gov (United States)

International standards are a crucial element in brucellosis prevention and management. They allow policy-makers, scientists, epidemiologists, laboratories and trade entities to have a common vocabulary for communication and understanding of the disease. These standards cover the entire spectrum of activities from surveillance, testing, prophylaxis, transport and trade to policy development, research and reporting. Developing, adhering to and monitoring standards increases both the effectiveness and efficiency of prevention and management programmes. Creating standards with the input of all stakeholders ensures that the standards do not adversely affect the requirements of any of the multiple parties involved. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), in conjunction with its Member Countries, and through its standing and ad hoc committees plus expert input, has taken a key leadership role in developing and reviewing brucellosis standards. These standards are used to harmonise testing, prevention processes, vaccines and reporting, to support trade and to protect human and animal health. PMID:23837376

Ragan, V; Vroegindewey, G; Babcock, S

2013-04-01

28

International standards and agreements in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing. (author)

2004-01-01

29

ISO-standards for marine fuels. [ISO = International Standardization Organization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors are reporting about the developments in the energy market where, on account of changes in refinery operations and processes, a change in future Marine Fuel qualities will be relevant. The logical consequences were initiatives for the introduction of standards for Marine Fuels. The report is about the work which international groups have performed in respect to these standardization efforts and about the consequences this work has on the future market for Marine Fuels. Furthermore, prospects are being discussed about the finalization and the implementation of these standards and the possible consequences that will arise regarding availability and quality of standardized Marine Fuels in future.

Thornton, R.H.; Breyer, H.

1983-10-01

30

Selenium determination in biscuits and pasta: Development of chronopotentiometric stripping determination by using a sulphide as an internal standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

Being common in chromatographic techniques internal standard method is rarely applied in electrochemical stripping determinations. One of the reasons for such rare use of this elegant quantification method is because optimal conditions of accumulation at the electrode for individual compounds producing a reproducible signal may vary significantly. These criteria are much stricter when selenium is in question due to very complex mechanism of its accumulation at mercury electrodes which implies simultaneous cathodic mercury dissolution and chemical reaction. Elements that are in the analytical step stripped cathodically from mercury electrodes are rare, further limiting the application of the internal standard method when electrochemical selenium determination is in question. In this work the possibility of using sulphide for selenium quantification by chronopotentiometric stripping analysis was investigated. Optimal experimental parameters were defined in two-component systems. Dimensionless factors defining the ratio of proportionality constants of the two elements were calculated for different selenium concentration ranges at different sulphide contents. Sulphide content that was chosen as adequate for selenium concentrations reasonably to be expected in food samples was 500µg/dm(3). Determined detection limit of chronopotentiometric stripping determination of selenium by using a sulphide as an internal standard was 0.04µg/dm(3) (RSD=7.6%; n=5). Defined quantification method was confirmed by analysing spiked standard solutions and standard reference material. The method was used for selenium determination in biscuit and pasta samples. Calculated contents were statistically compared with those obtained by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. PMID:24054621

Svarc-Gaji?, Jaroslava; Stojanovi?, Zorica

2013-06-13

31

Selenium determination in biscuits and pasta: Development of chronopotentiometric stripping determination by using a sulphide as an internal standard.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Being common in chromatographic techniques internal standard method is rarely applied in electrochemical stripping determinations. One of the reasons for such rare use of this elegant quantification method is because optimal conditions of accumulation at the electrode for individual compounds producing a reproducible signal may vary significantly. These criteria are much stricter when selenium is in question due to very complex mechanism of its accumulation at mercury electrodes which implies simultaneous cathodic mercury dissolution and chemical reaction. Elements that are in the analytical step stripped cathodically from mercury electrodes are rare, further limiting the application of the internal standard method when electrochemical selenium determination is in question. In this work the possibility of using sulphide for selenium quantification by chronopotentiometric stripping analysis was investigated. Optimal experimental parameters were defined in two-component systems. Dimensionless factors defining the ratio of proportionality constants of the two elements were calculated for different selenium concentration ranges at different sulphide contents. Sulphide content that was chosen as adequate for selenium concentrations reasonably to be expected in food samples was 500µg/dm(3). Determined detection limit of chronopotentiometric stripping determination of selenium by using a sulphide as an internal standard was 0.04µg/dm(3) (RSD=7.6%; n=5). Defined quantification method was confirmed by analysing spiked standard solutions and standard reference material. The method was used for selenium determination in biscuit and pasta samples. Calculated contents were statistically compared with those obtained by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

Svarc-Gaji? J; Stojanovi? Z

2013-10-01

32

Status and Value of International Standards for Nuclear Criticality Safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation provides an update to the author's standards report provided at the ICNC-2007 meeting. It includes a discussion about the difference between, and the value of participating in, the development of international 'consensus' standards as opposed to nonconsensus standards. Standards are developed for a myriad of reasons. Generally, standards represent an agreed upon, repeatable way of doing something as defined by an individual or group of people. They come in various types. Examples include personal, family, business, industrial, commercial, and regulatory such as military, community, state, federal, and international standards. Typically, national and international 'consensus' standards are developed by individuals and organizations of diverse backgrounds representing the subject matter users and developers of a service or product and other interested parties or organizations. Within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Technical Committee 85 (TC85) on nuclear energy, Subcommittee 5 (SC5) on nuclear fuel technology, there is a Working Group 8 (WG8) on standardization of calculations, procedures, and practices related to criticality safety. WG8 has developed, and is developing, ISO standards within the category of nuclear criticality safety of fissionable materials outside of reactors (i.e., nonreactor fissionable material nuclear fuel cycle facilities). Since the presentation of the ICNC-2007 report, WG8 has issued three new finalized international standards and is developing two more new standards. Nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards. The progression of consensus standards development among international partners in a collegial environment establishes a synergy of different concepts that broadens the perspectives of the members. This breadth of perspectives benefits the working group members in their considerations of consensus standards developments in their own countries. A testament to the value of the international standards efforts is that nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards and are mainly consistent with international ISO member domestic standards.

2011-01-01

33

International standards for services activities relating to drinking water supply systems and wastewater systems: implications for developing countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In developing countries, the PPP (Public-Private-Partnerships) programs have been unsatisfied during the last decade. This study analyzed one of the main causes is low quality of the system. That is, no matter what supports developing countries may get through PPP, reforming water systems can be hardly successful without appropriate system quality. With this background, this study introduces service standards of ISO/TC 224 as an option to improve system quality of developing countries. To analyze its effects, system dynamic modeling was conducted. The results indicated that service standards, working with the PPP programs, can benefit all the stakeholders involved in the water systems in developing countries. Also this indicates further that this approach with service standards deserves more detailed study for improving the ailing water systems in developing countries.

Lee S; Cha D; Park H

2006-01-01

34

Overview of NACE international standard RP0472  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes the development and objectives of NACE International Standard Recommended Practice RP0472-95, ``Methods and Controls to Prevent In-Service Environmental Cracking of Carbon Steel Weldments in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments''. Two types of environmental cracking are included; cracking due to hydrogen charging and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Weldments are defined to include the weld deposit, base metal heat affected zones (HAZs) and adjacent base metal zones subject to residual stresses from welding.

Shargau, C.

1999-07-01

35

Harmonizing national with international standards in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a Japanese engineer`s view on harmonization of global standards as the key factor in maintaining and promoting free trade. Japan is endowed with almost no natural resources, and, for this reason, Japan must rely on international trade to sustain its standard of living. Japan fully recognizes that the maintenance and promotion of mutually beneficial free trade is indispensable for cooperation in an international society, and is essential for Japan`s survival. It is very clear that the promotion of the international harmonization of standards is the key factor in the maintenance and promotion of free trade. And Japan is one of the countries most eagerly hoping for its realization. The authors focus on three issues concerning the international harmonization of Japanese standards: (1) Efforts Japan has made for the harmonization of Japanese standards with international ones; (2) natural or tectonic circumstances unique to Japanese standards; and (3) relationship between standard harmonization and international trade.

Hohki, Keiichi [Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Japan); Hammons, T.J. [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom)

1996-05-01

36

The final steps towards an international standard for land administration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) moved forward to the FDIS stage (FDIS = Final Draft International Standard): ISO FDIS 19152. This is the last stage before becoming an International Standard (expected in July 2012), after a four year standards development process within ISO/TC211 (Geograp...

Lemmen, C.H.J.; Uitermark, H.T.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

37

The second international standard for penicillin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 1950 the Department of Biological Standards, National Institute for Medical Research, London, was authorized by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization to prepare the Second International Standard for Penicillin. A single batch of specially recrystallized sodium penicillin G was obtained and 11 laboratories in seven different countries were requested to take part in its collaborative assay. 112 assays were carried out, of which 101 were done by cup-plate methods using either Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus subtilis. The results were subjected to standard methods of analysis, on the basis of which the authors define the Second International Standard for Penicillin as containing 1,670 International Units (IU) per mg, with limits of error (P = 0.05) of 1,666-1,674 IU/mg. The International Unit is therefore redefined as the activity contained in 0.0005988 mg of the Second International Standard for Penicillin.

HUMPHREY JH; MUSSET MV; PERRY WL

1953-01-01

38

Development of internal company standards of good management practice and a task-based risk assessment tool for offshore work-related stressors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes a project which developed a set of fourteen internal, company-specific management standards for common work-related stressors. A ''bottom-up'' stress risk assessment approach was used to identify work-related stressors affecting team members in two organisations, BP and East of Scotland Water. The final versions of the standards, and a description of the process used in their development, are provided. In addition, a set of human factors triggers for use during a task-based risk assessment was developed and implemented. Although the standards and human factors triggers were developed within specific industries, it is likely that they will be relevant and useful to many organisations who wish to adopt a preventative approach to work-related stress. (author)

Briner, R.B.; Amati, C.; Lardner, R.

2003-07-01

39

International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise experimental data and improved developments in the methodology of analysis and evaluation. Initial efforts to produce a new evaluation were made by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group which formed a Task Force. It was realized that international cooperation would be needed to produce the evaluation. The Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee formed a Subgroup, and the International Atomic Energy Agency formed a Coordinated Research Project (CRP). These groups worked cooperatively to improve the evaluation process. The major effort in producing the evaluation was through the CRP. The evaluations of the neutron cross section standards were finalized in October 2005. Previous difficulties experienced with a data evaluation problem known as 'Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle' create biases in the fit of correlated data, and they have been addressed to reduce this phenomenon. The new evaluations of the cross section standards also include covariance matrices of the uncertainties that contain fully justifiable values. The product of this international effort has been adopted as the neutron standards for ENDF/B-VII.0.

2009-01-01

40

EPR meeting international safety standards with margin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification in with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

Mazurkiewicz, S.M. [AREVA, Framatome ANP, Inc., Lynchburg, Virginia (United States)]. E-mail: Stephen.Mazurkiewicz@framatome-anp.com; Brauns, J.; Blombach, J. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

EPR meeting international safety standards with margin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification in with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

2005-01-01

42

EPR meeting international safety standards with margin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

2005-01-01

43

EPR meeting international safety standards with margin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

Mazurkiewicz, S.M. [AREVA Framatome ANP, Inc., Lynchburg, Virginia (United States); Brauns, J.; Blombach, J. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

2005-09-15

44

Development of fusion safety standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Two new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) standards have been prepared to assist in the design and regulation of magnetic fusion facilities. They are DOE-STD-6002-96, 'Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities - Requirements,' and DOE-STD-6003-96 'Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities - Guidance.' The first standard sets forth requirements, mostly based on the Code of Federal Regulations, deemed necessary for the safe design and operation of fusion facilities and a set of safety principles to use in the design. The second standard provides guidance on how to meet the requirements identified in DOE-STD-6002-96. It is written specifically for a facility such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in the DOE regulatory environment. As technical standards, they are applicable only to the extent that compliance with these standards is included in the contracts of the developers. 7 refs., 1 fig

1996-01-01

45

Status and Value of International Standards for Nuclear Criticality Safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation provides an update to the author's standards report provided at the ICNC-2007 meeting. It includes a discussion about the difference between, and the value of participating in, the development of international 'consensus' standards as opposed to nonconsensus standards. Standards are developed for a myriad of reasons. Generally, standards represent an agreed upon, repeatable way of doing something as defined by an individual or group of people. They come in various types. Examples include personal, family, business, industrial, commercial, and regulatory such as military, community, state, federal, and international standards. Typically, national and international 'consensus' standards are developed by individuals and organizations of diverse backgrounds representing the subject matter users and developers of a service or product and other interested parties or organizations. Within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Technical Committee 85 (TC85) on nuclear energy, Subcommittee 5 (SC5) on nuclear fuel technology, there is a Working Group 8 (WG8) on standardization of calculations, procedures, and practices related to criticality safety. WG8 has developed, and is developing, ISO standards within the category of nuclear criticality safety of fissionable materials outside of reactors (i.e., nonreactor fissionable material nuclear fuel cycle facilities). Since the presentation of the ICNC-2007 report, WG8 has issued three new finalized international standards and is developing two more new standards. Nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards. The progression of consensus standards development among international partners in a collegial environment establishes a synergy of different concepts that broadens the perspectives of the members. This breadth of perspectives benefits the working group members in their considerations of consensus standards developments in their own countries. A testament to the value of the international standards efforts is that nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards and are mainly consistent with international ISO member domestic standards.

Hopper, Calvin Mitchell [ORNL

2011-01-01

46

77 FR 32444 - Minimum Internal Control Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...standards for patron deposit accounts and cashless systems? 543.15 What are the minimum internal...operation has assigned an exchange value. Cashless system. A system that performs cashless transactions and maintains records of...

2012-06-01

47

International standard for calculating pollution taxes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a consensus that in developed countries, most command and control regulations have reached their limit of effectiveness due to increased complexity of environmental regulation and more esoteric environmental problems such as global warming and coastal water pollution. See Presentation on Netherlands Environmental Program by P. Hofhuis, Royal Netherlands Embassy, to George Washington Law School (Dec. 1996). There is also a consensus that there is no inherent benefit in pollution. The standard presented in this paper describes a progressively increasing level of pollution tax over a 15 year period to avoid economic dislocations. By internalizing pollution costs, it is designed to provide environmental and sustainability benefits through substantive increases in green products, recycling, pollution prevention, energy efficiency, resource conservation, and coverage of unregulated and inadequately regulated pollutants. A fundamental premise of the standard is that the tax amount need not be proven to exactly match the economic damages caused by pollution. Calculating those damages is a highly inexact and costly science with much uncertainty. The burden should be on the polluter to show any more efficacious pollution tax calculation because there is no inherent benefit in pollution. Historically, pollution and sin taxes have been calculated arbitrarily. The standard uses, as a surrogate, EPA`s cost of pollution control as one option for calculating the tax on a revenue neutral basis. Two other options are identified. The standard is intended to be used as a tool in international treaty negotiations as a rational basis for setting and implementing global pollution tax amounts. The coverage of the tax addresses pollutants comprehensively, both point and nonpoint. It is based on an earlier version prepared by J.R.R. Tormey.

Italiano, M.L. [Italiano and Plache, Washington, DC (United States); Beyea, J. [Consulting in the Public Interest, Lambertville, NJ (United States)

1997-12-31

48

International Standard Classification of Education. Abridged Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) has been designed as an instrument suitable for assembling, compiling, and presenting statistics of education both within individual countries and internationally. The classification is designed for assembling data on current educational phenomena such as enrollment, teaching staff and…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Statistics on Education.

49

The International Standardization of Library Statistics  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous efforts to standardize library statistics and the Draft Recommendation concerning the International Standardization of Library Statistics, examined by a Special Committee of Governmental Experts convened in Paris by Unesco from 19 to 28 May 1970 and adopted by the Unesco General Conference at its sixteenth session are discussed. (AB)

Schick, Frank L.

1971-01-01

50

International standards in mitigating trade risks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards.

Thiermann AB

2011-04-01

51

International standards in mitigating trade risks.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards. PMID:21809769

Thiermann, A B

2011-04-01

52

European and International Standards on health and safety in welding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes- Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone - Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

2009-02-01

53

International environmental management standards (ISO 9000`s less tractable siblings)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Before the advent of ISO 9000 Quality Management standards, the International Organization for Standardization`s (ISO) nearly exclusive focus was on international technical and safety standards. Then, some ten years ago, this staid, Geneva based world standards harmonizer took a fateful step into a more exciting, through considerably less solid realm by impaneling a new technical committee (TC 176) to develop Quality Management standards for organizations. With that, it entered the relatively soft science of organizational management. This initial gamble paid off and resulted in the ISO 9000 series of Quality standards which have won adherents throughout the world and have (in some regions) become requirements of trade. Now, ISO has launched its second sally into the organizational management field by forming Technical Committee 207 to develop yet another set of management standards, this time focusing on the considerably less tractable subject of environmental protection activities within organizations.

Cascio, J.

1994-12-31

54

Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. The results of applied regression model support that the greater demand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to performance evaluations at more widely held by businesses stimulating to adopt international accounting standards. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to follow accounting standardization.Key words: Business practice; Accounting standards; Standardization process; Management performances; Comparable research; Hungary

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

55

Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. The results of applied regression model support that the greater demand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to performance evaluations at more widely held by businesses stimulating to adopt international accounting standards. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to follow accounting standardization.Key words: Business practice; Accounting standards; Standardization process; Management performances; Comparable research; Hungary

Jeno Beke

2011-01-01

56

Review international standards for grid connected photovoltaic systems in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grid connected PV is being applied on variety application including large centralised stations, commercial building and individual houses. There is a need for specific standard to address distinctive new issue created by grid connected PV power system. Internationally many countries are attempting to develop standards for building integration, Dc side issues and grid connection issues. This paper surveys the current development state of the major countries standards in this area, comparing and contrasting, standards and guideline under development, also addressing the need of standards for grid connected in Malaysia

2006-01-01

57

International Business Accounting Standardization and Hungarian Practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this study is to describe and summarize the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from publishe...

Jeno Beke

58

Developing international hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Through the rest of the decade, many of the available hydropower development opportunities will be in the international marketplace. Tapping into this market will be particularly difficult for US companies without a decisive support strategy. Non-US companies have several distinct advantages for developing hydropower projects overseas. With more government support and unified industry efforts, US developers might level the playing field.

Smith, W.B. (Benham-Holway Power Group, Tulsa, OK (United States))

1993-03-01

59

Parallel synthesis: a new approach for developing analytical internal standards. Application to the analysis of patulin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The polymer-assisted reaction of 4-(hydroxymethyl)furan-2(5H)-one (4HM2F) with 21 carboxylic acids using polystyrene-carbodiimide (PS-carbodiimide) yielded an ester library. Four of the esters, (5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-3-yl)methyl acetate (IS-1), (5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-3-yl)methyl butyrate (IS-2), (5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-3-yl)methyl 2-methylpropanoate (IS-3), and (5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-3-yl)methyl chloroacetate (IS-4), were tested as internal standards for the quantification of patulin in apple juice by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC-MS-SIM). The developed method combines an AOAC official extractive step and a GC-MS-SIM analysis. Using a chromatographic column containing trifluoropropylmethylpolysiloxane as the stationary phase and IS-1 as the internal standard, it was possible to perform an accurate and precise quantification of underivatizated patulin in apple juice at concentrations down to 6 microg/L. A detection limit of 1 microg/L was established.

Llovera M; Balcells M; Torres M; Canela R

2005-08-01

60

International standards in the fight against terrorism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Terrorism as a phenomenon of the modern society threatens to jeopardize the most important achievements of the modern society. The international community devotes much attention to the fight against terrorism and a number of legal instruments and standards that illustrate the basic message have been formulated in international documents - and the message is that it is possible to fight against terrorism effectively only if principal standards of internationally protected human rights are fulfilled. The fight against terrorism must never lead to the abolition of values and freedoms that are imperiled by terrorist acts. Even if the need to impose certain restrictions for protection of legitimate interests arouses they must be controlled, while they should protect basic human rights and freedoms. Regulating formal conditions for human rights limitation is the way to control the fight against terrorism and prevent the unlimited space for violation of the established and guaranteed freedom standards. The paper refers to the provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which provide some limitations to the guaranteed human rights as well as the limitation to their usage also exploring to what extent these restrictions are applied in the fight against terrorism.

Jankovi? Dijana

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

International thermal reactor development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The worldwide development of nuclear power plants is reviewed. Charts are presented which show the commitment to light-water reactor capacity construction with breakdown by region and country. Additional charts show the major nuclear research centers which have substantial scope in light water reactor development and extensive international activities

1977-03-01

62

Minimum quality standards and international trade  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which a domestic and a foreign firm are identical except that the foreign firm faces positive transport costs. Asymmetric information generates a market failure, which the government attempts to alleviate with a MQS. It is found that although firms face the exact same costs of compliance, they will generally prefer different levels of regulation. As a result, international trade disputes are likely to arise even when regulation is non-discriminating.

Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

2011-01-01

63

EPA STANDARDS NETWORK FACT SHEET: ISO 14000: INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS  

Science.gov (United States)

This flyer provides an overview of the ISO 14000 series of International standards, supplying a brief history, structure of the Technical Committee (TC) 207, structure of the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to ISO TC-207, status of the Standards development as of June 1997, w...

64

Domestic and International Nuclear Energy Voluntary Consensus Standards Needs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report introduces the reader to the domestic and international standards development organizations (SDOs) and their structures and operations. It also identifies some of the support and subject matter needs for the development of standards on the subject of nuclear energy. The support needs are described with regard to organizational structure and subject-matter-expert (SME) participation that is required for producing voluntary consensus standards. The subject matter needs are described with regard to growing technologies and objectives that approach the boundaries of existing standards; implementation of knowledge; and safety of people, facilities, and the environment. Standards are proposed, developed, and produced by SMEs with the support of industry and government organizations. The voluntary consensus standards development process is, as its name implies, a voluntary effort. The problem in today's competitive market, impacted by global economic uncertainty, is that the voluntary participation is shifting from a collaborative industry and SME effort to a nearly SME-only one. This shift places a financial and/or time burden on the SMEs to the point that they are purposely withdrawing from the standards development process, both domestically and internationally. The standards development process desperately needs participation from more and younger SMEs. The report includes several suggestions on how this can be addressed.

2013-01-01

65

International Standards of Corporate Social Responsibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with internationally acknowledged standards and norms in the sphere of corporate socialresponsibility. It introduces the concept of social responsibility, the so-called triple-bottom line, in terms ofwhich the company focuses not only on the economic growth but it also takes into account environmental andsocial aspects of its business activities. The article presents five norms and standards which stem from the triplebottomline concept. The norms and standards are in the article briefly characterised, which is followed by theircomparison based on four previously stated criteria. The results of the comparison show that there is no suchnorm which would meet current company requirements.This paper resulted from contribution to a research project IGA FEM CULS 201011140057 "ModernManagement Approaches in the Field of Higher Education in the Czech Republic"

L. Stanislavská; K. Margarisová,; K. Štastná

2010-01-01

66

Thirty years of international nuclear standards in ISO and IEC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of over 4700 nuclear and radiation protection standards, laws, regulations, recommendations, etc., which have been issued by 52 countries and several governmental international organizations such as IAEA, or non-government organizations such as ICRP, ICRU, ISO and IEC, more than 90% are national, and more than half of those of a non-regulatory nature. Both number and importance of international standards are, however, increasing. The two most important non-governmental international standards organizations are the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which founded a Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' with several Sub-Committees in 1957, and the closely associated International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) with its TC 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' formed in 1960. There are over 20 member countries actively participating in the work in each of them, with additional observer countries and liaison to the relevant other international organizations. A brief review is given on some of the experience which has been gained by ISO/TC 85 and IEC/TC 45, and its work program and accomplishments, considering in particular recent developments. It covers nuclear safety and instrumentation, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as interface issues including definitions and terminology, interaction of the activities with the work of other national and international bodies, etc. Some problem areas are also briefly discussed. (orig.).

1991-01-01

67

Thirty years of international nuclear standards in ISO and IEC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Of over 4700 nuclear and radiation protection standards, laws, regulations, recommendations, etc., which have been issued by 52 countries and several governmental international organizations such as IAEA, or non-government organizations such as ICRP, ICRU, ISO and IEC, more than 90% are national, and more than half of those of a non-regulatory nature. Both number and importance of international standards are, however, increasing. The two most important non-governmental international standards organizations are the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which founded a Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' with several Sub-Committees in 1957, and the closely associated International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) with its TC 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' formed in 1960. There are over 20 member countries actively participating in the work in each of them, with additional observer countries and liaison to the relevant other international organizations. A brief review is given on some of the experience which has been gained by ISO/TC 85 and IEC/TC 45, and its work program and accomplishments, considering in particular recent developments. It covers nuclear safety and instrumentation, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as interface issues including definitions and terminology, interaction of the activities with the work of other national and international bodies, etc. Some problem areas are also briefly discussed. (orig.).

Becker, K. (DIN German Nuclear Standard Committee, Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

1991-06-01

68

Coordinate Standard Measurement Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Shelton Precision Interferometer Base, which is used for calibration of coordinate standards, was improved through hardware replacement, software geometry error correction, and reduction of vibration effects. Substantial increases in resolution and reliability, as well as reduction in sampling time, were achieved through hardware replacement; vibration effects were reduced substantially through modification of the machine component dampening and software routines; and the majority of the machine's geometry error was corrected through software geometry error correction. Because of these modifications, the uncertainty of coordinate standards calibrated on this device has been reduced dramatically.

Hanshaw, R.A.

2000-02-18

69

Development of iodine analysis codes for chemical and mass transport behavior under severe accident condition and their application to international standard problem No.41  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a severe reactor accident, radioactive fission products could potentially be released from the degraded core to the environment through the containment. Among the radioactive fission products that could be released, the iodine is most important because of its volatility, high radio toxicity, and assimilation into the thyroid grand of the human body. For that reason, it is important to simulate the behavior of the iodine species in the containment. In this study, we developed three analysis codes using the different models of iodine behaviors, respectively. The three models are (1) of IMPAIR code, (2) of LIRIC code, and (3) Taghipour's. The developed three codes have been tested by using the International Standard Problem (ISP) No.41 exercise of the inorganic iodine to identify those validity and accuracy. The result of the each code reveals that (1) the code using IMPAIR model doesn't have an enough accuracy and (2) the both codes using the models of LIRIC code and Taghipour's are able to simulate the iodine behavior in the ISP41 exercise. The results of the last two codes agree with the experimental results of ISP41 better than any result by the other organizations except for AECL and NRIR joined in the ISP41. (author)

2004-01-01

70

Development and validation of an improved LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of desloratadine and its metabolite in human plasma using deutrated desloratadine as internal standard.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: For the determination of desloratadine (DES) and 3-OH desloratadine (3-OHD) in human plasma using deutrated desloratadine (DESD5) as internal standard (IS), a novel stability indicating liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated to support the clinical advancement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The solid-phase extraction method used for sample preparation and calibration range was 100-11,000 pg/ml, for which a quadratic regression (1/x(2)) was best fitted. The blank plasma was screened and observed free from any endogenous interference. RESULTS: The accuracy (% nominal) at low limit of quantification LLOQ level for DES and 3-OHD was 100.4% and 99.9% whereas precision (%CV) was 4.6 and 5.1%. They (DES and 3-OHD) were stable in human plasma after five freeze-thaw cycles, at room temperature for 23.8 hour, bench top stability for 6.4 hour. CONCLUSION: This method fulfills all the regulatory requirements for selectivity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, stability, goodness of fit, and ruggedness of the method for the determination of DES and 3-OHD in human plasma.

Hasnain MS; Rao S; Singh MK; Vig N; Singh MK; Budakoti SK; Ansari A

2013-01-01

71

Internationally Standardized Cost Item Definitions for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) have agreed to jointly prepare and publish a standardized list of cost items and related definitions for decommissioning projects. Such a standardized list would facilitate communication, promote uniformity, and avoid inconsistency or contradiction of results or conclusions of cost evaluations for decommissioning projects carried out for specific purposes by different groups. Additionally, a standardized structure would also be a useful tool for more effective cost management. This paper describes actual work and result thus far

2000-01-01

72

Standards development status. Summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Standards Development Status Summary Report is designed for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the process by which Regulatory Standards, Guides, Reports, Petitions, and Environmental Statements are written. It is a summary of the current schedule plans for development of the above products

1981-01-01

73

International Economic Development Council  

Science.gov (United States)

Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the International Economic Development Council (IEDC), was created through the merger of existing economic development organizations, effectively creating the nation's largest association working in this realm of public policy. The IEDC's mission is "to provide leadership and excellence in economic development for our communities, members and partners to build economically strong, sustainable communities." While some of the online materials are available only to association members, there is a good deal of material that may be accessed by the general public. Through the online resource center, visitors may access such materials as the Economic Developer's Reference Guide (which provides an overview of such key topics as tourism, venture capital, and empowerment zones) and an overview of ongoing legislative matters that may impact the landscape of economic development. Finally, the site is rounded out by an excellent section dedicated to brownfields redevelopment, which includes a general manual of redevelopment techniques and links to external websites, such as those offered by the Environmental Protection Agency.

74

Pronuclear scoring. Time for international standardization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zygote scoring is an efficient tool for embryo selection not only in countries where embryo selection is not permitted. Several different scoring systems have been published so far, making comparisons of assessments between investigators and laboratories extremely difficult. Pronuclear evaluation should be standardized in a manner analogous to the standardization of cleavage stage embryo scoring or of semen evaluation by the World Health Organization. The ideal score should be clear and easily applicable. The items that have the greatest influence on embryonic development seem to be alignment and size of pronuclei, alignment and number of nucleoli, halo effect and appearance of vacuoles. These morphologic parameters can be observed in different features and can be summarized as a zygote score. PMID:12815911

Zollner, Ursula; Zollner, Klaus-Peter; Steck, Thomas; Dietl, Johannes

2003-05-01

75

Pronuclear scoring. Time for international standardization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Zygote scoring is an efficient tool for embryo selection not only in countries where embryo selection is not permitted. Several different scoring systems have been published so far, making comparisons of assessments between investigators and laboratories extremely difficult. Pronuclear evaluation should be standardized in a manner analogous to the standardization of cleavage stage embryo scoring or of semen evaluation by the World Health Organization. The ideal score should be clear and easily applicable. The items that have the greatest influence on embryonic development seem to be alignment and size of pronuclei, alignment and number of nucleoli, halo effect and appearance of vacuoles. These morphologic parameters can be observed in different features and can be summarized as a zygote score.

Zollner U; Zollner KP; Steck T; Dietl J

2003-05-01

76

[Development of dementia care standards].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This study was done to develop standards for dementia care as a baseline for professional nurses to provide a framework for dementia care evaluation. METHODS: The dementia care standards were developed through a literature review and focus group discussions. According to the Delphi method, the data analysis was conducted using the Content Validity Index (CVI). RESULTS: The final set of 18 standards on dementia care was developed through one round of CVI. The standards included four structural standards: 'Organization of nursing system', 'Operating system', 'Management of human resources', 'Management of material resources', 13 procedural standards: 'Advanced assessment', 'Nursing diagnosis', 'Nursing plan', 'Advanced nursing implementation', 'Evaluation', 'Education', 'Research', 'Consultation', 'Counseling and cooperation', 'Development of specialty', 'Utilizing resources', 'Nursing quality assurance', 'Ethics', and one standard concerning outcome ('Evaluation of nursing tasks in care of patients with dementia'). The final set of 55 criteria on care of patients with dementia was confirmed through two rounds of CVI. The final 171 indicators were confirmed through four rounds of CVI. CONCLUSION: These dementia care standards provides a framework that allows registered nurses to clarify their roles and tasks in the care of patients with dementia and provides evaluation criteria.

Ha JY

2010-10-01

77

FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of the fine bioceramics testing/evaluation methods; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Seitaiyo fine ceramics no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the research and development of the fatigue characteristics of the bioceramics, fatigue and impact-resistance characteristics of the members of these materials, and methods of evaluating their compatibility with a living body, for proposing the international standards. The test results of alumina and zirconia as the bioceramics indicate that their bending fatigue characteristics greatly depend on environmental conditions and frequency, suggesting necessity for the evaluation in the environments which simulate the living body inside. The compression and impact tests are conducted for the artificial femoral heads with a taper. It is found that the simulated body fluid, having the dissociated ion concentration adjusted at the level in the human blood plasma, remains unchanged in the concentration at 36.5 degrees C for 4 weeks; the ion concentration is unaffected by filtration with the aid of the microfilter useful for, e.g., removal of bacteria; and the synthetic apatite has almost the same composition as that for the bones in a living body. It is also suggested that activity of the bioactive ceramics can be evaluated by their ability for forming apatite in the simulated body fluid. (NEDO)

NONE

2001-03-01

78

Updated comparison of international standards for polymer piping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Responding to a request by ASME B31 Committee, Code for Pressure Piping, to assist in the development of guidelines for establishing uniform manufacturing and design requirements for plastic piping, the Committee on Polymers for Pressure Components of the Pressure Vessel Research Council, initiated a literature survey and interpretive study on plastic piping. This paper discusses existing methods used for designing plastic piping systems and their components by comparing major international codes and standards. The study recognizes that thermoplastic and reinforces thermosetting resins require different design criteria. ASME standards reviewed include ASME B31.3, B31.1, RTP-1 and Section X of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes. Particular emphasis was given to ASME B31.3 Code for Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping. Chapter VII of the ASME B31.3 Code covers non-metallic piping and metallic piping lined with non-metals and establishes much of the design basis for non-metallic piping design covered in other Sections of the B31 Code. ASTM documents discussed are limited to those referenced in ASME B31. British Standard Code for glass reinforced plastics piping system, BS7159, as well as, the German standard for thermoplastic piping systems DVS2210 were used for comparison to U.S. Standards. A cursory review of other standards is also included for the development of a uniform industry standard for plastic piping systems. (authors) 20 refs.

Leon, G.F. [Electric Boat Corporation, Groton, Connecticut (United States); Short, W.E. [Pressure Systems Engineering, Wilmington, Delaware (United States); Otto Widera, G.E. [Marquette Univ., Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

1996-12-31

79

Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Non halogen nannen cable no shiken hoho kaihatsu narabini cable kikaku no kento  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As for halogen-free flame-retardant cables with high recyclability and safety (HFFR cables), the development is being promoted in many countries as a next generation cable. The standard of HFFR cables has been set up by some countries and groups in the U.S. and Europe, but the international standard has not yet been established independently. The purpose of this R and D is the development of a test method to appropriately evaluate the performance of HFFR cables and its standardization, and the proposal of the international standardization on common items of the cable standard. A study group was sent to the U.S. and Europe to investigate the development, application status and test methods of the HFFR cable overseas. The ion chromatography and FT-IR method were studied as methods to evaluate corrosivity/toxicity of the gases emitted in combustion. The performance of HFFR cables in Japan and abroad was also evaluated mainly by IEC standards. Further, considering the results of the overseas surveys, the structure and details of the international standard plan on HFFR cables were studied, and approaches to the international standardization were studied. 32 refs., 31 figs., 54 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

80

International evaluation of radiation measuring standards at the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory of Iran (SSDL)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SSDL have the responsibility to provide the radiation users, in particular at therapy and protection levels, with the radiation standards traceable to the international measurement system. The IAEA dosimetry laboratory has developed two measurement assurance programmes, TLD Postal Dose International and Ionization Chamber Calibration Factors Intercomparison, to monitor the quality of therapy level standards disseminated by the members of the IAEA/WHO Network of SSDL s. This paper describes the performance of Dosimetry and calibration intercomparisons in Co-60 and high energy X-ray beams at the SSDL of Iran, and represents the capability of this laboratory in maintaining and issuing therapy level radiation standards according to the results of the IAEA quality assurance programmes during 1987-1997

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

OLAF: standardization of international olfactory tests.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Developed in the 1990 s, the "Sniffin 'Sticks" test for the assessment of olfactory threshold, odor identification and discrimination has become a widely used tool both in clinical and research settings. Originally pencil-and-paper documented, it may now be applied using a computer program. The "Filemaker" based software "OLAF" guides the examiner through any user-defined arrangement of the test battery, stores all data in a database, and offers results sheets to be printed out for convenience. The royalty-free program may be downloaded from http://www.tu-dresden.de/medkhno/riechen_schmecken/olaf.zip as a runtime solution application. It is currently available in four languages (English, French, German, and Italian) which can be toggled by a single mouse click, and is suitable for Windows as well as Apple platforms. In conclusion, the currently described software is expected to further facilitate and standardize olfactory testing with the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery.

Hummel C; Zucco GM; Iannilli E; Maboshe W; Landis BN; Hummel T

2012-03-01

82

OLAF: standardization of international olfactory tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed in the 1990 s, the "Sniffin 'Sticks" test for the assessment of olfactory threshold, odor identification and discrimination has become a widely used tool both in clinical and research settings. Originally pencil-and-paper documented, it may now be applied using a computer program. The "Filemaker" based software "OLAF" guides the examiner through any user-defined arrangement of the test battery, stores all data in a database, and offers results sheets to be printed out for convenience. The royalty-free program may be downloaded from http://www.tu-dresden.de/medkhno/riechen_schmecken/olaf.zip as a runtime solution application. It is currently available in four languages (English, French, German, and Italian) which can be toggled by a single mouse click, and is suitable for Windows as well as Apple platforms. In conclusion, the currently described software is expected to further facilitate and standardize olfactory testing with the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery. PMID:21935630

Hummel, C; Zucco, G M; Iannilli, E; Maboshe, W; Landis, B N; Hummel, T

2011-09-21

83

The quality control methods provided for and mentioned in the IEC standards and in international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of the present IEC standards, VDE specifications and DIN standards shows that currently there are no valid standards governing on an international level the application of quality controls within the meaning of the WHO recommendations. The survey presented here shows that the manufacturers' standards still are more important than the quality control standards for diagnostic X-ray equipment. (DG).

1986-01-01

84

On the Construction of China’s Accounting Standard System with International Convergence in Accounting Standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the international convergence of accounting standards becoming an irresistible trend, China’s new businessaccounting standards have reached substantive convergence with International Financial Report Standards(IFRS). However, due to some factors including economy, law and culture, there is still a narrow gap betweenchina’s accounting standards and IFRS. In order to further keep up with IFRS, China should attach greaterimportance to learning from it to establish or implement its accounting standards.

Hongman Zhang; Xianfeng Liu

2010-01-01

85

The Inclusion of Standard Terms in International Sales Contracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG) does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it isnecessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be madeavailable to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems, namely that a clear incorporation clause in the contract is sufficient for the effective incorporation of standard terms. The author critically examines the case law, the various approaches and the underlying arguments on which they are based, before reaching the conclusion that the two extreme approaches should be rejected in favour of the more moderate approach. This approach is founded on aproper interpretation of the provisions of the CISG as well as being in step with international trade practice.

S Eiselen

2011-01-01

86

The new international standard ISO 14001: 2004 environmental management system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ISO 14001 is one standard in the ISO 14000 series of standards developed by International Organization of Standardization (ISO). Since it was published in 19096, it has rapidly become the most important environmental standard in the world. ISO 14001 is an environmental management system (EMS) that can be classified into environmental technologies provides a systematic procedure to all kind of organizations to prevent pollutions, protect environment and to improve their overall environmental performance. This new standard ISO 14001 2004 was published on November 15, 2004. It cancels and replaced the old ISO 14001-1996. Because the important of the previous standard for our local industries, firms, ...etc, this paper presents ISO 14001 concepts, issues, benefits and focuses on the stages of implementation to achieve ISO 14001-2004 certification which includes general requirements environmental policy, planning (objectives, targets ..), implementation and operations, checking and management review ...etc and presents how to apply isotop time saver software to design records, and to save time to implement ISO 14001 2004 and finally a conclusion is provided.(Author)

87

FY 1999 Report on the technical results. Research and development project for quick-effect type international standards for creating new industries (Standardization of the wireless IC tags for logistics management); 1999 nendo sokkogata kokusai hyojun sosei kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Butsuryuyo musen IC tag no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spread/expansion of the radio frequency identification (RFID) system application technologies needs the international standards. In order to internationally promote spread/expansion of the RFID system application technologies, Japan has established the examination promotion organization with the participation of the advanced Japanese makers in development of the RFID technologies, representative application users of the distribution logistics and RFID technology standardization deliberative council. The elementary and application RFID technologies are studied and developed, and the results are demonstrated. The organization plans to propose the application requirement profile (ARP) specification drafts to WD (WI/18001) of the ARP, currently deliberated by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC31/WG4/ARP of International Standardization Organization. The organization also plans to submit the Air Interface specification drafts with frequencies of 125kHz and 2.54GHz to the WD (WI/18000) of JTC1/SC31/WG4/SG3. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

88

The International Standard Classification of Education  

Science.gov (United States)

ISDED, designed as an international classification system but adaptable to national systems, is an inter-departmental project of Unesco administered by the Office of Statistics. A three stage, five digit system by level, field and programme, ISCED consists of over 450 categories of education with their respective definitions. (JB)

Educational Documentation and Information, 1972

1972-01-01

89

International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED).  

Science.gov (United States)

An international numerical coding structure is presented for classification of data on education according to level category, educational field, and program type. Explanation of the overall system and a guide for its use is followed by a listing of levels, fields, and programs of education in coded order. The various educational program…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Statistics on Education.

90

Internal standard application to dried blood spots by spraying: investigation of the internal standard distribution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The scientifically and logistically best way of application of the internal standard (IS) in the analysis of dried blood spots (DBS) analysis is still a matter of debate and investigation. Most commonly the IS is added in the solvent used for extraction of the discs punched from DBS. In this case, the recovery of the non-extracted IS is complete while the recovery of the analyte extracted from DBS is different from the IS. RESULTS: An alternative way for addition of the IS was investigated. A homogeneous distribution and absorption of the test compound across the spots was demonstrated by spraying a solution of a radiolabeled test compound (mimicking an IS solution) onto DBS. CONCLUSION: This spray-on technique is convenient and easily automatable. Spraying of the solution was rapid, precise and reproducible, and therefore seems to be suitable for routine analysis of DBS by offline and online extraction.

Zimmer D; Hassler S; Betschart B; Sack S; Fankhauser C; Loppacher M

2013-03-01

91

Standardization of information systems development processes and banking industry adaptations  

CERN Multimedia

This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms of compliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards to determine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into system development and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected. Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classical Waterfall life cycle model. Each question is made up of guidance and suggestions from the international system development standards. To collect data, people from the information technology departments of three major banks in Turkey were interviewed. Results have been aggregated by examining the current process status of the three banks together. Problematic issues were identified using the international system development standards.

Tanrikulu, Zuhal

2011-01-01

92

FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Comprehensive survey research on the promotion of international standardization; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru sogo chosa kenkyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the purpose of promoting the international standardization effectively/strategically, a comprehensive survey was made, and the FY 1999 results were summarized. In the trend survey on the comprehensive international standardization, survey was conducted for companies in the material field (plastics, rubber and iron steel) and in the mechanical field (robot, machinery, aircraft, etc.). As a result of the survey, it was found out that they have few headquarters systems and experts, but they tackle it strategically and defensively, taking the standardization as business. Also as to the trend of CEN/CENELEC, importance of the continued trend survey was pointed out. In the survey of policy for the international standardization, survey was carried out on the trend of the process for working out the international standards (TS, ITS and SDO). Further, in relation to the technology standards and intellectual property rights in the hi-tech field, survey was made on the present situation of rules for handling intellectual property rights of organizations, groups, etc. for standardization, how to handle intellectual property rights in the standardization process, problems and the solution, etc. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

93

CSNI International standard problems (ISP). Brief descriptions (1975-1999)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last twenty-five years the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored a considerable number of international activities to promote the exchange of experience between its Member countries in the use of nuclear safety codes and testing materials. A primary goal of these activities is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. International Standard Problems (ISPs) exercises are comparative exercises in which predictions or recalculations of a given physical problem with different best-estimate computer code are compared with each other and above all with the results of a carefully specified experimental study. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. In an open Standard Problem exercise the results of the experiment are available to the participants before performing the calculations, while in a blind Standard Problem exercise the experimental results are locked until the calculation results are made available for comparison. The CSNI-promoted ISP activity started in the early 70's and is still underway. Parallel to other national and international programs the CSNI has sponsored over more than 25 years forty-seven International Standard Problem exercises. This program has been focused mainly on the applicability of large thermal-hydraulic code systems simulating the behaviour of nuclear coolant and containment systems, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, hydrogen distribution, core-concrete interactions and fission product release and transport. One ISP exercise was organised in connection with a seismic ultimate dynamic response test. ISP exercises have proven to be very valuable to participating countries. They have been fruitful to identify code application problems and to amplify the contacts between the experimental and analytical working communities on an international level. Moreover, they enable code users to improve their ability, gain experience and demonstrate their competence. Technical proposals originating from laboratories in 13 countries were submitted and adopted serving as experimental background for the international activity. An activity complementary to the ISP programme but not directly related to it is the establishment of comprehensive sets of experimental data for use in validating proper code application by experts other than code developers. Known as a Code Validation Matrix, the results of such an extensive list of experiments are collected and stored in the NEA Data Bank for the purpose that they be made available to Member countries wishing to validate relevant codes. ISP tests are important elements of validation matrices for thermal-hydraulic codes. In the field of containment behaviour it has been recommended to preferably base a general code validation matrix on containment-related ISPs as well. The way of organizing ISP exercises has been described in CSNI Report No. 17, CSNI Standard Problem Procedures, revised for the third time in November 1989. The following report in some detail summarises the main objectives, the underlying experimental background and the main findings and conclusions of the ISPs to provide interested groups an overview on the accumulated experience in this matter. The document, which has been reviewed by members of CSNI's Principal Working on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2) and Principal Working on Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases (PWG4), summarises systematically the main features of all International Standard Problem exercises organised so far, from ISP-1 to ISP-43, namely: - Objectives of the ISP; - Brief Description of the Facility; - Scaling Information; - Parameters Offered for Comparison; - Dominating Experimental Uncertainties; - Findings; - Recommendations; - Total Duration of the ISP exercise; - Participation; - CSNI Report Reference

2000-01-01

94

International wind energy development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors review global wind power market developments in 1998 and give detailed installed capacity for Europe, America, and Asia for 1996, 97 and 98. They also give forecasts for 1999-2003 and make predictions beyond 2003 and up to 2030.

Madsen, Birger; Krogsgaard, Per [BTM Consult ApS, Rinkoebing (Denmark)

1999-07-01

95

International Standards for Multilingual Resource Sharing: The  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ISLE project is a continuationof the long standing EAGLESinitiative, carried out under the HumanLanguage Technology (HLT)programme in collaboration betweenAmerican and European groups in theframework of the EU-US InternationalResearch Co-operation, supported byNSF and EC. We concentrate in thispaper on the current position of theISLE Computational Lexicon WorkingGroup. We provide a short descriptionof the EU SIMPLE lexicons built onthebasisofpreviousEAGLESrecommendations. We then point at afew basic methodological principlesapplied in previous EAGLES phases,and describe a few principles to befollowed in the definition of aMultilingual ISLE Lexical Entry(MILE).

Nicoletta Calzolari; Ro Lenci; Antonio Zampolli; Istituto Di Linguistica Computazionale

96

Development of standard reference samples for diffractometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this work, samples of standard reference materials for diffractometry of polycrystals were developed. High-purity materials were submitted to mechanical and thermal treatments in order to present the adequate properties to be used as high-quality standard reference materials for powder diffraction, comparable to the internationally recognized produced by the USA National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST, but at lower costs. The characterization of the standard materials was performed by measurements in conventional X-ray diffraction diffractometers, high resolution neutron diffraction and high-resolution synchrotron diffraction. The lattice parameters were calculated by extrapolation of the values obtained from each X-ray reflection against cos2? by the Least-Squares Method. The adjustments were compared to the values obtained by the Rietveld Method, using program GSAS. The materials thus obtained were the ?-alumina, yttrium oxide, silicon, cerium oxide, lanthanum hexaboride and lithium fluoride. The standard reference materials produced present quality similar or, in some cases, superior to the standard reference materials produced and commercialized by the NIST. (author)

2011-01-01

97

International Standard for a Linguistic Annotation Framework  

CERN Multimedia

This paper describes the Linguistic Annotation Framework under development within ISO TC37 SC4 WG1. The Linguistic Annotation Framework is intended to serve as a basis for harmonizing existing language resources as well as developing new ones.

Romary, Laurent

2004-01-01

98

International energy developments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Excerpts from a report on a joint OAPEC, OPEC, and Oxford seminar held in Oxford, England focus on issues related to recent developments in the oil market, future prospects for prices, the impact of the recent decline in oil prices on oil exporting countries, and possibilities for a dialogue and cooperation between oil producers and consumers. The report, which was translated from the Arabic, quotes opinions of several participants under the various topics.

Lababidi, M.M.; Al-Gumer, J.

1986-10-01

99

Primary standardization of cesium-137 for international intercomparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary standards of cesium-137 are of great importance for precise radiation measurements because, due to its simple decay-scheme and long half-life, it is widely used for the calibration of radiation detectors. Also 137Cs is used for the measurement of fission-yield and uranium burn-up in reactor engineering studies. In view of these, an international intercomparison was organised on a limited scale to correlate the standards established at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay(India) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), West Germany. The ''efficiency tracing technique'' was developed at BARC for the primary standardization of 137Cs for this intercomparison. Two tracers, namely 82Br and 60Co, were employed to trace the beta efficiency of the 4 ??-? coincidence counting system. It is shown that this technique offers high accuracy and inherent reliability. The ''tracing-technique'' for 137Cs standardization is briefly described. The gravimetric method of dilution and preparation of mixed sources of 137Cs - 82Br and 137Cs - 60Co are given. The various counting parameters and settings are included. Data reduction and the estimation of systematic and statistical errors are discussed. The results of the intercomparison, which are also included, show that the agreement between the measurments of BARC and PTB is within 0.5%. (author)

1977-01-01

100

International standard for the charging of electric vehicles; Internationaler Standard fuer das Laden von Elektrofahrzeugen - Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the situation regarding the standardisation of battery charging systems for electric vehicles. The advantages of an international standard both for users and manufacturers of electrically-powered vehicles are discussed. The work done in the IEC and CENELEC technical committees is reviewed. Developments achieved since 1999 are reviewed and further developments and work to be done are examined. The most important points in the IEC standard 61851 are looked at and various connector interfaces are described. Direct and inductive charging systems according to IEC 61980 are examined and the special situation in Italy, where power available in homes for the charging of electrical vehicles is more limited, is reviewed.

Mathoy, A.

2001-12-15

 
 
 
 
101

International standardization activities are strengthened; Kokusai hyojunka katsudo wo kyoka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because the international industry competition power was secured, an Agency of Industrial Science and Technology Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology strengthened the policy which a robot FA system and the precision of the gear added six heads to newly as an important theme of the necessary international standardization activities how to measure it . Because it is connected with the competition power in the world market directly, as for the trend of standardization, a standard policy as a state strategy becomes important. Because of this, the injection of the policy resources is being narrowed to the theme which can be expected the high growth power, and connection with the business world group and so on is deepened from now on, and the international standardization mechanism (ISO) and so on is strengthened with an Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. (translated by NEDO)

NONE

1999-07-01

102

AUDIT OF FINANCIAL REPORTS, BASED ON INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article are given main notion about international standard of financial reporting, order of the auditing on the base of IFRS, scheduling the report of the auditor, auditor conclusions and are given analysis of reporting based on the auditor procedures. At the audit of financial reporting are taken into account international standard to financial reporting 29 "Financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies".

Islom Kuziev

2013-01-01

103

RELAP5/MOD2 application to PWR international standard problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of the accuracy of large thermohydraulic codes and the safety margins of light water reactors are among the objectives of international research programs such as those organized by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) and the International Code Assessment and Application Program. Solution of these problems would ensure the effectiveness of engineered safety features and eventually lead to cost reductions through better design. These activities could also contribute to determining a uniform basis on which to assess the consequences of reactor system failures in nuclear power plants. In order to achieve a qualified code, the evaluation of the comparison with available experimental data is strictly necessary. Activities are promoted in this direction by CSNI and constitute the mix of loss of coolant - loss of feedwater International Standard Problems (ISP). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the relevant findings in the pre-test and/or post-test analysis of ISP 18, 20, 22, 26, 27. The reference code is the RELAPS/MOD2 cycle 36.04 installed on an IBM computer. The main characteristics of the above tests are reported, and a common procedure is developed for setting up the nodalization for LOBI (ISP 18), SPES (ISP 22), LSTF (ISP 26) and BETHSY (ISP 27) facilities.

Billa, C.; D`Auria, F.; Debrecin, N.; Galassi, G.M.

1991-12-31

104

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

Ana Mihei

2010-01-01

105

Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

Popescu, Denisa

2010-01-01

106

Institutional Infrastructure and the Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nigeria has officially indicated her intention to adopt International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) from year 2012. Though a welcome development, it raises the question of the country's availability and readiness of relevant and appropriate institutional infrastructure. Using th...

Iyoha, F.O.; Jafaru Jimoh

107

Developing the Framed Standard Model  

CERN Multimedia

The framed standard model (FSM) suggested earlier, which incorporates the Higgs field and 3 fermion generations as part of the framed gauge theory structure, is here developed further to show that it gives both quarks and leptons hierarchical masses and mixing matrices akin to what is experimentally observed. Among its many distinguishing features which lead to the above results are (i) the vacuum is degenerate under a global $su(3)$ symmetry which plays the role of fermion generations, (ii) the fermion mass matrix is "universal", rank-one and rotates (changes its orientation in generation space) with changing scale $\\mu$, (iii) the metric in generation space is scale-dependent too, and in general non-flat, (iv) the theta-angle term in the QCD action of topological origin gets transformed into the CP-violating phase of the CKM matrix for quarks, thus offering at the same time a solution to the strong CP problem.

Baker, Michael J; Chan, H M; Tsou, S T

2011-01-01

108

The Operating Islamic Banks in Jordan Applying the International Internal Auditing Standards (IIA's)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aimed at identifying the operating Islamic banks in Jordan applying the international internal auditing standards, which are (4) banks. A questionnaire was designed for this purpose and distributed to internal auditors and un-executive board of directors members considered members of the Audit Committee in each bank, the number of questionnaires which were subjected to analysis were (35), resolution data was analyzed using (SPSS), and a number of statistical means through descriptive statistics, arithmetic means, standard deviations, and percentages. The study found that Islamic banks are applying international standards of internal audit in general. Qualities standards were the most applied, and then implementation standards in a high degree, while the performance standards do not apply in these banks, also there are some difficulties that limit the application, but moderately. The study recommends increasing the work on applying internal auditing standards on Islamic banks operating in Jordan, in particular standards of performance which brings together the efficiency and effectiveness of internal audit and contributes to improved risk management and creates additional value for those banks.

Jamal Adel Al-Sharairi; Majed A. Alsharayri

2012-01-01

109

Trends in international health development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: "... Good population health is a crucial input into poverty reduction, economic growth and long-term economic development... This point is widely recognised by analysts and policy makers, but is greatly underestimated in its qualitative and quantitative significance, and in the investment allocations of many developing country and donor governments."--Commission on Macroeconomics and Health PURPOSE OF ARTICLE: The international health development scene has changed rapidly during the past 5 years. From being a merely bilateral effort together with a few multilateral organisations and many NGOs new global partnerships have entered the scene and become major funding agencies. The provision of aid has also changed from small-scale project basis to financial support of large programmes. The purpose of this article is to describe some of the major transformations taken place in the organising, delivery and objective of international health development. But before presenting the new international health development agenda, a short introduction to the challenges inducing the need for renewed thinking about international aid is shortly presented.

Lien L

2002-01-01

110

The need for international seafarer medical fitness standards.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The text of this paper is based on a presentation at the First International Congress of Maritime, Tropical, and Hyperbaric Medicine, 4th July 2009, Gdynia, Poland. The assessment of fitness to work at sea is an important aspect of maritime risk management. The risks in the industry, the approaches used for assessment, and the evidence on which they are based have changed over time. The transition from an industry in which the nationality of seafarers and the ships on which they worked were the same to one in which ownership and crewing have become global means that, as is true for most other aspects of maritime risk management, compatible international criteria for decisions regarding fitness to work are required. Many parties, including flag states, employers and their insurers, and seafarers and their trade unions, are involved in agreeing international medical fitness criteria. While all have a common interest in improved health and safety at sea, each has their own more detailed agenda of sectional interests. The scope for development of agreed standards and the role of the parties involved is reviewed, and the current arrangements for taking this process forward are discussed. Contributions from maritime health professionals and other medical and scientific experts are essential to the development of rational and valid criteria, but the decisions on the level of authority to be given to these and the means adopted for ensuring compliance with them are essentially political issues where the voice of those with subject knowledge is only one among many in the processes for adoption and implementation of any new arrangements.

Carter T

2009-01-01

111

The need for international seafarer medical fitness standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

The text of this paper is based on a presentation at the First International Congress of Maritime, Tropical, and Hyperbaric Medicine, 4th July 2009, Gdynia, Poland. The assessment of fitness to work at sea is an important aspect of maritime risk management. The risks in the industry, the approaches used for assessment, and the evidence on which they are based have changed over time. The transition from an industry in which the nationality of seafarers and the ships on which they worked were the same to one in which ownership and crewing have become global means that, as is true for most other aspects of maritime risk management, compatible international criteria for decisions regarding fitness to work are required. Many parties, including flag states, employers and their insurers, and seafarers and their trade unions, are involved in agreeing international medical fitness criteria. While all have a common interest in improved health and safety at sea, each has their own more detailed agenda of sectional interests. The scope for development of agreed standards and the role of the parties involved is reviewed, and the current arrangements for taking this process forward are discussed. Contributions from maritime health professionals and other medical and scientific experts are essential to the development of rational and valid criteria, but the decisions on the level of authority to be given to these and the means adopted for ensuring compliance with them are essentially political issues where the voice of those with subject knowledge is only one among many in the processes for adoption and implementation of any new arrangements. PMID:20205118

Carter, Tim

2009-01-01

112

The development of consensus standards on dosimetry for radiation processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Subcommittee E10.01 open-quotes Dosimetry for Radiation Processingclose quotes of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), comprised of 165 diverse experts from 45 countries, is developing standards on dosimetry for radiation processing. Eight standards will be published in the 1992 Annual Book of ASTM Standards and an additional 16 are under development. Three are specifically for food applications and the balance are relevant for all radiation processing applications, including food processing. When complete, the set will be published as a separate handbook. In addition, the group encourages the use of these standards through publications, workshops, and training courses; and identifies areas where new standards are needed. A related effort is underway to promote the inclusion of these standards into procedures now being developed by groups such as the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) and the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) to harmonize regulations and help avoid trade barriers

1992-01-01

113

Business and Management Aspects of International Accounting Standardization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerialdecisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system willlead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from thebusiness management of certain countries. The results of applied regression model support that the greaterdemand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to performance evaluations at morewidely held by businesses stimulating to adopt international accounting standards. Businesses with lower labourproductivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to follow accounting standardization.

Jeno Beke

2010-01-01

114

Minutes: ANSI Steering Committee on Solar Energy Standards Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Minutes of the April 29, 1980, meeting of the American National Standards Institute steering committee on solar energy standards development are given. Attachments include correspondence from individuals and organizations which primarily describe the Solar Public Interest Coordination Committee (SPICC) and its recent activities. Also a report on the meeting of the ANSI subcommittee on international activity is attached. (WHK)

None

1980-04-29

115

CONVERGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL AUDIT STANDARDS AND AMERICAN AUDIT STANDARDS REGARDING SAMPLING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Sampling is widely used in market research, scientific analysis, market analysis, opinion polls and not least in the financial statement audit. We wonder what is actually sampling and how did it appear? Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Nowadays the technique is indispensable, the economic entities operating with sophisticated computer systems and large amounts of data. Economic globalization and complexity of capital markets has made possible not only the harmonization of international accounting standards with the national ones, but also the convergence of international accounting and auditing standards with the American regulations. International Standard on Auditing 530 and Statement on Auditing Standard 39 are the two main international and American normalized referentials referring to audit sampling. This article discusses the origin of audit sampling, mentioning a brief history of the method and different definitions from literature review. The two standards are studied using Jaccard indicators in terms of the degree of similarity and dissimilarity concerning different issues. The Jaccard coefficient measures the degree of convergence of international auditing standards (ISA 530) and U.S. auditing standards (SAS 39). International auditing standards and American auditing standards, study the sampling problem, both regulations presenting common points with regard to accepted sampling techniques, factors influencing the audit sample, treatment of identified misstatements and the circumstances in which sampling is appropriate. The study shows that both standards agree on application of statistical and non-statistical sampling in auditing, that sampling is appropriate for tests of details and controls, the factors affecting audit sampling being audit risk, audit objectives and population's characteristics.

Chis Anca Oana; Danescu Tatiana

2013-01-01

116

Developments in internal monitoring techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an effort to increase accuracy and speed, improve detection limits and reduce uncertainties in internal dosimetry, laboratories have developed improved or new internal monitoring techniques in both in vivo measurements and bioassay analyses. Most of these techniques have not yet entered routine monitoring programmes. This paper intends to summarise these new techniques, show their potential improvements compared to the currently employed monitoring routines and discuss the main aspects of the EC-funded IDEA project, which aims at a comprehensive assessment of these techniques and the enhancements necessary to bring them to broader acceptance in the routine monitoring community. (author)

Schmitzer, C.; Brandl, A.; Wahl, W.; Roth, P.; Franck, D.; Carlin, L. de; Andrasi, A

2003-07-01

117

International Migration, Remittances and Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing remittance flows to the labor sending developing countries in recent years have generated huge optimism in the contemporary development discourse about the possibility of development at the grassroots levels which has been an overwhelming challenge for the development actors for decades. However, the realization of such potential proves difficult due to a lack of common understanding of the phenomenon of labor migration and its causes and consequences. This study focuses on the existing literature on international labor migration, its causes and consequences with a view to identify a common line of theorizing about the issue in question. 

Hasan Mahmud; Md. Abdus Sabur; Sharmin Tamanna

2009-01-01

118

International standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM), publication No. 15  

CERN Document Server

GUIDELINES FOR REGULATING WOOD PACKAGING MATERIAL IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE SCOPE This standard describes phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests associated with wood packaging material (including dunnage), made of coniferous and non-coniferous raw wood, in use in international trade. For more information, contact the Shipping Service (FI-LS-SH) at 79947. Table of guidelines

Tom Wegelius

2006-01-01

119

Development of strategies and sustainability standards for the certification of internationally traded biomass. Final report; Entwicklung von Strategien und Nachhaltigkeitsstandards zur Zertifizierung von Biomasse fuer den internationalen Handel. Zusammenfassender Endbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increased production of renewable raw materials for bioenergy and bio-materials needed to meet the ambitious targets of Germany, the EU and other countries implies tradeoffs which could oppose sustainability requirements. The project worked out the scientific base of and developed proposals for sustainability requirements for biomass and their implementation on national, European and global levels, in dialogue with relevant actors and provided inputs into respective processes. For that, discussions with experts from more than 20 countries were held, international networks created and extended, and political decision-makers supported. Besides answers to strategic questions, the issues focused on were greenhouse gas balances (calculation of GHG emissions from direct and indirect land use changes), biodiversity (a globally applicable risk minimization strategy was developed and tested in Brazil, China and South Africa for degraded lands), water scarcity and water quality (requirements for biomass cultivation were developed). The majority of project results was successfully implemented in legal and standardization processes (e.g., German Sustainability Ordinances for bioenergy, EU renewable energy directive, European Committee for Standardization, Global Bioenergy Partnership) and both scientific and environmental and development questions were discussed with - not only governmental - actors. The next steps should be the extension of the approaches developed to other biomass (especially for material use) and the critical review of the further implementation. (orig.)

Fritsche, Uwe R.; Hennenberg, Klaus J.; Hermann, Andreas; Huenecke, Katja; Herrera, Rocio [Oeko-Institut (Institut fuer angewandte Oekologie e.V.), Darmstadt (Germany); Fehrenbach, Horst; Roth, Elvira; Hennecke, Anna; Giegrich, Juergen [IFEU (Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung) gGmbh, Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-11-15

120

Environmental Accounting and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As financial globalization proceeds, international financial reporting and auditing standards are increasinglybecoming important instruments of integration. This has been observed in both the London and Pittsburgsummits of the G20 leaders in 2009. The G20 leaders reinforced the influence of International FinancialReporting Standards (IFRS) in that they called for the implementation of global accounting standards by 2011.By the end of 2008, there were over 100 countries that had adopted IFRS. Another parallel summit was theUnited Nations special summit on the environment which was held on 22 September 2009. The United Nations’summit underscored the link between environment and finance. This research paper makes a critical appraisal ofthe contemporary environmental accounting literature and examines the applicable and relevant paragraphs ofthe global financial reporting standards (IFRS). The relevant paragraphs for environmental accounting have beenanalyzed in relation to the environmental financial reporting.

CA Mohammad Firoz; A. Aziz Ansari

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

International migration: security concerns and human rights standards.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the last two decades, the reinforcement of security-related migration policies has resulted in the perception of the foreigner, and especially the irregular migrant, as a category outside the circle of legality. The rights of foreigners in host countries have deteriorated due to the connection made between immigration and criminality. Restrictions imposed upon irregular migrants' basic political and civil rights have been accompanied by major obstacles to their access to economic and social rights, including the right to health. The events of 9/11 further contributed to this trend, which contradicts the basic premises of the human rights paradigm. Recent policy developments and ongoing international cooperation implementing systematic interception and interdiction mechanisms have led to the securitization of migration. The preventive and deterrent measures reinforce the security paradigm. By contrast, various national and international actors have been successful in defending irregular migrants' rights. At the domestic level, the involvement of the judiciary and civil society enhances the rights-based approach to foreigners. The role of judges is vital in holding policy-makers accountable for respecting the high national standards of human rights protection. This article elaborates on the dichotomy between the state's legitimate interest to ensure national security, and its domestic and international obligations to protect human rights for all, including irregular migrants. It focuses on the changing relationship between migration and security, on the one hand, and between state and individual, on the other hand. It affirms the necessity to recognize the pre-eminence of fundamental rights upon security concerns.

Crépeau F; Nakache D; Atak I

2007-09-01

122

Efforts to obtain international consensus on dosimetry standards for radiation processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Subcommittee E10.01 ''Dosimetry for Radiation Processing'' of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is a group of 145 experts from many fields, from 33 countries, developing methodologies and standards for dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. Apart from developing consensus standards, the group encourages their use through publications, workshops, and training courses, and identifies areas where new dosimetry methods are needed. To date, five dosimetry standards have been published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, and an additional 13 are under development. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. When completed, this set of standards will have the unanimous technical support of the worldwide radiation processing community, and together, the set will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing required irradiation treatments. An additional effort is under way to promote the inclusion of these standards into protocols and procedures now being developed by various international organizations such as the IAEA/FAO International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML), and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), in order to harmonize regulations and to avoid barriers to international trade. (author). 2 tabs

1991-01-01

123

Vietnamese Accounting Reform and International Convergence of Vietnamese Accounting Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the economic globalization, the international convergence of accounting standards is inevitable. But the
level of economic globalization in among of countries are not the same. There are some differences in
accounting environment in the countries. This paper stu...

AnhTuan Nguyen; Guangming Gong

124

International Financial Reporting Standards effects on Banks in Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis discusses the Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on Banks operating in Viet Nam. The goal is to investigate how the adoption of IFRS would change financial practices in Vietnamese Banking Industry and what Bank managers should be prepared for. The thesis use case...

Pham, Trang

125

Audit of financial reports, based on international accounting standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article are given main notion about internationalstandard of financial reporting, order of the auditing on thebase of IFRS, scheduling the report of the auditor, auditorconclusions and are given analysis of reporting based onthe auditor procedures. At the audit of financial reporting aretaken into account international standard to financialreporting 29 "Financial reporting in hyperinflationaryeconomies".

Islom KUZIEV

2011-01-01

126

International Developments of Food Irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

1997-12-31

127

International Developments of Food Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940's: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950's: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960's: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970's: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980's: establishment of national regulations; 1990's: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

1997-01-01

128

Evaluation of information in nanomaterial safety data sheets and development of international standard for guidance on preparation of nanomaterial safety data sheets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Safety data sheets (SDSs) and labelling are the basic hazard communication tools for hazardous chemicals as regards their manufacture, storage, transport and other handling activities. Thus, in the context of the growing use of nanomaterials and nanomaterial-containing materials, this study evaluated the information provided in 97 nanomaterial-related SDSs according to the criteria set by the GHS (Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals) and found that most of the SDSs did not include sufficient information on the safety of nanomaterials, such as their toxicity and physicochemical properties. The reasons for this lack of information in the nanomaterial SDSs can mainly be attributed to (1) a lack of toxicity and physicochemical property information on nanomaterials, (2) unawareness of the effectiveness of conventional exposure controls, such as local exhaust ventilation and encapsulation, and personal protective equipment (PPE), in protecting against nanomaterial exposure, (3) a lack of information on emergency and firefighting measures and (4) a lack of knowledge on how existing regulations apply to nanomaterials. Therefore, to create a consistent standard for the information provided on safety, health and environmental matters for manufactured nanomaterial-containing products, guidance for the preparation of nanomaterial-specific SDSs, including both nanomaterials and mixtures of nanomaterials with conventional non-nanoscale materials, was recently initiated by the ISO TC 229. Their guidance, in the form of a technical report, recommends that nanomaterial-related SDSs should be prepared based on a precautionary approach in terms of the toxicity and other risks associated with the nanomaterial contents within the mixture in question. One of the key recommendations in the technical report is to include additional physicochemical properties, including the particle size (average and range), size distribution aggregation/agglomeration state, shape and aspect ratio, crystallinity, specific surface area, dispersibility and dustiness, which help to distinguish the characteristics of nanomaterials from those of non-nanoscale materials. The technical report also recommends the preparation of SDSs for all nanomaterials and mixtures that meet the GHS criteria for physical, health or environmental hazards, and for all mixtures containing nanomaterials that meet the criteria for carcinogenic, toxic to reproduction or specific target organ toxicity in concentrations exceeding the cut-off limits for an SDS specified by the criteria for mixtures. Finally, the technical report recommends that SDSs be prepared for all nanomaterials, unless there is evidence that they are not hazardous.

Lee JH; Kuk WK; Kwon M; Lee JH; Lee KS; Yu IJ

2013-05-01

129

Developments in international bioenergy trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, imported biomass contributes already significantly (between 21% and 43%) to total biomass use. Wood pellets are currently exported by Canada, Finland and (to a small extent) Brazil and Norway, and imported by Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK. In the Netherlands and Belgium, pellet imports nowadays contribute to a major share to total renewable electricity production. Trade in bio-ethanol is another example of a rapidly growing international market. With the EU-wide target of 5.75% biofuels for transportation in 2010 (and 10% in 2020), exports from Brazil and other countries to Europe are likely to rise as well. Major drivers for international bioenergy trade in general are the large resource potentials and relatively low production costs in producing countries such as Canada and Brazil, and high fossil fuel prices and various policy incentives to stimulate biomass use in importing countries. However, the logistic infrastructure both in exporting and importing countries needs to be developed to access larger physical biomass volumes and to reach other (i.e. smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded that international bioenergy trade is growing rapidly, far beyond what was deemed possible only a few years ago, and may in the future in some Task 40 countries surpass domestic biomass use, especially for specific applications (e.g. transport fuels). (author)

2008-01-01

130

Fiscal 1999 technical achievement report. Development project on prompt-effect international standards for developing new industry (Standardization of methods for evaluating performance of fabrics equipped with special functions); 1999 nendo shinki sangyo ikusei sokkogata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Tokushu kino sen'i seihin no seino hyoka hoho no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

No method is available for quantitatively evaluating the performance and safety of antibacterial fabrics, and the lack impedes smooth implementation of international trade. As a measure to remedy the fault, a test method is developed for quantitative evaluation, and presented for acceptance as an international standard. In the proposed antibacterial test, 2ml of liquid with its bacterial population increased to 10{sup 4}/ml in a preculture is filtrated under reduced pressure for the trapping of bacteria in the filter paper, the paper is scrubbed by a test cloth for transfer, the cloth is left in a constant-temperature constant-humidity chamber, and the bacteria are washed out and then counted by chemiluminescence. The change in the number of bacteria thus determined is used to quantify the antibacterial feature. Safety is examined by a skin irritancy test method using a cultured skin model. A specimen is attached to a cultured skin model, left in a constant-temperature constant-humidity chamber for a specified time period, and then peeled from the model. The cultured skin model is dyed by an MTT enzyme. Unaffected live cells are dyed violaceous by the MTT enzyme. Dyed cells are solvent-extracted, and the number of dyed cells is determined by colorimetry. The number of cells remaining alive is compared with a reference specimen for the determination of the degree of safety. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

131

Development of coal international trade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of the coal produced today is still for domestic consumption but international trade will grow in the future. This development requires investments and time for the realization of terminals, means of transport and preparation. Problems of land and sea transport and their influence on cost are examined. Environmental problems are briefly evolved. Charges, ship size, capacity are given for 1983/84 and estimated for 1987/90 in tables for main exporting countries (Australia, Canada, South Africa, USA and South America) and for importing European countries.

1983-11-01

132

Review of IEC/ISO international standard related to HMI design for control rooms on NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished work wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards by IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) as international standard. On the other hand, ISO (International Standard Organization) issues ergonomic standards in HCI (Human Computer Interaction) for general industrial use. ISO11064 series are the process oriented standards specify procedures and processes to be followed. IEC60964 and supplemental standards have been effectively used and the design process required in IEC 60964 is the basis of the design process of ISO11064-1. However, IEC60964 is under revision, for example, to make technological update for taking into account the computerized control rooms, and to improve the human factor requirements. The revised version will consistent with the other IEC standards and similar standards or guidelines of another bodies. For hardware and software of computerized I and C system, a series of international standards have been systematically developed. In Japan, Japan electric association is developing industry association level guideline for the human-machine interface designs of the computerized main control rooms of nuclear power plants, as well as regulatory agencies of nuclear power plants in Japan are preparing technical basis for reviewers of control rooms of nuclear power plants. In this paper, we present the review of not only the state of international activities for revising IEC60964 and the state of ISO11064 series, but also the state and relationship to the related standards. (author)

2004-01-01

133

Standardization of Information Systems Development Processes and Banking Industry Adaptations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms ofcompliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards todetermine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into systemdevelopment and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected.Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classicalWaterfall life cycle model. Each question is made up of guidance and suggestions from the internationalsystem development standards. To collect data, people from the information technology departments ofthree major banks in Turkey were interviewed. Results have been aggregated by examining the currentprocess status of the three banks together. Problematic issues were identified using the internationalsystem development standards.

Zuhal Tanrikulu; Tuna Ozcer

2011-01-01

134

Radiation safety standards and their application: international policies and current issues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper briefly describes the current policies of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the International Commission on Radiological Protection and how these policies are converted into international radiation safety standards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, which is the only global organization-within the United Nations family of international agencies-with a statutory mandate not only to establish such standards but also to provide for their application. It also summarizes the current status of the established corpus of such international standards, and of it foreseeable evolution, as well as of legally binding undertakings by countries around the world that are linked to these standards. Moreover, this paper also reviews some major current global issues related to the application of international standards, including the following: strengthening of national infrastructures for radiation safety, including technical cooperation programs for assisting developing countries; occupational radiation safety challenges, including the protection of pregnant workers and their unborn children, dealing with working environments with high natural radiation levels, and occupational attributability of health effects (probability of occupational causation); restricting discharges of radioactive substances into the environment: reviewing current international policies vis-a-vis the growing concern on the radiation protection of the "environment;" radiological protection of patients undergoing radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic procedures: the current International Action Plan; safety and security of radiation sources: post-11 September developments; preparedness and response to radiation emergencies: enhancing the international network; safe transport of radioactive materials: new apprehensions; safety of radioactive waste management: concerns and connections with radiation protection; and radioactive residues remaining after the termination of activities: radiation protection response to the forthcoming wave of decommissioning of installations with radioactive materials. The ultimate aim of this paper is to encourage information exchange, cooperation, and collaboration within the radiation protection professional community. In particular, the paper tries to facilitate consolidation of the growing international regime on radiation safety, including the expansion of legally binding undertakings by countries, the strengthening of the current corpus of international radiation safety standards, and the development of international provisions for ensuring the proper worldwide application of these standards, such as a system of international appraisals by peer review.

González AJ

2004-09-01

135

Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL`s analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described.

Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chokshi, N. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-04-01

136

Austrian results at the international standard problem 19  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extended computer code BALO-2A and the thermal-hydraulic code RELAP IV/Mod 6 were applied to perform the International Standard Problem ISP-19. It was possible to model the system simply and to obtain the thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions for BALO-2A. The results are satisfying which is remarkable because loss of coolant accident analyses are performed usually with larger computer codes. (Author).

1986-01-01

137

International Standards for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] For a terminally sterilized medical device to be designated '' STERILE '', probability of finding the viable micro-organisms in the device shall be equal to or less than 1 x 10-6 (EN 556-1:2001: Sterilization of medical devices - Requirements for medical devices to be designated '' STERILE '' - Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices). Author presents the main legal aspects of the international standards for radiation sterilization of medical devices

2007-01-01

138

Use of Joint Commission International standards to evaluate and improve pediatric oncology nursing care in Guatemala.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Inadequate nursing care is a major impediment to development of effective programs for treatment of childhood cancer in low-income countries. When the International Outreach Program at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital established partner sites in low-income countries, few nurses had pediatric oncology skills or experience. A comprehensive nursing program was developed to promote the provision of quality nursing care, and in this manuscript we describe the program's impact on 20 selected Joint Commission International (JCI) quality standards at the National Pediatric Oncology Unit in Guatemala. We utilized JCI standards to focus the nursing evaluation and implementation of improvements. These standards were developed to assess public hospitals in low-income countries and are recognized as the gold standard of international quality evaluation. METHODS: We compared the number of JCI standards met before and after the nursing program was implemented using direct observation of nursing care; review of medical records, policies, procedures, and job descriptions; and interviews with staff. RESULTS: In 2006, only 1 of the 20 standards was met fully, 2 partially, and 17 not met. In 2009, 16 were met fully, 1 partially, and 3 not met. Several factors contributed to the improvement. The pre-program quality evaluation provided objective and credible findings and an organizational framework for implementing change. The medical, administrative, and nursing staff worked together to improve nursing standards. CONCLUSION: A systematic approach and involvement of all hospital disciplines led to significant improvement in nursing care that was reflected by fully meeting 16 of 20 standards.

Day SW; McKeon LM; Garcia J; Wilimas JA; Carty RM; de Alarcon P; Antillon F; Howard SC

2013-05-01

139

CODE OF ETHICS FOR INTERNAL AUDITORS HARMONISED WITH THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR INTERNAL AUDIT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Code of Ethics is binding for the internal auditor profession, since, at the end of the internal audit activity, the internal auditors, based on the tests and analyses carried out, express their opinion on the quality of the internal control system of the audited activity. The Code of Ethics stipulates four fundamental principles, as follows: integrity, constitutes the base for the trust granted to internal auditors; objectivity, directly related to independence; confidentiality, absolutely necessary, except for certain situations stipulated by law; competence, which implies ongoing updating of theoretical and practical knowledge.

GEORGE CALOT?

2008-01-01

140

FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of the methods of evaluating the optical characteristics of the microlens for optical information processing; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Hikari joho shoriyo microlens kogaku seino hyoka hoho no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the development of the performance evaluation analyzers, and researches on the measurement/evaluation methods that define the optical characteristics of microlenses and microlens arrays, which are widely used for light transmitting/receiving module connectors for optical communication, optical information recording pick-ups and devices with a number of openings for liquid crystal projectors, for proposing the international standards. The program for studying the interference micro optical systems selects the Mach-Zender type fringe-scanning interference system, and develops the prototype with a He-Ne light source, which can observe the interference fringes of up to 0.5 to 0.005{mu}m in diameter. It also can measure the wave front aberration of a microlens of 0.125{mu}m in diameter. It is agreed in the ISO/TC172/SC9 meeting held for the international standardization to promote the standardization which covers the geometrical structure parameters and optical characteristics defined as Microlens arrays-Vocabulary, where the discussion is started on the proposal Japan has submitted for collective deliberations. (NEDO)

NONE

2001-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of systems for detecting gene recombination products; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojunka kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Idenshi kumikae seihin kenshutsu system no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the studies on the basic conditions for gene recombination products, and methods of determining content of the purchased gene recombination products in agricultural products, conducted to promote the standardization of the gene recombination product detection systems. Soybean is taken up as the gene recombination product to be studied, in which the samples containing the gene recombination product at 5, 0.5, 0.1 and 0% are prepared, and qualitatively analyzed by the DNA extraction and PCR method. No band is detected. For the quantitative examination by the real-time PCR method, the SYBRGeen, Taqman and hybridization probe methods are used to study the PCR conditions. The sample DNA extracted by the DNA Extraction kit for GMO Detection Ver.2 from the sample containing the RoundupReady{sup TM} soybean is quantitatively analyzed by the real-time PCR method for GMO content, which has produced the results for promotion of the standardization. (NEDO)

NONE

2001-03-01

142

Development of a stable isotope dilution assay for an accurate quantification of protein-bound N(epsilon)-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-lysine using a (13)C-labeled internal standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

Syntheses of the labeled Amadori compound [(13)C(6)]-N(epsilon)-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-lysine ([(13)C(6)]-DFLys) and the labeled glycated tetrapeptide Ala-[(13)C(6)]-DFLys-Leu-Gly are presented. The compounds were used in the development of stable isotope dilution assays for the quantification of the degree of glycosylation of bovine serum albumin treated for 20 min at 95 degrees C in the presence of glucose. The experiments revealed that the use of the labeled standards in combination with LC/MS allowed the exact quantification of protein-bound DFLys with the high recovery rate of 95% (at a spike level of 150 nmol/mg of protein) and a low detection limit of 5 nmol/mg of protein. The data revealed, however, that DFLys is significantly degraded during the enzymic hydrolysis of the protein backbone generally needed in the quantification procedure and, furthermore, incomplete digestion of the protein was observed. Both sources of errors were clearly overcome by using in particular the labeled peptide as the internal standard. PMID:10606577

Vinale, F; Fogliano, V; Schieberle, P; Hofmann, T

1999-12-01

143

Development of a stable isotope dilution assay for an accurate quantification of protein-bound N(epsilon)-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-lysine using a (13)C-labeled internal standard.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Syntheses of the labeled Amadori compound [(13)C(6)]-N(epsilon)-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-lysine ([(13)C(6)]-DFLys) and the labeled glycated tetrapeptide Ala-[(13)C(6)]-DFLys-Leu-Gly are presented. The compounds were used in the development of stable isotope dilution assays for the quantification of the degree of glycosylation of bovine serum albumin treated for 20 min at 95 degrees C in the presence of glucose. The experiments revealed that the use of the labeled standards in combination with LC/MS allowed the exact quantification of protein-bound DFLys with the high recovery rate of 95% (at a spike level of 150 nmol/mg of protein) and a low detection limit of 5 nmol/mg of protein. The data revealed, however, that DFLys is significantly degraded during the enzymic hydrolysis of the protein backbone generally needed in the quantification procedure and, furthermore, incomplete digestion of the protein was observed. Both sources of errors were clearly overcome by using in particular the labeled peptide as the internal standard.

Vinale F; Fogliano V; Schieberle P; Hofmann T

1999-12-01

144

International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

· Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials · Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

2010-01-01

145

International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

{center_dot} Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials {center_dot} Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

2010-02-15

146

Standardization and harmonization of the blood count: the role of International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Scientific principles of standardization were first applied in haematology in 1963 when the International Committee for Standardization in Haematology was established with a primary objective to improve the measurement of haemoglobin. Subsequently, ICSH has established Expert Panels on a wide range of haematological topics, including especially a Panel on Cytometry. The purpose of haematological standardization is to obtain precision, accuracy, specificity and harmonization of results between different laboratories in all countries and also between different instruments or methods in the same laboratory. To achieve these objectives ICSH sponsors collaborative studies by scientists from academic centres and from industry and uses a consensus procedure for establishing standards on the basis of the scientific data, followed by an educational programme to ensure that the standards are adopted worldwide. ICSH defines material standards and standardized methods. Material standards are classified as primary international standards, certified reference materials, secondary standards and calibrators. These must be distinguished from control preparations which are intended exclusively for quality control. Standardization of methods must also be considered at four levels: definitive, reference, selected and routine. Each has a place in practice but their roles must be clearly defined. ICSH has an established protocol for evaluation of automated blood cell counters. This defines the levels of precision and accuracy of instrument performance. It is also necessary to assess "clinical utility". The main requirement of the practising haematologist is clinical reliability and harmonization of results for comparability. One of the major functions of ICSH is to provide an interface for collaboration between the manufacturers who develop the instruments and the users in order to achieve this goal.

Lewis SM

1990-01-01

147

The intercalibration of the International standards. Estuarian sediments IAEA - 405  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

No analytical methods can give accurate and precise results without checked up and certified standards with realisable concentration values of elements. The preparation and control of such standards are conducted by the respectable international organisations. One of the most known of such organisations is the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which conducts the intercomparison of standards materials for about thirty years. Together with over hundred laboratories in many countries the part of the Laboratory of Radiation Physics (the former Laboratory of Neutron Activation Analysis) of the Institute of Solid State Physics participates in the intercomparison for about twenty years. Laboratory, taking part in the comparison, can check up the quality of its own work, conclude about analytical methods used in the world, their distribution, accuracy and precision and their advantages and faults. Besides that the laboratory obtains the certified standard materials. One of the last samples for intercalibration was the estuarial sediment IAEA-405. 120 laboratories from 55 countries took part in this intercomparison and reported results for up to 58 elements. The results were obtained by 26 different analytical methods. After statistical evaluation results for 18 elements were accepted as recommended values and for 15 elements as information values. (author)

2001-09-14

148

Research and standardization in Alzheimer's trials: reaching international consensus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an epidemic facing the entire world. Increased knowledge gained during the past 25 years indicates that AD falls along a clinical and neuropathological spectrum represented as a continuum that extends from preclinical disease in which there are no symptoms, through early symptomatic phases, and finally to AD dementia. The Alzheimer's research community recognizes that imaging, body fluids, and cognitive biomarkers contribute to enhanced diagnostic confidence for AD. There has also been emerging consensus regarding the use of AD biomarkers in clinical trials. The use of biomarkers in clinical trials and practice is hampered by the lack of standardization. In response to the emerging need for standardization, an international meeting of AD researchers was held in Melbourne, Australia, in March 2012 to bring together key researchers, clinicians, industry, and regulatory stakeholders with the aim of generating consensus on standardization and validation of cognitive, imaging, and fluid biomarkers, as well as lifestyle parameters used in research centers worldwide.

Carrillo MC; Rowe CC; Szoeke C; Masters CL; Ames D; O'Meara T; Macaulay SL; Milner A; Ellis KA; Maruff P; Rainey-Smith SR; Martins RN; Bain LJ; Head RJ

2013-03-01

149

Status and strategies analysis on international standardization of auricular acupuncture points.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To supply literature for developing an international standard of auricular acupuncture points. METHODS: Electronic database searches were conducted in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP, and the Western databases, Pubmed, the National Science and Technology Library, and the German Journal of Acupuncture, from 1990 to April, 2012. We also searched the documents of international symposiums for auricular acupuncture points (AAPs). Keywords were "auricular points", "auricular acupuncture points", "ear points", or "auriculotherapy". RESULTS: Basic and clinical research on AAPs was performed in China, the United States, France, and Germany. Clinical AAP research was done in Italy, Austria, Switzerland, Spain, the UK, Holland, Japan, Russia, and Africa. However, AAP research was not communicated internationally. The World Federation of Acupuncture-Moxibustion Societies recommended international standard of auricular acupuncture points (ISAAPs). Standardized nomenclature and locations of AAPs would provide a solid basis to draft an international standard organization. CONCLUSION: Experts need to find common points from different countries or regions, provide evidence of different ideas, and list the proposal as a recommendation for an international standard.

Wang L; Zhao B; Zhou L

2013-06-01

150

A review of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) international standards for tissue banks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The IAEA International Standards for Tissue Banks published in 2003 were based on the Standards then currently in use in the USA and the European Union, among others, and reflect the best practices associated with the operation of a tissue bank. They cover legal, ethical and regulatory controls as well as requirements and procedures from donor selection and tissue retrieval to processing and distribution of finished tissue for clinical use. The application of these standards allows tissue banks to operate with the current good tissue practice, thereby providing grafts of high quality that satisfy the national and international demand for safe and biologically useful grafts. The objective of this article is to review the IAEA Standards and recommend new topics that could improve the current version.

Morales Pedraza J; Lobo Gajiwala A; Martinez Pardo ME

2012-03-01

151

Contributions of the ISO and IEC to international standardization in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of the world's total of about 2,600 radiation protection standards, only approximately ten per cent are international. The recommendations of international bodies such as the IAEA and the ICRP on the principles of radiation protection are supplemented by numerous detailed international technical standards. These deal with requirements for radiation monitoring instruments and methods as well as many other aspects of practical radiation protection. These standards are developed in working bodies by leading experts and represent highly condensed technical know-how. They are valuable sources of information and also serve as an instrument of technology transfer to developing countries. The main bodies devoted to the development of such international technical standards are: in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Subcommittee 2 ''Radiation Protection'' of its Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'', and in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), its TC 45B ''Radiation Protection Instrumentation''. Standards published so far include: the basic ionizing radiation symbol; nuclear energy glossary; requirements, classification and leakage testing of sealed radioactive sources; principles of criticality safety; personal photographic dosimeters; direct and indirect reading pocket dosimeters; leakage testing of radioactive materials, packaging, unsealed radioactive sources; different reference radiations for calibrating dosimeters and dose rate meters and determining their energy response; testing of exposure meters; sampling of airborne radioactive materials; and lead shielding. Standards published so far by the IEC include surface contamination meters and monitors, portable exposure rate meters and monitors, hand and foot contamination monitors, installed exposure rate meters, radioactive aerosol contamination meters and equipment for the measurement of airborne tritium and the continuous monitoring of radioactivity in gaseous effluents. Work on a large number of additional projects is currently in progress. (author). 7 refs, 9 tabs.

1988-01-01

152

International standards for the indoor environment. Where are we and do they apply to Asian countries?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

On the international level, ISO (International Organization for Standardization), CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) are writing and reviewing standards relating to the indoor environment on a regular basis. This presentation will focus on the development of standards for the indoor thermal environment and indoor air quality (ventilation). In the future, recommendations for acceptable indoor environments will be specified as classes. This allows for national differences in the requirements as well as for designing buildings for different quality levels. Several of these standards have been developed mainly by experts from Europe, North America and Japan. Are there, however, special considerations relating to South-East Asia (lifestyle, outdoor climate, economy) that are not dealt with in these standards and that will require the revision of existing standards? Critical issues are adaptation, the effect of increased air velocity, humidity, type of indoor pollutant sources, etc. The paper will present an overview of existing methods and discuss areas where revision of present standards or the development of new standards are needed, relating especially to conditions in Asia.

Olesen, Bjarne W.

2003-01-01

153

International financial markets and development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the ‘casino economy’. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new actors are surfacing, e.g. the institutional investor (hedge funds, private equity funds, etc.), while new instruments are leading to highly leveraged and destabilising derivatives. The casino system has been promoted by governments and intergovernmental institutions to liberalise and deregulate financial markets. Although developing countries have not participated in the casino system, they have been suffering most from the spill-over into the real economy. The main lesson learnt is that the casino has to be closed.How to cite this article: Wahl, P., 2009, ‘International financial markets and development’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 65(1), Art. #284, 4 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v65i1.284

Peter Wahl

2009-01-01

154

Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

1998-04-01

155

A NEW APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY DECOMISSIONING STANDARDS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the Decontamination, Decommissioning, and Reutilization (DDR) Division of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) is to advance the technology of decontamination, decommissioning, and reutilization of nuclear and former nuclear installations, materials, facilities, and sites [1]. This includes sharing collective decommissioning experiences and lessons learned with others in the industry. An integral part of the work of the DDR Division is the preparation of voluntary decommissioning standards through its recently re-established DDR Standards Committee. This Committee intends to support development of various standards with other divisions of the ANS. The Committee also intends to participate with external organizations to disseminate information and lessons learned regarding decontamination activities, and participate in the development of voluntary decommissioning standards. External organizations, such as ASTM International, are involved in the development of consensus standards for nuclear decommissioning work. This paper describes the work of the DDR Standards Committee on a new co-operative initiative with ASTM International to develop voluntary consensus standards for nuclear decommissioning work.

Lawrence M. Zull; Richard H. Meservey; Lawrence E. Boing

2007-09-01

156

International Standard Problem 13 (LOFT Experiment L2-5). Final comparison report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] LOFT experiment L2-5 was designated International Standard Problem 13 by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Comparisons between measurements from Experiment L2-5 were made with calculations from 11 international participants using five different computer codes. LOFT Experiment L2-5 simulated a double ended guillotine cold leg rupture of a primary coolant loop of a large pressurized water reactor, coupled with a loss of offsite power

1984-01-01

157

Standards development for the nuclear industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The ushering of nuclear era in the Philippines with the construction of the PNPP-I (Philippine Nuclear Power Plant) necessitates the evolvement and use of nuclear standards as a tool for safety evaluation in the licensing process. The Department of Nuclear Regulation and Safeguards under the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission has as one of its responsibilities the establishment of regulatory standards to ensure safe operation of nuclear facilities. This article points out the needs for nuclear standards and the steps in standard development which involve an enormous amount of resources in terms of manpower, expertise and money. The staff of the Department of Nuclear Regulations and Safeguards (DNRS) does not intend to engage in the original development of standards; rather, it reviews standards in use elsewhere, specifically in the U.S. and adopts to local conditions. (author)

1979-12-04

158

Use of internal standards for quantitative metatranscriptome and metagenome analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Next generation sequencing-enabled metatranscriptomic and metagenomic datasets are providing unprecedented insights into the functional diversity of microbial communities, allowing detection of the genes present in a community as well as differentiation of those being actively transcribed. An emerging challenge of meta-omics approaches is how to quantitatively compare metagenomes and metatranscriptomes collected across spatial and temporal scales, or among treatments in experimental manipulations. Here, we describe the use of internal DNA and mRNA standards in meta-omics methodologies, and highlight how data collected in an absolute framework (per L or per cell) provides increased comparative power and insight into underlying causes of differences between samples.

Satinsky BM; Gifford SM; Crump BC; Moran MA

2013-01-01

159

CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY MEAUSREMENT SCHEDULE: DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Development and standardization of an instrument Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) to assess psychopathology in children is reported. CPMS is standardized on Indian population and is applicable to children of both sexes in the age range of 4-14 years. It measures overall psychopa...

Malhotra, Savita; Varma, V. K.; Verma, S. K.; Malhotra, Anil

160

International standards related to the classification and deregulation of radioactive waste.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although solid radioactive waste management is mainly a national concern, there are some aspects that have international implications. One important example is the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, which results in the release of materials that could be reused and recycled. It is possible that these materials could enter international trade, especially if the material is a metal. It is clearly desirable, therefore, to have appropriate international standards to help regulate trade. This paper describes recent international developments relating to the establishment of radiological criteria for the release of materials from regulatory control (clearance). There have already been some experiences of clearance and the transfer of recycled materials within Europe, and this paper reviews that experience. It also discusses recent developments in relation to the international classification of radioactive waste.

Linsley G

2006-11-01

 
 
 
 
161

Experiences with International collaboration on technology development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation refers to the International Energy Agency experiences with international collaboration on technology development. Here are presented the mechanism of this collaboration, their advantages and also their limitations. (TEC).

Tilley, J.W.

1995-12-31

162

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLIOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION (ISBD) AS STANDARD FOR QUALITY BOOK PUBLISHING IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines international standard bibliographic description (ISBD) as standard for quality book publishing in Nigeria. It discusses ISBD as it affects quality book publishing. Three Universities in the South-South region and 250 publishers sampled from six states of the federation were used for the study. The instruments used were validated questionnaire and standardized checklist of the book. One null hypothesis was formulated and tested. The data collected were analyzed using simple percentages and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC). The finding of the study shows that there is a significant relationship between ISBD and the quality of books published in Nigeria with regard to authorship, title, place of publication, year of publication, publisher’s name, ISBN, copyright, bibliography and index. The study concluded that ISBD adds quality to published books.

Uduak U. Enang; Eboro E. Umoren

2011-01-01

163

International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab.

Farrar, H. IV

1989-01-01

164

International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab

1989-01-01

165

International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies the requirements of international and national regulatory bodies for patient safety. A culture of quality assurance and the need for scientific exchange at the international level have extended the requirements for standardization to many other areas. These include radiotherapy with heavy charged particles, brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. A major advance in radiotherapy over the past few years has been the growing use of proton and heavy ion irradiation facilities for cancer therapy. The increased use of brachytherapy, including the new application of intravascular brachytherapy, has resulted in the development of new standards and codes of practice in this area. In diagnostic radiology, including computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional procedures, the awareness of the importance of dose reduction to the patient has also lead to the development of codes of practice. In the field of nuclear medicine there is a need to increase the dissemination of standards and the development of international recommendations for dosimetry procedures. Every year there are several regional or international meetings on radiation physics applied to medicine or related areas. A meeting focused exclusively on dosimetry gives the unique opportunity to review in depth the developments and trends in this continuously changing field. By organizing this Symposium the IAEA maintains its longstanding tradition of disseminating knowledge, promoting expertise and supporting international co-operation in radiation dosimetry. The Symposium provided a forum where advances in radiation dosimetry during the past decade, not only in external beam radiotherapy but also in other areas of radiation medicine, can be disseminated and scientific knowledge exchanged. It will include areas that have been developed recently (e.g. intravascular therapy and hadron dosimetry), together with classic areas where the standardization of dosimetry may not have reached a mature stage (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). It will also summarize the pres

2002-01-01

166

Padronização interna em espectrometria de absorção atômica Internal standardization in atomic absorption spectrometry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a review on internal standardization in atomic absorption spectrometry with emphasis to the systematic and random errors in atomic absorption spectrometry and applications of internal standardization in flame atomic absorption spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The rules for selecting an element as internal standard, limitations of the method, and some comments about the application of internal standardization in atomic absorption spectrometry and the future of this compensation strategy are critically discussed.

Kelly G. Fernandes; Mercedes de Moraes; José A. Gomes Neto; Joaquim A. Nóbrega; Pedro V. Oliveira

2003-01-01

167

Development of standard solution for some radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radioactive standard solution is a standard reference material. It is an important standard measuring instrument and used for transferring and inter-comparing of quantity value. According to requirement for the preparation of radioactive standard solution, 60Co, 90Sr-90Y, 137Cs, 134Cs, 63Ni, 241Am, 125I, 131I standard solutions have been developed. The medium includes about 20?50 ?g stable carrier per gram solution and 0.1 mol/L HCl. For iodine radioactive solutions., the medium is alkaline and the stabilizer is added into it. The solutions are all stable and uniform in the long term. The specific activities are accurate and the uncertainties are 0.10%, 0.27%, 0.18%, 0.12%, 0.24%, 0.18%, 0.20%, 0.22% respectively (1 ?)

1994-01-01

168

Concrete blocks. Analysis of UNE, ISO en standards and comparison with other international standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to describe the recently approved UNE standards through a systematic analysis of the main specifications therein contained and the values considered for each of them, as well as the drafts for ISO and EN concrete block standards. Furthermore, the study tries to place the set of ISO standards in the international environment through a comparative analysis against a representative sample of the standards prevailing in various geographical regions of the globe to determine the analogies and differences among them. PALABRAS CLAVE: albañilería, análisis de sistemas, bloque de hormigón, muros de fábrica, normativa KEY WORDS: masonry, system analysis, concrete blocks, masonry walls, standardsEn este trabajo se pretende describir la reciente aprobada normativa UNE, analizando sistemáticamente las principales prescripciones contempladas y los valores considerados para cada una de ellas, así como los proyectos de Norma ISO, y EN sobre bloques de hormigón. Asimismo se intenta situar la normativa UNE en al ámbito internacional, haciendo un análisis comparativo con una representación de Normas de distintas regiones geográficas del mundo, determinando sus analogías y diferencias.

Álvarez Alonso, Marina; Río Suárez, Olga; Rodríguez-Monteverde Cantarell, Pilar; Barbero Sánchez, J. Miguel

1990-01-01

169

International Journal of Water Resources Development ?????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

International Journal of Water Resources Development covers all aspects of water development and management in both industrialized and Third World countries. Contents focus on the practical implementation of policies for water resources development, monitoring and evaluation of technical proj...

170

Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy to Teach the Internal Standard Method  

Science.gov (United States)

The internal standard method is widely applied in quantitative analyses. However, most analytical chemistry textbooks either omit this topic or only provide examples of a single-point internal standardization. An experiment designed to teach students how to prepare an internal standard calibration curve is described. The experiment is a modified…

Bellamy, Michael K.

2010-01-01

171

Diesel Exhaust Standard Development: Phase 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes the third phase of an effort to develop a standard diesel exhaust which may be used in the future development of diesel exhaust aftertreatment. Phase I consisted of a literature review and creation of a database of engine-out diesel e...

E. R. Fanick

2008-01-01

172

Calibration of the second International Standard for hepatitis B immunoglobulin in an international collaborative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Background and Objectives: The International Standard for hepatitis B immunoglobulin is used in the standardization of the anti-HBs content of immunoglobulins for prophylactic and therapeutic use and also in the standardization and calibration of quantitative diagnostic anti-HBs assay kits. A collaborative study was undertaken to assess the suitability of a candidate Second International Standard (2nd IS), and to calibrate it in International Units (IU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The candidate 2nd IS was prepared from a bulk of 5% hepatitis B immunoglobulin (NIBSC code 07/164). Twenty-two participants from 12 countries assayed the first IS, the candidate 2nd IS, a freeze-dried pool of plasma containing anti-HBs and a plasma from a blood donor. These samples were assayed with 19 different assay kits. RESULTS: Data from 102 assays were received. The mean potencies of two coded samples of the candidate 2nd IS were 100.7 and 101.4 IU/ml (combined potency 101.0 IU/ml). The geometric coefficients of variation for these samples were both 13%. The predicted long-term stability of 07/164 was assessed by assaying samples stored at elevated temperatures for a period of 6 months. 07/164 was predicted to be stable at -20 degrees C with the estimated % loss per year of below 0.2%. CONCLUSION: 07/164 was established as the 2nd IS for hepatitis B immunoglobulin with an assigned potency of 100 IU/ampoule by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardisation. The United States Food and Drug Administration has adopted the same standard as the new Reference for Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin, Lot 3.

Ferguson M; Yu MW; Heath A

2010-07-01

173

Good clinical practice: International quality standard for clinical trials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A clinical trial is one of the most important examples of experimental studies. Clinical trials represent an indispensable tool for testing, in a rigorous scientific manner, the efficacy of new therapies. Good Clinical Practice is an international ethical and scientific quality standard for clinical trials, concerning the design, conduct, performance, monitoring auditing, recording, analysis and reporting. This is an assurance to the public that the rights, safety and well-being of trial subjects are protected, and that clinical trial data is credible. The above definitions are consistent with the principles that have their origin in the declaration of Helsinki. The objectives of Good Clinical Practice are to protect the rights of trial subjects, to enhance credibility of data and to improve the quality of science.

Radulovi? Siniša S.

2003-01-01

174

Restructuring of international council for standardization in haematology (ICSH) in Asia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Standardization and harmonization in Laboratory testing are a key issue in the midst of globalization era, because most of laboratory testing has been currently achieved with various kinds of automated systems. In the developed countries, automated systems with highly-regulated principles are commonly used in the routine laboratory. However, there are so many undeveloped and developing countries in Asia that diversity of testing levels can be observed in the area. Some laboratories use glass chamber method for blood cell counting, while other laboratory use semi-automated or fully automated analyzers for complete blood count. International standardization on Hematology is focused on the developed system but not for the developing system. Established standardized documents therefore whould not be unsuitable for Asian societies. In the context, International Council for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH) changed its rules to adjust our Asian Societies and ICSH started to restructure the body. International ICSH society is divided into 5 region sub-groups. Asian area is able to possess one new sub-society, ICSH-Asia. Its reconstruction work has been just started with Asain colleagues, and we are now extending the new societies to discuss Asian problems on the quality of hematology testing.

Tatsumi N; Lewis SM

2002-08-01

175

Restructuring of international council for standardization in haematology (ICSH) in Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standardization and harmonization in Laboratory testing are a key issue in the midst of globalization era, because most of laboratory testing has been currently achieved with various kinds of automated systems. In the developed countries, automated systems with highly-regulated principles are commonly used in the routine laboratory. However, there are so many undeveloped and developing countries in Asia that diversity of testing levels can be observed in the area. Some laboratories use glass chamber method for blood cell counting, while other laboratory use semi-automated or fully automated analyzers for complete blood count. International standardization on Hematology is focused on the developed system but not for the developing system. Established standardized documents therefore whould not be unsuitable for Asian societies. In the context, International Council for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH) changed its rules to adjust our Asian Societies and ICSH started to restructure the body. International ICSH society is divided into 5 region sub-groups. Asian area is able to possess one new sub-society, ICSH-Asia. Its reconstruction work has been just started with Asain colleagues, and we are now extending the new societies to discuss Asian problems on the quality of hematology testing. PMID:12430865

Tatsumi, N; Lewis, S M

2002-08-01

176

FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization for securing mutual connection among informative household electric appliances; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Joho kaden kikikan no sogo setsuzokusei kakuho no tame no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The R and D were conducted with the aim of the international standardization for securing mutual connection among informative household electric appliances, and the FY 1999 results were summarized. In FY 1999, the following were conducted: trial manufacture (for mass production) and evaluation of wide band POF (plastic optical fiber), trial manufacture and evaluation of home use small connector, and trial manufacture and evaluation of optical transceiver module. Various data required for the targeted standardization (transmission band: S400 or more, transmission distance: 100m) were obtained. In the next fiscal year, tests to demonstrate validity/reliability of the data are conducted so that the standards to be accepted as an international standard can be established. In the study of strategies of international standardization, the contents of the standards proposed were discussed, and activities of IEC/TC100 (multi-media) and the related TC were investigated. Early in the next fiscal year, the TC to be proposed is fixed, and international proposing activities are started such as the introduction of the standardization for this R and D to the organizations and persons concerned overseas. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

177

Standardization of blood specimen collection procedure for reference values. International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This document has been prepared by an ICSH Task Force as a proposed ICSH Standard for Blood Specimen Collection for Reference Values. The procedures described are a model for standardization of blood specimen collection either for people confined to bed, or for those who are ambulant; they are intended for obtaining reference values using the principles described in the ICSH paper on the Theory of Reference Values (Clin. lab. Haemat. 3, 369-373, 1981). The document is based on recommendations by the Committee on Reference Values of the Scandinavian Society for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Physiology as published in Scand. J. clin. lab. Invest. (35, Suppl. 144, 39-43, 1975); it has been prepared in collaboration with the Panel on the Theory of Reference Values of the Scientific Committee of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). The responsible authorities of ICSH and IFCC have proposed that it should be the basis for joint recommendations by both organizations.

1982-01-01

178

CAMAC-an international standard for data machine instrumentation  

CERN Multimedia

CAMAC is a standard for on-line computer instrumentation and control. Owing to the world-wide acceptance of CAMAC, standardized and mutually compatible equipment is now offered by a great number of manufacturers. CAMAC systems are modular, and with the range of modules commercially available, it is possible to build up flexible and complex data processing systems. Use of CAMAC requires a CAMAC- compatible entrance (interface) to the computer. Once established, users are later on completely independent of the type of computer used. General aspects, CAMAC systems for NORD-1 and NORD-10 are presented. The former is developed at Physics Institute, Oslo, and the latter is developed as a result of the CERN-contract gained by NORSK DATAELEKTRONIKK.

Johnsen, P J

1973-01-01

179

Convergence towards higher standards in international dental education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper emanates from the findings of "DentEd" and "DentEdEvolves," two sequential European Union-funded Thematic Network Projects on Dental Education. Despite the existence of EU Directives and Guidelines, which were devised to assure comparable and acceptable standards of dental education and competence gained from training programs, there are serious differences among countries. The differences are greater in those countries about to join an expanding EU, where the stomatological approach to education predominates. Both projects had considerable support and advice from the Association from Dental Education in Europe, the American Dental Education Association and the International Federation of Dental Education Associations. An international effort is now proposed to converge towards higher standards in dental education by agreeing to broad principles for the "Profile of an International Dentist" (see www.dented.org/dresden.php3). The UK's General Dental Council recently adopted its profile of a dentist, which is compatible with and related to the EU's Dental Directives and Guidelines (see www.gdc-uk.org/pdfs/first_five_years_2002.pdf). An agreed profile provides a basis on which to structure a pan-European approach and could be more widely adopted. Dental schools throughout the world might be asked to verify those elements with which their graduates actually comply. It is also intended to use the profile as a basis for a modularized approach that would facilitate students studying elements of their course in different universities as part of an EU drive towards convergence in third- level education. It is not intended to promote a single educational approach. Unfortunately, at this stage, it will have little impact on global ill health, mainly associated with poverty and more recently the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The University of Columbia's Earth Centre has made enormous strides in focusing attention on global health and deprivation. Almost one-sixth of the world's population is starving. In sub-Saharan Africa, where poverty is exacting its greatest toll, the HIV/AIDS pandemic is devastating populations, including health care workers. Realistically, our impact as dental educators on global health will be limited. Nevertheless, a better educated and understanding profession is more likely to apply the benefits of knowledge, science and affluence to help those most in need.

Shanley DB

2004-06-01

180

Automated computer software development standards enforcement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Uniform Development Environment (UDE) is being investigated as a means of enforcing software engineering standards. For the programmer, it provides an environment containing the tools and utilities necessary for orderly and controlled development and maintenance of code according to requirements. In addition, it provides DoD management and developer management the tools needed for all phases of software life cycle management and control, from project planning and management, to code development, configuration management, version control, and change control. This paper reports the status of UDE development and field testing. 5 refs.

Yule, H.P.; Formento, J.W.

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Recent developments in turbine blade internal cooling.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on turbine blade internal cooling. Internal cooling is achieved by passing the coolant through several rib-enhanced serpentine passages inside the blade and extracting the heat from the outside of the blades. Both jet impingement and pin-fin-cooling are also used as a method of internal cooling. In the past number of years there has been considerable progress in turbine blade internal cooling research and this paper is limited to reviewing a few selected publications to reflect recent developments in turbine blade internal cooling. PMID:11460626

Han, J C; Dutta, S

2001-05-01

182

Recent developments in turbine blade internal cooling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper focuses on turbine blade internal cooling. Internal cooling is achieved by passing the coolant through several rib-enhanced serpentine passages inside the blade and extracting the heat from the outside of the blades. Both jet impingement and pin-fin-cooling are also used as a method of internal cooling. In the past number of years there has been considerable progress in turbine blade internal cooling research and this paper is limited to reviewing a few selected publications to reflect recent developments in turbine blade internal cooling.

Han JC; Dutta S

2001-05-01

183

Standardization of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Developing countries should take food standardization seriously so that they do not become a dumping ground for foods that some developed countries refuse to admit for human consumption. Let us take saccharin for example. Whereas saccharin would normally not be allowed for use in flour preparations and ice-cream in certain developed countries, because saccharin is now known to be slightly carcinogenic, multinational companies from these same countries have been known to promote the use of saccharin in flour preparations and ice-cream in developing countries. When saccharin is used in soft drinks produced in developing countries, this is often not even declared on the label although manufacturers may be required by law in developed countries to declare the presence of saccharin in such drinks, which in any case must never exceed certain limits. It is against this background that the question of standardization of irradiated foods needs to be considered in developing countries. Like all food standardization questions, developing countries must have clearly defined guidelines and regulations for the consumption of irradiated foods and the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods.

1981-01-01

184

Secondary standard dosimetry laboratories: Development and trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication describes the work of the IAEA and the WHO in the establishment of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. Membership in the SSDL network has now risen to about 50 laboratories, of which 36 are in developing countries

1985-01-01

185

INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS: A WAY FOR GLOBAL CONSISTENCY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reverberations of Wall Street had to be felt across the global banking system. Last September, the world economy seemed to be hurtling down in a way that had initially raised the spectre of the Great Depression in America of the late 1920s. This is based largely on the performance of stock markets which are supposed to reflect future trends in the real economy. However, such knowledge embedded in the markets can be imperfect, as we have learnt by now. In some ways, the global financial crisis and its fallout are forcing economic agents to acquire new knowledge in regard to what might happen in the future. It was difficult to explain rationally why the stock markets were furiously running up even as company balance sheets were still bleeding. A few years ago, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) were a distant possibility. Today, the reality is far different. We are in a dramatic shift that is fast making IFRS the most widely accepted accounting model in the world. As the business environment becomes increasingly global and companies routinely list on stock exchanges in many countries, the need for consistent worldwide reporting standards intensifies. IFRS clearly addresses this issue; its goal is to create comparable, reliable, and transparent financial statements that will facilitate greater cross-border capital raising, trade and better corporate governance practices. Thus acceptance of IFRS is gaining momentum across the globe. IFRS transition program for any organization will have multi –dimensional effect because of differences which exist between IFRS and Local GAAPs. The objectives of the paper is to highlight the nature of such differences with examples along with analysing the provisions of IFRS, comparative analysis of IFRS with Indian GAAP system, benefits, and major issues in first time adoption of IFRS in Indian companies with the help of case study of Indian corporate.

Ravindra Tripathi; Shikha Gupta

2011-01-01

186

The role of cost benefit analysis in the harmonization of international safety standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that cost benefit analysis (CBA) could be helpful in the development of a ''top-down'' approach to the harmonisation of international nuclear safety standards and that CBA can provide a useful insight into some of the economic factors that may make full international harmonisation difficult. The economic incentives for the poorer Eastern European countries to improve the safety of their reactors and for the OECD to provide substantial assistance are discussed. Some steps which could be taken jointly by licensees and regulators to reduce the effect of the large uncertainties in CBA, when applied to accident conditions, are described. (author)

1993-01-01

187

FDA use of international standards in the premarket review process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"This is an exciting time," says Eric Rechen, policy analyst in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Office of Device Evaluation (ODE). "We're entering an era in which standards will have a more prominent role in the review of medical devices than ever before." During the past 10 years, there has been significant growth in the importance of standards in regulatory processes, as Donald J. Barth, regulatory staff manager for the Medical Products Group at Hewlett Packard Company, notes in setting the stage for discussion of the latest developments. Donald Marlowe, director of the FDA's Office of Science and Technology, and Rechen explain the use of standards in the regulatory review process as part of FDA efforts to ensure public safety in a time of shrinking agency resources. Marlowe discusses provisions of the FDA Modernization Act of 1997 that allow manufacturers to submit a declaration of conformity to a standard to satisfy premarket review requirements. A guidance on the recognition and use of consensus standards, a list of recognized standards, and a list of frequently asked questions are available at the Web site of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) at www.fda.gov/cdrh and via the AAMI Web site at www.aami.org. The information is also available by telephone via CDRH Facts on Demand at 800-899-0381. Rechen provides details about the two new approaches for premarket notifications available under the new 510(k) paradigm. Manufacturers may demonstrate substantial equivalence through special and abbreviated 510(k)s in addition to traditional 510(k)s. A copy of the new 510(k) paradigm is available at the AAMI and CDRH Web sites and through Facts on Demand. As the FDA and many manufacturers enter the new world of abbreviated and special 510(k)s, Larry Kroger, GE Medical Systems, provides his comments based on the 4 years of experience manufacturers of diagnostic x-ray products have had with simplified 510(k)s. A comparison of the European conformity assessment procedures with the new 510(k) paradigm will appear in an upcoming issue of BI&T.

Rechen E; Barth DJ; Marlowe D; Kroger L

1998-09-01

188

Replicating success: developing a standard FETP curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field epidemiology training programs have been successful models to address a country's needs for a skilled public health workforce, partly due to their responsiveness to the countries' unique needs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has partnered with ministries of health to strengthen their workforce through customized competency-based training programs. While desirable, emphasis on program flexibility can result in redundancy and inconsistency. To address this challenge, the ADDIE model (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) of instructional design was used by a cross-functional team to guide completion of a standard curriculum based on 15 competencies. The standard curriculum has supported the development and expansion of programs while still allowing for adaptation. This article describes the process that was used to develop the curriculum, which, together with needs assessment and evaluation, is crucial for successful training programs. PMID:18497016

Traicoff, Denise A; Walke, Henry T; Jones, Donna S; Gogstad, Eric K; Imtiaz, Rubina; White, Mark E

2008-01-01

189

Replicating success: developing a standard FETP curriculum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Field epidemiology training programs have been successful models to address a country's needs for a skilled public health workforce, partly due to their responsiveness to the countries' unique needs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has partnered with ministries of health to strengthen their workforce through customized competency-based training programs. While desirable, emphasis on program flexibility can result in redundancy and inconsistency. To address this challenge, the ADDIE model (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) of instructional design was used by a cross-functional team to guide completion of a standard curriculum based on 15 competencies. The standard curriculum has supported the development and expansion of programs while still allowing for adaptation. This article describes the process that was used to develop the curriculum, which, together with needs assessment and evaluation, is crucial for successful training programs.

Traicoff DA; Walke HT; Jones DS; Gogstad EK; Imtiaz R; White ME

2008-01-01

190

Developing occupational standards: a learning disabilities project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occupational standards are often seen as cumbersome and inappropriate to a vocational curriculum such as nursing. However, the term fitness for practice is once more being used to focus the minds of educationalists and practitioners in healthcare delivery on the goal in preparing practitioners for the future. The project reported here was guided jointly by staff from a higher education institution and an NHS trust and involved practitioners in designing occupational standards with a view to using them in practice and incorporating them into the preregistration curriculum. The pivotal structure in this process was the focus group which, with tenacity and commitment, designed, developed and structured standards which were realistic and relevant to healthcare delivery. PMID:11235319

Jowett, R; Wellens, B

2000-05-01

191

Developing occupational standards: a learning disabilities project.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Occupational standards are often seen as cumbersome and inappropriate to a vocational curriculum such as nursing. However, the term fitness for practice is once more being used to focus the minds of educationalists and practitioners in healthcare delivery on the goal in preparing practitioners for the future. The project reported here was guided jointly by staff from a higher education institution and an NHS trust and involved practitioners in designing occupational standards with a view to using them in practice and incorporating them into the preregistration curriculum. The pivotal structure in this process was the focus group which, with tenacity and commitment, designed, developed and structured standards which were realistic and relevant to healthcare delivery.

Jowett R; Wellens B

2000-05-01

192

Developing standard transmission system for radiology reporting including key images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of hospital information system and Picture Archiving Communication System is not new in the medical field, and the development of internet and information technology are also universal. In the course of such development, however, it is hard to share medical information without a refined standard format. Especially in the department of radiology, the role of PACS has become very important in interchanging information with other disparate hospital information systems. A specific system needs to be developed that radiological reports are archived into a database efficiently. This includes sharing of medical images. A model is suggested in this study in which an internal system is developed where radiologists store necessary images and transmit them is the standard international clinical format, Clinical Document Architecture, and share the information with hospitals. CDA document generator was made to generate a new file format and separate the existing storage system from the new system. This was to ensure the access to required data in XML documents. The model presented in this study added a process where crucial images in reading are inserted in the CDA radiological report generator. Therefore, this study suggests a storage and transmission model for CDA documents, which is different from the existing DICOM SR. Radiological reports could be better shared, when the application function for inserting images and the analysis of standard clinical terms are completed.

Kim, Seon Chil [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2007-03-15

193

Developing standard transmission system for radiology reporting including key images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of hospital information system and Picture Archiving Communication System is not new in the medical field, and the development of internet and information technology are also universal. In the course of such development, however, it is hard to share medical information without a refined standard format. Especially in the department of radiology, the role of PACS has become very important in interchanging information with other disparate hospital information systems. A specific system needs to be developed that radiological reports are archived into a database efficiently. This includes sharing of medical images. A model is suggested in this study in which an internal system is developed where radiologists store necessary images and transmit them is the standard international clinical format, Clinical Document Architecture, and share the information with hospitals. CDA document generator was made to generate a new file format and separate the existing storage system from the new system. This was to ensure the access to required data in XML documents. The model presented in this study added a process where crucial images in reading are inserted in the CDA radiological report generator. Therefore, this study suggests a storage and transmission model for CDA documents, which is different from the existing DICOM SR. Radiological reports could be better shared, when the application function for inserting images and the analysis of standard clinical terms are completed.

2007-01-01

194

International comparison of calibration standards for exposure and absorbed dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A comparison was performed of the primary calibration standards for 60Co gamma radiation dose from Czechoslovakia (UDZ CSAV, Prague), Austria (OEFZS/BEV Seibersdorf) and Hungary (OMH Budapest) using ND 1005 (absolute measurement) and V-415 (by means of Nx) graphite ionization chambers. BEV achieved agreement better than 0.1%, OMH 0.35%. Good agreement was also achieved for the values of exposure obtained in absolute values and those obtained via Nx, this for the ND 1005/8105 chamber. The first ever international comparison involving Czechoslovakia was also performed of the unit of absorbed gamma radiation in a water and/or graphite phantom. The participants included Czechoslovakia (UDZ CSAV Prague), the USSR (VNIIFTRI Moscow) and Austria (OEFZS/BEV Seibersdorf). In all measurements, the agreement was better than 1%, which, in view of the differences in methodologies (VNIIFTRI, BEV: calorimetry, UDZ, UVVVR: ionometry) and the overall inaccuracies in determining the absorbed dose values, is a good result. (author)

1990-01-01

195

Final comparison report for international standard problem n.22 (SPES)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] OECD-CSNI International Standard Problem 22 is a 'Loss of Feedwater with EFW delayed' test, performed in the SPES facility (SIET-Piacenza). The purpose of 'LOFW-EFW delayed' experiment is to obtain in the primary system of the facility the thermal-hydraulic conditions similar to the reference plant in the incidental transient of main feedwater total loss, in all the three steam generators, with a delayed intervention of the emergency feedwater system. It is a double blind exercise, characterized by a large participation of non-OECD countries sponsored by IAEA. The ISP22 Comparison Report is based on two fundamental elements: the comparison between the single Participants predictions and the experimental data, and the overall comparison among all calculations and test results. The conclusions drawn from these analyses highlight the major contributions to the observed discrepancies deriving from code limitations, user errors, experimental uncertainties. From a macroscopic point of view, it is concluded that most of the phenomena occurring in ISP22 experiment were generally predicted by the double blind predictions. A more accurate analysis of the single phenomena can nevertheless reveal relevant discrepancies between calculations and data. The document also contains a description of ISP22 Participants and input decks, and a collection of their comments on the differences between calculations and test results

1990-01-01

196

Silica optical fiber technology for devices and components design, fabrication, and international standards  

CERN Document Server

From basic physics to new products, Silica Optical Fiber Technology for Device and Components examines all aspects of specialty optical fibers. Moreover, the inclusion of the latest international standards governing optical fibers enables you to move from research to fabrication to commercialization. Reviews all the latest specialty optical fiber technologies, including those developed for high capacity WDM applications; broadband fiber amplifiers; fiber filleters based on periodic coupling; fiber branching devices; and fiber terminations Discusses key differences among sing

Oh, Kyunghwan

2012-01-01

197

Canadian-Ukrainian joint project for accreditation of environmental laboratories in Ukraine according to international standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1991 Ukraine gained the status of an independent state and began a new historic period of sovereign development. A high concentration of industry and agriculture, ecologically harmful colonialist economic activity of the former Soviet Government and consequences of the Chernobyl accident (1986) have resulted in an ecological situation in Ukraine that is one of the worst among European countries. Ukrainians must change the character of their relationship with natural resources and the environment on the whole. In order to improve the level of competency, consistency, capability and communication within environmental testing laboratories in Ukraine the author strongly recommends creating and implementing a new Ukrainian certification and accreditation system for environmental analytical laboratories. This system should based on the ISO standards and take into account Canadian experience in certification and accreditation of environmental analytical laboratories as one of the best existing example in the world. First of all, preparation and approval of an Ukrainian national standard similar to a CAN/CSA-Z753, Requirements for the Competence of Environmental Analytical Laboratories, and compatible with ISO Guide 25 is needed. This standard should conform to international standards and formalize the certification and accreditation process for environmental analytical laboratories in Ukraine. The standard also has to provide a mechanism for promoting confidence in environmental testing laboratories that can show that they operate in accordance with its requirements and international and national legislation and standards. Professional upgrading of Ukrainian environmental laboratories staff is needed.

Cherkas, O. [Ministry for Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety of Ukraine, Kiyiv (Ukraine)

1995-12-31

198

International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) Three Stage Classification System: 1972; Part 1 - Introduction and Listing.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a standard classification system, International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) provides a standard format for assembling, reporting, and compiling statistics of different educational phenomena both within a country and internationally. The system classified courses, programs, and fields of education according to their educational…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

199

78 FR 987 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR)  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). PHMSA received general...International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Fuel cell technologies--Part 6-1: Micro fuel cell power systems--Safety, IEC/PAS 62282-6-1:2006(E),...

2013-01-07

200

Strategic Partnerships in International Development  

Science.gov (United States)

|This chapter provides a framework and recommendations for development of strategic partnerships in a variety of cultural contexts. Additionally, this study elucidates barriers and possibilities in interagency collaborations. Without careful consideration regarding strategic partnerships' approaches, functions, and goals, the ability to…

Treat, Tod; Hartenstine, Mary Beth

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Biodiversity, international tourism and development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze whether biodiversity is increasing the receipts of tourism and beneficial for Least Developed Countries (LDCs). The underlying assumption is that a rich biodiversity provides a comparative advantage for most LDCs. We use a simple trade theory framework. The model is supported by an empiri...

Freytag, Andreas; Vietze, Christoph

202

Development And Standardization Of Leadership Behavior Scale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explains the procedure of developing and standardizing a leadership behavior scale constructed by the authors to measure the behavioral of the head of institution. After critical study related to institutional behavior of head, twenty four dimensions were selected for constructing the tool. The pilot study had 76 items, related to all the twenty four dimensions. The newly constructed scale which consists of 60 items had face validity, content validity, construct validity and reliability

S Srikanta Swamy

2012-01-01

203

New nuclear technology; International developments. Review 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A summary review is given, describing the international development in the fields of stationary and mobile nuclear power reactors and associated fuel cycles, including news concerning safety, environment and waste management. 45 refs

1996-01-01

204

From 2G TO 3G The Evolution of International Cellular Standards  

CERN Document Server

The purpose of this paper is to examine the major factors surrouding and contributing to the creation (and success) of Europe's 2nd generation 'GSM' cellular system, and compare and contrast it to key events and recent developments in 3rd generation 'IMT-2000' systems. The objective is to ascertain whether lessons from the development of one system can be applied to the other, and what implications 2G has for the development and assessment of 3G technologies. Among the major themes incorporated into this assessment is the concept of cooperation, and its role in bringing about the collaboration and integration necessary to support the success of an international cellular standard.

Selian, A N

2001-01-01

205

Performance Standards for Teachers supporting Nursing Students’ Reflection Skills Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How can nursing teachers improve students’ reflection skills? In the study performance standards for teachers were developed and validated. A ten-step procedure was followed to ensure procedural and internal validity. National competences and specific content standards for supporting nursing reflection skills development formed the foundation of a preliminary rubric framework which was piloted. Forty participants from six nursing institutes judged the developed rubric framework of eight competences covering thirty rubric attributes. They also discussed the prerequisite minimum performance level and judgmental models. These judgments and discussions resulted in consensus on the rubric framework, a cut-off score, and a conjunctive judgmental model that is convenient for assessing nursing teachers’ competences. The rubrics can be used in a teacher training program. Also institutes of nursing education can employ the rubrics as a tool for preparing and formatively assessing reflection skills.

Agaath Dekker- Groen

2012-01-01

206

The isotope dilution mass spectrometry with 233U as a single internal standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The isotope dilution mass spectrometry with 233U as a single internal standard has been developed. It can be used to determine the abundant ratio precisely in the uranium sample. It is an absolute measurement method based on gravimetry. The 233U and measured uranium sample are gravimetrically mixed. Then, the R58 (235U/238U) and R38(233U/238U) in the mixture are simultaneously measured, and the R38 is taken as internal reference standard. By using the iteration operation the R58 can gradually reach to its true value. The total uncertainty of the method for measuring R58 is 0.15%. In addition, it has many advantages, such as, the measured external precision can be better than 0.02%

1993-01-01

207

Determination of acidity constants by the capillary electrophoresis internal standard method. IV. Polyprotic compounds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The IS-CE method is developed for pK(a) determination of polyprotic compounds. In this method, the internal standard (IS) and the polyprotic test compound are injected into the capillary electrophoresis (CE) system in buffers with appropriate pH. The pH of the buffers is not externally measured, but determined inside the capillary from the mobilities of the internal standards. Then the pK(a) values of the polyprotic compounds are obtained by fitting its mobilities to the in situ pH values. The method is faster than the classical CE method (a diprotic compound can be done in less than 15 min), and also than other methods like potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations. The method has been successfully applied to 20 polyprotic test compounds of different chemical nature, including compounds with extreme or very close pK(a) values.

Cabot JM; Fuguet E; Ràfols C; Rosés M

2013-03-01

208

A novel PCR method for quantification of buckwheat by using a unique internal standard material.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel quantitative and specific method for detection of buckwheat, a known food allergen, in diverse food materials was developed by using a unique internal standard to compensate for the variability in DNA extraction and amplification efficiencies. The method was based on a real-time PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer region of Fagopyrum spp. and was designed to detect both cultivated and wild buckwheat, because wild buckwheat might be potentially allergenic. As the internal standard material, ground seeds of statice (Limonium sinuatum) were added to food samples prior to DNA extraction, and the amount of statice DNA measured by real-time PCR was used to standardize the buckwheat content. Statice, an ornamental plant, was chosen as the internal standard material because it was readily available and was inferred to be least likely to be commingled in foods. The specificity of the PCR system was tested against commonly used food materials of plant origin. Quantitative results expressed in buckwheat protein concentrations (mean +/- standard deviation) for various food samples prepared to contain 10 ppm (wt/wt) of buckwheat flour (corresponding to 1.2-microg/g [ppm] buckwheat protein) ranged from 0.7 +/- 0.2 (rice) to 0.9 +/- 0.4 (wheat) and for 100-ppm (wt/wt) samples (12-microg/g [ppm] buckwheat protein) from 7.7 +/- 1.0 (pepper) to 9.8 +/- 0.5 (wheat) microg/g (ppm). The method's accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were considered sufficient for detection of buckwheat contamination at the level required for compliance with the Japanese Food Allergen Labeling Regulation.

Hirao T; Hiramoto M; Imai S; Kato H

2006-10-01

209

A novel PCR method for quantification of buckwheat by using a unique internal standard material.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel quantitative and specific method for detection of buckwheat, a known food allergen, in diverse food materials was developed by using a unique internal standard to compensate for the variability in DNA extraction and amplification efficiencies. The method was based on a real-time PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer region of Fagopyrum spp. and was designed to detect both cultivated and wild buckwheat, because wild buckwheat might be potentially allergenic. As the internal standard material, ground seeds of statice (Limonium sinuatum) were added to food samples prior to DNA extraction, and the amount of statice DNA measured by real-time PCR was used to standardize the buckwheat content. Statice, an ornamental plant, was chosen as the internal standard material because it was readily available and was inferred to be least likely to be commingled in foods. The specificity of the PCR system was tested against commonly used food materials of plant origin. Quantitative results expressed in buckwheat protein concentrations (mean +/- standard deviation) for various food samples prepared to contain 10 ppm (wt/wt) of buckwheat flour (corresponding to 1.2-microg/g [ppm] buckwheat protein) ranged from 0.7 +/- 0.2 (rice) to 0.9 +/- 0.4 (wheat) and for 100-ppm (wt/wt) samples (12-microg/g [ppm] buckwheat protein) from 7.7 +/- 1.0 (pepper) to 9.8 +/- 0.5 (wheat) microg/g (ppm). The method's accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were considered sufficient for detection of buckwheat contamination at the level required for compliance with the Japanese Food Allergen Labeling Regulation. PMID:17066931

Hirao, Takashi; Hiramoto, Masayuki; Imai, Shinsuke; Kato, Hisanori

2006-10-01

210

International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) Benefits, Obstacles and Intrigues for Implementation in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

IFRS is International Financial Reporting System and International Accounting Standard Board - (IASB) provided the framework for its working. IFRS adopted by IASB has gained worldwide acceptance amongst many countries and some listed companies in European nations have embraced it. IFRS ...

Ikpefan, Ochei Ailemen; Akande, A.O

211

International financial markets and development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the ?casino economy?. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the waysid (more) e. In response, new actors are surfacing, e.g. the institutional investor (hedge funds, private equity funds, etc.), while new instruments are leading to highly leveraged and destabilising derivatives. The casino system has been promoted by governments and intergovernmental institutions to liberalise and deregulate financial markets. Although developing countries have not participated in the casino system, they have been suffering most from the spill-over into the real economy. The main lesson learnt is that the casino has to be closed.

Wahl, Peter

2009-01-01

212

DEVELOPMENT OF UAV INTERNATIONAL REGULATION AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analysis of the development of unmanned aerial vehicles international regulation can reach a conclusion about the need for further integration and harmonization of aviation regulation and standards in the world and in  the European region. The involvement of Ukrainian experts,  scientists, universities and production representatives to participate in unmanned aerial vehicles development, regulation and standardization international organizations and committees are  recommended.?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ????????????? FAA, NASA, US Secretary of Defence, NATO, SC203 RTCA,F-38 ASTM International, SAE S-4 Unmanned Systems, AIAA, IEEE, EASA, EUROCONTROL,EUROCAE, CAA of United Kingdom, EDA.The principles of international UAV regulations and standardisations of FAA, NASA, USSecretary of Defence, NATO, SC203 RTCA, F-38 ASTM International, SAE S-4 Unmanned Systems,AIAA, IEEE, EASA, EUROCONTROL, EUROCAE, CAA of United Kingdom, EDA are considered.??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????????????? ????????? ????????????? FAA, NASA, US Secretary of Defence, NATO, SC203RTCA, F-38 ASTM International, SAE S-4 Unmanned Systems, AIAA, IEEE, EASA,EUROCONTROL, EUROCAE , CAA of United Kingdom, EDA.?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? FAA, NASA, US Secretary of Defence, NATO, SC203 RTCA, F-38 ASTM International, SAE S-4 Unmanned Systems, AIAA, IEEE, EASA, EUROCONTROL,EUROCAE, CAA of United Kingdom, EDA.The principles of international UAV regulations and standardisations of FAA, NASA, USSecretary of Defence, NATO, SC203 RTCA, F-38 ASTM International, SAE S-4 Unmanned Systems,AIAA, IEEE, EASA, EUROCONTROL, EUROCAE, CAA of United Kingdom, EDA are considered.??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? FAA, NASA, US Secretary of Defence, NATO, SC203 RTCA, F-38 ASTM International, SAE S-4 Unmanned Systems, AIAA, IEEE, EASA,EUROCONTROL, EUROCAE , CAA of United Kingdom, EDA.

?????? ??????????? ???????; ????????? ???????? ????????; ?????? ????????????? ???????

2011-01-01

213

The Development Status Quo and Counter measures of Logistics Informationization Standards of China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The construction of logistics informationization standard system is related to the long-term development of the logistics industry. The domestic standard construction of logistics informationization is fairly lagged behind; problems such as few standards, incomplete systems, and low level of international conventions still exist. This paper studies the constitution of a logistics informationization standard system, differentiates ten categories of logistics informationization standards, and then elaborates on how to establish and improve various standards. Finally, this paper studies the countermeasures to promote the implementation of logistics informationization standards. Key words: Logistics informationization; Standards; Status Quo; Countermeasures

Qian XU

2011-01-01

214

INTERNATIONAL TENDENCIES OF INFOMATIZATION DEVELOPMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF EDUCATION QUALITY ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article actual tendencies of educational system informatization development in the world are analyzed. There are stated the basic advantages of information and communication technologies (ICT) use in the educational process. It is presented experience of the coordination of national standards with international ones in the different countries of the world which will give the chance to Ukraine to be guided for improvement of education quality, that means improvement of information technologies (I?) quality. As Ukraine is a part of the European and international information and educational space, therefore in this branch there should be a development responding to the level of other countries.? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????. ? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????-?????????????? ?????????? (???) ? ??????? ????????. ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????, ?????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? (??) ? ???????. ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ??????????.

?.?. ??????????; A.?. ????; K.?. ???????

2011-01-01

215

Language Selection Policies in International Standardization – Perception of the IEC Member Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

International standards setting organizations have different language selection policies. These policies have, besides their financial aspects, also an important cultural/ political dimension. The standards setting organizations are either bilingual (English/ French), or unilingual (English), or mul...

Teichmann, H.; Vries, H.J. de

216

Developing tendency of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) reflected by international open publications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the international open papers and technology standards on EMP, briefly introduce the subjects and works developed in the recent years by international relevant organizations, including the definitions of HPEM and IEMI, the classifications, hazards, protections and technology standardizations of EMP. The series standards developed by the Subcommittee 77 C (SC 77C) of IEC are introduced as an emphasis. Finally some proposals are presented for the civil development of EMP technologies. (authors)

2006-01-01

217

Internal migration in contemporary Nepal: models which internalize development policies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"A set of models is developed to assess at the interdistrict level the relative importance of economic, demographic, social and government policy determinants of internal migration in Nepal. The first 'proximate' model and the second 'structural' model estimates are generated using ordinary least squares regression and specification error is investigated by spatial autocorrelation tests of the residuals of each model in its reduced form....Finally, to formalize and evaluate empirically the linkages between the 'proximate' and 'structural' determinants, a simultaneous equation model is developed using three stage generalized least squares regression."

Thapa P; Conway D

1983-01-01

218

International Standard Problem No. 48 - containment capacity. Synthesis Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In June 2002, the OECD-NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) initiated an International Standard Problem on containment integrity (ISP 48) based on the NRC/NUPEC/Sandia test. The objectives of the ISP are to extend the understanding of capacities of actual containment structures based on results of the recent PCCV Model test and other previous research. From 1997 through 2001 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a Cooperative Containment Integrity Program under the joint sponsorship of the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan, and the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The purpose of the program was to investigate the response of representative models of nuclear containment structures to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions to measured behavior. A uniform 1:4-scale model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) was constructed and tested at SNL. This model was representative of the containment structure of an actual pressurized water reactor plant in Japan. The ISP consists of four phases over a period of 2 years: Phase 1: Data Collection and Identification. Phase 2: Calculation of the Limit State Test (LST), i.e. static pressure loading. Phase 3: Calculation of response to both Thermal and Mechanical Loadings. Phase 4: Reporting Workshop Eleven organizations (or teams) from nine OECD member countries accepted the invitation to participate in the ISP and perform calculations to predict the structural response of the PCCV model to static and transient pressure and thermal loading. Each participating organization was provided with the model and loading data and was asked to perform independent analyses to simulate the response of the PCCV model. The results of each team's calculations were compiled and the results presented at a final workshop in April 2005. The prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model is a uniform 1:4-scale model of the containment structure of Unit 3 of the Ohi Nuclear Power Station in Japan. The approach to designing the model was to scale the design of the Ohi-3 containment to the extent possible and include as many representative features of the prototype as practical: liner, penetrations, reinforcement steel and tendons. Fifty-five response parameters, referred to as standard output locations (SOLs), were selected to facilitate initial comparison of the Phase 2 calculations with the test results. The calculated responses match the test results and each other reasonably well up to the onset of global or general membrane, yielding where the results begin to diverge. Also, most of the analyses capture the loss of stiffness due to cracking of the concrete at approximately 1.5 times the design pressure. In addition to submitting response predictions at the SOLs, each participant was also asked to provide a best estimate of failure pressure and mechanisms of the PCCV model. It is interesting to note that the differences in failure predictions are much more significant than the differences in the calculated responses would seem to suggest. Phase 3 of ISP48 extends the results of the model tests and calculations by investigating the addition of temperature to the pressure loading. The ISP participants agreed to consider two thermal load cases for Phase 3: - Case 1: Saturated Steam Conditions (mandatory for all Phase 3 participants) - Monotonically increasing static pressure and temperature (saturated steam). - Case 2: Station Blackout Scenario - A representative severe-accident scenario for a four-loop PWR including vessel failure and hydrogen detonation

2005-01-01

219

Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012.

Koo, I. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, I. W.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, J. C. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-04-15

220

Consensus recommendations for standard investigative workup: report of the International Myeloma Workshop Consensus Panel 3.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A panel of members of the 2009 International Myeloma Workshop developed guidelines for standard investigative workup of patients with suspected multiple myeloma. Both serum and urine should be assessed for monoclonal protein. Measurement of monoclonal protein both by densitometer tracing and/by nephelometric quantitation is recommended, and immunofixation is required for confirmation. The serum-free light chain assay is recommended in all newly diagnosed patients with plasma cell dyscrasias. Bone marrow aspiration and/or biopsy along with demonstration of clonality of plasma cells are necessary. Serum ?(2)-microglobulin, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase are necessary for prognostic purposes. Standard metaphase cytogenetics and fluorescent in situ hybridization for 17p, t(4;14), and t(14;16) are recommended. The skeletal survey remains the standard method for imaging screening, but magnetic resonance imaging frequently provides valuable diagnostic and prognostic information. Most of these tests are repeated during follow-up or at relapse.

Dimopoulos M; Kyle R; Fermand JP; Rajkumar SV; San Miguel J; Chanan-Khan A; Ludwig H; Joshua D; Mehta J; Gertz M; Avet-Loiseau H; Beksaç M; Anderson KC; Moreau P; Singhal S; Goldschmidt H; Boccadoro M; Kumar S; Giralt S; Munshi NC; Jagannath S

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
221

Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012

2011-01-01

222

Instrumental photon activation analysis of coal fly ashes using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multielement determinations of coal fly ashes (NIST SRM-1633a and BCR CRM-38) have been carried out by instrumental photon activation analysis using 30 MeV bremsstrahlung and the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method. In these determinations, some major and minor constituent elements in the samples were properly used as effective internal standards. As a result, it was demonstrated that concentrations of 18 elements were determined accurately and precisely. Furthermore, a similar multielement determination has also been examined using 20 MeV bremmstrahlung. In this case, it was proved that better results can be achieved, because all intefering reactions were eliminated completely. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

Masumoto, K.; Yagi, M. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Lab. of Nuclear Science)

1991-11-01

223

Application of ISO standard 27048: dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future.

Henrichs K

2011-03-01

224

Application of ISO standard 27048: Dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future. (authors)

2011-01-01

225

Application of ISO standard 27048: dose assessment for the monitoring of workers for internal radiation exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Besides ongoing developments in the dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides, there are various efforts to improve the monitoring of workers for potential or real intakes of radionuclides. The disillusioning experience with numerous intercomparison projects identified substantial differences between national regulations, concepts, applied programmes and methods, and dose assessment procedures. Measured activities were not directly comparable because of significant differences between measuring frequencies and methods, but also results of case studies for dose assessments revealed differences of orders of magnitude. Besides the general common interest in reliable monitoring results, at least the cross-border activities of workers (e.g. nuclear power plant services) require consistent approaches and comparable results. The International Standardization Organization therefore initiated projects to standardise programmes for the monitoring of workers, the requirements for measuring laboratories and the processes for the quantitative evaluation of monitoring results in terms of internal assessed doses. The strength of the concepts applied by the international working group consists in a unified approach defining the requirements, databases and processes. This paper is intended to give a short introduction into the standardization project followed by a more detailed description of the dose assessment standard, which will be published in the very near future. PMID:21212077

Henrichs, K

2011-01-06

226

Global standard for the composition of infant formula: recommendations of an ESPGHAN coordinated international expert group.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) develops food standards, guidelines and related texts for protecting consumer health and ensuring fair trade practices globally. The major part of the world's population lives in more than 160 countries that are members of the Codex Alimentarius. The Codex Standard on Infant Formula was adopted in 1981 based on scientific knowledge available in the 1970s and is currently being revised. As part of this process, the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses asked the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition to initiate a consultation process with the international scientific community to provide a proposal on nutrient levels in infant formulae, based on scientific analysis and taking into account existing scientific reports on the subject. ESPGHAN accepted the request and, in collaboration with its sister societies in the Federation of International Societies on Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, invited highly qualified experts in the area of infant nutrition to form an International Expert Group (IEG) to review the issues raised. The group arrived at recommendations on the compositional requirements for a global infant formula standard which are reported here. PMID:16254515

Koletzko, Berthold; Baker, Susan; Cleghorn, Geoff; Neto, Ulysses Fagundes; Gopalan, Sarath; Hernell, Olle; Hock, Quak Seng; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Lonnerdal, Bo; Pencharz, Paul; Pzyrembel, Hildegard; Ramirez-Mayans, Jaime; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Zong-Yi, Ding

2005-11-01

227

Global standard for the composition of infant formula: recommendations of an ESPGHAN coordinated international expert group.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) develops food standards, guidelines and related texts for protecting consumer health and ensuring fair trade practices globally. The major part of the world's population lives in more than 160 countries that are members of the Codex Alimentarius. The Codex Standard on Infant Formula was adopted in 1981 based on scientific knowledge available in the 1970s and is currently being revised. As part of this process, the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses asked the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition to initiate a consultation process with the international scientific community to provide a proposal on nutrient levels in infant formulae, based on scientific analysis and taking into account existing scientific reports on the subject. ESPGHAN accepted the request and, in collaboration with its sister societies in the Federation of International Societies on Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, invited highly qualified experts in the area of infant nutrition to form an International Expert Group (IEG) to review the issues raised. The group arrived at recommendations on the compositional requirements for a global infant formula standard which are reported here.

Koletzko B; Baker S; Cleghorn G; Neto UF; Gopalan S; Hernell O; Hock QS; Jirapinyo P; Lonnerdal B; Pencharz P; Pzyrembel H; Ramirez-Mayans J; Shamir R; Turck D; Yamashiro Y; Zong-Yi D

2005-11-01

228

Harmonizing the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) sound level meter specification standards  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been over 20 years since the last major revision of the American National Standard Specification for Sound Level Meters, S1.4-1983 (R2002). This is the most extensively referenced ANSI acoustical standard, with wide application to architectural acoustics, soundscapes, environmental noise, and hearing conservation. A new revision is proposed that conforms as closely as possible to the recently developed International Electrotechnical Commission Standard for Electroacoustics-Sound Level Meters Part 1: Specifications, IEC 61672-1 (2002-05). This proposed revision represents an improvement over ANSI S1.4-1983, particularly in its frequency response tolerance limits at high frequencies, and impulse (toneburst) response. Also, it incorporates the high-frequency electrical design goals and tolerance limits for A-weighted response that were specified in Amendment S1.4A-1985, and it maintains the more restrictive low-frequency tolerance limits of the earlier (1983) specification, compared to IEC 61672-1. The proposed revision maintains the laboratory precision Type 0 specification, which is absent in IEC 61672-1, while incorporating the specifications for integrating-averaging sound level meters previously given in ANSI S1.43-1997. Sound level meters which meet the Type 1 and Type 2 specification requirements, respectively, in this S1.4 revision will also meet the Class 1 and Class 2 specification requirements of 61672-1.

Brooks, Bennett M.

2005-09-01

229

Globalization quickly increased need for moving from local to international standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

'Standardization' quickly changed in the past few years, due to the market's globalization that needs international standards as important instruments in eliminating technical barriers to trade. The 'Petroleum Sector' chose moving to international standards jointly processed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) that played the role of historical reference. Taking into account that oil industry wants only one Standard worldwide used, also Europe decided for adopting these ISO Standards as European Standards. The result is much better considering that also Russia and China seem to adopt these ISO documents as their national standards. It is so becoming much more significant the 'motto' that ISO TC 67 'Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries' adopted for its standardization activities: 'Do it once, do it right, do it internationally'. Examples of such international Standards worldwide used as National Standards are: ISO 11960:2004 - 'Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for wells' and; ISO/DIS 3183 - 'Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems' (under preparation). Standardization has so grown from technical to management tool and countries are also moving, including standards in more areas of its legislations. (author)

Cappelli, Cataldo

2005-07-01

230

WHY DOES THE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDIZATION HAVE TO PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN SUSTAINABLE ECONOMICS AND FINANCIAL STRATEGIES?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards and their contribution to harmonization in business economics and financial practice. In this review, the goal is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards promote financial decisions and influence the business environment in a global scale. It is expected that the unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business economics and financialpractice of certain countries. Standardization of financial accounting has tended to follow the integration of the markets served by the accounts. The present impetus for global accounting standards follows the accelerating integration of the word economy. The global accounting standards would enable the world’s stock markets to become more closely integrated. It is important for companies to develop coherent and consistent financialstrategies and to utilize international accounting methods to support strategic planning, decision-making and control.

Jeno Beke, Ph.D, CMA, CPA, CTA

2011-01-01

231

The requirements for the inclusion of standard terms in international sales contracts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG) does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisa (more) tion of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it is necessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be made available to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems, namely that a clear incorporation clause in the contract is sufficient for the effective incorporation of standard terms. The author critically examines the case law, the various approaches and the underlying arguments on which they are based, before reaching the conclusion that the two extreme approaches should be rejected in favour of the more moderate approach. This approach is founded on a proper interpretation of the provisions of the CISG as well as being in step with international trade practice.

Eiselen, S

2011-01-01

232

The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article dealt with institutional aspects of auditing profession, mostly their impact on international harmonization concept of auditing services. The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services behavior and development, mostly in context of providing the auditing services. The authors mention on the IAASB priorities in this area set for period 2009 - 2011.

Ladislav Kareš; Petra Krišková

2008-01-01

233

Linking international trade and labour standards: the effectiveness of sanctions under the European Union's GSP  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Linking international trade and labour standards is one of the ways to make countries comply with their international obligations to respect core labour standards. Under the European Union's Generalized System of Preferences (EU's GSP), trade preferences of Myanmar in 1997 and Belarus in 2006 were w...

Cuyvers, Ludo; Zhou, Weifeng

234

MEASURING THE IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS (IFRS) TO FINANCIAL INFORMATION OF PORTUGUESE COMPANIES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To increase efficiency of the European finance market, the European Union (EU) recently forced all public companies to publish their financial disclosures with the support of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), emanated by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), begi...

Francisco José Ferreira Silva; Gualter Manuel Medeiros do Couto; Ruben Mota Cordeiro

235

Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Overall survey; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Sogo chosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper summed up the results of the survey of tackling with the international standardization by enterprises and organizations involved in the standardization in the U.S., Europe and Japan, the results of the R and D on 20 themes for the international standardization, and the development toward the international standardization. As the R and D themes, the following were selected: the development of chemical method to analyze/evaluate metallic coatings of surface treated steel coating sheets, R and D of the basic evaluation method of functional composite particles, international standards for computer/manikins, basic technology of color image management, study on optimizing design/evaluation technology using quality engineering, study of the international standardization by economic evaluation of environmental impacts, R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells, development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards, standard measuring methods of hormone effects of chemical substances, quantification of the sensory evaluation and international standardization in the paint field, experimental study on the international standardization for immunochemical measurement of chemical substances, etc. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

236

Simultaneous determination of the intermediates of the citric acid cycle by gas chromatography--mass fragmentography using deuterated internal standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Current developments in the use of gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy in studying the intermediates in the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle are outlined. The methods developed make use of deuterated internal standards and multiple-ion monitoring to obtain sensitivity comparable to that of the better fluorimetric enzymatic assays. The problems still remaining are indicated

1977-01-01

237

Draft I.E.C. standard for monitoring PWR internal structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EDF has proposed to the I.E.C. (International Electrotechnical Commission) a draft standard for monitoring the vessel internal structures of PWRs. The standard applies to systems used for monitoring the vibratory behavior of the internal structures of PWRs (core barrel, thermal shield, fuel assemblies) on the basis of neutron fluctuations observed outside the vessel as well as of vessel vibrations. It covers the systems characteristics and the monitoring procedures. It should facilitate standardization of monitoring and comparisons on an international level. (author).

1996-01-01

238

Structural integrity assessments - development of international procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The demonstration of Structural Integrity is an essential requirement before any critical engineering component can enter or continue in service. This paper reviews the current development of the International Structural Integrity assessment procedures and relates this to the philosophy adopted by design codes. The lack of a truly internationally accepted structural integrity code is noted and the role of initiatives by the IIW and BSI discussed. Finally the need for a standardised procedure to facilitate the derivation of inspection strategies incorporating Quality Assurance and fitness for purpose approaches is recognised. Without this, economic repair strategies are difficult to develop and safety case assessments will be very variable across industrial and national sectors. (author).

1993-01-01

239

The Application of International Accounting Standard’s Requirements No. (20) in Jordanian Chemical Detergents Industry Companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aimed at identifying the extent to which Jordanian chemical detergents industry companies applying the requirements of international accounting standard No. (20). A questionnaire has been designed for this purpose and distributed to the external auditors of these companies of (50) auditors / questionnaire, (30) questionnaires were recovered and were suitable for analysis, with recovery rate reached to (60%). Resolution data was analyzed using (SPSS), and a number of statistical techniques through descriptive statistics, arithmetic means, standard deviations and percentages. The results of the study showed that Jordanian chemical detergents industry companies do not apply the requirements of international accounting standard No. (20), and there are difficulties that limit the application of the mentioned standard in a high degree. The study recommended urging Jordanian chemical detergents industry companies to implement the requirements of international accounting standard No. (20), in addition to helping Jordanian chemical detergents industry companies to reduce the difficulties of application of international accounting standard No, (20) and treated them radically.

Jamal Adel Al-Sharairi; Majed A. Alsharayri

2012-01-01

240

Lessons learned from international emergency medicine development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lessons learned from development of EM around the world span several key areas including general development, systems comparisons, models of EM practice, and education and training. Neither definitive nor exhaustive, these lessons learned are intended to be viewed as sign posts along the road traveled at this point in international EM development. It is hoped that future participants in international EM development can assimilate these lessons learned, adopt the most relevant ones, and add their own insight and wisdom to this growing list. Most importantly, it is hoped that by whichever path future development takes, we all reach the same destination of providing the best possible emergency medical care for the people of the world. PMID:15663978

Arnold, Jeffrey L; Holliman, C James

2005-02-01

 
 
 
 
241

Lessons learned from international emergency medicine development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The lessons learned from development of EM around the world span several key areas including general development, systems comparisons, models of EM practice, and education and training. Neither definitive nor exhaustive, these lessons learned are intended to be viewed as sign posts along the road traveled at this point in international EM development. It is hoped that future participants in international EM development can assimilate these lessons learned, adopt the most relevant ones, and add their own insight and wisdom to this growing list. Most importantly, it is hoped that by whichever path future development takes, we all reach the same destination of providing the best possible emergency medical care for the people of the world.

Arnold JL; Holliman CJ

2005-02-01

242

The development of internal fixation: Historical overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the ancient times, man was faced with the problem of fracture treatment, which is first described in the records from ancient Egypt. Ever since, many treatment methods have been developed, but the real revolution in the fracture treatment was achieved by internal fixation. Since it was described for the first time, at the end of the 18th century, this method has continuously developed, but sterilization, radiographies, anaesthesiology, antibiotics made this surgery modern and safe. The great ideas and practical solutions of the new methods were done by Albin Lambotte, William Arbuthnot Lane, Robert Danis, William Hey Groves. They lead to the expansion of this method and truly made the principles for the future AO school. New methods, biological internal fixation, minimally invasive procedures, new technologies and devices for internal fixation are introduced in the surgical practice daily. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175095 i br. 45005

Leši? Aleksandar R.; Zagorac Slaviša; Bumbaširevi? Vesna; Bumbaširevi? Marko Ž.

2012-01-01

243

Aid for development of international trade  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of international trade was very impressive in the second half of 20th century. But even with these great development opportunities that growth of international trade can bring the small number of developed economies had succeeded to ripe benefits from it in order to develop their economies and reduce poverty. Even with the establishment of the World Trade Organization it was apparent that developing countries need assistance in order to integrate fully in international trade system. The Aid for Trade, which is a part of Official Development Assistance focusing on trade, has an aim to help developing countries build their trade capacity and the transport infrastructure so they can use trade as a powerful engine for economic growth. This paper set out to describe this new programme of trade aid developed under the auspices of WTO, as a multilateral project, to point out the readiness of donor countries and aims of beneficiary countries. But we will explore the linkages of Aid for Trade programme with bilateral and regional aid initiatives in the area of trade. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179029: Srbija u savremenim me?unarodnim odnosima: Strateški pravci razvoja i u?vrš?ivanja položaja Srbije u me?unarodnim integrativnim procesima - spoljnopoliti?ki, me?unarodni ekonomski, pravni i bezbedonosni aspekti

Bjeli? Predrag; Popovi?-Petrovi? Ivana

2012-01-01

244

HARMONIZATION OF NATIONAL REGULATION AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS – PARTICULAR CASE OF NONCURRENT ASSETS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the scientific literature, accounting harmonization is a top topic because it helps to increase the comparability of financial statements. Also in Romania in the last 10 years becames a topic that is very often debated. The harmonization is trying to reduce differences of financial reporting statements between countries or, in the other words, it is trying to bring to a common denominator of existing rules when appear conflicts of comparability between them. The purpose of this paper is to measure the harmonisation between national and international regulation for a significant element of financial position statement, such as noncurrent assets. This paper provides an empirical research of information that must be presented by entities which apply national accounting standards or international ones when financial statements are prepared, trying to measure the harmonization between the two referential. Thus, in trying to determine the harmonisation, we use the Jaccard coefficient in order to provide an overview of the degree of harmonization of accounting practice. When measuring the degree of comparability of Romanian accounting regulations with International Accounting Standards we analyzed noncurrent assets and impairment of assets using the Jaccard coefficient for accounting treatments and we calculated an average of similarities between the two regulations. Further, the results suggest that there is an average level of harmonization for the accounting treatment of noncurrent assets and for determining the impairment of the assets, the methods are the same. The study contributes to the development of accounting literature about the harmonisation between national regulation and international standards regarding the noncurrent assets and impairment of the assets, which together with the other elements define the activity of the business. In addition, the study provides an analysis of how the regulations treats noncurrent assets, during the life of the asset, namely: the recognition phase, the evaluation and the depreciation.

Coste Andreea Ioana; Fekete Pali-Pista Szilveszter

2013-01-01

245

Vitamin D status as an international issue: national surveys and the problem of standardization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wide spread variation in measurement results of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) confounds international efforts to develop evidence-based clinical guidelines. Accordingly, NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) in collaboration with CDC National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Ghent University established the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) in November 2010. VDSP objectives include: (1) standardize 25(OH)D concentration measurements in national health surveys around the world, (2) evaluate survey differences, (3) extend standardization efforts to assay manufacturers, and to clinical, commercial, and research laboratories, (4) promote standardization of emerging metabolites of vitamin D status, and (5) enable the use of standardized data in patient care and public health. An interlaboratory comparison study is being conducted to assess measurement variability among current assays. Participants include national health surveys from Australia, Canada, Germany, Ireland, Mexico, South Korea, UK and USA, 15 assay manufacturers, and two external quality assurance programs. CDC will implement a formal laboratory certification program. Standardization activities will use single-donor, fresh-frozen serum collected using the CLSI C37 protocol. Initial assay performance criteria, based on biological variability data, are ? 10 % imprecision and ? 5 % bias in relation to the reference values. An ancillary study on commutability of NIST SRM 972a, external quality assurance testing materials is included. To increase the comparability of existing data from different national surveys, master equations will be developed to facilitate the conversion of already existing national survey data to the NIST-Ghent University reference measurement procedures. PMID:22536760

Sempos, Christopher T; Vesper, Hubert W; Phinney, Karen W; Thienpont, Linda M; Coates, Paul M

2012-04-01

246

Developing Global Perspectives through International Management Degrees  

Science.gov (United States)

Internationalisation has risen high on the agenda of many higher education institutions, and the need to develop graduates with global perspectives is well recognised. Much attention has been given to institutional strategies for internationalisation, international students, and dealing with culturally diverse learning styles. To date, however,…

Brookes, Maureen; Becket, Nina

2011-01-01

247

Implications of international standards (BSI, CEN, ISO) for regulatory monitoring of emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper illustrates the importance of international emissions measurement standards to national regimes established for regulation of industrial processes. Different types of standards pertinent to regulatory monitoring of industrial process emissions are identified. Advantages of operating to standard techniques and implications for process operators and regulators are noted. Different approaches adopted in standards to provide measurement data quality assurance are indicated. The most relevant British Standards Institution (BSI) committees and their work are reviewed. The relative priorities of BSI, CEN and ISO standards are noted. The targeting of UK input into compilation of the standards is discussed. The enabling roles of the Environment Agency and the Source Testing Association in ensuring standards are fit for UK requirements and in promoting their use are outlined. The paper concludes with brief acknowledgement of the important of international standards to the Environment Agency`s plans for a Monitoring Certification Scheme (MCERTS). 41 refs.

Gemmill, R.; Woodfield, M. [Environment Agency, Bristol (United Kingdom). National Compliance Assessment Service

1998-04-01

248

Motor Development International: Compressed Air Technology Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

How does a car that boasts "zero pollution" and even "cleans the air it uses" work? This website provides information on the air compression cars developed by Motor Development International. Aside from the general overview of the mechanics of air compression, the FAQ section provides additional information on the air tanks, filter system, body frame, electric system and MDI's business model. A key target for this website seems to be potential buyers and investors.

249

The test technology of electrical safety performances based on IEC international standards  

Science.gov (United States)

The test technology of electrical safety performance based on IEC international standards is put forward in the paper, including mainly four test parameters: leakage current, high-voltage withstand, insulation resistance and ground resistance. The definitions, the types, the testing purposes and methods of these parameters are also proposed. Based on the technology, we construct a system for data collection, processing and controlling with a PC, a high-performance microcomputer AD?C842 and a FPGA, and adopts a VI technology to develop an integrated testing system for electrical safety performance. The system can be applied to both the certification testing of products and quality control in manufacturing and provides an authenticating measure for the domestic electrical equipments to enter international markets.

Wang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Dong; Wang, Yanlin

2008-11-01

250

Development and standardization of Mysore Tridosha scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors have developed a personality scale to assess Tridoshas i.e. Vata, Pitta, and Kapha from psychological perspective in human beings. The Tridoshas are composed of the Pancha Mahabhutas, but one or the other Dosha is dominant singularly or in combination. There can never be a state when one or the other Pancha Mahabhutas and consequently the Tridoshas are absent totally. All five are essential to sustain life. Vata Dosha is composed of Akasa and Vayu Mahabhuta. Pitta Dosha is composed of Tejas or Agni and Ap Mahabhuta. Kapha Dosha is composed of Ap and Prithvi Mahabhuta. Although Tridosha is studied, understood, and applied in Ayurveda, the present authors have tried to validate the same from the domain of psychology. Since the authors are not from the domain of Ayurveda but of Psychology, there are some constructs that are not amenable for psychological testing which have been ignored. Only those constructs that can be used by psychologists to assess the psychological aspects of the Dosha Prakriti have been used to build items for the assessment of personality. In this process, the psychometric properties of the scale are established. The scale assesses the psychological manifestation of the Tridoshas, which was the basic objective. The standardization procedure involved in the development of the Mysore Psychological Tridosha Scale is herewith delineated.

Shilpa S; Murthy CG

2011-07-01

251

Developing Ethics and Standards in Action Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a globalizing world, what role can social science research – particularly action research – play in order to address the risks of exclusion, poverty, social and physical insecurity and environmental deprivation? More specifically, how can this type of research be conducted in a participatory, responsible, transparent and scientific way? In other words: what about the ethics and standards in action research? This was the main focus of the World Congress on Action Research and Action Learning (August 2006) organized by the University of Groningen and the Higher Education Group of the Northern Netherlands. We begin by discussing the core characteristics of action research with reference to theory and practice. Reflection and action are key constituents of the process through the enactment of action research. The middle section draws upon the research findings presented at the congress and published in a book [B. Boog, J. Preece, M. Slagter and J. Zeelen (Eds.) (2008) Towards Quality Improvement of Action Research. Developing Ethics and Standards, Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers]. Citing authors who contributed chapters to the book mentioned above, we analyze four important subthemes: ‘participation, power and rapport’; ‘quality of research and quality management’; ‘learning to solve your own problems in complex responsive social systems, and ‘heuristics (rules of thumb) for action research practice’. Finally, we comment on possible quality improvements for action research. Our remarks relate to the problems of implementing the concept of participation, the ambition of action research to contribute to both knowledge production and social change and the need for systematic reconstruction (scientific validation) of action research.

Ben Boog; Meindert Slagter; Jacques Zeelen

2009-01-01

252

Development of fire protection standards for the EPR project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1989 Framatome and Siemens decided by setting up their joint subsidiary NPI (Nuclear Power International) to co-operate in designing a new European Pressurised Water Reactor, the EPR. French and German utilities decided to participate in this project. In parallel to the co-operation on supplier's and utility's side, the French and German safety authorities and safety experts wanted to work closely together in order to harmonise and further develop the outstanding safety standards in France and Germany. An organisation has been set up to elaborate common codes related to the EPR design, at the level of the French design and construction rules (RCC) of the German KTA safety standards and DIN standards for nuclear technology, the so-called EPR technical codes (ETC). In this context the decision was made to develop a new fire protection code, the ETC-F, which should be harmonised between France and Germany. The article gives an insight in the developing process of the ETC-F and an outlook on existing and perhaps further national activities. (orig.) [German] Mit der Gruendung der NPI (Nuclear Power International) im Jahr 1989 haben Framatome und Siemens ihre Zusammenarbeit bei der Entwicklung eines neuen Europaeischen Druckwasser-Reaktors (EPR) vereinbart und fuer dieses Projekt eine Beteiligung von Energieversorgungsunternehmen aus Frankreich und Deutschland erreicht. Zeitgleich hierzu haben sich atomrechtliche Genehmigungsbehoerden und Gutachter beider Laender abgesprochen, ebenfalls eng zusammen zu arbeiten, um ihre zukuenftigen Anforderungen nach Moeglichkeit zu harmonisieren. Fuer den EPR sollten deshalb gemeinsame Vorschriften, sog. 'EPR technical codes (ETCs)' erarbeitet werden, welche einen vergleichbaren Tiefgang, wie die bestehenden franzoesischen (RCC) und deutschen (KTA) sicherheitstechnischen Regeln sowie die deutschen kerntechnischen Industrienormen (DIN) haben sollten. Hierzu gehoerte auch eine Brandschutzvorschrift, der ETC-F. Dieser Beitrag gibt Informationen ueber den zugehoerigen Erarbeitungsprozess und gibt einen Ausblick auf eventuelle zukuenftige Anpassungen der jeweiligen nationalen Regelwerke. (orig.)

Frank, H.J. [Nuclear Power International, Paris (France); Kaercher, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Wittmann, R. [Siemens AG Energieerzeugung KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

2000-05-01

253

Development of fire protection standards for the EPR project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In 1989 Framatome and Siemens decided by setting up their joint subsidiary NPI (Nuclear Power International) to co-operate in designing a new European Pressurised Water Reactor, the EPR. French and German utilities decided to participate in this project. In parallel to the co-operation on supplier's and utility's side, the French and German safety authorities and safety experts wanted to work closely together in order to harmonise and further develop the outstanding safety standards in France and Germany. An organisation has been set up to elaborate common codes related to the EPR design, at the level of the French design and construction rules (RCC) of the German KTA safety standards and DIN standards for nuclear technology, the so-called EPR technical codes (ETC). In this context the decision was made to develop a new fire protection code, the ETC-F, which should be harmonised between France and Germany. The article gives an insight in the developing process of the ETC-F and an outlook on existing and perhaps further national activities. (orig.)[de] Mit der Gruendung der NPI (Nuclear Power International) im Jahr 1989 haben Framatome und Siemens ihre Zusammenarbeit bei der Entwicklung eines neuen Europaeischen Druckwasser-Reaktors (EPR) vereinbart und fuer dieses Projekt eine Beteiligung von Energieversorgungsunternehmen aus Frankreich und Deutschland erreicht. Zeitgleich hierzu haben sich atomrechtliche Genehmigungsbehoerden und Gutachter beider Laender abgesprochen, ebenfalls eng zusammen zu arbeiten, um ihre zukuenftigen Anforderungen nach Moeglichkeit zu harmonisieren. Fuer den EPR sollten deshalb gemeinsame Vorschriften, sog. 'EPR technical codes (ETCs)' erarbeitet werden, welche einen vergleichbaren Tiefgang, wie die bestehenden franzoesischen (RCC) und deutschen (KTA) sicherheitstechnischen Regeln sowie die deutschen kerntechnischen Industrienormen (DIN) haben sollten. Hierzu gehoerte auch eine Brandschutzvorschrift, der ETC-F. Dieser Beitrag gibt Informationen ueber den zugehoerigen Erarbeitungsprozess und gibt einen Ausblick auf eventuelle zukuenftige Anpassungen der jeweiligen nationalen Regelwerke. (orig.)

2000-01-01

254

Valid internal standard technique for arson detection based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most popular procedures for the detection of residues of accelerants in fire debris are the ones published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM E1412-07 and E1618-10). The most critical stages of these tests are the conservation of fire debris from the sampling to the laboratory, the extraction of residues of accelerants from the debris to the activated charcoal strips (ACS) and from those to the final solvent, as well as the analysis of sample extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the interpretation of the instrumental signal. This work proposes a strategy for checking the quality of the sample conservation, the accelerant residues transference to final solvent and GC-MS analysis, using internal standard additions. It is used internal standards ranging from a highly volatile compound for checking debris conservation to low volatile compound for checking GC-MS repeatability. The developed quality control (QC) parameters are not affected by GC-MS sensitivity variation and, specifically, the GC-MS performance control is not affected by ACS adsorption saturation that may mask test performance deviations. The proposed QC procedure proved to be adequate to check GC-MS repeatability, ACS extraction and sample conservation since: (1) standard additions are affected by negligible uncertainty and (2) observed dispersion of QC parameters are fit for its intended use.

Salgueiro PA; Borges CM; Bettencourt da Silva RJ

2012-09-01

255

Development of area monitors confirming to ANSI/IEC standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Area monitoring instruments manufactured by Nucleonix have evolved over time from simple digital circuits based designs to a state of art micro controller based, ruggedized plant worthy designs. Subsequent to switch to micro-controller designs, lot of features have been incorporated like 4-20mA, o/p Relay contacts., fault diagnostics and RS-485 connectivity over MODBUS-RTU. Customization to user specific demands were also made possible by these designs. The products have now reached a stabilization point meeting most of the customers requirements. During the course of time it was felt that the products developed needed to be performance tested as per some international standards especially for their radiation performance, environmental and electromagnetic compatibility. ANSI N.42-17A standard was found to be most appropriate and generic in nature. Hence this standard along with some other additional standards/ procedures applicable for nuclear installations like seismic tests, IP54 tests and radiation hardness tests were adopted and type test procedures were created in association with user agency. Subsequent to which type tests were taken up and carried out on all types of area monitors and completed over a period of one year after solving all sorts of problems in electrical performance, radiation performance, mechanical engineering issues during the course of the testing. (author)

2010-01-01

256

Enabling quantitative analysis in ambient ionization mass spectrometry: internal standard coated capillary samplers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a sampling method using glass capillaries for quantitative analysis of trace analytes in small volumes of complex mixtures (~1 ?L) using ambient ionization mass spectrometry. The internal surface of a sampling glass capillary was coated with internal standard then used to draw liquid sample and so transfer both the analyte and internal standard in a single fixed volume onto a substrate for analysis. The internal standard was automatically mixed into the sample during this process and the volumes of the internal standard solution and sample are both fixed by the capillary volume. Precision in quantitation is insensitive to variations in length of the capillary, making the preparation of the sampling capillary simple and providing a robust sampling protocol. Significant improvements in quantitation accuracy were obtained for analysis of 1 ?L samples using various ambient ionization methods.

Liu J; Cooks RG; Ouyang Z

2013-06-01

257

Anthropometry and Standards for Wheeled Mobility: An International Comparison  

Science.gov (United States)

|Space requirements for accommodating wheeled mobility devices and their users in the built environment are key components of standards for accessible design. These requirements typically include dimensions for clear floor areas, maneuvering clearances, seat and knee clearance heights, as well as some reference dimensions on wheeled mobility…

Steinfeld, Edward; Maisel, Jordana; Feathers, David; D'Souza, Clive

2010-01-01

258

PV Standards Work: Photovoltaic System and Component Certification, Test Facility Accreditation, and Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems International Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses efforts led by two companies (PowerMark Corporation and Sunset Technologies Inc.) to support both U.S. domestic and international photovoltaic (PV) system and component certification and test facility accreditation programs and the operation of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC-82) Photovoltaic Energy Systems. International and national PV certification/accreditation programs are successfully facilitating entry of only the highest quality PV products into the marketplace. Standards also continue to be a cornerstone for assuring global PV product conformity assessment, reducing non-tariff trade barriers, and ultimately improving PV products while lowering cost.

Basso, T. S.; Chalmers, S.; Barikmo, H. O.

2005-11-01

259

Recently aspects regarding International Auditing Standard 200 „Overall Objectives of the Independent Auditor and the Conduct of an Audit in Accordance with International Standards on Auditing”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. This is achieved by the expression of an opinion by the auditor on whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with an applicable financial reporting framework. The International Standard on Auditing 200 (ISA 200) deals with the independent auditor’s overall responsibilities when conducting an audit of financial statements in accordance with International Standards on Auditing (ISAs).

Daniel Botez

2009-01-01

260

Normalization method for metabolomics data using optimal selection of multiple internal standards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Success of metabolomics as the phenotyping platform largely depends on its ability to detect various sources of biological variability. Removal of platform-specific sources of variability such as systematic error is therefore one of the foremost priorities in data preprocessing. However, chemical diversity of molecular species included in typical metabolic profiling experiments leads to different responses to variations in experimental conditions, making normalization a very demanding task. Results With the aim to remove unwanted systematic variation, we present an approach that utilizes variability information from multiple internal standard compounds to find optimal normalization factor for each individual molecular species detected by metabolomics approach (NOMIS). We demonstrate the method on mouse liver lipidomic profiles using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compare its performance to two commonly utilized normalization methods: normalization by l2 norm and by retention time region specific standard compound profiles. The NOMIS method proved superior in its ability to reduce the effect of systematic error across the full spectrum of metabolite peaks. We also demonstrate that the method can be used to select best combinations of standard compounds for normalization. Conclusion Depending on experiment design and biological matrix, the NOMIS method is applicable either as a one-step normalization method or as a two-step method where the normalization parameters, influenced by variabilities of internal standard compounds and their correlation to metabolites, are first calculated from a study conducted in repeatability conditions. The method can also be used in analytical development of metabolomics methods by helping to select best combinations of standard compounds for a particular biological matrix and analytical platform.

Sysi-Aho Marko; Katajamaa Mikko; Yetukuri Laxman; Oreši? Matej

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Institutional Infrastructure and the Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nigeria has officially indicated her intention to adopt International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) from year 2012. Though a welcome development, it raises the question of the country's availability and readiness of relevant and appropriate institutional infrastructure. Using the perception of users and preparers of accounting information, the results of the descriptive study showed that only the professional accounting bodies have the relevant infrastructure to cope with the adoption of the IFRS. The study recommends, amongst others that the activities of the major institutions connected with the implementation of the new standard be urgently reviewed and that the education, sensitization, and communication to stakeholders of issues associated with IFRS adoption vis a vis the role of the relevant institutions should commence in earnest and finally a rigorous IFRS capacity building program should be embarked upon by all regulatory bodies, firms and training institutions in order to provide the needed manpower for IFRS implementation.

Iyoha, F.O.; Jafaru Jimoh

2011-01-01

262

International project development -- Strategies for the future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It seems everywhere one looks today the international power development markets look incredibly large. 150,000 MWs are needed in China, 50,000 MWs are needed in India, 15,000 MWs are needed in Indonesia, 25,000 MWs are needed in Brazil. The list goes on and on and according to current IPP ``mythology`` these markets offer potential projects providing ``huge`` internal rates of return on investment. Unfortunately, against this favorable market backdrop remain some irrefutable facts; (1) There is not enough fabrication capacity in the world to meet the current capacity addition requirements, (2) There is not enough debt capital in the world to finance all the required MWs, further portfolio considerations reduce this on a country-by-country basis. (3) There are not enough qualified development and operational personnel to develop, construct and manage all of these projects. This paper will attempt to cover the broad mosaic of issues relative to the international development market. The authors illuminate the risks that will help optimize development funds, and human resources as well as the issues surrounding construction and operations.

Gross, S.B.; Maynard, B.H. [Entergy Power Group, Little Rock, AR (United States)

1995-12-31

263

A collaborative study to establish an International Standard Rabies immunoglobulin of human origin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because the supply of the International Standard for Anti-rabies Serum was very low, the WHO initiated a search for a replacement product. The US Food and Drug Administration agreed to undertake a collaborative study using a human rabies immunoglobulin previously purchased for use as a US standard. The potency of this product was determined, in International Units (IU) per millilitre using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test for measuring rabies antibody. The mean potency value was found to be 59 IU per ampoule. In June 1984 this preparation was accepted by WHO as the International Standard for Rabies Immunoglobulin.

Fitzgerald EA; Rastogi SC

1985-10-01

264

Conservation and human rights: the need for international standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conservation doesn't happen in a vacuum. In recent years, awareness has grown of the relationship of international conservation practice to indigenous peoples and local communities, and especially the links between conservation and human rights. The impacts protected areas can have on rural communities – such as evictions and lost access to natural resources – are now under particular scrutiny. Concern is meanwhile rising over the human rights implications of some climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. But awareness is also growing of the positive contributions of nature conservation to the rights of people to secure their livelihoods, enjoy healthy and productive environments, and live with dignity. International NGOs can play a central role in supporting and promoting conservation actions that respect the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, and help sustain their livelihoods. Many conservation organisations have long worked towards this. It is vital that they hold to consistent principles and implement measures that ensure their application, so their action on conservation remains accountable, transparent and sustainable.

Oviedo, Gonzalo [International Union for the Conservation of Nature (International organizations without location); Pabon, Luis [The Nature Conservancy (United States); Painter, Michael; Redford, Kent [The Wildlife Conservation Society (United States); Siegele, Linda [Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (United Kingdom); Springer, Jenny [WWF-US (United States); Thomas, David [Birdlife International (International organizations without location); Painemilla, Kristen Walker [Conservation International (United States); Roe, Dilys

2010-05-15

265

Development in Danish international air traffic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper is describing the development in international air traffic made by Danes and for all travellers out of Denmark in the period 2002 - 2012. Development in passengers, destination countries and prices is illustrated. The person kilometres by Danes have increased 80% or 7.2% per year in mean during the 10 years. This increase has been analysed by a panel data model. The conclusion found by modelling is the increasing travel activity first of all is driven by increasing income and to less extent by decreasing prices. The paper is furthermore showing how the international air traffic has got more effective and to what extent Low Cost Carriers have taken over an important part of the travel market.

Christensen, Linda

2013-01-01

266

Instrumental photon activation analysis of coal fly ashes using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Multielement determinations of coal fly ashes (NIST SRM-1633a and BCR CRM-38) have been carried out by instrumental photon activation analysis using 30 MeV bremsstrahlung and the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method. In these determinations, some major and minor constituent elements in the samples were properly used as effective internal standards. As a result, it was demonstrated that concentrations of 18 elements were determined accurately and precisely. Furthermore, a similar multielement determination has also been examined using 20 MeV bremsstrahlung. In this case, it was proved that better results can be achieved, because all interfering reactions were eliminated completely. (author) 14 refs.; 5 tabs

1991-01-01

267

78 FR 40740 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government  

Science.gov (United States)

...SUMMARY: The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) is preparing to revise the Standards for Internal Control in...Financial Integrity Act. As part of the revision process, GAO is holding a teleconference with the Green Book Advisory...

2013-07-08

268

76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...  

Science.gov (United States)

...amendments to a final rule that provided national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The final rule was published on August 20, 2010. This action...

2011-03-09

269

International Space Station medical standards and certification for space flight participants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The medical community of the International Space Station (ISS) has developed joint medical standards and evaluation requirements for Space Flight Participants ("space tourists") which are used by the ISS medical certification board to determine medical eligibility of individuals other than professional astronauts (cosmonauts) for short-duration space flight to the ISS. These individuals are generally fare-paying passengers without operational responsibilities. MATERIAL AND CONTEXT: By means of this publication, the medical standards and evaluation requirements for the ISS Space Flight Participants are offered to the aerospace medicine and commercial spaceflight communities for reference purposes. It is emphasized that the criteria applied to the ISS spaceflight participant candidates are substantially less stringent than those for professional astronauts and/or crewmembers of visiting and long-duration missions to the ISS. CONCLUSIONS: These medical standards are released by the government space agencies to facilitate the development of robust medical screening and medical risk assessment approaches in the context of the evolving commercial human spaceflight industry.

Bogomolov VV; Castrucci F; Comtois JM; Damann V; Davis JR; Duncan JM; Johnston SL; Gray GW; Grigoriev AI; Koike Y; Kuklinski P; Matveyev VP; Morgun VV; Pochuev VI; Sargsyan AE; Shimada K; Straube U; Tachibana S; Voronkov YV; Williams RS

2007-12-01

270

International development workshops. Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) began to act on their recognition of the importance of education in nuclear literacy, specifically in radioactive waste management (RWM), several years ago. To address this Goal for nuclear literacy, the US DOE; through the Information and Education Division of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and in cooperation with the OECD/NEA, organized an ``International Workshop on Education in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management`` in Engelberg, Switzerland in June of 1991. To this end, a grant to support nuclear literacy and RWM was written and funded by the OCRWM and the education division of the DOE Yucca Mountain Office in 1990. The over-riding Goal of that workshop and the DOE grant was to find ways of raising the level of nuclear literacy in the general public through educational programs in radioactive waste management (RWM). The two Main Objectives of the workshop were: first, to contribute to an information base for education systems, on global aspects of radioactive waste management; and second, to achieve international consensus on the basic tools and methods required to develop the information base. These two objectives also became the principal objectives of the DOE International Workshops grant. In other words, the global and local (Nevada) objectives were one and the same. Workshop overviews and accomplishments are summarized in this report.

NONE

1997-08-06

271

Internal standardization in atomic-emission spectrometry using inductively coupled plasma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The principle of internal standardization has been used in quantitative analytical emission spectroscopy since 1925 to minimize the errors arising from fluctuations in sample preparation, excitation-source conditions, and detection parameters. Although modern spectroscopic excitation sources are far more stable and electronic detection methods are more precise than before, the system for the introduction of the sample in spectrometric analysis using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) introduces significant errors, and internal standardization can still play a useful role in improving the overall precision of the analytical results. The criteria for the selection of the elements to be used as internal standards in arc and spark spectrographic analysis apply to a much lesser extent in ICP-spectrometric analysis. Internal standardization is recommended for use in routine ICP-simultaneous spectrometric analysis to improve its accuracy and precision and to provide a monitor for the reassurance of the analyst. However, the selection of an unsuitable reference element can result in misuse of the principle of internal standardization and, although internal standardization can be applied when a sequential monochromator is used, the main sources of error will not be minimized

1985-01-01

272

A comparative analysis of required financial disclosures in US, UK and international accounting standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the extent to which there are significant differences in disclosure requirements under US, UK, international accounting standards. Previous research into international disclosure diversity has focused on an analysis of disclosure practices in different countries rather than on di...

Brennan, Niamh; Marston, Claire

273

Comparison report for CSNI International Standard Problem 12 (ROSA-III Run 912)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ROSA-III Run 912 was identified as International Standard Problem 12 by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations. Run 912 simulated a 5% split break LOCA condition in a BWR at the pump suction in the recirculation line with the HPCS failure. Comparisons between the test data and the calculations by eight international participants were made and discussed. (author).

1982-01-01

274

The Successful Scientific Publication: The Bulgarian Practice Against the International Standards [In Bulgarian  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper describes the world system of indexing, abstracting and evaluation of the primary scholarly journals. The international standards of academic publishing are listed and commented. The particularities of the Bulgarian publication practice are discussed. The harmonization of both systems, Bulgarian and international, will facilitate the process of inclusion of Bulgaria in the common European research and education area.

B.V. Toshev

2008-01-01

275

International Capital Markets: Developments, Prospects, and Key Policy Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication has recently been made available by the International Monetary Fund. International Capital Markets: Developments, Prospects, and Key Policy Issues is part of an annual series that has been produced since 1980. It is "an integral element of the IMF's surveillance of developments in international financial markets." It contains sections on developments in mature markets, emerging markets, and international banking, among others.

Folkerts-Landau, David.; Mathieson, Donald J.; Schinasi, Garry J.

1997-01-01

276

Instrumental photon activation analysis of soil samples using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Multielement determinations in the certified reference materials of soils (IAEA soil-5 and 7) were studied fundamentally by instrumental photon activation analysis using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method. For the soil-5 sample, the qualities of the comparative standards prepared by two processing methods were compared with each other. As a result, it was demonstrated that a highly accurate and precise multielement determination can be achieved easily by minor improvement in the processing method of the comparative standard to ensure homogeneity. The utility of this processing method for soil samples was proved further through a similar analysis in another soil sample (IAEA soil-7). (author) 9 refs.; 5 tabs

1987-01-01

277

Photon and proton activation analysis of iron and steel standards using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method has been applied to photon activation analysis and proton activation analysis of minor elements and trace impurities in various types of iron and steel samples issued by the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ). Samples and standard addition samples were once dissolved to mix homogeneously, an internal standard and elements to be determined and solidified as a silica-gel to make a similar matrix composition and geometry. Cerium and yttrium were used as an internal standard in photon and proton activation, respectively. In photon activation, 20 MeV electron beam was used for bremsstrahlung irradiation to reduce matrix activity and nuclear interference reactions, and the results were compared with those of 30 MeV irradiation. In proton activation, iron was removed by the MIBK extraction method after dissolving samples to reduce the radioactivity of 56Co from iron via 56Fe(p, n)56Co reaction. The results of proton and photon activation analysis were in good agreement with the standard values of ISIJ. (author)

1997-01-01

278

GMO Regulations, International Trade and the Imperialism of Standards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with the quantification of GMO regulations on bilateral trade flows. A composite index of the complexity of such regulations for sixty countries as well as an objective score for six GMO regulatory sub-dimensions has been developed. Using a gravity model, we show how bilateral simil...

Vigani, Mauro; Raimondi, Valentina; Olper, Alessandro

279

The impacts of International Financial Reporting Standards Adoption on Financial Statements : The case of Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) has changed the way and manner in which financial statements are prepared, reported or presented. Globalization of capital markets requires a unified global accounting, reporting and disclosure set of standards. As a result of increa...

Akinyemi, Olumide Akindele

280

Impact of Adopting International Financial Reporting Standards: Empirical Evidence from Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the impact of adopting International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) on listed companies in Turkey was examined. We observed the financial statements that were prepared in accordance with IFRS and local GAAP and researched the standards which included more relevant information. ...

Serkan Terzi; Recep Oktem; Ilker Kiymetli Sen

 
 
 
 
281

78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

...Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on behalf of ICC is being undertaken as a public service; NIST does not necessarily endorse, approve, or recommend any of the codes or standards referenced in the notice. DATES: The date of the next Committee...

2013-03-26

282

Information draft on the development of air standards for ethylbenzene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethylbenzene is a clear and colourless flammable liquid, with a sweet smelling, gasoline-like aromatic odour. It occurs naturally in biomass combustion, and it is a component of crude oil. It is primarily used as an intermediate in styrene, rubber, latex and plastics manufacturing. In 1996, the national release to air (better than 98 per cent of total releases) was reported at 660 tonnes, of which Ontario contributed 473 tonnes. Absorption of ethylbenzene occurs mainly through the lungs and secondarily through the skin. It is eliminated in urine six to ten hours following absorption. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of ethylbenzene is irritating to the eyes, nose, throat, and can cause nausea, headaches, vomiting and central nervous system effects. There is evidence of carcinogenicity in test animals, but the International Agency for Research on Cancer has not classified ethylbenzene as a human carcinogen. Ontario currently has air quality standards for ethylbenzene. The half-hour POI standard and the 24-hour AAQC are both set at 4,000 microgram/cubic meter. This document reviews relevant documentation from ten world-wide agencies for the existence and basis of air quality criteria for ethylbenzene. The US Environmental Protection Agency has established a reference concentration of 1,000 microgram/cubic meter for ethylbenzene, and some American states also have developed similar reference concentrations or air quality guidelines. These may be taken into account in developing ambient air quality criteria for ethylbenzene in Ontario. 46 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

NONE

1999-01-01

283

On the Challenge of Accounting Standards for Enterprise towards Enterprise Internal Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With arrival of the information age, as well as the ever-changing and complicated capital and financial markets and financial instruments, the policy –making requirements of the enterprises on the faithful, accurate, reasonable, and effective financial and accounting information become more demanding. Enterprise internal control proves to be the basic safeguard to ensure the regular and reliable operation of the accounting information system. At the same time, the Ministry of Finance issued the Internal Control Standards - the Basic Norms and opinion-open drafts for 17 norms. The promulgation of accounting standards for enterprise has brought tougher internal control challenges.

Wenjun Chen; Shanshan Sui

2009-01-01

284

Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization of methods for testing and evaluating corrosion resistance of surface treated steel sheets; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Hyomenshori kohan no taishokusei hyoka hoho no hyojunka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With a view to presenting the result to ISO (International Organization for Standardization), studies were conducted of accelerated test and evaluation methods capable of promptly reproducing the state of corrosion generated during outdoor exposure tests of surface treated steel sheets. In the study of a wet rate evaluation test, a cycle test was carried out at a wet rate of 25-75% under the conditions of an artificial seawater concentration level of 6.0g/L, equivalence ratio of 0.2, and pH of 2.5, and it was found that a wet rate of 50% was appropriate. For comparison of a rain of pH 2.5 with a rain of pH 3.0 in an acid rain pH evaluation test, a cycle test was conducted at pH 3.0 under the conditions of an artificial seawater concentration level of 6.0g/L, equivalence ratio of 0.2, and a wet rate of 50%, and the result indicated that pH 2.5 was more realistic than pH 3.0. As a comprehensive test, a cycle test was conducted comprising 1 hour of acid rain spray, 4 hours of dry spell, and 3 hours of moist spell under the conditions of an artificial seawater concentration level of 6.0g/L, equivalence ratio of 0.2, wet rate of 50%, and pH of 2.5, and the resultant data were found to be correlative to the data obtained at Naoetsu. Based on the findings, a ground plan was drafted for an international standard relative to methods for testing and evaluating surface treated steel sheets for corrosion resistance. (NEDO)

NONE

2001-03-01

285

Stable isotope coded derivatizing reagents as internal standards in metabolite profiling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometric (MS) detection have become the two main techniques for the analysis of metabolite pools (i.e. Metabolomics). These technologies are especially suited for Metabolite Profiling analysis of various metabolite groups due to high separation capabilities of the chromatographs and high sensitivity of the mass analysers. The trend in quantitative Metabolite Profiling is to add more metabolites and metabolite groups in a single method. This should not be done by compromising the analytical precision. Mass spectrometric detection comes with certain limitations, especially in the quantitative aspects as standards are needed for conversion of ion abundance to concentration and ionization efficiencies are directly dependent on eluent conditions. This calls for novel strategies to counteract all variables that can influence the quantitative precision. Usually, internal standards are used to correct any technical variation. For quantitation of single or just a few analytes this can be executed with spiking isotopically labeled standards. However, for more comprehensive analytical tasks, e.g. profiling tens or hundreds of analytes simultaneously, this strategy becomes expensive and in many cases isotopically labeled standards are not available. An alternative is to introduce a derivatizing step where the sample is derivatized with naturally labeled reagent, while a standard solution is separately derivatized with isotopically labeled reagent and spiked into the sample solution prior to analysis. This strategy, named isotope coded derivatization - ICD, is attractive in the emerging field of quantitative Metabolite Profiling where current protocols can easily comprise over hundred metabolites. This review provides an overview of isotopically labeled derivatizing reagents that have been developed for important metabolite groups with the aim to improve analytical performance and precision. PMID:23628173

Bruheim, Per; Kvitvang, Hans Fredrik Nyvold; Villas-Boas, Silas G

2013-04-09

286

[Development of oncogeriatry: national and international strategies].  

Science.gov (United States)

Incidence of cancer increases with the recent increase of the life expectancy. Aging is characterized by health status heterogeneity. It is therefore difficult to exactly predict tolerance to treatment and to make decision. One of the major question is to classify the problems on the base of their impact on health status and outcome. It is only possible if oncologists and geriatricians work together. The objectives at the national and international levels are the same: to develop formation (teaching programs), information (for professionals and the public), clinical research. It is more difficult to develop case management, because it depends on health organisation status. A strong global program has been developed in France with the emergence of Pilot Units for the coordination of Oncogeriatrics. It begins to produce results. PMID:18511376

Droz, Jean-Pierre; Rodde-Dunet, Marie-Hélène; Vitoux, Anne

2008-05-28

287

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 41 (IAS 41) – IMPLICATION FOR REPORTING CROP ASSETS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A series of articles were written regarding International Accounting Standard 41 (IAS 41) – Agriculture in order to outpost the the implication of this standard over valuating the different biological assets. Valuation of crop assets are also a part of the IAS 41 objective.  Anyway,  this paper investigates the implications of International Accounting Standard 41 for European Union (EU) entities reporting on holdings of crop asset from thre  points of view: implication of production forecast over the accurate accounting, the impact over cash flow and the possibility like companies to use acoounting methodology on own interests.

Cornel Gabriel Ni??; Petru ?tefea

2013-01-01

288

Auditors Compliance with International Standards on Auditing (ISAs): Evidence form Jordan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The continuous new amendments of the International Standards on Auditing (ISAs) in the beginning of 2007 formed a pressure on auditors to follow up and comply with them. The present study attempted to examine to what extent auditors complied with ISA according to the last pronouncement by the International Auditing and Assurance Standard Board (IAASB). Data was collected through a questionnaire administered to a random sample of external auditors in Jordan. The study revealed that Jordanian auditors complied with all auditing standards with some variance in the degree of compliance among them. The results indicated that further measures and steps could be taken to improve the ISA compliance.

Ahmad N. Obaidat

2007-01-01

289

Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography  

CERN Document Server

The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

2012-01-01

290

International Council for Standardization in Haematology - the first 40 years.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This brief history of the origin and development of ICSH must, inevitably, be selective as it has been extracted from the many pages of the records of the meetings of the ICSH board and its secretariat, the annual assembly and the reports of the various expert panels and working groups. It is hoped that it will give a picture of the way in which ICSH functioned and the many experts around the world who have contributed to its activities - but with an apology and appreciation, to other colleagues who have not been named in this annotation, but who made significant contributions to the activities that are described.

Lewis SM

2009-06-01

291

International Council for Standardization in Haematology - the first 40 years.  

Science.gov (United States)

This brief history of the origin and development of ICSH must, inevitably, be selective as it has been extracted from the many pages of the records of the meetings of the ICSH board and its secretariat, the annual assembly and the reports of the various expert panels and working groups. It is hoped that it will give a picture of the way in which ICSH functioned and the many experts around the world who have contributed to its activities - but with an apology and appreciation, to other colleagues who have not been named in this annotation, but who made significant contributions to the activities that are described. PMID:19261034

Lewis, S M

2009-02-26

292

National and international approaches to occupational standard setting within Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) for chemicals in workroom air have been published in more than 70 countries. However, few countries generate or update their national lists of OELs independently. The acronym {open_quotes}OEL{close_quotes} is used here as a general term independent of what it is called in an individual country. OELs may be recommendations or they may have a legal status. They may be based on economic impact and technological feasibility. This makes a simple comparison of OELs from different countries partly misleading. OELs should not be compared without an opportunity to review the methods in each case. The development of OELs in Europe has been described previously. Briefly, the first recommendations for use of OELs were established in Germany as early as 1886. After the Second World War, the list of threshold limit values (TLVs) from the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) was used in some European countries with a more or less mandatory function. In 1958, West Germany developed its own list and some countries (Austria, Switzerland) adopted the German list. In the 1970s, The Netherlands and Sweden introduced their own systems for establishing and validating OELs. Several other European countries followed later on. 15 refs., 1 tab.

Lundberg, P. [National Institute of Occupational Health, Solna (Sweden)

1994-01-01

293

Standards application and development plan for solar thermal technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Functional and standards matrices, developed from input from ST users and from the industry that will be continually reviewed and updated as commercial aspects develop are presented. The matrices highlight codes, standards, test methods, functions and definitions that need to be developed. They will be submitted through ANSI for development by national consensus bodies. A contingency action is proposed for standards development if specific input is lacking at the committee level or if early development of a standard would hasten commercialization or gain needed jurisdictional acceptance.

Cobb, H.R.W.

1981-07-01

294

Standards for PV Modules and Components -- Recent Developments and Challenges: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International standards play an important role in the Photovoltaic industry. Since PV is such a global industry it is critical that PV products be measured and qualified the same way everywhere in the world. IEC TC82 has developed and published a number of module and component measurement and qualification standards. These are continually being updated to take advantage of new techniques and equipment as well as better understanding of test requirements. Standards presently being updated include the third edition of IEC 61215, Crystalline Silicon Qualification and the second edition of IEC 61730, PV Module Safety Requirements. New standards under development include qualification of junction boxes, connectors, PV cables, and module integrated electronics as well as for testing the packaging used during transport of modules. After many years of effort, a draft standard on Module Energy Rating should be circulated for review soon. New activities have been undertaken to develop standards for the materials within a module and to develop tests that evaluate modules for wear-out in the field (International PV Module QA Task Force). This paper will discuss these efforts and indicate how the audience can participate in development of international standards.

Wohlgemuth, J. H.

2012-10-01

295

Managing environmental issues during international electric power project development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Responsible international project developers most often view environmental matters with quite mixed emotions. Those with whom Dynalytics has worked would certainly never contemplate jeopardizing the health of anyone in the world. But while they want their projects realized, and are willing to implement reasonable requirements, they are often asked to do more than is appropriate, more than is technologically possible, and more than is financially possible. The paper discusses the following: who is in charge of environmental matters; whose environmental standards apply; the role of technology; accelerating timetables and reducing costs; documentation and applications; and post-construction requirements.

Cooper, H.W. [Dynalytics Corp., Jericho, NY (United States)

1998-07-01

296

ISBD (CR): International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials and Other Continuing Resources: Revised from the ISBD(S): International Standard Bibliographic Description for Serials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the new concept of continuing resources, covering serial publications and integrating resources, and describes important, international decisions which derive from the expansion of standard coverage, especially as the consequence of the inclusion of online resources.New and changed provisions included in ISBD(CR) – in comparison with ISBD(S) -and required by the nature of the new resources are described.

Irena Kav?i?; Dunja Kal?i?

2005-01-01

297

Prediction of ROSA-III test RUN 912 (International Standard Problem-12)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ROSA-III test RUN 912 is conducted at JAERI for ISP-12 (International Standard Problem-12) of CSNI (Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations). RUN 912 simulates a 5% split break at the recirculation pump inlet side of a BWR with the assumption of HPCS single failure. Prediction of the ROSA-III test RUN 912 was performed by using RELAP4J, RELAP4/MOD6 and RELAP5/MOD0 computer codes developed to analyze thermal hydraulic phenomena during loss of coolant accidents and transients of a light water reactor. Both RELAP4J and RELAP4/MOD6 are codes based on a one-dimensional homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow model, whereas RELAP5/MOD0 is an advanced code based on a one-dimensional nonhomogeneous nonequilibrium two-phase flow model. The present prediction is useful to evaluate the predictability of LOCA analysis codes and for a better understanding of the codes. (author)

1981-01-01

298

Study and development of methodologies for qualification of waste products in repositories according to international standards; Estudo e desenvolvimento de metodologias para a qualificacao de produtos de rejeito em repositorios conforme padroes internacionais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the processes to treat dangerous wastes is to immobilise them in cement. At CDTN/CNEN some researches are carried out on cementation in order to establish process parameters, materials, and equipment, aiming at the safe disposal of these wastes, protecting of the human being and the environment of possible risks. To establish the compressive strength of cemented products is important because it implies in its suitability for handling, transportation and storage without risks for the human bodies or environment. It is urgent to obtain the certification of the compressive strength test providing reproducible, trustful and suitable results, mainly to assure its traceability. At Cementation Laboratory (LABCIM/CDTN) the certification process of the compressive strength was begun in the year 2000. It was completed the necessary adequacies, the staff training, and the first internal audit. It is previewed for the current year another internal audit, the external audit, and the certification request. (author)

Seles, Sandro Rogerio Novaes; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Gerencia de Rejeitos]. E-mail: seless@cdtn.br; tellocc@cdtn.br

2005-07-01

299

2009 review and revisions of the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI were also reviewed. The last citable reference for the ISNCSCI's methodology is the ISNCSCI Reference Manual, published in 2003 by ASIA. The Standards Committee recommended that the numerous items that were revised should be published and a precedent established for a routine published review of the ISNCSCI. The Standards Committee also noted that, although the 2008 reprint pocket booklet is current, the reference manual should be revised after proposals to modify/revise the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS as modified from Frankel) are considered. In addition, the Standards Committee adopted a process for thorough and transparent review of requests to revise the ISNCSCI.

Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin

2010-01-01

300

Standard operating procedures for female orgasmic disorder: consensus of the International Society for Sexual Medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: As the field of sexual medicine evolves, it is important to continually improve patient care by developing contemporary "standard operating procedures" (SOPs), reflecting the consensus view of experts in sexual medicine. Few, if any, consensus SOPs have been developed for the diagnosis and treatment of Female Orgasmic Disorder (FOD). AIM: The objective is to provide standard operating procedures for FOD. METHODS: The SOP Committee was composed of a chair, selected by the International Society for the Study of Sexual Medicine, and two additional experts. To inform its key recommendations, the Committee used systematic reviews of available evidence and discussions during a group meeting, conference calls and e-mail communications. The Committee received no corporate funding or remuneration. RESULTS: A total of 12 recommendations for the assessment and treatment of FOD were generated, including suggestions for further research. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence-based, practice recommendations for the treatment of FOD are provided that will hopefully inform clinical decision making for those treating this common condition.

Laan E; Rellini AH; Barnes T

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Quantification of rhodium in a series of inorganic and organometallic compounds using cobalt as internal standard  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english An analytical method for the quantification of rhodium using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cobalt as internal standard was developed. Rhodium recovery was determined in different samples, which included a certified reference material (CRM), pure rhodium metal, inorganic RhCl.3H2O salt as well as different organometallic compounds. Excellent rhodium recoveries of 100,100, 99.0 and 99.7 % with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1. (more) 0,1.0, 0.3 and 0.4 % were obtained for the CRM, rhodium metal sample, RhCl3·3H2O and [Rh(cupf)(PPh3)(CO)(CH3)(I)], respectively. The accurate recovery of rhodium was, however, affected by the presence of easily ionized elements (EIE) and unmatched acid matrixes with a decrease in rhodium recovery of up to 16 %. Validation parameters such as accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and robustness were all investigated to confirm the suitability of this newly developed analytical procedure for rhodium determination.

Chiweshe, Trevor T.; Purcell, Walter; Venter, Johan A.

2013-08-01

302

ACCOUNTING STANDARD SETTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL ARENA: UPDATE ON THE CONVERGENCE PROJECT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our paper contributes to the literature on international accounting by focusing on the standard setting process. As documented by research literature, accounting regulation can enhance corporate governance (Melis and Carta, 2010), corporate reporting being expected to reduce information asymmetry. Based on accounting research and trade literature we first synthesize recent evolutions in the international accounting arena. We therefore position our study within current realities significantly marked by uncertainty in relation to the world wide globalization process. The objective of our paper is to perform an analysis that would help assess further developments of the convergence project. This is done by looking at the current status of the projects being developed under the IASB –FASB collaboration, as well as by developing a comparison between IFRS and US GAAP. The employed research methodology relies on analyzing data provided through the IASB and the FASB’s websites, as well as other official documents being issued by the two Boards. The assessment of the projects was done by reviewing exposure documents and monitoring the Boards’ deliberations, while the developed comparison requires accounting regulations content analysis. Concluding upon the Boards’ ongoing projects, we might identify areas in which convergence seems to be quite close (such as revenue recognition and leasing), but also areas in which convergence becomes even more challenging (such as financial instruments or the particular case of offsetting). Similar to other studies being developed within accounting research and trade literature (SEC 2011: 8) we may conclude that, generally, US GAAP present more detailed, specific requirements than IFRS.

Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana; Mustata Razvan V.; Matis Dumitru

2012-01-01

303

Development of safety standards for hydrogen-fuelled vehicles : status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarized the current state of knowledge and developments concerning safety standards and guidelines specific to the design and integration of fuel systems in hydrogen-fuelled vehicles. The international community is rapidly developing standards and regulations regarding the design and use of hydrogen vehicle fuel systems. Recently, the European Integrated Hydrogen Project (EIHP) approached the United Nations Working Party on Pollution and Energy to introduce a Global Technical Regulation (GTR) for hydrogen motor vehicles. International developments in hydrogen standards will have a direct effect on future Canadian vehicle safety. Various recommendations were presented in this report. It was noted that the draft United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Regulation has been established as the basis for a global standard for the approval and certification of hydrogen fuel systems, which covers basic hydrogen fuel system safety using accepted testing protocols. It was suggested that Transport Canada should continue to monitor the progress of hydrogen component standards as they also form the basis for some of the tests in the draft UNECE Regulation. Transport Canada should participate in the GRPE informal groups that are tasked with the development of the complete GTR. Additionally, Transport Canada should promote the development of a hydrogen vehicle fuel system installation standard, similar in scope to the CSA B109 natural gas for vehicles installation code. Details of North American standards, ISO standards and the EIHP were presented, as well as the results of hydrogen tank tests per draft UNECE regulation. 1 tab., 1 fig.

Gambone, L.R. [Powertech Labs Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

2005-06-01

304

Importance of using highly pure internal standards for successful liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric bioanalytical assays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Internal standards (IS) with similar physicochemical properties to the analyte provide multiple advantages in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) bioanalytical methods such as: reduction of the analysis run time, improvement in the intra-injection reproducibility, impact reduction of matrix and ionization effects. However, it is important to evaluate the purity of the IS prior to their use. Indeed, a minor impurity in the IS may lead to an important issue during bioanalytical method development. Stable labelled internal standards are usually appropriate IS for bioanalysis. The use of oxycodone-D3, ursodiol-D5 and atovaquone-D4 as internal standards in three different bioanalytical methods was evaluated. During oxycodone, oxymorphone and noroxycodone simultaneous quantification method development, oxymorphone was identified as a contaminant in oxycodone-D3. Since the limit of quantification for oxymorphone was very low (10 pg/mL), the presence of an even low percentage of oxymorphone in oxycodone-D3 leads to the change of the stable labelled IS for an analogue, ethylmorphine. 23-Nordeoxycholic acid was preferred to ursodiol-D5 as internal standard for the ursodiol, tauroursodiol and glycoursodiol simultaneous quantification method. Indeed, more than 7% of ursodiol was identified in the ursodiol-D5 which could not be bypassed by decreasing the IS concentration without compromising the linearity. An atovaquone-D4 reference standard revealed the non-negligible presence of atovaquone-D5 to atovaquone-D8 that has a large impact on the method validation. Therefore, atovaquone-D4 was sent for recertification since its isotopic purity was found to be much less than the isotopic purity mentioned on its certificate of analysis. Consequently, during bioanalytical method development, the purity of the IS should be scrutinized.

Bergeron A; Furtado M; Garofolo F

2009-05-01

305

Importance of using highly pure internal standards for successful liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric bioanalytical assays.  

Science.gov (United States)

Internal standards (IS) with similar physicochemical properties to the analyte provide multiple advantages in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) bioanalytical methods such as: reduction of the analysis run time, improvement in the intra-injection reproducibility, impact reduction of matrix and ionization effects. However, it is important to evaluate the purity of the IS prior to their use. Indeed, a minor impurity in the IS may lead to an important issue during bioanalytical method development. Stable labelled internal standards are usually appropriate IS for bioanalysis. The use of oxycodone-D3, ursodiol-D5 and atovaquone-D4 as internal standards in three different bioanalytical methods was evaluated. During oxycodone, oxymorphone and noroxycodone simultaneous quantification method development, oxymorphone was identified as a contaminant in oxycodone-D3. Since the limit of quantification for oxymorphone was very low (10 pg/mL), the presence of an even low percentage of oxymorphone in oxycodone-D3 leads to the change of the stable labelled IS for an analogue, ethylmorphine. 23-Nordeoxycholic acid was preferred to ursodiol-D5 as internal standard for the ursodiol, tauroursodiol and glycoursodiol simultaneous quantification method. Indeed, more than 7% of ursodiol was identified in the ursodiol-D5 which could not be bypassed by decreasing the IS concentration without compromising the linearity. An atovaquone-D4 reference standard revealed the non-negligible presence of atovaquone-D5 to atovaquone-D8 that has a large impact on the method validation. Therefore, atovaquone-D4 was sent for recertification since its isotopic purity was found to be much less than the isotopic purity mentioned on its certificate of analysis. Consequently, during bioanalytical method development, the purity of the IS should be scrutinized. PMID:19308966

Bergeron, Annik; Furtado, Milton; Garofolo, Fabio

2009-05-01

306

Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Development of technology to measure thermal conductivity of construction materials in the high-temperature range; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Kenzai no koon`iki ni okeru netsudendoritsu sokutei gijutsu no kaihatsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method to measure thermal conductivity in the high-temperature range was established for evaluation of ceramic/construction material high temperature thermal insulation materials and fire-resistant materials. Further, thermal conductivity standard materials were developed and studied for the proposal to the international standardization. The simulation of heat transfer is important to energy efficiency and flame heat transfer forecast. Facilities were manufactured which measure thermal conductivity from 100degC up to about 1000degC based on the protective heat plate method as the stationary method and are composed of the heat plate and electric furnace of material with heat resistance and durability. The facilities can surely realize one dimensional heat flow inside the specimen and have a function of measurement with high accuracy. Construction was also conducted of a control system to automatically set up the state of optimized control for realizing the stationary state in a short time and of a measuring system to automatically judge the stationary state of temperature and heating value, to calculate the mean temperature and thermal conductivity of specimens, and set up conditions of stageable measuring temperatures. A standard material usable in the normal- and high-temperature range was developed which has thermal conductivity of 0.03-0.05 (W/mK) and 0.08-0.2 (W/mK) and was considered of durability, safety and handling. 19 refs., 114 figs., 14 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

307

COOPERATION BETWEEN AACC AND ICC FOR STANDARD METHODS DEVELOPMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) Standard Methods and International Association for Cereal Science and Technology (ICC) are cooperating to harmonize certain of their methods. The harmonized methods will employ the same procedures so that the analytical results of either method (such a...

308

New international developments in oil sands projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Governments and oil companies from a variety of different countries are now working to create alternative oil and gas operations and the policies required to enable their financial success. The Africa Energy Commission was developed to coordinate policy and act as a framework for the African energy sector. Several large oil and gas operators have become involved in the creation of new contracts to develop training and human resources policies for the petroleum industry in Congo. Issues related to national oil companies and value creation in African countries are currently being studied by the World Bank. A biofuel alliance was recently signed between Congo and Brazil, and a Congo Forest Fund has also been created to help the inhabitants of the Congolese rainforest protect their environment. Congo is also offering opportunities for international companies to implement greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction programs to trade emission credits when requirements are satisfied. It was concluded that several African countries are suitable candidates for oil sands development. 1 fig.

Vercoe, J. [Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP, London (United Kingdom)

2008-09-15

309

Economic Development and Population Growth. International Evidence Economic Development and Population Growth. International Evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic Development and Population Growth. International Evidence The paper usses Granger causality tests on economic development and population growth for 44 countries to discriminate among several alternative hypotheses. The time series evidence does not provide an unambiguous picture as to the exact nature of the relationship. Therefore, previous attempts to generalize such relationship based on simple cross-section data are strongly suspect.

Woo S. Jung; Munir Quddus

1986-01-01

310

The Effects of International Accounting Standardization on Business Performance: Evidence from Hungary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the differences between national rules and the international standards,evaluating and analyzing their effects on the shifting business environment. The unified business informationsystem will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicatorsfrom the business environment of certain countries. The results show that those businesses which have adoptedinternational standards achieved higher and statistically significant positive coefficients than those followinglocal accounting rules. Companies which had adopted accounting standards also provided higher quality andvalue relevant accounting information systems. As a further consequence of international accounting standardsadoption, corporate policy and requirements became gradually more clear and transparent – in the same way asthe application and implementation of the standards became more user-friendly.

Gyorgy Csebfalvi

2012-01-01

311

Isotope Dilution Assay in Peptide Quantification: The Challenge of Microheterogeneity of Internal Standard.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Isotope Dilution Analysis (IDA) allows quantitation of elements and different compounds in complex mixtures. The quantitation is based on a known amount of reference material (Internal Standard, IS) added to a sample that makes the result critically dependent on the value assigned to the standard. In the case of peptides, IS concentration is determined by nitrogen and amino acid analysis while purity is normally assessed by methods such as chromatography or electrophoresis that might not be able to detect many possible amino acid modifications, either naturally occurring or chemically induced. Microheterogeneity of the IS, if it isn't accounted for when assigning a reference value to the standard, results in highly overestimated values in target analyte quantitation. In this viewpoint article we illustrate the problem of internal standard microheterogeneity by analyzing synthetic human C-peptide labeled analogues. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Stoyanov AV; Rogatsky E; Stein D; Connolly S; Rohlfing CL; Little RR

2013-08-01

312

Qualification of Programmable Electronic System (PES) equipment based on international nuclear I and C standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly faced with the challenge of qualifying procured equipment, sub-components, and systems that contain digital programmed electronics for use in safety-related applications. Referred to as a 'programmable electronic system' (PES), such equipment typically contains both complex logic that is vulnerable to systematic design faults, and low voltage electronics hardware that is subject to random faults. Procured PES products or components are often only commercial grade, yet can offer reliable cost effective alternatives to custom-designed or nuclear qualified equipment, provided they can be shown to meet the quality assurance, functional safety, environmental, and reliability requirements of a particular application. The process of confirming this is referred to as application-specific product qualification (ASPQ) and can be challenging and costly. This paper provides an overview of an approach that has been developed at Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and successfully applied to PES equipment intended for use in domestic Candu R 6 nuclear power plants and special purpose reactors at Chalk River Laboratories. The approach has evolved over the past decade and has recently been adapted to be consistent with, and take advantage of new standards that are applicable to nuclear safety-related I and C systems. Also discussed are how recognized third-party safety-certifications of PES equipment to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and the assessment methods employed, may be used to reduce ASPQ effort. (authors)

2006-01-01

313

Qualification of Programmable Electronic System (PES) equipment based on international nuclear I and C standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly faced with the challenge of qualifying procured equipment, sub-components, and systems that contain digital programmed electronics for use in safety-related applications. Referred to as a 'programmable electronic system' (PES), such equipment typically contains both complex logic that is vulnerable to systematic design faults, and low voltage electronics hardware that is subject to random faults. Procured PES products or components are often only commercial grade, yet can offer reliable cost effective alternatives to custom-designed or nuclear qualified equipment, provided they can be shown to meet the quality assurance, functional safety, environmental, and reliability requirements of a particular application. The process of confirming this is referred to as application-specific product qualification (ASPQ) and can be challenging and costly. This paper provides an overview of an approach that has been developed at Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and successfully applied to PES equipment intended for use in domestic Candu R 6 nuclear power plants and special purpose reactors at Chalk River Laboratories. The approach has evolved over the past decade and has recently been adapted to be consistent with, and take advantage of new standards that are applicable to nuclear safety-related I and C systems. Also discussed are how recognized third-party safety-certifications of PES equipment to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and the assessment methods employed, may be used to reduce ASPQ effort. (authors)

De Grosbois, J.; Hepburn, G. A.; Olmstead, R. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ont. L5K 1B2 (Canada); Goble, W. [Exida, 64 N. Main St., Sellersville, PA 18960 (United States); Kumar, V. [Carleton Univ., 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ont. K1S 5B6 (Canada)

2006-07-01

314

The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

Luciana Marques Vieira

2006-01-01

315

International wind energy development. Offshore report 2013  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

BTM Consult, a part of Navigant's global Energy Practice and a premier forecaster of the international wind industry, brings its experience and expertise to a comprehensive look at the offshore wind energy industry, as well as the impacted supply chain in this expanding but challenging market. Offshore Report 2013 is BTM Consult's most comprehensive overview of the offshore wind market to date. The report highlights developments in the international offshore wind market over the past two years, as well as industry growth trends as projected in the report's near-term forecast to 2016 and medium-term predictions to 2021. Offshore Report 2013 provides an assessment of all major offshore wind markets and incentives from across the world, and a detailed analysis of both the demand and supply sides of the offshore wind market in 2012. Key findings are included from the latest update of the ''balance of plant'' supply situation and from BTM's analyses of offshore wind financing, including future CAPEX and OPEX requirements. The report also includes a special focus on the current shipping and logistics situation for offshore wind farm construction. Offshore Report 2013 includes data from global offshore wind markets through autumn 2012 and is based on data collected from more than 350 suppliers. The 250+ page report also includes a CD-rom with all charts, tables, and graphs from the report. The report reviews ten key components, two key materials, eight groups of key suppliers to ''balance of plant'', and two for the key infrastructure. (Author)

NONE

2012-11-15

316

The developing international private power market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review group comprised of representatives from ten U.S. power industry companies recently released a report recommending increased assistance by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and other government agencies to provide reliable supplies of electricity and efficient use of energy. The report called for integrating U.S. foreign aid and trade policy to support U.S. industry in expanding overseas markets. The review group estimates a potential market of $370 billion to $900 billion worth of power equipment and services over the next 20 years. Recommendations of the Review Group include: Provide funding to support feasibility studies for electric power projects; Increase economic support funds and development assistance to emphasize energy, infrastructure, trade and investment; expand USAID's energy and private power activities through the formation of an Energy/Power, Infrastructure and Trade Institute as a public-private partnership; and include considerations of the U.S. trade balance in USAID's programs. The Report also criticized the U.S. power industry for an inadequate commitment to long term involvement in overseas markets.

Sullivan, J.B.

1989-09-01

317

Developing pipeline reclamation standards in Alberta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of Alberta's oil and gas industry has led to a proliferation of pipelines in the province. All Alberta pipelines require a reclamation certificate before the proponent is released of reclamation liabilities. This has led to much discussion of how to assess oil and gas wellsites and pipeline reclamation success since the early 1980s. The requirement for reclamation certification is that land have equivalent capability to that which existed prior to the disturbance. The approach that has been used for wellsite reclamation success evaluation is a parameter by parameter comparison and pass/fail system. In this case each parameter must pass or the site fails. NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd. undertook, in late 1996, to put together a group of government regulatory and non-regulatory personnel, industry and third party individuals to develop a more integrated capability based evaluation system. Various approaches were field tested in 1997 and 1998. This paper reports on the process used, the field results and current status of the project.

Fedkenheuer, A.W.; Burke, J.D.

1999-07-01

318

Developing federal standards and accreditations for data protection products  

Science.gov (United States)

Security standards help users implement adequate protection in their systems. Independent, third-party conformance testing to security standards provides those users with a metric beyond vendor affirmation in determining conformance. Independent third-party conformance testing gives manufacturers the opportunity to claim conformance to a standard using a strong metric. However neither standards nor testing programs can be successful without the support of the manufacturers and users they are intended to serve. This paper discusses a standard that was developed by NIST in conjunction with industry, federal and private sector users, and the validation program that provides users the necessary metric to determine conformance.

Carnahan, Lisa J.

1996-03-01

319

Application of the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method in photon activation analysis to trace characterization of environmental materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method has been applied to the analysis of environmental materials, such as urban particulate matter, vehicle exhaust particulates and coal fly ash by photon activation. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry makes possible to use multi-internal standard gamma-rays, in order to cross check the analytical results obtained from each internal standard. It was ascertained that this method can provide not only accurate analytical results but also the information of homogeneity of samples, correlation of elements in the sample, loss or contamination in the preparation process. (author). 10 refs., 5 tabs

1996-01-01

320

Developing an International and Technology-Driven Business School Program: Perspectives from the International Business Community.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Surveyed the international business and technological community about the skills it requires of recent business school graduates. Findings provide insights for developing action plans to address international and technological needs. (EV)|

Smith, Rachel; Bush, Victoria; Bush, Alan

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Trends of international standard procedures on dosimetry systems and irradiated foods applied in the multi-purpose radiation processing facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Recently, with new radiation technology being developed and used in advanced industries, the business opportunity of radiation processing has been increasing. For the industrial application of developed products, it is required to review scientific and technical aspects of standard procedures applied to radiation processes. Standard procedures describe requirements of products manufactured under standard processing conditions. In fields related to the operation control of the multi-purpose radiation processing facilities, the ISO 11137 and Codex stan-106 are famous standards adopted as national standards in the advanced countries. The ISO 11137 is applied to supply criteria of medical devices for the validation and routine control of radiation sterilization including variability and uncertainty of dosimetry systems. Korean national standards on the food irradiation are significantly different from Codex stan-106 in parts such as the labelling. Therefore, prior to implementation of the labelling on the labelling on irradiated foods starting from year 2010, it is necessary to revise the inconsistent labelling to the reasonable level of international standard for the promotion and reenforcement of competition in industries using radiation processing technology

2009-01-01

322

Trends of international standard procedures on dosimetry systems and irradiated foods applied in the multi-purpose radiation processing facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, with new radiation technology being developed and used in advanced industries, the business opportunity of radiation processing has been increasing. For the industrial application of developed products, it is required to review scientific and technical aspects of standard procedures applied to radiation processes. Standard procedures describe requirements of products manufactured under standard processing conditions. In fields related to the operation control of the multi-purpose radiation processing facilities, the ISO 11137 and Codex stan-106 are famous standards adopted as national standards in the advanced countries. The ISO 11137 is applied to supply criteria of medical devices for the validation and routine control of radiation sterilization including variability and uncertainty of dosimetry systems. Korean national standards on the food irradiation are significantly different from Codex stan-106 in parts such as the labelling. Therefore, prior to implementation of the labelling on the labelling on irradiated foods starting from year 2010, it is necessary to revise the inconsistent labelling to the reasonable level of international standard for the promotion and reenforcement of competition in industries using radiation processing technology.

Kim, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Kwan Soo; Park, Soon Yeon [Greenpia Technology Inc., Yeojoo (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Keun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-06-15

323

Protocol for evaluation of automated blood cell counters. International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This protocol is proposed for the evaluation of automated blood cell counters to assess the performance, advantages and limitations of such instruments. It is based on the International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) 'Protocol for type testing equipment and apparatus used for haematological analysis' (1978a) and the British Committee for Standardization in Haematology 'Guidelines for the evaluation of instruments used in haematology' (Shinton, England & Kennedy, 1982). The document has been prepared by the ICSH Panel on Cytometry after discussion with colleagues. This tentative protocol will be reviewed 1 year after publication, in accordance with the ICSH rules, before it is adopted as a definitive standard.

England JM; Rowan RM; van Assendelft OW; Coulter WH; Groner W; Jones AR; Koepke JA; Lewis SM; Shinton NK; Thom R

1984-01-01

324

Determination of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste by spectrophotometry using neodymium as an internal standard for safeguards analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A spectrophotometric determination using neodymium as an internal standard has been developed for safeguards verification analysis of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste which is produced by the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The method offers reduced sample preparation and analysis time compared to isotope dilution mass spectrometry. It uses neodymium as an internal standard, which allows for determining an index for the authentication of the analytical operation and the instrument conditions. The sample was mixed with a known amount of neodymium as an internal standard. Subsequently, plutonium was quantitatively oxidized to Pu(IV) by the addition of Ce(IV). Plutonium concentration was calculated from a relation between Nd(III)/Pu(IV) molar extinction coefficient ratio and their absorbance ratio. The expanded uncertainty of the repeated analysis of plutonium (n=5) was found to be ±15 mg L-1 (confidence interval 95%) for a highly radioactive liquid waste sample (173 mg L-1). The determination limit was calculated to be 6 mg L-1 (ten fold's the standard deviation). This method was validated through comparison experiments with isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The analytical results of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste using this method were agree well with values obtained using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The proposed method was successfully applied for thependent on-site safeguards analysis at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. (author)

2006-01-01

325

Preparation and evaluation of the 1st international standard for the quantitation of HIV-2 RNA in plasma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An international standard for the quantitation of HIV-2 RNA in plasma samples was developed. A collaborative study involving 29 laboratories from 15 countries was carried out in order to evaluate HIV-2 RNA candidate materials for use with nucleic acid-based tests (NATs). Candidate reference standards consisted of duplicate copies of two HIV-2 genotype A viruses, HIV-2 CAM2 and HIV-2 ROD and were coded S1-S4. Each laboratory assayed all four candidates on at least three separate occasions and data were collated and analysed at NIBSC. Of the data sets returned the majority were from qualitative assays. All assays detected both candidate standards with the exception of one commercial assay, the Nuclisens Easy Q, which was designed primarily for HIV-1 detection which did not detect HIV-2 CAM2 but showed good detection of HIV-2 ROD. This highlighted possible cross reactivity with HIV-2 ROD with some NAT primer/probe combinations; as a result the HIV-2 CAM2 material was established as the 1st international standard for HIV-2 RNA with an assigned unitage of 1000 International Units (IU) per ampoule and is available upon request from the National Institute for Biological Standardisation and Control (NIBSC) (www.nibsc.ac.uk).

Holmes H; Berry N; Heath A; Morris C

2011-08-01

326

International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) Three Stage Classification System: 1973; Part 2 - Definitions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seven levels of education, as classified numerically by International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), are defined along with courses, programs, and fields of education listed under each level. Also contained is an alphabetical subject index indicating appropriate code numbers. For related documents see TM003535 and TM003536. (RC)

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

327

A Provisional Guide to the Use of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED).  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide to the use of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) provides a summary of what ISCED is, what it has been designed to do, some of the things it has not been designed to do, and how it may be used. The system classifies courses, programs, and fields of education according to their educational content. The educational…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

328

Application of internal standards in routine vapor measurements by gas chromatography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of an internal standard supplied from a diffusion source is advantageous in maintaining calibration and diagnosing operating problems in gas chromatographs used for routine, on-line monitoring of organic vapors. A system designed for monitoring vapors generated for inhalation toxicolgy studies is described.

Schirmer, R.E.; Pahl, T.R.; Phelps, D.W.

1984-02-01

329

Adopting the international financial reporting standards: a positive impact on 2004 income and consolidated equity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides preliminary information on the quantitative impact of transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on AREVA 2004 financial position, in accordance with AMF recommendations regarding financial communications during the transition period.The basis for preparing 2004 information on transition to the IFRS comes from: the International Accounting Standards (IAS)/IFRS, as approved by the European Union. The impact of IAS 32/39 and IFRS 4 will not be recognized in shareholders equity until January 1, 2005; AREVA anticipation of the resolution of technical issues and ongoing projects under discussion by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). Uncertainty factors on practical methods for applying certain standards and ongoing interpretations by IFRIC and regulatory organizations could impact the exactness of restatements identified at this stage. For all of these reasons, it is conceivable that the opening balance sheet at January 1, 2004, as presented in this document, will not be the balance sheet actually used to establish the consolidated financial statements for 2005. (author)

2005-01-01

330

Adopting the international financial reporting standards: a positive impact on 2004 income and consolidated equity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides preliminary information on the quantitative impact of transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on AREVA 2004 financial position, in accordance with AMF recommendations regarding financial communications during the transition period.The basis for preparing 2004 information on transition to the IFRS comes from: the International Accounting Standards (IAS)/IFRS, as approved by the European Union. The impact of IAS 32/39 and IFRS 4 will not be recognized in shareholders equity until January 1, 2005; AREVA anticipation of the resolution of technical issues and ongoing projects under discussion by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). Uncertainty factors on practical methods for applying certain standards and ongoing interpretations by IFRIC and regulatory organizations could impact the exactness of restatements identified at this stage. For all of these reasons, it is conceivable that the opening balance sheet at January 1, 2004, as presented in this document, will not be the balance sheet actually used to establish the consolidated financial statements for 2005. (author)

Mallet, O

2005-03-01

331

The Use of Disposable IR Cards for Quantitative Analysis Using an Internal Standard  

Science.gov (United States)

Infrared spectroscopy is traditionally used to identify compounds and aid in structure elucidation. However, solid samples require tedious and sometimes messy preparation of KBr pellets or mineral oil mulls and solutions cannot be used because there are no solvents that do not absorb in the IR. Disposable IR cards have simplified sample preparation for IR spectrometry. Moreover, they allow samples to be preserved for long periods, so that results can be verified at a later time. We report an experiment suitable for the instrumental analysis portion of the analytical chemistry course. It employs an internal standard in order to utilize the disposable cards for quantitative analysis. We use potassium thiocyanate as the internal standard because it has few absorption bands in the IR and they do not interfere with the bands of the unknown, benzophenone. Acetone is used as the solvent because it evaporates readily, making no contribution to the spectrum. This lab is useful as a teaching tool to illustrate the use of internal standards and calibration curves and the principle of Beer's law. It can be adapted for the determination of any analyte, provided the analyte and internal standard have distinctly separate IR bands. It is particularly useful in areas such as forensic chemistry, in which lab results are likely to be contested and samples must be preserved for long periods of time.

Indralingam, Ramee; Nepomuceno, Angelito I.

2001-07-01

332

Financial Reporting Based On International Financial Reporting Standards : Challenges and Opportunities (UT Bank Ghana, Limited)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was the analyzing of the challenges and opportunities in preparing financial statements based on International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Also, another aim of the thesis was to find out the extent to which financial accounting harmonization is important for accountin...

Adjei, Benjamin

333

THE ADOPTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS IN PORTUGAL: CAN EXPECTED COSTS BE REDUCED?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we use a cost-benefit framework to discuss some of the expected effects related to the Portuguese adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Given the circumstances underlying this implementation, we anticipate that the overall net result following an analysis ...

Paulo A. P. Alves; José A. C. Moreira

334

International Financial Reporting Standards and banking regulation: A comeback of the state?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The European Union began using accounting rules defined by an independent private sector regime as compulsory norms in 2005. Is the incorporation of these International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) into European law a viable solution to combine external technical expertise with principles of...

Grasl, Maximilian

335

Development of standard solutions for the Minergie standard; Standardloesungen - Entwicklung von Standardloesungen fuer den Minergie-Standard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines a project that aimed to define standard solutions for use in buildings built to meet Minergie low energy consumption standards. These standard solutions are to provide a way of meeting Minergie standards in an easy way and thus further the use of the standard and also assure quality at the same time. The report describes how the solutions were developed on the basis of a selection of existing Minergie buildings. For various combinations of heating systems - wood, wood/solar, heat pumps (brine-water and air-water), gas/solar and oil/solar - the appropriate U-values for various building elements are listed. The resulting Minergie forms and guides are listed.

Nissille, L.; Huber, T.

2003-07-01

336

Barriers to Integrating Crisis Standards of Care Principles into International Disaster Response Plans: Workshop Summary  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When a nation or region prepares for public health emergencies such as a pandemic influenza, an earthquake, or any disaster scenario in which the health system may be stressed to its limits, it is important to describe how standards of care would change due to shortage of critical resources. “Crisis standards of care” is defined as a substantial change in usual health care operations and the level of care it is possible to deliver, which is made necessary by a pervasive (e.g., pandemic influenza) or catastrophic (e.g., earthquake, hurricane) disaster. To ensure that the utmost care possible is provided to patients in a catastrophic event, nations/regions need a robust system to guide the public, health care professionals and institutions, and governmental entities at all levels. Building off a report of the U.S. Institute of Medicine, Guidance for Establishing Crisis Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations, this session focus on opportunities and challenges to integrate crisis standards of care principles into international disaster response plans. Learning Objectives: Discuss the challenges of providing fair and equitable care in mass casualty incidents. Discuss a potential framework for the equitable delivery of care in situations of scarce resources and strategies for operationalizing crisis standards of care in austere environments. Examine strategies for integrating crisis standards of care principles into disaster response plans. Highlight the impact of international disaster response on changing the standard of care in the host country.

337

Critical evaluation of folate data in European and international databases: recommendations for standardization in international nutritional studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SCOPE: The objective was to perform an inventory and critical evaluation of folate data in selected European and international databases. The ultimate aim was to establish guidelines for compiling standardized folate databases for international nutritional studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: An ad hoc questionnaire was prepared to critically compare and evaluate folate data completeness, quantification, terminologies, and documentation of 18 European and international databases, and national fortification regulations. Selected countries participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer project and European Food Information Resource Network (EuroFIR). Folate completeness was generally high. "Total folate" was the most common terminology and microbiological assay was the most frequently reported quantification method. There is a lack of comparability within and between databases due to a lack of value documentation, the use of generic or non-appropriate terminologies, folate value conversions, and/or lack of identification of synthetic folic acid. CONCLUSION: Full value documentation and the use of EuroFIR component identifiers and/or INFOODS tagnames for total folate ("FOL") and synthetic folic acid ("FOLAC"), with the additional use of individual folates, will increase comparability between databases. For now, the standardized microbiological assay for total folate and HPLC for synthetic folic acid are the recommended quantification methods.

Bouckaert KP; Slimani N; Nicolas G; Vignat J; Wright AJ; Roe M; Witthöft CM; Finglas PM

2011-01-01

338

Standards of Care for Juvenile Sexual Offenders of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Offenders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Minimal standards for treatment of adult sexual offenders were adopted by the membership of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Offenders (IATSO) at its first membership General Assembly in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in May 2000 (Coleman, Dwyer, Abel, Berner, Breiling, Eher, et al., 2000; 2003). These standards, initially developed in 1990 with input from attendees at the Second International Conference on Sexual Offender Treatment held in Minneapolis, Minnesota (Coleman & Dwyer, 1990; Coleman, Dwyer, Abel, Berner, Breiling, Hindman, et al. 1996), were refined by a committee of professionals at the Fifth International Conference on Sexual Offender Treatment (Coleman et al., 2000).With these standards in place, the Governing Board of IATSO designated a committee in summer 2004 to develop similar standards for treatment of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. This committee consisted of representatives from a number of countries with differing traditions of sexual offender treatment and juvenile justice, including Austria, Germany, Norway, South Africa, Switzerland, and the United States. Developing standards of care for juvenile populations can be a challenging endeavor. Adolescence is a time of rapid change, and thus, there is great heterogeneity in those youths who commit acts that can be defined as sexual offenses. These differences are influenced by the developmental stage of the youth, which may roughly parallel age, and multiple environmental factors. Additionally, studies conducted outside North America find higher base rates of re-offense than those within North America (e.g. Nisbet, Wilson, & Smallbone, 2004; Langstrom & Grann, 2000). This is likely the case because definitions of who is a juvenile offender, what behaviors are sexual crimes, and how the juvenile justice system is organized can differ substantially across countries. These Standards of Care, which were adopted by the membership at the General Assembly of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Offenders in Hamburg, Germany, September 7, 2006, are designed to be minimal guidelines for those developing and implementing treatment interventions for Juvenile Sexual Offenders. These Standards are based on the current state of knowledge on adolescents who commit sexual offences. Most of the available data are from adolescent males and the state of science in this field is still evolving. Thus, the Committee avoided making specific recommendations about particular procedures, techniques, or instrumentation.

Michael Miner; Charles Borduin; David Prescott; Helle Bovensmann; Renate Schepker; Reinmar Du Bois; Joann Schladale; Reinhard Eher; Klaus Schmeck; Thore Langfeldt; Arina Smit; Friedemann Pfäfflin

2006-01-01

339

Collaborative study for the establishment of the 3rd international standard for dihydrostreptomycin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An international collaborative study was organised to establish the World Health Organization (WHO) 3rd International Standard (IS) for dihydrostreptomycin. Eleven laboratories from different countries participated in the collaborative study. The potency of the candidate batch, a freeze-dried preparation, was estimated by microbiological assays with sensitive microorganisms. To ensure continuity between consecutive batches of the WHO IS, the 2nd IS for dihydrostreptomycin was used as standard. Based on the results of the study, the 3rd IS for dihydrostreptomycin was adopted at the meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardisation (ECBS) in 2011 with an assigned anti-microbiological activity of 19425 International Units (IU) per vial. The 3rd IS for dihydrostreptomycin is available from the EDQM.

Rautmann G; Daas A; Buchheit KH

2012-04-01

340

TEOS-10: A New International Oceanographic Standard for Seawater, Ice, Fluid Water, and Humid Air  

Science.gov (United States)

Very accurate empirical thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater, and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions, including those of the terrestrial hydrosphere and atmosphere. These potential functions are formulated as international standards endorsed by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS). A related seawater standard referred to as the International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) was adopted in 2009 by UNESCO for oceanography. Here, the formulations available from TEOS-10 for the description of the vapor pressure of ice and for thermodynamic properties of humid air, in particular, the relative humidity, are reviewed. It is concluded that the IAPWS formulation for the sublimation pressure is superior in uncertainty and range of validity over other available correlation equations, and that relative fugacity is a physically reasonable generalization of relative humidity for the case of non-ideal gases or equilibria with moist substances.

Feistel, R.

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

ISO 14000 - the International Environmental Management Standard: Potential impacts on environmental management and auditing in the electric power generation industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the framework of environmental management, the concept of voluntary environmental compliance auditing is not in itself a new development. Environmentally conscious firms have for more than a decade, undertaken voluntary audits to help achieve and maintain compliance with environmental regulations and to help identify and correct unregulated or poorly regulated environmental hazard. The firms undertaking the audits were motivated by a desire to mitigate legal and financial risks and/or the desire to be a highly responsible member of the corporate community. Much of the early attention to environmental auditing was in the chemical process industries. Today, there are four current trends affecting environmental auditing: (1) the practice is becoming widespread in all industry groups in both large and small firms; (2) environmental management and audit methodolgies and approaches are being codified in the form of written national and International standards; (3) environmental management programs and in-house audits are increasingly being certified by independent auditors (who are not associated with regulatory agencies); and (4) the certifications are being viewed as marketing and public relations tools. The adoption of ISO 14000 is destined to become the most significant development in international environmental management and auditing. International standards for the development of Environmental Management Systems and the execution of environmental audits do not currently exist. Individual countries, such as England and France, have national standards. One multi-national standard currently exists--the European Economic Community's Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). The United States does not have a national environmental management and auditing standard

1995-01-01

342

ISO 14000 - the International Environmental Management Standard: Potential impacts on environmental management and auditing in the electric power generation industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the framework of environmental management, the concept of voluntary environmental compliance auditing is not in itself a new development. Environmentally conscious firms have for more than a decade, undertaken voluntary audits to help achieve and maintain compliance with environmental regulations and to help identify and correct unregulated or poorly regulated environmental hazard. The firms undertaking the audits were motivated by a desire to mitigate legal and financial risks and/or the desire to be a highly responsible member of the corporate community. Much of the early attention to environmental auditing was in the chemical process industries. Today, there are four current trends affecting environmental auditing: (1) the practice is becoming widespread in all industry groups in both large and small firms; (2) environmental management and audit methodolgies and approaches are being codified in the form of written national and International standards; (3) environmental management programs and in-house audits are increasingly being certified by independent auditors (who are not associated with regulatory agencies); and (4) the certifications are being viewed as marketing and public relations tools. The adoption of ISO 14000 is destined to become the most significant development in international environmental management and auditing. International standards for the development of Environmental Management Systems and the execution of environmental audits do not currently exist. Individual countries, such as England and France, have national standards. One multi-national standard currently exists--the European Economic Community`s Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). The United States does not have a national environmental management and auditing standard.

Gauntlett, S.B. [Gauntlett Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Pierce, J.L. [SCS Engineers, Long Beach, CA (United States); Pierce, J.L. [SCS Engineers, Long Beach, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

343

World Health Organization International Standard to Harmonize Assays for Detection of Hepatitis E Virus RNA  

Science.gov (United States)

Nucleic acid amplification technique–based assays are a primary method for the detection of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, but assay sensitivity can vary widely. To improve interlaboratory results for the detection and quantification of HEV RNA, a candidate World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) strain was evaluated in a collaborative study involving 23 laboratories from 10 countries. The IS, code number 6329/10, was formulated by using a genotype 3a HEV strain from a blood donation, diluted in pooled human plasma and lyophilized. A Japanese national standard, representing a genotype 3b HEV strain, was prepared and evaluated in parallel. The potencies of the standards were determined by qualitative and quantitative assays. Assay variability was substantially reduced when HEV RNA concentrations were expressed relative to the IS. Thus, WHO has established 6329/10 as the IS for HEV RNA, with a unitage of 250,000 International Units per milliliter.

Blumel, Johannes; Mizusawa, Saeko; Matsubayashi, Keiji; Sakata, Hidekatsu; Okada, Yoshiaki; Nubling, C. Micha; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin O.

2013-01-01

344

Quantification of amyloid precursor protein isoforms using quantification concatamer internal standard.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is likely that expression and/or post-translational generation of various protein isoforms can be indicative of initial pathological changes or pathology development. However, selective quantification of individual protein isoforms remains a challenge, because they simultaneously possess common and unique amino acid sequences. Quantification concatamer (QconCAT) internal standards were originally designed for a large-scale proteome quantification and are artificial proteins that are concatamers of tryptic peptides for several proteins. We developed a QconCAT for quantification of various isoforms of amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP-QconCAT includes tryptic peptides that are common for all isoforms of APP concatenated with those tryptic peptides that are unique for specific APP isoforms. Isotope-labeled APP-QconCAT was expressed, purified, characterized, and further used for quantification of total APP, APP695, and amyloid-? (A?) in the human frontal cortex from control and severe Alzheimer's disease donors. Potential biological implications of our quantitative measurements are discussed. It is also expected that using APP-QconCAT(s) will advance our understanding of biological mechanism by which various APP isoforms involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

Chen J; Wang M; Turko IV

2013-01-01

345

History of the development of international emergency medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A future challenge for international EM development is expanding the specialty to Africa, where it is non-existent. Another goal for international EM development is to assist in the peace process in the Middle East. There is increasing need for good EM development throughout the world. Development of international EM has been rapid, with most of the spread of development occurring in the last 10 years. There is great opportunity and reward for students, residents, and EM physicians to further promote and develop EM internationally. PMID:15663970

Alagappan, Kumar; Holliman, C James

2005-02-01

346

History of the development of international emergency medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A future challenge for international EM development is expanding the specialty to Africa, where it is non-existent. Another goal for international EM development is to assist in the peace process in the Middle East. There is increasing need for good EM development throughout the world. Development of international EM has been rapid, with most of the spread of development occurring in the last 10 years. There is great opportunity and reward for students, residents, and EM physicians to further promote and develop EM internationally.

Alagappan K; Holliman CJ

2005-02-01

347

An international serum standard for application in assays to detect human complement activation products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of the complement system in clinical medicine has become evident during the last decades and complement therapeutics has now reached the clinic. Thus, there is an increased interest in and need for assays to evaluate complement activity and dysfunction. Pathologically increased complement activation can indirectly be evaluated by quantification of complement components, but in order to exactly measure such activation, assays for quantification of products formed during activation are required. Progress in this field is hampered by lack of standardization. Therefore, members of the International Complement Standardization Committee, a joint initiative of the International Complement Society and the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS), prepared a defined standard for application in assays for complement activation products. We here report on the production and properties of this International Complement Standard #2 (ICS#2). ICS#2 was made from a pool of sera from healthy blood donors (ICS#1) that was activated with a combination of heat-aggregated IgG and zymosan, and subsequently stabilized by adding EDTA and nafamostat mesylate. The protocol was optimized to make the standard applicable in the following activation product assays: C1rs-C1-inhibitor complexes, C4a, C4bc, C4d, Bb, C3bBbP, C3a, C3bc, C3dg, C5a and the soluble terminal C5b-9 complement complex (SC5b-9, TCC). ICS#2 was defined as containing 1000 complement activation units (CAU)/mL for all activation products measured. All activation products were stable after 10 times thawing and freezing and most of the activation products were stable during storage at 4°C for up to 21 days. ICS#2 was produced large-scale and is considered a valuable tool for standardization, calibration and reference control for complement activation assays, providing the necessary prerequisite for quality assessments between complement laboratories. PMID:23787367

Bergseth, Grethe; Ludviksen, Judith K; Kirschfink, Michael; Giclas, Patricia C; Nilsson, Bo; Mollnes, Tom E

2013-06-17

348

An international serum standard for application in assays to detect human complement activation products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The importance of the complement system in clinical medicine has become evident during the last decades and complement therapeutics has now reached the clinic. Thus, there is an increased interest in and need for assays to evaluate complement activity and dysfunction. Pathologically increased complement activation can indirectly be evaluated by quantification of complement components, but in order to exactly measure such activation, assays for quantification of products formed during activation are required. Progress in this field is hampered by lack of standardization. Therefore, members of the International Complement Standardization Committee, a joint initiative of the International Complement Society and the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS), prepared a defined standard for application in assays for complement activation products. We here report on the production and properties of this International Complement Standard #2 (ICS#2). ICS#2 was made from a pool of sera from healthy blood donors (ICS#1) that was activated with a combination of heat-aggregated IgG and zymosan, and subsequently stabilized by adding EDTA and nafamostat mesylate. The protocol was optimized to make the standard applicable in the following activation product assays: C1rs-C1-inhibitor complexes, C4a, C4bc, C4d, Bb, C3bBbP, C3a, C3bc, C3dg, C5a and the soluble terminal C5b-9 complement complex (SC5b-9, TCC). ICS#2 was defined as containing 1000 complement activation units (CAU)/mL for all activation products measured. All activation products were stable after 10 times thawing and freezing and most of the activation products were stable during storage at 4°C for up to 21 days. ICS#2 was produced large-scale and is considered a valuable tool for standardization, calibration and reference control for complement activation assays, providing the necessary prerequisite for quality assessments between complement laboratories.

Bergseth G; Ludviksen JK; Kirschfink M; Giclas PC; Nilsson B; Mollnes TE

2013-12-01

349

Development of a standardized, comprehensive "ideal drug detail".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To develop a standardized, comprehensive ideal drug detail for use in face-to-face education about individual drugs. METHODS: A random sample of 603 physicians and pharmacists was selected and stratified to include input from each of the following specialties: family practice, internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, psychiatry, obstetrics/gynecology, geriatric medicine and clinical pharmacology. Thirty-one potential items were generated by the investigators from a preliminary survey of a local convenience sample of physicians and pharmacists. A modified Delphi consensus process was used in the large sample to determine which items should be included in the ideal drug detail. In each round of the Delphi process, respondents rated each item on a seven-point scale of importance and were then given feedback of the cumulative ratings for each item. Rounds were continued until consensus was obtained on all items. RESULTS: The response rate to the first round was 55.3%; 85.5% of these respondents responded to the second round. Response rates varied between specialties from 44% to 70%. Attempts to contact nonresponders to measure potential nonrespondent bias were unsuccessful. Consensus was obtained on 19 items after the first round, and on the remaining 12 items after the second round. Four items were dropped because they were unimportant. There was variation in modal response between specialties on eight items. CONCLUSIONS: Consensus was obtained among a sizable and interested sample of Canadian physicians and pharmacists on the items of information needed to prescribe a drug appropriately. Subsequent work will refine this list into a usable template to develop ideal drug details for specific drugs, to develop an assessment process to measure quality of information, and to assess the impact of this program on prescribing and patient outcomes.

Strang DG; Gagnon M; Molloy DW; Darzins P; Etchells E; Bédard M; Davidson W

2001-01-01

350

The International harmonisation process of Accounting Standards Den internationella harmoniseringsprocessen av redovisningsstandarder  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Growth in international trade and capital flows has triggered a rising economic integration. Because of these developments there has been an international homogenising effect upon many customs, practices and institutions. In business life it led among other things to a desire to harmonis...

Fritz, Susanne; Lämmle, Christina

351

Training Manual: NSDC's Standards for Staff Development [CD-ROM  

Science.gov (United States)

This 60-page guidebook presents a plan for a one-day workshop to introduce NSDC's standards to educators. The sessions are designed to encourage participant involvement to develop greater understanding of the standards. The slide presentation plus materials needed to conduct activities are included as PDF files on a CD-ROM. This guidebook may be…

Roy, Patricia

2006-01-01

352

Development of international law concerning nuclear liability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A short overview is given of the most important international conventions relating to civil liability for damage to, or loss of, life of persons or property, caused by nuclear incidents during the operation of stationary and non-stationary nuclear installations or transport of nuclear material. In accord with the international provisions, in the German Democratic Republic too, nuclear operators are exclusively liable for such damage unless it has been caused intentionally by the injury party. (author).

1979-01-01

353

Standards and Intellectual Property Rights in the Age of Global Communication - A Review of the International Standardization of Third-Generation Mobile System  

CERN Multimedia

When the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) selected a radio access technology based on Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA), sponsored by European telecommunications equipment manufactures Ericsson and Nokia, for its third-generation wireless communications system, a bitter dispute developed between ETSI and Qualcommm Inc. Qualcomm threatened to withhold its intellectual property on the CDMA technology unless the Europeans agreed to make the radio access technology backward compatible with cdmaOne, Qualcomm's favored version of CDMA. A dispute over intellectual property rights over key CDMA techniques also erupted between Ericsson and Qualcomm and both filed patent infringement in US Court. The dispute halted the standards activity and has troubled operators worldwide as well as the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).

Hjelm, B

2001-01-01

354

International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) Benefits, Obstacles and Intrigues for Implementation in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IFRS is International Financial Reporting System and International Accounting Standard Board - (IASB) provided the framework for its working. IFRS adopted by IASB has gained worldwide acceptance amongst many countries and some listed companies in European nations have embraced it. IFRS employs a uniform, single consistent accounting framework that is gravitating towards General Accepted Accounting Practice (GAPP) in the future. IFRS since its introduction in 2001 had provided uniform accounting in financial reporting which would enable investors to interpreted financial statements with minimum effort. Other countries, including Canada and India are expected to transit to IFRS by 2011. The Nigerian Accounting Standard Board (NASB) is not expected to lag behind in the implementation. This paper looks at the benefits of adopting IFRS, obstacles and intrigues expected from the implementation of IFRS. The article also analyzed the requirements that would assists in the implementation of IFRS in Nigeria. Using content analysis method, the paper amongst others recommended a continuous research in order to harmonize and converge with the international standards through mutual international understanding of corporate objectives and the building of human capacity that will support the preparation of financial statements in organization.

Ikpefan, Ochei Ailemen; Akande, A.O

2012-01-01

355

Development of a standard for indoor radon measurements in Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A standard covering methodologies for the measurement of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations in air in Australian buildings is currently under preparation as part of a set of standards covering total indoor air quality. This paper outlines the suggested methodology for radon and discusses some of the problems associated with the development of the standard. The draft standard recommends measurement of the radon concentration in air using scintillation cells, charcoal cups and solid state nuclear track detectors, and measurement of radon progeny concentration in air using the Rolle method or the Nazaroff method. 14 refs., 1 tab.

O`Brien, R.S.; Solomon, S.B. [Australian Radiation Lab., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

1994-12-31

356

International performance-oriented packaging standards adopted in the united states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On January 1, 1991, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) initiated a transition to adopting a modified version of current international standards for packaging and transporting hazardous materials and hazardous wastes. This transition permits a 5-year phase-in period that will impact all phases of hazardous material transportation including material classification and description, packaging for shipment, and hazard communication standards. These changes are being enacted through the DOT Federal Docket HM-181, 'Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards.' These regulatory standards will have dramatic impact on nearly 5 billion tons of hazardous materials transported within the United States each year. This paper summarizes the principal elements of the new DOT regulations, the latest implementation schedule and impacts on U.S. shipping activities, and discusses outstanding issues that remain to be solved through the next 5 years. (author)

1993-01-01

357

Development of the private practice management standards for psychology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the process of developing a set of private practice management standards to support Australian psychologists and promote high quality services to the public. A review of the literature was conducted to identify management standards relevant to psychology, which were further developed in consultation with a panel of experts in psychology or in the development of standards. Forty-three psychologists in independent private practice took part in either a survey (n=22) to provide feedback on the relevance of, and their compliance with, the identified standards, or a 6-month pilot study (n=21) in which a web-based self-assessment instrument evaluating the final set of standards and performance indicators was implemented in their practice to investigate self-reported change in management procedures. The pilot study demonstrated good outcomes for practitioners when evaluation of compliance to the standards was operationalized in a self-assessment format. Study results are based on a small sample size. Nevertheless, relevance and utility of the standards was found providing an initial version of management standards that have relevance to the practice of psychology in Australia, along with a system for evaluating psychological service provision to ensure best practice in service delivery.

Mathews R; Stokes D; Littlefield L; Collins L

2011-01-01

358

Developments in international criminal justice in Africa during 2008  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The year 2008 saw important developments in international criminal justice in Africa. In 2008, all cases before the International Criminal Court involved African states. An overview of these cases is provided. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in 2008 rendered its decision in the Bagoso...

Aptel, Cecile; Mwangi, Wambui

359

Advancement of human rights standards for LGBT people through the perspective of international human rights law  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article addresses the issue how various religious and legal systems cope with current developments that undermine binary opposition of man and woman including definition of their sexual and cultural identities. More concretely, it tries to explain, how concrete societies and legislations deal with claims of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals (LGBT) that claim broader recognition. It elucidates differences among Western provisions and policies of the relevant legal bodies such as the General Assembly of the United Nations, the European Court of Human Rights and the Supreme Court concerning these issues. It also points to the nature and real impact of international civil society forces such as Yogyakarta principles that formulate extension of rights concerning lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals. On the basis of comparison of various legal and religious discourses it explains current practices of direct and indirect discrimination and in some non-European national systems even extra-judicial killings, torture and ill-treatment, sexual assault, rape and other violations of human rights. When emphasizing substantial differences among current European states and non-European ones concerning policies toward lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (LGBT), it shows current tendencies of advancement in the field by common policies of Council of Europe, recent judgments issued by the European Court of Human Rights as well as civil society efforts such as Yogyakarta principles. Swedish standards have been introduced in order to emphasize existing progressive attitudes to LGBT people concerning gay marriages and adoption procedures.

Lucie Cviklová

2012-01-01

360

International Council for Standardization in Haematology technical report 1-2009: new reference material for haemiglobincyanide for use in standardization of blood haemoglobin measurements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) in conjunction with Eurotrol, B.V. has released a new lot of the haemiglobincyanide or haemoglobin standard. This technical report describes the purpose, methodology in manufacturing, summary of value assignment data and availability of this standard material used for the standardization and calibration of whole blood haemoglobin measurements on most haemoglobinometers and automated blood cell counters throughout the world.

Davis BH; Jungerius B

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
361

International Council for Standardization in Haematology technical report 1-2009: new reference material for haemiglobincyanide for use in standardization of blood haemoglobin measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) in conjunction with Eurotrol, B.V. has released a new lot of the haemiglobincyanide or haemoglobin standard. This technical report describes the purpose, methodology in manufacturing, summary of value assignment data and availability of this standard material used for the standardization and calibration of whole blood haemoglobin measurements on most haemoglobinometers and automated blood cell counters throughout the world. PMID:19863683

Davis, Bruce H; Jungerius, Bart

2009-10-26

362

Accredited Standards Committee N15 Developments And Future Directions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) N15, Methods of Nuclear Material Control, is sponsored by the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) to develop standards for protection, control and accounting of special nuclear materials in all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, including analytical procedures where necessary and special to this purpose, except that physical protection of special nuclear material within a nuclear power plant is not included. Voluntary consensus standards complement federal regulations and technical standards and fulfill an important role for the nuclear regulatory agencies. This paper describes the N15 standards development process, with INMM as the Standards Developing Organization (SDO) and the N15 Committee responsible for implementation. Key components of the N15 standards development process include ANSI accreditation; compliance with the ANSI Essential Requirements (ER), coordination with other SDOs, communication with stakeholders, maintenance of balance between interest categories, and ANSI periodic audits. Recent and future ASC N15 activities are discussed, with a particular focus on new directions in anticipation of renewed growth in nuclear power.

2009-01-01

363

The development of clinical document standards for semantic interoperability in china.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study is aimed at developing a set of data groups (DGs) to be employed as reusable building blocks for the construction of the eight most common clinical documents used in China's general hospitals in order to achieve their structural and semantic standardization. METHODS: The Diagnostics knowledge framework, the related approaches taken from the Health Level Seven (HL7), the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), and the Healthcare Information Technology Standards Panel (HITSP) and 1,487 original clinical records were considered together to form the DG architecture and data sets. The internal structure, content, and semantics of each DG were then defined by mapping each DG data set to a corresponding Clinical Document Architecture data element and matching each DG data set to the metadata in the Chinese National Health Data Dictionary. By using the DGs as reusable building blocks, standardized structures and semantics regarding the clinical documents for semantic interoperability were able to be constructed. RESULTS: Altogether, 5 header DGs, 48 section DGs, and 17 entry DGs were developed. Several issues regarding the DGs, including their internal structure, identifiers, data set names, definitions, length and format, data types, and value sets, were further defined. Standardized structures and semantics regarding the eight clinical documents were structured by the DGs. CONCLUSIONS: This approach of constructing clinical document standards using DGs is a feasible standard-driven solution useful in preparing documents possessing semantic interoperability among the disparate information systems in China. These standards need to be validated and refined through further study.

Yang P; Pan F; Liu D; Xu Y; Wan Y; Tu H; Tang X; Hu J

2011-12-01

364

International Osteoporosis Foundation and International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine position on bone marker standards in osteoporosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Working Group on Bone Marker Standards (WG-BMS) has evaluated the clinical potential of bone turnover markers (BTMs) in the prediction of fracture risk and for monitoring treatment. Research evidence suggests that BTMs may provide information on fracture risk independently from BMD, so that fracture risk prediction might be enhanced by their inclusion in assessment algorithms. The potential use of BTMs to predict the response to treatments for osteoporosis in the individual patient is also of great interest. Treatment-induced changes in specific markers account for a substantial proportion of fracture risk reduction. However, there is still a need for stronger evidence on which to base practice in both situations. IOF/IFCC recommends one bone formation marker (serum procollagen type I N propeptide, s-PINP) and one bone resorption marker (serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen, s-CTX) to be used as reference markers and measured by standardised assays in observational and intervention studies in order to enlarge the international experience of the application of markers to clinical medicine and to help resolve uncertainties over their clinical use.

Vasikaran S; Cooper C; Eastell R; Griesmacher A; Morris HA; Trenti T; Kanis JA

2011-08-01

365

International Osteoporosis Foundation and International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine position on bone marker standards in osteoporosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Working Group on Bone Marker Standards (WG-BMS) has evaluated the clinical potential of bone turnover markers (BTMs) in the prediction of fracture risk and for monitoring treatment. Research evidence suggests that BTMs may provide information on fracture risk independently from BMD, so that fracture risk prediction might be enhanced by their inclusion in assessment algorithms. The potential use of BTMs to predict the response to treatments for osteoporosis in the individual patient is also of great interest. Treatment-induced changes in specific markers account for a substantial proportion of fracture risk reduction. However, there is still a need for stronger evidence on which to base practice in both situations. IOF/IFCC recommends one bone formation marker (serum procollagen type I N propeptide, s-PINP) and one bone resorption marker (serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen, s-CTX) to be used as reference markers and measured by standardised assays in observational and intervention studies in order to enlarge the international experience of the application of markers to clinical medicine and to help resolve uncertainties over their clinical use. PMID:21605012

Vasikaran, Samuel; Cooper, Cyrus; Eastell, Richard; Griesmacher, Andrea; Morris, Howard A; Trenti, Tommaso; Kanis, John A

2011-05-24

366

New AICPA standards aid accounting for the costs of internal-use software.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Statement of Position (SOP) No. 98-1, "Accounting for the Costs of Computer Software Developed or Obtained for Internal Use," issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants in March 1998, provides financial managers with guidelines regarding which costs involved in developing or obtaining internal-use software should be expensed and which should be capitalized. The SOP identifies three stages in the development of internal-use software: the preliminary project stage, the application development stage, and the postimplementation-operation stage. The SOP provides that all costs incurred during the preliminary project stage should be expensed as incurred. During the application development stage, costs associated with developing or obtaining the software should be capitalized, while costs associated with preparing data for use within the new system should be expensed. Costs incurred during the postimplementation-operation stage, typically associated with training and application maintenance, should be expensed.

Luecke RW; Meeting DT; Klingshirn RG

1999-05-01

367

Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

1996-12-31

368

Survey on the Recent Movements of the International Standard about High-Voltage Load Break Switches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IEC 265-1(1983) which covers the testing requirements on the High-voltage load break switches was newly republished as IEC 60265-1(1998). And a lot of parts related to the switching performance was amended and added newly. The most important item among these amended parts will be gas pressure of the SF{sub 6} which is used as the arc extinguishing medium to increase durability, stability and current-breaking capability of the switches. This paper suggesters the differences among IEC 265-1(1983), IEC 60265(1998) and KEPCO standards, and proposed new testing method compatible with international standard. (author). 5 refs., 9 tabs.

Park, Seung Jae; Kim, Maeng Hyun; Park, Byung Rak; Shin, Young June [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea); Kho, Hee Seok [Kyungnam University (Korea); Na, Dong Chae [KEPCO (Korea)

1999-05-01

369

Prospects and challenges of International Financial Reporting Standards in Indian Context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paradigm shift in the economic environment in India during last few years has led to increasing attention being devoted to accounting standards as a means towards ensuring potent and transparent financial reporting by any corporate.ICAI, being a premier accounting body in the country, took upon itself the leadership role by establishing ASB, more than twenty five years back, to fall in line with the international and national expectations. Today, accounting standards issued by the Institute have come a long way.

Dr. H. S. Patange

2012-01-01

370

[An overview of reporting standards for a series of systematic reviews of international clinical trials].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Any kind of clinical study can supply clinical decision-making with useful information when they are designed and reported properly. However, results with bias or mistake can misguide doctors' decisions, if trials with poor design quality were reported wrongly. Therefore, researchers should report trials accurately and critically, so that the quality of trials could reach a high level and get trustworthy results. This article made an overview of many kinds of reporting standards about systematic reviews and all kinds of trials. We hope these international published standards could be helpful for Chinese medicine researchers in their practice.

Liao X; Xie YM; Shen H

2013-04-01

371

International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards

1997-01-01

372

International basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards

1996-01-01

373

The 2nd International standard for Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Report of a collaborative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two candidate preparations of human sequence recombinant Interleukin-2 (IL-2) were formulated and lyophilized at NIBSC prior to evaluation in a collaborative study for their suitability to serve as a replacement international standard. The preparations were tested by eight laboratories using in vitro bioassays and immunoassays. The candidate preparation 86/500 was judged suitable to serve as a replacement international standard based on the data obtained for activity and stability. On the basis of the results reported here, the preparation coded 86/500 was established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardisation (ECBS) as the WHO 2nd IS for human IL-2 with an assigned value for IL-2 activity of 210IU/ampoule. Calibration of the 2nd IS is primarily based on the bioassay in use in various laboratories and relies exclusively on the estimates calculated relative to the WHO 1st IS for continuity of the IU.

Wadhwa M; Bird C; Heath AB; Dilger P; Thorpe R

2013-08-01

374

Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric Determination of Myo-inositol in Humans Utilizing a Deuterated Internal Standard  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The isotopic dilution technique was used for determining the content of myo-inositol in human urine, plasma and haemolysed erythrocyte samples. A deuterated myo-inositol, synthesized from inosose-2 by base-catalysed exchange of hydrogens by deuterium, followed by reduction of the inosose with 2H2, was added as internal standard to the samples at an early stage in the analytical procedure. After separation and derivatization to the hexa-acetate, the gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis was carried out. A 25 m fused silica capillary column coated with methyl silicone was used, and the ions selected for monitoring were m/z 210 and m/z 214, which are characteristic and abundant fragment ions from unlabelled and hexadeuterated myo-inositolhexa-acetate, respectively. Calibration curves from water, urine, plasma and haemolysed erythrocytes show parallel, linear responses in the ratio between analyte and internal standard in the area of interest (0.2–2.0).

Andersen, Jan Rud; Larsen, Elfinn

1982-01-01

375

MEASURING THE IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS (IFRS) TO FINANCIAL INFORMATION OF PORTUGUESE COMPANIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To increase efficiency of the European finance market, the European Union (EU) recently forced all public companies to publish their financial disclosures with the support of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), emanated by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), beginning January 1, 2005. In this paper, we measure the impact of the application of IFRS to financial information of Portuguese public companies belonging to the Eurolist by Euronext Lisbon. The results show that the Balance Sheet and Income Statement structures of the firms studied suffered relevant accounting conversions in the process of compliance. Nevertheless, we did not find a clear pattern for the accounting variations. IFRS implementation conditioned the measure made to the performance and the financial position of the business companies in Portugal.

Francisco José Ferreira Silva; Gualter Manuel Medeiros do Couto; Ruben Mota Cordeiro

2008-01-01

376

Professional Development Experiences: Are Psychology Interns Getting Enough?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Understanding the professional development needs of psychology interns is essential to maximize the utility of predoctoral internship training; yet, little research has explored the professional development training experiences interns receive. In Study 1, 275 psychology interns from APPIC-listed programs completed a 20-question web-based anonymous survey, assessing experiences of and satisfaction with professional development training obtained on internship. Using a mixed method research design, a series of descriptive and correlational analyses were conduct ed. Results indicated almost 90% of interns reported receiving professional development training on internship, and 60% of interns were satisfied with their professional development training experiences. More comprehensive coverage of relevant professional development topics was associated with greater overall satisfaction and any coverage of a particular topic tended to be associated with greater satisfaction. Multiple linear regression results suggested that perceptions of preparedness for various post-internship positions were associated with satisfaction with professional development internship training experiences. In Study 2, 194 internship training directors completed a modified version of the same survey. Training directors reported more hours of coverage than did interns and tended to perceive interns as more satisfied with professional development training experiences on internship than did interns themselves. Implications for those involved in the training of interns are provided.

Annette S. Kluck; Tracy O’Connor Pennuto; Kathrin Hartmann

2011-01-01

377

Internal standards: a source of analytical bias for volatile organic analyte determinations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of internal standards in the determination of volatile organic compounds as described in SW-846 Method 8260C introduces a potential for bias in results once the internal standards (ISTDs) are added to a sample for analysis. The bias is relative to the dissimilarity between the analyte and internal standard physical properties that influence how easily analytes are separated from a matrix and concentrated during analysis. Method 5032 is a vacuum distillation procedure for extracting analytes from a sample for use with Method 8260C. Vacuum distillation is also incorporated within another GC/MS analytical procedure, Method 8261A. Method 8260C/5032 and Method 8261A are experimentally identical, however, Method 8261A uses internal standards differently by relating the recovery of each compound to its boiling point and relative volatility. By processing each analysis (water, soil, and biota) using both Method 8260C and Method 8261A, the two approaches are compared on the basis of analyte bias and the failure rate of the quality controls. Analytes were grouped by how similar their boiling points and natural log of their relative volatilities (lnRVs) were to their Method 8260C recommended ISTDs. For the most similar analytes, the Method 8260C determinations yielded an average bias less than 10% and a failure to meet calibration criteria less than 7%. However, as the difference between analyte and ISTD became greater the bias increased to over 40% (matrix dependent) and its calibration failure rate approached 70%. In comparison, when the Method 8260C data were reprocessed as Method 8261A determinations, this trend for groupings was minimized with biases increasing from 6% to only 20% and the calibration failure rate went from 0% to 15%.

Hiatt MH

2011-01-01

378

Time for a Paradigm Shift? Exploring Maximum Standards in International Intellectual Property Protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available International intellectual property (IP) protection is at the heart of controversies over the impact of economic interests on social or environmental concerns. Some see IP rights as unduly encroaching upon human rights and societal interests, others argue for stronger enforcement and additional exclusivity to incentivize new innovations and creations. Underlying these debates is the perception that international IP treaties set out minimum standards of protection - which presumably allow for additional protection with only the sky being the limit. This article challenges this view and explores the idea of maximum standards or ceilings within the existing body of international IP law. It looks at the relation between IP treaties and subsequent agreements or national laws which offer stronger protection. In particular, within the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), an important qualification may serve as a door opener for ceilings: While additional IP protection may not go beyond mandatory limits within TRIPS, the qualification not to “contravene” TRIPS is unlikely to safeguard TRIPS flexibilities against TRIPS-plus norms. The article further identifies and examines the rationales for maximum standards in international IP protection as: (1) Legal security and predictability about the boundaries of protection; (2) the global protection of users’ rights; and (3) the free movement of goods, services and information. Examples of mandatory limits in the existing IP treaties and in ongoing initiatives can implement these. However, most of the relevant treaty norms are optional. The article concludes with some observations on the need for more comprehensive and precise maximum standards.

Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan

2009-01-01

379

Lymphocytes as internal standard in oxidative burst analysis by cytometry: a new data analysis approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We propose a new data analysis approach for reactive oxygen species detection using Dihydrorhodamine 123 in blood monocytes and neutrophils. This approach, based on data transformation using lymphocytes as internal standard, allows to appreciate free radical production by monocytes also without Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) activation. In addition, this method is sensitive to differences in healthy subjects due to sub-pathological conditions, such as hypercholesterolemia.

Peluso I; Morabito G; Riondino S; La Farina F; Serafini M

2012-05-01

380

Multicenter validation of the analytical accuracy of Salmonella PCR: towards an international standard  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As part of a major international project for the validation and standardization of PCR for detection of five major food-borne pathogens, four primer sets specific for Salmonella species were evaluated in-house for their analytical accuracy (selectivity and detection limit) in identifying 43 Salmonella spp. and 47 non-Salmonella strains. The most selective primer set was found to be 139-141 (K. Rahn, S. A. De Grandis, R. C. Clarke, S. A. McEwen, J. E. Galan, C. Ginocchio, R. Curtiss 111, and C. L. Gyles, Mol. Cell. Probes 6:271-279, 1992), which targets the invA gene. An extended determination of selectivity by using 364 strains showed that the inclusivity was 99.6% and the exclusivity was 100% for the invA primer set. To indicate possible PCR inhibitors derived from the sample DNA, an internal amplification control (IAC), which was coamplified with the invA target gene, was constructed. In the presence of 300 DNA copies of the IAC, the detection probability for primer set 139-141 was found to be 100% when a cell suspension containing 10(4) CFU/ml was used as the template in the PCR (50 CFU per reaction). The primer set was further validated in an international collaborative study that included 16 participating laboratories. Analysis with 28 coded ("blind") DNA samples revealed an analytical accuracy of 98%. Thus, a simple PCR assay that is specific for Salmonella spp. and amplifies a chromosomal DNA fragment detected by gel electrophoresis was established through extensive validation and is proposed as an international standard. This study addresses the increasing demand of quality assurance laboratories for standard diagnostic methods and presents findings that can facilitate the international comparison and exchange of epidemiological data.

Malorny, B.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Towards a framework for developing semantic relatedness reference standards.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our objective is to develop a framework for creating reference standards for functional testing of computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Currently, research on computerized approaches to semantic relatedness between biomedical concepts relies on reference standards created for specific purposes using a variety of methods for their analysis. In most cases, these reference standards are not publicly available and the published information provided in manuscripts that evaluate computerized semantic relatedness measurement approaches is not sufficient to reproduce the results. Our proposed framework is based on the experiences of medical informatics and computational linguistics communities and addresses practical and theoretical issues with creating reference standards for semantic relatedness. We demonstrate the use of the framework on a pilot set of 101 medical term pairs rated for semantic relatedness by 13 medical coding experts. While the reliability of this particular reference standard is in the "moderate" range; we show that using clustering and factor analyses offers a data-driven approach to finding systematic differences among raters and identifying groups of potential outliers. We test two ontology-based measures of relatedness and provide both the reference standard containing individual ratings and the R program used to analyze the ratings as open-source. Currently, these resources are intended to be used to reproduce and compare results of studies involving computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Our framework may be extended to the development of reference standards in other research areas in medical informatics including automatic classification, information retrieval from medical records and vocabulary/ontology development.

Pakhomov SV; Pedersen T; McInnes B; Melton GB; Ruggieri A; Chute CG

2011-04-01

382

Towards a framework for developing semantic relatedness reference standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective is to develop a framework for creating reference standards for functional testing of computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Currently, research on computerized approaches to semantic relatedness between biomedical concepts relies on reference standards created for specific purposes using a variety of methods for their analysis. In most cases, these reference standards are not publicly available and the published information provided in manuscripts that evaluate computerized semantic relatedness measurement approaches is not sufficient to reproduce the results. Our proposed framework is based on the experiences of medical informatics and computational linguistics communities and addresses practical and theoretical issues with creating reference standards for semantic relatedness. We demonstrate the use of the framework on a pilot set of 101 medical term pairs rated for semantic relatedness by 13 medical coding experts. While the reliability of this particular reference standard is in the "moderate" range; we show that using clustering and factor analyses offers a data-driven approach to finding systematic differences among raters and identifying groups of potential outliers. We test two ontology-based measures of relatedness and provide both the reference standard containing individual ratings and the R program used to analyze the ratings as open-source. Currently, these resources are intended to be used to reproduce and compare results of studies involving computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Our framework may be extended to the development of reference standards in other research areas in medical informatics including automatic classification, information retrieval from medical records and vocabulary/ontology development. PMID:21044697

Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Pedersen, Ted; McInnes, Bridget; Melton, Genevieve B; Ruggieri, Alexander; Chute, Christopher G

2010-10-31

383

Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this document is to make the output of the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT) Standardization and Validation available to medical and scientific communities, through a peer-reviewed publication, in the interest of improving the diagnosis and treatment of patients with atherosclerosis, including coronary artery disease. BACKGROUND: Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is a catheter-based modality that acquires images at a resolution of ~10 ?m, enabling visualization of blood vessel wall microstructure in vivo at an unprecedented level of detail. IVOCT devices are now commercially available worldwide, there is an active user base, and the interest in using this technology is growing. Incorporation of IVOCT in research and daily clinical practice can be facilitated by the development of uniform terminology and consensus-based standards on use of the technology, interpretation of the images, and reporting of IVOCT results. METHODS: The IWG-IVOCT, comprising more than 260 academic and industry members from Asia, Europe, and the United States, formed in 2008 and convened on the topic of IVOCT standardization through a series of 9 national and international meetings. RESULTS: Knowledge and recommendations from this group on key areas within the IVOCT field were assembled to generate this consensus document, authored by the Writing Committee, composed of academicians who have participated in meetings and/or writing of the text. CONCLUSIONS: This document may be broadly used as a standard reference regarding the current state of the IVOCT imaging modality, intended for researchers and clinicians who use IVOCT and analyze IVOCT data.

Tearney GJ; Regar E; Akasaka T; Adriaenssens T; Barlis P; Bezerra HG; Bouma B; Bruining N; Cho JM; Chowdhary S; Costa MA; de Silva R; Dijkstra J; Di Mario C; Dudek D; Dudeck D; Falk E; Falk E; Feldman MD; Fitzgerald P; Garcia-Garcia HM; Garcia H; Gonzalo N; Granada JF; Guagliumi G; Holm NR; Honda Y; Ikeno F; Kawasaki M; Kochman J; Koltowski L; Kubo T; Kume T; Kyono H; Lam CC; Lamouche G; Lee DP; Leon MB; Maehara A; Manfrini O; Mintz GS; Mizuno K; Morel MA; Nadkarni S; Okura H; Otake H; Pietrasik A; Prati F; Räber L; Radu MD; Rieber J; Riga M; Rollins A; Rosenberg M; Sirbu V; Serruys PW; Shimada K; Shinke T; Shite J; Siegel E; Sonoda S; Sonada S; Suter M; Takarada S; Tanaka A; Terashima M; Thim T; Troels T; Uemura S; Ughi GJ; van Beusekom HM; van der Steen AF; van Es GA; van Es GA; van Soest G; Virmani R; Waxman S; Weissman NJ; Weisz G

2012-03-01

384

Measurement of serum lamotrigine by high performance liquid chromatography using a phenyltriazine as internal standard.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lamotrigine, an anti-epileptic drug with a phenyltriazine molecular structure, is commonly measured for therapeutic drug monitoring purposes by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or gas liquid chromatography (GLC). A convenient internal standard is the structurally related phenyltriazine compound BWA725C previously obtainable from the Wellcome Foundation, UK. Irsogladine is also structurally similar to lamotrigine and was therefore tested as a possible replacement for BWA725C. A GLC procedure with thermionic detection (NPD) has been utilized routinely for lamotrigine in our drug monitoring facility. Irsogladine was unsuitable, however, because the retention times of irsogladine and a co-prescribed drug, carbamazepine, were very similar. An HPLC method utilizing a Prodigy Phenomenex ODS3 column performed well using either of the internal standards. The pH of the mobile phase had a distinct impact on the spectra of lamotrigine and BWA725C. A mobile phase at pH 3, with detection at 225 nm was required to effectively resolve lamotrigine from sulthiame and irsogladine from phenobarbitone. Comparison of the HPLC and the existing GLC method with routine patient specimens (n = 43) gave an equation, y = 0.9382x + 0.8238, R(2) = 0.9862. Irsogladine was found to be a suitable internal standard for an HPLC analysis of lamotrigine.

Madhavaram H; Woollard GA; Couch RA

2012-02-01

385

Measurement of serum lamotrigine by high performance liquid chromatography using a phenyltriazine as internal standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lamotrigine, an anti-epileptic drug with a phenyltriazine molecular structure, is commonly measured for therapeutic drug monitoring purposes by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or gas liquid chromatography (GLC). A convenient internal standard is the structurally related phenyltriazine compound BWA725C previously obtainable from the Wellcome Foundation, UK. Irsogladine is also structurally similar to lamotrigine and was therefore tested as a possible replacement for BWA725C. A GLC procedure with thermionic detection (NPD) has been utilized routinely for lamotrigine in our drug monitoring facility. Irsogladine was unsuitable, however, because the retention times of irsogladine and a co-prescribed drug, carbamazepine, were very similar. An HPLC method utilizing a Prodigy Phenomenex ODS3 column performed well using either of the internal standards. The pH of the mobile phase had a distinct impact on the spectra of lamotrigine and BWA725C. A mobile phase at pH 3, with detection at 225 nm was required to effectively resolve lamotrigine from sulthiame and irsogladine from phenobarbitone. Comparison of the HPLC and the existing GLC method with routine patient specimens (n = 43) gave an equation, y = 0.9382x + 0.8238, R(2) = 0.9862. Irsogladine was found to be a suitable internal standard for an HPLC analysis of lamotrigine. PMID:21344674

Madhavaram, H; Woollard, G A; Couch, R A F

2011-02-23

386

Darwin Core: an evolving community-developed biodiversity data standard.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biodiversity data derive from myriad sources stored in various formats on many distinct hardware and software platforms. An essential step towards understanding global patterns of biodiversity is to provide a standardized view of these heterogeneous data sources to improve interoperability. Fundamental to this advance are definitions of common terms. This paper describes the evolution and development of Darwin Core, a data standard for publishing and integrating biodiversity information. We focus on the categories of terms that define the standard, differences between simpl