WorldWideScience

Sample records for developing international standards

  1. ISO: international standards development for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of internationally recognized standards for nuclear technology and safety is rapidly increasing for technical as well as economical and political reasons such as public acceptance and nuclear technology transfer to developing countries. The need for such standards is also evident because of the large number of nuclear installations sited close to international borders, and the export of nuclear installations from relatively few supplier countries to a large number of user countries. It is the purpose of this report to describe briefly the history, organizational structures and procedures, goals, accomplishments, problems, and future needs of the relevant activities of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO is composed of the partly governmental, partly non-governmental national standards bodies of 86 countries including China. The work of its Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' is mostly concerned with industrial applications, contractual aspects and international communication, for the benefit of both developed and developing countries. It works in close liaison with IAEA, which develops Codes and Guides addressed mainly to the regulatory aspects of nuclear power plants in developing countries. ISO/TC 85 has four sub-committees dealing with: (a) Terminology, Definitions, Units and Symbols (Secretariat USA, four working groups (WGs)); (b) Radiation Protection (Secretariat France, ten WGs); (c) Power Reactor Technology (Secretariat Sweden, nine WGs); (d) Nuclear Fuel Technology (Secretariat F.R. Germany, seven WGs). (author)

  2. IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological safety of the equipment. The main characteristics of IEC 62463 and IEC 62523 standards are presented and as well as the IEC methodology of standard development and approval

  3. The development of international standards for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety for human consumption of irradiated food items has been exhaustively studied on a large scale for at least two decades. It is thought to establish internationally accepted standards on irradiated foods within the framework of Codex Alimentarius as set up by the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme

  4. Recent international developments regarding standardization of food irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recommendations of the Joint Expert Committee on Food Irradiation at its 1976 and 1979 meetings, published by WHO/FAO/IAEA in 1977 and 1980 are discussed in relation to the Recommended Codex International General Standard for Irradiated Food and the Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods, which are based on them. The texts of these documents are appended. The problem of labelling irradiated foods is discussed

  5. Development of proliferation resistance assessment methodology based on international standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonproliferation is one of the main requirements to be satisfied by the advanced future nuclear energy systems that have been developed in the Generation IV and INPRO studies. The methodologies to evaluate proliferation resistance has been developed since 1980s, however, the systematic evaluation approach has begun from around 2000. Domestically a study to develop national method to evaluate proliferation resistance (PR) of advanced future nuclear energy systems has started in 2007 as one of the long-term nuclear R and D subjects in order to promote export and international credibility and transparency of national nuclear energy systems and nuclear fuel cycle technology development program. In the first phase (2007-2010) development and improvement of intrinsic evaluation parameters for the evaluation of proliferation resistance, quantification of evaluation parameters, development of evaluation models, and development of permissible ranges of evaluation parameters have been carried out. In the second phase (2010-2012) generic principle of to evaluate PR was established, and techincal guidelines, nuclear material diversion pathway analysis method, and a method to integrate evaluation parameters have been developed. which were applied to 5 alternative nuclear fuel cycles to estimate their appicability and objectivity. In addition, measures to enhance PR of advanced future nuclear energy systems and technical guidelines of PR assessment using intrinsic PR evaluation parameters were developed. Lastly, requlatory requirements to secure nonproliferation requirements of nuclear energy systems from the early design stage, operation and to decommissioning which will support the export of newly developed advanced future nuclear energy system

  6. The developments of international hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards and the response strategies in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of hydrogen and fuel cells has expanded as the technology in international markets has improved. Leading countries have focused on establishing hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards. Both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) continuously release new hydrogen and fuel cell related standards. Although the government of Taiwan is promoting the development of a hydrogen and fuel cell industry, it may delay the commercialized schedule if there are no hydrogen and fuel cell related standards and regulations in place. Standards and regulations must be established as quickly as possible in order to accelerate the progress of the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. This presentation reviewed the international progress in hydrogen and fuel cell development and explained Taiwan's response strategies regarding the adoption of hydrogen and fuel cell products in niche Taiwanese markets

  7. The upstream oil and gas industry's initiative in the development of international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the international work of the oil industry to formalize as International Standards many of the industry standards used world-wide. It also describes how matters have been developing in Europe. E and P Forum, representing the international exploration and production oil and gas industry, provides a forum for coordinating industry standardization, to ensure that the necessary standards are maintained by the appropriate technical body. The paper discusses the development of the standardization program in ISO/TC67, the Technical Committee directing the transformation of some 70 API Standards into ISO Standards and the relationship to CEN (the European standardization body). The objective of the upstream industry is to operate worldwide to consistent international standards. Company standards can then concentrate on functional and performance requirements. This will facilitate international trade and communication, open competition and the global market. For a practical realization of this objective the oil industry must foster a special relationship between the relevant US bodies, ISO and CEN. The sustained support of all sides of industry is required

  8. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  9. Development of an international standard for electromagnetic interference (EMI)/radio frequency interference (RFI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the development of an international standard that establishes the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility testing of instrumentation and control equipment supplied for use in systems important to safety at nuclear power plants. The standard lists the applicable IEC standards (principally the IEC 61000 series) which define the general test methods, and provides the necessary application-specific parameters and criteria to ensure that nuclear safety requirements are met. This standard was prepared with the leadership by the Russian National Committee representatives to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). (authors)

  10. Development of an international standard on instruments setpoints based on ISA S67.04 - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a summary of the application for and development of an international standard on instrument setpoints, based on the Instrument Society of America (ISA) Standard S67.04 - 1994. The forum this new standard was proposed in is the International Electrotechnique Commission (IEC), based in Geneva, Switzerland, which is the international commission which oversees electrical and instrumentation standards for all applications around the world. The Instrument Society of America (ISA) is a United States based Society for the advancement of instrumentation and controls related science and technology and has 30,000 members. A division within the ISA is the Standard and Practices board which has over 5000 members actively involved in standards development and approval. In 1994, the ISA SP67, Nuclear Power Plant Standards Committee authorized that the IEC be approached to develop and issue an IEC standard on Instrument Setpoints. This application was formally submitted in January, 1995 to the IEC and approved for ballot to member countries in June, 1995. Approval for standard development by IEC was received in October, 1995 and the first draft vas issued in February, 1996, and is currently under review by the IEC working group. It is very important to focus on the approach that the U.S. and other countries are taking toward development of IEC standards that can apply to all nuclear instrumentation applications around the world. By referencing IEC standards in design specification, vendors can be solicited from many different countries, thereby ensuring that the highest quality products can be used. This also offsets the need to specify individual standards in the specification, based on the country that each vendor solicited, represents. In summary, this standard development process, with support from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) will assist U.S. suppliers in competing in the global market for products and services into the next century. (author)

  11. Activity trends of the international organizations involved in the development of the radiological protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the development of the radiological protection standards, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) play important roles by summarizing latest knowledge on radiation effects, by developing the principles of radiological protection, and by providing the international basic safety standard for national legislations, respectively. Recently, large number of international organizations, communities and networks are recognized as key stakeholders, and are involved in the activities of evolving the radiological protection standards. As these international bodies are mainly originated from European counties which have been leading discussions in terms of radiological protection so far, and it is also envisaged that they will strongly be engaged in its development in the future, it will be worthwhile to regard their activity trends for getting research results and considerations reflected into the radiological protection standards, i.e. the ICRP fundamental recommendations. In this study, the backgrounds and current activities of those international bodies were collected and analyzed to identify their exact interests and targets in the radiological protection area. Their comments on the recent ICRP publication drafts were also referred. (author)

  12. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytchev, M. [IRSN/DSU/SERAC/BIREN-CTHIR, B.P. 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: miroslav.voytchev@irsn.fr; Chiaro, P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Radev, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-384, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three IEC standards are published. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: IEC 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', IEC 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and IEC 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'.

  13. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three IEC standards are published. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: IEC 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', IEC 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and IEC 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'

  14. International radiation safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of international safety standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is described with explanations as to the purpose of each level of the hierarchy. There is a system of committees that advise the IAEA and approve the safety standards and one of these committees is the Radiation Safety Standards Committee (RASSC). The Committee meets twice a year (the last meeting was 24-27 March 2003) and this note outlines the current situation with respect to published safety standards documents at the fundamentals, requirements and guides levels and the status of documents under development. Guidance on how to find more information and to keep up to date on the development of documents is provided. The forward plans of the IAEA in this area are discussed briefly. (note)

  15. Development and pilot of an internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management in European primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Szecsenyi Joachim; Grol Richard; van Lieshout Jan; Campbell Stephen M; Ludt Sabine; Wensing Michel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary care can play an important role in providing cardiovascular risk management in patients with established Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD), patients with a known high risk of developing CVD, and potentially for individuals with a low risk of developing CVD, but who have unhealthy lifestyles. To describe and compare cardiovascular risk management, internationally valid quality indicators and standardized measures are needed. As part of a large project in 9 European coun...

  16. International standards for the exploration and production industry -- Their development and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single global market for procurement is of crucial importance to the E and P industry. The resulting benefits, including cost reductions and shorter delivery times, could even be the key to the economic development of marginal fields. International Standards that cater for the needs of users, manufacturers and the public at large can provide a common basis for companies to procure and provide goods and services that will deliver the required performance throughout the field life. The savings to industry could be billions of dollars per year. The E and P Forum, on behalf of the industry, has developed proposals to increase the efficiency of this managerial procedure and to speed up the ''internationalization'' of selected standards. Details are given at the end of the paper. It is argued that the E and P industry should rally to the cause of international standardization. Companies should lend their full support by committing their valuable expert resources. It is in the interests of the industry to do this for, without suitably skilled expert representation in ISO and the elimination of duplication as well as waste of resources through performing similar work at company or national level, the large potential benefits of international standardization will elude the E and P industry

  17. Development and pilot of an internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management in European primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szecsenyi Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care can play an important role in providing cardiovascular risk management in patients with established Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD, patients with a known high risk of developing CVD, and potentially for individuals with a low risk of developing CVD, but who have unhealthy lifestyles. To describe and compare cardiovascular risk management, internationally valid quality indicators and standardized measures are needed. As part of a large project in 9 European countries (EPA-Cardio, we have developed and tested a set of standardized measures, linked to previously developed quality indicators. Methods A structured stepwise procedure was followed to develop measures. First, the research team allocated 106 validated quality indicators to one of the three target populations (established CVD, at high risk, at low risk and to different data-collection methods (data abstraction from the medical records, a patient survey, an interview with lead practice GP/a practice survey. Secondly, we selected a number of other validated measures to enrich the assessment. A pilot study was performed to test the feasibility. Finally, we revised the measures based on the findings. Results The EPA-Cardio measures consisted of abstraction forms from the medical-records data of established Coronary Heart Disease (CHD-patients - and high-risk groups, a patient questionnaire for each of the 3 groups, an interview questionnaire for the lead GP and a questionnaire for practice teams. The measures were feasible and accepted by general practices from different countries. Conclusions An internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management, linked to validated quality indicators and tested for feasibility in general practice, is now available. Careful development and pilot testing of the measures are crucial in international studies of quality of healthcare.

  18. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process. Fourth, sufficient program resources for program implementation and evaluation are critical to the effectiveness of standards and labeling programs and cost-sharing between national and local governments can help ensure adequate resources and uniform implementation. Lastly, check-testing and punitive measures are important forms of enforcement while the cancellation of registration or product sales-based fines have also proven effective in reducing non-compliance. The international comparative analysis also revealed the differing degree to which the level of government decentralization has influenced S&L programs and while no single country has best practices in all elements of standards and labeling development and implementation, national examples of best practices for specific elements do exist. For example, the U.S. has exemplified the use of rigorous analyses for standard-setting and robust data source with the RECS database while Japan?s Top Runner standard-setting principle has motivated manufacturers to exceed targets. In terms of standards implementation and enforcement, Australia has demonstrated success with enforcement given its long history of check-testing and enforcement initiatives while mandatory information-sharing between EU jurisdictions on compliance results is another important enforcement mechanism. These examples show that it is important to evaluate not only the drivers of different paths of standards and labeling development, but also the country-specific context for best practice examples in order to understand how and why certain elements of specific S&L programs have been effective.

  19. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  20. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869...

  1. Public participation and the private sector : the role of multilateral development banks in the evolution of international legal standards

    OpenAIRE

    Bradlow, Daniel David; Chapman, Megan S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper systematically describes the public participation standards currently applied by multilateral development banks (MDBs) to the private sector and seeks to identify emerging trends and areas for further development or improvement. It begins by outlining the developing body of international law on public participation and its relationship to good development practice. Thereafter, the paper describes the two principle models for standards attached to MDB funding and assistance to the p...

  2. Competitiveness and international standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Robert E.

    1992-05-01

    There are two main points to be covered in this paper; one deals with the question of why we should be interested in standardization in the first place. The second point considers why we should be more interested in international standards than domestic standards, assuming we have an interest at all. We argue that we should be interested in standards for optical goods for the same reason we believe in logic and scientific principles -- that no amount of charisma is going to change the fact that 2 plus 2 is 4. Regarding the second point, if one concludes that standards are worthwhile, why settle for half the loaf? We are now in a truly global market, even more so with recent events in Eastern Europe and the USSR, and the only way to take full advantage of that market is through international standards.

  3. Radiation protection instrumentation standards developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' of the IEC produces International Standards defining the requirements to which the instrumentation used for the radiation protection must satisfy. The compliance to these requirements is a guaranty of the quality of the instrument, of its good performance in the nuclear environment. Type testing equipment to the recommendations and requirements of the standards also provides the equipment user with reliable and internationally acceptable performance data which they can use for the accurate interpretation and comparisons of their operational measurements. The list of the published SC 45B standards is given in this paper. (author)

  4. Advantages and difficulties of implementation of the international GNA standards in sustainable mining development. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Conflicts in the development of mining projects are now common between the mining proponents, NGO's and communities. These conflicts can sometimes be alleviated by early development of modes of communication, and a formal discussion format that allows airing of concerns and potential resolution of problems. One of the methods that can formalize this process is to establish a Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA), which deals specifically with challenges in relationships between mining operations and the local communities. It is a new practice related to mining operations that are oriented toward social needs and concerns of local communities that arise during the normal life of a mine, which can achieve sustainable mining practices in both developing and developed countries. The GNA project being currently developed at the University of Nevada, Reno in cooperation with the Newmont Mining Corporation has a goal to create an open company/community dialog that is based on the international standards and that will help identify and address sociological and environmental concerns associated with mining, as well as find methods for communication and conflict resolution. GNA standards should be based on trust doctrine, open information access, and community involvement in the decision making process. It should include the following components: emergency response and community communications; environmental issues, including air and water quality standards; reclamation and recultivation; socio-economic issues: transportation, safety, training, and local hiring; and financial issues, particularly related to mitigation offsets and community needs. The GNA standards help identify and evaluate conflict criteria in mining/community relationships; determine the status of concerns; focus on the local political and government systems; separate the acute and the chronic concerns; determine the role and responsibilities of stakeholders; analyze problem resolution feasibility; maintain the community involvement and support through economic benefits and environmental safeguards; develop options for the concerns resolution; develop and manage short and long-term plans. Difficulties in establishing the GNA standards include identification of the full list of stakeholders, lack of responsible environmental protection practices, dependence on the government and political system, lack of will to disclose full information to the public. It is further complicated by the lack of insurance/bonding policies, and by the lack of audit and monitoring that could determine the level of exposure of the local community and the environment to the contaminants released at the mine sites. Since many problems of mines can occur during closure and post-closure, GNA's should address those issues also. Determined the process for the GNA implementation as a conflict prevention/resolution tool, analyzed conflict/concerns criteria associated with mining operations, determined the role of the stakeholders, worked out the process of stakeholders monitoring, carried out the sociological survey of the stakeholders and the community. Frequent conflicts between mining companies and surrounding communities that lead to work disruptions or even mine closures show the necessity of a less confrontational approach to environmental and social justice. Establishment of GNA standards for use in both developed and developing nations can decrease these conflicts.

  5. Radiation safety: New international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article highlights an important result of this work for the international harmonization of radiation safety: specifically, it present an overview of the forthcoming International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - the so-called BSS. They have been jointly developed by six organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

  6. Protection of emergency workers and helpers: recent developments in international standards in emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. IAEA safety requirements in preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, were endorsed in 2002 in a joint sponsorship of seven international intergovernmental organizations. Building on experience from responses to actual emergencies, these safety requirements set common goals to be achieved and the common concepts and approaches to be taken for an adequate preparedness to effectively respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency irrespective of the cause. Ensuring an adequate protection of emergency workers is an important aspect of emergency arrangements considered in this publication. In 2011, a revision of these safety requirements was initiated in order to take into account past experience and developments since 2002 with due consideration (but not limited to) the experience gained in the emergency response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Protection of emergency workers got particular attention during this revision in the light of the lessons identified in past emergencies resulting in strengthened and more comprehensive, yet simple, system for protection of emergency workers of different organizations and services. The revised safety requirements are expected to be published in 2015 as Part 7 of the General Safety Requirements (GSR Part 7) within the IAEA Safety Standards Series. In this presentation, the latest updates and developments with regard to emergency workers in the light of the revision of the Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 are presented. Issues such as who are to be considered as emergency workers, the importance of their designation prior to an emergency, how to deal during an emergency response with those emergency workers not recognized as such at preparedness stage, protection aspects to be considered for all emergency workers and dose criteria to be used for restricting their further exposures in an emergency response are addressed. The specifics associated with the protection of female emergency workers are also highlighted. Moreover, the approach to dealing and protecting helpers on the part of the public willing to contribute to the emergency response on a voluntarily basis is covered in this presentation too. (author)

  7. Development of an evaluation methodology for triple bottom line reports using international standards on reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouloudis, Antonis; Evangelinos, Konstantinos; Kourmousis, Fotis

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. First, evaluation scoring systems for triple bottom line (TBL) reports to date are examined and potential methodological weaknesses and problems are highlighted. In this context, a new assessment methodology is presented based explicitly on the most widely acknowledged standard on non-financial reporting worldwide, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The set of GRI topics and performance indicators was converted into scoring criteria while the generic scoring devise was set from 0 to 4 points. Secondly, the proposed benchmark tool was applied to the TBL reports published by Greek companies. Results reveal major gaps in reporting practices, stressing the need for the further development of internal systems and processes in order to collect essential non-financial performance data. A critical overview of the structure and rationale of the evaluation tool in conjunction with the Greek case study is discussed while recommendations for future research on the field of this relatively new form of reporting are suggested. PMID:19495861

  8. Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Triple Bottom Line Reports Using International Standards on Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouloudis, Antonis; Evangelinos, Konstantinos; Kourmousis, Fotis

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. First, evaluation scoring systems for triple bottom line (TBL) reports to date are examined and potential methodological weaknesses and problems are highlighted. In this context, a new assessment methodology is presented based explicitly on the most widely acknowledged standard on non-financial reporting worldwide, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. The set of GRI topics and performance indicators was converted into scoring criteria while the generic scoring devise was set from 0 to 4 points. Secondly, the proposed benchmark tool was applied to the TBL reports published by Greek companies. Results reveal major gaps in reporting practices, stressing the need for the further development of internal systems and processes in order to collect essential non-financial performance data. A critical overview of the structure and rationale of the evaluation tool in conjunction with the Greek case study is discussed while recommendations for future research on the field of this relatively new form of reporting are suggested.

  9. On the International Convergence of Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Boka Moussa

    2010-01-01

    The international convergence of accounting standards has become a hot topic in the international accounting field.The convergence is an irreversible developing trend of accounting internationalization development that began many years ago.Accounting,as a world-wide accepted business language,should naturally move towards internationalization.This paper discusses the international convergence of accounting standards focusing on its development stages,necessity and analyse the international st...

  10. Reaching international GMP standards for vaccine production: challenges for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstien, Julie; Costa, Alejandro; Jadhav, Suresh; Dhere, Rajeev

    2009-05-01

    Standards for vaccine production have been increasing at a rapid rate. Current standards of good manufacturing practice (GMP) had been thought to be out of the reach of developing country vaccine producers, many of whom are in the public sector, overseen by unvalidated national regulatory authorities (NRAs). With the advent of the GMP regulations in 1963 and their application to vaccine production, even many industrialized country manufacturers with stringent NRA oversight had difficulties. This article assesses the ability of developing country manufacturers to meet GMP by the only currently available global indicator: WHO prequalification. As recently as 1996, no developing country NRA was considered able to enforce GMP compliance. That number increased to four in 2002 and six in 2006, with a concomitant increase in the number of manufacturers considered to be operating to GMP standards. Examples of the difficulties faced by manufacturers in achieving this are given, as well as implications for the future vaccine market. PMID:19397413

  11. International standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents. (authors)

  12. Criticality safety and international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There appears to be a worldwide increase in interest in international standards. Indications are that international standards will tend to replace or overshadow national standards. An illustration of this tendency was seen recently. During the recent (February 1996) meeting of the International Organization for Standardization Technical Committee 85 (ISO TC 85, Nuclear Energy) in Albuquerque, representatives from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) requested ISO TC 85 to accept responsibility for conversion of 19 ASTM high-level dosimetry standards to ISO standards using the open-quotes fasttrackclose quotes procedure. This unprecedented request was stimulated by a need to have these procedures in an ISO document to make them more useful to the international community. Recognizing the increased status that international standards enjoy today, TC 85 unanimously agreed to accept this responsibility

  13. The International harmonisation process of Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Susanne; Lämmle, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Background: Growth in international trade and capital flows has triggered a rising economic integration. Because of these developments there has been an international homogenising effect upon many customs, practices and institutions. In business life it led among other things to a desire to harmonise Accounting Standards among countries. Purpose: Our purpose is to answer the question: What is the international harmonisation process of Accounting Standards, what is its status quo and how impo...

  14. TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR EDUCATION AND

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, Wolter de; Holtkamp, Fred

    2009-01-01

    The Forum Orthopaedic Educational Programs from the Netherlands and Belgium (Flanders)took the initiative to promote the developement of international standards for education and training in the field of orthopaedic shoe technology.

  15. Contribution to the panel discussion on 'International developments in standards, rules and codes for pressure vessels'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution to the discussion describes the legal system for technical installations in its existing form in the Federal Republic of Germany. The standardization of technical requirements to meet EC Directives and European Standards requires an adjustment, to a limited extent, of the appurtenant legal prerequisites. Given the trend away from tried and tested control mechanisms in the form of third party inspection, there is imminent danger of a reduction in quality. This compels us to consider how to maintain nonetheless the level of safety that has already been reached. (orig.)

  16. Room to Groove? : Standards of Civilization in the Development of International Financial Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    The use of a `standard of civilization', a preferred form of socio-political organization, in global capital markets presents both constraints and opportunities for creditors and borrowers. When imposed, civilizing standards may change how a borrower would prefer to conduct their affairs. Creditors, after all, do not have the time and money to check every little detail and want clear performance benchmarks in economic life. At the same time, borrowers may present themselves as conforming to a civilizing standard to access capital and give themselves a greater capacity to conduct their own affairs. As long as they stay within the parameters of legitimate financial practice to signal institutional isomorphism, the `groove', creditors may well allow borrowers room for change in self-determined ways. This paper maps out the historical and conceptual terrain concerning civilizing ideas about the legitimacy of financial practices within global capital markets, and investigates relationships between Western `civilizers' and Emerging Market Economies during the last two periods of financial globalization, the late-nineteenth/ early-twentieth centuries and the late-twentieth century.

  17. Standardizing products for the international NSSS market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse has responded to international differences in nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) design requirements by developing generic designs that meet particular national requirements to varying degrees. These standardized products represent a composite of the most common safety requirements in the international market. The way in which Westinghouse has coped with some of the obstacles to supplying nuclear equipment to meet the requirements of an international market with many national differences is discussed. (author)

  18. Nuclear standardization development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  19. Adoption determinants of the International Accounting Standards IAS/IFRS by the developing countries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fatma, Zehri; Jamel, Chouaibi.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este documento es identificar ciertos factores que probablemente esclarezcan la opción de aplicar IAS/IFRS adoptadas por los países en desarrollo hasta el año 2008. Basados en una muestra de 74 países en desarrollo, los resultados empíricos han demostrado que la mayoría de e [...] llos probablemente tienen un alto nivel de crecimiento económico, junto con un sistema jurídico de derecho consuetudinario y un nivel de educación avanzado. Abstract in english This paper’s main objective is to identify certain explanatory factors that likely clarify the choice of applying IAS/IFRS adopted by developing countries (DCs) up until the year 2008. Based on a sample consisting of 74 DCs, the empirical results have indicated that the DCs most likely to adopt IAS/ [...] IFRS have a high level of economic growth, along with a legal system of common law and an advanced educational level.

  20. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ...GAMING COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards AGENCY: National...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming...

  1. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing. (author)

  2. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing

  3. National Standards and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Ganslandt, Mattias; Markusen, James R.

    2001-01-01

    Standards and technical regulations which govern the admissibility of imported goods into an economy raise costs of exporters entering new markets, and may have a particularly high impact on firms seeking to export from developing countries. Yet standards may also have a positive side, such as certifying product quality and safety for the consumer. This paper analyzes potential conflicts of interest between consumers and firms in a developed and a developing country under different assumption...

  4. SETTING INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS IN HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu-George BOCEAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of globalization, more organizations are expanding internationally, which makes human resources increasingly mobile and global. In this context, managing workforce governed by a global culture is becoming increasingly difficult for the organization's human resources departments from the country of origin. Harmonization of human resource management practices and procedures through development of standards in this area is essential to ensure processes effectiveness and quality improvement. In this paper, we review standardization efforts in human resources management and we propose the development of a general standard for this area in order to enable multinational organizations to successfully manage human resources in countries with different cultures.

  5. Accounting Management by International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards – their contribution to harmonization andglobalization by purposing and tasking for accounting management. Measuring in details their pros and conseffects on the division of labour, financial innovation, company transactions and cost of capital it could beauthor’s recommendation for the business management inside and outside of one country’s border. Especiallythe multinational companies whose subsidiaries had to report for s...

  6. Status and Value of International Standards for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provides an update to the author's standards report provided at the ICNC-2007 meeting. It includes a discussion about the difference between, and the value of participating in, the development of international 'consensus' standards as opposed to nonconsensus standards. Standards are developed for a myriad of reasons. Generally, standards represent an agreed upon, repeatable way of doing something as defined by an individual or group of people. They come in various types. Examples include personal, family, business, industrial, commercial, and regulatory such as military, community, state, federal, and international standards. Typically, national and international 'consensus' standards are developed by individuals and organizations of diverse backgrounds representing the subject matter users and developers of a service or product and other interested parties or organizations. Within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Technical Committee 85 (TC85) on nuclear energy, Subcommittee 5 (SC5) on nuclear fuel technology, there is a Working Group 8 (WG8) on standardization of calculations, procedures, and practices related to criticality safety. WG8 has developed, and is developing, ISO standards within the category of nuclear criticality safety of fissionable materials outside of reactors (i.e., nonreactor fissionable material nuclear fuel cycle facilities). Since the presentation of the ICNC-2007 report, WG8 has issued three new finalized international standards and is developing two more new standards. Nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards. The progression of consensus standards development among international partners in a collegial environment establishes a synergy of different concepts that broadens the perspectives of the members. This breadth of perspectives benefits the working group members in their considerations of consensus standards developments in their own countries. A testament to the value of the international standards efforts is that nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards and are mainly consistent with international ISO member domestic standards.

  7. Developing a registration entry and query system within the scope of harmonizing of the orthophoto metadata with the international standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?ahin, ?.; Alk??, Z.

    2013-10-01

    Increase in the number of satellites and the utilization of digital cameras in the aerial photography has spread the use of satellite image and oriented aerial photograph as real or near-real time resolution, accessible, cost effective spatial data. Co-registered images or aerial photos corrected for the height variations and orthogonality (scale) have become an essential input for geographical information systems and spatial decision making due to their integration with the other spatial data. Beyond that, images and photographs compose infrastructure for the other information in usage of spatial data with the help of the access and query facility web providing. Although the issue of the aerial photo ortho-rectification has been solved long ago, the problems related with the storage of huge amount of photos and images, their management, processes, and user accesses have been raised. These subjects concern the multitudinous private and governmental institutes. Some governmental organizations and private companies have gained the technical ability to perform these works in recent times. This situation has lead to significant increase in the amount of aerial photograph taking and processing in one year for whole country. General Command of Mapping has been using digital aerial camera since 2008 for the photograph taking. The total area covered by the satellite images, purchased for different purposes, and the aerial photographs, taken for some revision purposes or demands of governmental and private institutes, has reached up to 200.000 km². It is considered that, colored and high resolution orthophotos of the whole country can be achieved within four years; provided that the annual production would continue similarly without any increase in amount. From the numbers given above, it is clear and inevitable that the orthophoto production procedure must be improved in order to produce orthophotos in the same year just after the photograph takings. Necessary studies about the storage, management and presentation of the huge amounts of orthophoto images to the users must be started immediately. In this study; metadata components of the produced orthophotos compatible with the international standards have been defined, a relational database has been created to keep complete and accurate metadata, and a user interface has been developed to insert the metadata into the database. Through the developed software, some extra time has been saved while creating and querying the metadata.

  8. Development of internal company standards of good management practice and a task-based risk assessment tool for offshore work-related stressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briner, R.B.; Amati, C.; Lardner, R.

    2003-07-01

    This report describes a project which developed a set of fourteen internal, company-specific management standards for common work-related stressors. A ''bottom-up'' stress risk assessment approach was used to identify work-related stressors affecting team members in two organisations, BP and East of Scotland Water. The final versions of the standards, and a description of the process used in their development, are provided. In addition, a set of human factors triggers for use during a task-based risk assessment was developed and implemented. Although the standards and human factors triggers were developed within specific industries, it is likely that they will be relevant and useful to many organisations who wish to adopt a preventative approach to work-related stress. (author)

  9. National and international standards on nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on non-regulatory voluntary international standards developed in the area of radiation protection related nuclear waste problems by the International Standards Organization's Technical Committee 'Nuclear Energy' (ISO/TC 85), in particular its SC 5/WG 5 dealing with solid and solidified waste, relevant national standards in various countries, and the interaction between these categories, with an increasing trend towards internationalization. Together with examples for the progress which has been made so far, possible future trends and problems will also be briefly outlined. One of the key problems which appear to require attention is the cost level of nuclear waste programs, which is closely associated with the current, highly questionable assumptions about the risks associated with very low radiation doses. (orig.)

  10. IAEA safety standards and international legal instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA safety standards constitute a comprehensive and consistent framework of reference for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks. As such, they are of fundamental importance for both regulators and technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) in their duties related to nuclear safety and radiation protection. International cooperation is also favoured by the IAEA safety standards, permitting the identification of final objectives and the steps necessary to achieve them in very different national and regional contexts. The fact that groups of experts, widely representing the Member States, developed the safety standards is an additional guarantee of their applicability in different situations. Nevertheless, it should be taken into account that nuclear and radiation safety and their regulation are national competencies, and hence the safety standards should be adopted and suitably modified by the States to become a national safety reference. The clear advantages of the technical assistance that some nations can receive from the IAEA in nuclear and radiation safety favour the adoption of the safety standards. In addition, the explicit mention of the IAEA safety standards in international conventions and codes of conduct signed by several countries also helps their implementation from a legal point of view. Unfortunately, from a practical point of view, the difficulties do not disappear by officially adopting the safety standards. Problems related to insufficient resources, shortcomings in the technical infrastructure and/or the limited experience of TSO staff are real problems that require additional efforts in order to effectively implement the safety standards. Renewed efforts to facilitate international cooperation among regional TSOs are necessary, for example, to promote specific harmonization of national situations. (author)

  11. Study of International Standards of Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykan Volodymyr L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management, are of general character and differ with the degree of detailing. Their undoubted value in development of risk management in Ukraine is identification of a general direction of building corporate systems of risk management in practice. The said approaches at the national and corporate levels of standardisation in Ukraine within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management would allow improvement of risk management in corporations and enterprises. The prospect of further studies of domestic specialists in the field of risk management is development of the domestic standard of risk management with consideration of modern domestic specific features of development of risk management in Ukraine and leading foreign experience.

  12. National and International Standardization (International Organization for Standardization and European Committee for Standardization) Relevant for Sustainability in Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Morbiducci; Marina Fumo; Guri Krigsvoll

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability in construction has a short history in terms of principles, standardizations and applications. From the Brundtland Report “Our Common Future”, a new vision of the resource deficits, climate impacts and the social responsibility gave growth to the idea of sustainability also in design and construction. Consequently, in around 2000, the international and national organizations for standardization started to develop standards for the application of sustainable principles. This pap...

  13. 77 FR 58707 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64 FR 590. The rule added a new part to the Commission's regulations..., commenters also questioned the Commission's authority to require a System of Internal Controls (SICS) and the... and player tracking systems? 543.13 What are the minimum internal control standards for...

  14. Toward an international standard for PCR-based detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacters: Assay development and analytical validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Wolffs, P.; On, Stephen L.W.; Ahrens, Peter; Radstrom, P.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene were tested in all possible pairwise combinations, as well as two published primers targeting the 23S rRNA gene. A panel of 150 strains including target and nontarget strains was used in an ...

  15. National and international standardization of radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a short report of the International Symposium on National and International Standardization of Radiation Dosimetry held in Atlanta from 5 to 9 December 1977. The topics treated at the conference were the following: a) the calibration work at the National Standardization Laboratories, b) the standardization and the calibration in radiation protection, radioactive sources, c) basic physical aspects related with the topics studied, d) the determination of the standards for absorbed doses

  16. Geoscientists for international development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, David A.

    1980-01-01

    Professional societies are usually concerned with the advancement of scientific knowledge, but a relative newcomer to the international scene has a different focus - geoscience development in the Third World. David Hastings, a member of AGID, explains.

  17. International Financial Standards: Assessing Effectiveness from the Private Sector Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    MOSCHELLA, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates market participants’ endorsement of international financial standards. While the most part of scholarship works has focused on market incentives for states to comply, we shift the focus of the analysis to the incentives for market participants. Why do markets participants choose to follow through the standard and to incorporate states’ compliance with international standards in their investment decisions? In answering this question, the paper develops two hypotheses and...

  18. EPR meeting international safety standards with margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification in with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

  19. The international development challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markets are opening up to international competition and new opportunities will arise for companies. The first part of this international round table of the French gas association's annual conference was devoted to whether they have all necessary assets, especially in terms of know-how and new technologies. In the second part of this round table, gas industry leaders presented their ambitions and strategies on the international scene. The questions discussed related to the main areas of development from both business and geographic viewpoints; to the underlying factors such as expertise, technological know-how, market risks and potential, strategic alliances. (authors)

  20. International standards pertaining to thermography practices, training and certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Åkerblom, Lisa

    2008-03-01

    American, European and International societies establish standards for individuals and companies within the field of infrared thermography. Historically addressing non-destructive testing (NDT) applications and personnel, standards exist and are being developed within the fields of condition monitoring (CM) and building diagnostics. Incorrect reference to or application of standards and guidelines create widespread market confusion. What type of claim can be made against which standards? Does the standard apply to a company or an individual? To what or whom is the standard intended? Does reference to a standard guarantee compliance or imply quality? How does one become educated or involved in standards? An overview of international standards within the field of thermography (with brief reference to recognizable guidelines and standards such as ASNT SNT-TC-1A and CEN 473), their status and application will be presented.

  1. International standards for mine blowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskin, I.A.

    1985-04-01

    The Standing Committee for Standardization of the COMECON has issued 2 new standards for mine blowers used in underground coal mining. The standards have been worked out by Dongiprouglemash in the USSR. Standard ST SEhV 3830-82 Blowers for main ventilation systems, types and basic parameters should be introduced in 1985. Standard ST SEhV 4284-84 Mine blowers for local ventilation, types, basic parameters and technical requirements will be introduced in 1986. The new standards form the basis for standardization of mine blowers in all COMECON member countries. According to the new standards capacity of main blowers should range from 25 to 630 m/sup 3//s, local blowers from 1 to 20 m/sup 3//s, pressure produced by the blowers ranges from 2.5 to 12.5 kPa, the maximum dust content in the air in the case of main blowers should be not higher than 150 mg/m/sup 3/, and in the case of the local blowers not higher than 50 mg/m/sup 3/. The main blowers are used at temperatures from 323 to 228 K, local blowers at 308 to 253 K. Diameter of main blowers ranges from 1500 to 6000 mm, local blowers from 315 to 1200 mm. The minimum blower efficiency for main blowers and local blowers, axial-flow and centrifugal flow is given.

  2. Ensuring good governance to address emerging and re-emerging animal disease threats: supporting the veterinary services of developing countries to meet OIE international standards on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, B; Mallet, E

    2006-04-01

    As an effect of increased globalisation, animal diseases, in particular those transmissible to man, have an immediate global economic and social impact. This fact, dramatically illustrated by the current avian influenza epizootic in South-East Asia and Eastern Europe, clearly demonstrates the crucial importance of the national Veterinary Services (VS) for the prevention, early detection and response for the efficient control of animal diseases. Complying with this mission for the VS presupposes the existence of appropriate governance and legislation and of an official system to control their quality and reliability- an obvious weakness in many developing and in transition countries. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has therefore developed a project aiming at strengthening the VS in those countries facing the greatest animal health threats and to bring them into line with OIE international standards already adopted by the same countries. Based on the evaluation of the VS and subsequent actions at the global, regional and national levels, the project will have a significant beneficial impact on the targeted countries as well as the international community as a whole, not only in the fields of agriculture, food security and production, and food safety, but also for the local and global prevention of emerging and re-emerging diseases of veterinary and public health importance. The project will be implemented in strong collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization. The actions proposed must be considered eligible for the concept of International Public Good. PMID:16796063

  3. European and International Standards on health and safety in welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A.

    2009-02-01

    A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes— Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone — Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

  4. European and International Standards on health and safety in welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes- Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone - Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

  5. International Electrotechnical Commission standards and French material control standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are reported the international standards incorporated into the IEC Subcommitee 45 A (Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation) and the national standards elaborated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA, Group of normalized control equipment, the degree of application of those being reported on the base design, call of bids and exploitation of nuclear power plants. (J.E. de C)

  6. Developing standardized facility contingency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texaco consists of several operating departments that are, in effect, independent companies. Each of these departments is responsible for complying with all environmental laws and regulations. This includes the preparation by each facility to respond to an oil spill at that location. For larger spills, however, management of the response will rest with corporate regional response teams. Personnel from all departments make up the regional teams. In 1990, Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act. In 1991, the US Coast Guard began developing oil spill response contingency plan regulations, which they are still working on. Meanwhile, four of the five west coast states have also passed laws requiring contingency plans. (Only Hawaii has chosen to wait and see what the federal regulations will entail). Three of the states have already adopted regulations. Given these laws and regulations, along with its corporate structure, Texaco addressed the need to standardize local facility plans as well as its response organization. This paper discusses how, by working together, the Texaco corporate international oil spill response staff and the Texaco western region on-scene commander developed: A standard contingency plan format crossing corporate boundaries and meeting federal and state requirements. A response organization applicable to any size facility or spill. A strategy to sell the standard contingency plan and response organization to the operating units

  7. Review international standards for grid connected photovoltaic systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grid connected PV is being applied on variety application including large centralised stations, commercial building and individual houses. There is a need for specific standard to address distinctive new issue created by grid connected PV power system. Internationally many countries are attempting to develop standards for building integration, Dc side issues and grid connection issues. This paper surveys the current development state of the major countries standards in this area, comparing and contrasting, standards and guideline under development, also addressing the need of standards for grid connected in Malaysia

  8. International Business Accounting Standardization and Hungarian Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe and summarize the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. This paper showed that both businesses ...

  9. Business management by international accounting standards

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards - their contribution to harmonization and globalization by purposing and tasking for business management. The differences between the national accounting rules and the international standards are compared and valued inside and outside of the European Union. The empirical results of measuring and analyzing in details theirs pros and cons effects on the business environment by mathematical-statistical methods there could be ...

  10. Diffusion of the international creditor reference standard

    OpenAIRE

    Aalto, Aleksi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine which perceived attributes of the Diffusion of Innovations theory affect the diffusion of the international creditor reference standard and to what extent. The purpose of the international creditor reference standard, RF, is to automate the reconciliation of the payment to the invoice. The automation of reconciliation is believed to lead to cost savings and mistake reduction. In order to determine the potential adopters' views on RF, an academic study on ...

  11. Individualization: Future of Standardized School Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan ZOU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Standardized school development plays an important role in narrowing school gap and offering equal access to education. During implementation, however, educational authorities tend to fall into the trap of equal distribution of educational resources, centralized management and homogeneous education. It is essential and viable to individualize standardized schools with the benefits of favorable national policies and international precedents. Individualized school features flexible development, self-management, diversified evaluation system, and school structure where differentiation and equilibrium coexist.

  12. International Standards of Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    L. Stanislavská; K. Margarisová,; K. Štastná

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with internationally acknowledged standards and norms in the sphere of corporate socialresponsibility. It introduces the concept of social responsibility, the so-called triple-bottom line, in terms ofwhich the company focuses not only on the economic growth but it also takes into account environmental andsocial aspects of its business activities. The article presents five norms and standards which stem from the triplebottomline concept. The norms and standards are in the art...

  13. Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standard...

  14. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the International Codes...

  15. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the International Codes...

  16. Business Practice of International Accounting Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeno Beke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerial decisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business management of certain countries. In this research paper the author try to sign and evaluate the differences between national accounting rules and international standards, then the valuing and analyzing their effects on business decisions, management performance and economic environment in Hungary. Financial data are from published financial statements and Hungarian Business Information database. My sample comprises 65 international standards adopting and 260 local accounting rules user firms. The results of applied regression model support that the greater demand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to performance evaluations at more widely held by businesses stimulating to adopt international accounting standards. Businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to follow accounting standardization.
    Key words: Business practice; Accounting standards; Standardization process; Management performances; Comparable research; Hungary

  17. International Financial Reporting Standards : Expanding Standards, Expanding Geographically, Expanding Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range of educational texts covering IFRS within the context of a review of the progress of IFRS themselves.

  18. Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mee, Blanaid

    2013-02-19

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James\\'s Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents—Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups—Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media.

  19. Advancements in internationally accepted standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcommittees of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) are developing standards on various aspects of radiation processing. Nine standards on how to select and calibrate dosimeters, where to put them, how many to use, and how to use individual types of dosimeter systems have been published. The group is also developing standards on how to use gamma, electron beam, and X-ray facilities for radiation processing, and a standard on how to treat dose uncertainties. Efforts are underway to promote inclusion of these standards into procedures now being developed by government agencies and by international groups such as the United Nations' International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in order to harmonize regulations and help avoid trade barriers. Standards on good irradiation practices for meat and poultry and for fresh fruits, and for the irradiation of seafood and spices have been developed. These food-related standards are based on practices previously published by ICGFI. Standards for determining doses for radiation hardness testing of electronics have been developed. Standards on the Fricke and TLD dosimetry systems are equally useful in other radiation processing applications. (Author)

  20. Using Standards to Develop Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Susan R.; Smedick, William

    2012-01-01

    A critical step in the professionalization of the field of leadership education (Komives, 2011) and the evolution of leadership as a field of study (International Leadership Association [ILA], 2009) is the development of best practices, standards of practice, and guidelines for assessment of quality in program delivery and accomplishment of…

  1. Standards development status. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Standards Development Status Summary Report is designed for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the process by which Regulatory Standards, Guides, Reports, Petitions, and Environmental Statements are written. It is a summary of the current schedule plans for development of the above products

  2. The relationship between the new IIA Standards and the internal auditing profession

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, G.P.; Du Bruyn, Rudrik

    2001-01-01

    The Institute of Internal Auditors is in the process of developing new standards for the internal auditing profession. The first set of these standards will be implemented with effect from 1 January 2002. The purpose of professional standards is to lay down the minimum requirements to be maintained for acceptable practice. In June 1999, a new formal definition of internal auditing was adopted to address relevant issues with which internal auditing is currently faced. Existing standards, when ...

  3. National and international developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittock, A.B. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Aspendale, VIC (Australia). Div. of Atmospheric Research

    1995-10-01

    There have been a number of significant national and international developments in the science of the enhanced greenhouse effect since 1992-93. This chapter reviews a number of these developments, including the release in 1994 of the `Summary for Policy makers on `Radiative Forcing of Climate Change` by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and the further quantification of the local and regional cooling effects of sulfate particles resulting from human activities. Other developments discussed are the continuing progress with coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models, the increased use of higher resolution limited-area models `nested` in global climate models to study regional climate change, the good performance of global climate models in predicting the effects of the volcanic aerosol from the Mount. Pinatubo eruption in June 1991, and the increased emphasis on the importance of potential changes in extreme events. It is concluded that the time scale of climate change and sea level rise is of critical importance. The global changes are likely to take place over several hundred years, with much being ordained by past and present greenhouse gas emissions. Studies of the impact of different rates of change on various natural, and even human, systems are therefore warranted. Of necessity, these should take account of human adaptability, technological progress, and other environmental, economic, social and demographic changes. (author). 3 tabs., 7 figs., refs.

  4. Towards an international standard on occupational health and safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Jesús; Mondelo, Pedro R; Llimona, Josep

    2002-01-01

    As a result of the need for companies to manage occupational health and safety, as well as the absence of a globally accepted international standard, numerous organisations have developed their own models in the shape of guides, standards, or guidelines. However, the resultant dispersion is creating confusion among companies, rather than making life easier for them. In this article, we look at the current situation as far as available European management systems are concerned, and the emergent trends in the development of an international standard. Moreover, we present the special case of Spain, whose broad legislation on occupational health and safety might hinder the adoption of an international model by Spanish companies. PMID:12189102

  5. An international effort towards developing standards for best practices in analysis, interpretation and reporting of clinical genome sequencing results in the CLARITY Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownstein, Catherine A; Beggs, Alan H

    2014-01-01

    Background : There is tremendous potential for genome sequencing to improve clinical diagnosis and care once it becomes routinely accessible, but this will require formalizing research methods into clinical best practices in the areas of sequence data generation, analysis, interpretation and reporting. The CLARITY Challenge was designed to spur convergence in methods for diagnosing genetic disease starting from clinical case history and genome sequencing data. DNA samples were obtained from three families with heritable genetic disorders and genomic sequence data were donated by sequencing platform vendors. The challenge was to analyze and interpret these data with the goals of identifying disease-causing variants and reporting the findings in a clinically useful format. Participating contestant groups were solicited broadly, and an independent panel of judges evaluated their performance. Results : A total of 30 international groups were engaged. The entries reveal a general convergence of practices on most elements of the analysis and interpretation process. However, even given this commonality of approach, only two groups identified the consensus candidate variants in all disease cases, demonstrating a need for consistent fine-tuning of the generally accepted methods. There was greater diversity of the final clinical report content and in the patient consenting process, demonstrating that these areas require additional exploration and standardization. Conclusions : The CLARITY Challenge provides a comprehensive assessment of current practices for using genome sequencing to diagnose and report genetic diseases. There is remarkable convergence in bioinformatic techniques, but medical interpretation and reporting are areas that require further development by many groups.

  6. International standards in the fight against terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankovi? Dijana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism as a phenomenon of the modern society threatens to jeopardize the most important achievements of the modern society. The international community devotes much attention to the fight against terrorism and a number of legal instruments and standards that illustrate the basic message have been formulated in international documents - and the message is that it is possible to fight against terrorism effectively only if principal standards of internationally protected human rights are fulfilled. The fight against terrorism must never lead to the abolition of values and freedoms that are imperiled by terrorist acts. Even if the need to impose certain restrictions for protection of legitimate interests arouses they must be controlled, while they should protect basic human rights and freedoms. Regulating formal conditions for human rights limitation is the way to control the fight against terrorism and prevent the unlimited space for violation of the established and guaranteed freedom standards. The paper refers to the provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which provide some limitations to the guaranteed human rights as well as the limitation to their usage also exploring to what extent these restrictions are applied in the fight against terrorism.

  7. 76 FR 65166 - International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ...biological control strategies for the Emerald Ash...organize a second international workshop on citrus...on forest-related international standards being developed...proposed standard on the international movement of wood...panel will develop a strategy to mitigate the...

  8. Minimum quality standards and international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which a domestic and a foreign firm are identical except that the foreign firm faces positive transport costs. Asymmetric information generates a market failure, which the government attempts to alleviate with a MQS. It is found that although firms face the exact same costs of compliance, they will generally prefer different levels of regulation. As a result, international trade disputes are likely to arise even when regulation is non-discriminating.

  9. Minimum quality standards and international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which a domestic and a foreign firm are identical except that the foreign firm faces positive transport costs. Asymmetric information generates a market failure, which the government attempts to alleviate with a MQS....

  10. A perspective on the recent developments in international financial reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Dima (Cristea), Stefana Maria; David, Delia; P?iu?an, Lumini?a

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to provide a synopsis of the recent international financial reporting developments as well as to identify some of the related worldwide implications. The unprecedented joint activity of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and US Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has caused, in the last decade, a series of debates on whether or not International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) represent what is best of the international acco...

  11. European and international standards regarding radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to identify the way in which the international community, through organizations set up by it, contributes to the development of a satisfactory solution for the disposal of radioactive waste, by regulating its various aspects. Our underlying intention is to demonstrate that the adoption of international standards and agreements enables safety and security obligations to be incorporated into technical solutions, and, above all, that the State's common declared intention to guarantee the protection of man and his environment helps to promote public confidence. First the main international organizations within the sphere of nuclear energy in general will be listed. Secondly the standards and agreements formulated under the auspices of these organizations, which directly or indirectly refer to the issue of disposal, will be identified and briefly commented on. Our point of view on the extent of this international legislative activity and its influence on the general public is contained in the conclusions of this study. (orig.)

  12. International Standards of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stanislavská

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with internationally acknowledged standards and norms in the sphere of corporate socialresponsibility. It introduces the concept of social responsibility, the so-called triple-bottom line, in terms ofwhich the company focuses not only on the economic growth but it also takes into account environmental andsocial aspects of its business activities. The article presents five norms and standards which stem from the triplebottomline concept. The norms and standards are in the article briefly characterised, which is followed by theircomparison based on four previously stated criteria. The results of the comparison show that there is no suchnorm which would meet current company requirements.This paper resulted from contribution to a research project IGA FEM CULS 201011140057 "ModernManagement Approaches in the Field of Higher Education in the Czech Republic"

  13. Internationally Standardized Cost Item Definitions for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) have agreed to jointly prepare and publish a standardized list of cost items and related definitions for decommissioning projects. Such a standardized list would facilitate communication, promote uniformity, and avoid inconsistency or contradiction of results or conclusions of cost evaluations for decommissioning projects carried out for specific purposes by different groups. Additionally, a standardized structure would also be a useful tool for more effective cost management. This paper describes actual work and result thus far

  14. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute...SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the...

  15. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ...of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute...SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the...

  16. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Non halogen nannen cable no shiken hoho kaihatsu narabini cable kikaku no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As for halogen-free flame-retardant cables with high recyclability and safety (HFFR cables), the development is being promoted in many countries as a next generation cable. The standard of HFFR cables has been set up by some countries and groups in the U.S. and Europe, but the international standard has not yet been established independently. The purpose of this R and D is the development of a test method to appropriately evaluate the performance of HFFR cables and its standardization, and the proposal of the international standardization on common items of the cable standard. A study group was sent to the U.S. and Europe to investigate the development, application status and test methods of the HFFR cable overseas. The ion chromatography and FT-IR method were studied as methods to evaluate corrosivity/toxicity of the gases emitted in combustion. The performance of HFFR cables in Japan and abroad was also evaluated mainly by IEC standards. Further, considering the results of the overseas surveys, the structure and details of the international standard plan on HFFR cables were studied, and approaches to the international standardization were studied. 32 refs., 31 figs., 54 tabs.

  17. Development of plant assessment standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future of nuclear power in the United Kingdom depends on the building of new plant. In order to secure that future, nuclear power must gain public and political confidence in terms of both safety and cost. It is therefore important that Nuclear Electric plc (NE), who operates the majority of nuclear power plants in the UK, maintains its impeccable safety record. It is also very important in the current climate to drive down costs in order for the electricity produced by NE's existing power stations to be lower than that from fossil fuels. Therefore, in view of the pressure to demonstrate compliance with modern safety standards at existing nuclear power stations, it is important that any financial investments should be targeted at cost/safety benefit effective areas. The paper outlines the history of the development of plant safety assessment standards in the company and how the current framework is allowing NE to approach modern safety standards in an effective manner. NE operates 11 gas cooled nuclear power plants, with ages ranging from 6 to 31 years. Early reactors in the UK were not designed against detailed standards. Initially, this was not a problem, but, as more complex designs were introduced, the debate with the regulator over the adequacy of the design led to modifications and costly delays. Design safety guidelines were developed for later reactors and used as a contractual specification of the safety requirements. This has proved to be a successful approach for the latest stations at Heysham 2 and Sizewell B. The standards that NE has developed for reviewing the safety of its operating stations are consistent with the standards of the regulatory authorities. These standards provide a systematic framework for targeting areas for any safety improvement and demonstrating that risk are as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), in a way that ensures that NE, and hence also the consumer, gets value for money. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs

  18. Standardization of information systems development processes and banking industry adaptations

    CERN Document Server

    Tanrikulu, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms of compliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards to determine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into system development and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected. Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classical Waterfall life cycle model. Each question is made up of guidance and suggestions from the international system development standards. To collect data, people from the information technology departments of three major banks in Turkey were interviewed. Results have been aggregated by examining the current process status of the three banks together. Problematic issues were identified using the international system development standards.

  19. Views on the applicability of the internal audit standards and competencies for internal auditors : an African perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Steyn, B.; Barac, Karin; Motubatse, Kgobalale Nebbel; Plant, Kato

    2013-01-01

    Through its Research Foundation, the Institute of Internal Auditors has engaged in various studies to develop a common body of knowledge for internal auditors. These results were reported on from a global perspective; however, local context also has an influence, and there are country-specific forces that influence the application of the International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing and the core competencies needed by internal auditors. Views expressed...

  20. SOLVIT AND EU INTERNAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIAN M. DOBRESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Even though we are in full crisis period, Europeans live in their countries in wonderful places in terms of security, health and wellbeing. As shown by the Human Development Index (HDI, conducted by UN Development Program (UNDP which includes indicators such as life expectancy, literacy, education and standard of living, Europeans have the highest standards on the planet. Six of the ten most developed countries in the world are in Europe. EU assistance and advice services are accessed by the European citizens to find concrete answers and solutions to the problems they face on the European internal market.

  1. International Standards on stability of digital prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

  2. International standards for pandemic screening using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, D. D.; Ring, E. F.; Mercer, J. B.; Snell, J.; Osborn, D.; Hedley-Whyte, J.

    2010-03-01

    The threat of a virulent strain of influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), tuberculosis, H1N1/A virus (swine flu) and possible mutations are a constant threat to global health. Implementation of pandemic infrared thermographic screening is based on the detection of febrile temperatures (inner canthus of the eyes) that are correlated with an infectious disease. Previous attempts at pandemic thermal screening have experienced problems (e.g. SARS outbreak, Singapore 2003) associated with the deployment plan, implementation and operation of the screening thermograph. Since this outbreak, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed international standards that set minimum requirements for thermographic system fever screening and procedures that insure reliable and reproducible measurements. These requirements are published in IEC 80601-2-59:2008, Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening. The International Organization for Standardization has developed ISO/TR 13154:2009, Medical Electrical Equipment - which provides deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph. These new standards includes recommendations for camera calibrations, use of black body radiators, view field, focus, pixels within measurement site, image positioning, and deployment locations. Many current uses of thermographic screening at airports do not take into account critical issues addressed in the new standard, and are operating below the necessary effectiveness and efficiency. These documents, related thermal research, implications for epidemiology screening, and the future impact on medical thermography are discussed.

  3. Environmental and radon dosimetry: National and international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the integrating dosimetry of ''normal'' as well as naturally or artificially increased radiation levels in the environment, a number of national and international organizations developed standards (and related documents such as recommendations) aiming at the uniformly high reliability of such measurements and comparability of its results. The paper surveys some typical examples of existing documents, as well as relevant work in progress, and attempts to specify the need for possible future activities in this field. 12 refs, 4 figs

  4. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  5. Development of International Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Zima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The total equivalent of exports, generated from the inbound tourism, including transportation of passengers, exceeded $ 1 trillion in 2010 or about $3 billion a day.Tourism and accompanying services for export are about 30 % of commercial services’ world export and 6 % of total goods and services’ export. Tourism as an export category, is ranked 4th in the world after the export of fuel, chemicals and automotive products. For many developing countries it is a major source of foreign currency earnings and is ranked 1st among export gaining that creates many job placements and opportunities for further economic development.

  6. Development of standard reference samples for diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, samples of standard reference materials for diffractometry of polycrystals were developed. High-purity materials were submitted to mechanical and thermal treatments in order to present the adequate properties to be used as high-quality standard reference materials for powder diffraction, comparable to the internationally recognized produced by the USA National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST, but at lower costs. The characterization of the standard materials was performed by measurements in conventional X-ray diffraction diffractometers, high resolution neutron diffraction and high-resolution synchrotron diffraction. The lattice parameters were calculated by extrapolation of the values obtained from each X-ray reflection against cos2? by the Least-Squares Method. The adjustments were compared to the values obtained by the Rietveld Method, using program GSAS. The materials thus obtained were the ?-alumina, yttrium oxide, silicon, cerium oxide, lanthanum hexaboride and lithium fluoride. The standard reference materials produced present quality similar or, in some cases, superior to the standard reference materials produced and commercialized by the NIST. (author)

  7. Updated comparison of international standards for polymer piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Responding to a request by ASME B31 Committee, Code for Pressure Piping, to assist in the development of guidelines for establishing uniform manufacturing and design requirements for plastic piping, the Committee on Polymers for Pressure Components of the Pressure Vessel Research Council, initiated a literature survey and interpretive study on plastic piping. This paper discusses existing methods used for designing plastic piping systems and their components by comparing major international codes and standards. The study recognizes that thermoplastic and reinforces thermosetting resins require different design criteria. ASME standards reviewed include ASME B31.3, B31.1, RTP-1 and Section X of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes. Particular emphasis was given to ASME B31.3 Code for Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping. Chapter VII of the ASME B31.3 Code covers non-metallic piping and metallic piping lined with non-metals and establishes much of the design basis for non-metallic piping design covered in other Sections of the B31 Code. ASTM documents discussed are limited to those referenced in ASME B31. British Standard Code for glass reinforced plastics piping system, BS7159, as well as, the German standard for thermoplastic piping systems DVS2210 were used for comparison to U.S. Standards. A cursory review of other standards is also included for the development of a uniform industry standard for plastic piping systems. (authors)

  8. X-rays, radiometers and skin unit dose. The development of measuring methods and measuring units for X radiation in medical physics from the beginning until the international standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-rays, a special form of ionizing radiation, have been utilized in medicine and technology ever since their discovery at the end of 1895. However, the usage of X-rays made the development of measuring techniques necessary. Newly-developed measuring devices were at first called radiometers', but later the term dosimeter' has gained universal acceptance. The development of numerous dosimeters used in radiotherapy was accompanied by new units of measurement, each corresponding to its individual newly constructed dosimeter or method of measurement. While at first conversions between old and new units were performed, it later became clear that both within Germany and Europe units with similar names were used with different meanings, which was both incompatible and confusing. The first serious attempts of a standardization of units in Germany were made after the First World War, when the when the ionizing properties of X-rays was focused on for both measurements and unit definitions. Efforts towards an international standardization of units became successful in the mid-1920s when the Roentgen was defined as the universal unit. From the development described above, four stages of the evolution of radiation measurement and units in radiotherapy could be identified by means of comprehensive systematic research in printed publications. The first stage was the period of diagnostic application of X-rays, when tools for the determination of X-ray quality were designed. This stage progressed into that of therapeutic administration of X-rays shortly after, when instruments and units for the measurement of X-ray quantities (dose') were implemented. Due to the variety and diversity of measurement apparatus and units a third stage emerged, closely interconnected with the second. During the third stage, a nation-wide standardization was attempted in Germany. With the conclusion of this stage - the resolution of a unit for dose measurement in Germany - the stage of international standardization began. This fourth stage continues arguably to the present day, since by now not only units, but also standards for both measurement of these units and quality assurance, are developed in international cooperation. This study presents how present-day knowledge of fundamental physical laws, of potential measurement errors and of shortcomings of methods contribute to a better understanding of the historical process of the development portrayed here. When applying scientific discoveries to medicine and technology, this historical knowledge is an essential prerequisite for successful communication in a globalized world, which depends on international standards for manufacturing and application of measurement devices.

  9. Vietnamese Accounting Reform and International Convergence of Vietnamese Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    AnhTuan Nguyen; Guangming Gong

    2012-01-01

    Due to the economic globalization, the international convergence of accounting standards is inevitable. But thelevel of economic globalization in among of countries are not the same. There are some differences inaccounting environment in the countries. This paper studies international convergence of Vietnamese accountingstandards. Firstly, the paper summarizes of the process of Vietnam's accounting reform, second analysisdifferences between Vietnamese accounting standards and International ac...

  10. Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

  11. Recommended International General Standard for Irradiated Food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several (at present 22) countries have permitted the irradiation of one or more (altogether 39) foods for trade and human consumption. The clearances of these foods by the respective health authorities have generally been based on extensive wholesomeness studies. Many governments have been reluctant, however, to permit irradiation of food for human consumption and to permit trade of irradiated foods within their jurisdiction. Many individuals have felt that these restrictions were unreasonable hindrances to the free trade of wholesome food, and obstacles to the advancement of useful technology and the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Scientists, by their recommendations at scientific meetings, persuaded the international agencies, i.e. the United Nations’ Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to consider these matters. These organizations have stimulated exchange of scientific results, and have organized meetings dealing with these matters. Since 1971 they have sponsored, together with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and 27 participating countries, the International Food Irradiation Project (IFIP).

  12. International Marketing Developing Publishing Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus Chlivickas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithuanian integration in the financial Eurozone and Lithuanian publishing business development in the European Union and outside it, becomes an important problem requiring a solution. Promoting the dissemination of printed books and literacy in Lithuania and beyond, to properly introduce the achievements of Lithuania in foreign countries, it is important to ensure Lithuanian letter, educational and scientific book publishing development. The article examines the characteristics of the international marketing publishing, the world and Lithuanian state publishing houses on the basis of foreign and Lithuanian scientists theoretical insights about the instruments of international marketing opportunities, developing proposals for publishing business integration of new economic conditions.

  13. International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

  14. Private donations for international development

    OpenAIRE

    Micklewright, John; Wright, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Charitable donations by private individuals and firms can help fund the Millennium Development Goals. What are the prospects for increasing donations for international development, whether from small-scale donors, the super-rich (as in the recent gifts by Bill Gates and Ted Turner), or the corporate sector? The paper starts by reviewing how large are the sums currently given in OECD countries (including gifts of time) and the problems development has in competing with domestic causes. It then...

  15. Open development networked innovations in international development

    CERN Document Server

    Reilly, Katherine M A

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. Open network structures allow people to come together to share information, organize, and collaborate. Open development harnesses this power, to create new organizational forms and improve people's lives; it is not only an agenda for research and practice but also a statement about how to approach international development. In this volume, experts explore a variety of applications of openness, addressing challenges as well as opportunities. Open development requires new theoretical tools that focus on real world problems, consider a variety of solutions, and recognize the complexity of local contexts. After exploring the new theoretical terrain, the book describes a range of cases in which open models address such specific development issues as biotechnology research, improving education, and access to scholarly publications. Contributors then examine tensions between open model...

  16. The Inclusion of Standard Terms in International Sales Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Eiselen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it isnecessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be madeavailable to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems, namely that a clear incorporation clause in the contract is sufficient for the effective incorporation of standard terms. The author critically examines the case law, the various approaches and the underlying arguments on which they are based, before reaching the conclusion that the two extreme approaches should be rejected in favour of the more moderate approach. This approach is founded on aproper interpretation of the provisions of the CISG as well as being in step with international trade practice.

  17. The new international standard ISO 14001: 2004 environmental management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISO 14001 is one standard in the ISO 14000 series of standards developed by International Organization of Standardization (ISO). Since it was published in 19096, it has rapidly become the most important environmental standard in the world. ISO 14001 is an environmental management system (EMS) that can be classified into environmental technologies provides a systematic procedure to all kind of organizations to prevent pollutions, protect environment and to improve their overall environmental performance. This new standard ISO 14001 2004 was published on November 15, 2004. It cancels and replaced the old ISO 14001-1996. Because the important of the previous standard for our local industries, firms, ...etc, this paper presents ISO 14001 concepts, issues, benefits and focuses on the stages of implementation to achieve ISO 14001-2004 certification which includes general requirements environmental policy, planning (objectives, targets ..), implementation and operations, checking and management review ...etc and presents how to apply isotop time saver software to design records, and to save time to implement ISO 14001 2004 and finally a conclusion is provided.(Author)

  18. Developing the Framed Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Michael J; Chan, H M; Tsou, S T

    2011-01-01

    The framed standard model (FSM) suggested earlier, which incorporates the Higgs field and 3 fermion generations as part of the framed gauge theory structure, is here developed further to show that it gives both quarks and leptons hierarchical masses and mixing matrices akin to what is experimentally observed. Among its many distinguishing features which lead to the above results are (i) the vacuum is degenerate under a global $su(3)$ symmetry which plays the role of fermion generations, (ii) the fermion mass matrix is "universal", rank-one and rotates (changes its orientation in generation space) with changing scale $\\mu$, (iii) the metric in generation space is scale-dependent too, and in general non-flat, (iv) the theta-angle term in the QCD action of topological origin gets transformed into the CP-violating phase of the CKM matrix for quarks, thus offering at the same time a solution to the strong CP problem.

  19. Developing the Framed Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael J.; Bordes, José; Chan, Hong-Mo; Tsun, Tsou Sheung

    2012-07-01

    The framed standard model (FSM) suggested earlier, which incorporates the Higgs field and three fermion generations as part of the framed gauge theory (FGT) structure, is here developed further to show that it gives both quarks and leptons hierarchical masses and mixing matrices akin to what is experimentally observed. Among its many distinguishing features which lead to the above results are (i) the vacuum is degenerate under a global su(3) symmetry which plays the role of fermion generations, (ii) the fermion mass matrix is "universal," rank-one and rotates (changes its orientation in generation space) with changing scale ?, (iii) the metric in generation space is scale-dependent too, and in general nonflat, (iv) the theta-angle term in the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) action of topological origin gets transformed into the CP-violating phase of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix for quarks, thus offering at the same time a solution to the strong CP problem.

  20. International standardization in the petroleum industry status from the subsea sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of standards in subsea production systems and how the standards should be developed has been a debate for some time in the industry. The initial standardization work springs from the work performed in the API 17 series of recommended practices and specifications. The development within this sector of the industry is still happening rapidly since it is a relative new area. The standardization effort is happening both on national, regional and international levels. This paper will give status of the international standardization ISO work ongoing in the subsea area and give some background for the work. The importance of the work to the industry will be highlighted

  1. Concrete durability standards: International trends and the South African context

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J G, Kessy; M G, Alexander; H, Beushausen.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Durability problems in reinforced concrete (RC) structures are an issue of global concern, since they threaten economic growth, natural resources and human safety. As a result, attempts have been made in design standards developed in most countries to include requirements to provide durable RC struc [...] tures. This paper examines and compares such durability requirements in standards from the United States, Australia, Canada, Europe, India and South Africa. It focuses on aspects such as exposure conditions, limiting values of material compositions and proportions, and cover depth to the reinforcing steel. The paper describes issues behind prescriptive standards and deals with challenges confronting performance approaches for concrete durability. Following international trends, it is evident that the South African Standards, particularly SANS 10100-2, must undergo substantial updating and improvements to durability requirements. The paper suggests the means of re-drafting and implementing durability specifications in any revised version of SANS 10100-2, taking into account both prescriptive and performance alternatives. Further, a methodology of developing durability specifications suitable for the South African concrete industry is proposed, and recommendations are made for future developments.

  2. Managing Exposure to Natural Sources: International Standards and New Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection in exposure to natural sources has been evolving for decades. In the last two decades, developments concerning exposure to NORM have resulted in progress towards achieving broad international consensus on managing exposure to NORM. However, the standards and regulatory approaches being adopted at the national level still need to be harmonized, especially in developing countries with limited regulatory resources. A large effort is underway at the national and international level to assess exposure to NORM and to develop strategies to address existing situations that give rise to exposures. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, in its 2008 report, encourages further development of inventories and methodologies for dose assessment in order to have a more comprehensive view over the topic. The revised International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) published by the IAEA in 2011 provides requirements reflecting the concepts of planned exposure situations, emergency exposure situations and existing exposure situations. Exposure to natural sources is generally subject to the requirements for existing exposure situations, with some exceptions to be considered as planned exposure situations. The BSS provides numerical criteria for exemption and clearance for regulatory purposes as well as reference levels for control of exposure to radon in workplaces. From a global perspective, the new radiation protection challenges for natural sources include the following: the harmonization of standards and regulatory approaches; the diverse nature of the industries and the need for an industry specific approach in determining radiation protection measures; the identification of situations that could be classified as either existing exposure situations or planned exposure situations; and the extent to which exposures should be optimized using, as appropriate, reference levels or dose constraints. The use of a graded approach in national regulations; the realistic estimation of individual doses and the need for an evidence based approach for regulatory decision making; radon in workplaces; transport issues; the recycling of NORM residues and their use as by-products; the management of NORM residues and wastes are related issues. A summary is provided of the international standards and guidance on the control of exposure to natural sources and of the work of the IAEA on industry specific safety reports. (author)

  3. Environmental Accounting and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

    OpenAIRE

    CA Mohammad Firoz; A. Aziz Ansari

    2010-01-01

    As financial globalization proceeds, international financial reporting and auditing standards are increasinglybecoming important instruments of integration. This has been observed in both the London and Pittsburgsummits of the G20 leaders in 2009. The G20 leaders reinforced the influence of International FinancialReporting Standards (IFRS) in that they called for the implementation of global accounting standards by 2011.By the end of 2008, there were over 100 countries that had adopted IFRS. ...

  4. Outline of the International Organization for Standardization Standard for Circulatory Support Devices (ISO 14708-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imachi, Kou; Mussivand, Tofy

    2010-09-01

    The rapid progress of artificial heart and circulatory support devices enables us to apply them to severe heart failure patients. Many types of circulatory support devices have been developed in the United States, Europe, and Japan. This situation urged the establishment of an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard for the circulatory support devices. A new work, "Cardiac Ventricular Assist Devices," was proposed to the ISO/TC150/SC6 (TC150: Technical Committee of Implants for Surgery, SC6: Sub-committee of Active Implants) in 2000, and the work was finalized for publication at a 2009 meeting of the ISO/TC150 in Kyoto. In this article, the authors would like to introduce the ISO system and the outline of the ISO Standard for Circulatory Support Devices. PMID:20883386

  5. On the Construction of China’s Accounting Standard System with International Convergence in Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Hongman Zhang; Xianfeng Liu

    2010-01-01

    With the international convergence of accounting standards becoming an irresistible trend, China’s new businessaccounting standards have reached substantive convergence with International Financial Report Standards(IFRS). However, due to some factors including economy, law and culture, there is still a narrow gap betweenchina’s accounting standards and IFRS. In order to further keep up with IFRS, China should attach greaterimportance to learning from it to establish or implement its accountin...

  6. Interrogating Identity: The International Standard School in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhiyya, Zulfa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the International Standard School (ISS) on the identity of Indonesia as a postcolonial nation. According to the Indonesian Ministry of National Education, an ISS is "a school which complies with the National Standard of Education and enriches its standards from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

  7. Pioneering of Schools with International Standard to Respond the Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipnugraha Ipnugraha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet respond the challenges of globalization Indonesia Government held a Pioneering of Schools with International Standard (RSBI. As an international standard schools pilot, these schools prepared gradually through the guidance by government and stakeholders. Within a certain period of four years it is expected that the schools is able to fulfill and meet the criteria of Schools with International Standard (SBI. Actually, in it’s implementation, RSBI faces many challenges, among others, were expensive anda require modern infrastructure, require a qualified teacher, SBI criteria and English implementation in education not yet possessed constitutional base. With RSBI it will form a national school with national education standards that have international quality and its graduates are able to compete internationally

  8. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  9. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940's: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950's: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960's: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970's: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980's: establishment of national regulations; 1990's: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  10. Nuclear Data Center International Standard Towards TSO Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Data Center is the main facility for Nuclear Malaysia Agency IT infrastructure comprising of main critical servers, research and operational data storage, HPC-clusters system and vital network core equipment. In recent years, international body such as TIA-Telecommunication Industry Association and Up time Institute have came out with proper international data center standards in order to ensure data center operation on achieving maximum operational up time and minimal downtime. The standard are currently being rated as tier level ranging from Data Center tier I up to tier IV, differentiate by facility standard and up time/ downtime percentage ratio. This paper will discuss Nuclear Data Center adopting international standards in supporting Nuclear Malaysia TSO initiative thus ensuring the critical core component of agency IT services availability and further more International standard recognitions. (author)

  11. An International Centre for Standards Documentation: Proposals for Standardization of UDC Usage and the Mechanized Documentation of Information on Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, Hans

    At present, there are several obstacles to efficient information retrieval regarding the world's standards. There is no uniformity in subject classification, although most standards are classified by the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC); there are no international indexes to the subjects covered; foreign standards and superseded standards

  12. CSNI International standard problems (ISP). Brief descriptions (1975-1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last twenty-five years the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored a considerable number of international activities to promote the exchange of experience between its Member countries in the use of nuclear safety codes and testing materials. A primary goal of these activities is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. International Standard Problems (ISPs) exercises are comparative exercises in which predictions or recalculations of a given physical problem with different best-estimate computer code are compared with each other and above all with the results of a carefully specified experimental study. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. In an open Standard Problem exercise the results of the experiment are available to the participants before performing the calculations, while in a blind Standard Problem exercise the experimental results are locked until the calculation results are made available for comparison. The CSNI-promoted ISP activity started in the early 70's and is still underway. Parallel to other national and international programs the CSNI has sponsored over more than 25 years forty-seven International Standard Problem exercises. This program has been focused mainly on the applicability of large thermal-hydraulic code systems simulating the behaviour of nuclear coolant and containment systems, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, hydrogen distribution, core-concrete interactions and fission product release and transport. One ISP exercise was organised in connection with a seismic ultimate dynamic response test. ISP exercises have proven to be very valuable to participating countries. They have been fruitful to identify code application problems and to amplify the contacts between the experimental and analytical working communities on an international level. Moreover, they enable code users to improve their ability, gain experience and demonstrate their competence. Technical proposals originating from laboratories in 13 countries were submitted and adopted serving as experimental background for the international activity. An activity complementary to the ISP programme but not directly related to it is the establishment of comprehensive sets of experimental data for use in validating proper code application by experts other than code developers. Known as a Code Validation Matrix, the results of such an extensive list of experiments are collected and stored in the NEA Data Bank for the purpose that they be made available to Member countries wishing to validate relevant codes. ISP tests are important elements of validation matrices for thermal-hydraulic codes. In the field of containment behaviour it has been recommended to preferably base a general code validation matrix on containment-related ISPs as well. The way of organizing ISP exercises has been described in CSNI Report No. 17, CSNI Standard Problem Procedures, revised for the third time in November 1989. The following report in some detail summarises the main objectives, the underlying experimental background and the main findings and conclusions of the ISPs to provide interested groups an overview on the accumulated experience in this matter. The document, which has been reviewed by members of CSNI's Principal Working on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2) and Principal Working on Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases (PWG4), summarises systematically the main features of all International Standard Problem exercises organised so far, from ISP-1 to ISP-43, namely: - Objectives of the ISP; - Brief Description of the Facility; - Scaling Information; - Parameters Offered for Comparison; - Dominating Experimental Uncertainties; - Findings; - Recommendations; - Total Duration of the ISP exercise; - Participation; - CSNI Report Reference

  13. Development of strategies and sustainability standards for the certification of internationally traded biomass. Final report; Entwicklung von Strategien und Nachhaltigkeitsstandards zur Zertifizierung von Biomasse fuer den internationalen Handel. Zusammenfassender Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsche, Uwe R.; Hennenberg, Klaus J.; Hermann, Andreas; Huenecke, Katja; Herrera, Rocio [Oeko-Institut (Institut fuer angewandte Oekologie e.V.), Darmstadt (Germany); Fehrenbach, Horst; Roth, Elvira; Hennecke, Anna; Giegrich, Juergen [IFEU (Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung) gGmbh, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The increased production of renewable raw materials for bioenergy and bio-materials needed to meet the ambitious targets of Germany, the EU and other countries implies tradeoffs which could oppose sustainability requirements. The project worked out the scientific base of and developed proposals for sustainability requirements for biomass and their implementation on national, European and global levels, in dialogue with relevant actors and provided inputs into respective processes. For that, discussions with experts from more than 20 countries were held, international networks created and extended, and political decision-makers supported. Besides answers to strategic questions, the issues focused on were greenhouse gas balances (calculation of GHG emissions from direct and indirect land use changes), biodiversity (a globally applicable risk minimization strategy was developed and tested in Brazil, China and South Africa for degraded lands), water scarcity and water quality (requirements for biomass cultivation were developed). The majority of project results was successfully implemented in legal and standardization processes (e.g., German Sustainability Ordinances for bioenergy, EU renewable energy directive, European Committee for Standardization, Global Bioenergy Partnership) and both scientific and environmental and development questions were discussed with - not only governmental - actors. The next steps should be the extension of the approaches developed to other biomass (especially for material use) and the critical review of the further implementation. (orig.)

  14. An international standard for observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    A generic information model for observations and related features supports data exchange both within and between different scientific and technical communities. Observations and Measurements (O&M) formalizes a neutral terminology for observation data and metadata. It was based on a model developed for medical observations, and draws on experience from geology and mineral exploration, in-situ monitoring, remote sensing, intelligence, biodiversity studies, ocean observations and climate simulations. Hundreds of current deployments of Sensor Observation Services (SOS), covering multiple disciplines, provide validation of the O&M model. A W3C Incubator group on 'Semantic Sensor Networks' is now using O&M as one of the bases for development of a formal ontology for sensor networks. O&M defines the information describing observation acts and their results, including the following key terms: observation, result, observed-property, feature-of-interest, procedure, phenomenon-time, and result-time. The model separates of the (meta-)data associated with the observation procedure, the observed feature, and the observation event itself. Observation results may take various forms, including scalar quantities, categories, vectors, grids, or any data structure required to represent the value of some property of some observed feature. O&M follows the ISO/TC 211 General Feature Model so non-geometric properties must be associated with typed feature instances. This requires formalization of information that may be trivial when working within some earth-science sub-disciplines (e.g. temperature, pressure etc. are associated with the atmosphere or ocean, and not just a location) but is critical to cross-disciplinary applications. It also allows the same structure and terminology to be used for in-situ, ex-situ and remote sensing observations, as well as for simulations. For example: a stream level observation is an in-situ monitoring application where the feature-of-interest is a reach, the observed property is water-level, and the result is a time-series of heights; stream quality is usually determined by ex-situ observation where the feature-of-interest is a specimen that is recovered from the stream, the observed property is water-quality, and the result is a set of measures of various parameters, or an assessment derived from these; on the other hand, distribution of surface temperature of a water body is typically determined through remote-sensing, where at observation time the procedure is located distant from the feature-of-interest, and the result is an image or grid. Observations usually involve sampling of an ultimate feature-of-interest. In the environmental sciences common sampling strategies are used. Spatial sampling is classified primarily by topological dimension (point, curve, surface, volume) and is supported by standard processing and visualisation tools. Specimens are used for ex-situ processing in most disciplines. Sampling features are often part of complexes (e.g. specimens are sub-divided; specimens are retrieved from points along a transect; sections are taken across tracts), so relationships between instances must be recorded. And observational campaigns involve collections of sampling features. The sampling feature model is a core part of O&M, and application experience has shown that describing the relationships between sampling features and observations is generally critical to successful use of the model. O&M was developed through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) as part of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative. Other SWE standards include SensorML, SOS, Sensor Planning Service (SPS). The OGC O&M standard (Version 1) had two parts: part 1 describes observation events, and part 2 provides a schema sampling features. A revised version of O&M (Version 2) is to be published in a single document as ISO 19156. O&M Version 1 included an XML encoding for data exchange, which is used as the payload for SOS responses. The new version will provide a UML model only. Since an XML

  15. Bill Lang's many contributions to international standardization in acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Roger

    2005-09-01

    Over the past 40 years, Bill Lang has been a major force in Intl. Standards, not only as ongoing leader of the U.S. delegation, but in a personal capacity as project leader for the development of the pivotal group of standards on methods of determining sound power level. As Convenor of the previous Working Group 6 of Sub-Committee 1, Noise, of ISO Tech. Committee 43, Acoust., he oversaw the production of the ISO 3740 series of standards during the 1970s and early 1980s. A revision of this same series was made starting in the late 1980s, once more under Bill's supervision in the current Working Group 28. At the same time, this Group compiled the new series of ISO 11200 standards on determination of emission sound pressure levels, on declaration and verification of noise emission levels and on guidelines for writing noise test codes. As if this was not enough, the same group is now in the throes of another major short-term revision of all the documents and has plans for further more radical revisions in the future. This paper outlines Bill's contributions to this major international combined effort, which even after such sustained activity goes from strength to strength, gathering participation from a new generation of acousticians around the world.

  16. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of communication interface for open robots in production system; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Seisan system nado ni okeru open robot yo tsushin interface no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In order to realize the open use between robot controllers and personal computers on the communication level, R and D has been performed on the standard API required for structuring the applications to use robot information on the personal computers. A draft of the international standard was prepared. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. The current fiscal year has executed improvements on the standard API software, as well as the demonstration tests. The following achievements were obtained: problems in practical use based on the demonstration tests of RAO ver. 0.5 were extracted and rectified; the standard API (Ver0.9) given additional functions including file transfer was developed; the specifications for the standard API (Ver1.0) were compiled based on the result of discussions on the major application functions; as a result of the demonstration test on reliability of the standard API (Ver0.9), performances were verified when the API is connected under different structural and using conditions; and a resolution was made at the ISO/TC184/SC2 international conference that 'continuation is encouraged on the present R and D expected as a proposal for the new work items'. (NEDO)

  17. Internal standard versus external standard calibration: an uncertainty case study of a liquid chromatography analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elcio Cruz de, Oliveira; Edson I., Muller; Fernanda, Abad; Juliana, Dallarosa; Cristine, Adriano.

    Full Text Available Traditionally, in the cigarettes industry, the determination of ammonium ion in the mainstream smoke is performed by ion chromatography. This work studies this determination and compares the results of this technique with the use of external and internal standard calibration. A reference cigarette s [...] ample presented measurement uncertainty of 2.0 ?g/cigarette and 1.5 ?g/cigarette, with external and internal standard, respectively. It is observed that the greatest source of uncertainty is the bias correction factor and that it is even more significant when using external standard, confirming thus the importance of internal standardization for this correction.

  18. 5th international conference on certification and standardization in NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This CD-ROM contains 30 lectures (in form of manuscripts or abstracts) and 6 posters with the following topics: 1. Some Critical Remarks from German Chemical Industry on Certification and Accreditation in NDT. 2. Global Impact of International Standard ISO 9712. 3. Maintaining Concurrent Compliance with Multiple NDT Personnel Certification Standards. 4. The Revision of the New Approach. 5. Comparison between prEN 473 Currently Submitted to Formal Vote and ISO 9712:2005. 6. Accreditation and Certification - a Contradiction?. 7. The Way We Were. 8. EFNDT-Question-Data-Bank (QDB). 9. NDT Certification in Turkey as an European Country- How It Couldn't Work as the Only Example?. 10. Validation of Practical Examination Specimens. 11. Examination Bank Structure for Radiographic Testing (RT) - An Example. 12. About the New Classification of NDT Methods Based on Positions of Risks and Equipment Life Assessment. 13. Olympus NDT Training Academy. 14. Harmonisation of Personnel Certification Schemes for Non-destructive Testing in the Asia-Pacific Region. 15. How EFNDT Can Help in Accreditation or Recognition/Approval of NDT Certification Bodies? 16. SNT-TC-1A - 40 Years of Employer Certification for NDT Personnel. 17. The Same NDT Certification Scheme for Everybody: a Dream or a Need. 18. 19. Personnel Certification for Thermographers - Status and Trends. 20. Guided Wave Training and Certification. 21. Examination Radiographs and Master Reports for the Industrial Sectors 6 and 7. 22. New Standards ISO 24497 on the Metal Magnetic Memory Method. The Program of Personnel Training and Certification. 23. The Use of the Psychometrics in NDT Certification Programs. 24. EFNDT Guidelines ''Overall NDT Quality System''. 25. The Role of the Forum for National Aerospace NDT Boards. 26. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 27. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 28. The Need for Standardization in NDT Personnel Certification. 29. NDT Certification for Railway Maintenance Personnel in France; 10 Years of the CFCM. 30. NDT Personnel Certification - Service for Industry. 31. Certification of Personnel Performing Automated Non-destructive Testing of Pipes and Flat Products. Problems and Solutions. 32. Stress Testing is a New NDT Type in the Russian Standard GOST R 52330-2005 and International Standard ISO-9712. 33. Accreditation of Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement Methods - Practical Aspects. 34. Results of Approval of Certification Body ''SPEKTRCert'' by Auditors of EFNDT. 35. The Program for Specialists Training and Certification in Stress-Strained State Determination and Residual Life Assesment of Technical Devices and Contructions. 36. NDT Personnel Certification System at Turkish Standards Instiution (TSE) and Developments in Turkey. 37. Nondestructive Testing Personnel Certification in Turkish Aerospace Industries and National Aerospace Nondestructive Testing Board in the Turkey

  19. Introduction to International Ethical Standards Related to Genetics and Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Seon-Hee; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The rapid advances in genetic knowledge and technology raise various, sometimes unprecedented, ethical dilemmas in the scientific community as well as the public realm. To deal with these dilemmas, the international community has prepared and issued ethical standards in various formats. In this review, seven international standards regarding genetics and genomics will be briefly introduced in chronological order. Critical reflections on them will not be provided in this review, and naturally,...

  20. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Betz, R; Burns, S; Donovan, W; Graves, D E; Johansen, M; Jones, L; Mulcahey, M J; Rodriguez, G M; Schmidt-Read, M; Steeves, J D; Tansey, K; Waring, W

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. ...

  1. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sorensen, F; Betz, R; Burns, S; Donovan, W; Graves, D E; Johansen, M; Jones, L; Mulcahey, M J; Rodriguez, G M; Schmidt-Read, M; Steeves, J D; Tansey, K; Waring, W

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Cas...

  2. National legislative systems and foreign standards and regulations: The case of International Financial Reporting Standards adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Dima, Bogdan; Dima(Cristea), Stefana Maria; Nicoleta MOLDOVAN; Pirtea, Marilen Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    This study is focused on the linkages between the legislative families as descriptors of national legislative systems and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). We consider such analysis as a case study for the more general issue of explaining the preferences of national regulators in the adoption of foreign norms, rules, standards and practices. By using a dataset of 162 jurisdictions and dummy variables designed to ...

  3. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  4. The main requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main requirements of the new international basic safety standards are discussed, including such topics as health effects of ionizing radiations, the revision of basic safety standards, the requirements for radiation protection practices, the requirements for intervention,and the field of regulatory infrastructures. (A.K.)

  5. Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

  6. Globalisation, labour Standards and economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit; Zammit, Ann

    2011-01-01

    When this chapter was originally written for the Handbook of Globalisation (Michie, 2003) the burning issue regarding labour standards was the attempt by advanced country governments and unions, particularly the US, to establish multilateral rules in the World Trade Organization (WTO) to enforce labour standards globally. This initiative did not succeed and the issues raised remain as relevant as ever, though they no longer command as much attention at the top of the international policy agen...

  7. International standards for tuberculosis care: Relevance and implications for laboratory professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Pai M; Daley P; Hopewell P

    2007-01-01

    On World Tuberculosis (TB) Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are s...

  8. 25 CFR 542.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for card games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...false What are the minimum internal control standards for card games...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.9 What are the minimum internal control standards for card...

  9. 25 CFR 542.7 - What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...false What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo? 542...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.7 What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?...

  10. 78 FR 40740 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ...Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY...to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...Council and the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...

  11. 78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ...Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY...revisions to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...update to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...

  12. 78 FR 22263 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ...Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal...

  13. 25 CFR 542.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...false What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage? 542...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.14 What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage?...

  14. 25 CFR 542.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for table games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...false What are the minimum internal control standards for table games...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.12 What are the minimum internal control standards for table...

  15. 25 CFR 542.8 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...false What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs? ...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.8 What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?...

  16. 25 CFR 542.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...false What are the minimum internal control standards for credit? 542...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.15 What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?...

  17. 78 FR 52532 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ...Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY...revisions to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...update to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government...

  18. Codes & standards research, development & demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-07-22

    This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for SDOs to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.

  19. A NEW APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY DECOMISSIONING STANDARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Decontamination, Decommissioning, and Reutilization (DDR) Division of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) is to advance the technology of decontamination, decommissioning, and reutilization of nuclear and former nuclear installations, materials, facilities, and sites [1]. This includes sharing collective decommissioning experiences and lessons learned with others in the industry. An integral part of the work of the DDR Division is the preparation of voluntary decommissioning standards through its recently re-established DDR Standards Committee. This Committee intends to support development of various standards with other divisions of the ANS. The Committee also intends to participate with external organizations to disseminate information and lessons learned regarding decontamination activities, and participate in the development of voluntary decommissioning standards. External organizations, such as ASTM International, are involved in the development of consensus standards for nuclear decommissioning work. This paper describes the work of the DDR Standards Committee on a new co-operative initiative with ASTM International to develop voluntary consensus standards for nuclear decommissioning work

  20. Development of radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection standards are based on the best available knowledge, caution, and perception. Dose limits for occupational exposure have decreased as knowledge was gained about radiation effects: from 0.6 Sv (60 rem)/year for 1900-1930 to 50 mSv (5 rem)/year in 1958 (the level still used as of 1990). Current dose limits for public exposure range from 1 mSv to 5 mSv, depending on frequency of exposure. For the embryo and fetus, dose limits are 0.5 mSv/mo and 5 mSv for the entire gestation. In the 1970s, the concept of acceptable risk and that of a non-threshold dose-response relationship became the basis for setting dose limits. Three principles of radiation protection are that (a) dose levels should not exceed acceptable levels, (b) optimal dose levels should be as low as reasonably achievable, and (c) radiation should not be used unless it produces a positive net benefit. Although no dose limits have been set for patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures, such measures must provide a net benefit to patients at optimal dose levels

  1. CONVERGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL AUDIT STANDARDS AND AMERICAN AUDIT STANDARDS REGARDING SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chis Anca Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sampling is widely used in market research, scientific analysis, market analysis, opinion polls and not least in the financial statement audit. We wonder what is actually sampling and how did it appear? Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Nowadays the technique is indispensable, the economic entities operating with sophisticated computer systems and large amounts of data. Economic globalization and complexity of capital markets has made possible not only the harmonization of international accounting standards with the national ones, but also the convergence of international accounting and auditing standards with the American regulations. International Standard on Auditing 530 and Statement on Auditing Standard 39 are the two main international and American normalized referentials referring to audit sampling. This article discusses the origin of audit sampling, mentioning a brief history of the method and different definitions from literature review. The two standards are studied using Jaccard indicators in terms of the degree of similarity and dissimilarity concerning different issues. The Jaccard coefficient measures the degree of convergence of international auditing standards (ISA 530 and U.S. auditing standards (SAS 39. International auditing standards and American auditing standards, study the sampling problem, both regulations presenting common points with regard to accepted sampling techniques, factors influencing the audit sample, treatment of identified misstatements and the circumstances in which sampling is appropriate. The study shows that both standards agree on application of statistical and non-statistical sampling in auditing, that sampling is appropriate for tests of details and controls, the factors affecting audit sampling being audit risk, audit objectives and population\\'s characteristics.

  2. Standards development for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ushering of nuclear era in the Philippines with the construction of the PNPP-I (Philippine Nuclear Power Plant) necessitates the evolvement and use of nuclear standards as a tool for safety evaluation in the licensing process. The Department of Nuclear Regulation and Safeguards under the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission has as one of its responsibilities the establishment of regulatory standards to ensure safe operation of nuclear facilities. This article points out the needs for nuclear standards and the steps in standard development which involve an enormous amount of resources in terms of manpower, expertise and money. The staff of the Department of Nuclear Regulations and Safeguards (DNRS) does not intend to engage in the original development of standards; rather, it reviews standards in use elsewhere, specifically in the U.S. and adopts to local conditions. (author)

  3. The Inclusion of Standard Terms in International Sales Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Eiselen, S

    2011-01-01

    The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG) does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international...

  4. International standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM), publication No. 15

    CERN Multimedia

    Tom Wegelius

    2006-01-01

    GUIDELINES FOR REGULATING WOOD PACKAGING MATERIAL IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE SCOPE This standard describes phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests associated with wood packaging material (including dunnage), made of coniferous and non-coniferous raw wood, in use in international trade. For more information, contact the Shipping Service (FI-LS-SH) at 79947. Table of guidelines

  5. International Accounting Standards and Changes in Accounting Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    The language of accounting is subject to continuous change. One of the reasons for a change in terminology is the introduction of new legal requirements that bring about a change in the underlying concepts and therefore the need for new specific terms. Such a situation was created by the Regulation (EC) No. 1606/2002 on the application of international accounting standards (IAS). This regulation aims at harmonising ac-counting standards and procedures relating to the preparation and presentat...

  6. The first International Standard anti-Brucella melitensis Serum

    OpenAIRE

    McGiven, J.; A Taylor; Duncombe, L.; Sayers, R; Albert, D.; Banai, M.; Blasco Martínez, José María; Elena, S.; Fretin, D.; Garin-Bastuji, B.; Melzer, F.; Muñoz Alvaro, Pilar María; Nielsen, K.; De Nicola, A; Scacchia, M.

    2011-01-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) requested an International Standard anti-Brucella melitensis Serum (ISaBmS) to standardise diagnostic tests and reagents for sheep and goats. The agreed criteria were the highest dilution (in negative serum) of the standard which must give a positive result and the lowest dilution (in negative serum) which must simultaneously give a negative result. The two dilutions for each assay were, respectively: indirect enzyme-linked immu...

  7. International Accreditation of ASME Codes and Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ASME established a Boiler Code Committee to develop rules for the design, fabrication and inspection of boilers. This year we recognize 75 years of that Code and will publish a history of that 75 years. The first Code and subsequent editions provided for a Code Symbol Stamp or mark which could be affixed by a manufacturer to a newly constructed product to certify that the manufacturer had designed, fabricated and had inspected it in accordance with Code requirements. The purpose of the ASME Mark is to identify those boilers that meet ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements. Through thousands of updates over the years, the Code has been revised to reflect technological advances and changing safety needs. Its scope has been broadened from boilers to include pressure vessels, nuclear components and systems. Proposed revisions to the Code are published for public review and comment four times per year and revisions and interpretations are published annually; it's a living and constantly evolving Code. You and your organizations are a vital part of the feedback system that keeps the Code alive. Because of this dynamic Code, we no longer have columns in newspapers listing boiler explosions. Nevertheless, it has been argued recently that ASME should go further in internationalizing its Code. Specifically, representatives of several countries, have suggested that ASME delegate to them responsibility for Code implementation within their national boundaries. The question is, thus, posed: Has the time come to franchise responsibility for administration of ASME's Code accreditation programs to foreign entities or, perhaps, 'institutes.' And if so, how should this be accomplished?

  8. Review of IEC/ISO international standard related to HMI design for control rooms on NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished work wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards by IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) as international standard. On the other hand, ISO (International Standard Organization) issues ergonomic standards in HCI (Human Computer Interaction) for general industrial use. ISO11064 series are the process oriented standards specify procedures and processes to be followed. IEC60964 and supplemental standards have been effectively used and the design process required in IEC 60964 is the basis of the design process of ISO11064-1. However, IEC60964 is under revision, for example, to make technological update for taking into account the computerized control rooms, and to improve the human factor requirements. The revised version will consistent with the other IEC standards and similar standards or guidelines of another bodies. For hardware and software of computerized I and C system, a series of international standards have been systematically developed. In Japan, Japan electric association is developing industry association level guideline for the human-machine interface designs of the computerized main control rooms of nuclear power plants, as well as regulatory agencies of nuclear power plants in Japan are preparing technical basis for reviewers of control rooms of nuclear power plants. In this paper, we present the review of not only the state of international activities for revising IEC60964 and the state of ISO11064 series, but also the state and relationship to the related standards. (author)

  9. International and domestic experience of the development reporting segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Ivchenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the stages of formation and development of segment reporting as a form of financial statements of the enterprise, namely the evolution of international standards and the emergence of segment reporting in Ukraine, its role in providing the information needs of users. Based on a comparative analysis of national and international regulations that govern the exercise of the preparation and filing of segmental reporting are defined by their relationship , common and distinctive features , proved the need to coordinate National accounting standart 29 "Financial Reporting by Segments" with the requirements of international practice . First of all it is necessary to avoid the collision feeding segmental reports by enterprises that focus on the international market and use international financial reporting standards.

  10. Packaging in the New Product Development Process : An International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Pauline; Hult, Malin

    2005-01-01

    The thesis is conducted to investigate how packaging is taken into consideration within the new product development process and in which stages of the new product development process packaging actually is taken into consideration. Further we want to investigate if packaging has increased in importance within the activities of the new product development process, and how organizations deal with standardization of packaging for international markets in the new product development process. The p...

  11. 76 FR 32933 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... (60 FR 15845), designated the U.S. Department of Agriculture as the agency responsible for informing... Techniques of Genetic Modification/genetic Engineering. The Committee is continuing work on: Discussion paper...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service International Standard-Setting Activities...

  12. How to Integrate International Financial Reporting Standards into Accounting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    It is expected the SEC will require U.S. domestic companies to prepare and file their annual 10Ks in accordance with international financial reporting standards (IFRS) by 2016. Given the probability that the FASB-IASB convergence project (i.e., Norwalk Agreement) will continue subsequent to mandatory adoption, US accounting programs will be…

  13. Standardization on an international level; Die Norm als Wegbereiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banse, Stephanie

    2010-10-08

    Air-filled solar collector are used worldwide in the most varied applications and with good results. What is lacking, however, is an international standard that would ensure wider sales and better exports. This standardisation project will be undertaken by Fraunhofer ISE and the Canadian association Cansia. (orig.)

  14. Playing Against China : Global Value Chains and Labour Standards in the International Sports Goods Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The rise of China as the global factory raises challenges for many developing countries and their producers. The football-manufacturing sector is a case in which China has emerged as a global player. It is also a sector where compliance with international labour standards is considered critical. Leading international brands dominate the industry and control the global value chain for sports goods. In this article, we explore the relationship between the rise of China and international labour standards and consider how labour standards have affected the geography and organization of global football production. We draw on evidence from three of the main production locations – China, Pakistan and India. It appears that compliance with labour standards not only has different implications for the three production locations, but also that compliance alone is an insufficient basis for competing against China

  15. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    · Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials · Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  16. A recommendation of adopting international standard for controlling surface contamination by radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the difference between the existing control limits of surface contamination in China and the international standard. It is suggested that the international standard should be used as the national standard

  17. SPOTS project and development of a standard and reference material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson E.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Standardization Project for Optical Techniques of Strain measurement’ (SPOTS was focused on the development of reference materials for calibrating optical systems for static strain measurement and standardized tests for evaluating the capabilities of such systems. The reference material consists of a beam in four-point bending within a monolithic frame that ensures reproducibility of the boundary and loading conditions. A procedure for the use of the reference material has been developed and leads to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties that allow the construction of confidence limits for the data obtained with the calibrated optical system. The design and methodology have been developed into a proposed draft standard which is being endorsed by VAMAS (Versailles Agreement on Materials And Standards for review by ISO (International Standards Organisation. An overview of philosophy underpinning the proposed draft standard is presented and serves as an introduction to the reference material and standardized test and their use in providing higher confidence in optical measurements of strain.

  18. CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY MEAUSREMENT SCHEDULE: DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION*

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Savita; Varma, V.K.; S.K.Verma; MALHOTRA, ANIL

    1988-01-01

    Development and standardization of an instrument Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) to assess psychopathology in children is reported. CPMS is standardized on Indian population and is applicable to children of both sexes in the age range of 4-14 years. It measures overall psychopathology in the form of a total scores and also the type of psychopathology in the form of eight factorially derived syndromes which have satisfactory reliability and validity. CPMS is proposed to b...

  19. Strategies towards enterprising development and application of external events PRA standards in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed the background and development of PRA standards (Levels 1, 2 and 3) in Japan with the focus on external hazards PRA standards. A standard for procedures of seismic PRA was issued in September 2007, implementation standards for tsunami in February 2012 and the standard for internal flooding in November 2012. The development of standards is ongoing, including new standards for fires and quality of PRA, and additional revisions of the existing standards to cover consequential events and shutdown states. Japanese experts strongly emphasize the importance of the assessment of external hazards

  20. [International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC)--comments from the German point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, S; Bauer, T; Diel, R; Hedrich, A; Magdorf, K; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Schaberg, T; Loddenkemper, R

    2012-04-01

    The "International Standards for Tuberculosis Care" (ISTC) were developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and others to provide internationally agreed and, if possible, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care including the care by private providers who are not part of national tuberculosis programmes or health-care systems. Hence, the ISTC primarily address resource-restrained countries with high tuberculosis prevalence. In this article, the German translation of the 21 standards from 2009 is presented - addressing diagnostic and therapeutic standards, co-infection (especially with HIV) and public-health issues. The accompanying comments show how these standards have to be modified for Germany due to the medical resources available here and country-specific characteristics respectively. PMID:22415692

  1. Spread of retailer food quality standards: an international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Herzfeld, T.; Drescher, L.; Grebitus, C.

    2008-01-01

    Privately initiated food quality standards are currently important elements in the marketing of food and agricultural products. At the same time, they stand in the centre of a discussion about potential negative effects on small farmers and farmers in developing countries. This study aims at analysing the adoption of two private food standards, BRC Technical Food Standard and GlobalGAP, at an aggregated crosscountry level. The results of the econometric analysis reveal some (potential) barrie...

  2. CODE OF ETHICS FOR INTERNAL AUDITORS HARMONISED WITH THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR INTERNAL AUDIT

    OpenAIRE

    GEORGE CALOT?

    2008-01-01

    The Code of Ethics is binding for the internal auditor profession, since, at the end of the internal audit activity, the internal auditors, based on the tests and analyses carried out, express their opinion on the quality of the internal control system of the audited activity. The Code of Ethics stipulates four fundamental principles, as follows: integrity, constitutes the base for the trust granted to internal auditors; objectivity, directly related to independence; confidentiality, absolute...

  3. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Bodner, D; Brackett, N L; Cardenas, D; Charlifue, S; Creasey, G; Dietz, V; Ditunno, J; Donovan, W; Elliott, S L; Estores, I; Graves, D E; Green, B; Gousse, A; Jackson, A B; Kennelly, M; Karlsson, A-K; Krassioukov, A; Krogh, K; Linsenmeyer, T; Marino, R; Mathias, C J; Perkash, I; Sheel, A W; Schilero, G; Shilero, G; Schurch, B; Sønksen, Jens Otto Reimers; Stiens, S; Wecht, J; Wuermser, L A; Wyndaele, J-J

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Experts opinions consensus. OBJECTIVE: To develop a common strategy to document remaining autonomic neurologic function following spinal cord injury (SCI). BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: The impact of a specific SCI on a person's neurologic function is generally described through use of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of SCI. These standards document the remaining motor and sensory function that a person may have; however, they do not provide information ...

  4. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sorensen, F; Bodner, D; Brackett, N L; Cardenas, D; Charlifue, S; Creasey, G; Dietz, V; Ditunno, J; Donovan, W; Elliott, S L; Estores, I; Graves, D E; Green, B; Gousse, A; Jackson, A B; Kennelly, M; Karlsson, A-K; Krassioukov, A; Krogh, K; Linsenmeyer, T; Marino, R; Mathias, C J; Perkash, I; Sheel, A W; Schilero, G; Shilero, G; Schurch, B; Sonksen, J; Stiens, S; Wecht, J; Wuermser, L A; Wyndaele, J-J

    2009-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Experts opinions consensus. OBJECTIVE: To develop a common strategy to document remaining autonomic neurologic function following spinal cord injury (SCI). BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: The impact of a specific SCI on a person's neurologic function is generally described through use of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of SCI. These standards document the remaining motor and sensory function that a person may have; however, they do not provide information ...

  5. Standardization of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries should take food standardization seriously so that they do not become a dumping ground for foods that some developed countries refuse to admit for human consumption. Let us take saccharin for example. Whereas saccharin would normally not be allowed for use in flour preparations and ice-cream in certain developed countries, because saccharin is now known to be slightly carcinogenic, multinational companies from these same countries have been known to promote the use of saccharin in flour preparations and ice-cream in developing countries. When saccharin is used in soft drinks produced in developing countries, this is often not even declared on the label although manufacturers may be required by law in developed countries to declare the presence of saccharin in such drinks, which in any case must never exceed certain limits. It is against this background that the question of standardization of irradiated foods needs to be considered in developing countries. Like all food standardization questions, developing countries must have clearly defined guidelines and regulations for the consumption of irradiated foods and the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods.

  6. Standardized monitoring of Rangifer health during International Polar Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Kutz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} Monitoring of individual animal health indices in wildlife populations can be a powerful tool for evaluation of population health, detecting changes, and informing management decisions. Standardized monitoring allows robust comparisons within and across populations, and over time and vast geographic regions. As an International Polar Year Initiative, the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment network established field protocols for standardized monitoring of caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus health, which included body condition, contaminants, and pathogen exposure and abundance. To facilitate use of the protocols, training sessions were held, additional resources were developed, and language was translated where needed. From March 2007 to September 2010, at least 1206 animals from 16 circumpolar herds were sampled in the field using the protocols. Four main levels of sampling were done and ranged from basic to comprehensive sampling. Possible sources of sampling error were noted by network members early in the process and protocols were modified or supplemented with additional visual resources to improve clarity when needed. This is the first time that such broad and comprehensive circumpolar sampling of migratory caribou and wild reindeer, using standardized protocols covering both body condition and parasite disease status, has been done.

  7. Efficiency of Management Systems, Based on International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Gafforova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers major trends of management systems standardization development and efficiency. The authors determine possible structure of effects in the process of integrated management systems implementation.

  8. Monitoring the International Standardization Process Theoretical Choices and Methodological Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Juanals

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations are in charge of global security management. This paper outlines and argues for the construction of a theoretical and methodological framework in order to critically assess the new technopolitics currently being developed in the field of global security and which are materialized in standards. The main purpose is to design both a methodology and specific text mining tools to investigate these standards. These tools will be implemented in a platform designed to provide cartographic representations of standards and to assist the navigation of an end-user through a corpus of standards.

  9. International Migration, Remittances and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Mahmud; Md. Abdus Sabur; Sharmin Tamanna

    2009-01-01

    The increasing remittance flows to the labor sending developing countries in recent years have generated huge optimism in the contemporary development discourse about the possibility of development at the grassroots levels which has been an overwhelming challenge for the development actors for decades. However, the realization of such potential proves difficult due to a lack of common understanding of the phenomenon of labor migration and its causes and consequences. This study focuses on the...

  10. Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chokshi, N. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-04-01

    In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL`s analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described.

  11. Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL's analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described

  12. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF CERTIFICATION PROCESS OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SA 8000 ON SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza RAJABZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the development of general tool for determining the direction and priority of consideration and study of accumulated experience results in the world practice, obtained when development, implementation, and certification of the management systems according to the requirements of international standard SA 8000. To solve this problem, in this article, it was suggested to use input data presented by international organization SAAS (Social Accountability Accreditation Services, statistical and graphical methods of data processing and analysis, and “Pareto analysis” methodology. As a result of the conducted research, the general tool was developed, that allows to systematize the accumulated experience of management systems implementation and certification in the world practice, which is developed on the basis of international standard SA 8000. It was suggested to classify the accumulated experience according to such indicators as “quantity of organizations”, “quantity of personnel”, “industry”, and “continent”. It was shown that the most quantity of organizations having certified management system in conformity with the requirements of international standard SA 8000, and the most quantity of personnel in certified organizations was concentrated in Asia. It was found that the most widespread branches of industry in regard to the certification of their management systems in conformity with the requirements of this standard are such branches as “construction”, “apparel”, and “textiles” industries.

  13. Descriptors for Competence: Towards an International Standard Classification for Skills and Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Plaimauer, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential of already existing skills and competence ontologies to benefit European transparency tools and especially the implementation of the European Qualification Framework. Furthermore, it asks whether any of them could serve as a starting point to develop an International Standard

  14. International standardization of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee in vitro experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to improve and standardize cage systems for maintaining adult honey bee workers under in vitro laboratory conditions. To achieve this goal, we experimentally evaluated the impact of different cages, developed by scientists of the international research network COLOSS (Preve...

  15. International Financial Reporting Standards effects on Banks in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Trang

    2012-01-01

    The thesis discusses the Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on Banks operating in Viet Nam. The goal is to investigate how the adoption of IFRS would change financial practices in Vietnamese Banking Industry and what Bank managers should be prepared for. The thesis use case study method to gain in-depth knowledge about the issue. The case study consisted analysis of Financial Reports from three well-known Banks in Viet Nam. The thesis first introduce about Bankin...

  16. Austrian results at the international standard problem 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extended computer code BALO-2A and the thermal-hydraulic code RELAP IV/Mod 6 were applied to perform the International Standard Problem ISP-19. It was possible to model the system simply and to obtain the thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions for BALO-2A. The results are satisfying which is remarkable because loss of coolant accident analyses are performed usually with larger computer codes. (Author)

  17. Standardized susceptibility testing of fluconazole: an international collaborative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaller, M A; Dupont, B; Kobayashi, G S; Müller, J; RINALDI, M.G.; Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Shadomy, S.; Troke, P F; Walsh, T.J.; Warnock, D W

    1992-01-01

    An international collaborative study of broth dilution (MIC) and disk diffusion susceptibility testing of fluconazole was conducted by using a chemically defined medium (High-Resolution Antifungal Assay Medium; Oxoid Ltd., Basingstoke, United Kingdom) and standard test methods performed in eight reference laboratories. Ten yeast isolates were tested by each test method in duplicate on each of 3 separate days. The intralaboratory reproducibility of the MIC test was excellent; 95.7% of the repl...

  18. Developing tendency of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) reflected by international open publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the international open papers and technology standards on EMP, briefly introduce the subjects and works developed in the recent years by international relevant organizations, including the definitions of HPEM and IEMI, the classifications, hazards, protections and technology standardizations of EMP. The series standards developed by the Subcommittee 77 C (SC 77C) of IEC are introduced as an emphasis. Finally some proposals are presented for the civil development of EMP technologies. (authors)

  19. Introduction of International Quality Standards into the Practice of Domestic High-tech Enterprises ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????????????? ???????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseyenko Tetyana Ye.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to reflect urgency of issues of introduction of the principles of international quality standards into the practice of domestic high-tech enterprises, namely: telecommunication enterprises. Analysing, systemising and generalising scientific works of many scientists, statistical information and materials of enterprises, the article considers evolution of quality standards, their actuality and also the level of loyalty of domestic telecommunication companies towards the quality management system. In the result of the study the article identifies problems of adaptation of international principles of management on the basis of ISO 9000 standards into the practice of domestic high-tech companies. Prospects of studies in this direction are based on the study of specific features of perception of international practice of managing enterprises and personnel, development of methods of introduction of management systems and combination of the process and functional approaches to management.???? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????, ? ??????: ??????????? ???????????????????? ?????. ??????????, ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????????, ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ?? ????????????, ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????. ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ISO ????? 9000 ? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????. ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??????????.

  20. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratories: Development and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication describes the work of the IAEA and the WHO in the establishment of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. Membership in the SSDL network has now risen to about 50 laboratories, of which 36 are in developing countries

  1. Understanding the development of international environmental agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærdahl, Jens

    2006-01-01

    There are many different theoretical schools concerned with how international regimes develop, and each supplies its own interpretation focusing on one or a few aspects of the process. Such ‘one shot’ explanations may be fruitful for scientific debate, but less useful as conceptual frameworks for practitioners and planners manoeuvring in a complex world. On the basis of a review of selected theories of international and environmental regulation, this article initiates the development of a concep...

  2. Comparative study between external standard method and internal standard method for low-level tritium measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenching is always present in water samples and the degree of quenching can vary from one sample to another even within the same batch. This means that quench correction should be carried out for each sample in order to determine the activity so that comparisons can be made between samples and other batches. In this paper, a comparative study of tritium measurements between two methods used to correct for quenching is presented. The methods used to determine counting efficiency in the presence of quenching are as follow: Spectral Quench Parameter of External standard method (SQP(E)) and Internal Standard Method. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation system detector (Quantulus 1220) is used to determine tritium activity concentration in heavy water with different concentration from 99,66 D/H+D% to 1,65 D/D+H %. A standard calibration curve for the SQP(E) technique has been carried out with 3H low level quenched PACKARD standard set that had an assayed value of 29,240 dpm/std + 1,6%. Quench correction for Internal Standard Method has been made for each sample of heavy water with Tritiated Water Internal Standard that had a tritium concentration of 2,51 x 106 dpm/g + 3,0%. A comparison between dilution factors, calculated both for D/(D+ H)% concentration and for tritium activity, measured by the two methods, is discussed in this paper. Internal Standard Method provides accurate results especially for lower D/(D+H)% concentration, which is the environmental samples case. Commercial standards set don't fulfill the exigency of an accurate environmental tritium measurement. It must consider the following problems: type of vial, type of scintillant, filled volume and counting geometry. Even if you make your own standard set for quenching calibration you must exceed another problem. The Compton electrons produced by external standard are energetic beta particles and do not have the same behavior of weak beta-particles in the sample itself. Hence a small amount quenching in tritium sample may remain undetected.(author)

  3. Internal Migration in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Groppo, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    For people in rural areas of developing countries, finding a better paying job or better education is often only possible by moving - migrating - somewhere else. Moreover, agricultural production, generally the main economic activity in rural areas of developing countries, is risky, affected by droughts and floods. Due to poverty and the limited availability of crop insurance, rural households often rely on distant family members to provide money for buying food, starting a business or mainta...

  4. The Development Status Quo and Counter measures of Logistics Informationization Standards of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian XU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of logistics informationization standard system is related to the long-term development of the logistics industry. The domestic standard construction of logistics informationization is fairly lagged behind; problems such as few standards, incomplete systems, and low level of international conventions still exist. This paper studies the constitution of a logistics informationization standard system, differentiates ten categories of logistics informationization standards, and then elaborates on how to establish and improve various standards. Finally, this paper studies the countermeasures to promote the implementation of logistics informationization standards.
    Key words: Logistics informationization; Standards; Status Quo; Countermeasures

  5. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation's (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs

  6. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies the requirements of international and national regulatory bodies for patient safety. A culture of quality assurance and the need for scientific exchange at the international level have extended the requirements for standardization to many other areas. These include radiotherapy with heavy charged particles, brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. A major advance in radiotherapy over the past few years has been the growing use of proton and heavy ion irradiation facilities for cancer therapy. The increased use of brachytherapy, including the new application of intravascular brachytherapy, has resulted in the development of new standards and codes of practice in this area. In diagnostic radiology, including computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional procedures, the awareness of the importance of dose reduction to the patient has also lead to the development of codes of practice. In the field of nuclear medicine there is a need to increase the dissemination of standards and the development of international recommendations for dosimetry procedures. Every year there are several regional or international meetings on radiation physics applied to medicine or related areas. A meeting focused exclusively on dosimetry gives the unique opportunity to review in depth the developments and trends in this continuously changing field. By organizing this Symposium the IAEA maintains its longstanding tradition of disseminating knowledge, promoting expertise and supporting international co-operation in radiation dosimetry. The Symposium provided a forum where advances in radiation dosimetry during the past decade, not only in external beam radiotherapy but also in other areas of radiation medicine, can be disseminated and scientific knowledge exchanged. It will include areas that have been developed recently (e.g. intravascular therapy and hadron dosimetry), together with classic areas where the standardization of dosimetry may not have reached a mature stage (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). It will also summarize the present status

  8. International developments in waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, the legal framework conditions for waste disposal are provided by the principles of the Waste Disposal Provision of 1980, the amendments to the Atomic Act dated 1994, the EU Basic Standards for Radiation Protection of 1996 and the safety criteria issued by the West German and East German safety commissions (RSK and SSK) in 1983. In Germany, 12 nuclear power stations have now been licensed to use leaded zinc oxide fuel elements. These are now manufactured in France, Belgium and Great Britain. The volume of plutonium expected to be obtained from these by the year 2003 is 42 tonnes, of which 11 tonnes have been recycled to date. The first stage in the search for a permanent storage site is the selection of suitable rock formations. Finland, Sweden, Canada, the Czech Republic and Switzerland have opted for granite. France is tending towards argillaceous rock (but is also keeping open the option of granite). Belgium, Japan and Spain are backing both. To date, Germany alone has opted for salt formations. The USA wants to use the tuff under the Nevada desert for storage. Individual states also address the search for a location differently. Belgium decided quickly upon the region around Mol, where it is carrying out intensive rock analyses. In Finland, the initial shortlist of five potential sites has been reduced to three, but ultimately only a single one is required. France is carrying out surveys in three regions. Sweden has also carried out a relatively wide range of surveys. Political implementation is, however, lagging behind. Scandinavians have had positive results from a staged licensing procedure. Germany has made great progress with the surveys of the salt mine in Gorleben which have been going on for some years. An extremely large massif of homogeneous salt has been found in the salt mine there. (orig.)

  9. Varieties of regulation: how states pursue and set international financial standards

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar, Rahul; Mattli, Walter

    2013-01-01

    What explains the form and substance of international financial standards? Form refers to the legal or non-legal bindingness of an international standard. Substance refers to how significantly the standard changes the international status quo. The form and substance of international standards on bank capital adequacy, hedge funds, “bail-in” resolution, and insurance capital adequacy challenge the predictions of major rationalist, realist, and two-level perspectives. I propose a novel theo...

  10. Padronização interna em espectrometria de absorção atômica Internal standardization in atomic absorption spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly G. Fernandes; Mercedes de Moraes; José A. Gomes Neto; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Pedro V. Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a review on internal standardization in atomic absorption spectrometry with emphasis to the systematic and random errors in atomic absorption spectrometry and applications of internal standardization in flame atomic absorption spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The rules for selecting an element as internal standard, limitations of the method, and some comments about the application of internal standardization in atomic absorption spectrometry...

  11. Comparison of international standards for digital safety system verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was performed to evaluate different international standards for software verification and validation of digital safety systems suitable for nuclear power plant applications. Since the verification and validation of the digital safety system should be considered from the entire digital system life-cycle point of view, the standards for each phase of the life cycle of the safety system were compared. The major phases of the digital system life cycle considered are system requirements, system test-bed requirements, design and construction, system hardware and software specifications, designs, test, integration, plant implementation, and maintenance phases. Some of the conclusions are: 1) there are too many standards; 2) none of the existing standards provide complete guidance to the developer, regulator, and managers for consistently and practically applying the standards at each phase of the life-cycle; 3) there is no uniformity among the international standards concerning the level of depth and details to be followed by the users; 4) inconsistencies among the standards and their interpretations have led to practical difficulties among developers and regulators; 5) practical guidance on how to handle verification and validation issues such as how to identify and test unintended functions, how to handle common cause failures, what are the qualitative and quantitative reliability measures to use, how much testing is good enough is either missing or not addressed. The authors recommend that a uniform international standard and a practical framework for the digital safety system verification and validation should be developed and the efforts in this direction should start now. (Author) 37 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  12. International financial markets and development

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Wahl

    2009-01-01

    The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the ‘casino economy’. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new act...

  13. US agency for international development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumfrey, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author addresses the following questions in his presentation: what is USAID; where does the money go and who makes the decisions; where does USAID fund energy programs, and especially renewable energy; who are their `partners`; what is the approach to renewable energy; what in summary, has USAID funded that is relevant to village power. USAID is the foreign aid agency of the US Government. Approximately 75 countries receive regular assistance. The fiscal year 97 budget for the agency is approximately $5.8 billion. About half of the total budget goes to Israel, Egypt, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. These budgeting decisions are geopolitical. Congress earmarks total budgets for a few sectors or subjects, such as family planning. The goal of USAID`s renewable energy programs is simple: They are interested in accelerating the market penetration of commercial technologies. They do not engage in technology R&D. Developing countries have energy needs now, and commercial technologies are available now. USAID has taken note of the interest taken by subsidiaries of US utilities in the past couple of years in bringing their expertise and resources to bear on meeting the challenge of rural energy needs in developing countries. They believe that the entry into the market of these players could be one of the most important catalysts for making the rural energy revolution happen.

  14. International financial markets and development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Peter, Wahl.

    Full Text Available The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the ‘casino economy’. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated [...] by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new actors are surfacing, e.g. the institutional investor (hedge funds, private equity funds, etc.), while new instruments are leading to highly leveraged and destabilising derivatives. The casino system has been promoted by governments and intergovernmental institutions to liberalise and deregulate financial markets. Although developing countries have not participated in the casino system, they have been suffering most from the spill-over into the real economy. The main lesson learnt is that the casino has to be closed.

  15. International financial markets and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wahl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The current financial crisis has not come about by chance. It is the result of a system that has emerged over the last 30 years and which Keynes may well have called the ‘casino economy’. The dominance of finance over real economy characterises the financial crisis, while finance itself is dominated by the all-encompassing target of maximum profit at all times. Other aims of economic activity such as job creation, social welfare and development have fallen by the wayside. In response, new actors are surfacing, e.g. the institutional investor (hedge funds, private equity funds, etc., while new instruments are leading to highly leveraged and destabilising derivatives. The casino system has been promoted by governments and intergovernmental institutions to liberalise and deregulate financial markets. Although developing countries have not participated in the casino system, they have been suffering most from the spill-over into the real economy. The main lesson learnt is that the casino has to be closed.

  16. Defining the Core Archive Data Standards of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Dan; Beebe, Reta; Guinness, Ed; Heather, David; Zender, Joe

    2007-01-01

    A goal of the International Planetary Data Alliance (lPDA) is to develop a set of archive data standards that enable the sharing of scientific data across international agencies and missions. To help achieve this goal, the IPDA steering committee initiated a six month proj ect to write requirements for and draft an information model based on the Planetary Data System (PDS) archive data standards. The project had a special emphasis on data formats. A set of use case scenarios were first developed from which a set of requirements were derived for the IPDA archive data standards. The special emphasis on data formats was addressed by identifying data formats that have been used by PDS nodes and other agencies in the creation of successful data sets for the Planetary Data System (PDS). The dependency of the IPDA information model on the PDS archive standards required the compilation of a formal specification of the archive standards currently in use by the PDS. An ontology modelling tool was chosen to capture the information model from various sources including the Planetary Science Data Dictionary [I] and the PDS Standards Reference [2]. Exports of the modelling information from the tool database were used to produce the information model document using an object-oriented notation for presenting the model. The tool exports can also be used for software development and are directly accessible by semantic web applications.

  17. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms and applications of radiation processing. To date, the group has completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment. This set will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies or other standards-setting organizations for their procedures and protocols. (author)

  18. Development of American National Standard on External Event PRA Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last ten years, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S. nuclear utilities have been developing methods and requirements for risk-informed applications making use of probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of nuclear power plants. Early in this process, it became clear that the existing PRAs were done with different objectives and methodologies by different analysts. For uniformity and consistency in future risk-informed applications, industry consensus standards on probabilistic risk assessments were deemed to be essential. Currently, the following standards have been published or under preparation: - ASME RA-S-2002: 'Standard for Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Nuclear Power Plant Applications', Addendum C, March 2005. - ANSI/ANS-58.21-2003 'External-Events PRA Methodology' March 2003. - ANS-58.22 'Low Power and Shutdown PRA Standard'. - ANS-58.23 'Fire PRA Methodology Standard'. - ANS Level 2 and Level 3 PRA Standards. The ASME Standard specifies the requirements for performing PRA for internal events under full power conditions. ANS 58.21 specifies the requirements for conducting PRA of external events under full power conditions. These standards have been published, whereas the other standards are under preparation. ANS 58.21 was prepared by a working group comprised of the following individuals: - Dr. R.J. Budnitz, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. - Dr. N.C. Chokshi, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. - W. Henries, Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company. - Dr. M.K. Ravindra, ABS Consulting, (Current Chair of Working Group). - Dr. J.D. Stevenson, J.D. Stevenson Consultants. - T. Yee, Southern California Edison Company. The development of this Standard was guided and approved by the Risk Informed Standards Committee (RISC) of American Nuclear Society. This committee has presently 22 members drawn from different sectors of the nuclear industry: utilities, reactor vendors, universities, research organizations, architect engineers, consultants and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In addition, the Working Group had sent early drafts of the Standard to a select group of peers in different elements of the external event PRA; this peer group included industry experts like Professor Allin Cornell, Dr. Robert Kennedy, and Mr. David Moore. The final requirements in the Standard hence represent the consensus of the industry. (author)

  19. To standardize or not standardize international marketing : is it still a question?

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Ana Maria; Farhangmehr, Minoo; Shoham, Aviv

    2003-01-01

    The standardization versus adaptation argument has been raging for years and international marketing research about it has spanned some four decades, attesting to its far reaching theoretical and practical relevance. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on this debate. Major theoretical and empirical contributions from companies’ and consumers’ points of view are presented. The importance of resolving this issue cannot be underestimated as it as an impact on segmentation i...

  20. International development projects: peculiarities and managerial approaches

    OpenAIRE

    GOLINI, RUGGERO; LANDONI, PAOLO

    2013-01-01

    Every year, hundreds of millions of dollars are spent on non-emergency international development (ID) projects. However, a recent global McKinsey/Devex survey of more than one thousand ID professionals revealed that two thirds of them believe that their projects don't fully succeed. In this book, researchers-practitioners from two of Italy's most prestigious universities provide practical insights into this phenomenon...and how the lessons learned in this high stakes international arena ca...

  1. Analysis of International and National Hotel Chains Development in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gorina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the national hotel chains development in Ukraine and the sponsorship for the international hotel chains functioning are not only due to the country’s business and tourist attractiveness formation, taking into account Euro-2012, but also due to the necessity of high-quality expansion of dwelling and resort places choice for foreign and Ukrainian guests in accordance with their aims of arrival and individual preferences.In comparison with the international hotel chains, the national hotel chains have the following advantages: the local market adaptation; the country’s legislative base awareness; the best understanding of local traditions and customs; the standards development independence; the ability to react to the market changes quickly.The development of national hotel chains in Ukraine is in the initial stage. The formation of Ukrainian hotel chains is arising from the following objectives: support of increasing volumes of inbound tourism; service according to the international hotel service standards; employment in a services sector; enterprises support in the hotel business while developing hotel chains. The favorable geographic location of Ukraine, the low level of market saturation and the high hotel service demand favor the appearance of the international hotel chains in Ukraine.

  2. 25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...minimum internal control standards for internal...to, bingo card control, payout procedures...cash reconciliation process; (ii) Pull...not limited to, statistical records, winner...key location and control, and a review of... (i) Audit objectives; (ii)...

  3. 25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...minimum internal control standards for internal...to, bingo card control, payout procedures...cash reconciliation process; (ii) Pull...not limited to, statistical records, winner...key location and control, and a review of... (i) Audit objectives; (ii)...

  4. 25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...minimum internal control standards for internal...to, bingo card control, payout procedures...cash reconciliation process; (ii) Pull...not limited to, statistical records, winner...key location and control, and a review of... (i) Audit objectives; (ii)...

  5. [The revelation from three international medical education standards to education of physician-patient communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Jia; Sun, Hui-Qiang; Shao, Qi; Deng, Yan-Nan

    2010-12-01

    The ability of manipulating physician-patient communication is of great significance in medical practice and undoubtedly needed to be developed during medical education. The importance and request of physician-patient communication in medical education has been definitely prescribed in three international standards stipulated respectively by three international medical education organizations. In this article, the author attempted to reveal the deficiency of Chinese medical education on physician-patient communication by studying the three international standards as mentioned. And some measures had also been recommended to improve the conditions: setting up physician-patient communication curriculums among students; emphasizing the training of the skills in internship during undergraduate study period; adding physician-patient communication contents in the Practice Physician Qualification Test; and so on. The improvement of communication skills in basic medical education is the primary part for the progress of whole medical area. Supported by Teaching Reform Project of Shandong University (Grant No.200954,2009174,2009226). PMID:21431271

  6. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab

  7. Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO-as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS-the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as record keeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. (authors)

  8. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances in scientific and engineering understanding. We present a draft outline that can be used as the basis for such a standard.

  9. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a...

  10. Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures

  11. Updating the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care. Entering the era of molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Philip C; Fair, Elizabeth L; Uplekar, Mukund

    2014-03-01

    The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care, first published in 2006 (Lancet Infect Dis 2006;6:710-725.) with a second edition in 2009 ( www.currytbcenter.ucsf.edu/international/istc_report ), was produced by an international coalition of organizations funded by the United States Agency for International Development. Development of the document was led jointly by the World Health Organization and the American Thoracic Society, with the aim of promoting engagement of all care providers, especially those in the private sector in low- and middle-income countries, in delivering high-quality services for tuberculosis. In keeping with World Health Organization recommendations regarding rapid molecular testing, as well as other pertinent new recommendations, the third edition of the Standards has been developed. After decades of dormancy, the technology available for tuberculosis care and control is now rapidly evolving. In particular, rapid molecular testing, using devices with excellent performance characteristics for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance, and that are practical and affordable for use in decentralized facilities in low-resource settings, is being widely deployed globally. Used appropriately, both within tuberculosis control programs and in private laboratories, these devices have the potential to revolutionize tuberculosis care and control, providing a confirmed diagnosis and a determination of rifampin resistance within a few hours, enabling appropriate treatment to be initiated promptly. Major changes have been made in the standards for diagnosis. Additional important changes include: emphasis on the recognition of groups at increased risk of tuberculosis; updating the standard on antiretroviral treatment in persons with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection; and revising the standard on treating multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:24673691

  12. The standard of healthcare accreditation standards: a review of empirical research underpinning their development and impact

    OpenAIRE

    Greenfield David; Pawsey Marjorie; Hinchcliff Reece; Moldovan Max; Braithwaite Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Healthcare accreditation standards are advocated as an important means of improving clinical practice and organisational performance. Standard development agencies have documented methodologies to promote open, transparent, inclusive development processes where standards are developed by members. They assert that their methodologies are effective and efficient at producing standards appropriate for the health industry. However, the evidence to support these claims requires...

  13. The development of internal fixation: Historical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leši? Aleksandar R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the ancient times, man was faced with the problem of fracture treatment, which is first described in the records from ancient Egypt. Ever since, many treatment methods have been developed, but the real revolution in the fracture treatment was achieved by internal fixation. Since it was described for the first time, at the end of the 18th century, this method has continuously developed, but sterilization, radiographies, anaesthesiology, antibiotics made this surgery modern and safe. The great ideas and practical solutions of the new methods were done by Albin Lambotte, William Arbuthnot Lane, Robert Danis, William Hey Groves. They lead to the expansion of this method and truly made the principles for the future AO school. New methods, biological internal fixation, minimally invasive procedures, new technologies and devices for internal fixation are introduced in the surgical practice daily. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175095 i br. 45005

  14. 15 CFR 10.3 - Development of a proposed standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of a proposed standard. 10... DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.3 Development of a proposed standard. (a) A proposed standard... adequate marketing information, or both, as determined to be appropriate by the Department; (2) Shall...

  15. A quality control of proteomic experiments based on multiple isotopologous internal standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Bourmaud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The harmonization of proteomics experiments facilitates the exchange and comparison of results. The definition of standards and metrics ensures reliable and consistent data quality. An internal quality control procedure was developed to assess the different steps of a proteomic analysis workflow and perform a system suitability test. The method relies on a straightforward protocol using a simple mixture of exogenous proteins, and the sequential addition of two sets of isotopically labeled peptides added to reference samples. This internal quality control procedure was applied to plasma samples to demonstrate its easy implementation, which makes it generic for most proteomics applications.

  16. The future of international development cooperation.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhatch, Tom

    2012-01-01

    International development cooperation must be inspiratio- nally innovative if it is to be effective. The post-2015 agenda will be more inclusive and cooperative while emphasizing climate change and accountability, notably against corruption. South-South aid will grow and technological innovation could become the driving force for change.

  17. Defining International Human Resource Development: A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Gary N.; Wang, Xiaohui

    2007-01-01

    From the beginning of the use of the term, there have been struggles over the meaning of human resource development (HRD). In recent years, there has been increased attention to the field's definition. This paper moves this exploration one more step to an exploration of the dilemma of defining international and cross-national HRD. A beginning…

  18. The international cooperation for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article notices the importance of the environmental issue for the international cooperation and the legislative progress about it in Colombia. Also, it study the changes in the cooperation system, from one based in quotas to other based in the demand, and the adjustments required in developing countries to adapt to the new scheme

  19. Silica optical fiber technology for devices and components design, fabrication, and international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Kyunghwan

    2012-01-01

    From basic physics to new products, Silica Optical Fiber Technology for Device and Components examines all aspects of specialty optical fibers. Moreover, the inclusion of the latest international standards governing optical fibers enables you to move from research to fabrication to commercialization. Reviews all the latest specialty optical fiber technologies, including those developed for high capacity WDM applications; broadband fiber amplifiers; fiber filleters based on periodic coupling; fiber branching devices; and fiber terminations Discusses key differences among sing

  20. Austrian contributions to fuel rod failure models shown at the International Standard Problem ISP-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code BALON-2A was improved to perform the International Standard Problem ISP-14. The main extensions are the implementation of input-options and the development of a model to predict the pressure in the fuel rod gap. With these improvements and some calculations for input values satisfying results have been obtained. This is remarkable because loss of coolant accident analyses are performed usually with larger computer codes. (Author)

  1. Contribution from twenty two years of CSNI International Standard Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a brief overview on the contribution of some CSNI International Standard Problems (ISPs) to nuclear reactor safety issues (41 ISPs performed over the last 22 years). This CSNI activity on ISPs has been one of the major activities of the Principal Working Group no.2 on Coolant System Behaviour. Its domain extended from thermal-hydraulics to several other accident domains following the main concerns of nuclear reactor safety, e.g., LOCA predictions fuel behaviour, operator procedures, containment thermal-hydraulics severe accidents, VVERs, etc. ISPs are providing unique material and benefits for some safety related issues. Clearly, all the technical findings and benefits provided by ISPs are still needed and contribute to advancement of nuclear safety. The report provides some overview on the general objectives of ISPs, content and types of ISPs, and technical domains covered by ISPs, followed by a synthesis of technical findings and benefits to the scientific community

  2. International standard problem ISP-47 on containment thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the OECD/NEA International Standard Problem ISP -47 programme was to assess the capabilities of lumped parameter (LP) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis codes in the area of containment thermal-hydraulics. Following the recommendations made in the 'State-of-the-art Report on Containment Thermal-hydraulics and Hydrogen Distribution', experimental data from different complementary experimental facilities were employed for the benchmark analyses applying a progressive modelling difficulty. The three experimental facilities TOSQAN, MISTRA and ThAI provided good quality experimental data suitable for CFD and LP code benchmarking both for steady-state and transient conditions. The ISP-47 programme was successfully completed in 2007. Nineteen organisations from fourteen countries participated by contributing experimental results, analyses with twelve different codes and reviews. The programme's final report, is broached. (authors)

  3. Upgrade of internal events PSA model using the AESJ level-1 PSA standard for operating state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2003, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) started to develop the Level-1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) standard of internal events for operating state (AESJ standard). The AESJ standard has been finished to be asked for public comment. Using the AESJ standard (draft version), the authors have upgraded the PSA model for Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) BWR-5 plant not only to reflect latest knowledge but also to ensure high quality of PSA model (not yet peer-reviewed) for the purpose of better operation and maintenance management of TEPCO BWR plants. For example, the categorization of structures, systems and components (SSCs) will be performed to improve nuclear reactor safety using information of risk importance. (author)

  4. CSNI International standard problems (ISP): brief descriptions (1975-1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last twenty years (1975-1999) the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored more than forty International Standard Problems (ISPs) in the fields of in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulic, and iodine behaviour in the containment. ISPs are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. The main characteristics of 41 ISPs completed between 1975 and 1999, and 3 containment analysis standard problems (CASPs) are briefly presented

  5. A comparative analysis of required financial disclosures in US, UK and international accounting standards

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Niamh; Marston, Claire

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores the extent to which there are significant differences in disclosure requirements under US, UK, international accounting standards. Previous research into international disclosure diversity has focused on an analysis of disclosure practices in different countries rather than on disclosures required by regulations in different countries. Financial disclosures required by UK professional regulations and by International Accounting Standards (IASs) are summarised and class...

  6. X-rays, radiometers and skin unit dose. The development of measuring methods and measuring units for X radiation in medical physics from the beginning until the international standardization; X-Strahlen, Radiometer und Hauteinheitsdosis. Die Entwicklung der Messverfahren und Masseinheiten fuer Roentgenstrahlung in der medizinischen Physik von den Anfaengen bis zur internationalen Standardisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glessmer-Junike, Simone

    2015-01-22

    X-rays, a special form of ionizing radiation, have been utilized in medicine and technology ever since their discovery at the end of 1895. However, the usage of X-rays made the development of measuring techniques necessary. Newly-developed measuring devices were at first called radiometers', but later the term dosimeter' has gained universal acceptance. The development of numerous dosimeters used in radiotherapy was accompanied by new units of measurement, each corresponding to its individual newly constructed dosimeter or method of measurement. While at first conversions between old and new units were performed, it later became clear that both within Germany and Europe units with similar names were used with different meanings, which was both incompatible and confusing. The first serious attempts of a standardization of units in Germany were made after the First World War, when the when the ionizing properties of X-rays was focused on for both measurements and unit definitions. Efforts towards an international standardization of units became successful in the mid-1920s when the Roentgen was defined as the universal unit. From the development described above, four stages of the evolution of radiation measurement and units in radiotherapy could be identified by means of comprehensive systematic research in printed publications. The first stage was the period of diagnostic application of X-rays, when tools for the determination of X-ray quality were designed. This stage progressed into that of therapeutic administration of X-rays shortly after, when instruments and units for the measurement of X-ray quantities (dose') were implemented. Due to the variety and diversity of measurement apparatus and units a third stage emerged, closely interconnected with the second. During the third stage, a nation-wide standardization was attempted in Germany. With the conclusion of this stage - the resolution of a unit for dose measurement in Germany - the stage of international standardization began. This fourth stage continues arguably to the present day, since by now not only units, but also standards for both measurement of these units and quality assurance, are developed in international cooperation. This study presents how present-day knowledge of fundamental physical laws, of potential measurement errors and of shortcomings of methods contribute to a better understanding of the historical process of the development portrayed here. When applying scientific discoveries to medicine and technology, this historical knowledge is an essential prerequisite for successful communication in a globalized world, which depends on international standards for manufacturing and application of measurement devices.

  7. Developments in safety standards and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explains, in broad terms, how regulatory control is exercised over licensed nuclear installations in the UK and how HSE has developed its safety standards to support its regulatory approach. It first sets out the scope of HSE's regulatory responsibilities, which NII exercises on its behalf, and briefly describes the licensing process and compliance monitoring through inspection over the life of a nuclear plant. It also refers to the role of assessment in NII's decision-making processes, and the part played in this by the consideration of costs and safety benefits. It then moves on to consider the challenges that HSE/NII are likely to face from the changing nuclear industry in the second half of the 1990s. (author)

  8. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of method for evaluating mechanical stress of composite structures for aerospace use; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Koku uchuyo sentan fukugozai no kyodo hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    R and D has been performed on methods to repair composite structures used in aerospace application, and on stress evaluation on repaired portions, targeting at establishment of international standardization. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. The current fiscal year has executed surveys on repair methods, selection of the repair methods, evaluation on the repairing processes, and compression strength evaluation on test samples given repairs. The method for repairing the sandwich-structure composite members was selected as a result surveys and discussions on published literatures. For the evaluation test on the repairing processes, specific repairing processes were established with reference to the result of surveys on the repair methods, which were applied to test samples having been given damages. In addition, discussions were given also on non-destructive inspection methods for sandwich panels. Regarding the strength test for repaired portions, a compression strength test was performed on test samples repaired by using adhesive after having been given damages, wherein data related to compression strength were obtained. Furthermore, a system was developed to analyze the scarf-like adhesive-repaired potions by using the two-dimensional finite element method model. (NEDO)

  9. Specific Features of Reflection of Information Regarding Lease Operations in the National and International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolenko Nataliya V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies the degree of correspondence of the national Provisions (Standard of Business Accounting (PSBA Lease with the international standard and provides recommendations with respect to their closing up. On the results of the study the author provides specific features of international and national standards – the existing IFRS 17 Lease and national PSBA 14 Lease by the following components: definition of lease, its classification and reflection in accounting. Also the text of PSBA 31 Financial Expenditures is supplemented with provisions on capitalisation of financial expenditures prospectively, which would allow avoidance of correction of the balance of the retained income and provision of comparative information for previous periods. The article provides an algorithm of division of lease for accounting purposes on the basis of international standards. Its use would ensure correctness of reflection of lease operations in accounting and would serve as a basis for development of methodical provisions with respect to accounting. By the result of the study the author forms definition of the qualification asset as an asset which requires considerable time for its creation, preparation for target use, sales or acquisition of the ownership right. Capitalisation of such expenditures would allow non-reduction of the accounting income and also would provide a possibility to reflect financial expenditures in accordance with their economic essence.

  10. New developments in international nuclear liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Bord of Governors at its session in February 1990 entrusted its Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability under a new mandate with the preparatory work for the revision of the Vienna Convention. This Standing Committee has so far helt three sessions. The following four main items appeared on its agenda: 1. proposals for the revision of the Vienna Convention; 2. the question of supplementary funding for compensation of nuclear damage under the revised Vienna Convention; 3. procedure for the settlement of claims for nuclear damage under the revised Vienna Convention; and 4. International State liability for nuclear damage and its relationship to the international civil liability regime. A brief description is provided of these initiatives to improve the existing international nuclear liability regime. Also progress made with regard to each of them is reported. Because of the different legal character of these initiatives, belonging to international civil, international state law and sometimes a mixture, there is a serious risk that the new developments will not be formalized as soon as hoped for. (orig.)

  11. Knowledge sharing in international product development teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne

    Many companies are facing an increasing need to compete on a global scale. But as companies move into multiple markets, the process of developing new products becomes increasingly complex. Coping successfully with the increased internationalization forces companies to excel at collaboration and knowledge sharing, also across geographical distances. The capability to develop new transnational products depends largely on the multinational company's ability to transfer and deploy knowledge from its multiple country sources. The challenges of the transfer of knowledge between departments in the same company are far from trivial and the problems associated with transfer will increase with geographical and cultural difference (Bresman et al., 1999). Especially tacit knowledge is difficult to transport across national boarders (Kogut & Zander, 1992) and not much research exists on how companies overcome these barriers and harvest knowledge from geographical dispersed areas (Subramaniam & Venkatraman, 2001). The product development literature prescribes that knowledge sharing is desirable throughout the whole product development process (Craig & Hart, 1992; Hansen, 1999). Although this sharing is desirable, previous research found that it is the exception rather than the rule in most companies (Golder, 2000:329). Hence, it is relevant to research how companies can improve their ability to share knowledge in connection with international product development. One way to increase knowledge sharing in the product development process is by using teams. Teams are considered one of the best tools for exchanging especially tacit knowledge, since this kind of knowledge is transferred best through personal interaction and face-to-face meetings (Madhavan & Grover, 1998; Nonaka, 1994). In accordance with this, more and more multinational firms rely on international product development teams (McDonough et al., 2001) as a means to make the most effective use of the company's resources scattered around the world. While a substantial amount of research exists on groups in general, research into new product development teams is more limited and especially empirical research on global new product development teams is sparse (McDonough, et al., 2001). Findings from research on teams cannot automatically be generalized and applied to multinational product development teams, since these differ on a range of parameters from domestic teams. Multinational teams are often separated geographically and are culturally diverse, which affects their knowledge processes. Given the increased importance of multinational product development teams and the limited amount of research within this area, this therefore appears to be a topic worthy of further investigation. Hence the objective of the full paper is to discuss the challenges associated with knowledge sharing in international product development teams. A case study of a Danish international food company has been conducted and interviews with team members located in different geographical cites are currently being analyzed.

  12. Application of a powdered-internal-standard method to plant and seaweed samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preparation method making use of liquid nitrogen combined with a powdered-internal-standard method has been established for seaweed and plant samples, whose elemental concentration has been attracting attention in various research fields. It is found that a powdered-internal-standard method developed by us in applicable to the powdered samples treated with liquid nitrogen with good accuracy and reproducibility. The results were compared with those obtained by direct-powder method and by chemical-ashing method and good agreement was obtained. In addition, it is found that the whole sample of large quantities was almost uniformized by this preparation method. Moreover, it becomes possible to obtain concentrations of all the concerned elements including iodine, chlorine and bromine, which are essential elements in the fields of life-sciences and are difficult to be analyzed by the chemical-ashing method. It is expected that the application to other biological samples is also promising. (author)

  13. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Overall survey; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Sogo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of tackling with the international standardization by enterprises and organizations involved in the standardization in the U.S., Europe and Japan, the results of the R and D on 20 themes for the international standardization, and the development toward the international standardization. As the R and D themes, the following were selected: the development of chemical method to analyze/evaluate metallic coatings of surface treated steel coating sheets, R and D of the basic evaluation method of functional composite particles, international standards for computer/manikins, basic technology of color image management, study on optimizing design/evaluation technology using quality engineering, study of the international standardization by economic evaluation of environmental impacts, R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells, development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards, standard measuring methods of hormone effects of chemical substances, quantification of the sensory evaluation and international standardization in the paint field, experimental study on the international standardization for immunochemical measurement of chemical substances, etc. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Capitalist development and internal migration in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akor, R I; Mou, D

    1986-12-01

    The authors analyze internal migration trends in Nigeria by examining individual household strategies and how they have adapted to structural changes brought about by colonial rule and capitalist development. The first section of this article describes the structural changes that started the process of labor migration. The second section deals with post-independence industrialization and the consequent rural-urban migration. The final section analyzes the consequences of these migration patterns for urban growth and rural productivity. PMID:12280787

  15. THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS IN ROMANIA: ADVANTAGES AND MAIN PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Andreea, TRAISTARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is meant to analyze the implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards in Romania. The work tries to focus on the benefits and challenges of International Financial Reporting Standards, mainly on factors pertaining to its adoption connections, statistics and other types of analyses were used in order to show the importance that International Financial Reporting Standards adoption could represent for a large number of stakeholders. The most important features of International Financial Reporting Standards implementation are the costs, which seem to be rather high, the missing of instructions for the adoption, and its complex characteristics. The adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Romania are strongly influenced by the stock market, the dimensions of companies and educational degree. The results of this study recommend that the government should start a program to support the International Financial Reporting Standards application.

  16. Developing Ethics and Standards in Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Boog

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a globalizing world, what role can social science research – particularly action research – play in order to address the risks of exclusion, poverty, social and physical insecurity and environmental deprivation? More specifically, how can this type of research be conducted in a participatory, responsible, transparent and scientific way? In other words: what about the ethics and standards in action research? This was the main focus of the World Congress on Action Research and Action Learning (August 2006 organized by the University of Groningen and the Higher Education Group of the Northern Netherlands. We begin by discussing the core characteristics of action research with reference to theory and practice. Reflection and action are key constituents of the process through the enactment of action research. The middle section draws upon the research findings presented at the congress and published in a book [B. Boog, J. Preece, M. Slagter and J. Zeelen (Eds. (2008 Towards Quality Improvement of Action Research. Developing Ethics and Standards, Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers]. Citing authors who contributed chapters to the book mentioned above, we analyze four important subthemes: ‘participation, power and rapport’; ‘quality of research and quality management’; ‘learning to solve your own problems in complex responsive social systems, and ‘heuristics (rules of thumb for action research practice’. Finally, we comment on possible quality improvements for action research. Our remarks relate to the problems of implementing the concept of participation, the ambition of action research to contribute to both knowledge production and social change and the need for systematic reconstruction (scientific validation of action research.

  17. Simultaneous determination of the intermediates of the citric acid cycle by gas chromatography--mass fragmentography using deuterated internal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current developments in the use of gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy in studying the intermediates in the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle are outlined. The methods developed make use of deuterated internal standards and multiple-ion monitoring to obtain sensitivity comparable to that of the better fluorimetric enzymatic assays. The problems still remaining are indicated

  18. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  19. The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Kareš; Petra Krišková

    2008-01-01

    The article dealt with institutional aspects of auditing profession, mostly their impact on international harmonization concept of auditing services. The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services behavior and development, mostly in context of providing the auditing services. The authors mention on the IAASB priorities in this area set for period...

  20. The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kareš

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with institutional aspects of auditing profession, mostly their impact on international harmonization concept of auditing services. The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services behavior and development, mostly in context of providing the auditing services. The authors mention on the IAASB priorities in this area set for period 2009 - 2011.

  1. For a communicational analysis of international management standards in societal security

    OpenAIRE

    Brigitte JUANALS

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This proposal presents a communicational analysis of international management standards in the field of private and public organizations. We study the new communication policies and strategies transmitted by these texts.this work (part of the notSeG project, 2009-2012) takes place in the field of the international standardization of societal security. the aim of this project is to study management standards (international, european and national) in relation to the institutions an...

  2. WHY DOES THE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDIZATION HAVE TO PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN SUSTAINABLE ECONOMICS AND FINANCIAL STRATEGIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeno Beke, Ph.D, CMA, CPA, CTA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards and their contribution to harmonization in business economics and financial practice. In this review, the goal is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards promote financial decisions and influence the business environment in a global scale. It is expected that the unified, standardized accounting information system will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from the business economics and financialpractice of certain countries. Standardization of financial accounting has tended to follow the integration of the markets served by the accounts. The present impetus for global accounting standards follows the accelerating integration of the word economy. The global accounting standards would enable the world’s stock markets to become more closely integrated. It is important for companies to develop coherent and consistent financialstrategies and to utilize international accounting methods to support strategic planning, decision-making and control.

  3. INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS: A WAY FOR GLOBAL CONSISTENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Tripathi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The reverberations of Wall Street had to be felt across the global banking system. Last September, the world economy seemed to be hurtling down in a way that had initially raised the spectre of the Great Depression in America of the late 1920s. This is based largely on the performance of stock markets which are supposed to reflect future trends in the real economy. However, such knowledge embedded in the markets can be imperfect, as we have learnt by now. In some ways, the global financial crisis and its fallout are forcing economic agents to acquire new knowledge in regard to what might happen in the future. It was difficult to explain rationally why the stock markets were furiously running up even as company balance sheets were still bleeding. A few years ago, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS were a distant possibility. Today, the reality is far different. We are in a dramatic shift that is fast making IFRS the most widely accepted accounting model in the world. As the business environment becomes increasingly global and companies routinely list on stock exchanges in many countries, the need for consistent worldwide reporting standards intensifies. IFRS clearly addresses this issue; its goal is to create comparable, reliable, and transparent financial statements that will facilitate greater cross-border capital raising, trade and better corporate governance practices. Thus acceptance of IFRS is gaining momentum across the globe. IFRS transition program for any organization will have multi –dimensional effect because of differences which exist between IFRS and Local GAAPs. The objectives of the paper is to highlight the nature of such differences with examples along with analysing the provisions of IFRS, comparative analysis of IFRS with Indian GAAP system, benefits, and major issues in first time adoption of IFRS in Indian companies with the help of case study of Indian corporate.

  4. International development workshops. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) began to act on their recognition of the importance of education in nuclear literacy, specifically in radioactive waste management (RWM), several years ago. To address this Goal for nuclear literacy, the US DOE; through the Information and Education Division of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and in cooperation with the OECD/NEA, organized an ''International Workshop on Education in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management'' in Engelberg, Switzerland in June of 1991. To this end, a grant to support nuclear literacy and RWM was written and funded by the OCRWM and the education division of the DOE Yucca Mountain Office in 1990. The over-riding Goal of that workshop and the DOE grant was to find ways of raising the level of nuclear literacy in the general public through educational programs in radioactive waste management (RWM). The two Main Objectives of the workshop were: first, to contribute to an information base for education systems, on global aspects of radioactive waste management; and second, to achieve international consensus on the basic tools and methods required to develop the information base. These two objectives also became the principal objectives of the DOE International Workshops grant. In other words, the global and local (Nevada) objectives were one and the same. Workshop overviews and accomplishments are summarized in this report

  5. International development workshops. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) began to act on their recognition of the importance of education in nuclear literacy, specifically in radioactive waste management (RWM), several years ago. To address this Goal for nuclear literacy, the US DOE; through the Information and Education Division of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and in cooperation with the OECD/NEA, organized an ``International Workshop on Education in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management`` in Engelberg, Switzerland in June of 1991. To this end, a grant to support nuclear literacy and RWM was written and funded by the OCRWM and the education division of the DOE Yucca Mountain Office in 1990. The over-riding Goal of that workshop and the DOE grant was to find ways of raising the level of nuclear literacy in the general public through educational programs in radioactive waste management (RWM). The two Main Objectives of the workshop were: first, to contribute to an information base for education systems, on global aspects of radioactive waste management; and second, to achieve international consensus on the basic tools and methods required to develop the information base. These two objectives also became the principal objectives of the DOE International Workshops grant. In other words, the global and local (Nevada) objectives were one and the same. Workshop overviews and accomplishments are summarized in this report.

  6. Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012

  7. Final comparison report for international standard problem n.22 (SPES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OECD-CSNI International Standard Problem 22 is a 'Loss of Feedwater with EFW delayed' test, performed in the SPES facility (SIET-Piacenza). The purpose of 'LOFW-EFW delayed' experiment is to obtain in the primary system of the facility the thermal-hydraulic conditions similar to the reference plant in the incidental transient of main feedwater total loss, in all the three steam generators, with a delayed intervention of the emergency feedwater system. It is a double blind exercise, characterized by a large participation of non-OECD countries sponsored by IAEA. The ISP22 Comparison Report is based on two fundamental elements: the comparison between the single Participants predictions and the experimental data, and the overall comparison among all calculations and test results. The conclusions drawn from these analyses highlight the major contributions to the observed discrepancies deriving from code limitations, user errors, experimental uncertainties. From a macroscopic point of view, it is concluded that most of the phenomena occurring in ISP22 experiment were generally predicted by the double blind predictions. A more accurate analysis of the single phenomena can nevertheless reveal relevant discrepancies between calculations and data. The document also contains a description of ISP22 Participants and input decks, and a collection of their comments on the differences between calculations and test results

  8. Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pim M W; Thorn, Petra; Castilla, Jose A; Frith, Lucy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Mochtar, Monique; Bjorndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson C

    2015-06-01

    An international working group was established with the aim of making recommendations on the number of offspring for a sperm donor that should be allowable in cases of international use of his sperm. Considerations from genetic, psychosocial, operational and ethical points of view were debated. For these considerations, it was assumed that current developments in genetic testing and Internet possibilities mean that, now, all donors are potentially identifiable by their offspring, so no distinction was made between anonymous and non-anonymous donation. Genetic considerations did not lead to restrictive limits (indicating that up to 200 offspring or more per donor may be acceptable except in isolated social-minority situations). Psychosocial considerations on the other hand led to proposals of rather restrictive limits (10 families per donor or less). Operational and ethical considerations did not lead to more or less concrete limits per donor, but seemed to lie in-between those resulting from the aforementioned ways of viewing the issue. In the end, no unifying agreed figure could be reached; however the consensus was that the number should never exceed 100 families. The conclusions of the group are summarized in three recommendations. PMID:25817048

  9. The basic safety standards on diskette. International basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program SS115 contains the text and data from Safety Series No. 115: 'International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources' published by the IAEA in Vienna in 1996. The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards

  10. Kyrgyzstan: Internal and External Course of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Volovoj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After collapse of the Soviet Union Central Asia (CA was not in the focus of academic society and big geopolitical players, Kyrgyzstan not being an exception. But today Russia is back to CA through the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU and Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO. Kyrgyzstan is a member of CSTO and is going to join the EEU. Therefore it is worth of broader analysis. This study tried to understand specifics of Kyrgyz internal and external course of development. It found that internal political process in Kyrgyzstan used to be very problematic. The country suffered a lot from two revolutions, caused by the authoritarian “family rule” of Askar Akaev and Kurmanbek Bakiev. After that Kyrgyzstan decided to change its system of government from presidential to parliamentary (or semi-presidential model. But this experiment did not bring peace and stability, additionally complicated by ethnic tension between Kyrgyz and Uzbek citizens. Possible recipe of success – bigger socio-economic responsibility of the government, but it is still not in place. After two people revolts Kyrgyzstan was near to become a “failed state”, but orientation towards strategic partnership with Russia and membership in the EEU can help it to survive politically and economically at the expense of Russian geopolitical ambitions, compensate internal political turbulence by external factor of stability. Moreover, close (also institutional cooperation with Moscow strengthens systemic power of Kyrgyzstan in its relations with the closest neighbors, such as Uzbekistan (not satisfied with the water policy of Bishkek and Afghanistan (poses real security threat of Islamic extremism and terrorism to Kyrgyzstan. To sum up, for the moment Kyrgyz internal politics is hardly predictable, also because of the parliamentary experiment, but definite external orientation towards Russia and the EEU creates some basis for stable long term development of the country.

  11. Comparison requirements of national and international standards for stainless steel pipes of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents review of standards and specification for stainless steel of X18H10T series used in NPP structures. The article is aimed at displaying mismatches between pipes under different standards. National standards should be put in compliance with European regulations. Therefore, requirements for national NPP pipes should be put in compliance with international standards, rules and regulations

  12. Standards for PV Modules and Components -- Recent Developments and Challenges: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-10-01

    International standards play an important role in the Photovoltaic industry. Since PV is such a global industry it is critical that PV products be measured and qualified the same way everywhere in the world. IEC TC82 has developed and published a number of module and component measurement and qualification standards. These are continually being updated to take advantage of new techniques and equipment as well as better understanding of test requirements. Standards presently being updated include the third edition of IEC 61215, Crystalline Silicon Qualification and the second edition of IEC 61730, PV Module Safety Requirements. New standards under development include qualification of junction boxes, connectors, PV cables, and module integrated electronics as well as for testing the packaging used during transport of modules. After many years of effort, a draft standard on Module Energy Rating should be circulated for review soon. New activities have been undertaken to develop standards for the materials within a module and to develop tests that evaluate modules for wear-out in the field (International PV Module QA Task Force). This paper will discuss these efforts and indicate how the audience can participate in development of international standards.

  13. Challenges associated with knowledge sharing in international product development teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne-Mette; Harmsen, Hanne

    Motivated by and accelerating the globalization process, product development is increasingly taking place in international firms with employees of various nationalities and aimed at international markets. This poses a number of new managerial challenges. This paper draws together literature on product development teams, knowledge sharing, and international product development management to form a conceptual framework of factors that influence knowledge sharing in international teams. Four in-depth case studies are used to explore and expand the understanding of the challenges associated with international product development teams. Results indicate that international product development might not be as international as would be expected and that even if many of the characteristics and problems associated with international product development in the literature are found, there are also a number of interesting underlying mechanisms that influence how well international product development teams function.

  14. The requirements for the inclusion of standard terms in international sales contracts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Eiselen.

    Full Text Available The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG) does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solutio [...] n to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it is necessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be made available to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems, namely that a clear incorporation clause in the contract is sufficient for the effective incorporation of standard terms. The author critically examines the case law, the various approaches and the underlying arguments on which they are based, before reaching the conclusion that the two extreme approaches should be rejected in favour of the more moderate approach. This approach is founded on a proper interpretation of the provisions of the CISG as well as being in step with international trade practice.

  15. International standards for tuberculosis care: Relevance and implications for laboratory professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On World Tuberculosis (TB Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are suspected of having, TB and is intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all healthcare providers in delivering high quality care for patients of all ages, including those with smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB, TB caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TB/HIV coinfection. In this article, we present the ISTC, with a special focus on the diagnostic standards and describe their implications and relevance for laboratory professionals in India and worldwide. Laboratory professionals play a critical role in ensuring that all the standards are actually met by providing high quality laboratory services for smear microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing and other services such as testing for HIV infection. In fact, if the ISTC is widely followed, it can be expected that there will be a greater need and demand for quality assured laboratory services and this will have obvious implications for all laboratories in terms of work load, requirement for resources and trained personnel and organization of quality assurance systems.

  16. Standardizing Clinical Trials Workflow Representation in UML for International Site Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Elias Cesar Araujo; Jayanti, Madhav Kishore; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Kozan, Andreia M. O.; Rodrigues, Maria J.; Shah, Jatin; Loures, Marco R.; Patil, Sunita; Payne, Philip; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Background With the globalization of clinical trials, a growing emphasis has been placed on the standardization of the workflow in order to ensure the reproducibility and reliability of the overall trial. Despite the importance of workflow evaluation, to our knowledge no previous studies have attempted to adapt existing modeling languages to standardize the representation of clinical trials. Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a computational language that can be used to model operational workflow, and a UML profile can be developed to standardize UML models within a given domain. This paper's objective is to develop a UML profile to extend the UML Activity Diagram schema into the clinical trials domain, defining a standard representation for clinical trial workflow diagrams in UML. Methods Two Brazilian clinical trial sites in rheumatology and oncology were examined to model their workflow and collect time-motion data. UML modeling was conducted in Eclipse, and a UML profile was developed to incorporate information used in discrete event simulation software. Results Ethnographic observation revealed bottlenecks in workflow: these included tasks requiring full commitment of CRCs, transferring notes from paper to computers, deviations from standard operating procedures, and conflicts between different IT systems. Time-motion analysis revealed that nurses' activities took up the most time in the workflow and contained a high frequency of shorter duration activities. Administrative assistants performed more activities near the beginning and end of the workflow. Overall, clinical trial tasks had a greater frequency than clinic routines or other general activities. Conclusions This paper describes a method for modeling clinical trial workflow in UML and standardizing these workflow diagrams through a UML profile. In the increasingly global environment of clinical trials, the standardization of workflow modeling is a necessary precursor to conducting a comparative analysis of international clinical trials workflows. PMID:21085484

  17. Trends in US nuclear standards development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulation of the US Nuclear Power industry has been extensive during the 1970's. Key to this situation has been the evolution in the interpretation of the rules, regulations and consensus standards which have been incorporated into NRC guidance documents by reference or endorsement. The resulting increase in the number and complexity of LWR construction requirements has significantly increased the labor content of an LWR construction project. The authors believe that existing nuclear related consensus standards should be reviewed with the objective of modifying the standards to improve the efficiency and productivity of engineering, craft, and non-manual personnel

  18. A Culture of compliance: developing standards for fighting corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Sampson, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Abstract.Over the past decade, a new global regime of anti-corruption has taken shape. Pushed by NGOs such as Transparency International, and with coalitions of international organizations, Western governments, and private business circles, we now have a framework of conventions and regulations that impel governments and international firms to act with integrity and to prevent corruption in business and international development. New anti-bribery laws reward whistleblowers and penalize firms ...

  19. The International Reference Ionosphere - Climatological Standard for the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) a joint project of URSI and COSPAR is the defacto standard for a climatological specification of ionospheric parameters. IRI is based on a wide range of ground and space data and has been steadily improved since its inception in 1969 with the ever-increasing volume of ionospheric data and with better mathematical descriptions of the observed global and temporal variation patterns. The IRI model has been validated with a large amount of data including data from the most recent ionospheric satellites (KOMPSAT, ROCSAT and TIMED) and data from global network of ionosondes. Several IRI teams are working on specific aspects of the IRI modeling effort including an improved representation of the topside ionosphere with a seamless transition to the plasmasphere, a new effort to represent the global variation of F2 peak parameters using the Neural Network (NN) technique, and the inclusion of several additional parameters in IRI, e.g., spread-F probability and ionospheric variability. Annual IRI workshops are the forum for discussions of these efforts and for all science activities related to IRI as well as applications of the IRI model in engineering and education. In this paper I will present a status report about the IRI effort with special emphasis on the presentations and results from the most recent IRI Workshops (Paris, 2004; Tortosa, 2005) and on the most important ongoing IRI activities. I will discuss the latest version of the IRI model, IRI-2006, highlighting the most recent changes and additions. Finally, the talk will review some of the applications of the IRI model with special emphasis on the use for radiowave propagation studies and communication purposes.

  20. Development of an ISO 9000 compatible occupational health standard: defining the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyjack, D T; Levine, S P

    1995-06-01

    Corporate ISO 9000 registration is gaining international acceptance as the hallmark of quality system achievement. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is currently drafting environmental standards that will complement ISO 9000. Should the international community also consider development of an ISO 9000-compatible occupational safety and health management standard (OSHMS)? To determine the advantages and disadvantages of this issue, the investigators conducted interviews with government and private sector experts, reviewed publicly accessible ISO documents, and evaluated published literature germane to the subject. Major advantages of an ISO OSHMS were the harmonization of national standards, maximizing Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) efficiency through third-party registration audits, and increased emphasis on employee-driven health and safety programs. Major disadvantages were the single vote of the American National Standards Institute at international proceedings, direct and indirect program development costs, potential unethical or incompetent conduct of registrars, and the logistics of developing an acceptable standard to all stakeholders. Some unresolved issues were the inevitability of an ISO OSHMS, auditor indemnification, and the scope of OSHA participation. Industrial health and safety professionals should initiate formal discussion on this issue to elaborate on findings presented here and to establish a consensus on future activities. PMID:7778527

  1. Development of quality assurance requirements - an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total quality management strategy and the worldwide introduction of the DIN/ISO 9000 (EN 29 000) series of standards have given new impetus to traditional quality assurance. The most important change must surely be seen in the holistic approach of total quality management and its strict orientation towards customer requirements and satisfaction. International codes and standards for the nuclear industry will also have to be brought into line as part of the process of harmonizing quality assurance system standards. One possible approach is simply to specify a supplementary 'delta' of nuclear-specific requirements to be appended to the broad range of conventional requirements. It is a particular feature of quality-assured procedures in Germany that product and/or component related quality requirements and quality verifications are defined in the specifications of the architect engineer so that full implementation of the requirements from the design phase through to the manufacturing phase is assured. Looking at the development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) and the elaboration of 'Common Rules', it is to be anticipated that a major step will be made toward international harmonization of safety criteria. (orig.)

  2. THE BASES OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRIN IONEL GABRIEL

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Capitalism started as a consequence of the urban phenomena development, as well as of the commercial activities development. Thus, over this period of time, the attitude towards business also changed. This change was based also on certain economic reasons. The term „business” is defined in numerous dictionaries released until the present day in a restrictive and subjective manner, both from the perspective of the totalitarian communist ideology, which happened up to the year 1989, and also from the perspective of the different categories of meanings that were taken into consideration when compiling dictionaries in different international circulation languages. If an enterprise conducts business at an international level, then it will take into consideration the performance of different types of activities which differ greatly from the activities conducted at a national level. All these elements must be carefully studied by the company's management, in order to be able to act with high economic efficiency. It must be said that, in contemporary times, that „invisible hand of the market” from the past is none other than competition. As a consequence of the competitive phenomenon's manifestation, the prices are lower, the services are of a better quality and they are increasingly more diverse. Because of these positive arguments, Adam Smith was named „the father of economy”.

  3. 24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES...Empowerment Zone Grants § 598.615 Economic development standards. (a) Economic...

  4. Quantification of cytokinins by selected ion monitoring using 15N labelled internal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure has been developed for the synthesis of 6-chloropurine labelled with four 15N atoms. This compound can be used in the synthesis of a range of labelled cytokinin bases, which can be ribosylated by an enzymatic procedure. 15N labelled zeatin riboside was synthesized and used as an internal standard in the measurement by selected ion monitoring of the levels of this cytokinin in cultured crown gall and normal tissues of Vinca rosea, which were found to contain 402 and 2.5 ng per g fresh weight respectively. (author)

  5. HARMONIZATION OF NATIONAL REGULATION AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS – PARTICULAR CASE OF NONCURRENT ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coste Andreea Ioana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature, accounting harmonization is a top topic because it helps to increase the comparability of financial statements. Also in Romania in the last 10 years becames a topic that is very often debated. The harmonization is trying to reduce differences of financial reporting statements between countries or, in the other words, it is trying to bring to a common denominator of existing rules when appear conflicts of comparability between them. The purpose of this paper is to measure the harmonisation between national and international regulation for a significant element of financial position statement, such as noncurrent assets. This paper provides an empirical research of information that must be presented by entities which apply national accounting standards or international ones when financial statements are prepared, trying to measure the harmonization between the two referential. Thus, in trying to determine the harmonisation, we use the Jaccard coefficient in order to provide an overview of the degree of harmonization of accounting practice. When measuring the degree of comparability of Romanian accounting regulations with International Accounting Standards we analyzed noncurrent assets and impairment of assets using the Jaccard coefficient for accounting treatments and we calculated an average of similarities between the two regulations. Further, the results suggest that there is an average level of harmonization for the accounting treatment of noncurrent assets and for determining the impairment of the assets, the methods are the same. The study contributes to the development of accounting literature about the harmonisation between national regulation and international standards regarding the noncurrent assets and impairment of the assets, which together with the other elements define the activity of the business. In addition, the study provides an analysis of how the regulations treats noncurrent assets, during the life of the asset, namely: the recognition phase, the evaluation and the depreciation.

  6. Whose standard is it, anyway? How the tobacco industry determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for tobacco and tobacco products

    OpenAIRE

    Bialous, S.; Yach, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).?METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Search words included "ISO", "CORESTA", "Barclay", "compensation and machine smoking", "tar and nicotine deliverie...

  7. Codes and standards research, development and demonstration roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-07-22

    C&S RD&D Roadmap - 2008: This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.

  8. A New International Standard for "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørum, Alf; Burcharth, Hans F.; Goda, Yoshimi; Kortenhaus, Andreas; Kriebel, David

    2007-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is going to issue a new standard concerning "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures," which becomes the first international standard in coastal engineering. It is composed of a normative part (29 pages), an informative part (80 pages) and Bibliography ( 17 pages). The normative part describes what is considered as the norm of the matters in concern, while the informative part provides the information on recommended practice....

  9. 2009 review and revisions of the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Burns, Stephen; Donovan, William; Graves, Daniel; Jha, Amitabh; Jones, Linda; Kirshblum, Steven; Marino, Ralph; Mulcahey, M J; Reeves, Ronald; Scelza, William M; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Stein, Adam; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2010-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI were also reviewed. The last citable reference for the ISNCSCI's methodology is the ISNCSCI Reference Manual, published in 2003 by ASIA. The Standards Committee recommended that the numerous items tha...

  10. A Theory of Standards-Driven Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Swinnen, Johan F. M.; Rozelle, Scott; Xiang, Tao; Vandemoortele, Thijs

    2008-01-01

    Consumers have increasing demands for product standards. This has important implications for development. This paper develops a firmal theory of the process of the introduction of high product standards in developing countries. The model endogenizes the introduction of high standards. Initial differences in income, the nature of capital constraints and transaction costs, the initial production structure and policies and institutions are shown to affect the likelihood of and the size of the hi...

  11. A review of international underground laboratory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground laboratories are essential for various important physics areas such as the search for dark matter, double beta decay, neutrino oscillation, and proton decay. At the same time, they are also a very important location for studying rock mechanics, earth structure evolution,and ecology. It is essential for a nation's basic research capability to construct and develop underground laboratories. In the past, China had no high-quality underground laboratory,in particular no deep underground laboratory,so her scientists could not work independently in major fields such as the search for dark matter,but had to collaborate with foreign scientists and share the space of foreign underground laboratories. In 2009, Tsinghua university collaborated with the Ertan Hydropower Development Company to construct an extremely deep underground laboratory, the first in China and currently the deepest in the world, in the Jinping traffic tunnel which was built to develop hydropower from the Yalong River in Sichuan province. This laboratory is named the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and formally opened on December 12, 2010. It is now a major independent platform in China and can host various leading basic research projects. We present a brief review of the development of various international underground laboratories,and especially describe CJPL in detail. (authors)

  12. A Study on the Development of Service Quality Index for Incheon International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Seok; Lee, Seung Chang; Hong, Soon Kil

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is located at developing Ominibus Monitors System(OMS) for internal management, which will enable to establish standards, finding out matters to be improved, and appreciation for its treatment in a systematic way. It is through developing subjective or objective estimation tool with use importance, perceived level, and complex index at international airport by each principal service items. The direction of this study came towards for the purpose of developing a metric analysis tool, utilizing the Quantitative Second Data, Analysing Perceived Data through airport user surveys, systemizing the data collection-input-analysis process, making data image according to graph of results, planning Service Encounter and endowing control attribution, and ensuring competitiveness at the minimal international standards. It is much important to set up a pre-investigation plan on the base of existent foreign literature and actual inspection to international airport. Two tasks have been executed together on the base of this pre-investigation; one is developing subjective estimation standards for departing party, entering party, and airport residence and the other is developing objective standards as complementary methods. The study has processed for the purpose of monitoring services at airports regularly and irregularly through developing software system for operating standards after ensuring credibility and feasibility of estimation standards with substantial and statistical way.

  13. Development of thermodynamic potentials for fluid water, ice and seawater : a new standard for oceanography

    OpenAIRE

    R. Feistel1; Wright, D G; K. Miyagawa; Hruby, J; D. R. Jackett; T. J. McDougall; Wagner, W

    2008-01-01

    A new seawater standard has been developed for oceanographic and engineering applications that consists of three independent thermodynamic potential functions, derived from extended distinct sets of very accurate experimental data. The results have been formulated as Releases of the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS (1996, 2006, 2008) and are to be adopted internationally by other organizations in subsequent years. In order to successfully perform computat...

  14. International Standard Problem No. 48 - containment capacity. Synthesis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2002, the OECD-NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) initiated an International Standard Problem on containment integrity (ISP 48) based on the NRC/NUPEC/Sandia test. The objectives of the ISP are to extend the understanding of capacities of actual containment structures based on results of the recent PCCV Model test and other previous research. From 1997 through 2001 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a Cooperative Containment Integrity Program under the joint sponsorship of the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan, and the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The purpose of the program was to investigate the response of representative models of nuclear containment structures to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions to measured behavior. A uniform 1:4-scale model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) was constructed and tested at SNL. This model was representative of the containment structure of an actual pressurized water reactor plant in Japan. The ISP consists of four phases over a period of 2 years: Phase 1: Data Collection and Identification. Phase 2: Calculation of the Limit State Test (LST), i.e. static pressure loading. Phase 3: Calculation of response to both Thermal and Mechanical Loadings. Phase 4: Reporting Workshop Eleven organizations (or teams) from nine OECD member countries accepted the invitation to participate in the ISP and perform calculations to predict the structural response of the PCCV model to static and transient pressure and thermal loading. Each participating organization was provided with the model and loading data and was asked to perform independent analyses to simulate the response of the PCCV model. The results of each team's calculations were compiled and the results presented at a final workshop in April 2005. The prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model is a uniform 1:4-scale model of the containment structure of Unit 3 of the Ohi Nuclear Power Station in Japan. The approach to designing the model was to scale the design of the Ohi-3 containment to the extent possible and include as many representative features of the prototype as practical: liner, penetrations, reinforcement steel and tendons. Fifty-five response parameters, referred to as standard output locations (SOLs), were selected to facilitate initial comparison of the Phase 2 calculations with the test results. The calculated responses match the test results and each other reasonably well up to the onset of global or general membrane, yielding where the results begin to diverge. Also, most of the analyses capture the loss of stiffness due to cracking of the concrete at approximately 1.5 times the design pressure. In addition to submitting response predictions at the SOLs, each participant was also asked to provide a best estimate of failure pressure and mechanisms of the PCCV model. It is interesting to note that the differences in failure predictions are much more significant than the differences in the calculated responses would seem to suggest. Phase 3 of ISP48 extends the results of the model tests and calculations by investigating the addition of temperature to the pressure loading. The ISP participants agreed to consider two thermal load cases for Phase 3: - Case 1: Saturated Steam Conditions (mandatory for all Phase 3 participants) - Monotonically increasing static pressure and temperature (saturated steam). - Case 2: Station Blackout Scenario - A representative severe-accident scenario for a four-loop PWR including vessel failure and hydrogen detonation

  15. Partial synthesis of ganglioside and lysoganglioside lipoforms as internal standards for MS quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Martin; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad; Kolter, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Within recent years, ganglioside patterns have been increasingly analyzed by MS. However, internal standards for calibration are only available for gangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3. For this reason, we prepared homologous internal standards bearing nonnatural fatty acids of the major mammalian brain gangliosides GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, and of the tumor-associated gangliosides GM2 and GD2. The fatty acid moieties were incorporated after selective chemical or enzymatic deacylation of bovine brain gangliosides. For modification of the sphingoid bases, we developed a new synthetic method based on olefin cross metathesis. This method was used for the preparation of a lyso-GM1 and a lyso-GM2 standard. The total yield of this method was 8.7% for the synthesis of d17:1-lyso-GM1 from d20:1/18:0-GM1 in four steps. The title compounds are currently used as calibration substances for MS quantification and are also suitable for functional studies. PMID:25341943

  16. Normalization method for metabolomics data using optimal selection of multiple internal standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetukuri Laxman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Success of metabolomics as the phenotyping platform largely depends on its ability to detect various sources of biological variability. Removal of platform-specific sources of variability such as systematic error is therefore one of the foremost priorities in data preprocessing. However, chemical diversity of molecular species included in typical metabolic profiling experiments leads to different responses to variations in experimental conditions, making normalization a very demanding task. Results With the aim to remove unwanted systematic variation, we present an approach that utilizes variability information from multiple internal standard compounds to find optimal normalization factor for each individual molecular species detected by metabolomics approach (NOMIS. We demonstrate the method on mouse liver lipidomic profiles using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compare its performance to two commonly utilized normalization methods: normalization by l2 norm and by retention time region specific standard compound profiles. The NOMIS method proved superior in its ability to reduce the effect of systematic error across the full spectrum of metabolite peaks. We also demonstrate that the method can be used to select best combinations of standard compounds for normalization. Conclusion Depending on experiment design and biological matrix, the NOMIS method is applicable either as a one-step normalization method or as a two-step method where the normalization parameters, influenced by variabilities of internal standard compounds and their correlation to metabolites, are first calculated from a study conducted in repeatability conditions. The method can also be used in analytical development of metabolomics methods by helping to select best combinations of standard compounds for a particular biological matrix and analytical platform.

  17. Contested rules and shifting boundaries: International standard setting in accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Botzem, Sebastian; Quack, Sigrid

    2005-01-01

    "In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das Spannungsfeld der Entstehung und Entwicklung von internationalen Standards für die Wirtschaftsprüfung und Rechnungslegung seit dem 2. Weltkrieg untersucht. In den letzten Jahrzehnten ist eine Zunahme von Aktivitäten und Initiativen zur grenzüberschreitenden Harmonisierung von Rechnungslegungsstandards zu beobachten. Die Schaffung von transnationalen bzw. internationalen Standards erweist sich als hochpolitischer Prozess, in den Akteure au...

  18. Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation

    OpenAIRE

    Benedict, Ralph HB; Amato, Maria Pia; Boringa, Jan; Brochet, Bruno; Foley, Fred; Fredrikson, Stan; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hartung, Hans; Krupp, Lauren; Penner, Iris; REDER, Anthony T.; Langdon, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different langu...

  19. Developing Standards-Based Geography Curricular Materials from Overseas Field Experiences for K-12 Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Alex; Palacios, Fabian Araya

    2012-01-01

    Overseas experiences provide educators with exceptional opportunities to incorporate field study, firsthand experiences, and tangible artifacts into the classroom. Despite this potential, teachers must consider curricular standards that direct how such international endeavors can be integrated. Furthermore, geography curriculum development is more…

  20. Development and analysis of an International Speech Test Signal (ISTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holube, Inga; Fredelake, Stefan; Vlaming, Marcel; Kollmeier, Birger

    2010-12-01

    For analysing the processing of speech by a hearing instrument, a standard test signal is necessary which allows for reproducible measurement conditions, and which features as many of the most relevant properties of natural speech as possible, e.g. the average speech spectrum, the modulation spectrum, the variation of the fundamental frequency together with its appropriate harmonics, and the comodulation in different frequency bands. Existing artificial signals do not adequately fulfill these requirements. Moreover, recordings from natural speakers represent only one language and are therefore not internationally acceptable. For this reason, an International Speech Test Signal (ISTS) was developed. It is based on natural recordings but is largely non-intelligible because of segmentation and remixing. When using the signal for hearing aid measurements, the gain of a device can be described at different percentiles of the speech level distribution. The primary intention is to include this test signal with a new measurement method for a new hearing aid standard (IEC 60118-15). PMID:21070124

  1. Developing International Business Managers through International Study Visits to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yiming; Rose, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is a key factor in the success of business organizations today, impacting many aspects of management performance. Understanding the global business environment has therefore become a key objective in the teaching of international business on Executive MBA programs. Drawing on the theory of experiential learning, this study examines…

  2. International experience with urban infrastructure development financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Buriachenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the need for scientific studying the state of local infrastructure financing as well as efficient management of the existing infrastructure facilities. It is noted that under the influence of such factors as globalization, urbanization and information revolution the value of the city and role thereof in society are increasing. Based on analysis of the budget and demographic indices it has been proven that Kyiv, as the capital, occupies a unique place in the economic life of Ukraine, while being the country's financial and investment centre. It has been asserted that the critical level of the city's key infrastructure deterioration indicates lack of adequate municipal management in this field. The paper also asserts a high level of monopolization regarding housing and communal services, whereas also provides substantiation of the need for developing new competitive financing mechanisms to be applied. Existence of significant disparities between development of the city and construction of the essential transport infrastructure has been demonstrated with the said fact being due to incompliance of the borrowed finances with real investment needs. Given the international experience, the methods of upgrading the existing city infrastructure as well as sources of financial support for the new infrastructure projects have been suggested

  3. Business and Management Aspects of International Accounting Standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno Beke

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote managerialdecisions and influence business environment. The unified, standardized accounting information system willlead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicators from thebusiness management of certain countries. The results of applied regression model support that the greaterdemand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to pe...

  4. DEVELOPING THE CONCEPTUAL APPROACH TO STANDARDIZATION OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Blinov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes educational standards as the key concept of modern education; their interrelation with the national qualifications system and professional standards being considered. The authors denote the reasons for changing the conceptual approach to the standard developments, and demonstrate the possible ways of educational quality assurance.Diversification and mobility of the modern qualifications along with the fast technological changes affects the educational content and knowledge acquisition, and requires the variable and flexible educational  curricula and management. The global development trends, concerning the educational quality standards, involve their orientation on the learning outcomes, which should be taken into account while developing the Federal State Educational Standards of the fourth generation. The authors reveal the structure of the future standard, outline its implementation stages, and demonstrate the mechanism guaranteeing the regulatory legal provision of professional education. 

  5. A New International Standard for "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    TØrum, Alf; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2007-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is going to issue a new standard concerning "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures," which becomes the first international standard in coastal engineering. It is composed of a normative part (29 pages), an informative part (80 pages) and Bibliography ( 17 pages). The normative part describes what is considered as the norm of the matters in concern, while the informative part provides the information on recommended practice. The paper introduces the main points of the normative part and discusses the influence of the new standard on coastal engineering practice.

  6. International financial reporting standards and American generally accepted accounting principles: the convergence lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslana Kuzina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS adopting process in different countries. Special attention has been paid to the processes taking place in the United States. In recent years there have been numerous attempts to assess the impact of IFRS on the developed and developing capital markets, and to use the results of this assessment as arguments in the debate about the effectiveness of regulation of corporate reporting, in particular about the introduction of a mandatory requirement to use global accounting standards. Two main regulatory bodies inthe corporate reporting area in the world – The U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC and the Board of Trustees of the IFRS Foundation – use the results of academic research based on empirical observations of IFRS use onwards from 2005 to support its position on possible benefits from the introduction of global reporting standards and recommendations on different approaches to the practical implementation of this idea. Analysis of the preparatory process for the adoption of IFRS in the United States is required for error analysis of IFRS implementation in Ukraine.

  7. Standardization of negative controls in diagnostic immunohistochemistry: recommendations from the international ad hoc expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlakovic, Emina E; Francis, Glenn; Garratt, John; Gilks, Blake; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Ibrahim, Merdol; Miller, Rodney; Nielsen, Søren; Petcu, Eugen B; Swanson, Paul E; Taylor, Clive R; Vyberg, Mogens

    2014-04-01

    Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide "best practice recommendations" for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on "fit-for-use" principles. PMID:24714041

  8. UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AS A MEANS FOR REGIONAL INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia DONCHENKO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Programs of international cooperation in higher education claim to promote peace and intercultural understanding, contribute to development of efficient human resources as well as research and innovation. For centuries, universities were centers of progress that ensure community’s development. Processes of globalization, internationalization, rapid development of information technology transform the mission of university, challenging modern universities to join forces to meet growing needs of knowledge society. The European Higher Education Area is continuously working to reduce mismatch of skills between the workforce and labor market. International cooperation in education has fundamental potential for reducing economic disparity. Ukrainian government views higher education as a means of growth and development and considers international activity pivotal in responding to global and regional change and achieving world quality standards of education. The aim of this paper is to explore potential of international cooperation in higher education in globalized world by examining selected international projects and their outcomes.

  9. Facilitating Automation Development in Internal Logistics Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Granlund, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The internal logistics system includes all activities connected with managing the flow of materials within the physical limits of a facility. This system is an important part of operations in need of increased focus and continuous improvements. Automation is one possible tool with a previously confirmed great potential to improve internal logistics. Despite this great potential and a growing trend of using automation in the area, internal logistics activities are still not automated to the sa...

  10. A new internal standard for HPLC assay of conjugated linoleic acid in animal tissues and milk.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan; Michalski, J. P.; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, A. J.; Krajewska, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 56, ?. 1 (2011), s. 23-29. ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : sorbic acid * internal standard * CLA isomers Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2011

  11. Scattered gamma rays as internal standards in X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative evaluation of Pb by X-ray fluorescence analysis using scattered gamma rays as internal standard for removing matrix effects is presented. The applicability of the method is proposed. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs

  12. Template and Model Driven Development of Standardized Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Stefan; Chalopin, Claire; Denecke, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Digital patient modeling targets the integration of distributed patient data into one overarching model. For this integration process, both a theoretical standard-based model and information structures combined with concrete instructions in form of a lightweight development process of single standardized Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are needed. In this paper, we introduce such a process along side a standard-based architecture. It allows the modeling and implementation of EHRs in a lightweight Electronic Health Record System (EHRS) core. The approach is demonstrated and tested by a prototype implementation. The results show that the suggested approach is useful and facilitates the development of standardized EHRSs. PMID:26262004

  13. Development of ASTM standards in support of advanced ceramics -- continuing efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, C.R.

    1998-02-01

    An update is presented of the activities of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee C-28 on Advanced Ceramics. Since its inception in 1986, this committee, which has five standard producing subcommittees, has written and published over 32 consensus standards. These standards are concerned with mechanical testing of monolithic and composite ceramics, nondestructive examination, statistical analysis and design, powder characterization, quantitative microscopy, fractography, and terminology. These standards ensure optimum material behavior with physical and mechanical property reproducibility, component reliability, and well-defined methods of data treatment and material analysis for both monolithic and composite materials. Committee C-28 continues to sponsor technical symposia and to cooperate in the development of international standards. An update of recent and current activities as well as possible new areas of standardization work will be presented.

  14. Implementation of the new international standards in Swiss legislation on radon protection in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current revision of the Swiss Radiological Protection Ordinance aims to bring Swiss legislation in line with new international standards. In future, the control of radon exposure in dwellings will be based on a reference level of 300 Bq m-3. Since this value is exceeded in >10 % of the buildings so far investigated nationwide, the new strategy requires the development of efficient measures to reduce radon-related health risks at an acceptable cost. The minimisation of radon concentrations in new buildings is therefore of great importance. This can be achieved, for example, through the enforcement of building regulations and the education of construction professionals. With regard to radon mitigation in existing buildings, synergies with the ongoing renewal of the building stock should be exploited. In addition, the dissemination of knowledge about radon and its risks needs to be focused on specific target groups, e.g. notaries, who play an important information role in real estate transactions. The 'National Action Plan concerning Radon 2012-2020'(1), approved by the Swiss Federal Council in 2011, has paved the way for the implementation of the new international standards on the protection of the public against radon. One of the main measures in this action plan involves a revision of the Swiss Radiological Protection Ordinance (RPO) of 1994, which is implemented by the cantons. (authors)

  15. 75 FR 59281 - Recognition of Foreign Certificates Under the International Convention on Standards of Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ...Guard [Docket No. USCG-2010-0797] Recognition of Foreign Certificates Under the International...policy regarding the United States' recognition of foreign certificates held by foreign...development of a policy regarding the recognition of foreign International...

  16. Development and standardization of Mysore Tridosha scale

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa, S; Murthy, C. G. Venkatesha

    2011-01-01

    The authors have developed a personality scale to assess Tridoshas i.e. Vata, Pitta, and Kapha from psychological perspective in human beings. The Tridoshas are composed of the Pancha Mahabhutas, but one or the other Dosha is dominant singularly or in combination. There can never be a state when one or the other Pancha Mahabhutas and consequently the Tridoshas are absent totally. All five are essential to sustain life. Vata Dosha is composed of Akasa and Vayu Mahabhuta. Pitta Dosha is compose...

  17. 25 CFR 542.43 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for a Tier C gaming operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.43 What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for a Tier C gaming operation? (a) The surveillance system... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards...

  18. 25 CFR 542.33 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier B gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.33 What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier B gaming operations? (a) The surveillance system shall... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards...

  19. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: Cases With Classification Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kirshblum, S.C.; Biering-Sørensen, F.; Betz, R; Burns, S.; Donovan, W.; Graves, D E; Johansen, M.(Department of Physics, Stockholm University; The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm, Sweden); Jones, L.; Mulcahey, M.J; Rodriguez, G.M.; Schmidt-Read, M.; Steeves, J D; Tansey, K.; Waring, W.

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSC...

  20. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: Cases with classification challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kirshblum, S.C.; Biering-Sorensen, F.; Betz, R; Burns, S.; Donovan, W.; Graves, D E; Johansen, M.(Department of Physics, Stockholm University; The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm, Sweden); Jones, L.; Mulcahey, M.J; Rodriguez, G.M.; Schmidt-Read, M.; Steeves, J D; Tansey, K.; Waring, W.

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. ...

  1. Selecting International Standards for Accrual-Based Accounting in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the definition of a government business enterprise (GBE), as provided in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), as a determinant for applying IPSAS or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for a public sector entity. The work of the IPSASB is focused on the accounting and financial reporting needs of national, regional and local governments, and related governmental agencies, while the IFRS serves the private sector.

  2. Developing Successful International Faculty Led Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabregas Janeiro, Maria G.; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Rosete, Rodrigo Tello

    2012-01-01

    Faculty Led Programs are study abroad experiences led by university professors. Faculty Led Programs are considered as an opportunity for college students, especially in the United States to attend a short-term international experience (Mills, 2010). Faculty Led Program is an international experience which is different from the traditional…

  3. Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    China first adopted minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in 1989. Today, there are standards for a wide range of domestic, commercial and selected industrial equipment. In 1999, China launched a voluntary endorsement label, which has grown to cover over 40 products including water-saving products (See Figure 1). Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label (also referred to as the 'Energy Label'). Today, the Energy Label is applied to four products including: air conditioners; household refrigerators; clothes washers; and unitary air conditioners (See Figure 2). MEPS and the voluntary endorsement labeling specifications have been updated and revised in order to reflect technology improvements to those products in the market. These programs have had an important impact in reducing energy consumption of appliances in China. Indeed, China has built up a strong infrastructure to develop and implement product standards. Historically, however, the government's primary focus has been on the technical requirements for efficiency performance. Less attention has been paid to monitoring and enforcement with a minimal commitment of resources and little expansion of administrative capacity in this area. Thus, market compliance with both mandatory standards and labeling programs has been questionable and actual energy savings may have been undermined as a result. The establishment of a regularized monitoring system for tracking compliance with the mandatory standard and energy information label in China is a major area for program improvement. Over the years, the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) has partnered with several Chinese institutions to promote energy-efficient products in China. CLASP, together with its implementing partner Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), has assisted China in developing and updating the above-mentioned standards and labeling programs. Because of the increasing need for the development of a monitoring system to track compliance with standards and labeling, CLASP, with support from Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), has expanded its ongoing collaboration with the China National Institute of Standards (CNIS) to include enforcement and monitoring. CNIS has already begun working on the issue of compliance. CNIS has conducted modest sample testing in 2006 for refrigerators, freezers and room air-conditioners, and repeated the same task in 2007 with a similar sample size for three products (refrigerators, freezers, air-conditioners and clothes washers). And, CNIS, with technical support from LBNL, has analyzed the data collected through testing. At the same time, parallel effort has also been paid to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. In conjunction with CNIS, CLASP technical experts reviewed the standards development timeline of the four products currently subject to the mandatory energy information label. CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing: technical input to the process; comment and advice on particular technical issues; as well as evaluation of the results. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. This short report summarizes the status of Standards and Labeling program, current enforcement and monitoring mechanism in China, and states the importance of international collaborations.

  4. Development of the internal financial control in Lithuania's public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Matusevi?ius, Darius

    2004-01-01

    The development of internal financial control of public sector is one of the essential ways of solving problems of the increase of effective activity of State institutions and development of implementation of budget programs. That is why it is important, from the point of view of national and the EU systems, to analyze and define the factors, (influencing) determining the development of internal financial control, which are connected with the objectives of internal financial control of public...

  5. Internal standardization in atomic-emission spectrometry using inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of internal standardization has been used in quantitative analytical emission spectroscopy since 1925 to minimize the errors arising from fluctuations in sample preparation, excitation-source conditions, and detection parameters. Although modern spectroscopic excitation sources are far more stable and electronic detection methods are more precise than before, the system for the introduction of the sample in spectrometric analysis using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) introduces significant errors, and internal standardization can still play a useful role in improving the overall precision of the analytical results. The criteria for the selection of the elements to be used as internal standards in arc and spark spectrographic analysis apply to a much lesser extent in ICP-spectrometric analysis. Internal standardization is recommended for use in routine ICP-simultaneous spectrometric analysis to improve its accuracy and precision and to provide a monitor for the reassurance of the analyst. However, the selection of an unsuitable reference element can result in misuse of the principle of internal standardization and, although internal standardization can be applied when a sequential monochromator is used, the main sources of error will not be minimized

  6. Dose limits to the lens of the eye: International Basic Safety Standards and related guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, T J; Pinak, M

    2015-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety requirements: 'General Safety Requirements Part 3--Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International Basic Safety Standards' (BSS) was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors at its meeting in September 2011, and was issued as General Safety Requirements Part 3 in July 2014. The equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye for occupational exposure in planned exposure situations was reduced from 150 mSv year(-1) to 20 mSv year(-1), averaged over defined periods of 5 years, with no annual dose in a single year exceeding 50 mSv. This reduction in the dose limit for the lens of the eye followed the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in its statement on tissue reactions of 21 April 2011. IAEA has developed guidance on the implications of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye. This paper summarises the process that led to the inclusion of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye in the BSS, and the implications of the new dose limit. PMID:25816264

  7. Comparison report for CSNI International Standard Problem 12 (ROSA-III Run 912)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSA-III Run 912 was identified as International Standard Problem 12 by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations. Run 912 simulated a 5% split break LOCA condition in a BWR at the pump suction in the recirculation line with the HPCS failure. Comparisons between the test data and the calculations by eight international participants were made and discussed. (author)

  8. Development of the National Bureau of Standards low-energy-photon-emission-rate radioactivity standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Bureau of Standards has recently developed point source low-energy-photon-emission-rate standards of 55Fe, 85Sr, 109Cd and 125I. The standardizations were performed using a defined solid angle, NaI(Tl) spectrometer that can be operated with gas fillings at atmospheric and reduced pressure. The corrections applicable to such a spectrometer have been discussed by W. B. Bambynek

  9. Development and initial standardization of Ayurveda child personality inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S P Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurveda inventories for prakriti (constitution have been developed and validated for adults. Children, however, require different categories of quarter and questions, for example, to assess the intelligence, the questions can be related to their scholastic performances. Objective: To develop and standardize an inventory to assess the prakriti of the children, and to compare with Child Personality Questionnaire (CPQ. Materials and Methods: A 135-item? Ayurveda child personality inventory (ACPI scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vataja (A, pittaja (B, and kaphaja prakriti (C characteristics and by taking the opinions of experts (ten Ayurveda experts and three psychologists. Study was carried out in Maxwell public school, Bangalore. The scale was administered on parents of children of the age group 6-12 years . CPQ was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years. Results: The ACPI was associated with excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach?s alpha for A, B, and C scales were 0.77, 0.55, and 0.84, respectively, and the Split-half reliability scores were 0.66.0.39 and 0.84, respectively. Factor validity coefficient scores on each items was above 0.5. Scores on vataja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Items of V, P, and K scales showed significant correlation (values ranging from 0.39 to 0.84 with subscales of CPQ, which indicates that Eastern and Western psychology concept have good correspondence. Conclusions: The prakrti of the children can be measured consistently by this instrument. Scores on V and P scale showed good correlation with the anxiety primary scale of CPQ.

  10. Help for the Developers of Control System Cyber Security Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Evans

    2008-05-01

    A Catalog of Control Systems Security: Recommendations for Standards Developers (Catalog), aimed at assisting organizations to facilitate the development and implementation of control system cyber security standards, has been developed. This catalog contains requirements that can help protect control systems from cyber attacks and can be applied to the Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources of the United States and other nations. The requirements contained in the catalog are a compilation of practices or various industry bodies used to increase the security of control systems from both physical and cyber attacks. They should be viewed as a collection of recommendations to be considered and judiciously employed, as appropriate, when reviewing and developing cyber security standards for control systems. The recommendations in the Catalog are intended to be broad enough to provide any industry using control systems the flexibility needed to develop sound cyber security standards specific to their individual security requirements.

  11. Developing the Internal Service Quality in Organisation Y

    OpenAIRE

    Järvi, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyze the quality of internal service at Organization Y by researching internal customer relationships. The objectives were to identify areas for development and strengths, as well as to make employees aware of the importance of the internal customers. The research problem concerned the extent to which internal service quality should be improved, and if so, the ways in which this could be achieved. Solutions were researched by determining the expectations a...

  12. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  13. 78 FR 1826 - International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...informing the public of the SPS standard-setting activities...Agriculture's (USDA's) Food Safety and Inspection...to inform the public of SPS standard-setting activities...Nations organizations, the Food and Agriculture Organization...tests, vaccines, and the safe international trade...

  14. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ...2701-21 (IGRA), to regulate gaming on Indian lands. The NIGC published...Internal Control Standards Class II Gaming, with comprehensive and updated...as they apply to Class II gaming. Some of these standards...before the 2012 final rule takes effect, the Commission suspends...

  15. Opinions on development of China nuclear power standards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to meet fast development of nuclear power, China should establish its own nuclear power standards system. This paper gives some opinions on establishment of Chinese nuclear island systems and components design and construction standards. It is suggested to draft 'Chinese Nuclear Power Utility Requirements Document'. (author)

  16. ODX - diagnostic standard and development tools; ODX Diagnosestandard und Entwicklungswerkzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, A.; Kricke, C.; Meyer, J. [ETAS GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    ODX, the new standard for the description of diagnostic protocols and data for electronic control units was released a year ago. After a brief review of the standard, ETAS introduces development tools for measuring, calibration, and diagnostic applications, with an emphasis on ECU calibration tasks. (orig.)

  17. Development of Best practices document for Peptide Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Assay Development Working Group (ADWG) of the CPTAC Program is currently drafting a document to propose best practices for generation, quantification, storage, and handling of peptide standards used for mass spectrometry-based assays, as well as interpretation of quantitative proteomic data based on peptide standards.

  18. Status of IAEA work on the development of standards on environmental radiation protection, and ideas for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established a programme of work to develop safety standards that address the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, in cooperation with other relevant international organizations. This paper reports on the current status of this work and explores the challenges still to be faced and the possible form of related safety standards in the future. (author)

  19. International standards for newborn weight, length, and head circumference by gestational age and sex: the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Villar, J; Cheikh Ismail, L; Victora, CG; Ohuma, EO; Bertino, E; Altman, DG; Lambert, A; Papageorghiou, AT; Carvalho, M.; Jaffer, YA; Gravett, MG; Purwar, M; Frederick, IO; Noble, AJ; Pang, R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2006, WHO published international growth standards for children younger than 5 years, which are now accepted worldwide. In the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, our aim was to complement them by developing international standards for fetuses, newborn infants, and the postnatal growth period of preterm infants. METHODS: INTERGROWTH-21(st) is a population-based project that assessed fetal growth and newborn size in eight geographically defined urban populations. These groups were selec...

  20. International standards for fetal growth based on serial ultrasound measurements: the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Papageorghiou, AT; Ohuma, EO; Altman, DG; Todros, T; Cheikh Ismail, L; Lambert, A; Jaffer, YA; Bertino, E; Gravett, MG; Purwar, M; Noble, JA; Pang, R; Victora, CG; Barros, FC; Carvalho, M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2006, WHO produced international growth standards for infants and children up to age 5 years on the basis of recommendations from a WHO expert committee. Using the same methods and conceptual approach, the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS), part of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, aimed to develop international growth and size standards for fetuses. METHODS: The multicentre, population-based FGLS assessed fetal growth in geographically defined urban populations in eight cou...

  1. Development of international law concerning nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short overview is given of the most important international conventions relating to civil liability for damage to, or loss of, life of persons or property, caused by nuclear incidents during the operation of stationary and non-stationary nuclear installations or transport of nuclear material. In accord with the international provisions, in the German Democratic Republic too, nuclear operators are exclusively liable for such damage unless it has been caused intentionally by the injury party. (author)

  2. Energy standards and model codes development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides an overview of the energy standards and model codes process for the voluntary sector within the United States. The report was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Building Energy Standards Program and is intended to be used as a primer or reference on this process. Building standards and model codes that address energy have been developed by organizations in the voluntary sector since the early 1970s. These standards and model codes provide minimum energy-efficient design and construction requirements for new buildings and, in some instances, existing buildings. The first step in the process is developing new or revising existing standards or codes. There are two overall differences between standards and codes. Energy standards are developed by a consensus process and are revised as needed. Model codes are revised on a regular annual cycle through a public hearing process. In addition to these overall differences, the specific steps in developing/revising energy standards differ from model codes. These energy standards or model codes are then available for adoption by states and local governments. Typically, energy standards are adopted by or adopted into model codes. Model codes are in turn adopted by states through either legislation or regulation. Enforcement is essential to the implementation of energy standards and model codes. Low-rise residential construction is generally evaluated for compliance at the local level, whereas state agencies tend to be more involved with other types of buildings. Low-rise residential buildings also may be more easily evaluated for compliance because the governing requirements tend to be less complex than for commercial buildings.

  3. Conservation and human rights: the need for international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oviedo, Gonzalo [International Union for the Conservation of Nature (International organizations without location); Pabon, Luis [The Nature Conservancy (United States); Painter, Michael; Redford, Kent [The Wildlife Conservation Society (United States); Siegele, Linda [Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (United Kingdom); Springer, Jenny [WWF-US (United States); Thomas, David [Birdlife International (International organizations without location); Painemilla, Kristen Walker [Conservation International (United States); Roe, Dilys

    2010-05-15

    Conservation doesn't happen in a vacuum. In recent years, awareness has grown of the relationship of international conservation practice to indigenous peoples and local communities, and especially the links between conservation and human rights. The impacts protected areas can have on rural communities – such as evictions and lost access to natural resources – are now under particular scrutiny. Concern is meanwhile rising over the human rights implications of some climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. But awareness is also growing of the positive contributions of nature conservation to the rights of people to secure their livelihoods, enjoy healthy and productive environments, and live with dignity. International NGOs can play a central role in supporting and promoting conservation actions that respect the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, and help sustain their livelihoods. Many conservation organisations have long worked towards this. It is vital that they hold to consistent principles and implement measures that ensure their application, so their action on conservation remains accountable, transparent and sustainable.

  4. Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

    2012-01-01

    The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

  5. INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 41 (IAS 41 – IMPLICATION FOR REPORTING CROP ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru ?tefea

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of articles were written regarding International Accounting Standard 41 (IAS 41 – Agriculture in order to outpost the the implication of this standard over valuating the different biological assets. Valuation of crop assets are also a part of the IAS 41 objective.  Anyway,  this paper investigates the implications of International Accounting Standard 41 for European Union (EU entities reporting on holdings of crop asset from thre  points of view: implication of production forecast over the accurate accounting, the impact over cash flow and the possibility like companies to use acoounting methodology on own interests.

  6. Professional development for the early learning content social studies standards

    OpenAIRE

    Laurie KATZ; Hatice Zeynep INAN; Cynthia TYSON; Adrienne DIXSON; Hyun-Young KANG

    2010-01-01

    This article describes early childhood educators’ responses to a professional development series aimed at helping them to understand and incorporate early learning standards for social studies. While the primary aim of the professional development was to focus on thesocial studies content standards, the secondary aim was to introduce early childhood educators to culturally relevant pedagogical strategies that take into account the unique learning needs of diverse children, particularly childr...

  7. Implementation of the new international standards in Swiss legislation on radon protection in dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios Gruson, Martha; Barazza, Fabio; Murith, Christophe; Ryf, Salome

    2015-04-01

    The current revision of the Swiss Radiological Protection Ordinance aims to bring Swiss legislation in line with new international standards. In future, the control of radon exposure in dwellings will be based on a reference level of 300 Bq m(-3). Since this value is exceeded in >10 % of the buildings so far investigated nationwide, the new strategy requires the development of efficient measures to reduce radon-related health risks at an acceptable cost. The minimisation of radon concentrations in new buildings is therefore of great importance. This can be achieved, for example, through the enforcement of building regulations and the education of construction professionals. With regard to radon mitigation in existing buildings, synergies with the ongoing renewal of the building stock should be exploited. In addition, the dissemination of knowledge about radon and its risks needs to be focused on specific target groups, e.g. notaries, who play an important information role in real estate transactions. PMID:25342610

  8. Calibrating ChIP-Seq with Nucleosomal Internal Standards to Measure Histone Modification Density Genome Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Adrian T; Chen, Zhonglei; Ruthenburg, Alexander J

    2015-06-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) serves as a central experimental technique in epigenetics research, yet there are serious drawbacks: it is a relative measurement, which untethered to any external scale obscures fair comparison among experiments; it employs antibody reagents that have differing affinities and specificities for target epitopes that vary in abundance; and it is frequently not reproducible. To address these problems, we developed Internal Standard Calibrated ChIP (ICeChIP), wherein a native chromatin sample is spiked with nucleosomes reconstituted from recombinant and semisynthetic histones on barcoded DNA prior to immunoprecipitation. ICeChIP measures local histone modification densities on a biologically meaningful scale, enabling unbiased trans-experimental comparisons, and reveals unique insight into the nature of bivalent domains. This technology provides in situ assessment of the immunoprecipitation step, accommodating for many experimental pitfalls as well as providing a critical examination of untested assumptions inherent to conventional ChIP. PMID:26004229

  9. ACCOUNTING STANDARD SETTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL ARENA: UPDATE ON THE CONVERGENCE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper contributes to the literature on international accounting by focusing on the standard setting process. As documented by research literature, accounting regulation can enhance corporate governance (Melis and Carta, 2010, corporate reporting being expected to reduce information asymmetry. Based on accounting research and trade literature we first synthesize recent evolutions in the international accounting arena. We therefore position our study within current realities significantly marked by uncertainty in relation to the world wide globalization process. The objective of our paper is to perform an analysis that would help assess further developments of the convergence project. This is done by looking at the current status of the projects being developed under the IASB –FASB collaboration, as well as by developing a comparison between IFRS and US GAAP. The employed research methodology relies on analyzing data provided through the IASB and the FASB’s websites, as well as other official documents being issued by the two Boards. The assessment of the projects was done by reviewing exposure documents and monitoring the Boards’ deliberations, while the developed comparison requires accounting regulations content analysis. Concluding upon the Boards’ ongoing projects, we might identify areas in which convergence seems to be quite close (such as revenue recognition and leasing, but also areas in which convergence becomes even more challenging (such as financial instruments or the particular case of offsetting. Similar to other studies being developed within accounting research and trade literature (SEC 2011: 8 we may conclude that, generally, US GAAP present more detailed, specific requirements than IFRS.

  10. Quantification of rhodium in a series of inorganic and organometallic compounds using cobalt as internal standard

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Trevor T., Chiweshe; Walter, Purcell; Johan A., Venter.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method for the quantification of rhodium using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cobalt as internal standard was developed. Rhodium recovery was determined in different samples, which included a certified reference material (CRM), pure rhodium metal [...] , inorganic RhCl.3H2O salt as well as different organometallic compounds. Excellent rhodium recoveries of 100,100, 99.0 and 99.7 % with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.0,1.0, 0.3 and 0.4 % were obtained for the CRM, rhodium metal sample, RhCl3·3H2O and [Rh(cupf)(PPh3)(CO)(CH3)(I)], respectively. The accurate recovery of rhodium was, however, affected by the presence of easily ionized elements (EIE) and unmatched acid matrixes with a decrease in rhodium recovery of up to 16 %. Validation parameters such as accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and robustness were all investigated to confirm the suitability of this newly developed analytical procedure for rhodium determination.

  11. Accredited Standards Committee N15 Developments And Future Directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) N15, Methods of Nuclear Material Control, is sponsored by the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) to develop standards for protection, control and accounting of special nuclear materials in all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, including analytical procedures where necessary and special to this purpose, except that physical protection of special nuclear material within a nuclear power plant is not included. Voluntary consensus standards complement federal regulations and technical standards and fulfill an important role for the nuclear regulatory agencies. This paper describes the N15 standards development process, with INMM as the Standards Developing Organization (SDO) and the N15 Committee responsible for implementation. Key components of the N15 standards development process include ANSI accreditation; compliance with the ANSI Essential Requirements (ER), coordination with other SDOs, communication with stakeholders, maintenance of balance between interest categories, and ANSI periodic audits. Recent and future ASC N15 activities are discussed, with a particular focus on new directions in anticipation of renewed growth in nuclear power.

  12. ACCREDITED STANDARDS COMMITTEE N15 DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, Caroline E.; May, Melanie; Preston, Lynne

    2009-10-06

    Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) N15, Methods of Nuclear Material Control, is sponsored by the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) to develop standards for protection, control and accounting of special nuclear materials in all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, including analytical procedures where necessary and special to this purpose, except that physical protection of special nuclear material within a nuclear power plant is not included. Voluntary consensus standards complement federal regulations and technical standards and fulfill an important role for the nuclear regulatory agencies. This paper describes the N15 standards development process, with INMM as the Standards Developing Organization (SDO) and the N15 Committee responsible for implementation. Key components of the N15 standards development process include ANSI accreditation; compliance with the ANSI Essential Requirements (ER), coordination with other SDOs, communication with stakeholders, maintenance of balance between interest categories, and ANSI periodic audits. Recent and future ASC N15 activities are discussed, with a particular focus on new directions in anticipation of renewed growth in nuclear power.

  13. Development of standard solutions for the Minergie standard; Standardloesungen - Entwicklung von Standardloesungen fuer den Minergie-Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissille, L.; Huber, T.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines a project that aimed to define standard solutions for use in buildings built to meet Minergie low energy consumption standards. These standard solutions are to provide a way of meeting Minergie standards in an easy way and thus further the use of the standard and also assure quality at the same time. The report describes how the solutions were developed on the basis of a selection of existing Minergie buildings. For various combinations of heating systems - wood, wood/solar, heat pumps (brine-water and air-water), gas/solar and oil/solar - the appropriate U-values for various building elements are listed. The resulting Minergie forms and guides are listed.

  14. The standard of healthcare accreditation standards: a review of empirical research underpinning their development and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenfield David

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare accreditation standards are advocated as an important means of improving clinical practice and organisational performance. Standard development agencies have documented methodologies to promote open, transparent, inclusive development processes where standards are developed by members. They assert that their methodologies are effective and efficient at producing standards appropriate for the health industry. However, the evidence to support these claims requires scrutiny. The study’s purpose was to examine the empirical research that grounds the development methods and application of healthcare accreditation standards. Methods A multi-method strategy was employed over the period March 2010 to August 2011. Five academic health research databases (Medline, Psych INFO, Embase, Social work abstracts, and CINAHL were interrogated, the websites of 36 agencies associated with the study topic were investigated, and a snowball search was undertaken. Search criteria included accreditation research studies, in English, addressing standards and their impact. Searching in stage 1 initially selected 9386 abstracts. In stage 2, this selection was refined against the inclusion criteria; empirical studies (n?=?2111 were identified and refined to a selection of 140 papers with the exclusion of clinical or biomedical and commentary pieces. These were independently reviewed by two researchers and reduced to 13 articles that met the study criteria. Results The 13 articles were analysed according to four categories: overall findings; standards development; implementation issues; and impact of standards. Studies have only occurred in the acute care setting, predominately in 2003 (n?=?5 and 2009 (n?=?4, and in the United States (n?=?8. A multidisciplinary focus (n?=?9 and mixed method approach (n?=?11 are common characteristics. Three interventional studies were identified, with the remaining 10 studies having research designs to investigate clinical or organisational impacts. No study directly examined standards development or other issues associated with their progression. Only one study noted implementation issues, identifying several enablers and barriers. Standards were reported to improve organisational efficiency and staff circumstances. However, the impact on clinical quality was mixed, with both improvements and a lack of measurable effects recorded. Conclusion Standards are ubiquitous within healthcare and are generally considered to be an important means by which to improve clinical practice and organisational performance. However, there is a lack of robust empirical evidence examining the development, writing, implementation and impacts of healthcare accreditation standards.

  15. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of a method to evaluate the strength of aerospace use hi-tech composite materials; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Koku uchuyo sentan fukugozai no kyodo hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As to the evaluation method of the strength of aerospace use composite materials and the repair materials/repair parts, the R and D were conducted for international standardization. The FY 1999 results were summed up. Concerning the damage resistance of base structure, tests to give damages to three kinds of sandwich panels and tests on the strength of damaged parts were conducted, and it was confirmed that the foamed core was more easily damaged and less in strength lowering than the honeycomb core. Relating to damages of composite material parts which are caused by aircraft operation, surveys were carried out at Swissair, Japan Air Lines and Lufthansa German Airlines. In the investigational study of the repair method of composite material structures, it was found out that there were typical forms of repair: only one face plate, one face plate and core, and both face plates and core, and according to these, the analysis of strength should also be adopted. The survey of the repair method was also made at each airframe maker. In the study of the analysis method of strength at repair parts, it was confirmed that the finite element method was high in accuracy and can be adopted also to complicated shapes, and that it was a method suitable for the actual analysis of repair strength. (NEDO)

  16. Analysis of Belgian Public Accounting and Its Compliance with International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) 1, 6 and 22

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Bellanca; Julien Vandernoot

    2013-01-01

    Belgian public accounting, which is continuously evolving, has to meet international standards. The aim of thispaper is to describe the current Belgian public accounting systems and to analyze their compliance with IPSAS1, 6 and 22, key points of modern accounting.We first describe the development of Belgian public accounting since 1846. We then focus on the 2003accounting reform, and more specifically its content and its triggering factors. The level of implementation ofthis reform in the di...

  17. Constraints and Improvement: A case Study of the Indonesia’s International Standard School in Improving its Capacity Building

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Sumintono; Hamdan Said; Nora Mislan

    2012-01-01

    Improving school capacity building becomes one of the major themes in the educational effectiveness research. This paper investigates implementation of the International Standard School (SBI) policy in Indonesia which as an effort of school capacity building improvement in the country. Using framework that is developed by King and Newman (2001), several dimensions of capacity building with relation to knowledge, skill and disposition of individual staff, and professional learning com...

  18. Procedures and Arrangement for Dispute Resolution Management in International Construction Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu Ikea Chinyere

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with issues relating to procedures and arrangement dispute resolution and management in international construction development projects. In the last twenty five years, Chinese economic environmenthas grown by leap high and bounds and from strength to strength with numerous international structural engineers, architects and companies benefiting from the challenges and prospects of international construction development projects in China. But on the other hand, some construction development projects are struggling to break even in the monotonous disputes, conflicts and unsuccessful projects. Habitually the disputes are prevalent in many international development projects because in most situations the participants / actors find it difficult to clearly comprehend to the local complexity, intricate way of life or adjust to the administrative arrangement in such a limited period. Since Chinese administration arrangement makes provision for an efficient and standard approach to local construction development dispute resolution and management, international construction development dispute could be resolved amicably by this administration arrangement more effectively rather than resolving it through the medium of international adjudication, arbitration or international court. The paper highlighted a dispute resolution and management approach to international development projects based on the context of Chinese administration arrangement, whereby dispute management, dispute arbitration and procedures are discussed accordingly. Thus, this paper also illustrated a valuable and efficient dispute resolution technique together with other issues relating to arbitrators and local government authorities. However, dispute management is not the final solution or mandatory method in resolving construction development dispute, the administration arrangement might offer positive impact on construction development project management. Presently, in the Chinese construction development industry,dispute management is still a distinctive formula and favourable alternative in dispute resolution of international construction development projects in China.

  19. Using Collaborative Course Development to Achieve Online Course Quality Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ining Tracy Chao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of quality is becoming front and centre as online and distance education moves into the mainstream of higher education. Many believe collaborative course development is the best way to design quality online courses. This research uses a case study approach to probe into the collaborative course development process and the implementation of quality standards at a Canadian university. Four cases are presented to discuss the effects of the faculty member/instructional designer relationship on course quality, as well as the issues surrounding the use of quality standards as a development tool. Findings from the study indicate that the extent of collaboration depends on the degree of course development and revision required, the nature of the established relationship between the faculty member and designer, and the level of experience of the faculty member. Recommendations for the effective use of quality standards using collaborative development processes are provided.

  20. LIMITS IN APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS TO INNOVATIVE CERAMIC SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gres Porcelain stoneware is a ceramic with a compact, hard, coloured and non-porous body. It is largely used as building materials, for a quality architecture, offering high resistance to impact, stress, wear, scratching, frost, chemical attach and stains. It is produced in flat tiles, billions of tons per year. A very prominent technology, based on a pyroclastic deformation, permits to obtain bended porcelain tiles as innovative solutions for a modern architecture. This technology is grounded on a proper combination of heavy machining by cutting tools and secondary firing in a kiln. This new element, the bended tile, can be used in several innovative applications (as steps, shelves, benches, radiators.... But, new functions require a better and in-depth knowledge of these materials, especially referring to the mechanical proprieties. This paper investigates the limits of applicability of ISO standards for the quality classification of ceramics and experimental measures of their mechanical proprieties.

  1. The Application of International Accounting Standard’s Requirements No. (20) in Jordanian Chemical Detergents Industry Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Adel Al-Sharairi; Majed A. Alsharayri

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying the extent to which Jordanian chemical detergents industry companies applying the requirements of international accounting standard No. (20). A questionnaire has been designed for this purpose and distributed to the external auditors of these companies of (50) auditors / questionnaire, (30) questionnaires were recovered and were suitable for analysis, with recovery rate reached to (60%). Resolution data was analyzed using (SPSS), and a number of statistical tech...

  2. 2009 review and revisions of the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin

    2010-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI were also reviewed. The last citable reference for the ISNCSCI's methodology is the ISNCSCI Reference Manual, published in 2003 by ASIA. The Standards Committee recommended that the numerous items that were revised should be published and a precedent established for a routine published review of the ISNCSCI. The Standards Committee also noted that, although the 2008 reprint pocket booklet is current, the reference manual should be revised after proposals to modify/revise the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS as modified from Frankel) are considered. In addition, the Standards Committee adopted a process for thorough and transparent review of requests to revise the ISNCSCI.

  3. PROPOSAL METHODOLOGY OF THE SUBSYSTEM - INTERNAL STANDARDIZATION AS PART OF TQM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Mitreva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Standardization in the management system becomes a key task of the managers and a priority issue for survival of every organization of this century. Besides the company's owner which is mostly concerned with the profit and fast multiplication of its invested capital, many other parties such as consumers, community, employees, deliverers and the society make a pressure in demanding. As of those demands the organization is to adapt its management system according the standards in order to be safe t hat the expectations will be fulfilled. However, to fulfill the standards in Europe and worldwide it is necessary to approach towards huge - radical changes in problem solving i.e. reengineering, new manner of consideration of causes and not as the so far known way - thinking over the consequences. Implementing this new TQM strategy means designing solidly documented quality system that covers every working process in a company and appears as a necessary base for successful usage of statistical process contr ol (SPC and efficient teamwork which otherwise in case of bad quality system will not be able to be set. In this manner it is guaranteed that the attitude of the top management is conducted; this attitude is consisted within the quality policy that create s a climate and information base whe re team work can be developed. This paper offers a proposal methodology for designing and implementation of internal standardization of TQM system in companies. This methodology is applicable in factory for reconstructio n of wagons and in a factory for confectionary production and has shown its efficiency and usage. In order to design the processes in line with the consumers/ clients content and at the same time to achieve profitability, it is necessary to reengineer the working processes

  4. The International Youth Year "Participation, Development, Peace."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceausescu, Nicu

    1985-01-01

    Governments, decision makers, and international organizations must become more receptive to youth's ideas and endeavors to build a better, more just society and to stimulate their aspirations for a world of peace, understanding, and cooperation among nations. Youth organizations must make their efforts more conspicuous. (MSE)

  5. Comparative study of Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures on radiation and nuclear safety with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the results of the critical reviews, analysis, and comparison of the regulatory infrastructures for radiation and nuclear safety of Malaysis and the Philippines usi ng the IAEA safety requirements, GSR Part 1, Government, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety'' as the main basis and in part, the GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. The scope of the comparison includes the elements of the relevant legislations, the regulatory system and processes including the core functions of the regulatory body (authorization, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, development of regulations and guides); and the staffing and training of regulatory body. The respective availabe data of the Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures and current practices were gathered and analyzed. Recommendations to fill the gaps and strengthen the existing regulatory infrastructure of each country was given using as bases relevant IAEA safety guides. Based on the analysis made, the main findings are: the legislations of both countries do not contain al the elements of teh national policy and strategy for safety as well as those of teh framework for safety in GR Part I. Among the provision that need to be included in the legislations are: emergency planning and response; decommissioning of facilities safe management of radioactive wastes and spent fuel; competence for safety; and technical sevices. Provisions on coordination of different authorities with safety responsibilities within the regulatory framework for safety as well as liaison with advisory bodies and support organizations need to be enhanced. The Philippines needs to establish an independent regulatory body, ie. separate from organizations charged with promotion of nuclear technologies and responsible for facilitiesand activities. Graded approach on the system of notification and authorization by registration and licensing needs to be considered in the regulatory system and processes of both countries. Enforcement policy of AELB and PNRI needs to be enhanced taking into account the factors in GS-G-1.5. Examples of key learning areas and good practices identified are: AELB's e-learning system represents an innovative means of its regulatory processes; the style and language used in the code of PNRI Regulations is in acordance with international standards, i.e. use of shall statements. The results of this study could be used by both countries in revisiting or further reviewing and updating their respective legislations in order to be consistent and coherent with international standards. (author)

  6. Development theory and changes in the international system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Alonso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Development theory has undergone several changes over the last two decades. However, the international reality has changed more profoundly. The increased heterogeneity of the developing world, the diverse experience of economic success among some developing countries, the new geography of global poverty, the increased multipolarity of the international system and the wider spheres of international public assets are just some of these changes. Thus, it is necessary to think again about the development process and the strategies that are required to promote economic and social change. This article represents an attempt to contribute to that reflection.

  7. Vehicle to Grid Communication Standards Development, Testing and Validation - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowri, Krishnan; Pratt, Richard M.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-09-01

    In the US, more than 10,000 electric vehicles (EV) have been delivered to consumers during the first three quarters of 2011. A large majority of these vehicles are battery electric, often requiring 220 volt charging. Though the vehicle manufacturers and charging station manufacturers have provided consumers options for charging preferences, there are no existing communications between consumers and the utilities to manage the charging demand. There is also wide variation between manufacturers in their approach to support vehicle charging. There are in-vehicle networks, charging station networks, utility networks each using either cellular, Wi-Fi, ZigBee or other proprietary communication technology with no standards currently available for interoperability. The current situation of ad-hoc solutions is a major barrier to the wide adoption of electric vehicles. SAE, the International Standards Organization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), ANSI, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and several industrial organizations are working towards the development of interoperability standards. PNNL has participated in the development and testing of these standards in an effort to accelerate the adoption and development of communication modules.

  8. Personnel involved in nuclear standards development: 1980 directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of nuclear standards is an active and necessary endeavor that is concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of nuclear potential. There are almost 4100 people from the teachnical community who are presently involved either in writing nuclear standards, including codes, or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document identifies the current participation of each individual as member, chairman, cochairman (vice-chairman), or secretary of about 700 standards development committees and groups. The standards committees and groups are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. This directory includes four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a Key-Word-in-Context (KWIC) Index of committee titles. It can also be used to identify the participation of employers as well as to recognize the contributions of individuals to the often interdisciplinary activity of standards development

  9. Personnel involved in nuclear standards development: 1980 directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S.J. (ed.)

    1980-03-01

    The development of nuclear standards is an active and necessary endeavor that is concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of nuclear potential. There are almost 4100 people from the teachnical community who are presently involved either in writing nuclear standards, including codes, or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document identifies the current participation of each individual as member, chairman, cochairman (vice-chairman), or secretary of about 700 standards development committees and groups. The standards committees and groups are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. This directory includes four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a Key-Word-in-Context (KWIC) Index of committee titles. It can also be used to identify the participation of employers as well as to recognize the contributions of individuals to the often interdisciplinary activity of standards development.

  10. Assisting member states to achieve international analytical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than forty years the IAEA has been assisting laboratories in its Member States to maintain and improve the quality and reliability of analytical data. This is achieved by organising worldwide and regional intercomparison studies and proficiency tests and by providing appropriate reference materials. Participation in proficiency testing schemes ensures an objective means of assessing and demonstrating the quality of the obtained laboratory data and reinforces the confidence of end users in the reliability of the reported analytical results. The External Quality Assurance (EQA) programme currently operated by the Soil Science Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria encompasses: 1. training on the implementation of basic Quality Systems in isotope laboratories; 2. production and provision of purposely tailored information materials, standard operating procedures and handbooks on quality assurance; 3. production and provision of liquid and natural matrix reference materials; 4. organisation of annual proficiency tests on isotope abundance determination of 15N and 13C, the most common stable isotope tracers in agricultural research; 5. continuous technical advice to participating laboratories on analytical issues, including online troubleshooting and direct communication

  11. A unified international risk management standard as a response to the challenges of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strelbitska, Natalya Yevhenivna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article an international standard of risk-management ISO 31000:2009 is investigated, particulary interconnection between principles, system and process of risk management and changes in a terminology base are considered. The comparative analysis of ISO 31000:2009 standard with Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4360:2004 and the standard of the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO is conducted. The basic directions of application of ISO 31000:2009 in Ukraine are detected.

  12. Spillover effects of international standards : Work conditions in Vietnamese small and medium enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firm–employee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium enterprises in Vietnam. Certified firms pay higher wages on average. They are also more likely to offer formal contracts and to pay social and health insurance to workers. The estimation accounts for endogenous matching of workers with firms and unobserved heterogeneity using an instrumental variable approach. The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards.

  13. Standards for Reporting Mathematics Professional Development in Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztajn, Paola

    2011-01-01

    This Research Commentary addresses the need for standards for describing mathematics professional development in mathematics education research reports. Considering that mathematics professional development is an emerging research field, it is timely to set expectations for what constitutes high-quality reporting in this field. (Contains 2 tables.)

  14. ISO TS/15216; an international standard method for the detection and quantification of norovirus in high risk foodstuffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowther, James; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    Norovirus is one of the principal agents of food-related gastroenteritis. Outbreaks have been associated with a number of different food vehicles, most notably bivalve molluscan shellfish and soft fruit. Contamination of prepared food through contact with infected food handlers also presents a major safety risk. The introduction of testing for norovirus into food hygiene legislation and standard operating procedures for investigating foodborne outbreaks is a priority for many national and international authorities. Until recently this has been prevented by the lack of availability of standardised methods, however in March 2013 the International Standards Organisation (ISO) and European Committee for Standardization (CEN) published a joint technical specification for detection and quantification of viruses including norovirus GI and GII in foods using real-time RT-PCR (ISO/TS 15216). This paper will describe the development and validation of this method by an international working group of expert food virologists from twenty institutes in thirteen countries (CEN TC275/WG6 TAG4), the current and future implications of this method for European and International Food Hygiene Legislation and the application of the method to the testing of food samples implicated in outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis.

  15. GMO Regulations, International Trade and the Imperialism of Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Vigani, Mauro; Raimondi, Valentina; Olper, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the quantification of GMO regulations on bilateral trade flows. A composite index of the complexity of such regulations for sixty countries as well as an objective score for six GMO regulatory sub-dimensions has been developed. Using a gravity model, we show how bilateral similarity?in GMO regulations, affect trade flows for the composite index and its components. Results show that bilateral distance in GMO regulations negatively affect trade flows, especially as an effe...

  16. Fixation of Radiological Contamination; International Collaborative Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer

    2013-03-01

    A cooperative international project was conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to integrate a capture coating with a high performance atomizing process. The initial results were promising, and lead to further trials. The somewhat longer testing and optimization process has resulted in a product that could be demonstrated in the field to reduce airborne radiological dust and contamination.

  17. An International Standard Set of Patient-Centered Outcome Measures After Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Joel; Sprinkhuizen, Sara M.; Ackerson, Teri; Bernhardt, Julie; Davie, Charlie; George, Mary G.; Gething, Stephanie; Kelly, Adam G.; Lindsay, Patrice; Liu, Liping; Martins, Sheila C.O.; Morgan, Louise; Norrving, Bo; Ribbers, Gerard M.; Silver, Frank L.; Smith, Eric E.; Williams, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Value-based health care aims to bring together patients and health systems to maximize the ratio of quality over cost. To enable assessment of healthcare value in stroke management, an international standard set of patient-centered stroke outcome measures was defined for use in a variety of healthcare settings. Methods— A modified Delphi process was implemented with an international expert panel representing patients, advocates, and clinical specialists in stroke outcomes, stroke registers, global health, epidemiology, and rehabilitation to reach consensus on the preferred outcome measures, included populations, and baseline risk adjustment variables. Results— Patients presenting to a hospital with ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage were selected as the target population for these recommendations, with the inclusion of transient ischemic attacks optional. Outcome categories recommended for assessment were survival and disease control, acute complications, and patient-reported outcomes. Patient-reported outcomes proposed for assessment at 90 days were pain, mood, feeding, selfcare, mobility, communication, cognitive functioning, social participation, ability to return to usual activities, and health-related quality of life, with mobility, feeding, selfcare, and communication also collected at discharge. One instrument was able to collect most patient-reported subdomains (9/16, 56%). Minimum data collection for risk adjustment included patient demographics, premorbid functioning, stroke type and severity, vascular and systemic risk factors, and specific treatment/care-related factors. Conclusions— A consensus stroke measure Standard Set was developed as a simple, pragmatic method to increase the value of stroke care. The set should be validated in practice when used for monitoring and comparisons across different care settings. PMID:26604251

  18. Determination of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste by spectrophotometry using neodymium as an internal standard for safeguards analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectrophotometric determination using neodymium as an internal standard has been developed for safeguards verification analysis of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste which is produced by the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The method offers reduced sample preparation and analysis time compared to isotope dilution mass spectrometry. It uses neodymium as an internal standard, which allows for determining an index for the authentication of the analytical operation and the instrument conditions. The sample was mixed with a known amount of neodymium as an internal standard. Subsequently, plutonium was quantitatively oxidized to Pu(IV) by the addition of Ce(IV). Plutonium concentration was calculated from a relation between Nd(III)/Pu(IV) molar extinction coefficient ratio and their absorbance ratio. The expanded uncertainty of the repeated analysis of plutonium (n=5) was found to be ±15 mg L-1 (confidence interval 95%) for a highly radioactive liquid waste sample (173 mg L-1). The determination limit was calculated to be 6 mg L-1 (ten fold's the standard deviation). This method was validated through comparison experiments with isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The analytical results of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste using this method were agree well with values obtained using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The proposed method was successfully applied for the independent on-site safeguards analysis at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  19. Development of standardized specifications for silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A space silicon solar cell assembly (cell and coverglass) specification aimed at standardizing the diverse requirements of current cell or assembly specifications was developed. This specification was designed to minimize both the procurement and manufacturing costs for space qualified silicon solar cell assembilies. In addition, an impact analysis estimating the technological and economic effects of employing a standardized space silicon solar cell assembly was performed.

  20. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International basic safety standards. General safety requirements. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  1. Adjustment of the Brazilian radioprotection standards to the safety principles of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a recommendation with 10 basic safety principles (Fundamental Safety Principles Safety Fundamentals series, number SF-1), which are: 1) Responsibility for safety; 2) Role for government; 3) Leadership and management for safety; 4) Justification of facilities and activities; 5) Optimization of protection; 6) Limitation of risk to individuals; 7) Protection of present and futures generations; 8) Prevention of accidents; 9) Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protection actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiations risk. The aim of this study is to verify that the Brazilian standards of radiation protection meet the principles described above and how well suited to them. The analysis of the national radiation protection regulatory system, developed and deployed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), showed that out of the ten items, two are covered partially, the number 2 and 10. The others are fully met. The item 2 the fact that the regulatory body (CNEN) be stock controller of a large company in the sector put in check its independence as a regulatory body. In item 10 the Brazilian standard of radiation protection does not provide explicit resolution of environmental liabilities

  2. Recent developments and current status of air kerma standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of air kerma standards for kilovoltage X rays and for 137Cs and 60Co gamma radiation maintained at primary standards dosimetry laboratories is reviewed using results of the bilateral key comparisons between the air kerma standards of the Bureau international des poids et mesures (BIPM) and those of national metrology institutes. Owing to the re-evaluation of kwall and kan, which are the correction factors for wall effects and axial beam non-uniformity for cavity ionization chambers, respectively, a significant increase of about 0.8% in the realization of the gray for air kerma in both 137Cs and 60Co fields is to be expected. A consistent set of free air chamber correction factors for electron loss, photon scatter, fluorescence and bremsstrahlung was calculated at the BIPM using state of the art Monte Carlo methods for all free air chamber standards in use worldwide. Consistent use of this set by all national metrology institutes would further improve the degree of equivalence of free air chamber standards. (author)

  3. International Labor Mobility and Child Work in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    De Paoli, Anna; Mendola, Mariapia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the labor market effect of international migration on child work in countries of origin. We use an original cross-country survey dataset, which combines information on international migration with detailed individual-level data on child labor at age 5-14 in a wide range of developing countries. By exploiting both within- and cross-country variation and controlling for country fixed effects, we find a strong empirical regularity about the role of international mobility ...

  4. Developing Internal Communication in Fast-changing Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Rajala, Inkeri

    2011-01-01

    Developing internal communication in fast-changing organizations is a current topic, which seems to exercise the minds of corporate people in different positions. Well-functioning internal communication and business success seem to be strongly linked. It motivates people, and only people who are motivated and enthusiastic about their work are able to perform well in their jobs and to secure the success of their employers. The purpose of this study was to increase the understanding of internal...

  5. New nuclear technology; International developments. Review 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary review of the development of new nuclear rector technology is presented in this report. Fuel cycle strategies and waste handling developments are also commented. Different plans for dismantling nuclear weapons are presented. 18 refs

  6. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  7. Test Standard Developed for Determining the Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1998-01-01

    The service life of structural ceramic components is often limited by the process of slow crack growth. Therefore, it is important to develop an appropriate testing methodology for accurately determining the slow crack growth design parameters necessary for component life prediction. In addition, an appropriate test methodology can be used to determine the influences of component processing variables and composition on the slow crack growth and strength behavior of newly developed materials, thus allowing the component process to be tailored and optimized to specific needs. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, work to develop a standard test method to determine the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics was initiated by the authors in early 1994 in the C 28 (Advanced Ceramics) committee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). After about 2 years of required balloting, the draft written by the authors was approved and established as a new ASTM test standard: ASTM C 1368-97, Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Ambient Temperature. Briefly, the test method uses constant stress-rate testing to determine strengths as a function of stress rate at ambient temperature. Strengths are measured in a routine manner at four or more stress rates by applying constant displacement or loading rates. The slow crack growth parameters required for design are then estimated from a relationship between strength and stress rate. This new standard will be published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, in 1998. Currently, a companion draft ASTM standard for determination of the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures is being prepared by the authors and will be presented to the committee by the middle of 1998. Consequently, Lewis will maintain an active leadership role in advanced ceramics standardization within ASTM. In addition, the authors have been and are involved with several international standardization organizations including the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS), the International Energy Agency (IEA), and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The associated standardization activities involve fracture toughness, strength, elastic modulus, and the machining of advanced ceramics.

  8. International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) Benefits, Obstacles and Intrigues for Implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ikpefan, Ochei Ailemen; A. O. Akande

    2012-01-01

    IFRS is International Financial Reporting System and International Accounting Standard Board - (IASB) provided the framework for its working. IFRS adopted by IASB has gained worldwide acceptance amongst many countries and some listed companies in European nations have embraced it. IFRS employs a uniform, single consistent accounting framework that is gravitating towards General Accepted Accounting Practice (GAPP) in the future. IFRS since its introduction in 2001 had provi...

  9. Development of International Education at Suzuka National College of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanai, Takaaki; Kuwabara, Hirofumi; Kondo, Kunikazu; Minoura, Hirohito; Ito, Akira; Kondo, Kazuyuki; Ezaki, Hisakazu; Kawaguchi, Masashi; Inoue, Tetsuo; Lawson, Michael E.

    One of the educational goals of the Advanced Engineering Faculty of Suzuka National College of Technology is to instill in graduates the ability required to become an internationally engaged engineers. To help realize this goal a project oriented toward the development of an international internship or an international cooperative education (Co-op) system was planned and implemented for the past three years. In this paper the results of investigations concerning the present state of Co-op in the United States and Canada, a tentative international internship at a factory in the United States, and an educational program developed in cooperation with Georgian College in Canada are described. In cooperation with the Ohio State University, a newly developed distance interactive-learning system that enables us to simulate international internships is also proposed.

  10. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  11. The role of food standards in international trade: assessing the brazilian beef chain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Marques, Vieira.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this [...] study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challenges facing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  12. Development and use of international nuclear data library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and present situation of the domestic and international nuclear data libraries, especially experimental neutron library and evaluated neutron library for general purpose are introduced. The internationally used formats concerned and how to use them for home users are presented

  13. International Students and Their Experiences of Personal Development Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate L.; Perkins, Joy; Comber, Darren P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Taught postgraduate students are a unique group, undergoing a short, intensive period of study. Many taught postgraduate students are international, engaging for the first time with new learning approaches, including Personal Development Planning (PDP). This article provides analysis of the views of international taught postgraduates about the…

  14. International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

  15. 5{sup th} international conference on certification and standardization in NDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This CD-ROM contains 30 lectures (in form of manuscripts or abstracts) and 6 posters with the following topics: 1. Some Critical Remarks from German Chemical Industry on Certification and Accreditation in NDT. 2. Global Impact of International Standard ISO 9712. 3. Maintaining Concurrent Compliance with Multiple NDT Personnel Certification Standards. 4. The Revision of the New Approach. 5. Comparison between prEN 473 Currently Submitted to Formal Vote and ISO 9712:2005. 6. Accreditation and Certification - a Contradiction?. 7. The Way We Were. 8. EFNDT-Question-Data-Bank (QDB). 9. NDT Certification in Turkey as an European Country- How It Couldn't Work as the Only Example?. 10. Validation of Practical Examination Specimens. 11. Examination Bank Structure for Radiographic Testing (RT) - An Example. 12. About the New Classification of NDT Methods Based on Positions of Risks and Equipment Life Assessment. 13. Olympus NDT Training Academy. 14. Harmonisation of Personnel Certification Schemes for Non-destructive Testing in the Asia-Pacific Region. 15. How EFNDT Can Help in Accreditation or Recognition/Approval of NDT Certification Bodies? 16. SNT-TC-1A - 40 Years of Employer Certification for NDT Personnel. 17. The Same NDT Certification Scheme for Everybody: a Dream or a Need. 18. 19. Personnel Certification for Thermographers - Status and Trends. 20. Guided Wave Training and Certification. 21. Examination Radiographs and Master Reports for the Industrial Sectors 6 and 7. 22. New Standards ISO 24497 on the Metal Magnetic Memory Method. The Program of Personnel Training and Certification. 23. The Use of the Psychometrics in NDT Certification Programs. 24. EFNDT Guidelines ''Overall NDT Quality System''. 25. The Role of the Forum for National Aerospace NDT Boards. 26. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 27. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 28. The Need for Standardization in NDT Personnel Certification. 29. NDT Certification for Railway Maintenance Personnel in France; 10 Years of the CFCM. 30. NDT Personnel Certification - Service for Industry. 31. Certification of Personnel Performing Automated Non-destructive Testing of Pipes and Flat Products. Problems and Solutions. 32. Stress Testing is a New NDT Type in the Russian Standard GOST R 52330-2005 and International Standard ISO-9712. 33. Accreditation of Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement Methods - Practical Aspects. 34. Results of Approval of Certification Body ''SPEKTRCert'' by Auditors of EFNDT. 35. The Program for Specialists Training and Certification in Stress-Strained State Determination and Residual Life Assesment of Technical Devices and Contructions. 36. NDT Personnel Certification System at Turkish Standards Instiution (TSE) and Developments in Turkey. 37. Nondestructive Testing Personnel Certification in Turkish Aerospace Industries and National Aerospace Nondestructive Testing Board in the Turkey.

  16. Gestión de proyectos ecoturísticos orientados al mercado internacional con impacto en el desarrollo local mediante aplicación del estándar PMBOK / Gestion de projets d'écotourisme internationaux ayant un impact sur les économies locales grâce à la mise en place du standard pmbook / The ecotourism project management market, oriented to the international market, which impacts regional development through the application of PMBOK standards / Gestão de projetos ecoturísticos orientados ao marketing internacional com impacto no desenvolvimento local através da aplicação do padrão pmbok

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime Alberto, Romero-Infante; H. Mauricio, Diez-Silva.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo descreve-se a aplicação de práticas de gestão de projetos no setor ecoturístico da Colômbia, que está orientado ao mercado internacional e gera um impacto considerável no desenvolvimento local. Aplicaram-se processos do padrão internacional do Project Management Institute (PMI) em um pr [...] ojeto para a identificação e validação de métodos sustentáveis de comercialização do serviço ecoturístico em áreas protegidas de alto valor ecológico e cultural. Utilizou-se uma metodologia exploratória, apoiada na revisão e interpretação da literatura com respeito as melhores práticas internacionais para a gestão de projetos. A partir disto desenvolveu-se um marco estrutural que pode ser aplicado em projetos do setor ecoturístico colombiano, para melhorar a gestão dessas intervenções. Abstract in spanish En este artículo, se describe la aplicación de prácticas de gestión de proyectos en el sector ecoturístico de Colombia, el cual está orientado al mercado internacional y genera un impacto considerable en el desarrollo local. Se aplicaron procesos del estándar internacional del Project Management Ins [...] titute (PMI), en un proyecto para la identificación y validación de métodos sustentables de comercialización del servicio ecoturístico en áreas protegidas de alto valor ecológico y cultural. Se utilizó una metodología exploratoria, apoyada en la revisión e interpretación de literatura con respecto a las mejores prácticas internacionales para la gestión de proyectos. A partir de lo anterior se desarrolló un marco estructural que pudiese ser aplicable en proyectos del sector ecoturístico colombiano, con el propósito de mejorar la gestión de dichas intervenciones. Abstract in english This article describes the application of project management practices in the ecotourism sector of Colombia, which is oriented to the international market and which impacts considerably regional development. Different processes of the Project Management Institute International Standards (PMI) have b [...] een applied during this project which aims at identifying and validating sustainable methods of ecotourism trading services in protected areas of high ecological and cultural value. An exploration methodology was used, based on the review and interpretation of literature about the best international practices of project management. From the above, we have developed a structural frame that could be applied to different projects involving the Colombian ecotourism sector, aiming at improving the management of such interventions.

  17. Procedural Bio-Medical Waste Management - A Comparison with International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    B. Rajeswari

    2012-01-01

    Though India has the state of art medical facilities on par with global standards for a comparatively cheaper cost with best knowledge, the bio-waste management protocols of many hospitals are far below the international standards. An effort was made to understand the bio-waste management procedures of big hospitals by making a critical analysis of bio waste generated. Biomedical waste includes syringes, live vaccines, laboratory samples, body parts, bodily fluids and waste, sharp needles, cu...

  18. Impact of Adopting International Financial Reporting Standards: Empirical Evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Terzi; Recep Oktem; Ilker Kiymetli Sen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of adopting International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) on listed companies in Turkey was examined. We observed the financial statements that were prepared in accordance with IFRS and local GAAP and researched the standards which included more relevant information. We worked on the financial statements of the companies in the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) that operated in the manufacturing industry. In our findings, we determined that the financial statements...

  19. Professionalism apparent from South African internal audit functions’ use of the Standards

    OpenAIRE

    J.M. (Thinus) van Staden; Barac, Karin; Erasmus, L.J.; Motubatse, Kgobalale Nebbel

    2013-01-01

    When stakeholders perceive that members of a profession do not live up to their professional obligations, the profession loses prestige. Professions use various measures, including professional standards, disciplinary processes and dedicated quality assurance standards to remain relevant to their clients and to the greater business community. The internal audit profession often expresses a desire to improve its standing as a profession. This paper asserts that members’ compliance ...

  20. International Financial Reporting Standards and banking regulation: A comeback of the state?

    OpenAIRE

    Grasl, Maximilian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union began using accounting rules defined by an independent private sector regime as compulsory norms in 2005. Is the incorporation of these International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) into European law a viable solution to combine external technical expertise with principles of democratic governance? The current financial crisis has shown that the technical expertise of this standard-setting body alone does not sufficiently guarantee satisfactory policy outcomes: The pro...

  1. The Effects of International Accounting Standardization on Business Performance: Evidence from Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Gyorgy Csebfalvi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the differences between national rules and the international standards,evaluating and analyzing their effects on the shifting business environment. The unified business informationsystem will lead to new types of analysis and data, furthermore with the possible integration of new indicatorsfrom the business environment of certain countries. The results show that those businesses which have adoptedinternational standards achieved higher and statisticall...

  2. THE NEW BASEL CAPITAL ACCORD - AN INTERNATIONAL CONVERGENCE OF CAPITAL MEASUREMENTS AND CAPITAL STANDARDS IN BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIG?

    2007-01-01

    The International Convergence of Capital Measurements and Capital Standards was finally published on June 26, 2004 by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. This framework is known in the market as Basel II and it replaces the current framework (Basel I) for banks as to how they calculate their capital requirements. The Basel II describes a more comprehensive measure and minimum standard for capital adequacy that national supervisory authorities are implementing through domestic rule-mak...

  3. International certification in developing countries: the role of internal and external institutional pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikru, Mahelet G

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the different internal and external institutional factors that affect the decision of businesses in developing countries to adopt international certification (IC). Past studies focus on pressure from international laws, the role of multinationals, and businesses mimicking practices of their counterparts in developed countries. This paper finds that, in addition to these external factors, internal factors may have a significant role. Even though environmental regulation is weak in developing countries, governments do not ignore industrial pollution and casualties. They respond by increasing bureaucratic regulations for businesses and this can affect the decision to adopt IC. Furthermore, internal pressure may come from workers' unions that push for a safe and healthy working environment. PMID:24975804

  4. A change of course: The importance to DoD of international standards for electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Judith E.

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is committed to using electronic commerce in the future with the over 300,000 vendors interested in doing business with DoD. Electronic commerce will move DoD from a paper-based world to one based on electronic transactions enabled by the exchange of formatted, electronic messages referred to as electronic data interchange (EDI). With electronic commerce, DoD plans to reduce costs, increase effectiveness, and make it easier for vendors to deal with DoD. Benefits from electronic commerce are enhanced when many businesses use the same standards for EDI messages themselves and their transmission. The fewer standards used, the less time and resources must be spent translating messages and agreeing on how to use different standards. To enhance benefits and smooth the transition to electronic commerce for itself and its vendors, DoD has chosen to use the widely accepted American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X12 standards for EDI messages, coupled with international standards for delivering messages and organizing addresses. In the past 18 months, EDI standards sponsored by a United Nations body and serving the same purpose as ANSI X12 message standards have begun to gain wider acceptance internationally.

  5. Swap transactions as a financial tool, their recognition as international accounting standard 39 and display in financial statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kablan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Developments in international financial markets concern both developed countries and developing countries closely. The transactions of institutions arising from of commercial activities display a more complex and more risky state in line with international economic developments. The globalization trend in the world economy, the extreme fluctuations in currencies, interests and product prices have rendered closely following up the developments in financial tools mandatory. Taking advantage of derivative financial tools which increase the revenue of assets by taking future risks into consideration, impact a decrease in debt costs and has the purpose of transferring risks are of vital importance with respect to the successful management of companies. At the present time in which international commerce, free market economy and globalization has gained in importance, one of the derivative products used in risk management and have a wide implementation area is swap transactions. Swap transactions can be expressed as a financial transaction including the exchange of interest, foreign currency or both between two or more parties. Swap transactions in particular are used for purposes such as protection against risks due to interest rates and exchange rates, ensuring low cost financing, changing the debt structure and entering different markets. In this study, the generally defined characteristics of swap transactions, which have an important standing within financial risk management and have been rapidly developing in the world in recent years and their recognition according to the International Accounting Standard 39 concerning the recognition of swap transactions, which has in particular termed the study have been focused on. In the framework of the standard, interest swap and foreign currency swap implementation study were included with respect to the matter.

  6. Thirty Years of "International Journal of Behavioral Development": Scope, Internationality, and Impact since Its Inception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schui, Gabriel; Krampen, Gunter

    2010-01-01

    The article presents 30-year bibliometrical results on trends in the scope, internationality, and impact of the "International Journal of Behavioral Development" ("IJBD") from its inception in 1978 to 2007. Bibliometric data were collected using the databases PsycINFO and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), and the "IJBD" itself. In comparison…

  7. Development of a coincidence system for radio-nuclide standardization using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for the standardization of alpha-gamma or electron-X radionuclide emitters has been developed in the present work. The system consists of one or two surface barrier detectors for alpha or electron detection which are coupled to thin-window NaI (T1) crystals suitable for low energy X or gamma ray detection. The performance of the system has been verified by means of the standardization of 241Am, 137Cs and 109Cd solutions. The activity has been obtained using the extrapolation method applied to the 4??-? and 2?ec-X coincidence technique. The surface barrier detection efficiency was varied by placing absorbers over the radioactive sources or by changing the source to detector distance. The results were compared to those obtained using conventional absolute systems based on gas-flow and pressurized 4? proportional counters, or using radioactive solutions standardized in international comparisons spondored by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. The expect and measured activities agree within the experimental uncertainties which were: 0.2 % for 241Am, 0.7% for 137Cs and 0.6% for 109Cd. The ratio between the probabilities of (electron capture + internal conversion) and internal conversion for the K-shell of 109Cd has been determined. The result is: 2.8883 ± 0.016. (author)

  8. International collaborative study for establishment of the 2nd WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawas, Fatme; Burkin, Karena; Dougall, Thomas; Saydam, Manolya; Rigsby, Peter; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    In this report we present the results of a collaborative study for the preparation and calibration of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-d-ribitol-(1 ? 1)-?-d-ribose-3-phosphate; PRP). Two candidate preparations were evaluated. Thirteen laboratories from 9 different countries participated in the collaborative study to assess the suitability and determine the PRP content of two candidate standards. On the basis of the results from this study, Candidate 2 (NIBSC code 12/306) has been established as the 2nd WHO IS for PRP by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation with a content of 4.904 ± 0.185mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 11 of the participating laboratories. PMID:26298195

  9. International nuclear emergency exercises: Current lessons and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has a long tradition of expertise in the area of nuclear emergency policy and preparedness. Nuclear emergencies may have consequences over wide areas, highlighting the need for international cooperation and coordination. As an international organisation, the NEA's focus of work has been on improving the effectiveness of international nuclear emergency preparedness and management. A pillar of this work has been the preparation and organisation of the International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) series. Since 1993, the NEA's INEX 1, 2 and 2000 series, which focussed primarily on early phase emergency response, have provided a unique forum for testing and further developing arrangements and concepts for nuclear emergency management at the international and national levels, and succeeded in establishing a recognised international nuclear emergency exercise culture that is now supported by several international exercise frameworks. A third generation of INEX exercises, INEX 3, was developed in response to international interest in the longer term issues that will arise after an emergency. The INEX 3 exercise, conducted in 2005-2006, focused on consequence management issues in the later phases following the discovery of serious radiological contamination in the environment. Following the completion of the exercises, the NEA hosted an international evaluation workshop to examine the outcomes, lessons and issues raised during the national exercises and to identify areas for further work, as presented in this paper. (author)

  10. The Canadian approach to nuclear codes and standards. A CSA forum for development of standards for CANDU: radioactive waste management and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Together with the Canadian Standards Association (CSA), industry stakeholders, governments, and the public have developed a suite of standards for CANDU nuclear power plants that generate electricity in Canada and abroad. In this paper, we will describe: CSA's role in national and international nuclear standards development; the key issues and priority projects that the nuclear standards program has addressed; the new CSA nuclear committees and projects being established, particularly those related to waste management and decommissioning; the hierarchy of nuclear regulations, nuclear, and other standards in Canada, and how they are applied by AECL; the standards management activities; and the future trends and challenges for CSA and the nuclear community. CSA is an accredited Standards Development Organization (SDO) and part of the international standards system. CSA's Nuclear Strategic Steering Committee (NSSC) provides leadership, direction, and support for a standards committee hierarchy comprised of members from a balanced matrix of interests. The NSSC strategically focuses on industry challenges; a new nuclear regulatory system, deregulated energy markets, and industry restructuring. As the first phase of priority projects is nearing completion, the next phase of priorities is being identified. These priorities address radioactive waste management, environmental radiation management, decommissioning, structural, and seismic issues. As the CSA committees get established in the coming year, members and input will be solicited for the technical committees, subcommittees, and task forces for the following related subjects: Radioactive Waste Management; a) Dry Storage of Irradiated Fuel; b) Short-Term Radioactive Waste Management; c) Long-Term Storage and Disposal of Radioactive Waste. 2. Decommissioning Nuclear Power is highly regulated, and public scrutiny has focused Codes and Standards on public and worker safety. Licensing and regulation serves to control design and operation of Nuclear Power Systems, while ensuring effective exploitation of this vital energy source. The regulatory system includes federal requirements, provincial inspections, and a suite of Nuclear standards. These standards provide tools for technical guidance, management processes, operation, assessment, and regulation. Future CSA plans will address the regulatory environment, standards harmonization, and enhanced public and international input, in a competitive industry. Stakeholders and governments; however, need to support SDO viability by addressing nuclear liability protection, member availability, and funding support. Opportunities for synergies with other nuclear related industries and international activities should be considered. (author)

  11. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.

    2015-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. The filter element for this system has a non-standard cross-section with a length-to-width ratio (LW) of 6.6. A filter test setup was designed and built to meet industry testing standards. A CFD analysis was performed to initially determine the optimal duct geometry and flow configuration. Both a screen and flow straighter were added to the test duct design to improve flow uniformity and face velocity profiles were subsequently measured to confirm. Flow quality and aerosol mixing assessments show that the duct flow is satisfactory for the intended leak testing. Preliminary leak testing was performed on two different ISS filters, one with known perforations and one with limited use, and results confirmed that the testing methods and photometer instrument are sensitive enough to detect and locate compromised sections of an ISS BFE.Given the engineering constraints in designing spacecraft life support systems, it is anticipated that non-industry standard filters will be required in future designs. This work is focused on developing test protocols for testing the ISS BFE filters, but the methodology is general enough to be extended to other present and future spacecraft filters. These techniques for characterizing the test duct and perform leak testing can be applied to conducting acceptance testing and inventory testing for future manned exploration programs with air revitalization filtration needs, possibly even for in-situ filter element integrity testing for extensively long-duration missions. We plan to address the unique needs for test protocols for crewed spacecraft particulate filters by preparing the initial version of a standard, to be documented as a NASA Technical Memorandum (TM).

  12. Climate change negotiations and their implications for international development cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Engberg-Pedersen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This report discusses possible implications of the international attempts to address climate change for the organization of development cooperation. It concentrates on questions related to institutions and resources and pays less attention to potential consequences for the objectives and contents of development cooperation. The institutional question is limited to the norms, practices and organizations that emerge primarily at the international level in response to climate change. The resourc...

  13. Developments in international criminal justice in Africa during 2010

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wambui, Mwangi.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 2010 was a significant year in the development of international criminal jurisprudence in Africa. The continent is approaching the closure of two of its greatest champions in this area of international law - the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and the Special Court for Sierra Leone [...] (SCSL). The article provides an overview of the ICTR's successor, the Residual Mechanism, as well as the complexities of the transition. With regard to the SCSL, a brief analysis is given of the Charles Taylor trial and the contribution of its 'infamous' witnesses. In relation to the International Criminal Court, the Review Conference and the Situations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Darfur, Sudan and Kenya dominate the discussion, which focuses primarily on the enforcement of ICC warrants of arrest, the amendments to the Rome Statute and the practical application of the principle of complementarity. Developments related to the international community's responsibility to combat piracy off the coast of Somalia are also reviewed.

  14. Digital guide to developing international software

    CERN Document Server

    Grou

    1991-01-01

    Already in use by hundreds of independent vendors and developers, here at your fingertips are the groundbreaking packaging and design guidelines that Digital recommends and uses for products headed overseas.

  15. [Business and Education Standards Program - Development of Standards and Certification for Welders]. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Welding Society, Miami, FL.

    The American Welding Society (AWS) Education Grant Committee was organized in 1993 to unite employers, trade unions, educators, technical specialists, welding equipment manufacturers, and AWS members in efforts to develop national skills standards for training and certifying entry-level, advanced, and expert welders. Data were collected through…

  16. International physical activity policy development: a commentary.

    OpenAIRE

    Lankenau, Becky; Solari, Alfredo; Pratt, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Scientific evidence demonstrates, in different degrees for developing and developed countries, that physical activity is associated with substantial health, economic, and societal benefits. However, for varying environmental, social, and individual reasons, people do not tend to engage in the levels of physical activity that would be beneficial to them. Environmental and policy interventions hold particular promise for promoting physical activity because both are designed to influence large g...

  17. Changes in international standards relating to diagnostic x-ray equipment, with particular attention to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives an outlook of present status and changes of international (IEC) standards relating to diagnostic radiology equipment, with particular attention to its radiation protection aspects. (author)

  18. Standards and Intellectual Property Rights in the Age of Global Communication - A Review of the International Standardization of Third-Generation Mobile System

    CERN Document Server

    Hjelm, B

    2001-01-01

    When the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) selected a radio access technology based on Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA), sponsored by European telecommunications equipment manufactures Ericsson and Nokia, for its third-generation wireless communications system, a bitter dispute developed between ETSI and Qualcommm Inc. Qualcomm threatened to withhold its intellectual property on the CDMA technology unless the Europeans agreed to make the radio access technology backward compatible with cdmaOne, Qualcomm's favored version of CDMA. A dispute over intellectual property rights over key CDMA techniques also erupted between Ericsson and Qualcomm and both filed patent infringement in US Court. The dispute halted the standards activity and has troubled operators worldwide as well as the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).

  19. Evaluation of Vocational Services Provided to Jordanian Disabled People According to International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Oweidi, Alia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the vocational rehabilitation services provided to people with disabilities according to international standards in Jordan. The sample of the study consisted of (56) managers and teachers in four specialized centers in vocational rehabilitation. The findings showed that the compatibility degree ranged…

  20. Adopting the international financial reporting standards: a positive impact on 2004 income and consolidated equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides preliminary information on the quantitative impact of transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on AREVA 2004 financial position, in accordance with AMF recommendations regarding financial communications during the transition period.The basis for preparing 2004 information on transition to the IFRS comes from: the International Accounting Standards (IAS)/IFRS, as approved by the European Union. The impact of IAS 32/39 and IFRS 4 will not be recognized in shareholders equity until January 1, 2005; AREVA anticipation of the resolution of technical issues and ongoing projects under discussion by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). Uncertainty factors on practical methods for applying certain standards and ongoing interpretations by IFRIC and regulatory organizations could impact the exactness of restatements identified at this stage. For all of these reasons, it is conceivable that the opening balance sheet at January 1, 2004, as presented in this document, will not be the balance sheet actually used to establish the consolidated financial statements for 2005. (author)

  1. 78 FR 23940 - Use of International Standard ISO-10993, “Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing''; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug... assist industry in preparing PMAs, HDEs, IDEs, 510(k)s, and de novo requests for medical devices that... International Standard ISO-10993, `Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and...

  2. INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE MANAGEMENT OF A COMPANY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA - MARIA M?L?ESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The accounting standardization process is in progress at international and regional level, more and more countries have reached the same conclusion of enforcing high quality accounting standards like IAS / IFRS. There are various reasons for Romania adopting the international accounting referential most of them subordinated to its central aim, respectively EU accession. In our country the accounting system is subordinated to the taxation system, financing still comes prevalent from banks and very few Romanian companies are listed on foreign capital markets. Romania is an ex-communist emergent country in wich changes in the economic and political environment merely started only after the end of the communist regime in the early 1990s. Many European companies already observed that by enforcing IFRS standards they have access to international capital markets, they could reduce expenses and unroll international transactions easier. It is improbable that a financial reporting, which is not easy understood by all its users, would offer new business opportunities or additional capital.Therefore, a significant number of companies, either voluntarily enforce IFRS standards, or they are pledged by the government to do this.

  3. Adopting the international financial reporting standards: a positive impact on 2004 income and consolidated equity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallet, O

    2005-03-01

    This document provides preliminary information on the quantitative impact of transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on AREVA 2004 financial position, in accordance with AMF recommendations regarding financial communications during the transition period.The basis for preparing 2004 information on transition to the IFRS comes from: the International Accounting Standards (IAS)/IFRS, as approved by the European Union. The impact of IAS 32/39 and IFRS 4 will not be recognized in shareholders equity until January 1, 2005; AREVA anticipation of the resolution of technical issues and ongoing projects under discussion by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). Uncertainty factors on practical methods for applying certain standards and ongoing interpretations by IFRIC and regulatory organizations could impact the exactness of restatements identified at this stage. For all of these reasons, it is conceivable that the opening balance sheet at January 1, 2004, as presented in this document, will not be the balance sheet actually used to establish the consolidated financial statements for 2005. (author)

  4. A Principles-Based Approach to Teaching International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Obeua

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the principles-based approach that emphasizes a "why" question by using the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) "Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting" to question and understand the basis for specific differences between IFRS and U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S.…

  5. The Effect of International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence on U. S. Accounting Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Homer L.; Waldrup, Bobby E.; Shea, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Major changes are coming to U.S. financial accounting and accounting education as U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards (IFRS) converge within the next few years. In 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) published a proposed "road map" for the potential…

  6. The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on Accounting Curriculum in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallapragada, RamMohan R.; Toma, Alfred G.; Roe, C. William

    2011-01-01

    According to the time line presently specified by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), business firms in the United States (US) should switch from the existing US accounting reporting guidelines of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by the year 2014. The US business…

  7. Improving the Virtual Learning Development Processes Using XML Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt Suss; Thomas Oberhofer

    2002-01-01

    Distributed Icarning environments and content often lack a common basis for the cxchange of learning materials. This delays, or even hinders, both innovation and delivery of learning tecnology. Standards for platforms and authoring may provide a way to improve interoperability and cooperative development. This article provides an XML-based approach to this problem creaied by the IMS Global Learning Consortium.

  8. IMPROVING THE VIRTUAL LEARNING DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES USING XML STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Suss

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Icarning environments and content often lack a common basis for the cxchange of learning materials. This delays, or even hinders, both innovation and delivery of learning tecnology. Standards for platforms and authoring may provide a way to improve interoperability and cooperative development. This article provides an XML-based approach to this problem creaied by the IMS Global Learning Consortium.

  9. International standard problem No 30 beta test V5.1 on core concrete interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition of International Standard Problem (ISP) Exercises organized by OECD-CSNI is the systematic comparison between experimental and analytical results for a given physical problem, especially in the field of nuclear safety. For the analytical simulation, only computer code should be considered which are used or planned to use in designing an licensing of nuclear plants. The calculations for a standard problem are generally performed best estimate with or without previous knowledge of the experimental results. The detailed comparison of the results permits the determination of the reliability and precision of analytical models as well as guidance for the selection of code options and input parameters. Moreover it contributes to an intensive international know how exchange between the parties involved. Suggested by OECD-CSNI and sponsored by the German Ministry for Research and Technology the open International Standard Problem No. 30 was carried out on the basis of the molten core-concrete interaction experiment BETA V 5.1. The special objective of this experiment is to investigate the influence of high Zr metal content in a steel melt interacting with a siliceous concrete crucible. Seven organization from five countries submitted their results for ISP30. They used the codes CORCON and WECHSL for the thermal-hydraulic calculation and VANESA for the aerosol release. ISP30 is the second ISP on molten core-concrete aspects. The first one was ISP24 performed in 1988, which dealt with the SURC (Sustained Urania-Concrete) - 4 test conducted at Sandia National Laboratory. Molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) can occur during a core meltdown accident in light water reactors if the core debris penetrates the reactor vessel lower head and is deposited onto the concrete basement. This results in four major consequences which are essential for risk evaluation: - Pressure increase of containment atmosphere due to gas release, - accumulation of burnable gases in the containment, especially H2 and CO, - release of aerosol and fission products from the melt, - melting and erosion of the basement and other important internal containment structures. In test BETA V 5.1 particular interest is given to the oxidation process of Zr. While earlier chemical modelling considers Zr oxidation by gases (H2O, CO2) only the SURC-4 experiment identified the existence of a so-called condensed phase chemistry that is the Zr oxidation by reduction of SiO2. This situation leads to the following objectives of ISP30: - Contribution to the development, improvement and assessment of computer codes for MCCI and aerosol release. - Improvement of the understanding of the physical and chemical phenomena involved: thermal-hydraulic behavior of metallic melt with high zirconium content, zirconium chemistry esp. in the condensed phase, two dimensional concrete erosion, aerosol release. The comparison of the analytical and experimental data yields to the observation that, in general, the calculations give the right tendency of the experimental results. Some important variables, however, show significant discrepancies between each other and from the experimental results. Since the experimental results were known to the participants prior to the calculation the reason for the discrepancies is mainly due to deficiencies in the physical models. The calculated temperature of the metallic melt deviates from the measurement in some important aspects. While the early temperature drop of the WECHSL calculations agrees reasonably with the measured temperature shape, WECHSL over-predicts the long term freezing temperature of the metal by about 100 K. CORCON predicts a much slower temperature drop than measured. The calculated results for the melt composition differ considerably between the different calculations. The main reason is the Zr-reaction in the condensed phase, which only three participants took into account. VANESA over-predicts the early aerosol rates but gives satisfactory agreement after the depletion of Zr metal is calculated. A detailed comparison of

  10. Organizing Community-Based Data Standards: Lessons from Developing a Successful Open Standard in Systems Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, M.

    2015-09-01

    In common with many fields, including astronomy, a vast number of software tools for computational modeling and simulation are available today in systems biology. This wealth of resources is a boon to researchers, but it also presents interoperability problems. Despite working with different software tools, researchers want to disseminate their work widely as well as reuse and extend the models of other researchers. This situation led in the year 2000 to an effort to create a tool-independent, machine-readable file format for representing models: SBML, the Systems Biology Markup Language. SBML has since become the de facto standard for its purpose. Its success and general approach has inspired and influenced other community-oriented standardization efforts in systems biology. Open standards are essential for the progress of science in all fields, but it is often difficult for academic researchers to organize successful community-based standards. I draw on personal experiences from the development of SBML and summarize some of the lessons learned, in the hope that this may be useful to other groups seeking to develop open standards in a community-oriented fashion.

  11. Quantitative analysis of oxide materials by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with argon as an internal standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasheras, R.J.; Bello-Gálvez, C.; Anzano, J.M., E-mail: janzano@unizar.es

    2013-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is demonstrated as a quantitative technique for geochemical analysis. This study demonstrates the applicability of LIBS to multielemental analysis of minerals using argon as an internal standard. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been applied to measure elements in oxide form. In the present study, the contents of several oxides, such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO and MgO, in geological samples from the Tierga Mine (Zaragoza, Spain) were analyzed by LIBS. An argon environment was used to eliminate interference from air at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, argon was used as an internal standard. The result was enhanced signal and enhanced linearity of the calibration curves. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO and MgO concentrations determined by LIBS were compared with the results obtained using another analytical technique, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The concentrations found using LIBS were in good agreement with the values obtained by ICP-OES. - Highlights: ? Multi-elemental quantitative analysis of oxide material using LIBS was developed. ? A buffer gas was used to minimize the matrix effect and as an internal standard. ? The LIBS results were compared with ICP, successfully.

  12. Quantitative analysis of oxide materials by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with argon as an internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is demonstrated as a quantitative technique for geochemical analysis. This study demonstrates the applicability of LIBS to multielemental analysis of minerals using argon as an internal standard. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been applied to measure elements in oxide form. In the present study, the contents of several oxides, such as Fe2O3, CaO and MgO, in geological samples from the Tierga Mine (Zaragoza, Spain) were analyzed by LIBS. An argon environment was used to eliminate interference from air at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, argon was used as an internal standard. The result was enhanced signal and enhanced linearity of the calibration curves. The Fe2O3, CaO and MgO concentrations determined by LIBS were compared with the results obtained using another analytical technique, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The concentrations found using LIBS were in good agreement with the values obtained by ICP-OES. - Highlights: ? Multi-elemental quantitative analysis of oxide material using LIBS was developed. ? A buffer gas was used to minimize the matrix effect and as an internal standard. ? The LIBS results were compared with ICP, successfully

  13. International Perspectives in Leadership Development: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    In the second part of this two-part series, leadership development perspectives are shared from the opening of the Penn Wharton China Center in Beijing. The symposium brought national leaders from Chinese academic settings and professional organizations together with thought leaders from the United States to discuss nursing leadership across the care continuum. Highlights of demographic shifts, clinical demands, and policy decisions are presented, with an eye toward future trends in professional development. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2015;46(9):387-389. PMID:26352039

  14. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the literature on resilience in the area of disaster risk (see corresponding abstract of another session). The research gap, which was also highlighted in the 2012 National Academies of Sciences Paper (Disasters, Committee on Science and Public Policy, & Academies, 2012), is the lack of a consistent way to measure resilience, which is a complex systems concept, across different communities and over time. Without this measurement, evaluating the impact of projects, programs and policies on a community's resilience cannot be consistently made. In turn, the relative costs and benefits of potential interventions cannot be properly assessed to determine those which ought to be prioritized. The measurement of resilience contains both theoretical and practical components, but much of the research to date has been limited to the theoretical realm. There is a need for a set of indicators that can be systematically collected in the field to practically measure resilience. This presentation will examine both the theoretical and practical challenges this involves, and how this is being approached through a unique alliance between the research community, a private partner and field practitioners. We aim to help build consistency amongst those working on assessing and prioritizing effective resilience strategies. The Alliance between research partners and NGOs will be highlighted to show how such collaborations can support a continuous learning process in communities and contribute to improved flood resilience at community level and beyond. This includes the development and use of innovative evaluation tools that can aid communities in prioritizing projects and policies as well as demonstrating effectiveness to donors.

  15. Concept of Draft International Standard for a Unified Approach to Space Program Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryzhak, Y.; Vasilina, V.; Kurbatov, V.

    2002-01-01

    For want of the unified approach to guaranteed space project and product quality assurance, implementation of many international space programs has become a challenge. Globalization of aerospace industry and participation of various international ventures with diverse quality assurance requirements in big international space programs requires for urgent generation of unified international standards related to this field. To ensure successful fulfillment of space missions, aerospace companies should design and process reliable and safe products with properties complying or bettering User's (or Customer's) requirements. Quality of the products designed or processed by subcontractors (or other suppliers) should also be in compliance with the main user (customer)'s requirements. Implementation of this involved set of unified requirements will be made possible by creating and approving a system (series) of international standards under a generic title Space Product Quality Assurance based on a system consensus principle. Conceptual features of the baseline standard in this system (series) should comprise: - Procedures for ISO 9000, CEN and ECSS requirements adaptation and introduction into space product creation, design, manufacture, testing and operation; - Procedures for quality assurance at initial (design) phases of space programs, with a decision on the end product made based on the principle of independence; - Procedures to arrange incoming inspection of products delivered by subcontractors (including testing, audit of supplier's procedures, review of supplier's documentation), and space product certification; - Procedures to identify materials and primary products applied; - Procedures for quality system audit at the component part, primary product and materials supplier facilities; - Unified procedures to form a list of basic performances to be under configuration management; - Unified procedures to form a list of critical space product components, and unified procedures to define risks related to the specific component application and evaluate safety for the entire program implementation. In the eyes of the authors, those features together with a number of other conceptual proposals should constitute a unified standard-technical basis for implementing international space programs.

  16. International Perspectives in Leadership Development: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-08-01

    In this first part of a two-part series, leadership development perspectives are shared from interviews and experiences gained while visiting Taiwan and China. Each country has a distinctive culture and needs, yet both are rapidly rising to strengthen the leadership capacity of nurses and are increasingly a source of advances in global leadership and organizational science. PMID:26247654

  17. ISO 14000 - the International Environmental Management Standard: Potential impacts on environmental management and auditing in the electric power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of environmental management, the concept of voluntary environmental compliance auditing is not in itself a new development. Environmentally conscious firms have for more than a decade, undertaken voluntary audits to help achieve and maintain compliance with environmental regulations and to help identify and correct unregulated or poorly regulated environmental hazard. The firms undertaking the audits were motivated by a desire to mitigate legal and financial risks and/or the desire to be a highly responsible member of the corporate community. Much of the early attention to environmental auditing was in the chemical process industries. Today, there are four current trends affecting environmental auditing: (1) the practice is becoming widespread in all industry groups in both large and small firms; (2) environmental management and audit methodolgies and approaches are being codified in the form of written national and International standards; (3) environmental management programs and in-house audits are increasingly being certified by independent auditors (who are not associated with regulatory agencies); and (4) the certifications are being viewed as marketing and public relations tools. The adoption of ISO 14000 is destined to become the most significant development in international environmental management and auditing. International standards for the development of Environmental Management Systems and the execution of environmental audits do not curecution of environmental audits do not currently exist. Individual countries, such as England and France, have national standards. One multi-national standard currently exists--the European Economic Community's Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). The United States does not have a national environmental management and auditing standardIn the framework of environmental management, the concept of voluntary environmental compliance auditing is not in itself a new development. Environmentally conscious firms have for more than a decade, undertaken voluntary audits to help achieve and maintain compliance with environmental regulations and to help identify and correct unregulated or poorly regulated environmental hazard. The firms undertaking the audits were motivated by a desire to mitigate legal and financial risks and/or the desire to be a highly responsible member of the corporate community. Much of the early attention to environmental auditing was in the chemical process industries. Today, there are four current trends affecting environmental auditing: (1) the practice is becoming widespread in all industry groups in both large and small firms; (2) environmental management and audit methodolgies and approaches are being codified in the form of written national and International standards; (3) environmental management programs and in-house audits are increasingly being certified by independent auditors (who are not associated with regulatory agencies); and (4) the certifications are being viewed as marketing and public relations tools. The adoption of ISO 14000 is destined to become the most significant development in international environmental management and auditing. International standards for the development of Environmental Management Systems and the execution of environmental audits do not cu

  18. Development of a National Standard for Microwave Brightness Temperature at NIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A. E.; Walker, D. K.

    2009-12-01

    Microwave radiometers are a critical part of space-based sensor suites that make global observations of the Earth’s atmosphere, land, and oceans. Microwave sensors contribute to such measurements as atmospheric moisture profiles, sea surface wind speed and direction, sea surface temperature, soil moisture, and sea ice characterization. As climate measurements increasingly call for environmental data records that span years or even decades, and rely on data from multiple instruments on multiple platforms spanning different operational time periods, the need for rigorously and independently validated traceability to the International System of Units (SI), is also increased. There are currently no national standards for microwave brightness temperature either in the U.S. or elsewhere. Many realizations of microwave brightness temperature standards exist in the form of heated or cooled calibration targets, but none is maintained as a national standard by a National Measurement Institute (NMI). This is in contrast to the visible and infrared (IR) portions of the spectrum in which radiance standards exist—and have proven very useful. There are many reasons to want a national microwave-brightness temperature standard based on fundamental physical quantities. It would provide a constant reference for comparison of different instruments over long time series. It would provide a means for resolving differences between different instruments or programs including instruments based on entirely different measurement parameters, since those other measurements would also be traceable back to fundamental physical quantities. It would support the goals of merging data from multiple measurement systems from different nations. Also there is a framework maintained by the international committee on weights and measures (CIPM), to compare and harmonize such fundamental standards among the NMIs of different countries. The Fundamental Guided Wave Metrology Program and the Antenna Metrology Project at NIST are engaged in an effort to improve calibration methods and tools for microwave remote-sensing radiometry. A principal component of this effort is the development of a standard for brightness temperature at microwave frequencies, as well as two different methods for transferring this standard to the microwave remote-sensing community. NIST already has a battery of microwave radiometers that measure noise temperature at a coaxial or waveguide reference plane. The radiometers are converted (reversibly) to standard remote-sensing radiometers by connecting characterized antennas to the plane at which the device under test is connected in normal use. Current activities in the development will be presented along with recent experimental results. Once developed, the brightness-temperature standard and the method for comparison will allow microwave remote-sensing measurements to be traceable to the primary noise standards maintained by NIST.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF QUALITY STANDARDS OF BERBERIS ARISTATA STEM BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ahamad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Berberis aristata is an important medicinal plant of family Berberidaceae. It is commonly known as Zarishk and Daruhaldi. It is mainly used for the treatment piles, liver diseases and diabetes. As the herb is used widely in the Indian traditional systems of medicine, it was thought worthwhile to develop the quality standards for its stem bark. The results of Pharmacognostic standardization of stem bark of B. aristata are very helpful in determination of quality and purity of the crude drug and its marketed formulation.

  20. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. International standards for computers/manikins; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Computer manikin ni kansuru kokusai hyojun kikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Through the development of computer manikins (CM) which assess human adaptability to products and environments, a draft for international standardization was worked out to propose to ISO. A draft for the international standardization was presented to ISO through a development of `a structure model` changing based on human attributes, a study of `a motion model` enabling changes in posture and movement, a study of `an evaluation model` evaluating attainment ranges and ecodynamic loads, and a development of `computer functions` realizing the above-mentioned functions. The development of CM having the following characteristics: a function to reproduce `the structure model` based on the ISO7250 human body dimensional measuring values which were regulated in items for the human body dimensional measuring, a function to change posture/movement based on the joint movable range data, a function to evaluate geometrical human adaptability such as attainment ranges. As a plug-in to Autodesk Mechanical Desktop 2.0, the above-mentioned functions were realized, and the modular structure platform was constructed which enables the wide-range cross-industry option and functional expansion by the advance of CM. 7 refs., 41 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Trends and issues in international development cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Carbonnier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aid volume from OECD countries has set a new record. However, the assistance recorded as ODA includes categories that do not contribute to reducing poverty in developing countries. Emerging economies and private donors provide an increasing proportion of aid. Progress has been made in implementing the 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness in a few fields, such as untying aid, but the results do not meet expectations. The approach, too often purely technical, omits taking fully into consideration the political dimension which strongly affects aid effectiveness. The issue of overall policy coherence receives renewed attention at a time when the debate about climate change is leading development agencies to reconsider goals and strategies.

  2. The private sector, international development and NCDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynaud Olivier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article addresses an area that has been largely underserved by the development community, and one in which there is a particularly good opportunity for the private sector to take a lead in making a difference to employees, customers and local communities: chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs. It highlights the extent of the epidemic of NCDs in developing countries, sets out the 'business case' for the private sector to act on NCDs, and gives examples of initiatives by business to ensure that the healthy choice really is an easier choice for employees, consumers and local communities. It makes the case that, to be genuinely sustainable, businesses should be addressing health as a core part of what they do and, by working in partnership - as called for by the Millennium Development Goals - they can make a real difference and become part of the solution. Identifying ways in which this can be done should form a key part both of planning for, and action after, the UN High-level Meeting on NCDs, to be held in September 2011.

  3. The role of food standards in development : an empirical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2013-01-01

    The thesis consists of three papers based on the original data collected through fieldwork in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. It is focused on understanding the implications of modern agri-food sector restructuring for farmers in developing countries. The thesis particularly looks at (i) the impact of the emergence of food standards on farmers’ wellbeing, (ii) the effects of various forms of vertical coordination on household welfare and (iii) the consequences of the concurrent emergence of food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. The first paper, Food Standards are Good — for Middle-Class Farmers, joint with Henrik Hansen, estimates the impact of food standards on farmers’ wellbeing using the data from the Vietnamese pangasius sector. In this paper we estimate both the average effect as well as the effects on poorer and richer farmers using the instrumental variable quantile regression. We find that large returns from food standards are possible but the gains are substantial only for the ‘middle-class’ farmers, occupying the range between 50% and 85% quantiles of the expenditure distribution. Overall, this result points to an exclusionary impact of food standards for the poorest farmers. The richest farmers do not apply standards because the added gain is too small. In the second paper, Welfare Effects of Vertical Integration and Contracts in Pangasius Sector in Vietnam, I analyse the impact of different vertical integration options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of integration for the success of the whole sector. Contract farming and employment on rocessorowned estate farms are in this context considered as two distinct options of ertical integration. The welfare gain from contracts and estate employment is estimated using a maximum simulated likelihood estimator. The results show positive welfare effects from participating in contract farming, but not from employment on processor-owned estate farms. The results imply that contract farming creates opportunities for economic growth, but the additional effort is required to make the contracts more accessible to smallholders. The third paper titled Food Standards and Vertical Coordination in aquaculture: The Case of Pangasius from Vietnam investigates the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination. Farmers and processors in the Vietnamese pangasius sector the adopt food standards to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging the application of standards and contract farming, processing companies prefer to vertically integrate primary production largely due to concerns over the stable supply of pangasius with satisfactory quality and safety attributes. These tendencies increase the market dominance of industrial farming and worsen the position of small household farms.

  4. Improved Measurement Performance of Inorganic Elements in Coal by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Coupled with Internal Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shunchun; Xu, Jialong; Bai, Kaijie; Lu, Jidong

    2015-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was employed to determine the inorganic elements in coal. To improve the measurement's accuracy and precision, a new internal standardization scheme, which we named changed internal standardization, was compared with the traditional internal standardization and no internal standardization for the analysis of inorganic elements. The new internal standardization scheme used the atomic line of carbon at 247.86 nm and the molecular band of CN at 388.34 nm and C2 at 516.32 nm to normalize the lines of inorganic elements that were distributed in the same spectral channel. The performance of the utilization of the new internal standardization scheme was evaluated using a set of coal samples, including twenty calibration samples and five validation samples. The results show that the coefficients of determination R2 and the slope of calibration models coupled with changed internal standardization are better than that of the calibration models coupled with fixed internal standardization and no internal standardization. Moreover, the measurement accuracy and reproducibility of changed internal standardization for the analysis of five validation samples also yielded further improvement. The results that we obtained suggest that changed internal standardization could compensate for the matrix effects, as well as the influence of the difference in the spectral response of the light collection system. supported by Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Laser Technology of China (No. SKL2013KF03), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51206055, 51476061), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 2014ZZ0014), the New Star of Pearl River on Science and Technology of Guangzhou, China (No. 2014J2200054), the Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes of China (No. KLB10004) and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization, China (No. 2013A061401005)

  5. ACCURACY OF MRI IN DIAGNOSING THE INTERNAL DERANGEMENT OF KNEE JOINT WITH ARTHROSCOPY AS REFERENCE STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of MRI knee joint in diagnosing the internal derangement of knee with arthroscopy as reference standard. Internal derangement of knee refers to a group of disorder involving disruption of the normal functioning of the ligaments or menisci of knee joint. It can be traumatic or degenerative. MRI is most commonly indicated in patients with suspected injuries of the menis ci and ligaments. This prospective study was done in the department of radiodiagnosis , KMCT medical college. In this study 150 patients suspected to have internal derangement of knee were included. MRI knee and arthroscopy were done in all cases. MRI had a diagnostic accuracy of 88% in ACL injuries , 93% in PCL injuries , 88% in medial meniscal injuries and 91% in lateral meniscal injuries. MRI is highly accurate in diagnosis of ligament and meniscal injuries and it can replace diagnostic arthroscopy in patie nts with internal derangement of knee.

  6. Development of Management Technology for IASCC in Reactor Internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S. S.; Kim, H. P.; Lim, Y. S.

    2010-06-15

    - Investigation of the present status of material degradation of core internals in PWR Present status of SCC of reactor internals in domestic and international PWR, Investigation of IASCC-susceptible components among reactor internals, Effect of irradiation on SCC, Material degradation DB of stainless steels due to irradiation - Experimental evaluation of SCC Test facilities for SCC evaluation under simulated environment of PWR, DB of non-irradiated materials for reference, Fabrication of test specimen simulating neutron-irradiated materials and their DB, SCC of proton-irradiated stainless steel - IASCC prediction model by mechanistic approach Evaluation of neutron fluence for reactor internals, Development of prediction model for IASCC degradation, Establishment of core technology for IASCC managemen

  7. Development of Management Technology for IASCC in Reactor Internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    - Investigation of the present status of material degradation of core internals in PWR Present status of SCC of reactor internals in domestic and international PWR, Investigation of IASCC-susceptible components among reactor internals, Effect of irradiation on SCC, Material degradation DB of stainless steels due to irradiation - Experimental evaluation of SCC Test facilities for SCC evaluation under simulated environment of PWR, DB of non-irradiated materials for reference, Fabrication of test specimen simulating neutron-irradiated materials and their DB, SCC of proton-irradiated stainless steel - IASCC prediction model by mechanistic approach Evaluation of neutron fluence for reactor internals, Development of prediction model for IASCC degradation, Establishment of core technology for IASCC managemen

  8. Development of standard ionization chamber counting system for activity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pyun, W B; Lee, H Y; Park, T S

    1998-01-01

    This study is to set up the activity measuring system using a 4 pi gamma ionization chamber as used mainly in national standards laboratories that are responsible for radionuclide metrology. The software for automatic control between the electrometer and personal computer is developed using Microsoft visual basic 4.0 and IEEE488 Interface. The reproducibility of this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is about 0.02% and the background current is 0.054+-0.024 pA. this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is calibrated by 6 standard gamma emitting radionuclides from KRISS. According to the result of this study, it is revealed that this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber counting system can be used as a secondary standard instrument for radioactivity measurement.

  9. Project finance and international energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the preference for and the features unique to project finance, one of the favoured vehicles for funding energy development. Our main focus is on the interests of project sponsors, commercial banks and host governments. Inclusion of the latter reflects the fact host governments are often leading participants in primary energy and energy-related projects; more recently, they have come to use limited recourse structures to finance local infrastructure development. Traditional analyses, whilst providing useful insights into the interests of leading project participants, are incapable of isolation a single motive or set of motives that can comprehensively account for all of the features common to this form of debt. Within an options-theoretic framework, most of these ambiguities are resolved. Risk management, long recognised as one of the primary reasons for choosing project finance over rival debt structures, is affirmed as a key explanatory factor. One the other hand, options pricing theory provides a radically different perspective on how to project finance contributes to the realisation of these objectives. (author)

  10. Exposures to NORM in uranium mining and other industries - implications of the international safety standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a comprehensive revision process, the new International Basic Safety Standards (the BSS) has been published as an interim edition by the IAEA in 2011. The requirements in the BSS are in line with the 2007 Recommendations of the ICRP and also reflect the three types of exposure situation-planned exposure situations existing exposure situations and emergency exposure situations. Exposure to natural sources, are generally subject to the requirements for existing exposure situations, where the exposure control is based on the use of 'Reference levels'. By exception, public exposure to radioactive discharges and waste; occupational exposure to radon when its concentration exceeds 1000 Bq/m3 or when required by or directly related to the work; an exposure to material (other than commodities such as food, feed, drinking water, fertilizers and construction materials) with a radionuclide activity concentration exceeding 1 Bq/g of any radionuclide in the uranium or thorium decay chains (or 10 Bq/g in the case of 40K) are subject to the requirements for planned exposure situations. Numerical criteria for exemption and clearance of NORM have also been included in the BSS. Exemption is determined on the basis of dose commensurate with natural background levels (about 1 mSv per year). Clearance criteria for NORM are 1 Bq/g for U and Th series radionuclides and 10 Bq/g for 40K. No single approach to the control of exposure to NORM was appropriate for all industrial processes involved and hence the need for an industry specific approach has been recognized. The standards and regulatory approaches that are being adopted at the national level still need to be harmonized especially in developing countries with limited regulatory resources. The paper also summarises the IAEA guidance on NORM, in particular, the industry specific Safety Reports and information on a recent project aiming to enhance radiation protection of workers in uranium mining. (author)

  11. The IAEA Standards for the Radioactive Discharge Control: Present Status and Future Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the organization within the UN family with a statutory mandate to establish standards for the protection of health and environment against ionizing radiation, and to provide for the application of those standards. As part of these functions, the IAEA periodically reviews the status and continued relevance of the standards to the needs of its Member States. Recent work on the development of standards for the radioactive discharge control includes development of practical guidance for setting discharge limits, elaboration on methodology for the radiation protection of non-human species, and preparation of guidance on environmental monitoring for radiation protection purposes. Development of these safety documents is influenced by recent international and regional tendencies, based on social initiatives, to reduce radioactive discharges substantially below levels justified by radiological criteria. The IAEA has developed preliminary guidance on practical aspects of setting discharge limits, which included a review of national regulatory experience in this regard. This review suggested that societal pressures and regulatory practicalities results in discharge controls that were likely to be more restrictive that those that would be implied by formal optimization techniques. Regulatory review of authorizations includes a number of considerations, including predicted doses to members of the critical group, but the suitability of abatement forms a greater part in the decision-making process than allowed for in previous safety guidance. The IAEA has, in recent years, established a programme of work specifically addressing the development of safety standards on assessing the impact of ionizing radiation on non-human species, in co-operation with other relevant international organizations. The main issues arising will be summarised in the paper with the main focus on an exploration of the possible form of future regulatory criteria; the application of biota dose rate data and derived activity concentrations, and their relationship to discharge regulation and derived criteria for human protection. The new Safety Guide on strategies for the Monitoring of Radionuclides in the Environment has been recently developed by the IAEA. Its aim is to establish strategies for radiation monitoring at the source and in the environment coherent with contemporary radiation protection principles. The strategy of monitoring has been developed in relation to: a) control of radionuclide discharges under practice conditions, and b) intervention, such as in cases of nuclear or radiological emergencies or past contamination of areas with long-lived radionuclides. Practical guidance specific to different facilities and situations is being developed in a number of accompanying Safety Reports, both of generic and facility-specific nature. (author)

  12. Advancement of human rights standards for LGBT people through the perspective of international human rights law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cviklová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue how various religious and legal systems cope with current developments that undermine binary opposition of man and woman including definition of their sexual and cultural identities. More concretely, it tries to explain, how concrete societies and legislations deal with claims of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals (LGBT that claim broader recognition. It elucidates differences among Western provisions and policies of the relevant legal bodies such as the General Assembly of the United Nations, the European Court of Human Rights and the Supreme Court concerning these issues. It also points to the nature and real impact of international civil society forces such as Yogyakarta principles that formulate extension of rights concerning lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals. On the basis of comparison of various legal and religious discourses it explains current practices of direct and indirect discrimination and in some non-European national systems even extra-judicial killings, torture and ill-treatment, sexual assault, rape and other violations of human rights. When emphasizing substantial differences among current European states and non-European ones concerning policies toward lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (LGBT, it shows current tendencies of advancement in the field by common policies of Council of Europe, recent judgments issued by the European Court of Human Rights as well as civil society efforts such as Yogyakarta principles. Swedish standards have been introduced in order to emphasize existing progressive attitudes to LGBT people concerning gay marriages and adoption procedures.

  13. Relationship between Teacher Efficacy and Professional Development in International Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Relationship between teacher efficacy and professional development in international schools of China was a quantitative experimental study that determined the correlation between professional development attendance and teachers' sense of self-efficacy. Supporting this data was a secondary investigation to determine if changes in…

  14. International Career Development Trends. Trends and Issues Alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerka, Sandra

    Career development has taken on global significance as individuals prepare for work that increasingly crosses borders. Internationally, individuals and career practitioners helping them are grappling with such issues as development of cultural competencies for cross-cultural work. Issues vary in different sociopolitical contexts. As Eastern Europe…

  15. 75 FR 61695 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; One Hundred and Sixtieth Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Board for International Food and Agricultural Development...meeting of the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development...its global food security strategy, known as ``Feed...

  16. National and international standardization of lower limits of decision and detection for radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since several years the working group NKe 2.12 of the DIN-Committee ''Nuclear Technology'' in cooperation with the 'Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz' is preparing a serie of standards entitled DIN 25482 ''Lower Limit of Detection and Lower Limit of Decision for Nuclear Radiation Measurements''. Six parts of this standard have been finished or are in an advanced state. The basic concept can be applied to other measurement procedures, for example film or TL dosimetry or track etching. In an corresponding international group ISO/TC 85/WG2 ''Radioactivity Measurements'' chaired by R.Neider, Germany, experts from six countries prepared in six meetings four committee drafts partially based on the DIN standards. Considering this successful and steadily work the European Standardization Organisation CEN as well as IEC/TC45 did not initiate any own activities in this field. Also the International Organisation for Governmental Metrology (IOGM) decided not to prepare recommendations on environmental radioactivity. In this paper the actual state of this work, its significance, arising problems and solutions concerned are discussed. Special accent is given to the necessity of a national and international harmonization of the terms used. (orig.)

  17. Collaborative innovation: Internal and external involvement in new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timenes Laugen, Bjørge; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Industry and academia alike are increasingly becoming aware of the fact that innovation does not take place in isolated cells or functions within the firm. During the last the years the term open innovation has emphasized the importance of internal and external collaboration in order to increase the competitiveness of companies. Although the idea of involving internal and external actors in the new product development (NPD) process is not new, the knowledge about the benefits and pitfalls is sti...

  18. Internal and External Collaboration in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timenes Laugen, Bjørge; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Middel, Rick; Boer, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Industry and academia alike are increasingly becoming aware of the fact that innovation does not take place in isolated cells or functions within the firm. During the last the years the term open innovation has emphasised the importance of internal and external collaboration in order to increase the competitiveness of companies. Although the idea of involving internal and external actors in the new product development (NPD) process is not new, the knowledge about the benefits and pitfalls is sti...

  19. An international overview on the development of radurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief summary on the characteristics, applicability and limiting factors of food preservation by irradiation is given. Economic, energy and hygienic aspects of the process are outlined and the legal procedures for food irradiation process and plant licensing are treated including international aspects. Finally, the international cooperation programs and projects in the hygienic investigations, technical execution and education issues and the main trends of future development are outlined. (author)

  20. Starworld: Preparing Accountants for the Future: A Case-Based Approach to Teach International Financial Reporting Standards Using ERP Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Joseph M.; Savino, Christopher J.; Parashac, Paul; Hosler, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    International Financial Reporting Standards now constitute an important part of educating young professional accountants. This paper looks at a case based process to teach International Financial Reporting Standards using integrated Enterprise Resource Planning software. The case contained within the paper can be used within a variety of courses…

  1. International performance-oriented packaging standards adopted in the united states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On January 1, 1991, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) initiated a transition to adopting a modified version of current international standards for packaging and transporting hazardous materials and hazardous wastes. This transition permits a 5-year phase-in period that will impact all phases of hazardous material transportation including material classification and description, packaging for shipment, and hazard communication standards. These changes are being enacted through the DOT Federal Docket HM-181, 'Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards.' These regulatory standards will have dramatic impact on nearly 5 billion tons of hazardous materials transported within the United States each year. This paper summarizes the principal elements of the new DOT regulations, the latest implementation schedule and impacts on U.S. shipping activities, and discusses outstanding issues that remain to be solved through the next 5 years. (author)

  2. International comparisons of Foundation Phase number domain mathematics knowledge and practice standards

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anja, Human; Marthie, van der Walt; Barbara, Posthuma.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor mathematics performance in schools is both a national and an international concern. Teachers ought to be equipped with relevant subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge as one way to address this problem. However, no mathematics knowledge and practice standards have as yet bee [...] n defined for the preparation of Foundation Phase student teachers in South Africa. To make recommendations for the drafting of such standards for final year Foundation Phase teachers, we compared different policy documents. We performed a document analysis on policy documents from South Africa, The Netherlands, Australia and North Carolina (United States of America), all of which addressed the number domain in mathematics. Our findings indicate that knowledge standards ought to include subject matter knowledge, while practice standards require pedagogical content knowledge, noting that neither of these are fulfilled in the education system in South Africa at present.

  3. An analysis of capital punishment in Uganda in light of international standards and comparable case law

    OpenAIRE

    Karugonjo, Rose

    2003-01-01

    "The study, considering international law and comparable case law on the subject in Africa, argues that Uganda does not comply with international standards in the use of the death penalty for countries that retain it. It h penalty in Uganda can be challenged. It is argued that it may not be easy to challenge the death penalty in Uganda as unconstitutional, but it can certainly be confronted based on the failure to comply with procedural safeguards for those on death row at the domestic, regio...

  4. International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards. Tabs

  5. The global labour standards controversy: critical issues for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit; Zammit, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Overview For some time now, the governments of a few advanced countries,as well as their unions and some parts of the business sector, have been pressing proposals to establish multilateral rules permitting punitive trade measures to be taken against countries deemed to be failing to uphold core labour standards. The countries most likely to be arraigned would be developing countries. The latter have,however, firmly rebutted these initiatives, which they argue are protectionist both in...

  6. The international development of Electricite de France; Le developpement international d'Electricite de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In 2001, Electricite de France (EdF) has pursued and increased its international development with a portfolio of participations in foreign electricity companies (Germany, Italy, UK, Brazil, Argentina etc..) that reached 6 billions of euros. This development has been tainted with poor results in South America and has led to some hostile reactions from the Italian and Spanish governments. (J.S.)

  7. Standards, Applications and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiation Dosimetry (IDOS). Proceedings of an International Symposium. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the IAEA programme in human health is to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of health problems through the application of nuclear techniques. The mandate arises from Article II of the IAEA's Statute: 'the Agency shall accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to health, peace and prosperity throughout the world.' Accurate measurements in radiation dosimetry are vital in a wide range of medical and industrial applications where the results are critical in reaching decisions relating to human health and safety of radiation workers and members of the public. The development of standards by primary dosimetry laboratories followed by their dissemination to secondary standards dosimetry laboratories and to end-users ensures traceability of measurements to the international system of units. Dosimetry codes of practice (or protocols) are used in conjunction with the dosimetry standards to ensure optimized use of radiation in medicine. Uniformity is equally important in dosimetry, especially for collaborative multicentre studies or clinical trials. In dosimetry for radiation protection, the uncertainty may be greater than for therapy and diagnostic X rays, but proper traceability of the measurements with a defined level of uncertainty is equally important. In recent years, new developments have occurred in dosimetry standards, audits and QA guidance, especially in the field of external radiotherapy, brachytherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology. The International Symposium on Standards, Applications and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiation Dosimetry (IDOS) was organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna from 9 to 12 November 2010 to foster the exchange of information along the whole dosimetry chain and highlight recent developments in this field. Three hundred and seventy two delegates representing 66 Member States, 45 observers and 12 international and professional organizations attended the meeting. Altogether, 75 oral presentations were delivered, 4 round table discussions were held and 187 posters were presented covering a broad range of topics in medical radiation dosimetry. A refereed selection of papers presented at the symposium forms the core of these Proceedings. A CD-ROM of the contributed papers accompanies these proceedings. The major goal of the symposium was to provide a forum where advances in radiation dosimetry during the last decade, in radiation medicine and in radiation protection could be disseminated and scientific knowledge exchanged. It included all specialities in radiation medicine and radiation protection dosimetry, with a specific focus on those areas where the standardization of dosimetry has improved in the recent years (brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). It summarized the present status, outlined future trends in medical radiation dosimetry and identified possible areas for improvement. Its conclusions and summaries should lead to the formulation of recommendations for the scientific community.

  8. The development of the philosophies of teaching and of science for one MAT science intern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Carol Leah

    This case study followed qualitative research methods to explore the development of the philosophies of teaching and of science for one MAT (Masters of Arts in Teaching) science intern. The major influences on the development of these philosophies studied were the influence of the mentor teachers, the influence of the university supervisor, and the influence of the classroom experience during the year long internship experience. Several methods of data collection were utilized in this study. Standardized open-ended interviews with the intern, the mentors, and the university supervisor obtained information on the philosophies of teaching and of science held by each. The intern was interviewed at three different points in time to determine changes in her philosophy. Conversational interviews, documents, and observations, added information and support to the data collected in the standardized open-ended interviews. The analysis of the data revealed the major influences on the development of the philosophy of teaching were: first, the dissonance caused by the beliefs held by the intern and the classroom experiences she experienced; second, the conflict between the intern's beliefs and the mentor teachers' practices; and third, the influence of the university supervisor. Influences on the development of the philosophy of science were not determined, because there where no major developments made in that area. The implication drawn from this lack of meaningful change in the philosophy of science is that where there are no strongly held beliefs on the part of the intern, or the mentors, the opportunity for conflict did not occur, leaving no reason to reexamine and change the philosophy previously held.

  9. Essays on international capital flows to developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Keskinsoy, Bilal

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates international capital flows to developing countries for the period 1970-2006. The first chapter introduces the theoretical and empirical framework of the thesis, motivates it, overviews its building blocks (i.e. the following chapters) and clarifies its approach to the balance of payments. The second chapter reviews the data and shows the overall trends and developments in capital flows to the developing world by focusing on the geographical regions and income groups....

  10. Developing Managers and Leaders: Experiences and Lessons from International NGOs

    OpenAIRE

    Jayawickrama, Sherine S

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the context, practice and lessons related to management and leadership development in a handful of large international NGOs (INGOs) focused on humanitarian and development efforts. The paper is based on eighteen semi-structured interviews with senior managers of human resources or organizational development at INGOs including ActionAid, CARE, Catholic Relief Services, Habitat for Humanity, Médecins Sans Frontières, Mercy Corps, Oxfam, Save the Children and World Vision. I...

  11. International standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury : cases with classification challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-SØrensen, F

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Case scenarios that were submitted to the committee are presented with the responses as well as the thought processes considered by the committee members. The importance of this documentation is to clarify some points as well as update the SCI community regarding possible revisions that will be needed in the future based upon some rules that require clarification.

  12. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury : cases with classification challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sorensen, F

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Case scenarios that were submitted to the committee are presented with the responses as well as the thought processes considered by the committee members. The importance of this documentation is to clarify some points as well as update the SCI community regarding possible revisions that will be needed in the future based upon some rules that require clarification.

  13. MEASURING THE IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS (IFRS TO FINANCIAL INFORMATION OF PORTUGUESE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Ferreira Silva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available To increase efficiency of the European finance market, the European Union (EU recently forced all public companies to publish their financial disclosures with the support of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, emanated by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB, beginning January 1, 2005. In this paper, we measure the impact of the application of IFRS to financial information of Portuguese public companies belonging to the Eurolist by Euronext Lisbon. The results show that the Balance Sheet and Income Statement structures of the firms studied suffered relevant accounting conversions in the process of compliance. Nevertheless, we did not find a clear pattern for the accounting variations. IFRS implementation conditioned the measure made to the performance and the financial position of the business companies in Portugal.

  14. Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric Determination of Myo-inositol in Humans Utilizing a Deuterated Internal Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Larsen, Elfinn

    1982-01-01

    The isotopic dilution technique was used for determining the content of myo-inositol in human urine, plasma and haemolysed erythrocyte samples. A deuterated myo-inositol, synthesized from inosose-2 by base-catalysed exchange of hydrogens by deuterium, followed by reduction of the inosose with 2H2, was added as internal standard to the samples at an early stage in the analytical procedure. After separation and derivatization to the hexa-acetate, the gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis was carried out. A 25 m fused silica capillary column coated with methyl silicone was used, and the ions selected for monitoring were m/z 210 and m/z 214, which are characteristic and abundant fragment ions from unlabelled and hexadeuterated myo-inositolhexa-acetate, respectively. Calibration curves from water, urine, plasma and haemolysed erythrocytes show parallel, linear responses in the ratio between analyte and internal standard in the area of interest (0.2–2.0).

  15. Formation of research group for standard nuclear engineering software development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAEA has set up a new research group for Standard Nuclear Engineering Software Development in the Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate in April, 2011. The paper introduces the aim and role of this new group in the computer simulation technology important in nuclear science and industrial development. Hitherto, they made efforts mainly to develop new computer codes and database in Japan. The new group is expected to maintain and modify the developed codes and database in accordance to the users needs. Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System, Evaluated Actinide Data, Heavy Ion Transport code System, Monte Carlo Codes for Neutron and Photon Transport Calculation and others are included for explanation. (S. Ohno)

  16. Community-Based Development of Standards for Geochemical and Geochronological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Walker, D.; Vinay, S.; Djapic, B.; Ash, J.; Falk, B.

    2007-12-01

    The Geoinformatics for Geochemistry (GfG) Program (www.geoinfogeochem.org) and the EarthChem project (www.earthchem.org) aim to maximize the application of geochemical data in Geoscience research and education by building a new advanced data infrastructure for geochemistry that facilitates the compilation, communication, serving, and visualization of geochemical data and their integration with the broad Geoscience data set. Building this new data infrastructure poses substantial challenges that are primarily cultural in nature, and require broad community involvement in the development and implementation of standards for data reporting (e.g., metadata for analytical procedures, data quality, and analyzed samples), data publication, and data citation to achieve broad acceptance and use. Working closely with the science community, with professional societies, and with editors and publishers, recommendations for standards for the reporting of geochemical and geochronological data in publications and to data repositories have been established, which are now under consideration for adoption in journal and agency policies. The recommended standards are aligned with the GfG and EarthChem data models as well as the EarthChem XML schema for geochemical data. Through partnerships with other national and international data management efforts in geochemistry and in the broader marine and terrestrial geosciences, GfG and EarthChem seek to integrate their development of geochemical metadata standards, data format, and semantics with relevant existing and emerging standards and ensure compatibility and compliance.

  17. Developments in international criminal justice in Africa during 2009

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cecile, Aptel; Wambui, Mwangi.

    Full Text Available An overview of 2009 shows the dramatic influence of developments pertaining to international criminal justice in shaping not only legal but also political and human rights discourses in Africa. This contribution, which reviews selected events in 2009, includes a selective analysis of the work of two [...] important international jurisdictions - the International Criminal Court and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. This year, the 'hybrid' Special Court for Sierra Leone concluded its last trial and appeal in Freetown and heard the testimony of Charles Taylor. Both are significant for the pursuit of justice in Sierra Leone. In Kenya, the failed efforts to establish a special tribunal and the attempts to prosecute suspected pirates apprehended off the coast of Somalia, shape the debate on the prosecution of international crimes in domestic judicial spheres. The first case before the African Court on Human and People's Rights, concerning Hissène Habré, and the attempts to establish a criminal chamber to try crimes defined under international law within the African Court are touched upon. Events in Sudan are highlighted, including the International Criminal Court's arrest warrant against the President of Sudan, and the report by the African Union Panel on Darfur.

  18. Investigations on international standardization of environmental management systems. 3; Kankyo kanri system no kokusai hyojunka ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Japan as an ISO member country identifies the state of discussions in the environmental management standard deliberation committee at ISO. Investigations were performed on international standardization of environmental management systems for the purpose of participating and cooperating in preparing and establishing international standards related to environmental management, and playing part in working, solving and improving environmental problems. Under the circumstances that environmental problems are drawing worldwide interest, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has been carrying out since 1993 deliberations on environmental management standards to institutionalize environmental management rules to check effects of business activities on the environment. The International Organization for Standardization/Environmental Management Technical Committee (ISO/TC207) was installed, at which series number of 1400 order was allotted for environmental management related standards, and major standards have come to a final stage of standard formulation at the TC207 Oslo conference in June 1995. In Japan, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry has established an environmental management standard deliberation committee composed of people of experience or academic standing to advance discussions on how the environmental management should be in business entities through deliberations on ISO standards.

  19. A study to explore internal auditors’ compliance with Quality Assurance Standards: A case of state owned corporations in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamau, Charles Guandaru

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Internal Audit Department in any organization (including State Owned Corporations has a role of assisting the management in achieving their objectives and adding value to organizational operations by evaluating and improving the effective of risk management, internal controls and governance processes. To achieve this, the Internal Audit Department is required by the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA to carry out a continuous internal quality assessment and an external assessment at least once in five years. The literature suggests that internal auditors in Africa including Kenya do not comply with the quality assurance standards as set by the IIA. This research collected data from 24 Internal Audit Units from State Owned Corporations regarding their compliance with quality assurance standards. The research carried out a hypothesis testing using the data collected to find out whether the audit departments in state owned corporations comply with quality assurance standards. The study found out that there is generally low compliance with quality assurance standards among most internal audit units in state owned corporations in Kenya. The research identified some of the reasons that led to low compliance to include; lack of awareness of standards; non-membership with IIA; non adoption of IPPF; age and experience of the internal audit department and understanding of the quality assurance standards.

  20. Collective Success or Collective Failure? : The Sialkot Football Manufacturing Industry’s Response to International Labor Standards Pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum

    In this article, I make a contribution to the literature on how industrial clusters in developing countries respond to corporate responsibility demands from international buyers in Europe and North America. I outline an analytical framework that integrates insights from the global value chain, industrial cluster, and corporate social responsibility literatures with the aim of explaining why collective cluster action through industry associations and/or public private partnerships succeed or fail in facilitating cluster-wide compliance with CSR standards. I then use this framework to analyze a case study of soccer village project to learn how various attempts at facilitating joint CSR action in the Pakistani football manufacturing have consistently failed in addressing international CSR compliance demands. I conclude that this form of collective failure – along with technological changes, lack of innovation, and government failure - can partly explain why Sialkot has been marginalized in terms of its overall share of world football manufacturing in the last decade.

  1. An Argument against Using Standardized Test Scores for Placement of International Undergraduate Students in English as a Second Language (ESL) Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhan, Kateryna

    2013-01-01

    Development and administration of institutional ESL placement tests require a great deal of financial and human resources. Due to a steady increase in the number of international students studying in the United States, some US universities have started to consider using standardized test scores for ESL placement. The English Placement Test (EPT)…

  2. Review of practical implementation issues relating to international financial reporting standards: Case study on Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Eberle, Reto; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    This case study presents the context, application and enforcement of international financial reporting standards (IFRS) in Switzerland. It begins with an introduction to the Swiss legal framework by presenting the requirements for accounting, reporting, and auditing. It then examines the application and enforcement of IFRS in Switzerland, particularly for listed companies. It concludes with a summary and an overview of expected amendments to the legal framework. The study notes that the regul...

  3. RECOGNITION AND VALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL ASSETS IN TOURISM AREA. INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela NICHITA; Anca TU?U; Corina Graziella DUMITRU; Corina IOAN??

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the Financial Reporting Standards Board's international convergence and harmonization policy it is proposed that a new accounting regime will prescribe the financial reporting practice and minimum disclosure requirements for agricultural activities, including the fair value of biological assets. In any financial report, the inclusion of biological assets may confuse the reality of the income profit and the wealth profit. There are many reasons it may provide misleading figures...

  4. Time for a Paradigm Shift? Exploring Maximum Standards in International Intellectual Property Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available International intellectual property (IP protection is at the heart of controversies over the impact of economic interests on social or environmental concerns. Some see IP rights as unduly encroaching upon human rights and societal interests, others argue for stronger enforcement and additional exclusivity to incentivize new innovations and creations. Underlying these debates is the perception that international IP treaties set out minimum standards of protection - which presumably allow for additional protection with only the sky being the limit. This article challenges this view and explores the idea of maximum standards or ceilings within the existing body of international IP law. It looks at the relation between IP treaties and subsequent agreements or national laws which offer stronger protection. In particular, within the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS, an important qualification may serve as a door opener for ceilings: While additional IP protection may not go beyond mandatory limits within TRIPS, the qualification not to “contravene” TRIPS is unlikely to safeguard TRIPS flexibilities against TRIPS-plus norms. The article further identifies and examines the rationales for maximum standards in international IP protection as: (1 Legal security and predictability about the boundaries of protection; (2 the global protection of users’ rights; and (3 the free movement of goods, services and information. Examples of mandatory limits in the existing IP treaties and in ongoing initiatives can implement these. However, most of the relevant treaty norms are optional. The article concludes with some observations on the need for more comprehensive and precise maximum standards.

  5. TB control policies in European countries: international standards and local practice of their implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Besieda, Alina; Semigina, Tetyana

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ukraine belongs to countries with high level of tuberculosis (TB) incidence. Despite measures implemented by the state and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the situation with the spread of TB stays alarming.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of legal acts, international standards, national reports and other official documents related to TB control was carried out for such countries as the UK, the Netherlands, Moldova, Romania, and Ukraine.RESULTS: All the European countries unde...

  6. Multicenter validation of the analytical accuracy of Salmonella PCR: towards an international standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    As part of a major international project for the validation and standardization of PCR for detection of five major food-borne pathogens, four primer sets specific for Salmonella species were evaluated in-house for their analytical accuracy (selectivity and detection limit) in identifying 43 Salmonella spp. and 47 non-Salmonella strains. The most selective primer set was found to be 139-141 (K. Rahn, S. A. De Grandis, R. C. Clarke, S. A. McEwen, J. E. Galan, C. Ginocchio, R. Curtiss 111, and C. L. Gyles, Mol. Cell. Probes 6:271-279, 1992), which targets the invA gene. An extended determination of selectivity by using 364 strains showed that the inclusivity was 99.6% and the exclusivity was 100% for the invA primer set. To indicate possible PCR inhibitors derived from the sample DNA, an internal amplification control (IAC), which was coamplified with the invA target gene, was constructed. In the presence of 300 DNA copies of the IAC, the detection probability for primer set 139-141 was found to be 100% when a cell suspension containing 10(4) CFU/ml was used as the template in the PCR (50 CFU per reaction). The primer set was further validated in an international collaborative study that included 16 participating laboratories. Analysis with 28 coded ("blind") DNA samples revealed an analytical accuracy of 98%. Thus, a simple PCR assay that is specific for Salmonella spp. and amplifies a chromosomal DNA fragment detected by gel electrophoresis was established through extensive validation and is proposed as an international standard. This study addresses the increasing demand of quality assurance laboratories for standard diagnostic methods and presents findings that can facilitate the international comparison and exchange of epidemiological data.

  7. The role of stakeholders in developing an international regulatory framework for carbon capture and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, C. M.; Broad, K.; Swart, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that carbon capture and storage (CCS) could be used to achieve between 15% and 55% of the carbon emission reductions necessary to avoid dangerous levels of climate change. It is also believed that achieving emission reduction goals will be less costly with CCS than without it. The expansion of active CCS sites over the past decade, from three to 53 demonstrates the value that industry sees in CCS as a transition technology for governments seeking to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, to continue developing CCS for industry scale implementation, it is essential to provide the regulatory certainty needed to foster energy industry wide adoption of CCS. Existing CCS regulatory regimes are inadequate, fragmented and contradictory. There is a need for comprehensive, unifying regulations for CCS that are flexible enough to adapt as the technology develops. Governments are limited by the fact that carbon capture and storage is a multidisciplinary issue that touches on the fields of oil drilling, groundwater quality, greenhouse gas management, air quality, and risk management. Though it is in part a technological, environmental and management issue there is also a complex political element to tackling the CCS problem. Due to its cross-cutting nature, CCS regulations should be based off the best practices and standards developed by industry stakeholders. Industry standards are stakeholder developed and consensus based, created through a democratic and collaborative process by bodies such as the International Standards Organization, the National Institutes of Standards and Testing (USA), ASTM International, and the Canadian Standards Organization. Standards can typically be broken down into six general categories: test methods, specifications, classifications, practices, guides, and terminology. These standards are created by stakeholders across the industry and across geographic boundaries to create an trade-wide, rather than nationwide, consensus and ensuring that the standards are international in scope. This paper examines regulatory issues post-capture, particularly the transport and geological storage of carbon dioxide and seeks to identify areas where relevant stakeholders should collaborate to develop a comprehensive list of industry standards and provides several case study examples.

  8. Choosing a standard reactor: International competition and domestic politics in Chinese nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has ambitious plans to expand its nuclear power capacity. One of the policy goals that high-level policymakers have desired is to base the nuclear program on a standardized reactor design. However, this has not materialized so far. By examining its nuclear reactor choices for individual projects, we argue that China’s policymaking process has been greatly influenced by international competition and domestic politics. Multiple international nuclear vendors are intent upon maintaining their respective niches in the expanding Chinese reactor market, and they have used various forms of economic and political pressure to achieve their objectives. On the other hand, China’s policymaking process is fragmented and the shifting power balances among powerful domestic actors do not allow a fixed path to be followed. Further, because of the high costs and potential profits involved, nuclear reactor choices in China have been driven not just by technical considerations but also by foreign and trade policy objectives. All of these make it unlikely that China will standardize the reactor type it constructs in the near future. -- Highlights: ? China’s nuclear power policymaking has been fragmented and without central control. ? Multiple domestic actors have pursued independent agendas. ? International nuclear vendors have intensely competed for Chinese reactor contracts. ? Economic, political and foreign policy goals have driven reactor contract decisions. ? China is unlikely to construct only a standardized reactor design.

  9. INTERNATIONAL BIOMASS TRADE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac Catalin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is crystal clear that the neoclassical economical theory, despite being probably the best growth model ever invented by man, tickled a cost of environmental degradation which can threaten our wealth and even our existence. For this reason, the concept of sustainable development (SD is so empathic, being considered probably the best theoretical alternative invented by man to standard growth, because of its vision of a better world, where economics, society and environment are intimately linked. Thus, all human activities have to adapt to this new paradigm, in order to achieve its goals. From the economical perspective, production, consumption and trade must incorporate a kind of sustainable type of activity. In the recent years, growing demands in energy use and the increase of oil and coal prices, have led to the usage of new energy sources such as biomass, water, solar, wind and geothermal energy. This is why we propose in this paper to present an overview of international trade in biomass reported to the philosophy of SD. In short, we want to give an answer at two questions: how much is biomass trade sustainable and what risks may arise if the main source of energy used today, based on fossil fuels, will be totally substitute by biomass? To be sustainable, biomass, must meet certain criteria, such as: to possess a high capacity for regeneration, in a relatively short time; to offer a better efficiency compared with the traditional fossil fuel sources; to be less or non-polluting, to be used in solid, liquid and gaseous form; to have a broad applicability in production and consumption; to have a competitive level in terms of costs and prices for transport or storage, in both stages, as a raw material or as a finished product; to be a good substitute of traditional fuels (gasoline or diesel, without the necessity for structural changes of the of the engine. The article will conclude that the uprising trend of the EU biomass trade and consumption will continue, because of grown concerns of the EU Member States regarding the effects that greenhouse gas emissions have over the environment and over the quality of life standard, despite the critics which states that biomass production may have negative environmental effects, leading to massive deforestation and destruction of soil, water sources and natural habitat.

  10. Recent developments and current status of air kerma standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (PSDL) usually maintain air kerma standards for kilovoltage x-rays (10 kV to 300 kV) and for 137Cs- and 60Co-? radiation. Free-air ionisation chambers (FAC) and cavity ionisation chambers are used as primary air kerma standards for kilovoltage x-rays and for 137Cs- and 60Co-? radiation, respectively. The majority of the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) signed the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of national measurement standards and of calibration and measurement certificates issued by NMIs. The MRA has been available for signature since 14th October 1999. According to the MRA, the signatories participate in CIPM key comparisons executed by the Consultative Committees or the BIPM, leading to a key comparison reference value. The degree of equivalence of a national measurement standard is expressed quantitatively in terms of its deviation from the key comparison reference value and the uncertainty of this deviation. For air kerma standards the Consultative Committee for Ionising Radiation (CCRI(I)) currently maintains three types of key comparisons and a so-called supplementary comparison. The air kerma key comparisons are organised bilaterally and are carried out between the air kerma standards of the BIPM and the participating NMIs. The radiations used are low-energy (10 kV to 50 kV) and medium energy (100 kV to 250 kV) x-ray beams and 137Cs- and 60Co-? radiation. To be entitled to enter the key comparison database with respect to air kerma an NMI has to participate in a key comparison within a time period of 10 years. In keeping with the longstanding method of presenting the data, the CCRI(I) took the decision at its meeting in 1999 to use the BIPM determination of air kerma rate as the key comparison reference value. For this reason the BIPM air kerma standards are of special importance. Due to the fact that the air kerma key comparisons have been conducted on an ongoing basis since 1966 for low-energy x-rays and since 1975 for medium-energy x-rays and 60Co-? radiation the results represent an invaluable database which can be regarded as an indicator of the status of the air kerma standards operated worldwide. Consequently, this database and the reports of the NMIs to the CCRI(I) meetings which take place periodically every two years were used for the current status report as an essential source of information. Because different techniques are used to measure the air kerma rate of kilovoltage x-rays and 137Cs- and 60Co-? radiation this status report is divided in this two parts. Undoubtedly, the most important new development was the re-evaluation of several correction factors required for cavity ionization chamber standards. However, there were also interesting developments using Monte Carlo techniques and spectrometry for the determination of x-ray quality dependent correction factors of FACs

  11. Can context justify an ethical double standard for clinical research in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landes Megan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The design of clinical research deserves special caution so as to safeguard the rights of participating individuals. While the international community has agreed on ethical standards for the design of research, these frameworks still remain open to interpretation, revision and debate. Recently a breach in the consensus of how to apply these ethical standards to research in developing countries has occurred, notably beginning with the 1994 placebo-controlled trials to reduce maternal to child transmission of HIV-1 in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. The design of these trials sparked intense debate with the inclusion of a placebo-control group despite the existence of a 'gold standard' and trial supporters grounded their justifications of the trial design on the context of scarcity in resource-poor settings. Discussion These 'contextual' apologetics are arguably an ethical loophole inherent in current bioethical methodology. However, this convenient appropriation of 'contextual' analysis simply fails to acknowledge the underpinnings of feminist ethical analysis upon which it must stand. A more rigorous analysis of the political, social, and economic structures pertaining to the global context of developing countries reveals that the bioethical principles of beneficence and justice fail to be met in this trial design. Conclusion Within this broader, and theoretically necessary, understanding of context, it becomes impossible to justify an ethical double standard for research in developing countries.

  12. Development of Integration in Manufacturing : Interoperability of CAD Standards and Robotics in CIME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Torben; Trostmann, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Current international developments in the broad field of Product Data Technology are advancing rapidly and are leading up to new levels of technology in product model definition, product model communications, enterprise integration and cooperation. These developments will be of strategic significance to all manufacturing industries.International standardization based on the product model definition standard STEP (ISO10303) is playing a key role in promoting a modern approach to Product Data Technology. The initial release of STEP, consisting of twelve essential parts, has recently been approved and published as International Standard. The introduction of STEP based software and its application in industry is thus on the verge of being broadly realized.In this initial release, STEP mainly addresses geometric and kinematic product model data properties whichare sufficient 'static' model features for covering the area of conventional CAD design. However, the developing areas of advanced CAD design, simulation, and program-ming of dynamic systems are not yet covered by STEP. A static model description is not sufficient to cover such model features, and this implies for instance, that STEP must be extended to cope with descriptions of functional behavior of products.In the robotics area, Computer Aided Robotics (CAR) systems for design, off-line programming, and simulation are currently increasing their model features with new topics, such as multi-body dynamics, realistic motion planning and control. From dealing with pure geometric motions of mechanisms described by shape and kinematics, these computer based systems can now handle more complete system models in order to obtain more reliable designs, and provide simulation results for more feasible robot off-line programming.

  13. International comparison of energy standards in the building area; Internationaler Vergleich von Energiestandards im Baubereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, S.; Balthasar, A. [Institut fuer Politikstudien Interface GmbH, Lucerne (Switzerland); Eichhammer, W.; Reichert, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined the creation, implementation and effectiveness of energy standards in Switzerland and the four European countries Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark. The results of the research, which was based on interviews, documents and the literature available, are presented and commented on. The authors are of the opinion that the development of energy-standards and regulations proved to be most difficult in Switzerland as a result of heavily decentralised legislation competencies. Developments in Europe are discussed. As far as the 'sharpness' of legislation is concerned, large differences can be found between the five countries looked at. The possible export of the Swiss 'MINERGIE' standard in other European countries is examined. Recommendations are made for the further development of energy standards.

  14. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Vijayakumar, R.; Agui, Juan H.

    2014-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High- Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. Over the years, the service life of these filters has been re-evaluated based on limited post-flight tests of returned filters and risk factors. On earth, a well designed and installed HEPA filter will last for several years, e.g. in industrial and research clean room applications. Test methods for evaluating these filters are being developed on the basis of established test protocols used by the industry and the military. This paper will discuss the test methods adopted and test results on prototypes of the ISS filters. The results will assist in establishing whether the service life can be extended for these filters. Results from unused filters that have been in storage will also be presented to ascertain the shelf life and performance deterioration, if any and determine if the shelf life may be extended. XXXX Presently, the inventory of ISS bacterial filters for the ISS Air Revitalization System are nearing the end of their specified shelf life, and a means of testing to confirm whether the shelf life can be extended is of interest to the ISS Program. A filter test setup was designed and built to meet industry testing standards. A CFD analysis was performed to initially determine the optimal duct geometry and flow configuration. Both a screen and flow straighter were added to the test duct design to improve flow uniformity and face velocity profiles were subsequently measured to confirm. Flow quality and aerosol mixing assessments show that the duct flow is satisfactory for the intended leak testing. Preliminary leak testing was performed on two different ISS filters, one with known perforations and one with limited use, and results confirmed that the testing methods and photometer instrument are sensitive enough to detect and locate compromised sections of an ISS BFE. This work is focused on developing test protocols for testing the ISS BFE filters, but the methodology is general enough to be extended to other present and future spacecraft filters, These techniques for characterizing the test duct and perform leak testing can be applied to conducting acceptance testing and inventory testing for future manned exploration programs with air revitalization filtration needs, possibly even for in-situ filter element integrity testing for extensively long-duration missions. We plan to address the unique needs for test protocols for crewed spacecraft particulate filters by preparing the initial version of a standard, to be documented as a NASA Techmical Memorandum (TM), that can potentially be submitted to IEST and ASHRAE for consideration as a new standard for spacecraft applications.

  15. Nuclear power development in Iran and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the future possibility of oil resource depletion, nuclear power development is rapidly in progress in Iran. For nuclear fuel resources, prospecting is under way, and in uranium enrichment, it participates in the multi-nation project. For developing countries, there is still various restrictions, in nuclear power technology in relation of nuclear nonproliferation. In such situation, it is desirable that the INFCE may show the necessary solutions. Nuclear power generation is so-to-speak the most capital intensive, energy technology requiring long lead time. This is another problem for countries with little foreign currency. For the problem of accepting nuclear power by people its discrete solution is necessary. Internationally, there is the problem of nuclear nonproliferation. Sole moves of individual countries are no longer permissible; herein international coordiantion is significantly involved. International cooperation takes time of achieve, in which mutual trust comes first. (Mori, K.)

  16. Developing International Managers: The Contribution of Cultural Experience to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Peter; Regan, Padraic; Li, Liang Liang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate cultural experience as a learning strategy for developing international managers. Design/methodology/approach: Using an integrated framework, two quantitative studies, based on empirical methodology, are conducted. Study 1, with an undergraduate sample situated in the Asia Pacific, aimed to examine…

  17. International Students in Western Developed Countries: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanwa, Emmanuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars have described the various challenges international students face in Western developed countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Some of the challenges include differences in culture, language barriers, adjustment problems, medical concerns, pedagogical challenges, housing issues, lack of support…

  18. A role for NGOs in international renewable energy project development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholf, T.R.

    1997-12-01

    An NGO is an international term for non-government organizations, often it is used in connection with non-profit, community-based and/or voluntary business activities. To be successful in supporting energy projects, these organizations generally exhibit certain characteristics: they are familiar with the end-use requirements; they are typically neutral to the technology; they emphasize training; they do not carry a large bureacratic structure, at home or in the field; they typically can adapt to do numerous functions; they can often attract other support. The author discusses several examples of such organizations who have been highly successful. The author sees a continuing role for such groups in developing renewable energy sources in the rural setting to include: continued development of new activity in rural areas; development of institutional framework for future market activity; an increased role in managing international development activities; more direct involvement with for-profit technical and financial organizations.

  19. [Development of laboratory information system--quality standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srenger, Vesna; Stavljeni?-Rukavina, Ana; Cvoris?ec, Dubravka; Brkljaci?, Vera; Rogi?, Dunja; Jurici?, Ljiljana

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine structural modules of laboratory information system (LIS) for the application of new biomedical and information technologies by utilizing current organizational trends. The method used included definition of structural modules according to significant LIS properties, e.g., a large number of data, automation of analyses and rapid exchange of information, and according to the process of information establishment the collection, organization, selection, synthesis and distribution. Thus, outdated distributed software at the Clinical Institute of Laboratory Diagnosis has now been replaced by modular organization. Modules have been developed for the following: data input, online operation of laboratory instruments, preparation of results, compilation of medical documentation on quality assurance based on the application of quality standards, management of finances, and for point of care testing. The method of re-engineering as well as adherence to EN and ISO quality standards were utilized in planning the development of LIS based on the application of new information technologies and in shaping business processes. The application of re-engineering in LIS development results in quality improvement, reduces the cost and time necessary for performance of procedures, and improves relations in organizational structure. PMID:16095197

  20. A Human Development Index by Internal Migrational Status

    OpenAIRE

    HARTTGEN, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Migration continues to be a very important income diversi¯cation strategy, es- pecially for poor populations in developing countries. However, while there has been much analysis on the economic consequences of migration for migrants and the receiving regions, whether internal migration improves or deteriorates human development is not easy to determine. This papers applies a recently de- velopment analytical framework that allows to calculate the HDI for subgroups of a population. We use this...