The aim of the paper is to study the academic conditions of students who come from deprived background and from the rural areas to join universities at the M.A. level and suggest strategies to cope with academic challenges faced by them. The paper assumes that there exists a large gap between students who come from rural areas and from the deprived sections and academic expectations demanded by educational institutions. It studies the nature of their problems and suggests measures to deal wit...
Mok, Ka Ho
This article critically examines how Asian countries have responded to the global economic crisis which started in late 2008, with particular reference to explore what major coping strategies have been adopted by these Asian governments to continue educational development. This comparative study highlights the significant role of the state in
Beléndez Vázquez, Marina; Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Bermejo Alegría, Rosa María; Méndez Carrillo, Francisco Javier; Marín, María del Carmen
This study describes the development and validation of the Coping Strategies for Diabetes Care (CSDC) questionnaire for parents of children with diabetes. In Study 1, a pilot version was tested with a sample of 101 parents. In Study 2 (N=199), confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on data from fathers and mothers separately. In Study 3 (N=109 parents)validity was determined using the WHO-Well Being Index and other measures. The final questionnaire consisted of 15 items. Analyses reveale...
Rimmer, Ruth Brubaker; Alam, Now Bahar; Bay, R Curt; Sadler, Ian J; Foster, Kevin N; Caruso, Daniel M
Unresolved pediatric pain, both acute and chronic, has been associated with negative short- and long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study sought to determine whether an association existed between self-reported pain coping skills and anxiety levels in a cohort of pediatric burn patients, and whether gender would influence their responses. The sample comprised burn-injured children in attendance at one of three mature burn camp sites. The self-report measures utilized included the 41-item Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders Child Version and the 39-item Pain Coping Questionnaire. Parental consent was obtained. A psychologist administered the measures. Participants included 187 youth, mean age 12.4 ± 2.4 years, girls (n = 89) boys (n = 98) with 67% reporting visible burn scars. Among boys, the use of Internalizing Coping Strategies was moderately correlated with elevated scores on Panic Disorder symptoms (r = .42, P Anxiety (r = .51, P Anxiety Symptom Scores (r = .49, P Distraction Strategies did not have any elevated anxiety scores. These findings suggest that burn-injured children, who employ Internalization as their pain coping strategy, may be more vulnerable to the development of long-term anxiety disorder, which, if left untreated may result in a negative psycho/social outcome. Applicability to Practice: Assessment of in-patient pediatric patients with the Pain Coping Questionnaire may help to identify children who are more likely to experience long-term anxiety. Future studies should seek to confirm these findings and determine whether improved pain management and early treatment of anxiety can help to diminish the long-term implications of unhelpful pain strategies and increased anxiety in burn-injured children. PMID:25094014
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to present how often the scholl counselorsexperience the emotions of anger, sadness, fear and hatred and what they do to cope with these emotions. In the study, the qualitative research method was used. From the 49 provinces of Turkey, 140 people comprising of women and 81 men participated and the feedback from 101 of these participants were taken. An open-ended semi- structured question form which was developed by the researchers to collect the data was used. The Nvivo9 package software programme has been used for the process of entering, studying and analysing the data by tabulating it. To cope with manage negative emotions, the participants were in general seen to use some coping strategies with their emotions such as trying to forget and avoid, turning into introvert and share, turning into extrovert and face off and trying to be calm.
Full Text Available Background: Stress is one of the risk factors for the development of so many physical and especially psychological disorders. Now, the impression is focused on coping strategies versus previous emphasis on nature and severity of stress. The present study was performed to evaluate if fasting, not only as a religious behavior but also as a coping strategy can influence the way of coping with stress in humans. Methods: In a pre-test / post-test survey, 100 medical students were evaluated for stress coping strategies before and after the holy month of Ramadan using CS-R scale. Results: The results revealed that the use of ineffective coping strategies was significantly decreased after the holy month with no alterations in other strategies. In details, uses of superstitiousness, wishful thinking and self-medication coping strategies were statistically lower after Ramadan compared to values before it (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The present study showed that Ramadan fasting (a religious behavior or belief as a coping strategy has beneficial effect on the way of coping with stress in humans. Keywords: Stress, Coping Strategies, Religion, Ramadan, Medical Student
Moon, Chung in; Park, Hahn Kyu; Kim, Tak Won; Lee, Dong Yoon; Lee, Yong Hwan [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The purpose of this study is to analyze international and domestic constraints on the development of nuclear fuel cycle technology in Korea and to develop response strategies to deal with these constraints. This study proceeded as follows: Chapter 2 examined multilateral international constrains including IAEA safeguards system and NPT, bilateral international constraints such as the U.S.-Korea Nuclear Energy Cooperation Agreement and the U.S. nonproliferation policy, and domestic constraints like residents' anti nuclear movement and environmental protest movement. In Chapter 3, this study conducted a case study on Japan's nuclear fuel cycle programs as a basic research for the establishment of relevant response strategies vis-a-vis the international and domestic constraints. In this chapter, the focus of analysis was on Japan's strategies to deal with multilateral and bilateral pressures and domestic constraints. In Chapters 4 and 5, this study sought to elaborate Korea's strategies to cope with multilateral international constraints and U.S. constraints on the development of a domestic nuclear fuel cycle in Korea, respectively. The response strategies to domestic constraints were also illuminated in Chapter 6. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs. (author)
Examines the coping strategies adopted by 50 infertile men and women. All interviewed had sought medical help, and many became knowledgeable about reproduction and infertility. Redefining the problem and managing negative concepts about infertility were other coping strategies. Seeking social support, positive identities, and other ways of meeting
Using structural equation modeling, this study examines the influences of motivational factors (Need for Cognitive Closure--NCC--and Decisiveness), coping strategies and acculturation strategies on levels of acculturative stress. Two groups of immigrants in Rome (Croatians n= 156 and Poles n= 179) completed a questionnaire that included scales for the various factors. Although our initial hypothesized model was not confirmed, a modified model showed that the motivational factors of NCC and Decisiveness indirectly influence acculturative stress. The modified model with good fit indices indicated that the relationship between NCC and Decisiveness are mediated by coping strategies and acculturation strategies. Specifically, NCC is associated positively with avoidance coping, which in turn is negatively associated with the host group relationships and positively with the original culture maintenance. The last two dimensions predicted lower levels of acculturative stress. Decisiveness was positively associated with the problem-oriented coping and, negatively, with emotional and avoidance coping. PMID:15281915
Marlise, van Zyl; Yvonne, du Plessis.
Full Text Available As a large part of South Africa's economy is based on the mining industry, this research focused on exploring the coping strategies of business leaders in the mining industry during an economic downturn. Using qualitative research within a constructivist-interpretive paradigm, the researchers sought [...] a deeper understanding of how mining leaders cope during an economic downturn. A purposive sample of seven executive mining leaders of different mining houses was interviewed and data was analysed using Atlas.ti. A conceptual framework for understanding coping strategies at the individual, group and organisational levels for business leaders during an economic downturn was developed and is discussed here. This study contributed to theory and practice by focusing on coping responses to specific situations within a specific context instead of on general coping strategies.
Mahmoudi, Maryam; Dehdari, Tahereh; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud; Abbasian, Ladan
Stress has significant adverse impacts on health outcomes of HIV-infected patients. Our study explored coping with stress strategies by HIV-infected Iranian patients. A qualitative content analysis study was conducted at the Consultation Clinic of HIV at the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2012. Twenty-six semi-structured in-depth interviews were done. Participants were asked about coping strategies for stress. After the first interview, continuous analysis of data was started and continued up to data saturation. Results showed that participants used two categories of strategies (emotion-based coping and problem-based coping) to cope with stress. Emotion-based coping had two sub-themes: adaptive and maladaptive. The problem-based coping category had three sub-themes: participation in education sessions, adherence to medication, and efforts to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Explanations of different strategies available to HIV-infected patients to cope with stress may help develop tailored interventions to improve the psychological conditions of people living with HIV. PMID:25769759
Nett, Ulrike; Götz, Thomas; Daniels, Lia Marie
The goal of this study was to explore different strategies for coping with boredom. A questionnaire was developed targeting two dimensions of coping, namely approach versus avoidance oriented coping and cognitive versus behavioral oriented coping. First, based on the responses of 976 students (51% female) from grades 5 to 10, the structure of the coping with boredom scales was verified by confirmatory factor analysis. In a second step, 3 different boredom-coping groups were identified by late...
S Akuchekian; Ebrahimi, A; S Alvandian
Background: Stress is one of the risk factors for the development of so many physical and especially psychological disorders. Now, the impression is focused on coping strategies versus previous emphasis on nature and severity of stress. The present study was performed to evaluate if fasting, not only as a religious behavior but also as a coping strategy can influence the way of coping with stress in humans. Methods: In a pre-test / post-test survey, 100 medical students were evaluated for str...
Niels C.L. Jacobs
Full Text Available The negative effects and the continuation of cyberbullying seem to depend on the coping strategies the victims use. To assess their coping strategies, self-report questionnaires (SRQs are used. However, these SRQs are often subject to several shortcomings: the (single and topological categorizations used in SRQs do not always adequately differentiate among various coping responses, in addition the strategies of general SRQs fail to accurately measure coping with cyberbullying. This study is therefore aimed to develop a SRQ that specifically measures coping with cyberbullying (i.e., Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire; CCQ and to discover whether other, not single and topological, categorizations of coping strategies can be found. Based on previous SRQs used in the (cyberbullying (i.e., traditional and cyberbullying literature (i.e., 49 studies were found with three different SRQs measuring coping with traditional bullying, cyberbullying or (cyberbullying items and categorizations were selected, compared and merged into a new questionnaire. In compliance with recommendations from the classical test-theory, a principal component analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis were done, and a final model was constructed. Seventeen items loaded onto four different coping categorizations: mental-, passive-, social-, and confrontational-coping. The CCQ appeared to have good internal consistency, acceptable test-retest reliability, good discriminant validity and the development of the CCQ fulfilled many of the recommendations from classical test-theory. The CCQ omits working in single and topological categorizations and measures cognitive, behavioral, approach and avoidance strategies.
Estratégias de coping desenvolvidas por cuidadores de idosos portadores de doença crônica Estrategias de coping desarrolladas por cuidadores de ancianos portadores de enfermedad crónica Coping strategies caregivers of elderly with chronic diseases develop
Janete Pessuto Simonetti
Full Text Available Cuidar de um idoso com doença crônica pode representar uma ameaça e resultar em estresse. O sucesso em lidar com esta situação dependerá do coping, definido como um processo utilizado para controlar as demandas da relação indivíduo-ambiente. Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi detectar as estratégias de coping utilizadas por cuidadores de idosos. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo, com base na análise de discurso. A amostra foi composta por 16 indivíduos. As estratégias de coping mais utilizadas pelos cuidadores foram centradas na emoção e a tarefa de cuidar implica em mudanças em suas vidas, desempenhando as atividades sem auxílio, com sobrecarga, perda da liberdade e frustração. O estresse maior está relacionado à falta de ajuda por parte dos familiares e não à divisão das responsabilidades. Estimular o envolvimento da família, educar e fornecer orientações básicas, que possam minimizar as dificuldades do processo de cuidar, poderão contribuir para o bem-estar dos cuidadores.Cuidar a un anciano con enfermedad crónica puede representar una amenaza y resultar en estrés. El éxito para lidiar con esta situación dependerá del coping, definido como un proceso utilizado para controlar las demandas de la relación individuo-ambiente. En este trabajo, el objetivo fue detectar las estrategias de coping utilizadas por cuidadores de ancianos. Fue realizado un estudio cualitativo, con base en el análisis de discurso. La muestra estuvo conformada por 16 individuos. las estrategias de coping más utilizadas por los cuidadores estuvieron centradas en la emoción y la tarea de cuidar implica en cambios en sus vidas, desempeñando las actividades sin ayuda, con sobrecarga, pérdida de la libertad y frustración. El mayor estrés está relacionado a la falta de ayuda por parte de los familiares y no a la división de las responsabilidades. Estimular el involucramiento de la familia, educar y proporcionar orientaciones básicas, que puedan minimizar las dificultades del proceso de cuidar, podrán contribuir en el bienestar de los cuidadores.Care for a dependent elderly individual with a chronic disease can be a threat and cause stress. Success in dealing with this situation will depend on coping strategies, defined as processes used in order to control the demands of the individual-environment relationship. In this study the goal was to detect coping strategies used by caregivers for the elderly. A qualitative study was carried out through the analysis of coping discourse and theoretical reference. The sample was comprised of 16 individuals. It was observed that the coping strategies most used by caregivers were centered on emotion, and that caregiving tasks imply many changes in the life of caregivers, who perform them with no aid, with work overload, loss of liberty, and frustration. The greatest stress is related to the lack of help from family members and of shared responsibilities. Stimulating the involvement of the family, educating and giving basic orientation, which may reduce the difficulties of caregiving, could improve these individuals' well-being.
Atkinson, D. E.
A changing climate is manifested at ground level through the day to day weather. For all Northern residents - community, industrial, operational and response - the need to think about the weather is ever present. Northern residents, and in particular, indigenous community residents, fully understand implications of the weather, however, a comment that has been heard more often is that old ways of knowing are not as reliable as they once were. Weather patterns seem less consistent and subject to more rapid fluctuations. Compromised traditional ways of knowing puts those who need to travel or hunt at greater risk. One response to adapt to this emerging reality is to make greater use of western sources of information, such as weather data and charts provided by NOAA's National Weather Service or Environment Canada. The federal weather agencies have very large and complex forecasting regions to cover, and so one problem is that it can be difficult to provide perfectly tailored forecasts, that cover all possible problems, right down to the very local scale in the communities. Only those affected have a complete feel for their own concerns. Thus, key to a strategy to improve the utility of available weather information is a linking of local-scale manifestations of problematic weather to the larger-scale weather patterns. This is done in two ways: by direct consultation with Northern residents, and by installation of equipment to measure parameters of interest to residents, which are not already being measured. This talk will overview projects in coastal Alaska and Canada targeting this objective. The challenge of designing and conducting interviews, and then of harvesting relevant information, will be visited using examples from the three major contexts: coastal community, industrial, and operational. Examples of how local comments can be married to weather products will be presented.
Vickie A Lambert
Full Text Available Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses? workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace.
Using structural equation modelling, this study examines the influences of motivational factors (Need for Cognitive Closure -- NCC and Decisiveness), coping strategies and acculturation strategies on levels of acculturative stress. Two groups of immigrants in Rome (Croats n[equ]156 and Poles n[equ]179) completed a questionnaire that included scales for the various factors. Although our initial hypothesised model was not confirmed, a modified model showed that the motivational factors of NCC a...
Revital Ludewig; Juan LaLlave
This chapter contributes towards understanding the effect of gender on judging. It examines whether the experiences of women and men judges with their profession support a gender differences or a gender similarities hypothesis. Women and men judges in Switzerland (N = 243) were asked to rank their experiences with professional difficulties, coping strategies, worklife balance, satisfaction and discrimination to determine whether there were differences or similarities due to...
Aparicio, Miriam Teresita
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study Coping Strategies as explanatory variables of Job Burnout, in employees (University graduates vs. non-university graduates working at government offices in Mendoza Argentina. In order to develop a more comprehensive approach to this issue, the methodology used includes quantitative techniques and qualitative techniques. The research entailed a comparative study. The results obtained from the quantitative data, show significant differences between university graduates who use strategies that seem to be closer to action and problem solving; and non-university graduates who use strategies linked to emotion. From an applied point of view, it is expected that the results may generate Ongoing Training Programs focusing on burnout and stress related to the development of positive Coping Strategies.
Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.
This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research
Long, Bonita C.
Interviewed 20 professional women on their work-related stress and coping processes to identify those who were good and poor at coping. Found that more effective copers seemed to have used problem-focused coping such as seeking information or advice or taking problem-solving action, whereas less effective copers seemed to have used strategies such
Holt, Paul A.; Stone, Gerald L.
Investigated needs and coping strategies of 124 university students, five university staff, and five other persons involved in long-distance relationships. Most effective coping strategies appeared to be frequency of visits and quality of verbal communication. Results support the importance of relationship subtypes and frequent visits. (Author/NB)
Full Text Available Victims of cyberbullying report a number of undesirable outcomes regarding their well-being, especially those who are not able to successfully cope with cyber victimization. Research on coping with cyberbullying has identified a number of different coping strategies that seem to be differentially adaptive in cases of cyber victimization. However, knowledge regarding the effectiveness of these strategies is scarce. This scarcity is partially due to the lack of valid and reliable instruments for the assessment of coping strategies in the context of cyber victimization. The present study outlines the development of the Coping with Cyberbullying Questionnaire (CWCBQ and tests of its reliability and construct validity over a total of five questionnaire development stages. The CWCBQ was developed in the context of a longitudinal study carried out in Switzerland and was also used with Italian and Irish samples of adolescents. The results of these different studies and stages resulted in a questionnaire that is composed of seven subscales (i.e., distal advice, assertiveness, helplessness/self-blame, active ignoring, retaliation, close support and technical coping with a total of 36 items. The CWCBQ is still being developed, but the results obtained so far suggested that the questionnaire was reliable and valid among the countries where it was used at different stages of its development. The CWCBQ is a promising tool for the understanding of potential coping with experiences of cyber victimization and for the development of prevention and intervention programs.
Schmied, Emily A; Padilla, Genieleah A; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Lauby, Melissa D Hiller; Harris, Erica; Taylor, Marcus K
A wealth of research has examined psychological responses to trauma among male military service members, but few studies have examined sex differences in response to trauma, such as coping strategies. This study assessed coping strategies used by male and female U.S. service members completing an intensely stressful mock-captivity exercise, compared strategies by sex, and assessed the relationship between coping and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Two hundred service members (78% male) completed self-report surveys before and after mock captivity. Surveys assessed demographics, service characteristics, PTSS, and coping strategies used during mock captivity. Participants used seven coping strategies: denial, self-blame, religion, self-distraction, behavioral disengagement, positive reframing, and planning. Women used denial (p?.05), self-blame (p?.05), and positive reinterpretation (p?.05) strategies more frequently than men, and they had higher PTSS levels following the exercise. Structural equation modeling showed that the relationship between sex and PTSS was fully mediated by coping strategies. The results of this study suggest that reducing the use of maladaptive coping strategies may mitigate PTSS among females. Future efforts should target improving coping during highly stressful and traumatic experiences. PMID:25465883
Jannone, Laura; O'Connell, Kathleen A.
The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by teens as they attempted to quit smoking. The teens were attending a school-based cessation program titled "Quit 2 Win" that was offered in four high schools. This study examined situations in which teens were tempted to smoke. The study compares coping strategies teens reported in
Kampfe, Charlene M.; Smith, Mae S.; Manyibe, Edward O.; Sales, Amos P.; Moore, Susan F.
This study investigated coping strategies used by distance master's level student interns from one rehabilitation counseling program. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference among five coping strategies. Post hoc comparisons showed that interns used problem-focused and seeking social support more frequently than self-blame, wishful
Christian Haag, Kristensen; Luiziana Souto, Schaefer; Fernanda de Bastani, Busnello.
Full Text Available As estratégias de coping são orientadas para a redução do stress, envolvendo reações físicas ou emocionais. O objetivo geral deste estudo foi identificar estratégias de coping utilizadas por adolescentes diante de eventos estressores, bem como a manifestação de sintomas de stress. Participaram da pe [...] squisa 220 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, provenientes de uma escola da rede pública de Porto Alegre (RS). Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Inventário de Estratégias de Coping e a Escala de Stress Infantil. Os resultados demonstraram que as estratégias mais utilizadas foram autocontrole, afastamento e fuga e esquiva. Entre os indivíduos que apresentaram mais sintomas de stress, as estratégias mais utilizadas foram fuga e esquiva, suporte social, confronto e afastamento. Abstract in english Coping strategies are directed towards the reduction of stress, involving physical or emotional reactions. The overall aim of this study was to identify coping strategies among adolescents exposed to stressful events. Two-hundred and twenty adolescents, ages of 12 and 18 years, male and female, stud [...] ying in a public school in Porto Alegre (RS), took part of this research. The instruments used were the Coping Strategies Inventory, the Child Stress Scale and school grades. It was found that the coping strategies most frequently employed were Self-control, Withdrawal and Escape-Avoidance. Amongst adolescents with the greatest number of stress-related symptoms, the most frequent coping strategies were Escape-Avoidance, Social Support, Confrontation and Withdrawal.
Vivan, Analise de Souza; Argimon, Irani Iracema de Lima
The aim of this study was to analyze the strategies used by elderly people to cope with functional difficulties, and to investigate a possible association between such strategies and variables like depressive symptoms, gender, schooling, marital status, and self-perceived health. 103 institutionalized elderly individuals participated in the study. They required assistance for at least one activity of daily living. The study was cross-sectional and used the following indicators: Personal Data Chart, Activities of Daily Living Scale, Modified Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Mini-Mental Examination, Coping Strategies Inventory, and Geriatric Depression Scale. The most widely used coping strategies in the sample were self-control and problem solving. Significant associations were found between schooling and depression. The findings suggest that assessing coping strategies for stressful events can assist analysis of the situation and appropriate adaptation of the chosen strategies, so as to foster changes within the medical context. PMID:19219251
This national survey of 1,201 kindergarten through Grade-12-U.S. teachers focused on three related areas: (1) sources of teacher stress, (2) manifestations of stress, and (3) suggested coping strategies. The survey instrument was adapted from the Teacher Stress Inventory and the Coping Scale for Adults. Results indicated that teachers nationwide
Bahtiyar Eraslan Çapan
Full Text Available This study aims to explore how teacher candidates cope with stress according to their gender, age, and major. The data for the study was collected via a personal information form and the Multidimensional Intimate Coping Questionnaire (MICQ with the participation of 307 university students, 183 female (59.6 % and 124 male (40.4. To analyze the data, for the gender and age variables an independent samples t-test, and for the major variable, a one-way ANOVA test was utilized. The results revealed that there was a significant difference in the gender variable in the subscales of Negative and Passive Coping?, Seeking External Support? and Belief in Religion? subscale for the female students. The difference was significant for the male students in the subscale of Use of Alcohol and Drugs?. Also, according to the age variable, the difference was again significant for the participants between the ages of 23 and 31 in the subscale of Positive and Active Coping? and Supporting Oneself?. Moreover, there was a significant difference major variable in the subscales of Denial/Mental Disengagement? for special education students, and Belief in Religion ? subscale for students in science departments. As a result of the study, teacher candidates should be aware of the existing and potential stress sources and problems, and also the problems they will face in their profession. In addition, they should be equipped with the necessary skills to be able to cope with those factors effectively.
Gilbert, Jenelle N.; Gilbert, Wade; Morawski, Cynthia
This article discusses the various sources of athlete stress and the strategies that coaches can use to help young athletes cope with it. The information is based on a study with a competitive adolescent soccer team and its two coaches, and a review of the coaching and sport psychology literature. The suggested coaching strategies can help to
This study investigates the hypothesis that the process of coping may be motivated by an interaction of directional motivational factors represented by job satisfaction/dissatisfaction and by non-directional or epistemological motivational factors represented by the level of Need for Cognitive Closure. Need for Cognitive Closure is based on two general tendencies: the urgency tendency (?to seize?) and the permanency tendency (to freeze?). More specifically, we predicted that if job satisfacti...
Azriani Abdul Rahman
Full Text Available Introduction: In the process of growing, adolescents experience stress and their coping abilities determine the outcome. School training further adds to this stressful situation. It is noteworthy that persistently high stress levels will impair students academic achievement, personal and professional development. This article describes the prevalence of stress, stressors and coping strategies among secondary school students in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on secondary school students in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Secondary school and participant selections were done via stratified random sampling with a sample size of 505 students. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Secondary School Stressors Questionnaire (3SQ and Brief COPE inventory were self-administered to measure stress level, sources of stress and coping strategies respectively among the participants. Results: Out of 505 selected participants, 421 (83.36% responded to this survey. This study found that the prevalence of distressed secondary school students was 32.8%. The major stressors for all types of schools were academic-related issues. This study showed that the students in technical school were more distressed than students elsewhere. Among the most frequent coping strategies used by the students were religion, positive reinterpretation, use of instrumental support, active coping and planning. There were relationships between intrapersonal and interpersonal related stressor, academic achievements, level of school and academic related stressor, attention from parent, behavioral disengagement, self-blame and planning coping strategies with stress level of the students. Conclusion: This study found that there was a high prevalence of distressed negatively stressed secondary school students, the major stressors were related to academic and contributing factors of stress were related to school training, students and parents. Training students on positive coping strategies, reducing stressor-related school training, and improving parent and teacher supports to the students will help to improve this condition.Key Words: Secondary school students, stressors, stress, coping, mental health
Lu, Dong-Mei; Sun, Ning; Hong, Su; Fan, Yu-Ying; Kong, Fan-Ying; Li, Qiu-Jie
Emergency department(ED) nurses work in a rapidly changing environment with patients that have wide variety of conditions. Occupational stress in emergency department nurses is a common problem. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between coping strategies and occupational stress among ED nurses in China. A correlational, cross-sectional design was adopted. Two questionnaires were given to a random sample of 127 ED nurses registered at the Heilongjiang Nurses' Association. Data were collected from the nurses that worked in the ED of five general hospitals in Harbin China. Occupational stress and coping strategies were measured by two questionnaires. A multiple regression model was applied to analyze the relationship between stress and coping strategies. The stressors of ED nurses mainly come from the ED specialty of nursing (2.97±0.55), workload and time distribution (2.97±0.58). The mean score of positive coping strategies was 2.19±0.35, higher than the norm (1.78±0.52). The mean score of negative coping strategies was 1.20±0.61, lower than the norm (1.59±0.66), both had significant statistical difference (Pnurses were the influential factors on occupational stress to negative coping styles. This study identified several factors associated with occupational stress in ED nurses. These results could be used to guide nurse managers of ED nurses to reduce work stress. The managers could pay more attention to the ED nurse's coping strategies which can further influence their health state and quality of nursing care. Reducing occupational stress and enhancing coping strategies are vital not only for encouraging nurses but also for the future of nursing development. PMID:26165974
Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Mertz, Ole
Climate variability is an important stress factor for rural livelihoods in most developing countries where households have been adapting to environmental shocks for decades. Climate change results in increased variability and poses new challenges for rural livelihoods, as well as for policymakers in adjusting policies to changing conditions. This paper examines the potential relationships between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2,700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. The results show that rainfall patterns in the region are very location-specific and that the distribution of household reported harvest shocks differs significantly between districts and correspond to the observed variability in local climate patterns. Coping strategies are focused on spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets. There are no large differences in applied coping strategies across the region, but district-level data demonstrate how local strategies differ between localities within the districts. The results emphasize that in order to target rural policies and make them efficient, it is important to take into account the local conditions that rural households face when experiencing climate-related shocks. Finally, shocks reported by households appear to correspond well with observed variability in rainfall patterns.
Masefako A. Gumani
Full Text Available Orientation: Identification of the inner coping strategies used by South African Police Service (SAPS officers who do operational work is something the SAPS should consider to ensure the officers management of trauma and efficiency at work.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to describe inner coping strategies used by officers in the Vhembe district (South Africa to reconstruct stressful and traumatic experiences at work.Motivation for the study: Most studies on coping amongst SAPS officers focus on organisational stress and not on the impact of the officers operational work.Research design, approach and method: An exploratory design was used and 20 SAPS officers were selected through purposive sampling. In-depth face-to-face and telephone interviews, as well as diaries were used to collect data, which were analysed using content thematic data analysis.Main findings: The results showed that the main categories of coping strategies that led to management of the impact of operational work amongst the selected sample were centred around problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies, with some use of reappraisal and minimal use of avoidance. Considering the context of the officers work, the list of dimensions of inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers should be extended.Practical/managerial implications: Intervention programmes designed for the SAPS, including critical incident stress debriefing, should take the operational officers inner strategies into account to improve the management of the impact of their work.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers, with special reference to operational work in a specific setting.
Masefako A., Gumani; Mattheus E., Fourie; Martin J., Terre Blanche.
Full Text Available ORIENTATION: Identification of the inner coping strategies used by South African Police Service (SAPS) officers who do operational work is something the SAPS should consider to ensure the officers' management of trauma and efficiency at work. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to desc [...] ribe inner coping strategies used by officers in the Vhembe district (South Africa) to reconstruct stressful and traumatic experiences at work. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Most studies on coping amongst SAPS officers focus on organisational I stress and not on the impact of the officers' operational work. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: An exploratory design was used and 20 SAPS officers were selected through purposive sampling. In-depth face-to-face and telephone interviews, as well as diaries were used to collect data, which were analysed using content thematic data analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed that the main categories of coping strategies that led to management of the impact of operational work amongst the selected sample were centred around problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies, with some use of reappraisal and minimal use of avoidance. Considering the context of the officers' work, the list of dimensions of inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers should be extended. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Intervention programmes designed for the SAPS, including critical incident stress debriefing, should take the operational officers' inner strategies into account to improve the management of the impact of their work. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers, with special reference to operational work in a specific setting.
Azriani Abdul Rahman; Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim; Nurul Shazwani Abdul Rahman; Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff; Amirah Hayati Ahmad Hamid; Nadia Rabiyah Rosli; Nor Ayuni Zakaria; Nur Adila Che Rameli
Introduction: In the process of growing, adolescents experience stress and their coping abilities determine the outcome. School training further adds to this stressful situation. It is noteworthy that persistently high stress levels will impair students academic achievement, personal and professional development. This article describes the prevalence of stress, stressors and coping strategies among secondary school students in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Methodology: A cross-sectio...
Simon Santana Diniz
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a relação entre fatores de personalidade e estratégias de coping em adolescentes. Participaram desta pesquisa 102 jovens de uma escola municipal de Goiânia com idade entre 11 e 15 anos, utilizando o Coping Response Inventory e a Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade. Os dados obtidos demonstraram que meninas utilizam mais a análise lógica para resolver seus problemas e os meninos apresentam maior pontuação em neuroticismo; que os adolescentes mais jovens utilizam mais coping de evitação e os mais velhos, o coping de aproximação; e que tanto a apreciação do problema como os traços de personalidade relacionam-se significativamente com o uso de estratégias de coping. Os resultados são discutidos de acordo com as teorias de coping.The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality factors and coping strategies in adolescents. 102 students from a municipal school in Goiânia aged between 11 and 15 years old was assessed using Coping Response Inventory and the "Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade". Data showed that girls use more logical analysis to solve their problems and that boys had higher scores on neuroticism; that younger adolescents use more avoidance coping responses and older ones use more approach coping responses; and that both coping appraisal and personality traits are significantly related to the use of coping strategies. The results are discussed according to coping theories.
China has entered into a new stage of demographic dynamics whereby population-related challenges are more complicated than ever before. The current one-child policy should be modified. However, the anticipated impacts of such a policy change should not be over-exaggerated. China's demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy.
Vilnius : Advertising comp, 2009. s. 44-44. ISBN 978-609-95098-0-8. [European conference on Developmental Psychology /14./. 18.08.2009-22.08.2009, Vilnius] R&D Projects: GA ?R 406/09/2096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : coping strategies * personality factors * physical disability * early adolescence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Ejionueme, L. K.; Ugwoke, S. C.; Etonyeaku, E. A. C.; Anyanwu, J. I.
Retirement is another phase of life. It is neither occupational death nor physical death. This study investigated principals' perception of the strategies to cope with retirement. One research question and one hypothesis guided the study. The sample for the study was 259 principals in Anambra state schools. Questionnaire was the instrument for the
Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Carson, Russell L.; Apavaloaie, Loredana; Tsouloupas, Costas
The purpose of this study was to identify the common stress factors among childcare providers and the coping strategies they use to relieve work stress feelings throughout the day. Qualitative data was gathered from a random sample of ten local childcare providers across different races, years of experience, and licensed childcare centers who
Flávia Pereira da Costa
Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, which are the coping strategies used and the relation between type of coping, voice symptoms and communicative aspects. Method: 73 subjects, 33 in the experimental group, with diagnosis of PD, and 40 subjects in the control group, healthy and without vocal complaints. They underwent the following procedures: application of the Voice Symptons Scale VoiSS Brazilian Version, Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire VDCQ Brazilian Version, and the questionnaire Living with Dysarthria LwD. Results: The experimental group showed deviations in all protocols: VDCQ (p<0.001, VoiSS (p<0.001, LwD (p<0.001. The most frequently used coping strategy was self-control (p<0.001. The correlation between vocal symptoms and communicative aspects showed that the greater the impairment in communication, the greater the VoiSS emotional scores and the greater will be the amount of voice symptoms and signs. However, the vocal signs and symptoms and communicative aspects showed no correlation with coping. Conclusion: Patients with PD have a high amount of vocal signs and symptoms and the higher the occurrence, the more the patient reports being difficult to live with dysarthria, particularly when there are deviations in the emotional domain.
Sheila Gonçalves Câmara
Full Text Available Este estudo avalia a associação entre bem-estar psicológico e estratégias de coping nos gêneros masculino e feminino, bem como o perfil diferencial destas entre os gêneros. A amostra foi composta de 389 jovens, estudantes do terceiro ano do ensino médio de escolas de diferentes regiões de Porto Alegre. Os resultados evidenciam que as meninas, ao assumirem uma postura ativa na resolução dos problemas, apresentam maior bem-estar psicológico. Já os meninos apresentam melhor bem-estar na medida em que buscam pertença e procuram amigos íntimos e ajuda profissional. A análise do perfil diferencial entre os gêneros em relação às estratégias de coping nos permite identificar uma função discriminante composta por 9 variáveis, que se distribuem diferencialmente de acordo com a utilização de estratégias referentes a papéis de gênero socialmente construídos.Este estudio evalúa la asociación entre bienestar psicológico y estrategias de afrontamiento (coping en los géneros masculino y femenino, así como el perfil diferencial de éstas entre los géneros. La muestra se compuso de 389 jóvenes, estudiantes de la enseñanza secundaria de la ciudad de Porto Alegre. Los resultados evidencian que las chicas, al asumir una postura activa en la resolución de los problemas, presentan mayor bienestar psicológico. Los chicos, a su vez, presentan mejor bienestar a la medida que buscan pertenencia y buscan amigos íntimos y ayuda profesional. El análisis del perfil diferencial entre los géneros, con relación a las estrategias de afrontamiento (coping permite identificar una función discriminante, compuesta por 9 variables que se distribuyen diferencialmente, según la utilización de estrategias referentes a roles de género socialmente construidos.The association between psychological well-being and coping strategies in males and females and the differential profile between the genders are evaluated. Sample comprised 389 final year upper junior school young people from different regions in Porto Alegre RS Brazil. Results show young women with a high psychological well-being when they take on an active stance in problem resolution. On the other hand, young men demonstrate a high well-being when they seek a state of belonging, intimate relationships and professional help. Differential profile analysis between genders with regard to coping strategies identifies a discriminating function composed of nine variables. The latter are distributed differentially according to use of strategies involving socially built gender roles.
Sheila Gonçalves, Câmara; Mary Sandra, Carlotto.
Full Text Available Este estudo avalia a associação entre bem-estar psicológico e estratégias de coping nos gêneros masculino e feminino, bem como o perfil diferencial destas entre os gêneros. A amostra foi composta de 389 jovens, estudantes do terceiro ano do ensino médio de escolas de diferentes regiões de Porto Aleg [...] re. Os resultados evidenciam que as meninas, ao assumirem uma postura ativa na resolução dos problemas, apresentam maior bem-estar psicológico. Já os meninos apresentam melhor bem-estar na medida em que buscam pertença e procuram amigos íntimos e ajuda profissional. A análise do perfil diferencial entre os gêneros em relação às estratégias de coping nos permite identificar uma função discriminante composta por 9 variáveis, que se distribuem diferencialmente de acordo com a utilização de estratégias referentes a papéis de gênero socialmente construídos. Abstract in spanish Este estudio evalúa la asociación entre bienestar psicológico y estrategias de afrontamiento (coping) en los géneros masculino y femenino, así como el perfil diferencial de éstas entre los géneros. La muestra se compuso de 389 jóvenes, estudiantes de la enseñanza secundaria de la ciudad de Porto Ale [...] gre. Los resultados evidencian que las chicas, al asumir una postura activa en la resolución de los problemas, presentan mayor bienestar psicológico. Los chicos, a su vez, presentan mejor bienestar a la medida que buscan pertenencia y buscan amigos íntimos y ayuda profesional. El análisis del perfil diferencial entre los géneros, con relación a las estrategias de afrontamiento (coping) permite identificar una función discriminante, compuesta por 9 variables que se distribuyen diferencialmente, según la utilización de estrategias referentes a roles de género socialmente construidos. Abstract in english The association between psychological well-being and coping strategies in males and females and the differential profile between the genders are evaluated. Sample comprised 389 final year upper junior school young people from different regions in Porto Alegre RS Brazil. Results show young women with [...] a high psychological well-being when they take on an active stance in problem resolution. On the other hand, young men demonstrate a high well-being when they seek a state of belonging, intimate relationships and professional help. Differential profile analysis between genders with regard to coping strategies identifies a discriminating function composed of nine variables. The latter are distributed differentially according to use of strategies involving socially built gender roles.
The main problem of my master thesis was to research strategies for coping with the learning failure of Slovene primary school pupils and to explore the relation between these strategies and causal attributions for failure as well as motivation and goal achievement. In the theoretical part I dealt with the problem of pupils learning failure. The content refers to the interpretation of the concept of school failure and the factors that lead to it. Stress caused by failure, is one of the mo...
Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim
Coping is a dynamic physiological and psychological process in response to perceived environmental stress that functions to restore physiological homeostasis and reduce negative affect . Thematic content analysis was employed for references to 13 well-established coping strategies in interviews with 20 retired long-duration male cosmonauts. As in previous research with other space samples [2,3] the retired cosmonauts mentioned Problem-Oriented strategies more frequently than Emotion-Oriented ones. In the present sample, Seeking Social Support, Planful Problem Solving and Endurance/Obedience/Effort were the top three most mentioned coping strategies. Cosmonauts who had spent more than a year in space, compared to those who had spent less than a year, mentioned using Planful Problem Solving more as they recalled their career and retirement. Examining changes over time, spaceflight had a positive effect on Accepting Responsibility. Endurance/Obedience/Effort steadily decreased over time, while we found an inverted-U pattern for Distancing and Self-Control. Additional results in relation to other astronaut samples and the relationship between coping and post-flight growth are discussed.
Full Text Available The study was carried out in Mberengwa Ward 12, which is characterised by erratic and inadequate rainfall. Drought frequency is very high occurring at a rate of four in every five years. The main purpose of this research was to establish the drought coping strategies that are in place and to establish their effectiveness. The data was collected from informants through questionnaires, group discussions and special interviews with key persons. Drought coping strategies which were identified included responses to production, consumption, food storage, income generating assets and livestock management. External assistance from the Government, NGOs and migration complimented these strategies. From the results it is recommended that there is need to develop effective coping mechanisms based on risk minimization such as utilisation of indigenous food sources and growing of drought tolerant crops not only in this ward but in other areas with similar environment and climate.
Full Text Available Background: Recent research has emphasized the importance of coping. There is virtually nothing known about coping strategies and their relationship with self-esteem, individual and environmental factors among Chinese female nursing students. This study was to identify different coping strategies, the relationship between coping and self-esteem and influencing individual factors among Chinese female students in different years of nursing school. Method: The study used a cross-sectional design. A representative sample composed of 686 female nursing students aged 14 years or older was surveyed in December 2010 using the Simplified Coping Styles Questionnaire, the Self-Esteem Scale and the Personal Data Form for assessment. Results: Nursing students more often used positive rather than negative coping styles (P?0.001. There was significant difference in the positive coping between nursing students in different years of school (P=0.018. The positive coping style was significantly correlated to a higher level of self-esteem, good interpersonal relationships, enough free time for study alone, a sense of self-fulfillment and satisfaction, adaptation to new study methods, close friendships, help-seeking behavior of an individual, and physical health in the past year (P?0.05. The negative coping style was significantly associated with problems in romantic relationship, relationship with parents, worry about examinations and job assignment after graduation, feeling misunderstood, and frequent surfing on the internet (P?0.05. Conclusion: There were different coping strategies and the important relationship between self-esteem, individual and environmental factors and coping strategies among Chinese female nursing students in different years of school. The teaching strategies that promote the self-esteem and pay more attention to students individual and environmental factors will be useful for helping nursing students develop effective coping styles.
Desarrollo de un nuevo cuestionario para medir las estrategias que las personas con VIH usan para afrontar el estigma y la discriminación / Development of a new questionnaire to measure coping strategies to stigma and discrimination in people with HIV
María José, Fuster Ruiz de Apodaca; Fernando, Molero; Francisco Pablo, Holgado Tello; Eneko, Sansinenea.
Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo elaborar un cuestionario para medir las estrategias que las personas con VIH usan para afrontar el estigma. Se partió para su desarrollo del modelo de Compas et al. (2001) sobre el estrés y su afrontamiento. Para ello, en primer lugar, y con la finalidad de obtener e [...] videncias de validez de contenido, se realizó un estudio cualitativo. Este estudio, se realizaron 40 entrevistas en profundidad a personas con VIH para conocer que estrategias usaban estas personas para afrontar el estigma y la discriminación. A partir de las categorías halladas en el análisis del contenido de las entrevistas, se diseñaron los ítems de la escala. Se seleccionaron los más relevantes por un grupo de jueces expertos. En segundo lugar, se llevó a cabo un estudio cuantitativo de carácter correlacional ex post-facto en el que se realizó una primera aproximación a la estructura factorial del cuestionario. En este estudio participaron 557 personas con VIH. Los resultados de esta investigación han mostrado que las personas con VIH utilizan una variedad de estrategias de afrontamiento tanto de Control Primario, como Secundario y de Evitación. Conocerlas abre la puerta al diseño de intervenciones para capacitar a las personas con VIH para afrontar el estigma y la discriminación. Abstract in english The main objective of this study is developing an instrument to measure the coping strategies to stigma that are used by persons with HIV. The Compas et al. (2001) model is used as framework. Firstly, in order to obtain content validity evidences, a qualitative study was carried out. Forty deeply in [...] terviews were done to persons with HIV to obtain data about which stigma and discrimination coping strategies were usually used. A content analysis of the interviews allows us to detect the main categories, and then we designed the items of the scale. Secondly, a correlational ex post-facto study was done to obtain a preliminary approximation about the factorial structure of the questionnaire. This study included the answers of 552 persons with HIV. The results show that the persons with HIV usually used a wide range of coping strategies (primary and secondary control, and avoidance). To know these coping strategies open the door to designed intervention programs to coping the stigma and discrimination.
Full Text Available Abstract Background College students are prone to stress due to the transitional nature of college life. High levels of stress are believed to affect students' health and academic functions. If the stress is not dealt with effectively, feelings of loneliness, nervousness, sleeplessness and worrying may result. Effective coping strategies facilitate the return to a balanced state, reducing the negative effects of stress. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed to determine sources of stress and coping strategies in nursing students studying at the Iran Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery. All undergraduate nursing students enrolled in years 1-4 during academic year 2004-2005 were included in this study, with a total of 366 questionnaires fully completed by the students. The Student Stress Survey and the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Inventory (ACOPE were used for data collection. Results Most students reported "finding new friends" (76.2%, "working with people they did not know" (63.4% as interpersonal sources of stress, "new responsibilities" (72.1%, "started college" (65.8% as intrapersonal sources of stress more than others. The most frequent academic source of stress was "increased class workload" (66.9% and the most frequent environmental sources of stress were being "placed in unfamiliar situations" (64.2% and "waiting in long lines" (60.4%. Interpersonal and environmental sources of stress were reported more frequently than intrapersonal and academic sources. Mean interpersonal (P=0.04 and environmental (P=0.04 sources of stress were significantly greater in first year than in fourth year students. Among coping strategies in 12 areas, the family problem solving strategies, "trying to reason with parents and compromise" (73% and "going along with family rules" (68% were used "often or always" by most students. To cope with engaging in demanding activity, students often or always used "trying to figure out how to deal with problems" (66.4% and "trying to improve themselves" (64.5%. The self-reliance strategy, "trying to make their own decisions" (62%; the social support strategies, "apologizing to people" (59.6%, "trying to help other people solve their problems" (56.3%, and "trying to keep up friendships or make new friends" (54.4%; the spiritual strategy, "praying" (65.8%; the seeking diversions strategy, "listening to music" (57.7%, the relaxing strategy "day dreaming" (52.5%, and the effort to "be close with someone cares about you" (50.5% were each used "often or always" by a majority of students. Most students reported that the avoiding strategies "smoking" (93.7% and "drinking beer or wine" (92.9%, the ventilating strategies "saying mean things to people" and "swearing" (85.8%, the professional support strategies "getting professional counseling" (74.6% and "talking to a teacher or counselor" (67.2% and the humorous strategy "joking and keeping a sense of humor" (51.9% were used "seldom or never". Conclusion First year nursing students are exposed to a variety of stressors. Establishing a student support system during the first year and improving it throughout nursing school is necessary to equip nursing students with effective coping skills. Efforts should include counseling helpers and their teachers, strategies that can be called upon in these students' future nursing careers.
Storm, K; S. Rothmann
The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between burnout, personality traits and coping strategies. A survey design was used. The study population consisted of 131 employees in a corporate pharmaceutical group. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, NEO Personality Inventory Revised and COPE were administered. Active coping strategies were associated with Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness, while passive coping strategies were assoc...
Na, Hyunjoo; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang
The study's purpose was to explore whether frequency of cyberbullying victimization, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies were associated with psychological adjustments among college student cyberbullying victims. A convenience sample of 121 students completed questionnaires. Linear regression analyses found frequency of cyberbullying victimization, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies respectively explained 30%, 30%, and 27% of the variance in depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. Frequency of cyberbullying victimization and approach and avoidance coping strategies were associated with psychological adjustments, with avoidance coping strategies being associated with all three psychological adjustments. Interventions should focus on teaching cyberbullying victims to not use avoidance coping strategies. PMID:26001714
Lynch, Jean Margaret
This study identifies the negative effects of bullying behaviour on thirty people in their place of work. Personality differences between participants in the study who claim to have been bullied and a matched control group, and the coping strategies employed in stressful periods were sought. Possible individual and organisational antecedents to bullying were identified. In addition, to using psychometric measures to obtain quantitative data the findings were enriched by including qualitative ...
Viken, Berit; Lyberg, Anne; Severinsson, Elisabeth
The aim of the study was to explore the maternal health coping strategies of migrant women in Norway. The ethnic and cultural background of the Norwegian population have become increasingly diverse. A challenge in practice is to adjust maternal health services to migrant women's specific needs. Previous studies have revealed that migrant women have difficulty achieving safe pregnancies and childbirths. Data were obtained by means of 17 semistructured interviews with women from South America, ...
O'DWYER, CIARA MARY; TIMONEN, VIRPI
Insights into daily living in residential care settings are rare. This article draws on a qualitative dataset (semi-structured interviews and recordings of residents council meetings) that gives a glimpse of the experiences and coping strategies of (older) people living in residential care. The data highlights the range of unmet needs of the residents, similar to the categories of physiological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualisation needs in Maslows hierarchy of needs theory. Our anal...
Hagani Hamid; Tafreshi Maryam; Seyedfatemi Naiemeh
Abstract Background College students are prone to stress due to the transitional nature of college life. High levels of stress are believed to affect students' health and academic functions. If the stress is not dealt with effectively, feelings of loneliness, nervousness, sleeplessness and worrying may result. Effective coping strategies facilitate the return to a balanced state, reducing the negative effects of stress. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed to determine...
Rao, Kiran; Subbakrishna, D. K.; Prabhu, G.G.
The development of an easy-to-administer, comprehensive coping checklist in English is reported. Initial try-out on 60 neurotics and 60 normals indicated that coping behaviours were differentially used by the two groups.
Malau-Aduli Bunmi S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have addressed the challenges that international medical students face and there is a dearth of information on the behavioural strategies these students adopt to successfully progress through their academic program in the face of substantial difficulties of language barrier, curriculum overload, financial constraints and assessment tasks that require high proficiency in communication skills. Methods This study was designed primarily with the aim of enhancing understanding of the coping strategies, skill perceptions and knowledge of assessment expectations of international students as they progress through the third and fourth years of their medical degree at the School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Australia. Results Survey, focus group discussion and individual interviews revealed that language barriers, communication skills, cultural differences, financial burdens, heavy workloads and discriminatory bottlenecks were key factors that hindered their adaptation to the Australian culture. Quantitative analyses of their examination results showed that there were highly significant (p Conclusions Despite the challenges, these students have adopted commendable coping strategies and progressed through the course largely due to their high sense of responsibility towards their family, their focus on the goal of graduating as medical doctors and their support networks. It was concluded that faculty needs to provide both academic and moral support to their international medical students at three major intervention points, namely point of entry, mid way through the course and at the end of the course to enhance their coping skills and academic progression. Finally, appropriate recommendations were made.
Peters-Guarin, Graciela; McCall, Michael K; van Westen, Cees
The accumulated knowledge and perceptions of communities 'at risk' are key elements in managing disaster risk at the local level. This paper demonstrates that local knowledge of flood hazards can be structured systematically into geographic information system (GIS) outputs. When combined with forecasting models and risk scenarios, they strengthen the legitimacy of local knowledge of at-risk populations. This is essential for effective disaster risk reduction practices by external actors, local non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and municipal authorities. The research focused on understanding coping strategies and 'manageability' of flood hazards as defined by communities. 'Manageability' is how people experience flooding in relation to their household capacity and the coping mechanisms available. The research in the Philippines highlights the significance of localised factors, including socioeconomic resources, livelihoods, seasonality and periodicity, for understanding manageability. The manageability concept improves practice at the municipal level by legitimising local coping strategies, providing better indicators, and developing understanding of flooding as a recurrent threat. PMID:21702892
Glidden, L. M.; Natcher, A. L.
Background: Parents rearing children with developmental disabilities encounter stressors that require coping and adaptation. In Glidden et al. 2006, the use of problem-focused coping strategies was more often associated with positive adjustment outcomes than was the use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and parental personality was shown to
Renk, Kimberly; Creasey, Gary
Examines the relationships among gender, gender identity, and coping in late adolescents. Females endorsed greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies than males. Late adolescents who were high in masculinity endorsed higher levels of problem-focused coping strategies. Overall, gender identity made an important and independent contribution to
Viken, Berit; Lyberg, Anne; Severinsson, Elisabeth
The aim of the study was to explore the maternal health coping strategies of migrant women in Norway. The ethnic and cultural background of the Norwegian population have become increasingly diverse. A challenge in practice is to adjust maternal health services to migrant women's specific needs. Previous studies have revealed that migrant women have difficulty achieving safe pregnancies and childbirths. Data were obtained by means of 17 semistructured interviews with women from South America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. Qualitative content analysis was employed. One overall theme is as follows: keeping original traditions while at the same time being willing to integrate into Norwegian society, and four themes emerged as follows: balancing their sense of belongingness; seeking information and support from healthcare professionals; being open to new opportunities and focusing on feeling safe in the new country. The results were interpreted in the light of Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. To provide quality care, healthcare professionals should focus on the development of migrant women's capabilities. Adaptation of maternal health services for culturally diverse migrant women also requires a culturally sensitive approach on the part of healthcare professionals. PMID:25866676
Viken, Berit; Lyberg, Anne
The aim of the study was to explore the maternal health coping strategies of migrant women in Norway. The ethnic and cultural background of the Norwegian population have become increasingly diverse. A challenge in practice is to adjust maternal health services to migrant women's specific needs. Previous studies have revealed that migrant women have difficulty achieving safe pregnancies and childbirths. Data were obtained by means of 17 semistructured interviews with women from South America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. Qualitative content analysis was employed. One overall theme is as follows: keeping original traditions while at the same time being willing to integrate into Norwegian society, and four themes emerged as follows: balancing their sense of belongingness; seeking information and support from healthcare professionals; being open to new opportunities and focusing on feeling safe in the new country. The results were interpreted in the light of Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. To provide quality care, healthcare professionals should focus on the development of migrant women's capabilities. Adaptation of maternal health services for culturally diverse migrant women also requires a culturally sensitive approach on the part of healthcare professionals. PMID:25866676
Coban, Aysel Esen
Problem Statement: Adolescence is a stage of major growth and development in terms of significant cognitive, behavioral, psychological, and physiological changes. For adolescents, these developmental changes could be accompanied by stressful situations. Adolescents need to cope with these stressors successfully, yet the developmental period of
Wanderley de, Paula Júnior; Daniela Sacramento, Zanini.
Full Text Available Este estudo analisa estresse, estratégias de coping, resiliência e bem-estar subjetivo em pacientes oncológicos em tratamento radioterápico. Sessenta pessoas, com idades entre 26 a 82 anos (20 homens e 40 mulheres) responderam as escalas de Bem-Estar Subjetivo, Inventário de Resiliência e de Sintoma [...] s de Estresse e Coping Response Inventory - Adult Form (CRI-A). Os resultados apontam que o uso da estratégia de coping direta esteve associado a nível mais elevado de resiliência e afeto positivo, enquanto o uso da estratégia de evitação pode aumentar a percepção de afeto negativo e diminuir o relato de afeto positivo. Conclui-se que as estratégias de coping podem interferir no bem-estar subjetivo e podem estabelecer relação significativa com fatores de resiliência em paciente oncológico em radioterapia. Abstract in english This study analyzes stress, coping strategies, resilience and subjective well-being of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Sixty subjects, between 26 to 82 years old (20 man and 40 woman), answered the Subjective Well-Being Scale, the Resilience and the Stress Symptoms Inventory and the Coping [...] Response Inventory - Adult Form (CRI-A). The results showed that the use of approach coping strategies is associated with a higher level of resilience and with positive affect, while using avoidant coping strategies can lead to an increased perception of negative affect and to a lower report of positive affect. The results of this study suggest that coping strategies are related to resilience factors and can interfere with the subjective well-being of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment.
Timonen, Virpi; O'Dwyer, Ciara
Insights into daily living in residential care settings are rare. This article draws on a qualitative dataset (semi-structured interviews and recordings of residents' council meetings) that gives a glimpse of the experiences and coping strategies of (older) people living in residential care. The data highlight the range of unmet needs of the residents, similar to the categories of physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization needs in Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. Our analysis indicates that "higher" and "lower" needs are closely intertwined and mutually reinforcing and should therefore be accorded equal emphasis by professionals (including social workers) employed within residential care settings. PMID:19860294
Andersen, John; Larsen, JØrgen Elm
During the last decade the social assistance system in Denmark was been changed and become less generous. One important indication of this trend is that the social assistance benefit level was reduced to a lower level after 6 months. Furthermore the workfare obligations for social claiments (e.g. in terms of participation in job training schemes and a requirement? of a certain minimum amount ( app 3 months ) of employment in the open labour market has increased. The arguments in the policy discource has been that lower benefits increases motivation and realistic, rational jobseeking behavior. In short: lower benefit levels increases motivation which in turn increases labour market inclusion. This paper presents empirical results from an ongoing research project ( Consequences of living on the lowest social benefits financed by the Danish Social Council (Rådet for Socialt Udsatte) ,2008-2011) about living conditions and how Danish citizens on the lowest benefits coped with their life situation.The longitudinal data followed the long term receivers of social assistance respondents over 1 year in order to observe changes in (selvreported) health, living conditions and coping strategies The data consisted of 2 national surveys as well as 2 series of qualitative interviews with citizens on social assistance Among other things the respondents were about what they regarded as the most important barriers for improving their labour market and income position. A clear majority of the citizens responded that the reduction of their social assistance benefits after 3 months had reduced their mental health and not improved their social energy for job seeking. These results support the idea that lower benefits has a negative impact on active coping for labour market inclusion. A huge parts of the respondents reported that bad health including mental health - was the dominant barrier for active coping with their life situation. The results indicates that the present employment and social policy measures should have a much stronger focus on capacity building with regard mental health for citizens on the lowest social benefits
Helgeson, Jennifer F.; Simon Dietz; Stefan Hochrainer-Stigler
When a natural disaster hits, the affected households try to cope with its impacts. A variety of coping strategies, from reducing current consumption to disposing of productive assets, may be employed. The latter strategies are especially worrisome because they may reduce the capacity of the household to generate income in the future, possibly leading to chronic poverty. We used the results of a household survey in rural Uganda to ask, first, what coping strategies would tend to be employed i...
This qualitative study of a community sample of 196 African American women aimed to identify the coping strategies that Black women use to manage the stress of racism and sexism. The findings reveal that they use multiple resistance strategies: (a) three ongoing internal coping strategies (resting on faith--relying on prayer and spirituality;
Kowalski, Evan; Chung, Kevin C
Pierre-Auguste Renoir was one of the most influential painters in art history, but few people know that he suffered from debilitating rheumatoid arthritis. Despite his arthritis, he was able to maintain an incredible level of precision and efficiency with his painting. More importantly, he remained positive and did not let his condition affect his passion for painting or take away from the beauty that he saw in the world around him. Renoir applied a wide variety of coping mechanisms and used his ingenuity to come up with different ways to continue painting even as his arthritis weakened him. Renoir's long battle with rheumatoid arthritis serves as an inspiration to patients who experience the pain and limited mobility associated with this disease, encouraging them to persevere and to develop coping mechanisms that prevent the effects of their impairment from disabling them. PMID:24294153
Van Lerberghe Wim
Full Text Available Health sector workers respond to inadequate salaries and working conditions by developing various individual "coping strategies" - some, but not all, of which are of a predatory nature. The paper reviews what is known about these practices and their potential consequences (competition for time, brain drain and conflicts of interest. By and large, governments have rarely been proactive in dealing with such problems, mainly because of their reluctance to address the issue openly. The effectiveness of many of these piecemeal reactions, particularly attempts to prohibit personnel from developing individual coping strategies, has been disappointing. The paper argues that a more proactive approach is required. Governments will need to recognize the dimension of the phenomenon and systematically assess the consequences of policy initiatives on the situation and behaviour of the individuals that make up their workforce.
Full Text Available The study explored the self-generated coping strategies employed by Muslim athletes from South East Asian region during the Ramadan fasting month. Sixty-five National elite Muslim athletes responded to an open-ended question on coping strategies employed during Ramadan fasting. Inductive content analysis identified five general dimensions from 54 meaning units which were abstracted into 14 first-order themes and 10 second order themes. The general dimension included four problem-focused coping: training modifications, dietary habits, psychological, rest and recovery, and one emotion-focused coping i.e., self- control. The coping strategies employed were diverse and dynamic in nature and no specific pattern was evident. The most frequently employed strategies were associated with training and dietary habits. Emotion focused coping was the least frequently used by the athletes
Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah
We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict. PMID:25695097
Douglas, M K; Meleis, A I; Eribes, C; Kim, S
Recruitment and retention of nursing personnel is a major problem in many parts of the world, particularly developing countries. Strategies for promoting job satisfaction can help reduce the costs of high turnover and increase the quality of patient care. As part of a larger international study on women's health, a convenience sample of 59 Mexican nursing assistants and technical nurses, categorized as auxiliary nurses, were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to elicit their perceived work-related stresses and satisfactions, as well as the coping strategies they utilized to diminish work-associated stress. Major satisfiers included self-fulfillment, providing service and working as a member of a team. Frequent stressors were interpersonal relations, "angustia" (anguish), work overload and the work environment. These auxiliary nursing personnel utilized problem-solving techniques, recreational activities, talking to family and friends and actively trying to relax themselves in order to cope with their work-related stress. PMID:8886900
Paulyane T.M. Gomes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the challenges faced by families caring for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD in Brazil and the coping strategies employed. SOURCES: Systematic review of articles published until September of 2013, without language restrictions, using quality appraisal (AMSTAR and CASP/Oxford instruments. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The literature shows parental emotional overload as one of the main challenges faced by families, especially mothers. The main stressors were diagnostic postponement, difficulty dealing with the diagnosis and associated symptoms, and poor access to health services and social support. The predominant coping strategies found included information exchange between affected families and integrated healthcare network for patient and family support. CONCLUSION: ASD exerts strong influence on family dynamics, resulting in caregiver overload, especially in mothers. The Brazilian Unified Health System needs to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to strengthen the patient-family dyad and promote the full development and societal inclusion of children with ASD.
Aazami, Sanaz; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah
We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of medi...
Gok Deniz; Musabak Ilgen; Tuncay Tarik; Kutlu Mustafa
Abstract Background This study provided essential information, about Turkish patients with type I and type II diabetes, concerning: levels of anxiety, coping strategies used, and relationships that exist among anxiety, coping strategies, sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Methods A sample comprising 161 Turkish adults with both types of diabetes participated in the study. The trait anxiety scale, the brief COPE, sociodemographic and medical questionnaire were administered to patien...
Rosa Maria Silva, Gomes; Anabela Maria Sousa, Pereira.
Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objectivo identificar os mecanismos de coping (estratégias para lidar com situações difíceis) utilizados por Educadores de Infância quando se encontram em situações de stresse, bem como estudar as características do respectivo instrumento de avaliação na versão Portuguesa [...] . A amostra é constituída por 247 Educadores de Infância (diplomados e em situação de estágio pedagógico) com idades compreendidas entre os 20 e os 57 anos de idade. Da Bateria Differential Stress Inventory (DSI), de Lefèvre e Kubinger (2004) foi utilizado o questionário Estratégias de Coping (EC) tipo Likert, adaptada para a população portuguesa por Gomes, Pereira e Gil (2006), revelando boas características psicométricas. Os principais resultados mostram que perante situações indutoras de stresse os Educadores de Infância utilizam mais as estratégias de coping focadas na emoção, do que as estratégias de coping focadas no problema. São referidas ainda algumas implicações deste estudo para a formação destes profissionais. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los mecanismos de coping (estrategias para lidiar con situaciones difíciles) utilizados por profesores infantiles cuando están en situación de stress, así como también estudiar las características del respectivo instrumento de evaluación en la versión Port [...] uguesa. La muestra es constituida por 247 profesores infantiles (diplomados y en situación de práctica pedagógica) con edades entre los 20 y los 57 años de edad. De la Bateria Differential Stress Inventory (DSI), de Lefèvre y Kubinger (2004) fue utilizado el cuestionario Estratégias de Coping (EC) tipo Likert, adaptada para la población portuguesa por Gomes, Pereira y Gil (2006), revelando buenas características psicométricas. Los resultados principales muestran que frente a situaciones incitadoras de stress los profesores infantiles utilizan más las estrategias de coping focalizadas en la emoción que las estrategias de coping focalizadas en el problema. Todavía, son mencionadas algunas implicaciones de este estudio para la formación de estos profesionales. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to identify the mechanisms of coping (strategies to deal with difficult situations) used by kindergarten Teachers when they face situations of stress, as well as to study respective characteristics of the used evaluation instrument in a Portuguese version. The sample is cons [...] tituted by 247 kindergarten teachers (graduated and training students) with ages between 20 and 57 years old. The Strategies of Coping (EC) likert type scale from the Differential Stress Inventory (DSI), of Lefèvre & Kubinger (2004) was adapted for the Portuguese population by Gomes, Pereira & Gil (2006), which revealed good psychometric characteristics. The main results show that kindergarten Teachers, when experiencing stress inducing situations, frequently appeal to coping strategies with focus in emotion, than based in the problem solving situation. Will be discussed further implications of this research to the professional training.
Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Kramer, Alexander
This article documents the coping strategies adopted by women victims of spousal violence in Pakistan. By drawing on 21 in-depth interviews conducted in Lahore and Sialkot (Pakistan), we found that the women tried to cope with violence by using various strategies, both emotion focused (e.g., use of religion, placating the husband, etc.) and
MacDonald, Elaine; Fitzsimons, Elaine; Walsh, Patricia Noonan
The study aimed to identify patterns of respite use and coping strategies among family caregivers in a region of Ireland. Firstly, we asked what child and family characteristics were associated with use of respite care. Secondly, we explored coping strategies reported by family carers. The study was undertaken with a view to informing respite
Wright, Mark; Banerjee, Robin; Hoek, Willemijn; Rieffe, Carolien; Novin, Sheida
Strategies that children use for coping with stressors are known to be related to emotional adjustment, but not enough is understood about specific links with social anxiety and depression. The present investigation tested differentiated associations of social anxiety and depression with specific types of coping strategies, and evaluated the
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between burnout, personality traits and coping strategies. A survey design was used. The study population consisted of 131 employees in a corporate pharmaceutical group. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, NEO Personality Inventory Revised and COPE were administered. Active coping strategies were associated with Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness, while passive coping strategies were associated with Neuroticism, low Agreeableness and low Conscientiousness. Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were associated with lower emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation and higher personal accomplishment. Constructive coping strategies were associated with personal accomplishment. Opsomming Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om te bepaal of daar n verband tussen uitbranding, persoonlikheidstrekke en coping-strategieë bestaan. n Opnameontwerp is gebruik. Die ondersoekgroep het bestaan uit 131 werknemers van n korporatiewe apteekgroep. Drie vraelyste is gebruik, naamlik die Maslach-Uitbrandingsvraelys, die NEO Personality Inventory Revised en die COPE. Aktiewe coping-strategieë is geassosieer met Emosionele Stabiliteit, Ekstroversie, Openheid vir Ervaring en Konsensieusheid, terwyl passiewe coping-strategieë geassosieer is met Neurotisisme, lae Inskiklikheid en lae Konsensieusheid. Emosionele Stabiliteit, Ekstroversie, Openheid vir Ervaring, Inskiklikheid en Konsensieusheid is geassosieer met lae emosionele uitputting, lae depersonalisasie en hoë persoonlike bereiking. Konstruktiewe coping-strategieë is geassosieer met persoonlike bereiking.
Juliana Dors Tigre da, Silva; Marisa Campio, Muller; Renan Rangel, Bonamigo.
Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Pesquisas atuais estão direcionando seu foco aos aspectos psicossociais envolvidos nas dermatoses crônicas. Esses fatores podem contribuir para a exacerbação da psoríase entre 40 e 80% dos casos, causando grande impacto na qualidade de vida desses pacientes. OBJETIVOS: Verificar estraté [...] gias de coping e identificar níveis de estresse do portador de psoríase. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com amostra de 115 pacientes, divididos em 61 com psoríase e 54 do grupo controle com dermatoses crônicas. Instrumentos: Inventário de Estratégias de coping e Inventário de Sintomas de Estresse para Adultos de Lipp. RESULTADOS: Destacam-se as estratégias de coping autocontrole (p=0,027) e fuga e esquiva (p=0,014) utilizadas mais pelo grupo com psoríase e níveis de estresse altos para os dois grupos (p=0,838). CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com psoríase utilizam estratégias de coping específicas para o enfrentamento da doença de pele, quando comparados a outros pacientes com doenças crônicas de pele demonstrando relevante nível de estresse. A integração dos resultados possibilita o entendimento do estado específico que portadores de psoríase vivenciam e que denuncia a premência de intervenções mais abrangentes que envolvam também as dimensões psíquica e social. Abstract in english ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Psychosocial aspects are the current focus of research on chronic dermatoses. These aspects may contribute to exacerbation of psoriasis in 40 to 80% of cases, thus having great impact on patients quality of life. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess coping strategies and to id [...] entify stress levels of patients with psoriasis. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of a sample of 115 patients, which included 61 patients with psoriasis and 54 patients with other chronic dermatoses as controls. Instruments: The Ways of Coping Questionnaire and the Lipp Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults. RESULTS: The coping strategies of self-control (p=0.027) and escape-avoidance (p=0.014) were the most used by patients with psoriasis and both groups present high stress levels (p=0.838). CONCLUSION: Patients with psoriasis use specific coping strategies to deal with their skin disorder when compared to other patients with chronic skin disorders; they also present stress levels as high as the control group. The integration of results enables understanding the special state of mind experienced by psoriasis patients to deal with the condition, thus showing the urgent need to develop broader intervention strategies, which also involve the social and psychic dimensions.
Juliana Dors Tigre da Silva
Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Pesquisas atuais estão direcionando seu foco aos aspectos psicossociais envolvidos nas dermatoses crônicas. Esses fatores podem contribuir para a exacerbação da psoríase entre 40 e 80% dos casos, causando grande impacto na qualidade de vida desses pacientes. OBJETIVOS: Verificar estratégias de coping e identificar níveis de estresse do portador de psoríase. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com amostra de 115 pacientes, divididos em 61 com psoríase e 54 do grupo controle com dermatoses crônicas. Instrumentos: Inventário de Estratégias de coping e Inventário de Sintomas de Estresse para Adultos de Lipp. RESULTADOS: Destacam-se as estratégias de coping autocontrole (p=0,027 e fuga e esquiva (p=0,014 utilizadas mais pelo grupo com psoríase e níveis de estresse altos para os dois grupos (p=0,838. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com psoríase utilizam estratégias de coping específicas para o enfrentamento da doença de pele, quando comparados a outros pacientes com doenças crônicas de pele demonstrando relevante nível de estresse. A integração dos resultados possibilita o entendimento do estado específico que portadores de psoríase vivenciam e que denuncia a premência de intervenções mais abrangentes que envolvam também as dimensões psíquica e social.ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Psychosocial aspects are the current focus of research on chronic dermatoses. These aspects may contribute to exacerbation of psoriasis in 40 to 80% of cases, thus having great impact on patients quality of life. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess coping strategies and to identify stress levels of patients with psoriasis. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of a sample of 115 patients, which included 61 patients with psoriasis and 54 patients with other chronic dermatoses as controls. Instruments: The Ways of Coping Questionnaire and the Lipp Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults. RESULTS: The coping strategies of self-control (p=0.027 and escape-avoidance (p=0.014 were the most used by patients with psoriasis and both groups present high stress levels (p=0.838. CONCLUSION: Patients with psoriasis use specific coping strategies to deal with their skin disorder when compared to other patients with chronic skin disorders; they also present stress levels as high as the control group. The integration of results enables understanding the special state of mind experienced by psoriasis patients to deal with the condition, thus showing the urgent need to develop broader intervention strategies, which also involve the social and psychic dimensions.
Estratégias de enfrentamento do estresse desenvolvidas por estudantes de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina / Stress coping strategies developed by medical students of the Federal University of Santa Catarina
Ronaldo, Zonta; Ana Carolina Couto, Robles; Suely, Grosseman.
Full Text Available Em um estudo qualitativo sobre a qualidade de vida de estudantes de Medicina, na Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, emergiu o tema "Estratégias de enfrentamento do estresse". O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar dados relativos a este tema, na perspectiva de melhorar a qualidade de vida do estu [...] dante de Medicina. Seguindo princípios da pesquisa qualitativa, o tema proposto é apresentado com base na análise dos dados empíricos, relativos a depoimentos selecionados do conjunto de dados dos 25 participantes do estudo e no diálogo com a literatura. Entre os que desenvolveram estratégias, as apontadas incluíam valorização dos relacionamentos interpessoais e de fenômenos do cotidiano, equilíbrio entre estudo e lazer, organização do tempo, cuidados com a saúde, alimentação e o sono, prática de atividade física, religiosidade, trabalhar a própria personalidade para lidar com situações adversas e procura por assistência psicológica. Sugere-se maior preocupação dos envolvidos na educação médica com a qualidade de vida do estudante de Medicina e o desenvolvimento de estratégias para promovê-la ou que preparem o estudante para lidar com o estresse durante a formação médica. Abstract in english The theme "Stress coping strategies"came up in the course of a qualitative study about the quality of life of medical students at the Federal University of Santa Catarina. The objective of this article is to present data related to this issue in the hope of improving the quality of life of the medic [...] al student. According to the principles of qualitative research, the theme proposed is presented based on the analysis of empirical data derived from selected statements of the 25 particpants of the study and from the literature. Those participants who developed strategies mentioned among others the importance of interpersonal relationships and day-to-day phenomena, balance between study and leisure, organization of one's time, physical exercise, health nutrition and sleep, religiosity, working the own personality to deal with adverse situations and seek for psychological assistance. One recommends a greater concern of those involved in medical education with the qualit y of life of the students and the development of strategies to promote this behavior or to prepare the students to cope with the stress during medical education.
Full Text Available While the use of monitoring and evaluation (M&E by media development implementers is well documented, organizations coping strategies to adapt to new environments in media and development still remain a relatively unexplored area. The article aims at showing how the theoretical lessons learnt by the industry have been put into practice and how a successful change can be driven within an organization using outside experts. A results-oriented culture of performance and service has been enforced since the 1990s in the EU. Evaluation systems have been a powerful catalyst in driving the transition from media support to media development and in making the latter more independent from broadcasters and donors. In recent years, changes in media assistance procedures and aims have profoundly modified the traditional landscape. This article will not question these changes, their origin and motivations. It will focus on implementers coping strategies to adapt (or not to these new procedures and aims and how results-oriented evaluations can drive the shift from outputs to outcomes in a changing media development sector. Can capitalizing on experience be considered a learning process that prepares for change and improves the design and implementation of projects? To what extent can it help to empower the operator as an organization? Referring to various concrete case studies from British, French and German media assistance, the article will focus on virtuous change the circumstances that encourage structures, as well as donors who fund them, to better define and operationalize their strategies.
Full Text Available This study examined the sources of stress and mental health of nurses in Hong Kong. It also attempted to explore the functions of coping strategies in determining the stress and mental health of nurses. Results showed that more than one-third of the nurses could be considered as having poor mental health. While supervisory role produced the highest level of stress, organizational environment also created a substantial amount of stress for nurses. The most frequently used coping strategies were positive ones, including direct action coping and positive thinking. This study confirmed the hypotheses that nurses who adopted more positive and fewer negative coping strategies had better mental health, but failed to substantiate the moderating effects of coping on stress and mental health of nurses. Changes in the hospital care delivery system and socio-cultural factors in Hong Kong were put forward to explain the results. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study were discussed.
Marina, Kohlsdorf; Áderson Luiz, Costa Junior.
Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi investigar associações entre dados sociodemográficos, condição clínica pediátrica, manifestações de ansiedade e estratégias de enfrentamento adotadas pelos cuidadores ao diagnóstico de leucemia, para indicar fatores influentes relativos a manifestações de ansiedade e estraté [...] gias de enfrentamento adotadas. Participaram do estudo 44 cuidadores, que responderam a Escala Modos de Enfrentamento de Problemas - EMEP, Inventário Beck de Ansiedade (BAI) e questionário sociodemográfico. Os resultados indicam associações entre tipos de enfrentamento, idade do participante, escolaridade e presença de cônjuge, além de correlações entre manifestações de ansiedade, sexo do participante e idade da criança. Destaca-se uma associação importante entre manifestações de ansiedade e uso de estratégias de enfrentamento focalizadas na emoção, sugerindo a importância de intervenções nas fases iniciais de tratamento. Abstract in english The main goal of this paper was to investigate associations between sociodemographic data, patient's clinical condition, indicators of anxiety, and coping strategies adopted by caregivers during leukemia diagnosis in order to indicate which factors may influence anxiety and the adopted coping strate [...] gies. In this study, 44 caregivers were enrolled and submitted to the Ways of Coping Scale (Brazilian Version - EMEP), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Results show associations among different coping categories, caregiver's age, education, and the presence of a spouse, as well as correlations related to anxiety, subject's gender, and the children's age. There was relevant association between anxiety and emotion-focused coping, suggesting the importance of interventions during the early stages of the treatment.
Jambor, Edina; Elliott, Marta
Research studies on the determinants of self-esteem of deaf individuals often yield inconsistent findings. The current study assessed the effects on self-esteem of factors related to deafness, such as the means of communication at home and severity of hearing loss with hearing aid, as well as the coping styles that deaf people adopt to cope with
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.
The current study examined the impact of racial discrimination stress on internalizing symptoms and coping strategies in a sample of 268 African American early adolescents (mean age = 12.90; 56% female) from low-income communities. Information about discrimination stress, coping, and internalizing symptoms was obtained via adolescents'
Erickson, Sarah J.; Feldstein, Sarah W.
Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) in measuring adolescent humor, including the relationship between humor and coping style, defense style, depressive symptoms, and adjustment in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Humor, coping, defense strategies, depressive symptoms,
Dr. Annett Steinführer
Full Text Available This article examines the adaptation and coping strategies that are in place to safeguard the quality of life in a shrinking ageing region. In particular, it is investigated which resources are available to local policy-makers and the older population in order to pursue this goal. Following an introduction to the debate of regional science about demographic change and its consequences, we introduce a theoretical differentiation between adaptation and coping. Adaptation strategies refer to the decision-makers who provide or are involved in organising public service facilities. Coping strategies and capacities refer to the customers and users affected by the changes. The population is not only passively affected by changes in public services, but also actively grapples with changed levels of infrastructure and takes up measures to safeguard their own quality of life. Empirically, we employ the results of semi-structured interviews with local and regional key persons and group interviews with elderly inhabitants of two small towns in the Harz region. The region under study is among the most ageing rural areas in Germany. Its demographic characteristics are based on many years of selective out-migration and partially age-selective in-migration. The research results reveal many measures and strategies which have been developed and employed by the different actor groups when faced with tangible problems. However, they have not been planned with a long term perspective. The availability of economic and social resources (human resources and investment funds on the part of administrations, fi nancial resources and social networks on the part of the older population is the chief differentiating and often limiting factor for the success of these measures and strategies. This article comes to the conclusion that adaptation and coping will remain processes for safeguarding the quality of life in shrinking ageing regions for the longer term. In addition to the targeted effects, the unintended consequences of todays adaptation strategies will also infl uence the level and the design of future public services.
Mehrabi, Tayebe; Azadi, Fatemeh; Pahlavanzadeh, Saeid; Meghdadi, Niloofar
Introduction: Nowadays, it has been known that individuals handle coping strategies when faced with stressful events. These strategies play an important role in individuals. Nurses are exposed to high stress, which directly affects their job satisfaction and the quality of their services. Therefore, the present study tried to investigate the effect of Yoga on stress coping strategies among nurses working in intensive care units (ICUs). Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 34 female nurses working in ICU who were qualified to enter the study were selected. Yoga exercises were administrated two sessions a week for 8 weeks in the study group. CS-R questionnaire was filled before and after intervention. The data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential (t test) statistical tests. Results: The results of statistical tests showed that the highest application of stress coping strategies was for inconsistent stress coping strategy. There was a significant difference in the mean scores of coping strategies of stress focus, emotion focus, and ineffectiveness after Yoga exercises compared with those before the yoga sessions. Discussion: With regard to the findings, 8 weeks exercises of Yoga can be considered as a complementary treatment to amend stress coping strategies. Further studies in this field are suggested. PMID:23922582
Full Text Available AimThis paper aimed to analyze the coping strategies adopted by patients in preparation to kidney transplant, as well as associations between coping and socio-demographic data.MethodA total of 76 patients took part in this descriptive, exploratory study. While waiting for the first medical consultation regarding kidney transplantation, participants answered the Brazilian version of the Ways of Coping Scale.ResultsThe main coping strategies adopted corresponded first to religiosity, then problem focused coping and seeking for social support. There were statistically significant associations between coping categories and gender, marital status, monthly income, childrens ages, and time in dialysis.ConclusionThis study highlights the main coping strategies adopted by patients in preparation to kidney transplant, and it also reveals associations between some socio-demographic data and coping. These results may promote further psychosocial interventions, which may help to improve preparation to kidney transplants, promoting better adaptation and treatment adherence as well as fewer psychological burdens.
Paul, Shitangsu Kumar; Routray, Jayant K
This paper explores peoples' indigenous survival strategies and assesses variations in people's ability to cope with floods in two flood-prone villages in Bangladesh. It reveals that people continuously battle against flood vulnerability in accordance with their level of exposure and abilities, with varied strategies employed at different geophysical locations. The paper reports that people in an area with low flooding and with better socioeconomic circumstances are more likely to cope with impacts compared to people in areas with high and sudden flooding. Similarly, households' ability to cope varies depending on people's socioeconomic conditions, such as education, income and occupation. Although floods in Bangladesh generate socioeconomic misery and cause damage to the environment, health and infrastructure, people's indigenous coping strategies have helped them to reduce significantly their vulnerability. Such flood-mitigating strategies should be well recognised and emphasised further via proper dissemination of information through an early-warning system and subsequently external assistance. PMID:19878260
... on how to cope with these challenges. 1. Challenge: changes in communication skills "Talking with Dad is hard. ... you they need to use the bathroom. 2. Challenge: changes in personality and behavior Because AD causes brain ...
Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin
This cross-sectional study assessed household food insecurity among low-income rural communities and examined its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as coping strategies to minimize food insecurity. Demographic, socioeconomic, expenditure and coping strategy data were collected from 200 women of poor households in a rural community in Malaysia. Households were categorized as either food secure (n=84) or food insecure (n=116) using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Foo...
This study examined the sources of stress and mental health of nurses in Hong Kong. It also attempted to explore the functions of coping strategies in determining the stress and mental health of nurses. Results showed that more than one-third of the nurses could be considered as having poor mental health. While supervisory role produced the highest level of stress, organizational environment also created a substantial amount of stress for nurses. The most frequently used coping strategies wer...
Einar M. Skaalvik
Full Text Available This study explored job satisfaction, work-related stress, consequences of stress, and coping strategies among Norwegian teachers. The study is based on qualitative interviews with 30 working teachers and four retired teachers. The respondents reported high job satisfaction but also severe stress and exhaustion. Teachers of different ages or at different stages in their careers reported the same sources of job satisfaction and stress. However, coping strategies and consequences differed with age among the respondents.
Daniel Briones Mella; Ana P . Kinkead Boutin
Background: This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the relationship between several dimensions of the burnout syndrome with certain stress-coping strategies, seniority level and marital status in male staff from National Police in Vaparaíso, Chile.Methods: The sample collected in 2010 was composed of 338 male officers coming from various special units of a National Police in Valparaíso. Burnout and Coping Strategies were assessed and classified according Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) a...
Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim; Tan Chin Siong; Lim Xue Bin; Loke Hon Meng; Liew Yen Yee; Ling Heng Wei; Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
Introduction: As the prevalence of stress is rising rapidly among the community, it is important to understand their stressors and coping strategies for creating a psychological-friendly environment for the students in the future. The study aim was to explore the stress level, stressors, and coping strategies among first year medical students in Malaysian public universities and factors contributed to the stress at the end of year. Methodology: A multicenter cross-sectional study involving fo...
Wetzel, Cordula Magdalena
Background stress can impair professional performance. Surgery is a highly demanding medical specialty, and performance is a critical factor for patient safety. Nevertheless, research on surgeon's stress, coping strategies and effects on surgical performance is lacking. Moreover, educational programmes addressing stress management for surgeons have not been established. Objectives i a) To identify potential stress factors, surgical coping strategies and effects on performance qualitatively b...
Isabella Caroline, Belem; Nayara Malheiros, Caruzzo; José Roberto Andrade do, Nascimento Junior; José Luiz Lopes, Vieira; Lenamar Fiorese, Vieira.
Full Text Available Estudos têm apontado que, para desenvolver um perfil resiliente, os atletas precisam enfrentar as adversidades do contexto esportivo, utilizando recursos pessoais como otimismo, competitividade, motivação, maturidade e persistência. Este estudo objetivou analisar o impacto das estratégias de coping [...] na resiliência de atletas de vôlei de praia. Participaram 48 atletas adultos do Circuito Banco do Brasil de Vôlei de Praia. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Inventário de Estratégias de Coping (ACSI-28) e a Escala de Resiliência de Connor-Davidson (CD-RISC). Para a análise dos dados, utilizaram-se o teste de Shapiro-Wilk, "U" de Mann-Whitney, Anova de Medidas Repetidas seguida do Post Hoc de Bonferroni, Correlação de Spearman e Regressão Linear Simples (p Abstract in english Studies have shown that for developing a resilient profile athletes must deal with adversities in sports using personal resources such as optimism, competitiveness, motivation, maturity, and persistence. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of coping strategies on the resilience of [...] beach volleyball athletes. Forty-eight adult athletes of the Banco do Brasil Beach Volleyball Circuit participated in the study. The following instruments were used: Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 (ACSI-28) and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The data were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, Mann-Whitney U test, repeated-measures ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni test, Spearman's correlation test, and simple linear regression (p
Chunping Ni; Daiwei Lo; Xiwen Liu; Jinfeng Ma; Shasha Xu; Lu Li,
Background: Recent research has emphasized the importance of coping. There is virtually nothing known about coping strategies and their relationship with self-esteem, individual and environmental factors among Chinese female nursing students. This study was to identify different coping strategies, the relationship between coping and self-esteem and influencing individual factors among Chinese female students in different years of nursing school. Method: The study used a cross-sectional design...
Somer, Eli; Golan, Daniel; Dishon, Sara; Cuzin-Disegni, Limor; Lavi, Idit; Miller, Ariel
The objective of this article is to examine the role of coping strategies in multiple sclerosis outcomes among civilians under a military attack during the 2006 war between Hezbollah and Israel. Participants were 156 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We analysed the relationships between coping and emotional distress and between coping and multiple sclerosis exacerbation. We also assessed a model of the relationship between perceived stress, event-related stress, and coping with increased risk of multiple sclerosis exacerbations using multivariate logistic regression. Ways of coping and subjective stress were evaluated by means of structured interviews using questionnaires previously validated. The more distressed our respondents were during the war, the more likely they were to employ a variety of ways of coping. Correlation coefficients between coping scores and perceived war stress ranged from 0.2 to 0.44 (p < 0.001-0.01). Correlation coefficients between the various coping scores and broader indices of distress ranged from 0.28 to 0.5 (p < 0.001). Of the remitting patients during and following the war, 47.1% reported the use of 'direct coping and planning', compared to 16.7% of patients who relapsed during the same period (p = 0.014). 'Direct coping and planning' was negatively related to exacerbation of multiple sclerosis symptoms (OR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.02-0.5). The Nagelkerke R(2) was 0.26. Our findings point to an association between 'direct coping and planning' and reduced multiple sclerosis relapse rate during wartime. Further research should explore whether the employment of specific ways of coping can reduce the risk for relapse among patients with multiple sclerosis during periods of distress. PMID:20086022
Personality Dimensions, Religious Tendencies and Coping Strategies as Predictors of General Health in Iranian Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability: A Comparison with Mothers of Typically Developing Children
Mirsaleh, Y. R.; Rezai, H.; Khabaz, M.; Afkhami Ardekani, I.; Abdi, K.
Background: Challenges related to rearing children with intellectual disability (ID) may cause mothers of these children to have mental health status problems. Method: A total of 124 mothers who had a child with ID and 124 mothers of typically developing children were selected using random sampling. Data were collected using General health
Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a very distressing experience for children and requires a special effort of adjustment. Therefore, it seems to be crucial to explore coping resources for the experienced risk condition. In this sense, the study focuses on coping strategies and locus of control in children with ALL during the treatment phase, and on their possible relation. The correlation between children and maternal coping strategies is also investigated. The participants involved were an experimental group of 40 children with ALL and their mothers, and 30 healthy children as the control group. The tools used were: the Child Behavioral Style Scale and the Monitor-Blunter Style Scale to assess the coping strategies of children and mothers; the locus of Control Scale for Children to analyze the childrens perception of controlling the events. Both children with ALL and their mothers resorted to monitoring coping strategies with a statistically significant rate of occurrence (children: M=17.8, SD=3.8; mothers: M=10.48, SD=3.4. The data concerning the locus of control show this tendency towards internal causes (M=53.1, SD=4.7. There were statistically significant correlations between monitoring coping strategies and external locus of control (r=0.400, P<0.05. The results gained from the control group are almost equivalent. The outcomes show several interesting resources of the psychological functioning of children as well as of their mothers.
Full Text Available The focus of this study was the relatively unexplored link between perceived leadership styles and employees' current levels of workplace stress and coping strategies. The participants were 442 employees in five IT organisations in Slovenia. The theoretical background for leadership styles was taken from the full-range leadership model. Data were collected using three questionnaires: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a single questionnaire item on the current level of workplace stress. Correlations and linear regression were used to test whether leadership style influences the employees' stress-coping strategies.Lower levels of stress at work were found for employees whose leader showed more transformational or transactional leadership behaviours. The results showed low to moderate correlations between the three basic leadership styles and coping strategies such as positive reappraisal, seeking social assistance, and negative escape/avoidance. These coping strategies were more frequently used by employees whose leaders often used transformational and transactional leadership styles. Employees whose leaders frequently used passive-avoidant leadership style more often approach to stress situations with escape, avoidance, and rarely with positive reappraisal. But the regression models explained only 2% to 7% of the variance for certain coping strategie.
Zheng, Yuan; Byg, Anja
This paper documents rural households' perceptions of and responses to hailstorms and drought, which have been increasingly common in southwest China. This is important as the current coping behaviour serves as a starting point for future adaptations. Primary data were collected from 162 households by a questionnaire survey in three villages in Lijiang, Yunnan province. The results indicate that the majority of households have perceived an increasing occurrence of hailstorm and drought till present. Hailstorms were generally perceived to have more drastic impacts than drought. The most common coping strategy for both was to seek alternative income sources via sideline activities. In addition, there were hazard-specific coping strategies. Migrant work and assets depletion were important to cope with hailstorms while multiple strategies to solve water shortage were deployed during drought. Differences were also found across villages regarding the degree of perceived sensitivity and responses despite similar exposure to climate extremes. These differences are partly related to the nature of events and varied socio-economic characteristics of households, which influence their vulnerability and ability to cope. The study suggests initiatives which could facilitate coping. In addition to providing disaster relief and strengthening technical coping capacity, more efforts could be directed at spreading risk and revitalising livelihoods.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing focus on patient-centred communicative approaches in medical consultations, but few studies have shown the extent to which patients' positive coping strategies and psychological assets are addressed by general practitioners (GPs on a regular day at the office. This study measures the frequency of GPs' use of questions and comments addressing their patients' coping strategies or resources. Methods Twenty-four GPs were video-recorded in 145 consultations. The consultations were coded using a modified version of the Roter Interaction Analysis System. In this study, we also developed four additional coding categories based on cognitive therapy and solution-focused therapy: attribution, resources, coping, and solution-focused techniques. The reliability between coders was established, a factor analysis was applied to test the relationship between the communication categories, and a tentative validating exercise was performed by reversed coding. Results Cohen's kappa was 0.52 between coders. Only 2% of the utterances could be categorized as resource or coping oriented. Six GPs contributed 59% of these utterances. The factor analysis identified two factors, one task oriented and one patient oriented. Conclusion The frequency of communication about coping and resources was very low. Communication skills training for GPs in this field is required. Further validating studies of this kind of measurement tool are warranted.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study provided essential information, about Turkish patients with type I and type II diabetes, concerning: levels of anxiety, coping strategies used, and relationships that exist among anxiety, coping strategies, sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Methods A sample comprising 161 Turkish adults with both types of diabetes participated in the study. The trait anxiety scale, the brief COPE, sociodemographic and medical questionnaire were administered to patients with diabetes. Results The mean age was 49.01 (SD = 9.74, with a range from 20 to 60 years. The majority of the participants were female (60.9% and type II diabetes (75.8%. 79% of the participants experienced anxiety. A clear majority of the participants reported to integrate their diabetes. Acceptance, religion, planning, positive reframing, instrumental support, emotional support, self-distraction and venting were the most frequently used coping strategies. The most frequently used problem-focused and the emotion-focused coping strategies were found to be similar in both type I and type II diabetes. However, participants with type II diabetes had relatively higher scores on the problem-focused strategies than those with type I. Participants with type I diabetes used humour, venting and self-blame more than those with type II diabetes. Other findings indicated that only a small minority responded to diabetes-related problems by denial, behavioural disengagement and substance use. Significant correlations were found among anxiety, coping strategies and sociodemographic characteristics of the participants. Moreover, Self-blame was found to be correlated significantly with both the problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies. Self-blame was also significantly correlated with both instrumental support and emotional support indicated that higher self-blame caused more frequent use of instrumental and emotional support by patients with diabetes. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that care for patients with diabetes should address their physical, psychological, social and economic wellbeing and the findings point to the importance of taking individual coping strategies into account when evaluating the impact of diabetes on psychosocial wellbeing. Because of the mean of anxiety were not in normal range, for this study, health professionals need to pay attention to patient's psychological state. This is especially true for patients who are likely to use self-blame and behavioural disengagement as a coping strategy. Through psychosocial interventions, professionals need to assist patients in establishing positive self evaluations. Delineation of coping strategies might be useful for identifying patients in need of particular counselling and support.
Full Text Available Alessandro Iavarone,1,2 Antonio Rosario Ziello,3,4 Francesca Pastore,3 Angiola Maria Fasanaro,3 Carla Poderico5 1Neurological and Stroke Unit, CTO Hospital, 2Italian Association on Alzheimer's Disease (AIMA, 3Memory Clinic, Neurological Unit, AORN Cardarelli Hospital, Naples, Italy; 4Clinical Research, Telemedicine and Telepharmacy Centre, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy; 5Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy Background: Alzheimers disease (AD causes considerable distress in caregivers who are continuously required to deal with requests from patients. Coping strategies play a fundamental role in modulating the psychologic impact of the disease, although their role is still debated. The present study aims to evaluate the burden and anxiety experienced by caregivers, the effectiveness of adopted coping strategies, and their relationships with burden and anxiety. Methods: Eighty-six caregivers received the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Y-1 and Y-2. The coping strategies were assessed by means of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS, according to the model proposed by Endler and Parker in 1990.Results: The CBI scores (overall and single sections were extremely high and correlated with dementia severity. Women, as well as older caregivers, showed higher scores. The trait anxiety (STAI-Y-2 correlated with the CBI overall score. The CISS showed that caregivers mainly adopted task-focused strategies. Women mainly adopted emotion-focused strategies and this style was related to a higher level of distress. Conclusion: AD is associated with high distress among caregivers. The burden strongly correlates with dementia severity and is higher in women and in elderly subjects. Chronic anxiety affects caregivers who mainly rely on emotion-oriented coping strategies. The findings suggest providing support to families of patients with AD through tailored strategies aimed to reshape the dysfunctional coping styles. Keywords: Alzheimers disease, distress, caregiver burden, stress, coping strategies
McWilliams, Jettie M.
Stress is a common problem in today's society. Even though stress has been recognized as a problem in the workplace, the identification of specific work-related stress producers, coping mechanisms, and symptoms has been somewhat neglected. The purpose of this study was to analyze levels and areas of stress in selected service professions and to
Kodithuwakku, Sarath S.; Weerahewa, Jeevika
High food prices have consistently forced families to adopt a myriad of coping strategies to meet their food needs. A comprehensive understanding of the nature and diversity of such strategies, the relative effectiveness of different strategies, and the factors that determine the choice of various strategies by different vulnerable groups is of prime importance in designing and implementing appropriate policies and programs on vulnerable groups. The objectives of this study are to assess: (i)...
Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K.; Blumberg, Herbert H.
A total of 407 students in a central London secondary school participated in a survey of different approaches to managing traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Student perceptions of individual coping strategies and school interventions for traditional bullying and cyberbullying were measured. Rankings of the strategies for traditional bullying
Transactional theories of stress suggest that redefining or reframing difficult circumstances may be a useful coping strategy for family caregivers. To identify specific cognitive reappraisal themes and strategies caregivers use, this study examined published accounts of caregivers' (N=26) experiences, which represent an unobtrusive, untapped data
Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin
This cross-sectional study assessed household food insecurity among low-income rural communities and examined its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as coping strategies to minimize food insecurity. Demographic, socioeconomic, expenditure and coping strategy data were collected from 200 women of poor households in a rural community in Malaysia. Households were categorized as either food secure (n=84) or food insecure (n=116) using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity instrument. T-test, Chi-square and logistic regression were utilized for comparison of factors between food secure and food insecure households and determination of factors associated with household food insecurity, respectively. More of the food insecure households were living below the poverty line, had a larger household size, more children and school-going children and mothers as housewives. As food insecure households had more school-going children, reducing expenditures on the children's education is an important strategy to reduce household expenditures. Borrowing money to buy foods, receiving foods from family members, relatives and neighbors and reducing the number of meals seemed to cushion the food insecure households from experiencing food insufficiency. Most of the food insecure households adopted the strategy on cooking whatever is available at home for their meals. The logistic regression model indicates that food insecure households were likely to have more children (OR=1.71; pstrategy of food preparation based on whatever is available at their homes (OR=4.33; phigher incomes of fathers (OR=0.99; pstrategies could be developed and implemented. PMID:20126362
Lawrence, Julia; Ashford, Kelly; Dent, Paul
Abstract This study sought to investigate differences in the coping strategies adopted by male and female first year students in a higher education environment and the extent to which such strategies had an impact on self-esteem and attainment. Results revealed significant differences between males and females in terms of engagement in coping strategies and academic attainment. Specifically, males exhibited...
Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J
This study examined gender differences among homeless young adults' coping strategies and homelessness stressors as they relate to legal (e.g., full-time employment, selling personal possessions, selling blood/plasma) and illegal economic activity (e.g., selling drugs, theft, prostitution). A sample of 601 homeless young adults was recruited from 3 cities (Los Angeles, CA [n = 200], Austin, TX [n = 200], and Denver, CO [n = 201]) to participate in semi-structured interviews from March 2010 to July 2011. Risk and resilience correlates of legal and illegal economic activity were analyzed using six Ordinary Least Squares regression models with the full sample and with the female and male sub-samples. In the full sample, three variables (i.e., avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and mania) were associated with legal income generation whereas eight variables (i.e., social coping, age, arrest history, transience, peer substance use, antisocial personality disorder [ASPD], substance use disorder [SUD], and major depressive episode [MDE]) were associated with illegal economic activity. In the female sub-sample, three variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, race/ethnicity, and transience) were correlated with legal income generation whereas six variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, social coping, age, arrest history, peer substance use, and ASPD) were correlated with illegal economic activity. Among males, the model depicting legal income generation was not significant yet seven variables (i.e., social coping, age, transience, peer substance use, ASPD, SUD, and MDE) were associated with illegal economic activity. Understanding gender differences in coping strategies and economic activity might help customize interventions aimed at safe and legal income generation for this population. PMID:25942470
Zagreb : Society for Psychological Assistance, 2008. s. 128-128. ISBN 978-953-6353-19-4. [15th General Meeting of the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology . 10.06.2008-14.06.2008, Opatija] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA700250702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : coping * interactional approach * behavioral consistency Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Kowalski, Evan.; Chung, Kevin C.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir was one of the most influential painters in art history, but few people know that he suffered from debilitating rheumatoid arthritis. Despite his arthritis, he was able to maintain an incredible level of precision and efficiency with his painting. More importantly, he remained positive and did not let his condition affect his passion for painting or take away from the beauty that he saw in the world around him. Renoir applied a wide variety of coping mechanisms and used ...
Daniel Briones Mella
Full Text Available Background: This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the relationship between several dimensions of the burnout syndrome with certain stress-coping strategies, seniority level and marital status in male staff from National Police in Vaparaíso, Chile.Methods: The sample collected in 2010 was composed of 338 male officers coming from various special units of a National Police in Valparaíso. Burnout and Coping Strategies were assessed and classified according Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and COPE Inventory, respectively. Data was analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlation, t-test for independent measures and Multiple Linear Regression to generate a predictive model.Results: The prevalence of the burnout syndrome disaggregated by grouping criteria, the dimensions concentrated in middle levels for emotional exhaustion with a 52.1%, a 51.8% for depersonalization and finally, personal achievement with a 48.8%. Only 28% of participants showed more exacerbated dimensions of the burnout syndrome. There was a weak and direct yet statistically significant relationship between personal achievement and active coping. Mental disconnection had a weak direct relationship between both coping strategies and emotional exhaustion also existed. Certain correlations between burnout dimensions and coping strategies focused on emotion as predictor variables over the criterion variable corresponding to emotional exhaustion were mental disconnection in first place, secondly, focusing on emotions, and emotional social support.Conclusions: Burnout dimensions scored medium values ??focusing mainly on emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment. Coping strategies are used in parallel and in general are not mutually exclusive. Finally, there were not any relationship between variables seniority level and marital status.
Full Text Available Background: Work as one of the most important activities in human life is related to stressful and difficult situations. Police officers make one of the many occupational groups that are particularly threatened by contact with a number of stressors. Therefore, their strategies of coping with stress are particularly important, because they play an important role in their functioning at work. The nature of the service as well as shift work and psychological costs incurred by police officers contribute to the emergence of chronic fatigue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of chronic fatigue in police officers and its relationship with the strategies of coping with occupational stress. Material and Methods: A group of 61 police officers was examined. The following research methods were used: 1 Latack Coping Scale examining stress coping strategies at work (positive thinking, direct action, avoidance/resignation, seeking help, alcohol or stimulants use; 2 Mood Assessment Questionnaire CIS-20R examining the level of chronic fatigue and its components (subjective feeling of fatigue, impaired attention and concentration, reduced motivation, reduced activity; 3 Personal questionnaire providing socio-demographic data. Results: It was found that the level of chronic fatigue in the group of the examined police officers was high (sten 8th. The most often used strategies of coping with stress were direct action and positive thinking, and the least often used strategy was the use of alcohol and stimulants. A significant negative correlation between the general level of chronic fatigue and the avoidance/ resignation strategy was found. Conclusions: The results indicate that chronic fatigue is a problem affecting police officers and it is related to the stress coping strategies used. Med Pr 2014;65(2:229238
Jhalukpreya, Surujlal; Sheila, Nguyen.
Full Text Available Sport coaching can be a fulfilling and rewarding occupation, but can also be stressful because of the demands and expectations of various external factors. The complex and extraordinary demands placed on coaches, force them to perform multiple roles (e.g. educator, motivator, counsellor, adviser, tr [...] ainer, manager and administrator). Soccer coaches face a number of challenges, frustrations, conflicts and tensions, the enormity of which is often underestimated. This notion is supported by the description of coaching as a perilous occupation in which coaches experience pressures like stress, conflict and tension, media pressure and intrusions into family life. This study explored the perceptions of South African soccer coaches in terms of the mechanisms they use to cope with potential stressors experienced in their jobs and employed a non-experimental design, using a quantitative approach, to assess stress and coping strategies of South African coaches. One hundred and twelve soccer coaches, coaching at the provincial level and higher, completed a questionnaire on stress and stress coping mechanisms used in their coaching jobs. Descriptive data analysis was completed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS - version 16). The sources of stress experienced and coping methods used by the coaches were evaluated. Results revealed that the top three sources of stress were a lack of resources, fixture backlog and games where the outcome is critical, whilst the lowest three sources of stress were political interference, physical assaults from players and substituting a player. Moreover, various coping strategies used by the coaches showed that an average of 5.68%, 5.14% and 89.78% of the sample used maladaptive coping, emotion management coping and problem management coping strategies respectively. Academic and practical implications of the study results are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. Results The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students. The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. Conclusion The higher level of psychological morbidity warrants need for interventions like social and psychological support to improve the quality of life for these medical students. Student advisors and counselors may train students about stress management. There is also need to bring about academic changes in quality of teaching and evaluation system. A prospective study is necessary to study the association of psychological morbidity with demographic variables, sources of stress and coping strategies.
Jennifer F. Helgeson
Full Text Available When a natural disaster hits, the affected households try to cope with its impacts. A variety of coping strategies, from reducing current consumption to disposing of productive assets, may be employed. The latter strategies are especially worrisome because they may reduce the capacity of the household to generate income in the future, possibly leading to chronic poverty. We used the results of a household survey in rural Uganda to ask, first, what coping strategies would tend to be employed in the event of a weather disaster, second, given that multiple strategies can be chosen, in what combinations would they tend to be employed, and, third, given that asset-liquidation strategies can be particularly harmful for the future income prospects of households, what determines their uptake? Our survey is one of the largest of its kind, containing over 3000 observations garnered by local workers using smartphone technology. We found that in this rural sample, by far, the most frequently reported choice would be to sell livestock. This is rather striking because asset-based theories would predict more reliance on strategies like eating and spending less today, which avoid disposal of productive assets. It may well be that livestock is held as a form of liquid savings to, among other things, help bounce back from a weather disaster. Although, we did find that other strategies that might undermine future prospects were avoided, notably selling land or the home and disrupting the childrens education. Our econometric analysis revealed a fairly rich set of determinants of different subsets of coping strategies. Perhaps most notably, households with a more educated head are much less likely to choose coping strategies involving taking their own children out of education.
Dadipoor, Sakineh; Haghighi, Hamid; Madani, Abdoulhhossain; Ghanbarnejad, Amin; Shojaei, Fatemeh; Hesam, Aliakbar; Moradabadi, Ali Safari
Introduction: Major thalassemia is a hereditary, chronic blood disease caused by the synthesis deficiency of one or more polypeptide chains of globin during childhood. This leads to the rise of blood pressure and family tensions. Therefore, the coping strategies of the family could seriously affect and facilitate the thalassemic child's healthy growth. The present research sought to investigate the mental health and coping strategies of families with major thalassemic children in Bandar Abbas in 2013. Materials and Methods: This study is of a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional type. Research population consisted of 140 parents of major thalassemic children who visited Shahid Mohammadi Hospital of Bandar Abbas. The instruments used were the 12-item General Health Questionnaire of Goldberg and Williams along with the coping strategies questionnaire. Nonprobabilistic, convenient sampling method was used. To analyze the data, Spearman's correlation coefficient, Chi-square and descriptive statistical tests were used. The significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: Data analysis showed that parents mental health (32 ± 4.25) along with their coping strategy scores (45 ± 7.50) was about the average. The most prevalent coping strategies among the parents were represented as: I trust in God in order to get my problems solved (87%), to get mentally and spiritually relieved, I would visit mosques and holy shrines (53%), and to overcome problems, I make harder attempts (50.7%). A significant correlation was found between the parents coping strategies and general health (P < 0.001). A significant correlation was also observed between mother's educational level (P = 0.044), age (P = 0.022) and general health. Discussion and Conclusion: According to the results of this research, it is categorical for the ministry of health and medical education and those in charge to pay special and adequate attention to the social, spiritual, and mental health of these children and their families. PMID:26430686
Rohsenow, Damaris J; Martin, Rosemarie A; Monti, Peter M
This study investigated specific coping techniques for effectiveness in reducing cocaine use after treatment. The urge-specific strategies questionnaire-cocaine (USS-C) assessed frequency of use of 21 strategies for coping with urges. The general change strategies questionnaire-cocaine (GCS-C) assessed frequency of use of 21 lifestyle change strategies designed to maintain abstinence. Cocaine-dependent patients were assessed at follow-up after residential treatment for USS-C (n=59 at 3 months, 84 at 6 months), GCS-C (n=89 at 3 months, 120 at 6 months) and substance use. Less cocaine use was associated with urge coping by thinking about negative or positive consequences, alternative behaviors, distraction, relaxation/meditation, escape, offer refusal, spiritual methods, behavior chains, mastery messages, problem-solving, meeting or sponsor, or seeking social support. The lifestyle change strategies of thinking about consequences, working toward goals, thinking of oneself as sober, clean recreation, regular relaxation, avoiding temptations, not carrying much money, living with clean people, seeking social support, spiritual involvement, keeping busy, and health activities were also associated with less cocaine use. Results suggest focusing coping skills training on these potentially effective strategies. PMID:15845325
Full Text Available Cluster headache (CH is a chronic syndrome characterized by excruciatingly painful attacks occurring with circadian and circannual periodicity. The objectives of the present study were, in CH patients, to determine by principal component analysis the factor structure of two instruments commonly used in clinics to evaluate pain locus of control (Cancer Locus of Control ScaleCLCS and coping strategies (Coping Strategies QuestionnaireCSQ, to examine the relationship between internal pain controllability and emotional distress, and to compare psychosocial distress and coping strategies between two subsets of patients with episodic or chronic CH. Results indicate, for CLCS, a 3-factor structure (internal controllability, medical controllability, religious controllability noticeably different in CH patients from the structure reported in patients with other painful pathologies and, for CSQ, a 5-factor structure of CSQ which did not markedly diverge from the classical structure. Perceived internal controllability of pain was strongly correlated with study measures of depression (HAD depression/anhedonia subscale, Beck Depression Inventory. Comparison between subsets of patients with episodic or chronic CH of emotional status, pain locus of control, perceived social support and coping strategies did not reveal significant differences apart for the Reinterpreting pain sensations strategy which was more often used by episodic CH patients. Observed tendencies for increased anxiety and perceived social support in patients with episodic CH, and for increased depression and more frequent use of the Ignoring pain sensations strategy in patients with chronic CH, warrant confirmation in larger groups of patients.
Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate EFL classroom anxiety coping strategies employed by the Chinese Bouyei college students through semi-structured individual interviews of 25 Chinese Bouyei college students from five colleges located in the southern and southwestern areas of Guizhou Province, China. The findings demonstrate five categories of the participants reported EFL classroom anxiety coping strategies, i.e., preparation, help/peer seeking, relaxation, resignation, and positive thinking, which were mostly supportive to the results of the rotated component matrix of factor analysis for the FLCACSQ conducted in the researchers previous study. In addition, implications were made on the research findings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-pocket spending (OOPS is the major payment strategy for healthcare in Nigeria. Hence, the paper assessed the determinants socio-economic status (SES of OOPS and strategies for coping with payments for healthcare in urban, semi-urban and rural areas of southeast Nigeria. This paper provides information that would be required to improve financial accessibility and equity in financing within the public health care system. Methods The study areas were three rural and three urban areas from Ebonyi and Enugu states in South-east Nigeria. Cross-sectional survey using interviewer-administered questionnaires to randomly selected householders was the study tool. A socio-economic status (SES index that was developed using principal components analysis was used to examine levels of inequity in OOPS and regression analysis was used to examine the determinants of use of OOPS. Results All the SES groups equally sought healthcare when they needed to. However, the poorest households were most likely to use low level and informal providers such as traditional healers, whilst the least poor households were more likely to use the services of higher level and formal providers such as health centres and hospitals. The better-off SES more than worse-off SES groups used OOPS to pay for healthcare. The use of own money was the commonest payment-coping mechanism in the three communities. The sales of movable household assets or land were not commonly used as payment-coping mechanisms. Decreasing SES was associated with increased sale of household assets to cope with payment for healthcare in one of the communities. Fee exemptions and subsidies were almost non-existent as coping mechanisms in this study Conclusions There is the need to reduce OOPS and channel and improve equity in healthcare financing by designing and implementing payment strategies that will assure financial risk protection of the poor such pre-payment mechanisms with government paying for the poor.
Elli Nur Hayati
Full Text Available Background: Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence. Objective: Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo. Design: A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence. Results: Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out. Conclusions: Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms.
Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S; Znoj, Hansjörg
This study analysed mechanisms through which stress-coping and temptation-coping strategies were associated with lapses. Furthermore, we explored whether distinct coping strategies differentially predicted reduced lapse risk, lower urge levels, or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses during the first week of an unassisted smoking cessation attempt. Participants were recruited via the internet and mass media in Switzerland. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) with mobile devices was used to assess urge levels and lapses. Online questionnaires were used to measure smoking behaviours and coping variables at baseline, as well as smoking behaviour at the three-month follow-up. The sample consisted of 243 individuals, aged 20 to 40, who reported 4199 observations. Findings of multilevel regression analyses show that coping was mainly associated with a reduced lapse risk and not with lower urge levels or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses. 'Calming down' and 'commitment to change' predicted a lower lapse risk and also a weaker relation between urge levels and lapses. 'Stimulus control' predicted a lower lapse risk and lower urge levels. Conversely, 'task-orientation' and 'risk assessment' were related to higher lapse risk and 'risk assessment' also to higher urge levels. Disengagement coping i.e. 'eating or shopping', 'distraction', and 'mobilising social support' did not affect lapse risk. Promising coping strategies during the initial stage of smoking cessation attempt are targeted directly at reducing the lapse risk and are characterised by engagement with the stressor or one's reactions towards the stressor and a focus on positive consequences instead of health risks. PMID:23501139
Podaná, Zuzana; Imríková, Romana
Fear for the stalking victim's own safety or the safety of people close to them is of primary research interest due to the fact that fear is often required as a necessary condition for repetitive intrusive behavior to be defined as stalking. This study examines factors that increase levels of fear in stalking victims and analyzes their coping strategies, making use of data from a victimization survey among citizens of the Czech Republic (N = 2,503). Overall, 147 stalking victims were identified in the sample. Results show that female victims, those stalked by male offenders, and victims pursued over a long period of time, are most fearful. Higher levels of fear are elicited by strangers as opposed to partners or acquaintances. Among stalking practices, only direct aggression is significantly associated with fear, whereas monitoring the victim (comprising typical stalking behavior such as following the victim) increases the perception of the seriousness of stalking, but does not influence the victim's fear. In addition, three behavioral coping strategies have been identified: proactive behavior (47% of victims), avoidance (30%), and passivity (23%). The examination of the association between these coping strategies and victims' fear reveals that female victims, whose behavior is proactive, express higher levels of fear than male victims and than those choosing avoidance or passivity strategies. Overall, the study confirms gender differences in both the level of fear and coping strategies, and lends further support to appeals for eliminating the fear requirement from the stalking definition. PMID:25392391
Kadayam G Gomathi; Soofia Ahmed; Jayadevan Sreedharan
Objectives: This study aimed to compare causes of stress and coping strategies adopted by a sample of undergraduate health-profession students at the Gulf Medical University, United Arab Emirates. Methods: An anonymous voluntary questionnaire-based survey was conducted, from January to July 2011, among first- and second-year medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and physiotherapy students (N = 212) to identify causes of stress. Coping strategies were studied using the Brief COPE Inventory. Results: W...
Full Text Available Effective use of coping strategies by people with chronic pain conditions is associated with better functioning and adjustment to chronic disease. Although the effects of coping on pain have been well studied, less is known about how specific coping strategies relate to actual physical activity patterns in daily life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how different coping strategies relate to symptoms and physical activity patterns in a sample of adults with knee and hip osteoarthritis (N = 44. Physical activity was assessed by wrist-worn accelerometry; coping strategy use was assessed by the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory. We hypothesized that the use of coping strategies that reflect approach behaviors (e.g., Task Persistence, would be associated with higher average levels of physical activity, whereas avoidance coping behaviors (e.g., Resting, Asking for Assistance, Guarding and Pacing would be associated with lower average levels of physical activity. We also evaluated whether coping strategies moderated the association between momentary symptoms (pain and fatigue and activity. We hypothesized that higher levels of approach coping would be associated with a weaker association between symptoms and activity compared to lower levels of this type of coping. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the momentary association between coping and physical activity. We found that higher body mass index, fatigue, and the use of Guarding were significantly related to lower activity levels, whereas Asking for Assistance was significantly related to higher activity levels. Only Resting moderated the association between pain and activity. Guarding, Resting, Task Persistence, and Pacing moderated the association between fatigue and activity. This study provides an initial understanding of how people with osteoarthritis cope with symptoms as they engage in daily life activities using ecological momentary assessment and objective physical activity measurement.
Goudet, Sophie M; Griffiths, Paula L; Bogin, Barry A; Selim, Nasima
Previous research has shown that urban slums are hostile environments for the growth of infants and young children (IYC). Flooding is a hazard commonly found in Dhaka slums (Bangladesh) which negatively impacts IYC's nutritional and health status. This paper aims 1) to identify the impact of flooding on IYC's feeding practices, and 2) to explore the coping strategies developed by caregivers. Qualitative data (participant observation and semi-structured interviews) and quantitative data (household questionnaire and anthropometric measurements) collected in slums in Dhaka (n=18 mothers, n=5 community health workers, and n=55 children) were analysed. The subjects of the interviews were mothers and Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) community health workers living and working in the slums. Research findings showed that breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices for IYC were poor and inappropriate due to lack of knowledge, time, and resources in normal times and worse during flooding. One coping strategy developed by mothers purposely to protect their IYC's nutritional status was to decrease their personal food intake. Our research findings suggest that mothers perceived the negative impact of flooding on their IYC's nutritional health but did not have the means to prevent it. They could only maintain their health through coping strategies which had other negative consequences. The results suggests a holistic approach combining 1) provision of relief for nutritionally vulnerable groups during flooding, 2) support to mothers in their working role, 3) breastfeeding counseling and support to lactating mothers with difficulties, and 4) preventing malnutrition in under 2 year old children. PMID:21108740
Marín-Morales, Dolores; Carmona-Monge, Francisco J; Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Díaz-Sánchez, Verónica; García-Huete, María E
The aim of this research was to analyze the relation between coping strategies and somatic symptomatology in pregnant Spanish women and the influence of a previous miscarriage on these variables. We used a correlational retrospective design, which included 207 expectant mothers (44 with a previous miscarriage). The instruments included a questionnaire on coping with stress and questions about first-trimester symptoms. Regression analysis showed a significant positive relationship between sleep disturbances and overt emotional expression coping, between tiredness/fatigue and avoidance coping, and between nausea and religious coping. The influence of coping strategies on somatic symptomatology did not differ significantly between women who had had or had not had a previous miscarriage, although women with a previous miscarriage scored higher on the use of religious coping and positive reappraisal and reported more nausea. PMID:21439789
Paula Moraes, Pfeifer; Patricia Pereira, Ruschel; Solange, Bordignon.
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas por indivíduos que tiveram o coração transplantado e suas relações com percepção da doença e do transplante. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com análise quantitativa e qualitativa. A amostra de 32 pacientes foi avaliada pela Escala Modos de [...] Enfretamento de Problemas e questionário sociodemográfico; e cinco deles foram sorteados para entrevista. Realizou-se a avaliação da consistência interna da escala, cruzamentos entre as variáveis e os estilos de enfrentamento e a análise de conteúdo das entrevistas, relacionando os resultados ao discurso dos participantes. RESULTADOS: Os indivíduos utilizaram todos os estilos de enfrentamento, predominando o focalizado no problema. Nos participantes que receberam preparo psicológico, houve aumento estatisticamente significativo dos enfrentamentos focalizados no problema e na busca de suporte social. Entretanto, naqueles que não receberam preparo, houve aumento significativo da utilização do enfrentamento focalizado na emoção. Através do método de Bardin, revelaram-se como categorias: doença, reação ao chamado, transplante, fantasias, pós-operatório, equipe e enfrentamento. CONCLUSÕES: Os participantes utilizaram todos os estilos de enfrentamento, predominando a estratégia focalizada no problema. Os que receberam preparo psicológico usaram maior número de estratégias de enfrentamento ativas, o que evidencia a importância do acompanhamento psicológico durante o processo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To investigate coping strategies used by patients submitted to heart transplantation and whether they are related to the perception of the disease and transplantation. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with quantitative and qualitative analysis. The sample of 32 patients was assessed by the [...] Ways of Coping Scale and socio-demographic questionnaire, and five of them were selected for interviews. The internal consistency of the scale was assessed, the variables and strategies involved were crossed and content analysis of interviews, investigating the existence of a relationship with the speech of the participants. RESULTS: The individuals have used all coping styles, with a predominance of the problem-focused strategy. Psychologically prepared patients showed a statistically significant increase in the use of problem-focused coping and seek for social support. However, a significant increase in the use of emotion-focused coping was observed in patients who were not prepared. Analysis through the method of Bardin showed as categories: disease; reaction to call; transplantation; fantasies; postoperative; team and coping. CONCLUSION: Patients with a transplanted heart make use of all coping strategies, with a predominance of the problem-focused strategy. Psychologically prepared individuals used more active coping strategies, which highlights the importance of psychological support during the process.
Murray-Harvey, Rosalind; Skrzypiec, Grace; Slee, Phillip T.
What strategies do students use to cope with bullying and how effective are they? Answers to such questions will not only help students understand how they can cope, but also inform school-wide policies and practices to reduce the incidence of bullying. To do this, schools need evidence on what strategies to focus on to most effectively target
Gláucia Rosana Guerra Benute
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as estratégias de enfrentamento (coping das gestantes frente ao diagnóstico de cardiopatia fetal. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistadas 50 gestantes que receberam o diagnóstico de cardiopatia fetal. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se uma entrevista semidirigida e o Inventário de Estratégia de Coping. A entrevista foi realizada, em média, 22 dias após terem recebido o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: Ao investigar como se sentiam em relação ao bebê, 56,0% relataram preocupação e fragilidade, enquanto que as demais (44,0% afirmaram estarem felizes e bem. As estratégias mais utilizadas pelas gestantes foram: resolução de problemas (73,0%, suporte social (69,1%, fuga/esquiva (62,7%, e a estratégia menos utilizada foi a de afastamento (17,3%. Constatou-se que as mulheres com companheiro, utilizaram mais a estratégia de resolução de problemas (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the coping strategies of women facing a diagnosis of fetal heart disease. METHODS: We interviewed 50 women who had received a diagnosis of fetal heart disease. For data collection we used a semi-directed and Coping Strategy Inventory. The interview was conducted, on average, 22 days after the diagnosis. RESULTS: When asked how they felt about the baby, 56.0% reported concern and fragility, while the remaining 44.0% said they were happy and well. The strategies most used by women were problem solving (73.0%, social support (69.1% and escape/avoidance (62.7%, and the least used strategy was removal (17.3%. It was found that women with partners, as well as those with 1 or 2 children, used more the problem-solving strategy (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The active coping strategies, focused on problem solving and seeking social support, coupled with the responsibility and the need for specific care for the survival and welfare of the baby, brought about a closer relationship with the pregnancy, strengthening the maternal-fetal bond.
Full Text Available A survey was conducted to identify the family roles female students in five public universities in Ghana played and the strategies they used to manage the roles while in school, to ensure academic excellence. Questionnaire was used to collect data in order to allow for a wide coverage and generalization. Family roles performed by the students while in school were found to include: running errands; meal provision; fulfilling marital obligations; decision making; laundering; settling disputes; cleaning; supervising domestic work; shopping; helping children to do school assignments; financial support; disciplining children; fetching water; mending clothes; child, elderly and invalid care; and leading religious activities. Coping strategies adopted by the students to manage these family roles and academic work were: creation of new social boundaries; delegation of roles; acting in context; prioritizing activities; postponing responsibilities; pre-planning activities; dovetailing family and academic work. Mature and married students had more family roles to play than non-mature and single students. It is recommended that Ghanaian universities should strategies for retention and academic excellence of female students to make gender equity meaningful. Consequently, the universities have to create a continuum of services that will reduce the time female students spend on non-academic issues to enable them concentrate on their intellectual development.
The purpose of this study was to explore the association between job stress and coping strategies in early childhood teachers in Central Taiwan. A quantitative approach was utilized, and data were collected from 314 participants. The results of the present study suggest that (1) early childhood teachers believed that their job stress was due to a
Devine, Carol M.; Farrell, Tracy J.; Blake, Christine E.; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A.
Objective: How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Design: Pilot telephone survey. Setting: City in the northeastern United States (US). Participants: Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible
Welch-Scalco, Rhonda Jeannean
Parenting a child with a disability is a lifelong journey. The coping strategies utilized by parents impact the well-being of the family, especially the mothers. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the maternal well-being of Latina and Anglo mothers who have a child with severe to profound disabilities. Predictive variables, such as
Sabiston, C. M.; Sedgwick, W. A.; Crocker, P. R. E.; Kowalski, K. C.; Mack, D. E.
This study explored adolescent females' experiences of social physique anxiety (SPA) and related coping strategies. A final sample of 31 adolescent females ages 13 to 18 years discussed dealing with SPA during individual semistructured interviews. Resultant themes pertaining to the transactional experiences of SPA were coded using content
de Anda, Diane; Bradley, Misty; Collada, Cristina; Dunn, Lynne; Kubota, Julie; Hollister, Valerie; Miltenberger, Julie; Pulley, Jerry; Susskind, Andrew; Thompson, Lisa A.; Wadsworth, Tina
Examined Los Angeles area middle school students' (N=54) stress, environmental stressors, and coping strategies. Results indicate the presence of gender differences, with girls indicating higher levels of stress; boys and girls reported different behavioral and affective responses to stress. School-related stressors were highest in frequency,
Ayres, Melanie M.; Leaper, Campbell
The research examined (a) girls' responses to personal experiences of gender and/or ethnic/racial discrimination, (b) social support from parents and friends following the discrimination, and (c) the relationship between girls' reported coping strategies to the discrimination and their self-esteem. Participants were 74 adolescent girls ("M" = 16.3
Skaalvik, Einar M.; Skaalvik, Sidsel
This study explored job satisfaction, work-related stress, consequences of stress, and coping strategies among Norwegian teachers. The study is based on qualitative interviews with 30 working teachers and four retired teachers. The respondents reported high job satisfaction but also severe stress and exhaustion. Teachers of different ages or at
Gould, Madelyn S.; Velting, Drew; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lucas, Christopher; Thomas, John Graham; Chung, Michelle
Objective: To identify youths' attitudes about coping and help-seeking strategies for suicidal ideation/behavior and examine their demographic and clinical correlates. Method: A self-report survey was completed by high school students (N = 2,419) in six New York State schools from 1998 through 2001. The relationship between suicide attitudes and
Oslo : NPA, 2009. s. 1-1. [European Congress of Psychology /11./. 14.07.2009-17.07. 2009, Oslo] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : prevention of stress * personality resources * coping strategies Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Eren, Altay; Coskun, Hamit
Using person-centered and variable-centered analyses, this study examined the relationships between undergraduate students' time perspectives and boredom coping strategies. A total of 719 undergraduate students voluntarily participated in the study. Results of the study showed that undergraduate students' time perspectives can be
Bianchini, V; Roncone, R; Giusti, L; Casacchia, M; Cifone, MG; Pollice, R
Aim of the study was the assessment of coping strategies, specifically substance use and post-traumatic growth (PTG), in 411 college students two years after 2009 LAquila earthquake. Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) was used to assess PTG and one question about substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis) was asked to verify if students had modified their use in the post-earthquake compared with the pre-earthquake period. The 77.1% of college students were exposed to LAquila earthquake. The PTGI mean score was 35.23, underlining low positive coping strategies among student community. About substance abuse, the 43.8% of college students reported a marked increase in alcohol use, 7.8% in cannabis and the 15.8% reported an increase in nicotine use in the post-earthquake period. Despite these data, 12.5 % of the students reported a decrease in alcohol use after the earthquake and 17.3% of the sample reported a PTG, showing positive behaviors and attitudes after the traumatic experience of the natural disaster (increase of social relationships, appreciation of new future possibilities, and development of a new deep meaning of life). Inferential analysis shows a strong negative correlation between direct earthquake exposure and PTGI total score. In post-disaster settings, a systematic framework of case identification, triage, and mental health interventions, including the improvement of positive coping strategies, like the PTG, should be integrated into emergency medicine and trauma care responses. PMID:25893001
Full Text Available Hazel Moore,1 Ian Stewart,1 Dermot Barnes-Holmes,2 Yvonne Barnes-Holmes,2 Brian E McGuire1,31School of Psychology, National University of Ireland, Galway, 2Department of Psychology, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, 3Centre for Pain Research, National University of Ireland, Galway, IrelandBackground: This study compared an acceptance-based strategy with a control-based strategy (distraction in terms of the ability of participants to tolerate a painful stimulus, across two experiments. In addition, participants were either actively encouraged, or not, to link pain tolerance with pursuit of valued goals to examine the impact of pursuing a personally meaningful goal or value on the extent to which pain will be tolerated.Methods: Participants in experiment 1 (n=41 and experiment 2 (n=52 were equally assigned to acceptance or distraction protocols. Further, half the participants in each group generated examples from their own lives in which they had pursued a valued objective, while the other half did not. In experiment 2, the values focus was enhanced to examine the impact on pain tolerance.Results: There were no significant differences overall between the acceptance and distraction groups on pain tolerance in either experiment. However, in experiment 2, individuals classified as accepting in terms of general coping style and who were assigned to the acceptance strategy showed significantly better pain tolerance than accepting individuals who were in the distraction condition. Across both experiments, those with strong goal-driven values in both protocols were more tolerant of pain. Participants appeared to have more difficulty adhering to acceptance than to distraction as a strategy.Conclusion: Acceptance may be associated with better tolerance of pain, but may also be more difficult to operationalize than distraction in experimental studies. Matching coping style and coping strategy may be most effective, and enhancement of goal-driven values may assist in pain coping.Keywords: pain, acceptance, values, coping
Lieber, Renato Rocha; Kvieska, Rodrigo Neiva; Delamaro, Maurício Cesar
Shift work (SW) can affect worker health and productivity. Working at night, workers often accumulate fatigue and are less productive. In Brazil, laws have been drafted aiming to reduce night work and rotating shift hours. In order to slash costs, companies have been looking for new arrangements to improve productivity under these conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine management changes and their outcomes in a large glass factory located in an industrial region of Brazil. The results show that the management, seeking equal productivity among shifts, focused its efforts mainly on distributing employee expertise. The arrangement resulted in 12 different groups that combine to serve three fixed shifts. A same shift can be served by more than one group, and the members of a same group share days off on different days. There was no statistically significant productivity difference among the three shifts. The on-site examination showed that part of the production was held by the workers and transferred to the next shift in order for them to be able to meet the management's performance rate requirements. The finding shows how a Brazilian cultural trait (resistance without conflict) is used to drive coping in SW. PMID:22317707
Eventos estressores e estratégias de coping em adolescentes: implicações na aprendizagem / Stressful events and coping strategies among adolescents: implications for Learning / Eventos estresantes y estrategias de coping en adolescentes: implicaciones en el aprendizaje
Fernanda de Bastani, Busnello; Luiziana Souto, Schaefer; Christian Haag, Kristensen.
Full Text Available Ao longo da vida, nos deparamos com eventos com os quais não nos percebemos capacitados a lidar, o que pode gerar um estado de tensão no organismo denominado estresse. As alterações decorrentes do estresse e o impacto que provoca na vida das pessoas podem agravar a desadaptação do indivíduo em seu d [...] esenvolvimento, sobretudo no ambiente escolar. O presente artigo explora as relações entre eventos de vida estressores, estresse e estratégias de coping em adolescentes, discutindo as possíveis implicações desses fatores na aprendizagem. Além disso, são descritos os fatores ambientais e a neurobiologia do estresse, bem como o papel da resiliência no enfrentamento de situações estressantes. Abstract in spanish A lo largo de la vida nos enfrentamos con eventos con los cuales no nos sentimos capaces de lidiar, lo que puede generar un estado de tensión en el organismo denominado estrés. Las alteraciones a raíz del estrés y el impacto que provoca en la vida de las personas pueden agravar la falta de adaptació [...] n del individuo en su desarrollo, principalmente en el ambiente escolar. El presente artículo explora las relaciones entre eventos de vida estresantes, estrés y estrategias de Coping en adolescentes, discutiendo las posibles implicaciones de esos factores en el aprendizaje. Además, son descritos los factores ambientales y la neurobiología del estrés, así como el papel de la resiliencia en el enfrentamiento de situaciones estresantes. Abstract in english Throughout our lives we come across events that we think we are not able to deal with, which can generate a state of tension in the body called stress. The changes resulting from the stress and their impact on peoples lives may aggravate the maladjustment on the individual development, particularly [...] in the school environment. This article explores the relationship between stressful events, stress and coping strategies in adolescents, discussing the possible implications of these factors in the learning process. Moreover, environmental factors, the neurobiology of stress and the role of resilience in coping with stressful situations are described.
McTiernan, K; McDonald, N
Burnout negatively impacts the delivery of mental health services. Psychiatric nurses face stressors that are distinct from other nursing specialities. The research was conducted in Ireland and captured a relatively large sample of respondents. The results compared the stressors, coping strategies and burnout levels between hospital and community-based psychiatric nurses. Occupational stress can negatively impact on the well-being of psychiatric nurses, which in turn can lead to poor client care. There is a dearth of published research conducted in Ireland that examines stress within the discipline. A between-groups study, undertaken in February 2011, investigated stressors, burnout and coping strategies between hospital and community-based psychiatric nurses in a Dublin region. Sixty-nine participants (8 males and 61 females), aged between 18 to 60 years voluntarily completed the Mental Health Professional Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the PsychNurse Methods of Coping Scale. The findings revealed that nurses were operating in a moderately stressful environment. Stressors focused on organizational issues as opposed to client issues. The main stressors identified were lack of resources, workload and organizational structures/processes. Both groups reported average levels of emotional exhaustion, low levels of depersonalization and average levels of personal accomplishment. A Mann-Whitney U-test and Independent Samples t-test found significant differences between hospital and community-based nurses regarding depersonalization and personal accomplishment, respectively. Hospital nurses reported higher depersonalization scores, and community nurses had a greater sense of personal accomplishment. The personal accomplishment scores of hospital nurses were below mental health professional norms. No significant differences emerged regarding coping strategies. Avoidant coping strategies were favoured by both groups. It is recommended that interventions aimed at increasing personal accomplishment be implemented for both groups of nurses. An investigation of perceived job control and the use of social support would also be insightful. PMID:25490860
Goretti, Benedetta; Portaccio, Emilio; Zipoli, Valentina; Hakiki, Bahia; Siracusa, Gianfranco; Sorbi, Sandro; Amato, Maria Pia
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of psychological features in the choice of coping strategies in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and their influence on quality of life (QoL). One hundred four patients (72 women, age 45.3 +/- 10.9 years, disease duration 17.9 +/- 13.2 years, Expanded Disability Status Scale 2.8 +/- 2.0) were assessed through the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences-New Italian version and the MSQoL-54. MS patients were less likely to use problem-focused strategies, whereas avoiding strategies were adopted more frequently. The use of positive strategies positively influenced both mental and overall QoL. Depression had a negative impact on all QoL domains and anxiety on mental domains. These data point out the importance of a comprehensive assessment of MS patients. Orienting therapeutic interventions, to oppose depression and anxiety and to favour more appropriate coping strategies can improve the patients' QoL. PMID:19153648
Kim, Junhyoung; Suh, Wonseok; Kim, Sooyeon; Gopalan, Himanshu
During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a) engagement in meaningful activities; (b) social support; and (c) positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. PMID:23195747
Full Text Available During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a engagement in meaningful activities; (b social support; and (c positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents.
Malau-Aduli Bunmi S
Abstract Background Few studies have addressed the challenges that international medical students face and there is a dearth of information on the behavioural strategies these students adopt to successfully progress through their academic program in the face of substantial difficulties of language barrier, curriculum overload, financial constraints and assessment tasks that require high proficiency in communication skills. Methods This study was designed primarily with the aim of enhancing un...
Jeanne Y. Coulibaly
Full Text Available Malawi is a country in southern Africa facing high climate variability and many agricultural challenges. This paper examines farmers coping strategies for crop failure and the determinants of their choices using household level data from rural southern Malawi. The results highlight that farmers are not responding directly to climate variability, but to crop failure, which is influenced by climate stress, as well as other constraints, such as poor soil fertility and lack of agricultural inputs and technologies. The coping strategies adopted by households are mostly ex-post measures, including engaging in casual labor, small businesses and the sale of forest products. The main determinants of the adoption of these coping options are education, gender of the head of household, soil fertility and frequency of crop failure. This study concludes by recommending, among other things, that policies for the more efficient communication of climate change threats should emphasize the risk of crop failure. Furthermore, initiatives to assist households to better cope with climate change should take into consideration the local context of decision-making which is shaped by multiple stressors.
Tramonti, Francesco; Bongioanni, Paolo; Fanciullacci, Chiara; Rossi, Bruno
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) makes a strong psychological impact, and the study of efforts by patients to cope with the course of the disease could be an important first step in the optimisation of care treatment. With this aim, in our study we assessed the coping strategies by a population of ALS patients, according to some clinical parameters and the worsening of the disease. We have administered the MND coping scale to 62 patients, firstly at the admission to our neurorehabilitation unit and secondly after 1year. Each factor score has been related to age and progression of the disease, and comparisons between males and females have also been made. The increasing relevance of seeking support from families and technological devices is probably the most interesting finding: such a result stimulates remarkable considerations about the proper balance between such support and patients' autonomy. As a whole, data confirm the importance of a proper and well-timed psychological intervention for patients and their families. In detail, improving adaptive coping strategies, together with sustaining those which tend to weaken along the progression of the disease, could be an important goal in psychological counselling for both patients and family members. PMID:22819354
Bailey, Andy; Johnson, Gerry
This paper builds on a multidimensional framework of strategy development to more clearly understand the processes by which strategy develops within organisations. It reports on a survey based research project which employs senior executives perceptions of the strategy development process in their organisations to examine how context specific configurations of dimensions explaining such processes can advance our understanding of strategic management. Six configurations are ide...
Full Text Available The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in a much faster pace than in the past, thanks to communication development so companies are obliged to adopt more specific strategies in order for them to be effective. This essay represents a literary review presenting a documentary research within the scientific articles and strategy and positioning books. The paper begins with the analysis of company strategies and the marketing strategies in general. The first author to group the product positioning strategies is Porter with his three generic strategies. Following the development of brands and because of the lack of competitiveness in the simple generic positioning strategies, this paper has also presented the newer positioning strategies proposed by Kotler, Treacy & Wiersema, and also more complex ones such as Bowman's Strategy Clock and Blankson and Kalafatis positioning strategy based on the type of the consumer. The fast expansion of local brands in all categories has led to mistakes in positioning strategies, categories also presented in the current essay. The results of this study show that new positioning strategies are more and more based on the consumer and market segments and on the product specification - which have also evolved in the last decades. Adaptability to fast changes in the competitive market will represent the future positioning strategies.
Flanagan-Howard, Roisín; CARR, ALAN; Shevlin, Mark; Dooley, Barbara A.; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Tierney, Kevin; WhiteWhite, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan
Objective. To develop a psychometric instrument to evaluate psychological processes associated with institutional abuse and coping strategies used to deal with such abuse. Methods. As part of a comprehensive assessment protocol, an inventory containing theoretically derived multi-item rational scales which assessed institutional abuse-related psychological processes and coping strategies were administered to 247 Irish adult survivors of institutional child abuse. Exploratory and conf...
Full text: The adaptive responses of plants to an increase in radioactivity of environment were established in radiobiological researches carried out in the Zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. It has been shown that there are two types of adaptive strategies to the environment contaminated with radionuclides, namely ontogenetic and phylogenetic strategies. The ontogenetic adaptive strategy is attained by induction of DNA reparation. Increasing of the genetic variability in irradiated population performs the phylogenetic adaptive strategy. The mechanism of this strategy is associated with induction of genetic instability. Rise in the frequency of genetic recombination as well as heterozygosity is at the time essential components of phylogenetic adaptation. Ontogenetic and phylogenetic adaptation strategies are an important feature in coping of plants to the elevated chronic irradiation. Most likely plant cells as a stress signal into adaptive responses perceive the low doses of irradiation. (author)
A top executive for New England's biggest independent gas distributor says deregulation of the utility industry offers unprecedented opportunities for growth, but getting there will radically change the way it does business. To achieve dramatic growth, Bay State Gas Co. needs to base their strategies on anticipating the changes in the industry and aggressively positioning themselves to capture the new opportunities that the new business environment is creating. This includes: accelerating the unbundling of transportation service all the way to the residential customer level; forging strategic relationships with retail energy product and service companies as a means of increasing throughput on Bay State's system; implementing performance-based rates that provide financial incentives for lowering costs and improving customer service; accelerating the implementation of sophisticated information systems to streamline key business processes; and aggressively expanding Bay State's nonregulated Energy Products and Services business. These steps are discussed
Kalichman, S C; Gueritault-Chalvin, V; Demi, A
Nurses working in AIDS care experience high rates of occupational stress and therefore are vulnerable to emotional exhaustion and occupational burnout. This study surveyed 499 members of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care regarding their work-related stress experiences and coping strategies for managing stress. Qualitative analyses identified a hierarchical structure of occupational stress, with two supraclusters representing workplace and patient care-related stress and eight specific subclusters of stressors: institutions, personnel, biohazards, death, informing patients, challenging patients, families, and treatment dilemmas. Analyses showed that nurses experiencing stress from their workplace were significantly more likely to use wishful thinking, planful problem solving, and avoidance as coping strategies, whereas stress originating from patient care was more likely to be dealt with using positive appraisal and acceptance. Interventions designed to assist nurses in managing occupational stress and to prevent occupational burnout must include the sources of work-related stress among nurses in AIDS care. PMID:10826302
Full Text Available College students at university have to face several stress factors. Although sports practice has been considered as having beneficial effects upon stress and general health, few studies have documented its influence on this specific population. The aim of this comparative study was to determine whether the intensity of the college students sports practice (categorized into three groups: rare, regular or intensive would influence their levels of stress and self-efficacy, their coping strategies and their academic success/failure. Three self-completion questionnaires were administered to 1071 French freshmen during their compulsory medical visit at the preventive medicine service of the university. Results indicated that students with intensive sport practice reported lower scores of general stress, academic stress and emotion-focused coping strategies, and higher scores of self-efficacy than those with rare practice. However, the proportion of successful students did not differ significantly between the three groups of sports practice.
A grounded theory was utilized to develop a model of stress and coping experienced by recent immigrants to the United States. Maximum variation sampling was used to gather data from 20 leaders within immigrant and refugee communities in a Midwest U.S. city. A theoretical model was developed by identifying causal conditions, contexts, intervening
This study attempts to explore some of the effects orphans children migrated into Norway can experienced after the dead of their parents and the strategies they used in coping with these challenges they meet in their new environment, Norway. Four orphans participated in this study. My focus is based on the description of their experiences, feelings, life and challenges. Moreover it has been of importance to find theories which can enlighten someone to get a better understanding about what ha...
Elli Nur Hayati; Malin Eriksson; Mohammad Hakimi; Ulf Högberg; Maria Emmelin
Background: Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways i...
Mohangi, Kesh; Ebersohn, L. (Liesel); Eloff, Irma F.
In this case study, we utilized a Resilience framework and Sense of Coherence theory to understand how a group of children coped while living in an institution as a consequence of HIV/AIDS. We followed a qualitative and interpretivist approach. The experiences of nine children (5 girls and 4 boys) aged between 11 and 15 years is highlighted. The primary data generation strategy was informal interviews. However, we based these interviews upon participatory task-based and multimodal ...
Fletcher, Stephanie M.; Jodi Thiessen; Anna Gero; Michele Rumsey; Natasha Kuruppu; Juliet Willetts
The Pacific Islands are vulnerable to climate change and increased risk of disasters not only because of their isolated and often low lying geographical setting but because of their economic status which renders them reliant on donor support. In a qualitative study exploring the adaptive capacity of Pacific Island Countries (PICs) across four countries, Cook Islands, Fiji, Samoa, and Vanuatu, it was clear that traditional coping strategies are consistently being applied as part of response to...
Mohammad Naghi Farahani; Mahya Ghazizadeh; Pooya Beigi; Soheila Hosseini; Batool Rashidi
Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of coping strategies, personality trait and social support as the main social and psychological factors on infertility stress.Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 201 infertile Iranian women referred to the Vali-e-Asr Reproductive health Research Center, and completed the following questionnaires: The fertility problem inventory, measuring perceived infertility related stress (Newton CR, 1999), big five factor persona...
In this study, we have a research of the Zhejiang SMEs business operation and financing difficulties analysis and the banks coping strategy. Since the beginning of 2011, Zhejiang SMEs have fallen into business difficulties under heavy pressure from 3-shortage and 2-high, namely, shortage of money, shortage of electricity and shortage of labor and high cost and high taxes. This even leads to the tide of enterprise collapse. In such a dilemma, problems of financial shortage and financing d...
Doménech Betoret, Fernando; Gómez Artiga, Amparo
This study examines the relationships among stressors, coping strategies, self-efficacy and burnout in a sample of 724 Spanish primary and secondary teachers. We understood stressors as barriers perceived by teachers that interfere with their work meeting learning objectives and which cause them stress and burnout. An analysis of teacher responses using hierarchical regression revealed that pedagogical barriers had significant positive effects on the burnout dimensions. Furthermore, the resul...
Santosh Patil*, Madhura M and Abdul khadar
Full Text Available Everyone suffers from one or other form stress. But how does our medical student fare in this aspect when they enter this vast, ever expanding and demanding field of medicine. This is our small step to look from eyes of our student. The aim of this study was to enumerate the stress symptoms experienced, followed by evaluating the causes of stress and coping strategies in south Indian medical students. A cross-sectional study was performed on first year medical students at Melmaruvathur Adhiparasakthi institute of medical sciences, Melmaruvathur, Tamilnadu. A total of 141 students were participating in the study; semi structured questionnaire was designed, and they have to grade them in order of which they experienced first. One-way ANOVA for symptoms of stress, causes and coping strategies and Independent Samples Test- Levene's Test for Equality of Variances was used to find out the difference between hostilities and days scholars. Symptom of Fatigue/weakness is more in boys than the girls <0.018; home sickness was more in girls than boys<0.002, the coping strategies like taking rest, involving in sports and cultural programs; self-isolation was significantly more in boys than girls. Hostilities are having more low moods compare to days scholars <0.025, coping strategy is by listening to music<0.01. Medical students will be having different types of causes for their stress, so medical faculties need to be aware of these problems and identify and deal with them as soon as possible.
Burgess, Kim B.; Wojslawowicz, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn
The primary objectives of this investigation were to examine the attributions, emotional reactions, and coping strategies of shy/withdrawn and aggressive girls and boys and to examine whether such social cognitions differ within the relationship context of friendship. Drawn from a sample of 5th and 6th graders (M age = 10.79 years; SD = .77), 78 shy/withdrawn, 76 aggressive, and 85 control children were presented with hypothetical social situations that first involved unfamiliar peers, then a...
Full Text Available The aim of study is to make the garment CAD get faster development and popularization in China. Garment CAD enhances enterprise's economic and social benefits, but it actually receives the hindrance in the domestic application and popularization. The domestic popularity rate is obviously lower than that in European and American developed countries. The main barriers which existing in the application and popularization process of garment CAD in China are analyzed and corresponding countermeasures are proposed.
Sintomas de estresse e estratégias de coping em idosos saudáveis / Stress symptoms and coping strategies in healthy elderly subjects / Síntomas de estrés y estrategias de coping en ancianos saludables
Juliana Nery de Souza, Talarico; Paulo, Caramelli; Ricardo, Nitrini; Eliane Corrêa, Chaves.
Full Text Available Idosos podem manifestar sintomas de estresse em decorrência das mudanças biopsicossociais do envelhecimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar sintomas de estresse em idosos e o estilo de coping utilizado por eles, verificando a relação entre estas variáveis. Foram aplicados a Lista de Sintoma [...] s de Stress (LSS) e o Inventário de Coping de Jalowiec, em 41 idosos saudáveis. Os idosos apresentaram sintomas de estresse, com intensidade média de 42.8 pontos. Observou-se predomínio do coping focado no problema, porém não houve diferença significativa entre as médias dos escores do LSS entre os indivíduos que utilizaram coping focado no problema ou na emoção (p=0.737). Neste estudo, embora os idosos tendessem a eleger o coping focado no problema, a intensidade dos sintomas de estresse independeu do tipo de coping utilizado, evidenciando que tanto o coping focado no problema como o focado na emoção estão associados a níveis semelhantes de estresse. Abstract in spanish Los ancianos pueden manifestar síntomas de estrés como consecuencia de los cambios biopsicosociales del envejecimiento. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar síntomas de estrés en ancianos y el estilo de coping utilizado por ellos, verificando la relación entre estas variables. Fueron aplicado [...] s la Lista de Síntomas de Estrés (LSS) y el Inventario de Coping de Jalowiec, en 41 ancianos saludables. Los ancianos presentaron síntomas de estrés, con intensidad promedio de 42.8 pontos. Se observó el predominio del coping enfocado en el problema, sin embargo no hubo diferencia significativa entre los promedios de los puntajes del LSS entre los individuos que utilizaron el coping enfocado en el problema o en la emoción (p = 0.737). En este estudio, a pesar de que los ancianos tendieron a escoger el coping enfocado en el problema, la intensidad de los síntomas de estrés fue independiente del tipo de coping utilizado, evidenciando que tanto el coping enfocado en el problema como el enfocado en la emoción están asociados a niveles semejantes de estrés. Abstract in english Elderly subjects may present stress symptoms due to physical, psychological and social changes during aging process. The aim of this study was to identify stress symptoms in elderly subjects and the coping strategies they used, verifying the relationship between these variables. The Stress Symptoms [...] List (SSL) and the Jalowiec Coping Scale were administered to 41 healthy elderly subjects. Elderly subjects presented stress symptoms with a mean score of 42.8. Although problem-focused coping was predominantly observed, no significant difference was observed between mean SSL scores among elderly subjects who used problem-focused or emotion-focused coping. Although elderly subjects mainly elected problem-focused coping, stress intensity was independent of the coping style, showing that both problem- and emotion-focused coping are associated with similar stress levels.
Yoo, Woohyun; Shah, Dhavan V; Shaw, Bret R; Kim, Eunkyung; Smaglik, Paul; Roberts, Linda J; Hawkins, Robert P; Pingree, Suzanne; McDowell, Helene; Gustafson, David H
Despite the importance of family environment and computer-mediated social support (CMSS) for women with breast cancer, little is known about the interplay of these sources of care and assistance on patients' coping strategies. To understand this relation, the authors examined the effect of family environment as a predictor of the use of CMSS groups as well as a moderator of the relation between group participation and forms of coping. Data were collected from 111 patients in CMSS groups in the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System "Living with Breast Cancer" intervention. Results indicate that family environment plays a crucial role in (a) predicting breast cancer patient's participation in CMSS groups and (b) moderating the effects of use of CMSS groups on breast cancer patients' coping strategies such as problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. PMID:24511907
ONeil, John W.; Steyn, Ben J.M. (Barend Johannes Marthinus)
The aim of this study was to determine the coping strategies that non-elite athletes use to overcome environmental factors during endurance events. A sample of 53 nonelite endurance athletes completed a questionnaire and interviews were conducted. The research focused on exploring individual experiences as well as identifying themes and patterns of behaviour during endurance events. The results indicated that endurance athletes used basically three coping strategies (responses) that were iden...
Carolina Domingues, Hirsch; Edison Luiz Devos, Barlem; Jamila Geri, Tomaschewski-Barlem; Valéria Lerch, Lunardi; Aline Cristina Calçada de, Oliveira.
Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: Identificar os preditores do estresse e as estratégias de coping utilizadas por estudantes de Enfermagem. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado com 146 estudantes de Enfermagem. Os instrumentos de pesquisa foram: o inventário de estratégias de coping e a escala de avaliação de estre [...] sse. Para análise dos dados utilizaram-se correlação de Pearson e análise de regressão. Resultados: Identificaram-se como preditores do estresse a formação acadêmica, conhecimento prático adquirido, e tempo e lazer. Os preditores do estresse apresentaram associação com as estratégias de coping negação do problema e fuga da realidade. Conclusão: As estratégias mais utilizadas frente a eventos estressores foram consideras negativas e de baixa eficácia por centrarem seus esforços na emoção, e não no problema, comprometendo o processo de formação profissional. Abstract in english Abstract Objective: To identify predictors of stress and coping strategies adopted by nursing students. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted with 146 nursing students. The research instruments consisted of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOC) and the Instrument for the Assessment of Stress i [...] n Nursing Students (ASNS). Data were analyzed using the Pearson's correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The following predictors of stress were identified: professional education, acquired practical knowledge, and free time and leisure. Predictors of stress were associated with denial and escape-avoidance coping strategies. Conclusion: The most common strategies used by students in stressful events were considered negative and of poor effectiveness, as efforts were focused on emotions and not on the problem, compromising students professional training process.
Full Text Available Our experience of stress depends on how we evaluate the circumstances impacting our individual well-being. In principle, any event can be a stressor. Certain events can produce complex emotional states, such as a mixture of anger and worry. If such states are prolonged, they can lead to stress. Stress can be identified by means of such expressive components as facial expression and signs of stress in the voice. Indeed, the voice is particularly sensitive to stress and is frequently used to measure stress levels. Coping strategies differ from person to person and are not mutually exclusive. Often, people use multiple strategies at the same time. Not all of these strategies are good for individual well-being or favor a cooperation-based work culture. To avoid employee burnout, companies should keep an eye on the stress load of their employees and develop trainings to increase emotional competences and improve constructive stress management.
Judora J. Spangenberg
Full Text Available To examine the relationships between stress levels and, respectively, stressor appraisal, coping strategies and bio- graphical variables, 107 managers completed a biographical questionnaire. Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire, and Coping Strategy Indicator. Significant negative correlations were found between stress levels and appraisal scores on all work-related stressors. An avoidant coping strategy explained significant variance in stress levels in a model also containing social support-seeking and problem-solving coping strategies. It was concluded that an avoidant coping strategy probably contributed to increased stress levels. Female managers experienced significantly higher stress levels and utilized a social support-seeking coping strategy significantly more than male managers did. Opsomming Om die verband tussen stresvlakke en, onderskeidelik, taksering van stressors, streshanteringstrategiee en biografiese veranderlikes te ondersoek, het 107 bestuurders n biografiese vraelys, Ervaring vanWerk- en Lewensomstandighedevraelys en Streshanteringstrategieskaal voltooi. Beduidende negatiewe korrelasies is aangetref tussen stresvlakke en takseringtellings ten opsigte van alle werkverwante stressors. 'nVermydende streshantermgstrategie het beduidende variansie in stresvlakke verklaar in n model wat ook sosiale ondersteuningsoekende en pro-bleemoplossende streshanteringstrategiee ingesluit het. Die gevolgtrekking is bereik dat n vermydende stres- hanteringstrategie waarskynlik bygedra het tot verhoogde stresvlakke. Vroulike bestuurders het beduidend hoer stresvlakke ervaar en het n sosiale ondersteuningsoekende streshanteringstrategie beduidend meer gebnnk as manlike bestuurders.
Full Text Available Modeling depression in animals is based on the observation of behaviors interpreted as analogue to human symptoms. Typical tests used in experimental depression research are designed to evoke an either-or outcome. It is known that explorative and coping strategies are relevant for depression, however these aspects are generally not considered in animal behavioral testing. Here we investigate the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL, a rat model of depression, compared to the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat in three independent tests where the animals are allowed to express a more extensive behavioral repertoire. The multivariate concentric square field (MCSF and the novel cage tests evoke exploratory behaviors in a novel environment and the home cage change test evokes social behaviors in the re-establishment of a social hierarchy. In the MCSF test, FSL rats exhibited less exploratory drive and more risk-assessment behavior compared to SD rats. When re-exposed to the arena, FSL, but not SD rats, increased their exploratory behavior compared to the first trial and displayed risk-assessment behavior to the same extent as SD rats. Thus, the behavior of FSL rats was more similar to that of SDs when the rats were familiar with the arena. In the novel cage test FSL rats exhibited a reactive coping style, consistent with the reduced exploration observed in the MCSF. Reactive coping is associated with less aggressive behavior. Accordingly, FSL rats displayed less aggressive behavior in the home cage change test. Taken together, our data show that FSL rats express altered explorative behavior and reactive coping style. Reduced interest is a core symptom of depression, and individuals with a reactive coping style are more vulnerable to the disease. Our results support the use of FSL rats as an animal model of depression and increase our understanding of the FSL rat beyond the behavioral dimensions targeted by the traditional depression-related tests.
Full Text Available We analyze statistical data concerning the level of criminal and deviant behavior in adolescents in the Russian Federation. With a focus on the mechanisms of coping with the stress, we describe approaches to studying risk factors for aggression in adolescents. We report the results of a preliminary empirical study aimed at identifying the specific coping strategies in adolescents with particular character traits who are prone to aggressive response. The authors note that as factors that increase the likelihood of aggressive response, one can considered a tendency to confrontation and unwillingness of constructive and rational problem-solving, as well as low self-control over emotional impulses. The important role in the formation of readiness to aggressive responses plays the emotion of anger and hostile perception of situations
Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle- to upper-middle-class, predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11-16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning, including normative, subclinical, and clinical levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a 2-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, (i.e., more problem solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers). Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents' coping across the discussion except boys' initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers' angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over 2 years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as on how these processes impact youth well-being and dysfunction over time. PMID:26439060
Susana, Caires; Cândida, Silva.
Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um estudo realizado com 341 finalistas do ensino secundário do Norte de Portugal, visando à exploração do tipo e níveis de stress experienciados pelos alunos, e estratégias de coping mais frequentemente utilizadas. Os dados - recolhidos por meio do Inventário de Fatores de St [...] ress (12º ano) e do Inventário de Estratégias de Coping dos Adolescentes face a Experiências Problemáticas - revelam níveis de stress medianos, destacando-se a área acadêmica como a de maior dificuldade. A "Procura de apoio fora da família "; a "Resolução ativa dos problemas "e a "Distração e relativização da situação "surgem como as estratégias de coping mais frequentes. Destaca-se o papel diferenciador das variáveis gênero, escolaridade dos pais e rendimento escolar dos alunos nos níveis de stress experienciado. Abstract in english This paper presents a study involving 341 High School final-year students (from the North of Portugal), aimed at the exploration of the type and levels of stress experienced in their day-to-day lives, as well as the coping strategies they most frequently adopt. The data, based on the application of [...] the Inventory of Stress Factors (12th grade) and the Inventory of Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences, reveal medium stress levels and identify the academic factors as the most stressful. The "Search for support outside the family", the "Active problem solving "and the "Distraction and problem minimization "emerge as the most frequent coping strategies. Results also highlight the influence of gender, parents' level of education, and students' school performance on the levels of stress experienced by this group of final-year students.
Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to document the level of access to assets; the livelihood strategies utilized; the shocks or risks faced and the coping mechanisms utilized by rural households in southern Zambia. Data was collected from 350 randomly chosen households in Monze and Kalomo districts. Quantitative and qualitative data collected from the survey was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results indicate that distribution of livelihood assets in the study area are skewed by wealth showing that the majority of the production resources are owned by a few (27% of the well-endowed households who owned more key assets like livestock and had greater access to land as compared to the poor. The results also showed that the households are diversifying their livelihood strategies among different asset combinations and activities. Crop farming, livestock rearing and petty trading are some of the major livelihood strategies being employed. Rainfall variability as manifested in droughts and erratic rainfall patterns was identified as a major shock and the most critical source of risk and vulnerability which has been causing frequent production losses and seasonal food shortages among the households. The households are engaging in various activities to cope with the various stresses and shocks. Livestock selling was one of the most effective strategies to ameliorate hunger. However the livestock herds have been dwindling in the past two decades due to disease outbreaks. Households are also depending more on food aid than in any other activity for survival.
Paula Andrea, Montoya Zuluaga; Sara, Moreno Moreno.
Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como nalidad analizar, a partir de las teorías existentes, la relación entre las estrategias de afrontamiento, el síndrome de burnout y el engagement. El síndrome de burnout si bien se desarrolla en un contexto organizacional, es individual y ello ya implica la existencia de fact [...] ores de riesgo que llegan a activarse (ya sea para posibilitar su aparición por las estrategias de afrontamiento que se asumen o evitar su desarrollo, cuando hay engagement) en contextos laborales donde hay presencia de alta carga laboral, bajas recompensas por el ocio llevado a cabo y ambientes laborales en los que no se posibilita la participación para la toma de decisiones. Abstract in english This article has as a main objective to analyze from existing theories, the relationship between coping strategies, burnout syndrome, and engagement. Burnout Syndrome although developed in an organizational context is an individual syndrome and this already implies the existence of risk factors that [...] become activated (either to allow an appearance by the Coping Strategies that are assumed or prevent their development - when there is engagement) in working contexts where there is the presence of high workload, low for the work done and employment context where participation is not allowed in decision making.
The contribution discusses the means available to administrative law in coping with scientific and technological developments. The potentials and chances of technology are reviewed in contrast to the immanent risks, and technology and law are discussed in their interactive relations. The role of the law is explained with regard to supervisory and controlling functions, referring to practical examples (licensing of installations, biological and genetic engineering, information and communication science and technology). The author discusses the efficiency of control (preventive prohibition subject to possible licensing, averting danger, preventing risks, strict liability regimes, planning laws), as well as the time problem (protection of existing rights, stepwise licensing procedures, subsequent instructions and supervision), and judical review. Finally, the author discusses the ways technology may win (improvement of acceptance procedures, judicial control) and the rather unsatisfactory conditions today. (RST)
Full Text Available Sport coaching can be a fulfilling and rewarding occupation, but can also be stressful because of the demands and expectations of various external factors. The complex and extraordinary demands placed on coaches, force them to perform multiple roles (e.g. educator, motivator, counsellor, adviser, trainer, manager and administrator. Soccer coaches face a number of challenges, frustrations, conflicts and tensions, the enormity of which is often underestimated. This notion is supported by the description of coaching as a perilous occupation in which coaches experience pressures like stress, conflict and tension, media pressure and intrusions into family life. This study explored the perceptions of South African soccer coaches in terms of the mechanisms they use to cope with potential stressors experienced in their jobs and employed a non-experimental design, using a quantitative approach, to assess stress and coping strategies of South African coaches. One hundred and twelve soccer coaches, coaching at the provincial level and higher, completed a questionnaire on stress and stress coping mechanisms used in their coaching jobs. Descriptive data analysis was completed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16. The sources of stress experienced and coping methods used by the coaches were evaluated. Results revealed that the top three sources of stress were a lack of resources, fixture backlog and games where the outcome is critical, whilst the lowest three sources of stress were political interference, physical assaults from players and substituting a player. Moreover, various coping strategies used by the coaches showed that an average of 5.68%, 5.14% and 89.78% of the sample used maladaptive coping, emotion management coping and problem management coping strategies respectively. Academic and practical implications of the study results are discussed.
OpsommingSport afrigting kan n baie vervullende en bevredigende beroepskeuse wees, maar as gevolg van die eise en verwagtinge van verskeie omgewings faktore, kan dit ook as n spanningsvolle beroep ervaar word. Afrigters moet verskeie rolle vertolk (o.a. opvoeder, motiveerder, sielkundige, adviseerder, afrigter, bestuurder en administrateur wat deel uitmaak van die komplekse en buitengewone eise wat op hulle geplaas word. Sokker afrigters beleef n aantal uitdagings, konflik situasies, frustrasies en spanning waarvan die impak of waarde daarvan selde gemeet kan word. Afrigting as n konsep word beskryf of gedefinieer as n potensieel onveilige en/of wisselvallige beroep waar die meerderheid afrigters spanning ervaar, konflik beleef, media druk moet verwerk en n geweldige inbreuk op hul persoonlike en familielewe ervaar. Hierdie studie ondersoek Suid-Afrikaanse sokker afrigters se persepsies aangaande die meganismes wat hulle gebruik om die potensiële spanning van hul beroep te bestuur. Die studie is gebaseer op n nie-eksperimentele ontwerp met n kwantitatiewe benadering van Suid-Afrikaanse sokker afrigters om spanning te evalueer en te bestuur. Een honderd en twaalf sokker afrigters wat op provinsiale vlak of hoër afgerig het, het vraelyste ingevul aangaande spanning en spanning hanteringstegnieke wat in hul afrigtingsberoepe gebruik is. Beskrywende data analise is met behulp van n statistiese pakket in Sosiale Wetenskap (SPSS-weergawe 16 gedoen. Die oorsake van spanning asook die hanteringstegnieke wat deur die afrigters gebruik is, is geevalueer. Die resultate het bevind dat daar drie duidelike oorsake van spanning was, naamlik n tekort aan hulpbronne, die akkumulasie van geskeduleerde wedstryde asook wedstryde waarvan die uitslag krities is. Die drie laagste oorsake van spanning was onder andere politieke inmenging, fisiese aanranding deur spelers en die vervanging van spelers. Die afrigters het n verskeidenheid van spannings hanteringstegnieke gebruik, maar die resultate toon dat 5.68%, 5.14% en 89.78% van die eksperimente
Psycho-social risks at work: stress and coping strategies in oncology nurses / Riesgos psicosociales en el trabajo: estrés y estrategias de coping en enfermeros en oncología / Riscos psicossociais no trabalho: estresse e estratégias de coping em enfermeiros em oncologia
Sandra da Fonte Sousa, Gomes; Margarida Maria Magalhães Cabugueira Custódio dos, Santos; Elisabete Teresa da Mata Almeida, Carolino.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar fontes de estresse e estratégias de coping em enfermeiros que exercem funções em três Serviços de Oncologia de Cirurgia Cabeça e Pescoço, de três hospitais centrais de Portugal. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, de carácter descritivo e exploratório, cuja amostra foi constituíd [...] a pelos 96 enfermeiros dos três serviços. Na recolha de dados, foram utilizados: Questionário Sociodemográfico, Questionário de Saúde Geral-12, Inventário de Estressores Ocupacionais e Brief COPE. RESULTADOS: verificaram-se níveis razoáveis de saúde geral. Os estressores mais referidos foram: sobrecarga de trabalho, baixa remuneração salarial, espaço físico onde se desenvolve a profissão, situações emocionalmente perturbadoras e falta de reconhecimento da profissão. As estratégias de coping mais utilizadas foram: planeamento, coping ativo, aceitação e autodistração. CONCLUSÃO: os estressores identificados relacionam-se principalmente a aspetos organizacionais e condições de trabalho, e as estratégias de coping escolhidas estão direcionadas para a resolução de problemas e melhoria do bem-estar dos enfermeiros. Percentagem expressiva de enfermeiros apresentou níveis elevados de pressão e emoções deprimidas. Os resultados apresentados corroboram estudos anteriores que alertam para a importância do desenvolvimento de estratégias de prevenção dos níveis de estresse. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: identificar fuentes de estrés y estrategias de coping en enfermeros que ejercen funciones en tres Servicios de Oncología de Cirugía Cabeza y Cuello, de tres hospitales centrales de Portugal. MÉTODO: estudio transversal, de carácter descriptivo y exploratorio, cuya muestra fue constit [...] uida por los 96 enfermeros de los tres servicios. En la recolección de datos fueron utilizados: Cuestionario Socio-demográfico; Cuestionario de Salud General-12; Inventario de estresores Ocupacionales; Brief COPE. RESULTADOS: se verificaron niveles razonables de salud general. Los estresores más referidos fueron: sobrecarga de trabajo; baja remuneración salarial; espacio físico donde se desarrolla la profesión; situaciones emocionalmente perturbadoras y falta de reconocimiento de la profesión. Las estrategias de coping más utilizadas fueron: planificación; coping activo; aceptación y auto-distracción. CONCLUSIÓN: los estresores identificados se relacionan principalmente con aspectos de organización y condiciones de trabajo, y las estrategias de coping escogidas están dirigidas para la resolución de problemas y la mejoría del bienestar de los enfermeros. Un porcentaje expresivo de enfermeros presentó niveles elevados de presión y emociones de depresión. Los resultados presentados corroboran estudios anteriores que alertan para la importancia del desarrollo de estrategias de prevención de los niveles de estrés. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to identify sources of stress and coping strategies in nurses who work in three Head and Neck Surgery Oncology Services, in three central hospitals in Portugal. METHOD: a cross-sectional descriptive-exploratory study, whose sample was made up of the 96 nurses from the three services [...] . The following were used in the data collection: a socio-demographic questionnaire; the 12-item General Health Questionnaire; and the Occupational Stress Inventory; Brief COPE. RESULTS: reasonable levels of general health were ascertained. The most-mentioned stressors were: burden with work; low pay; the physical space where they work; emotionally-disturbing situations and lack of recognition of the profession. The most-used coping strategies were: planning; active coping; acceptance and self-distraction. CONCLUSION: the stressors identified are mainly related to organizational aspects and work conditions, and the coping strategies chosen are aimed at resolving problems and improving the nurses' well-being. A significant percentage of the nurses presents high levels of pressure and depressed emotions. The results presented corroborate pre
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as estratégias de coping adotadas por crianças vítimas e não vítimas de violência doméstica, quando inseridas no microssistema escolar. Participaram da pesquisa 87 crianças divididas em dois grupos: 49 vítimas e 38 não vítimas de violência doméstica, as quais responderam a uma entrevista estruturada nas suas escolas, que visava a identificar os problemas mais freqüentes experienciados com os professores e com os colegas e as estratégias de coping utilizadas. As crianças vítimas de violência doméstica apontaram como problema de maior freqüência as agressões verbais por parte da professora e a estratégia de coping de agredir fisicamente para lidar nos conflitos com seus pares. As crianças não vítimas citaram com maior freqüência a busca de apoio de outras pessoas como estratégia para lidar com seus problemas junto aos colegas. As meninas adotaram a inação, quando enfrentam problemas com seus professores e se incomodam mais com as agressões verbais destes. Os resultados são discutidos levando em conta o contexto ecológico e as relações hierárquicas e apontam subsídios para programas de intervenção, que promovam resiliência e adaptação sadia de criançasà escola.The present study aimed to investigate coping strategies of domestic violence victimized and non-victimized children in school's microsystem. Eighty-seven children, divided in two groups participated in this study: 49 victimized and 38 non-victimized children. They answered a structured interview to identify the most frequent conflicts faced with teachers and classmates and the coping strategies to deal with those issues. The victimized children reported higher frequency of verbal aggression from teachers, and physical aggressions as coping strategies to deal with peers. The non-victimized children seemed to look for others' support as coping strategies to deal with problems they have with their classmates. Girls did not seem to act when they faced problems with their teachers, and they felt more upset with teacher's verbal aggression. Results are discussed based on the ecological context and hierarchical relations, and give subsidies out to support intervention programs, to promote resilience and children's healthy adaptation to school.
Carolina, Lisboa; Sílvia Helena, Koller; Fernanda Freitas, Ribas; Kelly, Bitencourt; Letícia, Oliveira; Lízia Pacheco, Porciuncula; Renata Busnello De, Marchi.
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as estratégias de coping adotadas por crianças vítimas e não vítimas de violência doméstica, quando inseridas no microssistema escolar. Participaram da pesquisa 87 crianças divididas em dois grupos: 49 vítimas e 38 não vítimas de violência doméstica, as quai [...] s responderam a uma entrevista estruturada nas suas escolas, que visava a identificar os problemas mais freqüentes experienciados com os professores e com os colegas e as estratégias de coping utilizadas. As crianças vítimas de violência doméstica apontaram como problema de maior freqüência as agressões verbais por parte da professora e a estratégia de coping de agredir fisicamente para lidar nos conflitos com seus pares. As crianças não vítimas citaram com maior freqüência a busca de apoio de outras pessoas como estratégia para lidar com seus problemas junto aos colegas. As meninas adotaram a inação, quando enfrentam problemas com seus professores e se incomodam mais com as agressões verbais destes. Os resultados são discutidos levando em conta o contexto ecológico e as relações hierárquicas e apontam subsídios para programas de intervenção, que promovam resiliência e adaptação sadia de criançasà escola. Abstract in english The present study aimed to investigate coping strategies of domestic violence victimized and non-victimized children in school's microsystem. Eighty-seven children, divided in two groups participated in this study: 49 victimized and 38 non-victimized children. They answered a structured interview to [...] identify the most frequent conflicts faced with teachers and classmates and the coping strategies to deal with those issues. The victimized children reported higher frequency of verbal aggression from teachers, and physical aggressions as coping strategies to deal with peers. The non-victimized children seemed to look for others' support as coping strategies to deal with problems they have with their classmates. Girls did not seem to act when they faced problems with their teachers, and they felt more upset with teacher's verbal aggression. Results are discussed based on the ecological context and hierarchical relations, and give subsidies out to support intervention programs, to promote resilience and children's healthy adaptation to school.
MADELYN ROUSELLE A. CRUZAT
Full Text Available There are many studies with regard to problems caused by shift work, thus, shift workers are recently thinking about how to solve and implement behaviors that will reduce the problems caused by their work. The present study sought to determine the effects of shift work in a Business Process Outsourcing company in terms of shift workers health, Psychological well being and their coping mechanisms and provide an Action Plan for training and development. A total number of 210 respondents who were administered Shift Work Index Questionnaire and were tabulated and analyzed using Factor Analysis, ANOVA and Post Hoc Analysis in Sheffe method. The overall results of the study showed that the level of coping mechanisms such as social, domestic, sleep routine and work performance suggests significant difference with the three groups of shift workers, thus, the hypothesis is rejected. However, health and well being do not show significant difference as to the response of the three groups of shift workers, hence the hypothesis was supported. In lieu with other researches, it was determined that shift workers have their own coping strategies to deal with their problem and when it results to successful coping, it leads to restoration of physical and psychological well being. When the coping skills are not adequate the stress may lead to negative physical and psychological well being. The implications of Action Plan is that BPO Companies may develop and enhance trainings and development seminars and programs which involves Physical health activities, Psychological health programs and Coping Mechanism strategies to limit the problems encountered by shift workers.
R. Irawati Ismail
Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Beberapa strategi penanganan yang dapat mengurangi tingkat stres. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengidentifikasi beberapa strategi yang dominan terhadap tingkat skor stres total.Metode:Pada penelitian potong lintang dengan sampel purposif mahasiswa kedokteran pasca sarjana Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia pada bulan April-Juli 2011. Kuesioner yang digunakan ialah kuesioner strategi mengurangi stres dan self reporting questionnaire WHO (SRQ-20. Regresi liniar digunakan Untuk mengidentifikasi faktor dominan terhadap tingkat stres dipergunakan regresi linear.Hasil: Subjek terdiri dari 272 orang, usia 23-44 tahun. Empat hal menurunkan skor stres total (menerima realitas, berbicara dengan seseorang yang dapat melakukan sesuatu, meminta bantuan Allah, dan menertawakan situasi yang bermasalah. Sebaiknya tiga faktor meningkatkan skor stres total (menyelesaikan langkah demi langkah pada suatu waktu, berbicara dengan seseorang untuk mengetahui lebih lanjut tentang situasi, dan mengakui tidak bisa menangani pemecahan situasi. Satu poin menerima realitas situasi mengurangi 0,493 poin skor total stress [koefisien regresi (? = -0,493, P = 0,002]. Sementara satu poin mencari pertolongan Allah akan mengurangi 0,307 poin skor stres total (? = -0,307, P = 0,056. Namun, satu poin melakukan satu langkah pada suatu waktu akan meningkatkan 0,54 poin skor stres total (? = 0,540, P = 0,005.Kesimpulan: Menerima realitas, berbicara dengan seseorang yang dapat melakukan sesuatu, meminta bantuan Allah, dan menertawakan situasi akan menurunkan tingkat stres. Sebaiknya, menyelesaikan langkah demi langkah pada suatu waktu, berbicara dengan seseorang untuk mengetahui lebih lanjut tentang situasi, dan mengakui tidak bisa menangani memecahkan situasi, meningkatkan skor stres total.Kata kunci:strategi pengendalan stres, meminta pertolongan AlllahAbstractBackground:Several coping strategies may minimize stress levels. This study aimed to identify several dominant coping strategies related to total stress score levels.Methods:A cross-sectional purposive sampling method study among postgraduate medical students of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia was done April-July 2011. We used a coping strategies questionnaire and the WHO SRQ-20. Linear regression was used to identify dominant coping strategies related to stress levels.Results:This study had 272 subjects, aged 23-47 years. Four items decreased the total stress score (accepting the reality of the fact, talking to someone who could do something, seeking Gods help, and laughing about the situation. However, three factors increased the total stress score (taking one step at a time has to be done, talking to someone to find out more about the situation, and admitting cant deal solving the situation. One point of accepting the reality of the situation reduced 0.493 points the total stress score [regression coefficient (?= -0.493; P=0.002]. While one point seeking Gods help reduced 0.307 points the total stress score (?= -0.307; P=0.056. However, one point of doing one step at a time increased 0.54 point the total stress score (?=0.540; P=0.005.Conclusions: Accepting the reality of the situation, talking to someone who could do something, seeking Gods help, and laughing about the situation decreased the stress level. However, taking one step at a time, talking to someone to find out more about the situation and admitting cant deal solving the situation, increased the total stress score.Key words:stress level, coping strategies, age, seeking Gods help
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Skinner, Ellen A.
Despite consensus that development shapes every aspect of coping, studies of age differences in coping have proven difficult to integrate, primarily because they examine largely unselected age groups, and utilize overlapping coping categories. A developmental framework was used to organize 58 studies of coping involving over 250 age comparisons or
Exaustão emocional: relações com a percepção de suporte organizacional e com as estratégias de coping no trabalho / Emotional exhaustion: relationships with the perceived organizational support and coping strategies in the work place
Mauricio Robayo, Tamayo; Bartholomeu Tôrres, Tróccoli.
Full Text Available A exaustão emocional é considerada como o fator central do burnout. Diversas pesquisas mostram que características do ambiente de trabalho e do trabalhador estão associadas ao desenvolvimento da exaustão emocional. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de uma investigação sobre dois aspectos importa [...] ntes para o estudo da exaustão emocional: a percepção de suporte organizacional (PSO) e o coping no trabalho. 369 trabalhadores responderam uma escala de exaustão emocional, uma de PSO e outra de coping no trabalho. Os fatores gestão de desempenho, sobrecarga, suporte social e ascensão e salários da escala de PSO e o fator escape da escala de coping revelaram-se preditores significativos da dimensão exaustão psicológica da escala de exaustão emocional. A segunda dimensão desta escala, percepção de desgaste, só foi predita significativamente pelos fatores suporte social e sobrecarga da escala de PSO. Recomendações para lidar com a exaustão emocional são apresentadas. Abstract in english Emotional exhaustion is regarded as the principal dimension of the burnout. Several studies show that characteristics of job setting and the employee are associated with the development of emotional exhaustion. This study present the results of a research about the relationship among emotional exhau [...] stion, the perceived organizational support (POS) and coping strategies in the work place. 396 workers answered a scale of emotional exhaustion, one of POS and one another of coping. The dimensions performance management, overload, social support and promotion and salaries from the POS scale and the dimension escape from the coping scale were significant predictors of the dimension psychological exhaustion from the emotional exhaustion scale. The second dimension from the emotional exhaustion scale, perception of wear, was significantly predicted only by the factors social support and overload from the POS scale. Recommendations for the management of emotional exhaustion are presented.
Exaustão emocional: relações com a percepção de suporte organizacional e com as estratégias de coping no trabalho Emotional exhaustion: relationships with the perceived organizational support and coping strategies in the work place
Mauricio Robayo Tamayo
Full Text Available A exaustão emocional é considerada como o fator central do burnout. Diversas pesquisas mostram que características do ambiente de trabalho e do trabalhador estão associadas ao desenvolvimento da exaustão emocional. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de uma investigação sobre dois aspectos importantes para o estudo da exaustão emocional: a percepção de suporte organizacional (PSO e o coping no trabalho. 369 trabalhadores responderam uma escala de exaustão emocional, uma de PSO e outra de coping no trabalho. Os fatores gestão de desempenho, sobrecarga, suporte social e ascensão e salários da escala de PSO e o fator escape da escala de coping revelaram-se preditores significativos da dimensão exaustão psicológica da escala de exaustão emocional. A segunda dimensão desta escala, percepção de desgaste, só foi predita significativamente pelos fatores suporte social e sobrecarga da escala de PSO. Recomendações para lidar com a exaustão emocional são apresentadas.Emotional exhaustion is regarded as the principal dimension of the burnout. Several studies show that characteristics of job setting and the employee are associated with the development of emotional exhaustion. This study present the results of a research about the relationship among emotional exhaustion, the perceived organizational support (POS and coping strategies in the work place. 396 workers answered a scale of emotional exhaustion, one of POS and one another of coping. The dimensions performance management, overload, social support and promotion and salaries from the POS scale and the dimension escape from the coping scale were significant predictors of the dimension psychological exhaustion from the emotional exhaustion scale. The second dimension from the emotional exhaustion scale, perception of wear, was significantly predicted only by the factors social support and overload from the POS scale. Recommendations for the management of emotional exhaustion are presented.
Alejandra, Caqueo-Urízar; Alfonso, Urzúa; Rodrigo, Ferrer; Noemí, Pereda; Catalina, Villena; Matías, Irarrázaval.
Full Text Available Menores aymara han experimentado un proceso migratorio importante durante las últimas décadas, sin embargo, se han desarrollado escasos estudios en población infantil perteneciente a esta etnia. El objetivo de esta investigación es evaluar y comparar las estrategias de afrontamiento utilizado por ni [...] ños y niñas Aymara y no Aymara. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 685 niños/as entre 9 y 15 años de escuelas municipales y colegios particular subvencionados de la ciudad de Arica. Los resultados muestran la inexistencia de diferencias poblacionales entre niños/as aymara y no aymara en relación a los problemas experimentados (p?2> .05), el uso de estrategias de afrontamiento utilizadas (pt> .05) y la eficacia de estas últimas (pt> .05). Se concluye que los niños/as pertenecientes a la etnia estarían logrando adecuados mecanismos de afrontamiento en contextos urbanos. Abstract in english Aymara Childrens have experienced significant migration process over the past decades, however, few studies have been developed in children belonging to this ethnic group. In this reserch, the objective is to evaluate and compare the coping strategies used by Aymara and not Aymara Children. The samp [...] le consisted of 685 boys / girls aged 9 and 15 years of Municipal Schools and Private Schools Funded by the city of Arica. The results show the absence of differences population between Aymara and not Aymara boys and girls, in relation to problems experienced (p?2> .05), the use of coping strategies used (pt> .05) and the effectiveness of the latter (pt > .05). We can conclude that children, as belonging to the ethnic group, are achieving adequate coping mechanisms in urban contexts.
M. S. Omar-Fauzee; Rozita Abd-Latif; Sulaiman Tajularipin; Rozita Manja; Raweewat Rattanakoses
The purpose of this study is to examine the coping strategies employed by university athletes who have lost in acompetition. A sample of ten hand ball women athletes (age between 21-24 years old) who represented one ofthe largest universities in Kuala Lumpur in the Malaysian Inter-varsity games agreed to participate in this study.All of the athletes have signed the consent letter, giving their permission for the interview to be recorded. Theresult for content analysis has identified two major...
Santosh Patil*, Madhura M and Abdul khadar
Everyone suffers from one or other form stress. But how does our medical student fare in this aspect when they enter this vast, ever expanding and demanding field of medicine. This is our small step to look from eyes of our student. The aim of this study was to enumerate the stress symptoms experienced, followed by evaluating the causes of stress and coping strategies in south Indian medical students. A cross-sectional study was performed on first year medical students at Melmaruvathur Adhipa...
Smith, Maureen C; Dust, Margaret C
This study explored the correlates of self-reported coping strategies from both an appraisal (e.g., severity, impact, desirability of the event, as well as perceived stress) and a dispositional (e.g., preferred/typical coping style, self-concept clarity, self-esteem, emotion regulation, problem-solving style, anxiety) perspective. Participants were 211 African American undergraduate and graduate students from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. The results indicated that dispositional traits (especially problem-solving style) are associated uniquely with preferred/typical coping styles. The results also provided modest evidence that dispositional traits and subjects' appraisals (e.g., challenge, harm/threat, impact) are predictive of subjects' coping strategies in specific ongoing stressful situations. The general findings from this study appear to mirror research on Caucasian subjects. PMID:16451229
Saidatulakmal Mohd; Jamalludin Sulaiman; Senadjki Abdelhak
The wellbeing and livelihoods of people are two important aspects of poverty which in turn area dependent on the households' coping capabilities and their abilities to manage risks. The roles of institutions such as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and particularly the government are important in ensuring the welfare of the people. Empirically, little is known on the link between households' coping strategies, government policies and institutions. This study investigates and analyzes the...
Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce
Objective?The heightened risk of cigarette smoking found among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths may be because smoking serves as a coping strategy used to adapt to the greater stress experienced by LGB youths. The current report examines whether smoking moderates the relation between stress and subsequent psychological distress, and whether alternative coping resources (i.e., social support) moderate the relation between smoking and subsequent distress.?Method?An ethnically diverse sam...
INTERVENÇÕES UTILIZADAS NA PROMOÇÃO DE ESTRATÉGIAS DE COPING NA DEPRESSÃO EM MULHERES COM CÂNCER INTERVENCIONES UTILIZADAS PARA PROMOVER ESTRATEGIAS DE COPING PARA LA DEPRESIÓN ENTRE MUJERES CON CÁNCER APPLIED INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE COPING STRATEGIES FOR DEPRESSION AMONG WOMEN WITH CANCER
Full Text Available A depressão tem sido observada em portadores de doenças crônico-degenerativas, incluindo câncer. A utilização de diferentes estratégias de coping nessas condições patológicas pode ser extremamente importante, em face da presença de fatores estressores e sentimentos indesejáveis. Buscou-se identificar, por meio de revisão sistemática, os tipos de estudo para promover estratégia de coping e as intervenções utilizadas para promover tais estratégias em situação de depressão, em mulheres com câncer. Foram consultadas três bases de dados eletrônicas, utilizando as palavras chave depression, coping e cancer para busca de publicações em Inglês, Português e Espanhol. A busca foi limitada ao gênero feminino e aos tipos de estudo: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial e review. Foram encontrados 376 artigos, excluídos os que não possuíam texto na íntegra disponível e as repetições em diferentes bases de dados; foram eleitos 22 artigos oriundos de diferentes países (63% da America do Norte, e publicados em periódicos de diferentes áreas de conhecimento; são de modelo experimental (63%; recentes (1996 a 2006; foram adotadas estratégias individuais (59,9% e grupais; o suporte emocional e a terapia cognitiva foram as mais empregadas. As intervenções que promovam estratégias de coping identificadas podem ser eficazes, com diminuição significante de depressão e aumento de coping e qualidade de vida; recomenda-se que o enfermeiro as empregue para redução de depressão ao longo do processo terapêutico do câncer.La depresión ha sido observada en portadores de enfermedades cronico-degenerativas, incluyendo el cáncer. El uso de diferentes estrategias de coping para lidiar con estas condiciones patológicas puede ser extremadamente importante, en vista de la presencia de factores de estrés y sentimientos indeseables. Se buscó identificar, por medio de una revisión sistemática, los tipos de estudio para promover estrategias de coping y las intervenciones usadas para promover tales estrategias en situaciones de depresión en mujeres con cáncer. Fueron consultadas 3 bases de datos electrónicas, utilizando las palabras clave depression, coping y cáncer para buscar publicaciones en inglés, portugués y español. La búsqueda fue limitada al género femenino y a los tipos de estudio: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial y review. Fueron encontrados 376 artículos. Excluidos aquéllos sin texto completo disponible y las repeticiones en diferentes bases de datos, fueron elegidos 22 artículos originarios de diferentes países (63% de América del Norte y publicados en periódicos de diferentes áreas de conocimiento; son del tipo experimental (63%; recientes (1996 a 2006; fueron adoptadas estrategias individuales (59,9% y grupales; el apoyo emocional y la terapia cognitiva fueron las más empleadas. Las intervenciones que promueven estrategias de coping identificadas pueden ser eficaces, con disminución significativa de la depresión y aumento del coping y calidad de vida. Se recomienda que el enfermero las emplee para reducir la depresión a lo largo del proceso terapéutico del cáncer.Depression has been observed in patients with chronic-degenerative diseases, including cancer. Using different coping strategies can be extremely important under these pathological conditions, considering the presence of stress and unwanted feelings. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify types of studies aimed at promoting coping strategies for depression among women with cancer and interventions used to promote these strategies. Three different electronic databases were reviewed, using the key words depression, coping and cancer to seek publications in English, Portuguese and Spanish, which resulted in 376 articles. The search was limited to female gender and the study types: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized control trial and review. After excluding studies whose full text was not available and repetitions in different
INTERVENÇÕES UTILIZADAS NA PROMOÇÃO DE ESTRATÉGIAS DE COPING NA DEPRESSÃO EM MULHERES COM CÂNCER / APPLIED INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE COPING STRATEGIES FOR DEPRESSION AMONG WOMEN WITH CANCER / INTERVENCIONES UTILIZADAS PARA PROMOVER ESTRATEGIAS DE COPING PARA LA DEPRESIÓN ENTRE MUJERES CON CÁNCER
LUCIMARA, MORELI; JEANNE MARIE R, STACCIARINI; ARIANE, DE FREITAS CARDOSO; EMILIA, CAMPOS DE CARVALHO.
Full Text Available A depressão tem sido observada em portadores de doenças crônico-degenerativas, incluindo câncer. A utilização de diferentes estratégias de coping nessas condições patológicas pode ser extremamente importante, em face da presença de fatores estressores e sentimentos indesejáveis. Buscou-se identifica [...] r, por meio de revisão sistemática, os tipos de estudo para promover estratégia de coping e as intervenções utilizadas para promover tais estratégias em situação de depressão, em mulheres com câncer. Foram consultadas três bases de dados eletrônicas, utilizando as palavras chave depression, coping e cancer para busca de publicações em Inglês, Português e Espanhol. A busca foi limitada ao gênero feminino e aos tipos de estudo: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial e review. Foram encontrados 376 artigos, excluídos os que não possuíam texto na íntegra disponível e as repetições em diferentes bases de dados; foram eleitos 22 artigos oriundos de diferentes países (63% da America do Norte), e publicados em periódicos de diferentes áreas de conhecimento; são de modelo experimental (63%); recentes (1996 a 2006); foram adotadas estratégias individuais (59,9%) e grupais; o suporte emocional e a terapia cognitiva foram as mais empregadas. As intervenções que promovam estratégias de coping identificadas podem ser eficazes, com diminuição significante de depressão e aumento de coping e qualidade de vida; recomenda-se que o enfermeiro as empregue para redução de depressão ao longo do processo terapêutico do câncer. Abstract in spanish La depresión ha sido observada en portadores de enfermedades cronico-degenerativas, incluyendo el cáncer. El uso de diferentes estrategias de coping para lidiar con estas condiciones patológicas puede ser extremadamente importante, en vista de la presencia de factores de estrés y sentimientos indese [...] ables. Se buscó identificar, por medio de una revisión sistemática, los tipos de estudio para promover estrategias de coping y las intervenciones usadas para promover tales estrategias en situaciones de depresión en mujeres con cáncer. Fueron consultadas 3 bases de datos electrónicas, utilizando las palabras clave depression, coping y cáncer para buscar publicaciones en inglés, portugués y español. La búsqueda fue limitada al género femenino y a los tipos de estudio: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial y review. Fueron encontrados 376 artículos. Excluidos aquéllos sin texto completo disponible y las repeticiones en diferentes bases de datos, fueron elegidos 22 artículos originarios de diferentes países (63% de América del Norte) y publicados en periódicos de diferentes áreas de conocimiento; son del tipo experimental (63%); recientes (1996 a 2006); fueron adoptadas estrategias individuales (59,9%) y grupales; el apoyo emocional y la terapia cognitiva fueron las más empleadas. Las intervenciones que promueven estrategias de coping identificadas pueden ser eficaces, con disminución significativa de la depresión y aumento del coping y calidad de vida. Se recomienda que el enfermero las emplee para reducir la depresión a lo largo del proceso terapéutico del cáncer. Abstract in english Depression has been observed in patients with chronic-degenerative diseases, including cancer. Using different coping strategies can be extremely important under these pathological conditions, considering the presence of stress and unwanted feelings. The purpose of this systematic review was to iden [...] tify types of studies aimed at promoting coping strategies for depression among women with cancer and interventions used to promote these strategies. Three different electronic databases were reviewed, using the key words depression, coping and cancer to seek publications in English, Portuguese and Spanish, which resulted in 376 articles. The search was limited to female gender and the study types: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized control trial and review. After excluding
KIM, JUNGHYUN; Han, Jeong Yeob; SHAW, BRET; McTAVISH, FIONA; GUSTAFSON, DAVID
The goal of the current study was to examine how social support and coping strategies are related in predicting emotional well-being of women with breast cancer. In achieving this goal, we examined two hypothesized models: (1) a moderation model where social support and coping strategies interact with each other in affecting psychological well-being; and (2) a mediation model where the level of social support influences choices of coping strategies between self-blame and positive reframing. I...
Francis M. Mathooko
Full Text Available This study was undertaken to establish strategies adopted by public universities in Kenya in response to changes in the environment. The study design was descriptive and utilized a cross-sectional survey of all the public universities in Kenya through administration of a structured questionnaire to the top management team. Additional primary data were collected through observations and interviews. Secondary data were collected from published works and, universities and government documents in public domain in order to corroborate the data collected from the primary sources. Positive responses were received from 63 respondents out of 91, yielding a 69.4% response rate. The universities adopted Porters generic competitive strategy model, of cost leadership, differentiation and focus to counter the challenges experienced, and in particular cost leadership and differentiation. The extent of adoption of differentiation strategy was significantly different (p<0.05 between the old and new universities and not among the three categories of public universities, that is, old, new and university colleges. Grand strategies adopted were diversification in related business, expansion and strategic alliances. The major operational strategies adopted included, management leadership in the formulation of response strategies, distributed leadership, benchmarking, and mounting of evening and weekend programmes. Some operational strategies adopted by some universities were, however, unethical and may compromise quality. The results indicate that the coping strategies adopted by public universities in Kenya in response to changes in the environment are more or less similar to those applied by corporate organizations among them, grand strategies and Porters generic competitive strategy.
Until the present day, research on fuel poverty focussing on the point of view of those concerned is few and far between. The present paper aims at filling this gap, analysing experiences with and behavioural responses to fuel poverty. It examines the day-to-day energy situation of households, which are poor/at-risk-of-poverty and/or suffering from fuel poverty in a case study conducted in the Austrian capital Vienna. Qualitative interviews provide the data for investigating the relevant factors in causing fuel poverty (among those, bad housing conditions, outdated appliances, financial problems), and provide a basis for discussion about the respective behavioural strategies of the people concerned. The results show that the ways of handling this problematic situation vary greatly and that people follow different strategies when it comes to inventing solutions for coping with the restrictions and finding ways of satisfying at least a part of their basic energy needs. Nonetheless, it also clearly surfaces that the scope of action is limited in many cases, which in turn only supports the claim that changes in the overall conditions are essential. - Highlights: ? This paper scrutinises experiences with and behavioural reactions to fuel poverty. ? Analysis of 50 qualitative interviews in Viennese low-income households. ? Low-income and/or fuel poor households face various strains. ? Ways of dealing with fuel poverty vary greatly, scope of action is limited. ? Households are very creative when it comes to coping with restricted conditions.
Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Hackenbruch, Julia; Schipper, Hans
Given urbanization trend and a higher probability of heat waves in Europe, heat discomfort or heat stress for the population in cities is a growing concern that is addressed from various perspectives, such as urban micro climate, urban and spatial planning, human health, work performance and economic impacts. This presentation focuses on subjective heat stress experienced by urban citizens. In order to better understand individual subjective heat stress of urban citizens and how different measures to cope with heat stress in everyday life are applied, a questionnaire survey was conducted in Karlsruhe, Germany. Karlsruhe is located in one of the warmest regions in Germany and holds the German temperature record of 40.2°C in August 2003. In 2013, two hot weather periods with continuous heat warnings by the German Weather Service for 7 and 8 days occurred during the last 10 days of July and first 10 days of August 2013 with an inofficial maximum temperature of again 40.2°C on July 27th in Karlsruhe (not taken by the official network of the German Weather Service). The survey data was collected in the six weeks after the heat using an online-questionnaire on the website of the South German Climate Office that was announced via newspapers and social media channels to reach a wide audience in Karlsruhe. The questionnaire was additionally sent as paper version to groups of senior citizens to ensure having enough respondents from this heat sensitive social group in the sample. The 428 respondents aged 17-94 show differences in subjective heat stress experienced at home, at work and during various typical activities in daily routine. They differ also in the measures they used to adjust to and cope with the heat such as drinking more, evading the heat, seeking cooler places, changing daily routines, or use of air condition. Differences in heat stress can be explained by housing type, age, subjective health status, employment, and different coping measures and strategies. While some results match with expectations and also with results obtained in other studies, for example that people living in the attic floor experienced higher subjective heat stress levels at home, some results are surprising: against expectations, respondents 65 years and older on average reported lower subjective heat-stress levels than younger ones - a result that can partly be linked to the different coping strategies applied by both groups.
Zhao, Fang-Fang; Lei, Xiao-Ling; He, Wei; Gu, Yan-Hong; Li, Dong-Wen
The aim of the study was to explore the coping strategy and the effects of self-efficacy of Chinese undergraduate nursing students when they face the stress in clinical practice. Convenience sampling was used to recruit undergraduate nursing students in Mainland China who have practiced 3 months in hospitals in their final college year. Self-report questionnaires including demographics, Perceived Stress Scale, coping behaviour inventory and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale were collected. The results showed that during clinical practice, assignments and workload were the most common stress to students; transference was the most frequently used coping strategy by students. Self-efficacy not only had a positive main effect in predicting the frequency of use of staying optimistic and problem solving strategies but also moderated the effects of stress from taking care of patients on transference strategy, as well as stress from assignments and workload on problem solving strategy. It is essential to bolster the students' self-efficacy to reduce stress and adopt positively the coping strategies during clinical practice. PMID:24750234
Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of diabetes self-care is largely the responsibility of the patient. With more emphasis on the prevention of complications, adherence to diabetes self-care regimens can be difficult. Diabetes self-care requires the patient to make many dietary and lifestyle changes. This study will explore patient perceptions of diabetes self-care, with particular reference to the burden of self-care and coping strategies among patients. Methods A maximum variation sample of 17 patients was selected from GP practices and diabetes clinics in Ireland to include patients with types 1 and 2 diabetes, various self-care regimens, and a range of diabetes complications. Data were collected by in-depth interviews; which were tape-recorded and transcribed. The transcripts were analysed using open and axial coding procedures to identify main categories, and were reviewed by an independent corroborator. Discussion of the results is made in the theoretical context of the health belief, health value, self-efficacy, and locus of control frameworks. Results Patients' perceptions of their self-care varied on a spectrum, displaying differences in self-care responsibilities such as competence with dietary planning, testing blood sugar and regular exercise. Three patient types could be distinguished, which were labeled: "proactive manager," a patient who independently monitors blood glucose and adjusts his/her self-care regime to maintain metabolic control; "passive follower," a patient who follows his/her prescribed self-care regime, but does not react autonomously to changes in metabolic control; and "nonconformist," a patient who does not follow most of his/her prescribed self-care regimen. Conclusion Patients have different diabetes self-care coping strategies which are influenced by their self-care health value and consequently may affect their diet and exercise choices, frequency of blood glucose monitoring, and compliance with prescribed medication regimens. Particular attention should be paid to the patient's self-care coping strategy, and self-care protocols should be tailored to complement the different patient types.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Having discussed different factors contributing towards Burnout Syndrome (BOS in dentistry students, the aim of this project is to analyze the existing relationship between vocational satisfaction, coping strategies and perceived stress as determining factors of burnout in 4th and 5th year dentistry students. Methods: Prospective cohort study (March-December. The relationship between vocational satisfaction, coping strategies and perceived stress as factors towards BOS in 4th and 5th year dentistry students will be determined. All participants will be required to sign a consent form the project will be evaluated by the Ethics Committee. The sociodemographic variables to be measured are: age, gender and socioeconomic status; the psychological variables are: Burnout Syndrome severity, using Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, coping strategies by Copyng Strategies Inventory (CSI, perceived stress with Perceived Stress Scale Questionnaire (PSS. All versions above have been validated in Spanish, and vocational satisfaction of the Dentistry Degree will be measured using a questionnaire, with 6 questions for 3 parameters: career choice, current feeling and predicted feeling after graduation. The data collection will be carried out in 4 stages: informed consent obtainment; MBI, CSI, PSS scales and vocational satisfaction questionnaire in March. In the second (June, third (September and fourth (November stages, the questionnaires will be repeated: MBI, PSS and vocational satisfaction. The findings and analysis will be processed in STATA 10/SE including descriptive statistics, regression models, measures and tests of association. RESUMEN Se ha descrito la interacción de diversos factores en la aparición del síndrome de Burnout (SBO en estudiantes de odontología, el objetivo de este proyecto es analizar la relación existente entre la satisfacción vocacional, estrategias de afrontamiento y estrés percibido como determinantes del SBO en estudiantes de odontología de cuarto y quinto año. Metodología: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo (marzo-diciembre. Se determinará la relación existente entre la satisfacción vocacional, estrategias de afrontamiento y estrés percibido como determinantes del SBO en estudiantes de odontología de cuarto y quinto año. Todos los participantes accederán previa firma de consentimiento y el proyecto será evaluado Comité de Bioética. Se medirán variables sociodemográficas: edad, género y nivel socioeconómico; variables psicológicas: severidad de SBO utilizando el Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, estrategias de afrontamiento mediante el Coping Strategies Inventory (CSI, estrés percibido con el cuestionario Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, todas las anteriores en sus versiones validadas al español, y satisfacción vocacional con la carrera de odontología mediante cuestionario de 6 preguntas para 3 puntos: elección de la carrera, actual y proyectada después de la titulación. La recolección se hará en 4 tiempos: obtención del consentimiento informado, escalas MBI, CSI, PSS y el cuestionario de satisfacción vocacional en el mes de marzo. En un segundo (junio, tercer (septiembre y cuarto (noviembre tiempo se repetirá el MBI, PSS y el cuestionario de satisfacción vocacional. La tabulación y análisis se realizará en STATA 10/SE incluyendo estadística descriptiva, modelos de regresión, medidas y pruebas de asociación.
Full Text Available The wellbeing and livelihoods of people are two important aspects of poverty which in turn area dependent on the households' coping capabilities and their abilities to manage risks. The roles of institutions such as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs and particularly the government are important in ensuring the welfare of the people. Empirically, little is known on the link between households' coping strategies, government policies and institutions. This study investigates and analyzes the role of people's risk management and coping strategies in building their capacities. Using a structured socio-economic questionnaire, 302 randomly selected farmers in both states were tested. Household income decreased by RM52, RM81 and RM102 due to illnesses, floods and economic recession respectively. In order to cope with these stressors, households implemented coping strategies rather than preparatory ones which can strengthen their capacities to manage against any unexpected threat. In some cases these strategies threatened households welfare. Less risky production activities, spending saving and out-migration looking for job led to decrease households monthly income by as high as RM123, RM139 and RM166, respectively. Although the results showed that institutions did not lead households to fall into poverty trap, their supports also made no difference. These institutions are active and provide the needed services to the communities only after a disaster have occurred. This observation is based on the positive relationship between households coping strategies and institutional supports (r = 0.310, p = 0.000. The relationship between households risk management and institutional support was not significant (r = 0.087, p = 0.067 based on this study.
Bardi, Massimo; Rhone, Alexandra P; Franssen, Catherine L; Hampton, Joseph E; Shea, Eleanor A; Hyer, Molly M; Huber, Jordan; Lambert, Kelly G
Effective coping strategies and adaptive behavioral training build resilience against stress-induced pathology. Both predisposed and acquired coping strategies were investigated in rats to determine their impact on stress responsiveness and emotional resilience. Male Long-Evans rats were assigned to one of the three coping groups: passive, active, or variable copers. Rats were then randomly assigned to either an effort-based reward (EBR) contingent training group or a non-contingent training group. Following EBR training, rats were tested in appetitive and stressful challenge tasks. Physiological responses included changes in fecal corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) metabolites as well as neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and amygdala. Regardless of a rat's predisposed coping strategy, EBR rats persisted longer than non-contingent rats in the appetitive problem-solving task. Furthermore, training and coping styles interacted to yield the seemingly most adaptive DHEA/corticosterone ratios in the EBR-trained variable copers. Regardless of training group, variable copers exhibited increased NPY-immunoreactivity in the CA1 region. PMID:22257065
Leda Maria Delmondes Freitas, Trindade; Maria Jésia, Vieira.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer as situações estressantes e as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas por alunos de medicina na relação de atendimento ao paciente. MÉTODO: Estudo exploratório, descritivo e qualitativo realizado na Universidade Federal de Sergipe com 50 alunos do 10º período do curso médico. Uti [...] lizou-se questionário autoaplicável com perguntas abertas e fechadas. Os dados foram interpretados pela análise de conteúdo categorial. RESULTADOS: As relações interpessoais aluno-professor, aluno-paciente e aluno-familiar do paciente proporcionaram aos estudantes vivências embaraçosas e constrangedoras, fazendo-os sentir-se expostos e vulneráveis. O sofrimento do paciente também constituiu uma situação estressora que mobilizou nos estudantes a adoção de estratégias de enfrentamento (aceitação de responsabilidade, resolução de problemas, suporte social, reavaliação positiva, fuga-esquiva e religiosidade) para controlar e minimizar seus sentimentos. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo revelou as situações e fatores estressantes inerentes à vivência acadêmica, os quais levaram o estudante a desenvolver comportamentos adaptativos identificados como estratégias de enfrentamento. A pesquisa também sinalizou a importância de se dar atenção às especificidades e necessidades do aluno e do docente. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To understand stressful situations and coping strategies used by medicine students in relation to patient care. METHODS: Exploratory, descriptive and qualitative study conducted at the Federal University of Sergipe with fifty 5th year medicine students. A self-report containing open-ended [...] and closed questions was used. The data was interpreted through categorical content analysis. RESULTS: The interpersonal relationships between student-teacher, student-patient, and student-patient's family led to undergraduates experiencing embarrassing and awkward situations, making them feel exposed and vulnerable. Patient suffering was a really stressful situation, forcing students to adopt coping strategies (acceptance of responsibility, problem solving, social support, positive reappraisal, escape-avoidance, and religious belief) to control and minimize their feelings. CONCLUSION: The study revealed situations and stressors inherent to the academic experience, which led the student to develop adaptive behaviors identified as coping strategies. The survey also indicated the importance of giving attention to the specificities and needs of the student and the teacher.
Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresentamos uma investigação realizada com professores, no qual se procura determinar a vulnerabilidade ao stress; identificar as principais fontes de stress; estabelecer as principais estratégias de coping; analisar se as estratégias deste condicionam a presença de stress laboral; e reconhecer se a autoeficácia percebida é preditora desse tipo de stress. Trata-se duma investigação por questionário, do tipo correlacional, e a amostra é constituída por 54 professores do Ensino Básico público português. As respostas ao Questionário sociodemográfico e profissional; ao Questionário de Vulnerabilidade ao Stress - 23QVS (Serra, 2000; ao Questionário de Stress nos Professores - QSP (Gomes et al., 2006; Gomes, 2007; ao Coping Job Scale - CJS de Latack (adaptação de Jesus & Pereira, 1994; e à Escala de Avaliação de Autoeficácia Geral (Ribeiro, 1995 revelam que 20,4% dos docentes são vulneráveis ao stress; os comportamentos inadequados/indisciplina dos alunos são as principais fontes de stress; as estratégias de controlo são as mais utilizadas pelos participantes para enfrentar o stress, seguidas das de escape e das de gestão de sintomas. Os professores não vulneráveis ao stress utilizam principalmente estratégias de controlo e apresentam níveis mais elevados de eficácia perante a adversidade, bem como de iniciativa e persistência em relação aos professores vulneráveis ao stress.In this work we present a research carried out on teachers to determine their vulnerability to stress, to identify the main sources of stress, to recognize teachers' main coping strategies, to analyze whether such strategies condition the presence of stress at work, and to establish whether the self-efficiency perceived can be used to predict work stress. This is a correlational questionnaire-based research performed on a 54-teacher sample from Portugal's public basic education schools. The answers to the Social, Demographic and Professional Questionnaire, to the Stress Vulnerability Questionnaire - 23QVS (Serra, 2000, to the Teacher Stress Questionnaire - QSP (Gomes et al., 2006; Gomes, 2007, to the Coping Job Scale - CJS (Latack, adapted by Jesus and Pereira, 1994 and to the General Self-efficiency Assessment Scale (Ribeiro, 1995 reveal that 20.4% of teachers are vulnerable to stress. The study shows that the main stress sources are found in students' lack of discipline or improper behaviour, and that control strategies are the most common to deal with stress, followed by escape strategies and symptom management. Teachers not vulnerable to stress use mainly control strategies and they display higher efficiency levels under adversity, as well as more initiative and perseverance than the teachers that are vulnerable to stress.
Margarida, Pocinho; Maria Regina, Capelo.
Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresentamos uma investigação realizada com professores, no qual se procura determinar a vulnerabilidade ao stress; identificar as principais fontes de stress; estabelecer as principais estratégias de coping; analisar se as estratégias deste condicionam a presença de stress laboral; [...] e reconhecer se a autoeficácia percebida é preditora desse tipo de stress. Trata-se duma investigação por questionário, do tipo correlacional, e a amostra é constituída por 54 professores do Ensino Básico público português. As respostas ao Questionário sociodemográfico e profissional; ao Questionário de Vulnerabilidade ao Stress - 23QVS (Serra, 2000); ao Questionário de Stress nos Professores - QSP (Gomes et al., 2006; Gomes, 2007); ao Coping Job Scale - CJS de Latack (adaptação de Jesus & Pereira, 1994); e à Escala de Avaliação de Autoeficácia Geral (Ribeiro, 1995) revelam que 20,4% dos docentes são vulneráveis ao stress; os comportamentos inadequados/indisciplina dos alunos são as principais fontes de stress; as estratégias de controlo são as mais utilizadas pelos participantes para enfrentar o stress, seguidas das de escape e das de gestão de sintomas. Os professores não vulneráveis ao stress utilizam principalmente estratégias de controlo e apresentam níveis mais elevados de eficácia perante a adversidade, bem como de iniciativa e persistência em relação aos professores vulneráveis ao stress. Abstract in english In this work we present a research carried out on teachers to determine their vulnerability to stress, to identify the main sources of stress, to recognize teachers' main coping strategies, to analyze whether such strategies condition the presence of stress at work, and to establish whether the self [...] -efficiency perceived can be used to predict work stress. This is a correlational questionnaire-based research performed on a 54-teacher sample from Portugal's public basic education schools. The answers to the Social, Demographic and Professional Questionnaire, to the Stress Vulnerability Questionnaire - 23QVS (Serra, 2000), to the Teacher Stress Questionnaire - QSP (Gomes et al., 2006; Gomes, 2007), to the Coping Job Scale - CJS (Latack, adapted by Jesus and Pereira, 1994) and to the General Self-efficiency Assessment Scale (Ribeiro, 1995) reveal that 20.4% of teachers are vulnerable to stress. The study shows that the main stress sources are found in students' lack of discipline or improper behaviour, and that control strategies are the most common to deal with stress, followed by escape strategies and symptom management. Teachers not vulnerable to stress use mainly control strategies and they display higher efficiency levels under adversity, as well as more initiative and perseverance than the teachers that are vulnerable to stress.
Several studies on households and individuals coping with disasters have been made. The Philippines, being a disaster prone area, has to grapple with the yearly damage caused by deluge or drought. The eruption of the Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 has the greatest toll to the country's economy because it did not only claim lives, properties, and resources at that time, but continues to do so up to the present day, which is why the disaster has been characterised as a lingering disaster. This study prov...
A qualitative exploratory study investigated the experiences and needs of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness in Ireland. The current mixed-methods secondary study used content analysis and statistical procedures to identify and explore the coping strategies emerging from the original interviews. The majority of family carers reported use of active behavioural coping strategies, sometimes combined with active cognitive or avoidance strategies. The percentage of cares reporting use of active cognitive strategies was the lowest among those whose ill relative lived in their home, and the highest among those whose relative lived independently. Participants with identified active cognitive strategies often reported that their relative was employed or in training. Participants who reported use of avoidance strategies were significantly younger than participants who did not report use of such strategies. The lowest percentage of avoidance strategies was among participants whose ill relative lived independently, whereas the highest was among carers whose relative lived in their home. The findings of this study highlight the importance of a contextual approach to studying coping styles and processes. Further research questions and methodological implications are discussed.
Full Text Available A new phenomenon of violence among pupils has been spreading over Europe in the last few years: Cyberbullying, the repeated and intended hurting of weaker schoolmates via modern communication technologies. This study shows (based on a sample of 1987 pupils, that cyberbullying exists in Germany, although the number of incidents is still rather small. It could also be shown, that the pupils who act as cyberbullies are the same as those who bully others in real life. The same overlap was found to be true for the victims. Cyberbullying can therefore be considered a subcategory of ordinary bullying instead of being considered a whole new phenomenon. The exploration of coping strategies showed, that a common factor structure underlies physical, verbal and cyberbullying. Considering the fact that the findings of the study are based on an online questionnaire with restricted representativeness, the results should however be interpreted carefully.
Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the Zhejiang SMEs business operation and financing difficulties analysis and the banks coping strategy. Since the beginning of 2011, Zhejiang SMEs have fallen into business difficulties under heavy pressure from 3-shortage and 2-high, namely, shortage of money, shortage of electricity and shortage of labor and high cost and high taxes. This even leads to the tide of enterprise collapse. In such a dilemma, problems of financial shortage and financing difficulties of SMEs are quite prominent. Besides, main financing channel of Zhejiang SMEs is the private credit market while loans from banks accounting only a minor proportion. Thus, enterprises have relatively vulnerable capital chain and large capital liquidity risk. Banks shall actively deal with this problem, pay much attention and strengthen risk management, strengthen asset preservation and effectively improve the risk management level of banks.
Full Text Available Teaching profession was once viewed as a low stress occupation and they have been envied for tenure, light workloads, flexibility and other perks such as foreign trips for study and conference. However, some recent studies suggest that university faculty is among the most stressed occupational group. The present study was conducted to explore the faculty perception towards occupational stress using established questionnaire, data collected from five departments in the private university. Research findings on the coping strategies that faculty used to tackle stress were also reviewed. Through this study, it is suggested that the top management and University Administration should focus their attention on faculty stress, especially on two areas (student Interactions and Professional Identity to reduce the stress among the faculty members. Care should be taken to make even remote faculty feel a part of the greater whole of this institution thorough regular communication and support.
Moore, Felicia M.
This study describes how teachers use their personal knowledge of a school district and their students to cope with teaching under stressful situations associated with economic, social, and institutional factors. The 3 teachers dealt with these issues in unique ways, focusing on helping students to overcome negative perceptions, value the importance of an education, and build strong relationships. A model of multicultural science professional development is proposed that complements the strengths that these teachers have. A task for science educators working with teachers and administration in schools and districts that are critically low performing is to support everyone in implementing pedagogical methods aimed at empowerment, social justice, and high achievement for all students.
Full Text Available The goal of this study is to explore risk perception and coping strategies used by adults living near the volcano Popocatépetl in Mexico. Qualitative and semi-quantitative data were collected with a questionnaire from 192 adult respondents. These respondents were divided into four groups (G1-G4 according to the risk zone in which they live (generally the degree of hazard decreases with increasing distances from the volcano. Analyses of the completed questionnaires were made according to sex and age range of the respondents. Not surprisingly volcanic risk was perceived as more worrisome by people living in the zone nearest the volcanos crater (G1. However, when we asked what risks could affect them directly, perceptions changed, and volcanic risk was appraised as the most important risk potentially affecting them and their homes for risk zones G1, G2 and G3. Despite sporadic information given by the Civil Defense authorities, a high percentage of people exposed to volcanic hazards do not feel prepared to face an eruptive event, and people have no strategy to cope with general perceived risks. A high percentage of participants in the four groups stated that they would leave the area if an eruptive event occurred. This statement reflects the serious misinformation, because civil authorities do not require people living in the third and fourth zones to evacuate. The results of study demonstrate the critical need to reinforce public information campaigns regarding volcanic risk in communities vulnerable to direct damage in the event of a stronger eruption of the volcano Popocatépetl
Full Text Available This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of zones by severity of flooding, interviews with households, sub-ward leaders, and municipal and city officials. Non-participant observation, primarily taking photographs, complemented these methods. Laboratory tests of water samples taken from shallow wells in the settlement were performed to establish the level of pollution. In addition, records of prevalence of water-borne diseases were gathered from a dispensary within the settlement to corroborate flooding events, water pollution and occurrence of such diseases. Findings show that flooding is contributed to by the lack of a coordinated stormwater drainage system; haphazard housing development within the valley; and blocking of the water stream by haphazard dumping of solid waste and construction. Risks associated with flooding include water and air pollution, diseases, waterlogging and blocked accessibility. The most common coping strategies at household level are use of sandbags and tree logs; raised pit latrines and doorsteps; provision of water outlet pipes above plinth level; construction of embankments, protection walls and elevation of house foundations; seasonal displacement; and boiling and chemical treatment of water. Recommendations for future action at household, community and city level are made.
Ferreira, Vicente; Herrero, Paula; Zapata, Julián; Escudero, Ana
SPME is extremely sensitive to experimental parameters affecting liquid-gas and gas-solid distribution coefficients. Our aims were to measure the weights of these factors and to design a multivariate strategy based on the addition of a pool of internal standards, to minimize matrix effects. Synthetic but real-like wines containing selected analytes and variable amounts of ethanol, non-volatile constituents and major volatile compounds were prepared following a factorial design. The ANOVA study revealed that even using a strong matrix dilution, matrix effects are important and additive with non-significant interaction effects and that it is the presence of major volatile constituents the most dominant factor. A single internal standard provided a robust calibration for 15 out of 47 analytes. Then, two different multivariate calibration strategies based on Partial Least Square Regression were run in order to build calibration functions based on 13 different internal standards able to cope with matrix effects. The first one is based in the calculation of Multivariate Internal Standards (MIS), linear combinations of the normalized signals of the 13 internal standards, which provide the expected area of a given unit of analyte present in each sample. The second strategy is a direct calibration relating concentration to the 13 relative areas measured in each sample for each analyte. Overall, 47 different compounds can be reliably quantified in a single fully automated method with overall uncertainties better than 15%. PMID:26166296
Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.
The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific
Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; McConnell, David; Gething, Lindsay; Cant, Rosemary; Kendig, Hal
Background: Older parent-carers in Australia are the subject of increasing policy and practice attention due to concerns about their ongoing ability to care in the light of their own ageing and the ageing of their adult son or daughter. This paper examines health status and the coping strategies of a group of older Australian parents caring for an
Milton, Beth S.; Dugdill, Lindsey; Porcellato, Lorna A.; Springett, R. Jane
While studies have shown that adults use smoking to deal with stress, little research has been carried out with children to explore their perceptions of smoking as a coping strategy. Qualitative questionnaire and interview data were generated with children aged 9-11 years. Participants perceived that adults smoked to relieve boredom and stress,
Chan, Siu Mui
This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's
Cicognani, Elvira; Pietrantoni, Luca; Palestini, Luigi; Prati, Gabriele
This study, involving a sample of 764 emergency workers, investigates dimensions of quality of life at work (Compassion fatigue, Burnout and Compassion satisfaction), and their relationships with Coping strategies and some psychosocial variables (Sense of Community, Collective Efficacy and Self-efficacy). Results indicate the usefulness of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although empirical evidence is available on the coping-health link in older age, research on this topic is needed with non-clinical samples of ethnically diverse older women. To contribute to filling such a research gap, we tested whether these women's general health and functional limitations were associated with specific coping strategies (selected for their particular relevance to health issues and with known health-related demographics, i.e., age, ethnicity, income, and married status. Methods In this cross-sectional study, respondents were recruited at community facilities including stores and senior centers. The sample consisted of 180 community-dwelling women (age 52-98 screened for dementia; 64% of them reported having an ethnic minority status. The assessment battery contained the Mini-Cog, a demographics list, the Brief COPE, and the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Results Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that older women who used behavioral disengagement and, to a smaller degree, self-distraction as a form of coping reported lower levels of general health. The opposite was the case for positive reframing and, to a lesser degree, substance use. Moreover, lower income was related to worse general health and (together with more advanced age physical functioning. None of the coping strategies achieved significance in the physical functioning model. Conclusions These cross-sectional findings need corroboration by longitudinal research prior to developing related clinical interventions. Based on the initial evidence provided herein, clinicians working with this population should consider establishing the therapeutic goal of increasing the use of positive reframing while diminishing behavioral disengagement.
Maria Eloá Moreira da Silva Martins, Pereira; Tereza Cristina Cavalcanti Ferreira de, Araujo.
Full Text Available Centros de pesquisa internacionais vêm realizando estudos sobre traumatismo raquimedular, no intuito de subsidiar intervenções voltadas para reabilitação e qualidade de vida de portadores de lesão medular. Assim, considerando os atuais interesses científicos e profissionais da Psicologia da Saúde, a [...] presente investigação teve por objetivo compreender as estratégias de enfrentamento adotadas pelo paciente e seu familiar/acompanhante durante a participação em um programa de reabilitação. A amostra foi constituída por seis díades paciente/familiar. Os participantes foram avaliados, antes do ingresso no programa e ao seu término, através da aplicação da Escala de Modos de Enfrentar Problemas e de entrevista semi-estruturada. Os dados obtidos revelaram mudanças nas modalidades estratégicas empregadas entre a etapa de pré-reabilitação (religiosidade, pensamento positivo e busca de suporte social) e a etapa de pós-reabilitação (focalização no problema, pensamento positivo e busca de suporte social). Abstract in english International research centers are developing studies on spinal cord injury, aiming to improve rehabilitation-geared interventions and quality of life for patients. Considering the present scientific and professional interests of Health Psychology, this paper aims at comprehending the coping strateg [...] ies adopted by patient and their families/caregivers during participation in a rehabilitation program. The sample included six patient/family dyads. Participants were assessed before entrance and at the end of the program, through of The Ways of Coping Checklist- Revised and a semi-structured interview. Data indicate changes in the applied coping modalities prior to rehabilitation (religiousness, positive thoughts and seeking social support) and after rehabilitation (problem-focused, positive thoughts and seeking social support).
Compas, Bruce E.; And Others
Reviews research concerned with stress and coping during adolescence, using depression as example of consequence of stress and coping processes. Hypothesizes that exposure to and appraisals of interpersonal stress combine with aspects of biological development and use of maladaptive coping strategies to account for emergence of significant gender
Thastum, Mikael; Herlin, Troels
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether pain-specific beliefs and coping strategies of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) independently predict their reported pain, while controlling for relevant demographic variables, disease activity, and parent-rated disability. To compare use of pain-coping strategies and pain-related beliefs of a selected subgroup of patients with high pain and low disease activity (high pain group) with the remaining patients. METHODS: Children with JIA (n = 56) completed the Pain Coping Questionnaire, a revised version of the Survey of Pain Attitudes, and a 3-week pain diary. The parents completed the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ). Second order principal component analyses were conducted in order to reduce the number of independent variables. Regression analyses of the dependent measure were performed. The use of coping strategies and health beliefs were compared using t-tests for independent samples. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to examinethe direct associations between each individual coping and belief scale, and the pain measure. RESULTS: Only the CHAQ and the cognitive belief composite factor score made statistically significant contribution to the prediction of pain after controlling for other variables. Significant differences were found between the scores of high pain patients and the rest of the group for the health belief subscale of disability (mean +/- SD 2.0 +/- 0.6 and 1.2 +/- 0.7, respectively), and for the health belief subscale of harm (mean +/- SD 2.7 +/- 0.6 and 1.8 +/- 0.7, respectively). Significant correlations were obtained between the pain measure and the pain-coping subscale of catastrophizing, the pain belief subscales of disability, harm, solicitude (inverse), control, and medical cure. CONCLUSION: These results support a model of pain experience in patients with JIA where psychological factors are strongly influential. It may be efficient to focus behavioral interventions on a subgroup of children where the pain experience seems to be in discordance with the disease activity.
J.M., Perea-Baena; L.M., Sánchez-Gil.
Full Text Available Los profesionales de enfermería de salud mental trabajan principalmente con la palabra. El conocimiento y uso adecuado de estrategias de afrontamiento adaptativas, ante los problemas, favorece su trabajo. Este estudio tiene como principales objetivos: conocer las estrategias de afrontamiento que usa [...] n un grupo de profesionales de enfermería y comprobar cuáles de ellas correlacionan con satisfacción laboral. Para ello se tomado como población las enfermeras de salud mental de tres servicios del Hospital Virgen de la Victoria de Málaga. La muestra, compuesta por 44 sujetos, ha supuesto el 81,48 de la población. Las variables estudiadas se han obtenido de la contestación de autoinformes y cuestionarios anónimos tras la aceptación voluntaria de participar en el estudio. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que las enfermeras de salud mental no usan en su mayoría estrategias adaptativas. No obstante existe una correlación positiva entre el uso de estrategias adaptativas, principalmente resolución de problemas y satisfacción laboral. Estos hallazgos sugieren la necesidad de formación y entrenamiento en el uso de estrategias de afrontamiento. Abstract in english The present work has two main aims: knowing the nurses uses about coping strategies and testing if there is any relationship between coping strategies and job satisfaction. It were applied several questionnaires to a sample of 44 nurses which were working en three services of mental health in the V [...] irgen de la Victoria Hospital of Málaga. The results showed that the mental health nurses did not uses adaptive coping strategies. However there is a positive relationship between adaptive coping strategies and job satisfaction. These results suggest that the mental heath nurses need training about adaptive coping strategies.
Full Text Available Los profesionales de enfermería de salud mental trabajan principalmente con la palabra. El conocimiento y uso adecuado de estrategias de afrontamiento adaptativas, ante los problemas, favorece su trabajo. Este estudio tiene como principales objetivos: conocer las estrategias de afrontamiento que usan un grupo de profesionales de enfermería y comprobar cuáles de ellas correlacionan con satisfacción laboral. Para ello se tomado como población las enfermeras de salud mental de tres servicios del Hospital Virgen de la Victoria de Málaga. La muestra, compuesta por 44 sujetos, ha supuesto el 81,48 de la población. Las variables estudiadas se han obtenido de la contestación de autoinformes y cuestionarios anónimos tras la aceptación voluntaria de participar en el estudio. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que las enfermeras de salud mental no usan en su mayoría estrategias adaptativas. No obstante existe una correlación positiva entre el uso de estrategias adaptativas, principalmente resolución de problemas y satisfacción laboral. Estos hallazgos sugieren la necesidad de formación y entrenamiento en el uso de estrategias de afrontamiento.The present work has two main aims: knowing the nurses uses about coping strategies and testing if there is any relationship between coping strategies and job satisfaction. It were applied several questionnaires to a sample of 44 nurses which were working en three services of mental health in the Virgen de la Victoria Hospital of Málaga. The results showed that the mental health nurses did not uses adaptive coping strategies. However there is a positive relationship between adaptive coping strategies and job satisfaction. These results suggest that the mental heath nurses need training about adaptive coping strategies.
Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objective of the study was to analyze the correlation among intensity of food insecurity and food coping strategy with energy intake and child nutritional status. The study design was a crosectional study. Research was conducted in Pandeglang Distric, in April - May July 2009. A purposive sampling were applied to select 220 households. The data collected include socio economi, food coping strategy, intensity of food insequrity and, food intake. The Rank Sperman and Pearsons test were applied to analyse correlation between variable socio economic, food insecurity intensity, food coping strategy and energy intake. Logistic regression was used to analyze determinant of food insecurity intensity. Multiple regression was used to analyse determinant of energy intake. The results showed that there were significant correlatin between intensity of food insequrity with household expenditure, and food coping startegy. Determinan of food insecurity intensity were household expenditure per capita (OR=0.033 and type of food insecurity program (OR=6.664. determinan of energy intake were food insecurity intensity, household expenditure percapita and household size.
Full Text Available Fatigue is one of the symptoms of MS that is often experienced and causes irritating situations. This study was planned and applied as a descriptive and a cross-sectional study. Study was conducted at Neurology Department of Gulhane Military Medical Academy from December 2009 to March 2010. This study was carried out using 53 participants with MS. The data were collected by using Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. 94.3% of the MS patients sampled reported that they experience the fatigue. Their perceptions about the factors affecting the fatigue are as follows: the major factor on fatigue is reported to be sadness and frustration (92 %. Stress is stated to be the second significant factor affecting the fatigue (86 %. The third significant factor for the participants is found to be the increase in the physical activity either at home or at work (78%. The mean FSS score is 5.01 (SD=1.54 for the participants. 92.4 % of the participants (49 persons employ such strategies, while 7.9 % (4 persons of them do not employ any specific coping strategy for the fatigue.
Michaëlis, Camilla; Kristiansen, Maria; Norredam, Marie
Objective To examine quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with chronic pain. Design Qualitative content analysis based on in-depth semistructured interviews. Setting A clinic specifically targeting immigrants at a larger university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants Non-western female immigrant patients suffering from chronic pain (n=13). Main outcome measures Experiences of the impact of chronic pain on quality of life. Results Chronic pain was perceived to have an extensive, adverse effect on all aspects of quality of life, including physical health, mental well-being and social relations. This included the ability to maintain activities of daily living and the ability to work. Chronic pain was further experienced as a cause of emotional distress, depression and altered personalities, which all had great consequences on women's social interactions, causing change and loss of social relations. A variety of coping strategies were used to cope with the pain, manage its consequences, and restore a level of health that would enable women to function and fulfil social roles. Many participants coped with the pain by altering everyday life, keeping daily activities to a minimum and taking pain-killing drugs, offering temporary relief. Seeking healthcare was another coping strategy used as an active means to assert agency and as a temporary distraction from pain. However, accessing healthcare also involved a risk of disagreement and disappointments. Conclusions Chronic pain had a severe negative impact on quality of life and necessitated alterations in everyday life and active health-seeking strategies. Implications for practice imply a need for a more holistic approach to immigrant women with chronic pain, including a family-centred approach. Further research is needed to explore similarities or differences in and between populations with diverse ethnic, socioeconomic and psychosocial backgrounds, and to assess how ethnicity and culture might influence the experiences of chronic pain.
La relación entre el estrés laboral, las fuentes que le dan origen y las estrategias de coping en el sector público y el privado / The relationship between work stress, sources of stress and coping strategies in public and private sectors
Valentina, Ramos; Filomena, Jordão.
Full Text Available El sector resulta relevante en la medición del estrés laboral, los estresores y las estrategias de coping, por lo que nuestro objetivo de investigación fue relacionar estas variables dentro el contexto portugués. Nuestra muestra fue de 310 trabajadores distribuidos por sector a los que se aplicó un [...] inventario con una pregunta general sobre estrés y dos escalas sobre estresores y coping. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando análisis univariados y cálculos de correlaciones. Nuestros resultados no indicaron diferencias en las correlaciones significativas entre estresor y estrés por sector. Sin embargo, la correlación significativa entre estresores, estrés y coping sí fue específica para cada sector. Fue relevante la existencia de correlaciones significativas entre coping y estresores sin la influencia del estrés y entre coping y estrés sin la influencia de estresores. Nuestro estudio reconoce el papel del sector en el estudio del estrés, mostrando nuevas relaciones entre los estresores, el estrés y el coping. Abstract in english The sector has been relevant in the measurement of work stress, stressors, and coping strategies. So, our research objective was to relate these variables within the Portuguese context. We used a sample of 310 employees distributed by sector, who responded to an inventory with a general question abo [...] ut stress and two scales to measure stressors and coping. The data was analyzed using correlation calculations. Our results indicated no significant differences in correlations between stressor and stress by sector. However, we obtained specific significant correlation between stressors, stress, and coping itself for each sector. The existence of significant correlations between coping and stressors without the influence of stress, and between coping and stress without the influence of stressors has to be highlighted. Our study recognizes sector's role in the study of stress, showing new relationships between stressors, stress, and coping.
Task 4 of this collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focused on the design of the hierarchical supervisory control for multiple-module units. The state of the IRIS plant design--specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design--made developing a detailed hierarchical control difficult at this time. However, other simultaneous and ongoing efforts have contributed to providing the needed information. This report summarizes the results achieved under Task 4 of this Financial Assistance Award. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 discusses the IRIS control functions. Next, it briefly reviews the current control concepts, and then reviews the maneuvering requirements for the IRIS plant. It closes by noting the benefits that automated sequences have in reducing operator workload. Section 3 examines reactor loading in the frequency domain to establish some guidelines for module operation, paying particular attention to strategies for using process steam for desalination and/or district heating. The final subsection discusses the implications for reactor control, and argues that using the envisioned percentage (up to 10%) of the NSSS thermal output for these purposes should not significantly affect the NSSS control strategies. Section 4 uses some very general economic assumptions to suggest how one should approach multi-module operation. It concludes that the well-known algorithms used for economic dispatching could be used to help manage a multi-unit IRIS site. Section 5 addresses the human performance factors of multi-module operation. Section 6 summarizes our conclusions
Andre, Barcaui; Ana Cristina, Limongi-França.
Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a relação entre o estresse percebido no trabalho, a estratégia de enfrentamento adotada e a qualidade de vida de gerentes atuantes em organizações brasileiras. Foram aplicados três instrumentos em conjunto: o Job Stress Scale, de Karasek, o Coping with Job Stress, de Latack, e o [...] WHOQOL - Bref, da OMS, em uma amostra de 1.290 gerentes distribuídos pelo Brasil. Aplicou-se uma análise de correlação entre as variáveis: estresse, qualidade de vida e estratégia de enfrentamento. Para melhor avaliar a relação das três dimensões de interesse, foram desenvolvidos modelos de regressão linear e regressão logística. Os achados demonstraram que a maior parte dos gerentes encontra-se em um nível elevado de estresse, mas com bom suporte social e boa percepção quanto à sua qualidade de vida. A maioria utiliza estratégias de controle para enfrentamento do estresse. As estratégias de controle e administração de sintomas influenciam significativamente a percepção de qualidade de vida, enquanto que estratégias de evitação implicam em diminuição dessa percepção. Gerentes com alta tensão (Karasek & Theorell, 1990) tendem a ter uma qualidade de vida mais pobre, mesmo moderada pelo apoio social. Abstract in english This study analyzes the relationship between perceived stress at work, the coping strategy adopted, and the quality of life of active managers in Brazilian organizations. Three instruments were applied together: Karasek's Job Stress Scale, Latack's Coping with Job Stress and WHO'S WHOQOL-Bref to a s [...] ample of 1290 managers throughout Brazil. An analysis of the correlation between the variables stress, quality of life and coping strategy was applied. To further evaluate the relationship between the three dimensions of interest, linear and logistic regression models were developed. The findings show that most managers find themselves under a high stress level, but share good social support and have good perceptions about their quality of life. Most use control strategies to cope with stress. Control strategies and symptom management significantly influence the perception of quality of life, whereas avoidance strategies imply a decrease in this perception. Managers with jobs classified as high strain (Karasek & Theorell, 1990) tend to have a poorer quality of life, even when moderated by social support.
Full Text Available AbstrakStres merupakan bagian dari kehidupan dan kehidupan tidak lepas dari stres. Stresbisa dialami siapa saja, dari kanak-kanak hingga lanjut usia. Stres bisa bersifat akut danbisa pula bersifat kronis. Banyak penelitian empiris yang membuktikan bahwa stres berdampaksecara negatif bagi kesehatan tubuh dan kesejahteraan psikologis. Namun banyak faktoryang berpengaruh terhadap stres. Diantara faktor faktor tersebut adalah strategi coping yangdigunakan individu.Penelitian ini menguji hubungan antara tiga strategi coping yaitu active coping,avoidance coping dan negative coping dengan stres pada mahasiswa. Subyekpenelitian berjumlah 41 orang yang merupakan mahasiswa psikologi Universitas AhmadDahlan Yogyakarta.Berdasarkan hasil analisis regresi menunjukkan tidak ada hubungan yang signifikanantara active coping, negative coping dan avoidance coping secara bersama-sama dengan stres R = 0.045 F = 1.631 p = 0.199. Hasil uji korelasi product momentpearson antara active coping dengan stres menunjukkan adanya hubungan negatif yangtidak signifikan r = - 0.034 p = 0.417. Korelasi antara avoidance coping dengan stresmenunjukkan adanya hubungan positif yang tidak signifikan r = 0.113 p = 0.241. Korelasiantara negative coping dengan stres menunjukkan hubungan positif yang signifikan r =0.340 p = 0.015. Negative coping menyumbang 9.3 % terhadap stres. Ini menunjukkanmasih terdapat 90.7 % pengaruh variabel lain yang terhadap stres.
Benita Y. Tam
Full Text Available Traditional foods and food sharing are important components of Aboriginal culture, helping to create, maintain, and reinforce social bonds. However, limitations in food access and availability may have contributed to food insecurity among Aboriginal people. The present article takes a closer examination of coping strategies among food insecure households in urban and rural settings in Canada. This includes a comparative analysis of the role of social networks, institutional resources, and diet modifications as strategies to compensate for parent-reported child hunger using national sources of data including the Aboriginal Childrens Survey and the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Descriptive statistical analyses revealed that a majority of food insecure urban and rural Inuit, Métis, and off-reserve First Nations children and rural Canadian children coped with hunger through social support, while a majority of urban food insecure Canadian children coped with hunger through a reduction in food consumption. Seeking institutional assistance was not a common means of dealing with child hunger, though there were significant urban-rural differences. Food sharing practices, in particular, may be a sustainable reported mechanism for coping with hunger as such practices tend to be rooted in cultural and social customs among Aboriginal and rural populations.
Renato Mendonça, Ribeiro; Daniele Alcalá, Pompeo; Maria Helena, Pinto; Rita de Cassia Helú Mendonça, Ribeiro.
Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: Identificar as estratégias de enfrentamento dos enfermeiros em serviço hospitalar de emergência e relacioná-las às variáveis sociodemográficas e profissionais. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 89 enfermeiros. Os instrumentos de pesquisa foram: formulário para caracterização dos sujei [...] tos e o Inventário de Estratégias de Enfrentamento de Folkman e Lazarus. Resultados: As estratégias de enfrentamento mais utilizadas foram: resolução de problemas e reavaliação positiva; a menos utilizada, foi o confronto. As estratégias confronto, reavaliação positiva, e fuga e esquiva foram associadas ao sexo masculino, não ter um companheiro e trabalhar em período noturno, respectivamente. Conclusão: As estratégias de enfrentamento podem ser auxiliadas por acompanhamento escuta, programas educacionais e um espaço para discussão das dificuldades relacionadas ao trabalho. Abstract in english Abstract Objective: To identify the coping strategies of nurses in hospital emergency services, and relate them to sociodemographic and professional variables. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 89 nurses. Research instruments included a form to characterize the research subjects and the Ways of Co [...] ping Questionnaire by Folkman and Lazarus. Results: The most commonly used coping strategies were problem solving and positive reappraisal, whereas the least used was confrontation. The strategies of confrontation, positive reappraisal and escape-avoidance were associated with the male sex, not having a partner and working night shifts, respectively. Conclusion: Coping strategies can be aided by listening, monitoring, educational programs and creation of a space for discussion of work-related difficulties.
Full Text Available Livestock keeping is increasingly becoming more popular in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. However, lack of feed is a real challenge. Inadequate feed supply in urban areas is due to many interacting factors, which include among others land shortage, high cost of feeds, climate risks and poor quality of feeds. The objective of this study was to identify and examine the effectiveness of the strategies adopted by livestock farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda to cope with feed scarcity. A total of 120 livestock farmers from Kampala were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Dairy cattle (48.3% and chickens (37.5% were the most common species, followed by pigs (34.2%, goats (26.7% and sheep (3.3%. Farm size was generally small both in terms of herd size and total landholding. Cattle and pig farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala ranked feed scarcity as their first major constraint, while chicken farmers had high cost of feeds. These farmers have adopted several strategies for coping with feed scarcity. Among the major coping strategies adopted were: changing of feed resources based on availability and cost (37.5%, purchasing of feed ingredients in bulk (29.7%, using crop/food wastes (26.6%, harvesting of forages growing naturally in open access lands (23.4% and reducing herd size (17.2%. However, most of the coping strategies adopted were largely aimed at dealing with the perennial challenge of feed scarcity on a day-by-day basis rather than dealing with it using sustainable and long-term strategies.
Bailey, Andy; Johnson, Gerry
This paper is concerned with the processes by which strategy is developed within organisations. It builds on research into the nature of strategy development being undertaken within the Centre for Strategic Management and Organisational Change at Cranfield School of Management. Initially the process of strategy development is discussed, a number of explanations of the process are presented and an integrated framework is developed. This framework is subsequently used to illustra...
Quintanilla, Laura; Jensen de López, Kristine M.
Envy is the religion of the mediocre. It comforts them, it responds to the worries that gnaw at them and finally it rots their souls, allowing them to justify their meanings and their greed until they believe these to be virtues.Carlos Ruiz Zafón The niche of envy is a cross-disciplinary attempt to capture and understand the complex and self-conscious emotion of envy as unfolded within social relationships and cultural settings. One of our main interests concerns how children come to understand envy in ontogenesis. Accordingly, we review existing theoretical approaches to understanding envy and introduce preliminary data about childrens understanding of envy. This paper consists of three sections. In the first section, we define envy by introducing the conditions and components that form part of it. We emphasize the fact that envy is a complex and embodied emotion, which embraces a triadic relationship, social comparison, and inequality. In this section, we also introduce social conditions that may facilitate envy and its consequences, such as hostility and aggression. The second section deals with coping strategies for envy. Here, we integrate research from different disciplines, e.g., socio-cultural, psychological, and anthropological research. Finally, in the third section, we introduce a cross-cultural and developmental view of how envy is embodied. We briefly address and offer a critique of Kleins psychoanalytic view and present recent results from our cross-cultural studies of the ontogenesis of understanding envy.
Full Text Available The need to maintain a non-mineral dependent economy and daunting food import bills have been the drive for the provision of extension services, which is dependent on motivated extension work force.. Extension personnel will not stay motivated under circumstances where the risk of job burnout is hig [...] h. A simple random technique was used to select 120 extension agents from 328. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire (reliability coefficient of 0.85) and were analyzed with frequency counts, percentages one-way analysis of variance and multiple regressions. The result shows that 68% of the agents are males 85% married; 50% are above 40 years and 66% have at least a BSc degree. Burnout symptoms manifest mostly as depression (48%), insomnia (40%), headaches (43%), and weight loss (44%). Popular coping strategies are keeping positive attitude at all times, setting self-realistic goals, and maintaining healthy relationship with co-workers. A significant difference exists in burnout symptoms experienced across the states (F = 5.71, df 3117 p
Rashid, S F
Bangladesh experienced one of the worst floods in recorded history in 1998. This paper focuses on the needs and coping strategies of the urban poor in Dhaka City, which had been very badly affected. The city's roads were completely under water, and most areas were water-logged with drainage and sewage systems blocked. Rising water levels compelled many slum dwellers to move to temporary shelters and relief camps. Women and children were the worst affected. The lack of sanitation facilities and privacy forced women and children to defecate in their own homes. There was an acute scarcity of safe drinking-water, and food prices rose dramatically. Diarrhoea, fever and colds were the most common illnesses affecting the poor. The floods left many of them unemployed, and in some families, the result was increased tension and incidents of domestic violence. In some areas, members felt pressured to repay micro-credit loans. Most NGOs, however, suspended loan repayments. During this period, a committee was set up to co-ordinate and work towards addressing some of the main post-flood problems. PMID:11026157
Cardoso, Juan Andrés; Pineda, Marcela; Jiménez, Juan de la Cruz; Vergara, Manuel Fernando; Rao, Idupulapati M
Drought severely limits forage productivity of C4 grasses across the tropics. The avoidance of water deficit by increasing the capacity for water uptake or by controlling water loss are common responses in forage C4 grasses. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II are tropical C4 grasses used for livestock production due to their reputed resistance to drought conditions. However, there is scant information on the mechanisms used by these grasses to overcome water-limited conditions. Therefore, assessments of cumulative transpired water, shoot growth, leaf rolling, leaf gas exchange, dry mass production and a number of morpho-physiological traits were recorded over a period of 21 days under well-watered or drought conditions. Drought reduced shoot dry mass of both grasses by 35 %, yet each grass exhibited contrasting strategies to cope with water shortage. Napier grass transpired most available water by the end of the drought treatment, whereas a significant amount of water was still available for Mulato II. Napier grass maintained carbon assimilation until the soil was fairly dry, whereas Mulato II restricted water loss by early stomatal closure at relatively wet soil conditions. Our results suggest that Napier grass exhibits a 'water-spending' behaviour that might be targeted to areas with intermittent drought stress, whereas Mulato II displays a 'water-saving' nature that could be directed to areas with longer dry periods. PMID:26333827
Ruth L. HEALEY
Full Text Available Previous work suggests that female asylum seekers and refugees have more constraints on their actions than their male counterparts, as structural forces from the country of origin are reproduced in the host country. This paper explores the use of structuration theory in interpreting the impact of gender upon asylum seeker and refugee experiences in the UK. The experiences of, and coping strategies used by 8 male and 10 female asylum seekers and refugees from two different cities are analysed. Their experiences are examined in relation to different patriarchal forces. In comparison to the males, differences are apparent in the level and types of agency of the female asylum seekers and refugees. Within this study certain types of patriarchy are reproduced in British society particularly at the household level, whilst individuals are also influenced by institutional patriarchy within the wider society. The variation in experiences found here suggests the need for policy to recognise the heterogeneity of these groups, so as to provide the most appropriate support for individuals.
Teacher burnout contributes to poor psychological and physical health, absenteeism, early retirement, and leads to inadequate teacher performance with adverse outcomes in student learning and achievement. Effective coping skills have been proposed as possible protectors from the effects of burnout; therefore, examining teachers' coping
Alessandra Brunoro, Motta; Sônia Regina Fiorim, Enumo.
Full Text Available Estudos indicam que a hospitalização pode afetar o desenvolvimento da criança, interferindo na qualidade de vida. Para lidar com essa situação, o brincar tem funcionado como estratégia de enfrentamento. Procurando-se avaliar a importância dada ao brincar pela criança e caracterizar atividades lúdica [...] s possíveis no hospital, 28 crianças hospitalizadas com câncer (6-12 anos), em Vitória/ES, foram entrevistadas e responderam a um instrumento especialmente elaborado (AEH - Avaliação das Estratégias de Enfrentamento da Hospitalização - Conjunto B: Brincar no hospital), contendo 20 desenhos de brinquedos e brincadeiras, classificados em jogos de Exercícios, Simbólicos, de Acoplagem, de Regras e Atividades Diversas. 78,6% das crianças relataram que gostariam de brincar no hospital, o que é justificado principalmente pela sua função lúdica, na companhia de outras crianças internadas. Não houve diferenças significativas nas escolhas entre as categorias de brincadeiras. O instrumento mostrou que o brincar pode ser um recurso adequado para a adaptação da criança hospitalizada, permitindo personalizar a intervenção. Abstract in english Studies have shown that the hospitalization can affect a child development interfering with his/her quality of life. In order to deal with this situation, the act of playing has worked as a coping strategy. With the purpose to assess of the importance children give to play and to characterize possib [...] le playful activities in the hospital, 28 children hospitalized with cancer (6-12 years) in Vitória, ES, were interviewed and took part on an instrument specially developed (AEH Evaluation of the Coping Strategies of the Hospitalization - group B: Playing in the hospital), consisting of 20 drawings of toys and games classified in games of Exercises, Symbolic Game, Game of Connection, Game of Rules and a variety of Activities. 78,6% of the children said that they would like playing in the hospital, which is justified mainly by its ludic function, in the company of other hospitalzed children. There were no significant differences in the choices among the categories of games. The instrument showed that playing can be an appropriated resource to jelp with the adjustment of the hospitalized child, making the treatment a personalized intervention.
Alessandra Brunoro Motta
Full Text Available Estudos indicam que a hospitalização pode afetar o desenvolvimento da criança, interferindo na qualidade de vida. Para lidar com essa situação, o brincar tem funcionado como estratégia de enfrentamento. Procurando-se avaliar a importância dada ao brincar pela criança e caracterizar atividades lúdicas possíveis no hospital, 28 crianças hospitalizadas com câncer (6-12 anos, em Vitória/ES, foram entrevistadas e responderam a um instrumento especialmente elaborado (AEH - Avaliação das Estratégias de Enfrentamento da Hospitalização - Conjunto B: Brincar no hospital, contendo 20 desenhos de brinquedos e brincadeiras, classificados em jogos de Exercícios, Simbólicos, de Acoplagem, de Regras e Atividades Diversas. 78,6% das crianças relataram que gostariam de brincar no hospital, o que é justificado principalmente pela sua função lúdica, na companhia de outras crianças internadas. Não houve diferenças significativas nas escolhas entre as categorias de brincadeiras. O instrumento mostrou que o brincar pode ser um recurso adequado para a adaptação da criança hospitalizada, permitindo personalizar a intervenção.Studies have shown that the hospitalization can affect a child development interfering with his/her quality of life. In order to deal with this situation, the act of playing has worked as a coping strategy. With the purpose to assess of the importance children give to play and to characterize possible playful activities in the hospital, 28 children hospitalized with cancer (6-12 years in Vitória, ES, were interviewed and took part on an instrument specially developed (AEH Evaluation of the Coping Strategies of the Hospitalization - group B: Playing in the hospital, consisting of 20 drawings of toys and games classified in games of Exercises, Symbolic Game, Game of Connection, Game of Rules and a variety of Activities. 78,6% of the children said that they would like playing in the hospital, which is justified mainly by its ludic function, in the company of other hospitalzed children. There were no significant differences in the choices among the categories of games. The instrument showed that playing can be an appropriated resource to jelp with the adjustment of the hospitalized child, making the treatment a personalized intervention.
Monica A. Ayieko
Full Text Available This study was conducted in Kenya. Samples of children and caregivers were selected using the EPI method. Food vendors and procurement strategy, demographic and socio-economic indicators of household were analyzed. A social economic index was derived. To understand the association between D ietary D iversity Score and mean anthropometric indices, confounding factors were identified on the basis of the UNICEF conceptual model of causes of malnutrition. A stepwise testing of confounders was done systematically resulting in a final m ultivariate model of regression on the mean nutritional indices. Only 32.8% were able to produce enough to last a year, most households did not meet their dietary needs. 48% of the households received food remittance as supplementary. Coping strategies within households were identified based on their frequency of occurrence. The observed poor breastfeeding beyond infancy underscores the need to stress on the contribution and benefits of breastfeeding to children, communities, and health system s. Dietary diversity positively correlated to household food availability. Increased consumption of common staples negatively correlated to food availability and dietary diversity. Stepw ise regression identified access to roots and tubers, legumes and pulses, and carbonated drinks as the main determinants of food procurement and availability. Study shows that food production in households cannot meet food needs of even an area w ith adequate rainfall patterns. Low levels of education, employment and income observed among female caregivers constrain household purchasing power and knowledge required to select nutritious foods. Thus, empowering the women has far reaching benefits for nutritional outcomes of children.
Benita Y. Tam; Leanne Findlay; Dafna Kohen
Traditional foods and food sharing are important components of Aboriginal culture, helping to create, maintain, and reinforce social bonds. However, limitations in food access and availability may have contributed to food insecurity among Aboriginal people. The present article takes a closer examination of coping strategies among food insecure households in urban and rural settings in Canada. This includes a comparative analysis of the role of social networks, institutional resources, and die...
Tumpale Sakijege; John Lupala; Shaaban Sheuya
This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of zones ...
Benjamin R. Doolittle
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to determine the correlation of burnout syndrome with specific coping strategies, behaviors, and spiritual attitudes among interns in internal medicine, primary care, and internal medicine/pediatrics residency programs at two institutions. Methods: Intern physicians completed anonymous voluntary surveys prior to starting the internship in June 2009 and in the middle of the internship in February 2010. Three validated survey instruments were used to explore burnout, coping, and spiritual attitudes: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the COPE Inventory, and the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. The interns were in programs at the Yale University School of Medicine and a Yale-affiliated community hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Results: The prevalence of self-identified burnout prior to starting the internship was 1/66 (1.5% in June 2009, increasing to 10/53 (18.9% in February 2010 (P<0.0001. From June 2009 to February 2010, the prevalence of high emotional exhaustion increased from 30/66 (45.5% to 45/53 (84.9% (P<0.0001, and that of high depersonalization increased from 42/66 (63.6% to 45/53 (84.9% (P=0.01. Interns who employed the strategies of acceptance and active coping were less likely to experience emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (P<0.05. Perceptions of high personal accomplishment was 75.5% and was positively correlated with total scores on the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale, as well as the internal/fluid and existential/meditative domains of that instrument. Specific behaviors did not impact burnout. Conclusion: Burnout increased during the intern year. Acceptance, active coping, and spirituality were correlated with less burnout. Specific behaviors were not correlated with burnout domains.
Full Text Available Absolute poverty has been a social problem in rural Nigeria with its rate ever on the increase. All the previous government efforts in terms of poverty reduction projects and programmes failed to improve on the situation. In order to survive, the rural poor decided device survival strategies to cope with poverty. One of such strategies is the formulation of community based organizations (CBOs. The paper examines the nature, activities and impact of the CBOs on the rural poor. The CBOs were able to minimally mobilize both human and material resources, established both primary and secondary schools, built cottage industries, constructed culverts and bridges, established community health clinics, local financial institutions, donation of relief materials contributed food and cloths to less-privileged, widows and orphans. The CBOS are handicapped due to certain problems such as lack of adequate funds, corruption, accountability, credibility among their leaders, illiteracy, and lack of commitment among some members and limited sustainability of projects. The paper advocates for government to intervene in form of finding lasting solutions to these problems. Key words: Absolute rural poverty; Coping strategy; Benue State NigeriaResumé: La pauvreté absolue a été un problème social dans le Nigeria rural avec un taux qui augmentent de façon constante. Tous les efforts gouvernementaux précédents en termes de projets de réduction de la pauvreté et des programmes ont échoué, la situation ne s'améliore guère. Afin de survivre les pauvres ruraux ont décidé une stratégie de survivance dartifice pour régler le problème de la pauvreté. Une de telles stratégies est la formulation dorganisations basées de communauté (CBOs. Le papier examine la nature, les activités et limpact du CBOs sur les pauvres ruraux. Les CBOs étaient capables mobiliser très peu de ressources sur le plan humain et matériel, les écoles primaires et secondaires ont été établies, les travaux artisanaux à domicile ont été construits, les caniveaux et les ponts ont été construit, des cliniques de santé de communauté ont été établies, ainsi que des institutions financiers locales, la donation de matériel pour soulager la situation comme les aliments et les vêtements aux peuple qui sont des moins favorises, les veuves et des orphelins. la donation de matériels(matières de soulagement la nourriture contribuée et des tissus à moins - privilégié, des veuves et des orphelins. On handicape le CBOS en raison de certains problèmes comme le manque de fonds adéquats, la corruption, la responsabilité, la crédibilité parmi leurs leaders, lanalphabétisme et le manque dengagement parmi certains membres ont limite ce projet. Le papier recommande pour le gouvernement dintervenir dans la forme de trouver des solutions durables a ces problèmes.Mots-clés: Pauvretérurale absolue; Stratégie dadaptation; LEtat Benue Nigeria
Full Text Available Georges Brousse1,2, Benjamin Arnaud1, Jordane Durand Roger1, Julie Geneste1, Delphine Bourguet1, Frederic Zaplana1, Olivier Blanc1, Jeannot Schmidt1,2, Louis Jehel31CHU Clermont Ferrand, Unité Urgences Psychiatriques, 28 place Henri Dunant BP 69, 63003 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex 01, France; 2Univ Clermont 1, UFR médecine, Clermont-Ferrand, F63001 France; 3Hopital Tenon (CHU APHP 4 rue de la Chine 75020, France, INSERM U669Abstract: Our aim was to assess the influence of the coping strategies employed for the management of traumatic events on the occurrence of dissociation and traumatic disorders. We carried out a 1-year retrospective study of the cognitive management of a traumatic event in 18 subjects involved in the same road vehicle accident. The diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD was made for 33.3% of the participants. The participants with a PTSD diagnosis 1 year after the event used emotion-centered strategies during the event more often than did those with no PTSD, P < 0.02. In the year after the traumatic event, our results show a strong link between the intensity of PTSD and the severity of the post-traumatic symptoms like dissociation (P = 0.032 and the use of emotion-centered strategies (P = 0.004. Moreover, the participants who presented Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire scores above 15 made greater use of emotion-centered coping strategies than did those who did not show dissociation, P < 0.04. Our results confirm that the cognitive management of traumatic events may play an essential role in the development of a state of post-traumatic stress in the aftermath of a violent event.Keywords: trauma, coping, emotions, peritraumatic dissociation, post-traumatic stress disorder
ILIE R?SCOLEAN; GABRIEL VASILE OLTEAN
This paper deals with European strategy at the beginning Targeted at Cardiff "Partnership for Integration - A strategy for integrating environmental policies of the European Union, where the European Commission considered the second mandatory commitments to the EU : Agenda 2000 and the Kyoto Protocol. LIFE program with three "LIFE - Nature", "LIFE - Environment" and "LIFE - third countries" is another part of this work the previous chapter that refers to the way the European Commission has im...
María Fernanda, Enríquez Villota.
Full Text Available Al hablar de afrontamiento psicológico, se hace referencia a la forma como los seres humanos responden a circunstancias externas o internas, según como sean evaluadas por ellos mismos, se puede decir, que en el momento en que una persona se enfrenta a una situación excedente de su alcance, en este c [...] aso la enfermedad crónica, se ponen de manifiesto todas las habilidades y capacidades del sujeto para hacerle frente. La adaptación a esta nueva condición de vida tanto para las pacientes como para sus familias implica un esfuerzo psicológico para aceptar el diagnóstico, los trámites para la atención clínica, el sometimiento a exámenes o exploraciones médicas, consultas con el especialista y el tratamiento con todos sus efectos colaterales que casi siempre resultan aversivos. Es en el transcurso de este proceso, cuando se evidencian las estrategias de afrontamiento psicológico que cada paciente emplea para enfrentar la enfermedad todo esto con el fin de alcanzar el equilibrio o bien para disminuir la ansiedad producida por el evento estresante. Con el propósito de entender este proceso de manera más profunda se realizó una investigación mixta orientada a caracterizar las estrategias de afrontamiento más empleadas por un grupo de mujeres de la región y a partir de los hallazgos fue posible construir una propuesta de intervención psicológica orientada a fortalecer las estrategias de afrontamiento favorecedoras del proceso de recuperación de las pacientes. Abstract in english When people speak about psychological confrontation they refer to the way humans respond to external or internal circumstances. Depending on how they are evaluated by themselves, it can be said that when a person is facing a surplus situation scope, in this case chronic illness, all the skills and a [...] bilities of the individual are highlighted to cope. The adaptation to this new condition of life for both patients and their families involves a psychological effort to accept the diagnosis, the procedures for clinical care, being subjected to tests or medical examinations, specialist consultations and treatment with all the side effects which are almost always unwanted. It is during this process when patients evidence their psychological confrontation strategies that each one of the uses to deal with the disease in order to achieve balance or to reduce the anxiety caused by the stressful event. In order to understand this process more deeply, a mixed research was undertaken to characterize the facing strategies most used by a group of women in the region, and from the findings it was possible to construct a psychological intervention proposal aimed at strengthening these strategies that favor the recovery process of patients.
Full Text Available This study sought to establish the psychometric properties of a Coping Strategies Inventory Short Form (CSISF by examining coping skills in the Jackson Heart Study cohort. We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, PearsonÃ¢ÂÂs correlation, and Cronbach Alpha to examine reliability and validity in the CSI-SF that solicited responses from 5302 African American men and women between the ages of 35 and 84. One item was dropped from the 16-item CSI-SF, making it a 15-item survey. No significant effects were found for age and gender, strengthening the generalizability of the CSI-SF. The internal consistency reliability analysis revealed reliability between alpha = 0.58-0.72 for all of the scales, and all of the fit indices used to examine the CSI-SF provided support for its use as an adequate measure of coping. This study provides empirical support for utilizing this instrument in future efforts to understand the role of coping in moderating health outcomes.
Lynggaard, Vibeke; May, Ole
BACKGROUND: Due to improved treatments and ageing population, many countries now report increasing prevalence in rates of ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Cardiac rehabilitation has potential to reduce morbidity and mortality, but not all patients complete. In light of favourable effects of cardiac rehabilitation it is important to develop patient education methods which can enhance adherence to this effective program. The LC-REHAB study aims to compare the effect of a new patient education strategy in cardiac rehabilitation called 'learning and coping' to that of standard care. Further, this paper aims to describe the theoretical basis and details of this intervention. METHODS/DESIGN: Open parallel randomised controlled trial conducted in three hospital units in Denmark among patients recently discharged with ischemic heart disease or heart failure. Patients are allocated to either the intervention group with learning and coping strategies incorporated into standard care in cardiac rehabilitation or the control group who receive the usual cardiac rehabilitation program. Learning and coping consists of two individual clarifying interviews, participation of experienced patients as educators together with health professionals and theory based, situated and inductive teaching. Usual care in cardiac rehabilitation is characterised by a structured deductive teaching style with use of identical pre-written slides in all hospital units. In both groups, cardiac rehabilitation consists of training three times a week and education once a week over eight weeks. The primary outcomes are adherence to cardiac rehabilitation, morbidity and mortality, while secondary outcomes are quality of life (SF-12, Health education impact questionnaire and Major Depression Inventory) and lifestyle and risk factors (Body Mass Index, waist circumference, blood pressure, exercise work capacity, lipid profile and DXA-scan). Data collection occurs four times; at baseline, at immediate completion of cardiac rehabilitation, and at three months and three years after the finished program. DISCUSSION: It is expected that learning and coping incorporated in cardiac rehabilitation will improve adherence in cardiac rehabilitation and may decrease morbidity and mortality. By describing learning and coping strategies the study aims to provide knowledge that can contribute to an increased transparency in patient education in cardiac rehabilitation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier NCT01668394.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es explorar la percepción de riesgo y las estrategias de afrontamiento utilizadas por personas adultas que viven cerca del volcán Popocatépetl en México. Se recolectaron datos tanto cualitativos como semi-cuantitativos a partir de un cuestionario que se aplicó a las 192 p [...] ersonas participantes. Éstos, fueron divididos en cuatro grupos (G1-G4) conforme a la zona de riesgo en la cual viven (en general el grado de peligro volcánico disminuye con la distancia). Sin sorpresa, observamos que el riesgo volcánico fue percibido como más preocupante por la gente que vive en la zona más cercana al cráter del volcán. Sin embargo, cuando preguntamos sobre los riesgos que los afectan más directamente, estas percepciones cambian, y el riesgo volcánico es evaluado como el riesgo más importante para los grupos G1, G2 y G3. A pesar de la información dada por las autoridades de Protección Civil, un alto porcentaje de personas expuestas a los peligros volcánicos no se sienten preparadas para enfrentar un evento eruptivo y no tienen estrategias para enfrentar los riesgos percibidos. Un alto porcentaje de participantes en los cuatro grupos sostuvieron que ellos dejarían la zona si ocurriera una erupción. Esta afirmación refleja una seria falta de información, puesto que las autoridades civiles no sugieren que la gente que vive en las zonas tres y cuatro evacuen. Se sugiere reforzar las campañas de información pública en las comunidades cercanas al Popocatépetl. Abstract in english The goal of this study is to explore risk perception and coping strategies used by adults living near the volcano Popocatépetl in Mexico. Qualitative and semi-quantitative data were collected with a questionnaire from 192 adult respondents. These respondents were divided into four groups (G1-G4) acc [...] ording to the risk zone in which they live (generally the degree of hazard decreases with increasing distances from the volcano). Analyses of the completed questionnaires were made according to sex and age range of the respondents. Not surprisingly volcanic risk was perceived as more worrisome by people living in the zone nearest the volcano's crater (G1). However, when we asked what risks could affect them directly, perceptions changed, and volcanic risk was appraised as the most important risk potentially affecting them and their homes for risk zones G1, G2 and G3. Despite sporadic information given by the Civil Defense authorities, a high percentage of people exposed to volcanic hazards do not feel prepared to face an eruptive event, and people have no strategy to cope with general perceived risks. A high percentage of participants in the four groups stated that they would leave the area if an eruptive event occurred. This statement reflects the serious misinformation, because civil authorities do not require people living in the third and fourth zones to evacuate. The results of study demonstrate the critical need to reinforce public information campaigns regarding volcanic risk in communities vulnerable to direct damage in the event of a stronger eruption of the volcano Popocatépetl.
Full Text Available Anka Coric,1 Adriana Banozic,2 Miro Klaric,3 Katarina Vukojevic,4 Livia Puljak5 1School of Medicine, University of Mostar, Health Center Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia; 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 4Department of Anatomy, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia; 5Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Abstract: An association between dental fear and anxiety (DFA has been confirmed for children younger than 8 years, but this association in older children is less clear. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by studying DFA in older children and their parents with validated measures. This cross-sectional study, conducted at Community Health Centre Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, included 114 children and their parents. DFA, coping, and sociodemographic variables were studied using Corah Dental Anxiety Questionnaire (CDAS, Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS, Dental Cope Questionnaire, and sociodemographic questionnaire. Maternal CDAS scores had significant positive correlation with child DFA measured with CFSS-DS (r=0.35, P<0.001 and CDAS (r=0.32, P<0.001. Fathers' CDAS scores were not associated with child CFSS-DS, but showed a moderate correlation with child CDAS (r=0.19, P<0.05. There were no significant differences in children's fear and anxiety based on age, sex, or socioeconomic variables. Children used internal coping strategies most frequently and external coping strategies were rated by the children as the most effective. We did not find differences in number and type of effective coping strategies in children with high DFA compared with children with low DFA. In conclusion, there is evidence of the coexistence of dental fear in parents and older children. These findings may help to devise interventions that will prevent or alleviate children's DFA. Keywords: fear of dental pain, pain behavior, coping skills, adaptive behavior, school children, parents
Valentina Fontana; Marina Serra de Lemos; Orlanda Cruz; Concetta Polizzi; Lìgia Lima; Maria Regina Morales; Marina Prista Guerra; Giovanna Perricone
A childs oncological or chronic disease is a stressful situation for parents. This stress may make it difficult for appropriate management strategies aimed at promoting the childs wellbeing and helping him or her cope with a disease to be adopted. In particular, this study focuses on the possible connections between the variable national cultural influences and the parental strategies used to cope with a childs severe disease by comparing the experiences of Italian and Portuguese mothers. The...
Elena Predescu; Roxana ?ipo?
The Quality of Life (QoL) represents a dimension of the overall status and of the wellbeing that might be influenced by various factors. Mothers emotional and behavioral reactions, when having a child with diagnosis of mental disorder, are different depending on the emotional distress and cognitive coping strategies used. The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive coping strategies, emotional distress and the relationship between them and the quality of life in mothers of children wi...
Joshua S. Okonya
Full Text Available In Uganda, weather-related events such as prolonged dry seasons, floods, storms, mudslides, extreme rainfall, and delayed/early rains have become more frequent and/or intense. This has left most of the rural poor farmers food insecure and their livelihoods threatened. A total of 192 sweetpotato farmer households distributed in six agro-ecological zones were interviewed to assess how farmers perceive the effects of changes in climatic variables, and how they have adjusted their farming practices to cope with the changes in climate. Gender of the household head and size of land owned significantly affected adaptation. Ninety nine percent of all households interviewed had observed a change in the climate in the last 10 years. Drought and floods had the highest impact on crop production across agro-ecological zones. Coping strategies towards extreme events included storing food, income diversification and digging drainage channels. Other strategies were planting trees; high-yielding, early-maturing, drought-tolerant, disease and/or pest-resistant varieties; planting at onset of rains; increased pesticide/fungicide application among others. The smallholder farmer households studied have a high awareness of changes in rainfall and temperature and have taken measures to cope with effects of a changing climate.
Recent research has highlighted the need to recognise occupation-specific risk factors contributing to stress and burnout. As health professionals, it is important for dentists to recognise the symptoms and the effects of stress on physical, psychological and professional well being. This article reviews the relevant scientific evidence, and provides practical cognitive psychological measures to guide improved well-being for dentists. Any stigma-related factors need to be acknowledged and addressed for the wellbeing of dentists and their patients, and the dental profession is well placed to provide leadership on this issue. Peer support is central to meeting this challenge.
Muller, L; Spitz, E
This Article aims to introduce the translation and the validation of a multidimensional measure of coping strategies: the Brief COPE, in a French population. The coping concept comes from psychological studies that were conducted on stress. In the conceptual analysis of stress by Lazarus and Folkman, coping works with two cognitive appraisals performed by the person concerning the perception of a threatening situation and his or her available resources to deal with it. Coping is defined as "cognitive and behavioural efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the internal and/or external demands that are created by the stressful transaction". The Brief COPE is the abridged version of the COPE inventory and presents fourteen scales all assessing different coping dimensions: 1) active coping, 2) planning, 3) using instrumental support, 4) using emotional support, 5) venting, 6) behavioural disengagement, 7) self-distraction, 8) self-blame, 9) positive reframing, 10) humor, 11) denial, 12) acceptance, 13) religion, and 14) substance use. Each scale contains two items (28 altogether). This inventory has the advantage of being built from acknowledged theoretical models (Lazarus' transactional model of stress, 1984; behavioral self-regulation model, Carver and Scheier, 1981, 1998). It can be used to assess trait coping (the usual way people cope with stress in everyday life) and state coping (the particular way people cope with a specific stressful situation). As is the COPE inventory, the Brief COPE is a measure used for many health-relevant studies: drugs addiction, ageing, breast cancer, depression, AIDS. Both measures are widely used in Anglophone countries and translated in many Languages. Today, the COPE inventory has been validated among Estonian, Croatian, Chinese, and Italian populations and the Brief COPE is also validated among Spanish people. Thus, the worldwide use of this coping inventory should allow a broad comparison of medical and psychological research for coping strategies regarding every kind of pathologies. Thus, we were led to present the translation and the validation of this measure in a French population. Two studies are presented in this Article: the first one describes the validation of the inventory in a dispositional format (trait coping) and the second one the validation of the inventory in a situational format (state coping). The French version of Brief COPE, which was used for both studies, was back-translated and analysed by the Brief COPE Author: Charles S. Carver. For study 1, 834 first Year university students answered the Brief COPE in its dispositional format. To study the factor structure of the Brief COPE, we used structural equation modeling and the LISREL software. Results show that the expected theoretical structure and the observed one fit adequately (c2=606, p0,95, AGFI>0,92, RMR<0,03). In order to study convergent and discriminant validity of Brief COPE, self-esteem (SEI, Rosenberg, 1979), perceived stress (PSS, Cohen et al., 1983), and psychological distress (GHQ-12, Goldberg, 1972) measures were used. Results show that functional coping strategies (eg, active coping) are linked to good self-esteem, to lower perceived stress, and to lower psychological distress, whereas less functional strategies (eg, denial or self-blame) are widely linked to poor self-esteem, to a high perceived stress, and to psychological distress. Study 1 shows also several significant gender differences. Study 2 describes the Brief COPE validation in its situational format. 178 additional students answered this version. The method that was used is the same the one developed by Lazarus and his colleagues for the WCC validation. Participants were asked to recall and think about the most stressful event they had experienced during the past two Months. They were also to give an account of how much that situation mattered to them. They had to evaluate their capacity to control the situation and indicated whether they felt the situation was amenable to change. The study inc
Regional development policies in the EU Member States have included tools whoseimportance varied from one country to another. Can be identified by negative incentives forregional development policy towards location in crowded areas or control over the location,the reallocation of economic activities in national territory, creation of adequateinfrastructure, measures to enhance development, financial incentives granted toenterprises. Sustainable business development, rehabilitation of social i...
Snyder, Kevin; Barry, Mark; Plona, Zachary; Ho, Andrew; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Valentino, Rita J
The age of stressor exposure can determine its neurobehavioral impact. For example, exposure of adolescent male rats to resident-intruder stress impairs cognitive flexibility in adulthood. The current study examined the impact of this stressor in female rats. Rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress during early adolescence (EA), mid-adolescence (MA) or adulthood (Adult). They were tested in an operant strategy-shifting task for side discrimination (SD), reversal learning (REV) and strategy set-shifting (SHIFT) the following week. Performance varied with age, stress and coping style. MA and EA rats performed SD and SHIFT better than other ages, respectively. Social stress impaired performance in rats depending on their coping strategy as determined by a short (SL) or long (LL) latency to become subordinate. SL rats were impaired in SD and REV, whereas EA-LL rats were impaired in SHIFT. These impairing effects of female adolescent stress did not endure into adulthood. Strategy set-shifting performance for female adolescents was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation as indicated by c-fos expression suggesting that this region is engaged during task performance. This contrasts with the inverse relationship between these indices reported for male adolescent rats. Together, the results demonstrate that social stress produces cognitive impairments for female rats that depend on age and coping style but unlike males, the impairing effects of female adolescent social stress are immediate and do not endure into adulthood. Sex differences in the impact of adolescent social stress on cognition may reflect differences in mPFC engagement during the task. PMID:25746514
Perricone, Giovanna; Guerra, Marina Prista; Cruz, Orlanda; Polizzi, Concetta; Lima, Lígia; Morales, Maria Regina; de Lemos, Marina Serra; Fontana, Valentina
A child's oncological or chronic disease is a stressful situation for parents. This stress may make it difficult for appropriate management strategies aimed at promoting the child's wellbeing and helping him or her cope with a disease to be adopted. In particular, this study focuses on the possible connections between the variable national cultural influences and the parental strategies used to cope with a child's severe disease by comparing the experiences of Italian and Portuguese mothers. The study investigates differences and cross-cultural elements among the coping strategies used by Italian and Portuguese mothers of children with oncological or chronic disease. Two groups of mothers took part: 59 Italian mothers (average age 37.7 years; SD=4.5) and 36 Portuguese mothers (average age 39.3 years; SD=4.6). The tool used was the Italian and the Portuguese versions of the COPE inventory that measures five coping strategies: Social Support, Avoidance Coping, Positive Aptitude, Religious Faith and Humor, Active Coping. There were statistically significant differences between Portuguese and Italian mothers regarding Social Support (F(3, 94)=6.32, P=0.014, ?(2)=0.065), Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94)=20.06, P=0.001, ?(2)=0.18, higher values for Portuguese mothers) and Avoidance Coping (F(3, 94)=3.30, P=0.06, ?(2)=0.035, higher values for Italian mothers). Regarding child's disease, the only statistically significant difference was in Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94)=7.49, P=0.007, ?(2)=0.076, higher values for mothers of children with chronic disease). The findings of specific cultural transversalities provide the basis for reflection on important factors emerging on the relationship between physicians and parents. In fact, mothers' coping abilities may allow health workers involved in a child's care not only to understand how parents face a distressful event, but also to provide them with professional support. PMID:23904966
Schipper, Sabine; Wiesmeth, Susanne; Wirtz, Markus; Twork, Sabine; Kugler, Joachim
In the last years there has been a growing interest in self assessment of Health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Studies show a reduced HRQOL in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A sample of n=3?157 members of the German Multiple Sclerosis Association (71.7% women, aged 48.2 years on average) was analyzed regarding the correlation between coping styles and HRQOL in MS patients. The findings show reduced HRQOL in MS patients in comparison to the general population in West Germany. MSQOL-54- and MSIS-29-sumscales and FKV-LIS-scales "depressive coping" and "minimizing importance" correlate significant: a depressive or trivializing coping style accompanies with reduced mental and physical HRQOL. PMID:21557148
The purpose in this study is to investigate how the educational system in Tanzania is seen to enable the transformations of globalization in order to develop the economy, society and individuals. I look at how educational development in Tanzania is described, what the purpose of educational development is and under which conditions educational development is seen to enable global transformations. The main perspectives of this study are globalization and governmentality to highlight global tra...
Margarida, Pocinho; Célia Xavier, Perestrelo.
Full Text Available Investigadores, um pouco por todo o mundo, começaram a preocupar-se com o fenómeno do burnout, ao identificarem este sintoma essencialmente nas profissões que envolviam uma relação assistencial ou de ajuda, como o caso dos médicos, enfermeiros e psicólogos. Contudo, não tardou que se percebesse que [...] este fenómeno pudesse também estar presente na profissão docente de uma forma muito significativa. A docência é, na atualidade, uma das profissões mais sujeitas a altos níveis de stresse, podendo levar ao burnout, caso se torne recorrente. Muitos docentes conseguem adaptar-se e reagir de uma forma funcional perante as dificuldades próprias da profissão, tornando-se profissionais engaged, ou seja, enquanto alguns professores vivenciam as dimensões negativas do burnout (exaustão emocional, despersonalização e perda de realização profissional), outros experienciam as três dimensões positivas do engagement(vigor, dedicação e absorção profissional). Com a entrada da chamada "psicologia positiva", surge uma nova perspectiva de estudo que procura respostas para determinadas formas de envolvimento profissional. Assim, apesar do fenómeno do engagement ainda não estar muito estudado, encontrar professores engagedcom a sua profissão também é uma realidade presente em muitos países. O recurso a estratégias de coping é uma forma de lidar com as dificuldades inerentes ao exercício da profissão docente. Logo, é importante perceber de que forma a utilização de determinado tipo de estratégia decoping poderá conduzir ao burnoutou, preferencialmente, ao engagement. Abstract in english Researchers throughout the world have started to worry about the phenomenon of burnout, identifying it mainly in professions that involve a relation of assistance or help, as in the case of medical doctors, nurses, and psychologists. However, it was not long before it was noticed that such phenomeno [...] n can also be present in the teaching profession in a very significant way. Teaching is nowadays one of the professions subjected to the highest levels of stress, which can lead to burnout when the situation becomes recurrent. Many teachers manage to adapt and to react in a functional way when faced with the difficulties inherent to their profession, becoming engaged professionals, that is to say, while some teachers experience the negative dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and loss of professional fulfillment), others experience the three positive dimensions of engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption in the profession). With the arrival of the so-called "positive psychology", there comes a new perspective of investigation, which seeks to give answers to certain forms of professional involvement. Thus, despite the fact that the phenomenon of engagement has still been little studied, to find teachers engaged with their profession is also a reality in many countries. Resorting to strategies of coping is one way of dealing with the difficulties inherent to the exercise of the teaching profession. Therefore, it is important to observe in which way the use of certain type of strategy of coping can lead to burnout or, preferably, to engagement.
Full Text Available Investigadores, um pouco por todo o mundo, começaram a preocupar-se com o fenómeno do burnout, ao identificarem este sintoma essencialmente nas profissões que envolviam uma relação assistencial ou de ajuda, como o caso dos médicos, enfermeiros e psicólogos. Contudo, não tardou que se percebesse que este fenómeno pudesse também estar presente na profissão docente de uma forma muito significativa. A docência é, na atualidade, uma das profissões mais sujeitas a altos níveis de stresse, podendo levar ao burnout, caso se torne recorrente. Muitos docentes conseguem adaptar-se e reagir de uma forma funcional perante as dificuldades próprias da profissão, tornando-se profissionais engaged, ou seja, enquanto alguns professores vivenciam as dimensões negativas do burnout (exaustão emocional, despersonalização e perda de realização profissional, outros experienciam as três dimensões positivas do engagement(vigor, dedicação e absorção profissional. Com a entrada da chamada "psicologia positiva", surge uma nova perspectiva de estudo que procura respostas para determinadas formas de envolvimento profissional. Assim, apesar do fenómeno do engagement ainda não estar muito estudado, encontrar professores engagedcom a sua profissão também é uma realidade presente em muitos países. O recurso a estratégias de coping é uma forma de lidar com as dificuldades inerentes ao exercício da profissão docente. Logo, é importante perceber de que forma a utilização de determinado tipo de estratégia decoping poderá conduzir ao burnoutou, preferencialmente, ao engagement.Researchers throughout the world have started to worry about the phenomenon of burnout, identifying it mainly in professions that involve a relation of assistance or help, as in the case of medical doctors, nurses, and psychologists. However, it was not long before it was noticed that such phenomenon can also be present in the teaching profession in a very significant way. Teaching is nowadays one of the professions subjected to the highest levels of stress, which can lead to burnout when the situation becomes recurrent. Many teachers manage to adapt and to react in a functional way when faced with the difficulties inherent to their profession, becoming engaged professionals, that is to say, while some teachers experience the negative dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and loss of professional fulfillment, others experience the three positive dimensions of engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption in the profession. With the arrival of the so-called "positive psychology", there comes a new perspective of investigation, which seeks to give answers to certain forms of professional involvement. Thus, despite the fact that the phenomenon of engagement has still been little studied, to find teachers engaged with their profession is also a reality in many countries. Resorting to strategies of coping is one way of dealing with the difficulties inherent to the exercise of the teaching profession. Therefore, it is important to observe in which way the use of certain type of strategy of coping can lead to burnout or, preferably, to engagement.
This research replicates the study conducted by Forlin (2001) in Churchlands, Western Australia. Forlin's Inclusive Education "Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire" was adapted from the original questionnaire to more accurately reflect the language and practice of inclusion in Ontario. The purpose of this portion of the study was to determine
Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Allen, James; Henry, David; Mohatt, Gerald V.
Self-mastery refers to problem-focused coping facilitated through personal agency. Communal mastery describes problem solving through an interwoven social network. This study investigates an adaptation of self- and communal mastery measures for youth. Given the important distinction between family and peers in the lives of youth, these adaptation
Full Text Available Background: It has previously been demonstrated that there is a significant drop in all domains of quality of life among interns during internship. Aims: A modified version of the health consultant?s job stress and satisfaction questionnaire (HCJSSQ was used to assess and quantify aspects of internship that were perceived as stressful and satisfying. Methods used to cope with work place stress were explored. Settings and Design: A prospective cohort study was undertaken among 93 medical interns doing a rotating internship at the Christian Medical College and Hospital, a tertiary-care hospital in southern India. Materials and Methods: After completion of 6 months of internship, the modified version of the HCJSSQ was administered to all participants. Statistical Analysis: The data were entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 9 by double data entry technique. Percentages of interns reporting high levels of stress, satisfaction were calculated. Results: While 63.4% of interns reported high levels of satisfaction, 45.2% of the interns experienced high levels of stress, 17.6% coped with work stress by using alcohol and nicotine, and 37% coped through unhealthy eating habits. Conclusion: More people found internship satisfying than stressful. However, a high proportion found it stressful, and many reported unhealthy coping mechanisms.
Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.
Flávia Pereira da, Costa.
Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), which are the coping strategies used and the relation between type of coping, voice symptoms and communicative aspects. Method: 73 subjects, 33 in the experimental group, with diagnosis of PD, and 40 subjects in the control group, he [...] althy and without vocal complaints. They underwent the following procedures: application of the Voice Symptons Scale VoiSS Brazilian Version, Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire VDCQ Brazilian Version, and the questionnaire Living with Dysarthria LwD. Results: The experimental group showed deviations in all protocols: VDCQ (p
The development of inertial fusion as a power source will require achieving four principal milestones: ignition and propagating burn; high gain at low drive energy for the reactor driver; pulse repetition rates of a few Hz; and long-term reliability and economics of a reactor. To keep development time and costs to a minimum, these should be accomplished with as few major facilities as possible. A viable scenario for the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Program would include establishing the first milestone in a Nova Upgrade for ignition and gain and the latter three in an upgradable, low-power Engineering Test Facility (ETF)/Demonstration Power Plant (DPP), i.e. two major facilities. To be successful in as short a time as possible operations at the major facilities would have to be supported by off-line reactor driver and other reactor technology development efforts. These efforts would evaluate and prioritize the myriad of options available at present for power plant and subsystem concepts. This paper describes the elements of such a program that could make the first commercial power available in the decade of the 2020s and estimates the resources needed. This program would be carried out in phases with major go/no-go decision points before each large funding change. It is estimated that an IFE evaluation phase in the early 1990s would cost $100--150 M, a concept development phase in the latter 1990s would cost $500--850 M, and an engineering test and demonstration phase after the year 2000 would cost $6--8 over 20 years
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Stress among students of the health sciences can lead to reduced performance of future healthcare human resources. To address this threat there is a need to develop a robust understanding of the nature and intensity of stress in these professionals. To help approaching this goal, the present study assessed stress-induced life change in students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences by quantifying their stressful life events.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study was carried out. Using a cluster sampling method, 248 students were randomly selected from the students of medicine, nursing, dental medicine, pharmacy, allied-medicine, health, midwifery, medical management and information, and rehabilitation disciplines. Based on the concept of Life Change Units (LCU, a questionnaire was developed to quantify the stressful events in student life. The questionnaire contained 54 weighed items about stressful life events related to four groups of interpersonal (10 items, personal (16 items, academic (14 items, and environmental (14 items stress sources. Validity of the questionnaire was determined by expert opinion. The questionnaire reliability was ensured by Cronbachs alpha of 0.88. The mean LCU loading of demographic groups was compared using t test and ANOVA.Findings: The average LCU loading in student was 71. Twenty seven percent of the students reported an average LCU loading 300. The highest reported life changes were related to personal factors (86, followed by interpersonal (79, environmental (63, and academic (55 factors. Male students showed significantly higher life change as compared with their female counterparts (P < 0.01. Students of medical and graduate courses jointly expressed significantly higher life change as compared with the under graduate students (P < 0.01. Students of nursing showed significantly higher life change in comparison to other students except medical students (P < 0.01. Upper-year students reported higher life change as compared with freshman students (P < 0.01. LCU loading was found significantly higher in students with sleeplessness (P < 0.05 and muscle spasm (P < 0.05, whereas no significant effect was observed for other clinical symptoms.Conclusions: Our study indicated that a considerable percentage of students are exposed to a high risk of health problems. This observation points out the urgent need for implementing effective stress management strategies to assist students in coping with stress. Such a strategy should primarily focus on enhancing students personal life management and communication. Male and upper-year students need to receive particular attention. Stress in students of medical and nursing disciplines needs to be specifically characterized and addressed.
Fang Kuangnan; Shia Ben-Chang; Ma Shuangge
Abstract Background The health insurance system in Taiwan is comprised of public health insurance and private health insurance. The public health insurance, called universal national health insurance (NHI), was first established in 1995 and amended in 2011. The goal of this study is to provide an updated description of several important aspects of health insurance in Taiwan. Of special interest are household insurance coverage, medical expenditures (both gross and out-of-pocket), and coping...
Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Allen, James; Henry, David; Mohatt, Gerald V
Self-mastery refers to problem-focused coping facilitated through personal agency. Communal mastery describes problem solving through an interwoven social network. This study investigates an adaptation of self- and communal mastery measures for youth. Given the important distinction between family and peers in the lives of youth, these adaptation efforts produced Mastery-Family and Mastery-Friends subscales, along with a Mastery-Self subscale. We tested these measures for psychometric propert...
Ahmadi, Fereshteh; Ahmadi, Nader
The authors have conducted a quantitative survey to examine the extent to which the results obtained in a qualitative study among cancer patients in Sweden (Ahmadi, Culture, religion and spirituality in coping: The example of cancer patients in Sweden, Uppsala, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006) are applicable to a wider population of cancer patients in this country. In addition to questions relating to the former qualitative study, this survey also references the RCOPE questionnaire (desi...
GregDécamps; EmilieBoujut; CamilleBrisset
College students at university have to face several stress factors. Although sports practice has been considered as having beneficial effects upon stress and general health, few studies have documented its influence on this specific population. The aim of this comparative study was to determine whether the intensity of the college students sports practice (categorized into three groups: rare, regular, or intensive) would influence their levels of stress and self-efficacy, their coping strate...
Leandro Martín, Casari; Johana, Anglada; Celeste, Daher.
Full Text Available Este artículo analizó las estrategias de afrontamiento y la ansiedad ante situación de examen en 140 estudiantes universitarios de Psicología de la Universidad del Aconcagua de la provincia de Mendoza. Además, evaluó las diferencias y el grado de relación entre estas dos variables en cuanto a género [...] , materias rendidas y año académico. Los resultados mostraron que las estrategias de afrontamiento fueron la búsqueda de Gratificaciones Alternativas y la Descarga Emocional; además, que los estudiantes presentan un nivel bajo de ansiedad. Se encontraron relaciones significativas entre ansiedad ante exámenes y estrategias de afrontamiento, como también entre estas variables en relación al género y el año de cursado. No se encontraron resultados significativos al correlacionar con cantidad de materias rendidas. Abstract in english This paper analyzed the coping strategies and exam anxiety in 140 Psychology majors at the University of the Aconcagua, in the state of Mendoza. It also evaluated the differences and the relationship between these two variables according to gender, completed courses and academic year. Results showed [...] that the coping strategies included the Search for Alternative Bonuses and Emotional Discharge; students also reported a low level of anxiety. Significant associations were found between these two variables, as well in relation to gender and the academic year. No significant results were found in the relationship with completed courses.
Full Text Available This paper explains the strategy employed by a case study company to implement lean across the business, and to reflect on the success of this approach so other companies may consider this learning and how it might be useful to them. The strategy to enact lean in the case study company was based on creating a number of standard tools/ways of working. These tools can be considered to be standardised work for key aspects of the construction process that the company undertakes. The aim of the tools was to ensure that critical tasks would be carried out to the correct standard (quality, time, cost, health and safety every time, across the business. Achievement of this is expected to lead to improved performance and elimination of variation (waste. To implement this strategy of using standardised work to eliminate variation and lead to improved performance, a step-by-step process was developed to create the tools/standardised work. The paper describes the process that was undertaken and how it aimed to not only produce a number of tools/standardised work, but also to involve people and managers from across the business such that lean philosophy and thinking might also begin to become embedded. The paper will firstly explain, with reference to the relevant literature, how and why the strategy to implement standardised work was chosen, the process that was defined to develop the standardised work, and what happened when that process was put into practice. The findings of the paper show that whilst the completed tools delivered business benefits, the development of the tools did not follow the planned process. The paper discusses how people within the business responded to this strategy and how the process had to be continuously adapted to cope with the current business environment and path dependencies, further evidencing that lean implementations need to be tailored to suit the needs of the individual firm, rather than there being a one size fits all solution. Further, the conclusions will be set in the context of what lean has become to mean to the case study organisation, and how this sits in the wider debate of whether lean is an all encompassing philosophy or a set of prescriptive tools and techniques.
Carroll, Linda J; Ferrari, Robert
OBJECTIVE: Coping is shown to affect outcomes in chronic pain patients; however, few studies have examined the role of coping in the course of recovery in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of coping style for 2 key aspects of WAD recovery, reductions in neck pain, and in disability. METHODS: A population-based prospective cohort study design was used to study 2986 adults with traffic-related WAD. Participants were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 4, 8, and 12 months postinjury. Coping was measured at 6 weeks using the Pain Management Inventory, and neck pain recovery was assessed at each subsequent follow-up, using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Disability was assessed at each follow-up using the Pain Disability Index (PDI). Pain recovery was defined as a VAS score of 0 to 10; disability recovery was defined as a PDI score of 0 to 4. Data analysis used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Those using high versus low levels of passive coping at 6 weeks postinjury experienced 28% slower pain recovery and 43% slower disability recovery. Adjusted hazard rate ratios for pain recovery and disability recovery were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.59-0.88) and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.41-0.78), respectively. Active coping was not associated with recovery of neck pain or disability. CONCLUSIONS: Passive coping style predicts neck pain and self-assessed disability recovery. It may be beneficial to assess and improve coping style early in WAD.
Camila Gastelumendi Gonçalves
Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between coping styles and strategies, and personality styles in a sample of 41 young volunteers of an institution that alleviates poverty in Lima. Peruvian adaptations of COPE and MIPS scales were administered. The results show that volunteers have higher scores on adaptive coping strategies. High scores in some particular personality styles were reported, which allowed to establish a personality profile of this group. According with theoretical framework, most coping strategies correlated with most personality styles, revealing four particular tendencies in these volunteers: they wish to have contact with other people, they usually see positive aspects of situations, they look forward for challenges, and they developed adaptive coping strategies.
Lenamar Fiorese, Vieira; Nayara Malheiros, Carruzo; Paulo Vitor Suto, Aizava; Patrícia Aparecida Gaion, Rigoni.
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a síndrome de "burnout" e as estratégias de "coping" de jogadores de vôlei de praia. Participaram 93 atletas, das categorias sub-21 e "open" do circuito brasileiro de vôlei de praia. Como instrumentos foram utilizados uma ficha com dados de identificação, Ques [...] tionário de "Burnout" para Atletas e Inventário Atlético das Estratégias de "Coping". Para análise dos dados utilizou-se teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, coeficiente Alpha de Cronbach, teste 'U' de Mann-Whitney, teste de Kruskal-Wallis e coeficiente de correlação de Spearman, adotando p Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze burnout syndrome and coping strategies of beach volleyball players. Ninety-three athletes participated, being one group of under-21 age and another group of adult category. The both group are composed by players of the Brazilian beach volleyball championship. The instrume [...] nts used were a form with data identification, Burnout Questionnaire for Athletes and Athletic Inventory of Coping Strategies. For data analysis, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, 'U' Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlation coefficient, were used, considering p
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Many strategies have been proposed to satisfy the demands of sustainable development. They are usually based on the notion that the limits to the use of our environment have already been reached. They differ, however, in their approaches towards dealing with this situation. The first is based on the belief that any human society is part of, and depends on, an ecosystem. The ecosystem constrains the development of that society. It is necessary to respect the carrying capacity of the ecosys...
Fenhann, JØrgen Villy; Ramlau, Marianne
This report presents the findings of a study for low carbon development strategy for Maldives. The study was implemented under the Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Environment and Energy (MEE), Maldives and URC and was financed by Danida, Denmarks development aid agency under its Green Facility Phase II. The study work was conducted from October 2010 to March 2014 and comprised a number of study missions.
We present an overview of the VL approach to promote research and education in developing countries and to help reduce the technology gap of the digital divide. We discuss software tools for instrument control, data sharing and e-collaboration with special attention on low-bandwidth networks. We analyse the VL tentative costs involved and the skills needed for the VL administration. We conclude by identifying some VL strategies for development. (author)
Mishara, B L; Giroux, G
This study examines stress perceived by telephone intervention volunteers at a suicide prevention center before their shift, during the most high-urgency call, and after the shift. Eighty of the 82 active volunteers completed questionnaires concerning stress, coping strategies, motivations for volunteer work, and experiences with suicide. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that only one variable, the amount of experience in telephone intervention with suicidal persons, predicted stress level before the shift; volunteers with more experience tended to be less stressed. Stress during the most urgent call was related first to the level of urgency of the call, then to the total length of all calls received, followed by the coping mechanisms of magical thinking, detachment, and feeling personally responsible. Stress after the shift was related first to the total amount of time spent on calls, then to the number of other persons present during the shift. Stress after the shift was also negatively related to amount of education and having realistic expectations about interventions. Magical thinking was positively related to stress, and the mechanism of positive thinking was negatively related. A high proportion of volunteers had attempted suicide, had previous thoughts about suicide, and had known persons who attempted or died by suicide. These findings are discussed as to their implications for the selection and training of volunteers in suicide prevention. PMID:8249033
Webster, Vicki; Brough, Paula; Daly, Kathleen
Sustained destructive leadership behaviours are associated with negative outcomes that produce serious workplace problems, yet there is scant research into how followers effectively cope with toxic leader behaviours. Despite numerous attempts to develop typologies of coping behaviours, there remains much to learn, especially in relation to this specific workplace stressor. This mixed method research investigates the coping strategies reported by 76 followers to cope with the psychological, emotional and physical consequences of their leader's adverse behaviour. Coping instances were categorized using two existing theoretical coping frameworks, and the ability of these frameworks to explain responses to real-world experiences with toxic leadership are discussed. Common coping strategies reported included assertively challenging the leader, seeking social support, ruminating, taking leave and leaving the organization. Organizational interventions to increase effectiveness of follower coping with the impact of toxic leadership are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25470138
Serfass, J.A. (National Hydrogen Association, Washington, D.C. (US)); Nahmias, D. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)); Appleby, A.J. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Center for Electrochemical Systems and Hydrogen Research)
The National Hydrogen Association's mission is to foster the development of hydrogen technologies and their utilization in industrial and commercial applications and promote the transition role of hydrogen in the energy field. Hydrogen's transitional role requires that it be part of a National Energy Strategy that utilizes the experience of private industry, academia, research organizations and government to address opportunities for environmentally compatible production and greater utilization of hydrogen as a fuel in the long-term energy mix of the U.S. and the world. The transition strategy must address the economics of hydrogen production, storage and transport; the need for environmentally acceptable production technologies; development of application technologies and markets; and the development of safety guidelines and information that will allow hydrogen to be used in a manner the public perceives as safe. (author).
In this book authors analyse the present state of economy as well as strategy of perspectives of development of Slovak society. A key issue in the next 5 to 10 years in the energy sector will mainly address energy security, diversification of energy sources, renewable energy sources and energy savings. The strategic goal is to transform energy into a form that will ensure long competition-capable and reliable supply of all forms of energy, taking into account sustainable development, security of supply and technical security. The strategy of energy security of Slovakia in 2030 is to achieve a competitive energy industry, ensuring safe, reliable and efficient supply of all forms of energy at affordable prices with regard to consumer protection, environmental protection, sustainable development, security of supply and technical security.
Full Text Available This paper addresses, homesickness, an important issue in the area of international human resource management. It uses psychological and sociological literature to highlight the negative effects of homesickness on migrant workers and expatriates. These effects range from psychological disruptions to physical manifestations that affect the health and welfare of individuals and impact on work performance. The paper presents a model of coping strategies used by expatriates to deal with homesickness. This model is built on the empirical evidence collected. It concludes that there is significant amount of evidence found to substantiate that homesickness is an illness and detrimental to psychological and social well-being. It is crucial that further research is undertaken in this area as affecting expatriates because the size of the investment in expatriates commands that risks of failure are minimized.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the ego-state of obese people in terms of transactional analysis and to determine the relationship between coping with overweight strategies, Ego-structure, global self-esteem, and body self-esteem levels. Methods: One-hundred-seventy-one overweight and obese adult females were examined by a general practitioner and a specialist in obesity management. The ego-state, global self-esteem, and body self-esteem were assessed using the Ego State Questionnaire (ESQ, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Body-Esteem Scale, respectively. Results: Participants were divided into three subgroups: A no attempts at weight loss currently (35.1%, B self-attempted weight loss (33.9%, C professional obesity treatment (31.0%. Age, education level, professional status, marital status, and number of children,along with the onset of being overweight/obese were similar in all subgroups. Subgroups B and C statistically and significantly made frequent attempts at weight loss (p<0.001 and experienced yo-yo effect (p<0.001 more than subgroup A. Effective weight loss attempts were observed significantly more often in subgroups C (p<0.001. Only mean lies scale results were significantly higher in subgroups A and C compared to B (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. While self-esteem, sexual attractiveness, weight concern, physical condition and ego-states were similar in all study subgroups. Conclusions: Structure of the Ego-states, self-esteem and body-esteem did not influence the strategies of coping with overweight. Self-esteem is related to spontaneous Ego-child and Ego-adult levels, while the sense of sexual attractiveness is affected only by Ego-spontaneous child.
Full Text Available A childs oncological or chronic disease is a stressful situation for parents. This stress may make it difficult for appropriate management strategies aimed at promoting the childs well-being and helping him or her cope with a disease to be adopted. In particular, this study focuses on the possible connections between the variable national cultural influences and the parental strategies used to cope with a childs severe disease by comparing the experiences of Italian and Portuguese mothers. The study investigates differences and cross-cultural elements among the coping strategies used by Italian and Portuguese mothers of children with oncological or chronic disease. Two groups of mothers took part: 59 Italian mothers (average age 37.7 years; SD=4.5 and 36 Portuguese mothers (average age 39.3 years; SD=4.6. The tool used was the Italian and the Portuguese versions of the COPE inventory that measures five coping strategies: Social Support, Avoidance Coping, Positive Aptitude, Religious Faith and Humor, Active Coping. There were statistically significant differences between Portuguese and Italian mothers regarding Social Support (F(3, 94=6.32, P=0.014, ?2=0.065, Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94=20.06, P=0.001, ?2=0.18, higher values for Portuguese mothers and Avoidance Coping (F(3, 94=3.30, P=0.06, ?2=0.035, higher values for Italian mothers. Regarding childs disease, the only statistically significant difference was in Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94=7.49, P=0.007, ?2=0.076, higher values for mothers of children with chronic disease. The findings of specific cultural transversalities provide the basis for reflection on important factors emerging on the relationship between physicians and parents. In fact, mothers coping abilities may allow health workers involved in a childs care not only to understand how parents face a distressful event, but also to provide them with professional support.
Gemma, Costa-Requena; M. Carmen, Cantarell-Aixendri; Gemma, Parramon-Puig; Daniel, Serón-Micas.
Full Text Available Introducción: El optimismo disposicional aparece como un recurso personal que determina el estilo de afrontamiento y respuesta adaptativa ante enfermedades crónicas. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron averiguar las relaciones entre el constructo de optimismo disposicional y las estrategias de afro [...] ntamiento en pacientes con trasplante renal reciente, y evaluar diferencias en la utilización de estrategias de afrontamiento según el grado de optimismo disposicional. Material y métodos: Consecutivamente se eligen pacientes hospitalizados en el servicio de nefrología tras realizar el trasplante renal. Los instrumentos de evaluación fueron el Life Orientation Test-Revised y el Inventario de Estrategias de Afrontamiento. Los datos son analizados con medidas de tendencia central, análisis correlacional y comparación de medias con la prueba t de Student. Resultados: Participan 66 pacientes con trasplante renal. El estilo de afrontamiento que caracteriza a pacientes con trasplante renal reciente sería la Retirada social y la Evitación de problemas. Las correlaciones entre optimismo disposicional y estrategias de afrontamiento son significativas, en sentido positivo en Resolución de problemas (p Abstract in english Introduction: Dispositional optimism is a personal resource that determines the coping style and adaptive response to chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between dispositional optimism and coping strategies in patients with recent kidney transplantation and evaluat [...] e the differences in the use of coping strategies in accordance with the level of dispositional optimism. Material and method: Patients who were hospitalised in the nephrology department were selected consecutively after kidney transplantation was performed. The evaluation instruments were the Life Orientation Test-Revised, and the Coping Strategies Inventory. The data were analysed with central tendency measures, correlation analyses and means were compared using Student's t-test. Results: 66 patients with a kidney transplant participated in the study. The coping styles that characterised patients with a recent kidney transplantation were Social withdrawal and Problem avoidance. Correlations between dispositional optimism and coping strategies were significant in a positive direction in Problem-solving (p
Clinical effectiveness of a manual based coping strategy programme (START, STrAtegies for RelaTives) in promoting the mental health of carers of family members with dementia: pragmatic randomised controlled trial
Livingston, Gill; Barber, Julie; Rapaport, Penny; Knapp, Martin; Griffin, Mark; King, Derek; Livingston, Debbie; Mummery, Cath; Walker, Zuzana; Hoe, Juanita; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Cooper, Claudia
Objective: To assess whether a manual based coping strategy compared with treatment as usual reduces depression and anxiety symptoms in carers of family members with dementia. Design: Randomised, parallel group, superiority trial. Setting: Three mental health community services and one neurological outpatient dementia service in London and Essex, UK. Participants: 260 carers of family members with dementia. Intervention: A manual based coping intervention comprising eight session...
María del Carmen Hernández
Full Text Available The deep benthic communities of tropical lakes are poorly understood with respect to their composition, abundance, biomass and regulatory factors. Whereas the hypolimnia of temperate oligotrophic lakes remain oxygenated, the higher temperatures in tropical lakes frequently lead to the rapid development of hypolimnetic anoxia independent of trophic status. The deep benthic communities of tropical lakes must therefore develop strategies to respond to anoxic conditions. The dynamics of the deep benthic community of Lake Alchichica were studied over 15 months. We hypothesized that the sedimentation of the winter diatom bloom constitutes an input of high-quality food that contributes to the establishment and development of the deep benthic community. However, the remineralization of this organic matter leads to the prompt development of hypolimnetic anoxia, thus limiting the establishment and/or persistence of the deep benthic community. In contrast with the diverse littoral benthic community (50 taxa in Lake Alchichica, only two species constitute its deep benthic community, the ostracod Candona cf. patzcuaro and the chironomid Chironomus cf. austini, which combined exhibit a low density (1197±1976 ind m-2 and biomass (16.13±30.81 mg C m-2. C. patzcuaro is dominant and is present throughout the year, whereas Ch. austini is recorded only when the bottom water of the lake is oxygenated. A comparison with the analogous but temperate Lake Mergozzo in Italy illustrates the role that anoxia plays in tropical lakes by diminishing not only taxonomic richness (13 versus 2 spp. in temperate versus tropical lakes, respectively but also abundance (1145 versus 287 ind m-2, respectively. C. patzcuaro is found throughout the annual cycle of the lakes profundal zone, entering into diapause during the anoxic period and recovering as soon as the profundal zone reoxygenates. Ch. austini has adjusted its life cycle to use the habitat and available resources while the bottom of the lake is oxygenated and emerges en masse at the onset of anoxia. The presence of oxygen and abundant fresh food favors the development of the deep benthic community and yields increases in density and biomass. However, the anoxia that rapidly occurs during the stratification period and the presence of hydrogen sulfide are the key factors that limit deep benthic community colonization and/or permanence in the profundal zone of the tropical Lake Alchichica.
Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.
This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of
Estratégias de enfrentamento, dificuldades funcionais e fatores associados em idosos institucionalizados Coping strategies, functional difficulties, and associated factors in institutionalized elderly
Analise de Souza Vivan
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é verificar as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas pelos idosos em face das dificuldades funcionais e a existência de associação entre o uso das estratégias e variáveis como sintomas depressivos, sexo, escolaridade, idade, estado civil e percepção da saúde. Participaram do estudo 103 idosos institucionalizados, que apresentavam necessidade de assistência em no mínimo uma atividade de vida diária. O delineamento foi transversal, com a utilização dos seguintes instrumentos: Ficha de Dados Pessoais, Escala de Atividades da Vida Diária, Breve Entrevista Internacional de Neuropsiquiatria Modificada, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental, Inventário de Estratégias de Coping e Escala de Depressão Geriátrica. As estratégias de enfrentamento mais utilizadas pela amostra foram a de autocontrole e resolução de problemas. Encontraram-se associações significativas entre as variáveis escolaridade e depressão. Os resultados da pesquisa sugerem que a avaliação das estratégias utilizadas em face de eventos estressores pode auxiliar na análise da situação e na adequação das estratégias escolhidas, ajudando também em processos de mudança no contexto clínico.The aim of this study was to analyze the strategies used by elderly people to cope with functional difficulties, and to investigate a possible association between such strategies and variables like depressive symptoms, gender, schooling, marital status, and self-perceived health. 103 institutionalized elderly individuals participated in the study. They required assistance for at least one activity of daily living. The study was cross-sectional and used the following indicators: Personal Data Chart, Activities of Daily Living Scale, Modified Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Mini-Mental Examination, Coping Strategies Inventory, and Geriatric Depression Scale. The most widely used coping strategies in the sample were self-control and problem solving. Significant associations were found between schooling and depression. The findings suggest that assessing coping strategies for stressful events can assist analysis of the situation and appropriate adaptation of the chosen strategies, so as to foster changes within the medical context.
Estratégias de enfrentamento, dificuldades funcionais e fatores associados em idosos institucionalizados / Coping strategies, functional difficulties, and associated factors in institutionalized elderly
Analise de Souza, Vivan; Irani Iracema de Lima, Argimon.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é verificar as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas pelos idosos em face das dificuldades funcionais e a existência de associação entre o uso das estratégias e variáveis como sintomas depressivos, sexo, escolaridade, idade, estado civil e percepção da saúde. Participaram d [...] o estudo 103 idosos institucionalizados, que apresentavam necessidade de assistência em no mínimo uma atividade de vida diária. O delineamento foi transversal, com a utilização dos seguintes instrumentos: Ficha de Dados Pessoais, Escala de Atividades da Vida Diária, Breve Entrevista Internacional de Neuropsiquiatria Modificada, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental, Inventário de Estratégias de Coping e Escala de Depressão Geriátrica. As estratégias de enfrentamento mais utilizadas pela amostra foram a de autocontrole e resolução de problemas. Encontraram-se associações significativas entre as variáveis escolaridade e depressão. Os resultados da pesquisa sugerem que a avaliação das estratégias utilizadas em face de eventos estressores pode auxiliar na análise da situação e na adequação das estratégias escolhidas, ajudando também em processos de mudança no contexto clínico. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to analyze the strategies used by elderly people to cope with functional difficulties, and to investigate a possible association between such strategies and variables like depressive symptoms, gender, schooling, marital status, and self-perceived health. 103 institutionaliz [...] ed elderly individuals participated in the study. They required assistance for at least one activity of daily living. The study was cross-sectional and used the following indicators: Personal Data Chart, Activities of Daily Living Scale, Modified Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Mini-Mental Examination, Coping Strategies Inventory, and Geriatric Depression Scale. The most widely used coping strategies in the sample were self-control and problem solving. Significant associations were found between schooling and depression. The findings suggest that assessing coping strategies for stressful events can assist analysis of the situation and appropriate adaptation of the chosen strategies, so as to foster changes within the medical context.
INTERVENÇÕES UTILIZADAS NA PROMOÇÃO DE ESTRATÉGIAS DE COPING NA DEPRESSÃO EM MULHERES COM CÂNCER INTERVENCIONES UTILIZADAS PARA PROMOVER ESTRATEGIAS DE COPING PARA LA DEPRESIÓN ENTRE MUJERES CON CÁNCER APPLIED INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE COPING STRATEGIES FOR DEPRESSION AMONG WOMEN WITH CANCER
LUCIMARA MORELI; JEANNE MARIE R STACCIARINI; ARIANE DE FREITAS CARDOSO; EMILIA CAMPOS DE CARVALHO
A depressão tem sido observada em portadores de doenças crônico-degenerativas, incluindo câncer. A utilização de diferentes estratégias de coping nessas condições patológicas pode ser extremamente importante, em face da presença de fatores estressores e sentimentos indesejáveis. Buscou-se identificar, por meio de revisão sistemática, os tipos de estudo para promover estratégia de coping e as intervenções utilizadas para promover tais estratégias em situação de depressão, em mulheres com cânce...
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Today, the occupational education is needed not only by the graduates but also by the development of our society. The occupational education provides a new space for the university library in Re-positioning and development. So the libraries should conform to the situation and do entrepreneurship education and the role service orientation conversion. The university libraries have some unique advantages of enterprise education, so they have the mission and responsibilities of training creative and enterprise talents. The author points that the university library should take measures to serve the enterprise education, such as: exploring resources, establishing a platform for enterprise education, setting up relevant courses etc.
Key words: Occupational education; University library; Service strategy
Aujourd'hui, l'enseignement professionnel est nécessaire non seulement par les diplômés, mais aussi par le développement de notre société. L'enseignement professionnel offre un nouvel espace pour la bibliothèque universitaire de Re-positionnement et de développement. Ainsi les bibliothèques doivent être conformes à la situation et faire enseignement de l'entrepreneuriat et la conversion d'orientation rôle de service. Les bibliothèques universitaires ont certains avantages uniques de formation à l'entreprise, de sorte qu'ils ont la mission et les responsabilités de la formation des talents créatifs et d'entreprise. L'auteur que la bibliothèque de l'université devraient prendre des mesures pour servir à l'éducation de l'entreprise, tels que: l'exploration des ressources, établir une plateforme de formation à l'entreprise, la mise en place des cours pertinent... etc.
Mots clés: Education Professionnelle; Bibliothèque Universitaire; Stratégie de service
Cadamuro, Alessia; Versari, Annalisa; Vezzali, Loris; Giovannini, Dino; Trifiletti, Elena
Background: In May 2012, Northern Italy was struck by a tremendous series of earthquakes, which had devastating consequences and persisted for several months. Previous research shows that coping strategies and Theory of Mind (ToM) can help sustaining cognitive performance after a traumatic experience. Objective: We conducted a study to examine
Thomas, Gloria D.; Hollenshead, Carol
Investigated how academic women of color coped, professionally and personally, given their marginalized position and how they used their position as a place of resistance to racism, sexism, and classism. Surveys and interviews with women faculty of color indicated that their resistance strategies addressed organizational barriers, institutional
Jehlicka, Petr; Kostelecky, Tomas; Smith, Joe
Food systems are of increasing interest in both research and policy communities. Surveys of post-socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) show high rates of food self-provisioning. These practices have been explained in terms of being "coping strategies of the poor". Alber and Kohler's "Informal Food Production in the Enlarged
Epstein, Ruth; Hirani, Shashivadan P; Stygall, Jan; Newman, Stanton P
Coping is a key concept in psychological medicine, which refers to the way in which people deal with the stress of illness. Voice disorders may have pervasive effects upon the individual's life beyond the vocal impairment yet, there is little reference in current literature as to how people cope with voice problems. This study explored and validated the Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire (VDCQ), a newly developed disease-specific coping measure, which elicits how patients cope with voice problems. Eighty subjects presenting with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) and adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ASD) completed a 28-item VDCQ as part of an initial assessment protocol before intervention, within a longitudinal study. Principal component analyses were used to investigate the underlying structure of this questionnaire; analyses of variance were used to determine group differences in coping strategies. The principal component analyses generated four coping subscales: "social support," "passive coping," "avoidance," and "information seeking" measured over 15 items. The subscales revealed logical correlations between them. Avoidance and passive coping were found to be used by the ASD group significantly more than the MTD group. This study provided initial evidence for the validity and reliability of the VDCQ; it differentiated between clinical groups and may facilitate a patient-centered approach, which enhances the understanding of voice disorders. PMID:18538984
Burnout, Depression und Depersonalisation Psychologische Faktoren und Bewältigungsstrategien bei Studierenden der Zahn- und Humanmedizin [Burnout, depression and depersonalisation Psychological factors and coping strategies in dental and medical students
Full Text Available [english] Background: Previous studies found that stress, depression, burnout, anxiety, and depersonalisation play a significant role amongst dental and medical students. We wanted to examine if students of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg also would report elevated values as can been found in similar publications. Furthermore, particularly coping strategies were investigated.Methods: The data collection took place in April 2008 including 182 dental and medical students of the 4 and 5 academic year at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Demographic data and the following screening instruments were used: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale (CDS-9, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Brief COPE. Results: Descriptive statistics showed higher pathological values in dental students than in medical students. The difference was especially pronounced on the depersonalisation scale (CDS-9, with 20.4% of the dental students, but only 5.5% of the medical students showing scores above a cut-off of 19. The scores decreased in the course of 3 semesters of dentistry. The students with elevated values showed a higher degree of dysfunctional coping. Conclusion: Our results obtained with the screening instruments are in line with the results of previous investigations of other authors and point out the importance of this issue. It might be useful to develop programs teaching dental students more adaptive coping strategies before their first patient contact.[german] Hintergrund: Studien der vergangenen Jahre zeigten, dass Stress, Depression, Burnout-Syndrom, Angst und Depersonalisation während des Studiums der Zahn- und Humanmedizin einen besonderen Stellenwert einnehmen. Es stellt sich die Frage, ob auch bei Studierenden der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg erhöhte Werte, wie sie in der Literatur gefunden werden, nachweisbar sind. Zudem soll untersucht werden, welche Arten von Bewältigungsstrategien vorkommen.Methodik: Die Datenerhebung fand im April 2008 bei 182 Studenten der Human- und Zahnmedizin des 4. und 5. Studienjahres an der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg statt. Neben der demographischen Erhebung kamen folgende Screening Instrumente zum Einsatz: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale (CDS-9, Kurzversion, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Brief COPE. Ergebnisse: In der deskriptiven Statistik zeigten sich bei den Zahnmedizinstudenten erhöhte Werte im Vergleich zu den Humanmedizinstudenten. Besonders deutlich war der Unterschied bei den Werten der Depersonalisations-Skala (CDS-9. Es hatten 20.4% der Zahnmedizin- und nur 5,5% der Humanmedizinstudenten Werte über dem cut-off von 19. Im Querschnitt der drei Studiensemester Zahnmedizin nahm die Anzahl der Studierenden mit auffälligen Werten ab. Studierende mit auffälligen Werten zeigten ein höheres Maß an dysfunktionalen Bewältigungsstrategien. Schlussfolgerung: Die Messwerte der Screening Instrumente ähneln der Untersuchungen anderer Autoren und unterstreichen die Bedeutung der Thematik. Aus Sicht der Prävention könnte sich bei Studenten der Zahnmedizin die Zeit vor dem ersten Patientenkontakt anbieten, um geeignete Bewältigungsstrategien zu vermitteln.
Caregivers with greatest supporting need based on the relationship between personality, overload and coping strategies related to caregivers of dependent patients from the hospitable area Virgen Macarena of Seville
Mª Angustias Navarro Arquelladas
Full Text Available Objective: Find a relationship between personality, the overhead of caregivers and the coping strategies that develop these to meet the care, allowing us to detect carers need greater supportMaterial and Methods: There has been realized a descriptive study in which there have taken part 23 carer of major dependent persons admitted to the Hospitable Area "Virgen Macarena" of Seville. Demographic and clinical variables have been collected through: general interview, Revised Eysenck Questionnaire of Personality, brief version (EPQ-RA, Coping Strategies Inventory, Zarit Scale Overload.Outcomes: The majority of caregivers are women (86.96% with an average age of 54.9 years old, with studies of basic education. Among them, 56.52% suffer from some kind of disease and 92.86% of these caregivers have no help. Statistical significance was found for extraversion, neuroticism, pretention-conformity, overload and coping strategies. Conclusions: Caregivers, with high scores on the extroversion scale, perform a proper handling of the situation, while those who obtained higher scores on the neuroticism scale, performed improper handling of the situation.
South Africa as a developing country is faced with numerous challenges amongst them is the shortage of skills in the working environment. Skills shortage has been aggravated by the retirement of the ageing skilled workforce and emigration of most experienced professionals to first world countries. Some professionals once they acquire the experience they opt out for a consultative business. This leaves a gap or void in the industries which can results into poor performance and quality, lessening of business standards and loosing competition. This challenge need to be attended to, because it will lead to hiring of consultants in most jobs or having many young and less experienced professionals and new graduates filling these gaps. The South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has developed a strategic plan to serve as a guideline on how these challenges mentioned above can be addressed . The proposed strategy will be aligned with skills development in the line of work and should get support from the nuclear Industry. Young professionals and recent graduates are the most affected people who lack skills and shall benefit from these programmes. In order for skill development and transfer to be accomplished there should be a Skill Development and Transfer Strategy and procedures to be followed. (authors)
Carlo, Schmidt; Débora Dalbosco, Dell' Aglio; Cleonice Alves, Bosa.
Full Text Available Estudos têm apontado evidências de estresse em famílias de portadores de autismo. Neste processo, deve-se considerar as estratégias de coping utilizadas pelos familiares frente às circunstâncias adversas. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as estratégias de coping maternas frente a dificuldades d [...] os portadores de autismo, assim como as estratégias das mães para lidar com as próprias emoções desencadeadas pelo estresse. Participaram 30 mães, entre 30 a 56 anos, cujos filhos apresentam diagnóstico de autismo e freqüentam instituições de atendimento. Utilizou-se uma entrevista semi-estruturada, a qual foi transcrita e analisada com base na Análise de Conteúdo. As principais dificuldades se referem ao comportamento do filho, frente às quais as mães utilizam predominantemente as estratégias de ação direta e de aceitação. Quanto às estratégias para lidar com as emoções, as categorias mais freqüentes foram distração, busca de apoio social/religioso, inação e evitação. Os resultados são discutidos considerando-se o estresse e a adaptação materna. Abstract in english Many studies have shown evidence of high levels of stress in families with autistic children. Concerning this process, it is important to consider the coping strategies used by family members in face of the adverse circumstances. The purpose of this study is to investigate the coping strategies of m [...] others when dealing with their autistic children, as well as how they deal with their own emotions unleashed by the stress. Thirty mothers, between 30 and 56 years old participated in the study. Their children have met the criteria for autism and attended special education schools. The coping strategies were investigated using a semi-structured interview, which was transcribed and analyzed by content analysis. The main difficulties refer to the child's behavior. In relation to these difficulties, the strategy used by the mothers was predominantly direct action and acceptance. Concerning the strategies to deal with their own emotions, the most frequent categories were distraction, reaching out for social/religious support, lack of action and avoidance. Results are discussed in terms of stress and maternal adaptation model.
Dejene K. Mengistu
Climate change adversely affects Ethiopian economy due to heavy dependence of the agricultural sector on rainfall. A decrease of rainfall and rise in temperature has been increasing the exposure of the country to frequent drought. The study was conducted in central Tigray, Adiha tabia, to examine the perception of farmers on trends of climate changes and existing coping strategies. Farmers knowledge of various adaptation strategies, drought early warning system and weather forecasting were a...
Lund, Peter; Tramonti, Angela; De Biase, Daniela
As part of their life cycle, neutralophilic bacteria are often exposed to varying environmental stresses, among which fluctuations in pH are the most frequent. In particular, acid environments can be encountered in many situations from fermented food to the gastric compartment of the animal host. Herein, we review the current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms adopted by a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, mostly those affecting human health, for coping with acid stress. Because organic and inorganic acids have deleterious effects on the activity of the biological macromolecules to the point of significantly reducing growth and even threatening their viability, it is not unexpected that neutralophilic bacteria have evolved a number of different protective mechanisms, which provide them with an advantage in otherwise life-threatening conditions. The overall logic of these is to protect the cell from the deleterious effects of a harmful level of protons. Among the most favoured mechanisms are the pumping out of protons, production of ammonia and proton-consuming decarboxylation reactions, as well as modifications of the lipid content in the membrane. Several examples are provided to describe mechanisms adopted to sense the external acidic pH. Particular attention is paid to Escherichia coli extreme acid resistance mechanisms, the activity of which ensure survival and may be directly linked to virulence. PMID:24898062
Juliana Dors Tigre da Silva; Marisa Campio Muller; Renan Rangel Bonamigo
FUNDAMENTOS: Pesquisas atuais estão direcionando seu foco aos aspectos psicossociais envolvidos nas dermatoses crônicas. Esses fatores podem contribuir para a exacerbação da psoríase entre 40 e 80% dos casos, causando grande impacto na qualidade de vida desses pacientes. OBJETIVOS: Verificar estratégias de coping e identificar níveis de estresse do portador de psoríase. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com amostra de 115 pacientes, divididos em 61 com psoríase e 54 do grupo controle com dermatose...
Burgess, Rochelle; Campbell, Catherine
Increasing attention is paid to impacts of HIV/AIDS on women's mental health, often framed by decontextualized psychiatric understandings of emotional distress and treatment. We contribute to the small qualitative literature extending these findings through exploring HIV/AIDS--affected women's own accounts of their distress-focusing on the impacts of social context, and women's efforts to cope outside of medical support services. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with women experiencing depression or anxiety-like symptoms in a wider study of services in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Thematic analysis was framed by Summerfield's emphasis on contexts and resilience. Women highlighted family conflicts (particularly abandonment by men), community-level violence, poverty and HIV/AIDS as drivers of distress. Whilst HIV/AIDS placed significant burdens on women, poverty and relationship difficulties were more central in their accounts. Four coping mechanisms were identified. Women drew on indigenous local resources in their psychological re-framing of negative situations, and their mobilisation of emotional and financial support from inter-personal networks, churches and HIV support groups. Less commonly, they sought expert advice from traditional healers, medical services or social workers, but access to these was limited. Though all tried to supplement government grants with income generation efforts, only a minority regarded these as successful. Findings support ongoing efforts to bolster strained mental health services with support groups, which often offer valuable emotional and practical support. Without parallel poverty alleviation strategies, however, support groups may sometimes offer little more than encouraging passive acceptance of the inevitability of suffering--potentially exacerbating the hopelessness underpinning women's distress. PMID:24670517
Suldo, Shannon M.; Dedrick, Robert F.; Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Fefer, Sarah A.; Ferron, John
Successful coping with academic demands is important given the inverse relationship between stress and positive adjustment in adolescents. The Coping With Academic Demands Scale (CADS) is a new measure of coping appropriate for students pursuing advanced high school curricula, specifically Advanced Placement (AP) classes and the International
Full Text Available The article discusses the participatory elaboration of strategies for sustainable regional development in an Alpine tourist region in Austria to cope with global change effects evolving locally, considering climate change, economic change as well as (local societal change. Local stakeholders in an Alpine village in the Montafon region contributed in workshops to achieve the final results: participant teams conducted system analyses of the regional system to explore key elements of the region. Narrative scenarios described possible positive and negative development trends and indicated the critical issues controlling future development; 3D-images of landscape transition simulations show the consequences of certain development directions. Alternative development directions supported the local stakeholders to elaborate regional development strategies. In the end, the scientist team derived generic strategies for Alpine regions based on the locally developed strategy bundle. The article presents the intention, progress and outcome of the participatory approach and elaborates the potential to derive generic strategies from local ones and discusses the possibly occurring conflicts regarding cross-scale transfers of these local strategies. Overall, tourism was seen as a key element for future regional development, which can on the one hand derogate Alpine regions and is on the other hand threatened by climate change and diminution of landscape attractiveness. The suggested development strategies will help to cope with global change issues mitigating the negative consequences on the local society and environment.
Explores how the individuality of students affects their time management strategies in doing undergraduate final year projects. Investigates how four students responded differently to the same time management advice given by the supervisor of their final year projects in two different teacher education programs on teaching English as a Second
The research and development strategy for inertial fusion energy (IFE) is delineated. The development strategy must indicate how commercial IFE power can be made available in the first part of the next century, by which is meant that a Demonstration Power Plant (DPP) will have shown that in commercial operation IFE power plants can satisfy the requirements of public and employee safety, acceptably low impact on the environment, technical performance, reliability, maintainability and economic competitiveness. The technical issues associated with the various required demonstrations for each of the subsystems of the power plant (target, driver, reaction chamber, and remainder of plant (ROP) where the tritium for future targets is extracted and thermal energy is converted into electricity) are listed. The many developments required to make IFE commercially available can be oriented towards a few major demonstrations. These demonstrations do not necessarily each need separate facilities. The goals of these demonstrations are: (i) ignition demonstration, to show ignition and thermonuclear burn in an ICF target and determine the minimum required driver conditions; (ii) high gain demonstration, to show adequate driver efficiency-gain product; (iii) engineering demonstrations, to show high pulse rate operations in an integrated system and to choose the best designs of the various reactor systems; (iv) commercial demonstrations, to prove safe, environmentally benign, reliable, economic, near-commercial operation. In this document the present status of major inertial confinement research activities is summarized including a table of the major operating or planned facilities. The aspects involved in each of the required demonstrations are discussed. Also, for each of the subsystems mentioned above the technical developments that are needed are discussed. The document ends with a discussion of the two existing detailed IFE development plans, by the United States and Japan. 9 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs
Full Text Available Third year PhD candidate at the University of Oradea, under the guidance of Professor Mrs. Alina BÃÆdulescu in the doctoral research project entitled: "Doctoral studies and Ph.D. candidates for competitive research on a knowledge based society", a co-financed project by the European Social Fund through the Sectoral Operational Program for Human Resources Development 2007 - 2013, Priority Axis 1. "Education and training in support for growth and development of a knowledge based society" I chose to present this subject in order to demonstrate the connection that exists between tourism and development. Having as research topic "Tourism and development in the Euro regional contextÃ¢â¬Â I dedicated a subchapter of this thesis in presenting tourism as a development strategy. Thus we have analysed a series of specialised papers encountered at national and international level in order to achieve a synthesis about the addressed topic. Authors like Sharpley and Telfer (2002 found that the specialised literature in the tourism domain contains few articles on the relationship between tourism and development despite the fact that tourism remains an important area of the economic policy regarding development in most regions of the world. Writings on tourism, that debate development, are often written in terms of the impact of tourism on the environment in which it unfolds. Following statistical data collected on Faits saillants OMT du tourisme, 2011 Edition I found that indeed tourism is an important element in the development strategies. The research methodology that was used consisted in documentation from the specialised literature and the site http://mkt.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/unwtohighlights11frhr.pdf in order to gather representative data on the evolution of international tourism for the 1950-2010 period, also highlighting the potential success of tourism in the economic development. For this study to be more representative I presented the evolution of international tourist arrivals in the main tourist regions of the world. The graphical representation shows that Europe is the main destination for tourists from around the world. Projections made by UNWTO (2011, confirm the fact that international tourism is continuously expanding, in 2020, the number of international tourists arrivals is approaching 1.6 billion.
This study focused on the coping strategies of parents' with children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and the relation between these strategies and parenting styles. Coping strategies were measured using the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and the Purpose in Life Test (PIL-R). Parental attitudes toward loving care, stress, worry, and guilt feelings were assessed using the Family Impact Questionnaire. Two groups of participants were included: parents with children with ASD (EG) (n = 66) and a matched control group (CG) (n = 66). Paired Samples t-Test and Pearson's r correlation were used as methods of analysis. Main results distinguished significant (p fathers and probably an indicator of a stronger burnout effect of the mothers. PMID:12585819
Aysel, Milanlioglu; Pinar Güzel, Özdemir; Vedat, Cilingir; Tezay Çakin, Gülec; Mehmet Nuri, Aydin; Temel, Tombul.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Investigar as estratégias de enfrentamento, as características de humor e a associação entre estes aspectos em pacientes com diagnóstico de esclerose múltipla em comparação a indivíduos saudáveis. Método: Foram incluídos no estudo 50 pacientes com diagnóstico de esclerose múltipla de [...] acordo com os critérios de McDonald e 31 pessoas saudáveis. Além da caracterização sócio-econômica, foram aplicados a todos os pacientes testes para avaliar o Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), o Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Scale (COPE) e o Profile of Mood States (POMS). Resultados: Escores referentes a estratégias de enfrentamento não funcionais foram significativamente maiores na forma secundariamente progressiva (p?0.05). Escores relativos a depressão-abatimento, fadiga-inércia e escores totais POMS foram significativamente maiores na forma secundariamente progressiva (p?0.05). Conclusão: Os resultados deste estudo mostram a importância de programas de reabilitação que encorajem os pacientes com esclerose múltipla a praticar exercícios com maiores níveis de vigor e atividade. Abstract in english Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the coping strategies, mood characteristics and the association between these aspects in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and healthy subjects. Method: Fifty consecutive patients who were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis acco [...] rding to McDonald criteria and thirty-one healthy subjects were included in the study. In addition to the sociodemographic form, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Scale (COPE), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) tests were applied to the participants. Results: Non-functional coping strategies were significantly higher in the secondary-progressive type (p?0.05). Depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia and total POMS scores were significantly higher in the secondary-progressive type (p?0.05). Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrate the importance of rehabilitation programs that encourage exercise among patients with multiple sclerosis to increase vigor-activity levels.
This plan provides an overview, work to date, and the path forward for the design development strategy of the Aging cask for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository site. Waste for subsurface emplacement at the repository includes US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (HLW), DOE SNF, commercial fuel in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), uncanistered bare fuel, naval fuel, and other waste types. Table 1-1 lists the types of radioactive materials that may be aged at YMP, and those materials that will not be placed in an aging cask or module. This plan presents the strategy for design development of the Aging system. The Aging system will not handle naval fuel, DOE HLW, MCOs, or DOE SNF since those materials will be delivered to the repository in a state and sequence that allows them to be placed into waste packages for emplacement. Some CSNF from nuclear reactors, especially CSNF that is thermally too hot for emplacement underground, will need to be aged at the repository
Francis M. Mathooko; Martin Ogutu
This study was undertaken to establish strategies adopted by public universities in Kenya in response to changes in the environment. The study design was descriptive and utilized a cross-sectional survey of all the public universities in Kenya through administration of a structured questionnaire to the top management team. Additional primary data were collected through observations and interviews. Secondary data were collected from published works and, universities and government documents in...
Abstract Objectives The purpose of the study was to contribute to a better understanding of the intra-organizational identity work during strategic change. Based on earlier research strategic change is known to cause disruption to the members ongoing identity work in an organization. The aim of this study was to find out how the new strategy and organizational identity were interpreted among the members of the organization, and what kind of disruptions did the new identity-challenging...
Monica A. Ayieko; K.F. Midikila
This study was conducted in Kenya. Samples of children and caregivers were selected using the EPI method. Food vendors and procurement strategy, demographic and socio-economic indicators of household were analyzed. A social economic index was derived. To understand the association between D ietary D iversity Score and mean anthropometric indices, confounding factors were identified on the basis of the UNICEF conceptual model of causes of malnutrition. A stepwise testing of confounders was don...
Evans, Daniel R.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Button, Daniel F.; Baer, Ruth A.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.
Training in mindfulness is a well-supported therapeutic strategy for pain conditions, though short-term mindfulness training for acute pain is not always effective. To explore the possibility that initial attempts at mindfulness in people without previous training may drain self-regulatory resources, the current study used a student sample (N=63) to test the hypothesis that brief instruction in mindfulness would lead to reduced pain tolerance on a cold pressor task (CPT), compared to more fam...
Estratégias de enfrentamento em crianças em situação pré-cirúrgica: relação com idade, sexo, experiência com cirurgia e estresse / Coping strategies among children in a pre-surgical situation: Relationship with age, gender, experience with surgery and stress
Luciana Esgalha, Carnier; Flávia Helena Pereira, Padovani; Gimol Benzaquen, Perosa; Olga Maria Piazentin Rolim, Rodrigues.
Full Text Available O estudo objetivou verificar as estratégias de enfrentamento de crianças, com idade entre 7 e 12 anos, em situação pré-cirúrgica, e sua relação com variáveis sociodemográficas, presença de estresse na criança, no acompanhante e experiência prévia com cirurgia. Para tanto, 58 crianças internadas para [...] realização de cirurgias eletivas responderam ao instrumento de avaliação das estratégias de enfrentamento da hospitalização e a um questionário de avaliação do estresse. O acompanhante respondeu a um levantamento sociodemográfico e ao inventário de sintomas de estresse de Lipp. As estratégias mais utilizadas foram distração e solução do problema e as menos utilizadas, afastamento social e oposição. Meninas e filhos de pais com estresse usaram significativamente mais estratégias de regulação da emoção. Observou-se maior uso de reestruturação cognitiva em crianças mais velhas e com experiência prévia em cirurgia. Os resultados sinalizam a necessidade de considerar as variáveis estudadas quando da elaboração de programas de preparação cirúrgica. Abstract in english This study's aim was to verify coping strategies among children aged between 7 and 12 years old who will be experiencing surgery and the potential relationship of coping strategies with sociodemographic variables, stress in children and in companions, and the child's prior experience with surgery. A [...] total of 58 children hospitalized and waiting for elective surgeries responded to the Assessment Instrument of Coping to Hospitalization and an instrument to assess stress. The companion received a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory. Problem-solving strategies and distraction were the most frequent strategies used, while social withdrawal and opposition were the least frequent. Girls and children of stressful parents used emotion regulation strategies with significantly more frequency. Likewise, greater cognitive restructuring was observed in older children and those with prior experience with surgeries. The results show the need to consider the studied variables when developing pre-operative preparation programs.
Giselle, Vetere; Paula, Azrilevich; María Cecilia, Colombo; Ricardo, Rodríguez Biglieri.
Full Text Available El siguiente trabajo se enmarca dentro de un proyecto UBACyT sobre conductas de afrontamiento en trastornos de ansiedad. En el presente artículo se muestran los resultados de una revisión bibliográica sobre la utilización de la preocupación como estrategia de afrontamiento en pacientes con trastorno [...] de ansiedad generalizada. El método utilizado consistió en una búsqueda de los trabajos disponibles en las bases de datos PubMed, Scielo, Lilacs y Ebsco utilizando como palabras clave afrontamiento, ansiedad generalizada y preocupación. En primer lugar se describen brevemente las características del cuadro y se define el concepto de afrontamiento y sus diversos tipos. Seguidamente, en base a los resultados obtenidos en la búsqueda se analiza el concepto de preocupación así como las consecuencias de su uso como estrategia de afrontamiento en pacientes con trastorno de ansiedad generalizada. Finalmente se discuten las implicancias de los resultados para el tratamiento del cuadro. Abstract in english The following work is part of a research project about coping behaviors in anxiety disorders. In this paper we show the results of a literature review focused on the use of worry as a coping strategy in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. The method used consisted of a bibliographic search o [...] f the available studies in the PubMed, Scielo, Lilacs and Ebsco databases using the terms coping strategies, generalized anxiety and concern as keywords. First, we briely describe the characteristics of the disorder and deine the concept of coping and its diverse forms. Then, following the results found in the search we explore the concept of worry and the consequences of its use as a coping strategy in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Finally, we discuss the implications of the results for the treatment of the disorder.
Shell Canada's social performance plan was outlined in this presentation. Stakeholder engagement is a key strategy in the company's response to the concerns and broader priorities of different groups and individuals affected by their operations. A review of the business and societal values of stakeholder engagement was presented. Key benefits include greater profitability; protection of the environment; effective resource management; community benefits; and the delivery of value to customers. It was suggested that a continuous engagement process helps companies to assess impacts and work on strategies to avoid and mitigate negative impacts. A framework for social performance management was presented. It was noted that accountability and transparency are key components of Shell's progress towards sustainable development, and their direct and indirect contributions to the communities and societies where they operate. The social impact of core business operations is now a focus of the company. Key concerns of the social performance plan include environmental and health impacts; land use and changes in local economies; cultural concerns; and infrastructure impacts. An outline of Shell's Listening and Responding Program was also provided. refs., tabs., figs
Graciele Fernanda da Costa Linch
Full Text Available It is a research project that has been developed at Santa Maria University Hospital (HUSM, aiming to identify the coping strategies that patients use when referred for Cardiac Surgery. The data will be collected in the cardiac pre-surgery period through a questionnaire, intending to characterize the participants; besides using the Coping Inventory instrument Jalowiec to identify the coping styles that the participants use against the stressors confront. From the coping process identification of the patients who were referred for cardiac surgery, it will be possible to analyze and base the professionals actions who deal with these patients, aiming to attend the emotional and physiological adaptation demands to the surgical process.
Maria Neves, Alves; Eusébio Augusto Medeiros de, Oliveira.
Full Text Available O desemprego constitui um flagelo na nossa sociedade. Os professores são uma das categorias profissionais mais atingidas. Esta situação tem consequências sociais e psicológicas que se reflectem na saúde do indivíduo. O objectivo deste estudo é compreender o stress e a forma como os professores lidam [...] com ele, ou seja a utilização de estratégias de adaptação (coping). A amostra contempla 100 professores do 2º ciclo, 50 desempregados e 50 exercendo a docência, em ambos os casos 25 homens e 25 mulheres a residir na zona norte de Portugal. Os professores do primeiro grupo encontravam-se desempregados ou aguardando a entrada na profissão. Os instrumentos utilizados para a avaliação do stress foram a Escala Toulosana de Stress (ETS) e a Escala Toulousana de Coping (STC) para perceber as estratégias face ao stress. Os resultados mostram que os professores desempregados ou com retardamento na entrada para a docência têm um stress elevado (p. Abstract in english Unemployment is one of the scourges of modern society and teachers are among the professional categories most affected by it. This situation gives rise to social and psychological consequences with repercussions on an individual's health. The objective of this study is to understand the nature of th [...] e stress and how teachers cope with it. The sample consisted of 100 secondary school teachers in Northern Portugal, 50 of whom were unemployed and 50 who were actively teaching, each group being equally divided in gender (25 men and 25 women). The teachers in the first group had either been made unemployed or were still waiting to enter the profession. The instruments used for the purposes of evaluation were the Toulouse Stress Scale (TSS) to measure the level of stress and the Toulouse Coping Scale (TCS) to determine the strategies used to deal with it. The results showed that teachers who are unemployed or whose entry into the profession has been delayed, suffer increased stress in comparison with teachers practising their profession. The nature of the stress can be summarised as: socio-emotional tension, physical tension and depression, physical perturbations and agitation. Both groups demonstrated increased stress with regard to the future, tiredness and temporary anguish. There were no differences between men and women, though the youngest individuals demonstrated significantly higher levels of stress than the older teachers. The strategy of coping most employed by unemployed teachers is withdrawing from society to reduce stress.
Helvy Giovanny, Sierra Vargas; Ángela Marcela, Güichá-Duitama; Yenny, Salamanca Camargo.
Full Text Available Introducción: los estilos de personalidad tienden a ser determinantes en la selección de un oficio o disciplina, no obstante esto no quiere decir que estos no se vean permeados por la forma como el sujeto afronta las situaciones determinantes de su entorno. Objetivo: determinar la relación entre est [...] ilos de Personalidad y Estrategias de Afrontamiento en estudiantes de psicología de una universidad colombiana, a partir del Inventario de Estilos de Personalidad MIPS y la escala de estrategias de Coping Modifica EEC-M. Materiales y métodos: se trabajó con un diseño descriptivo correlacional, no experimental con una muestra de 120 participantes (85 mujeres y 35 hombres). Resultados: se encontró que los estilos de personalidad característicos en mujeres son sensación, sistematización, conformismo y descontento; mientras que en hombres, son los de adecuación, intuición, pensamiento, retraimiento y discrepancia. Respecto a las estrategias de afrontamiento, las mujeres se caracterizan por estrategias de apoyo social y los hombres por reevaluación positiva. Conclusiones: la relación entre los estilos de personalidad y las estrategias de afrontamiento evidencia que los estilos expansión, modificación, individualidad, extraversión, pensamiento, sistematización, sociabilidad y decisión se relacionan frecuentemente con estrategias de afrontamiento tales como la solución de problemas, la reevaluación positiva, la autonomía y el apoyo social. (MÉD.UIS. 2014;27(2):15-27) Abstract in english Introduction: personality styles tend to be decisive in the choice of a profession or discipline, however this does not mean that these are not seen as permeated by the way the subject is facing the determining conditions of their environment. Objective: To determine the relationship between styles [...] of Personality and Coping Strategies in psychology students from a Colombian university, from the Inventory of Personality Styles MIPS and Coping Strategies Scale Amendment to EEC- M. Materials and methods: It worked with a non-experimental descriptive correlational design with a sample of 120 participants (85 women and 35 men). Results: It found that the characteristic personality styles in women are feeling, systematization, complacency and discontent; while men are the adequacy, intuition, thinking, and withdrawal discrepancy. Regarding coping strategies, women are characterized by strategies of social support and positive reappraisal men. Conclusions: The relationship between personality styles and coping styles evidence that expansion, modification, individuality, extraversion, thinking, systematization, sociability and decision are often related to coping strategies such as problem solving, positive reappraisal, autonomy and social support. (MÉD.UIS. 2014;27(2):15-27)
Panek, Micha?; Pietras, Tadeusz; Witusik, Andrzej; Wieteska, ?ukasz; Ma?achowska, Beata; Mokros, ?ukasz; Fendler, Wojciech; Szemraj, Janusz; Kuna, Piotr
Background: Personal and environmental factors might have an impact on strategies of coping with stress and temperamental traits according to the Regulative Theory of Temperament in asthmatic patients. They can modify the clinical picture, the course of a disease and effectiveness of treatment. Personal variables are key factors in determining formal characteristic of behavior and effective management method in asthmatic patients. Aim of study: The aim of the study was to identify selected personal and environmental factors, as well as factors inducing attacks and asthma exacerbations or maintaining them in a complex of personal traits of patients. Methods: Two hundred and eighty one participants were included in the study. Of this number 122 subjects were healthy volunteers and 159 were asthmatic patients. In all the subjects the authors applied the Formal Characteristic of Behaviour FCZ-KT Temperament Inventory, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Scale. Genotyping of polymorphic forms of NR3C1 gene was conducted with PCR-RFLP and PCR-HRM methods. Expression of TGF?1 gene was measured with the use of qRT-PCR. Results: The authors confirmed a significant influence of personal and environmental factors, such as: age, height, body weight, sex, asthma exacerbations, drugs administered by patients, allergy and psychopathological variables on strategies of coping with stress by asthmatic patients (Task-Oriented Coping, Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance-Oriented Coping, distraction seeking, social diversion). Temperamental traits (Briskness, Perseverance, Sensory Sensitivity, Emotional Reactivity, Endurance, Activity) depend on age, sex, body weight, genetic predispositions and they are modified by asthma exacerbations, allergy, drugs administered by patients, depression and anxiety (state and trait). The authors confirmed a correlation between Tth111I polymorphic form of NR3C1 gene and perseverance (p= 0.0450). It was noted that an increase in the TGF?1 expression level led to a decrease in the patients' emotional reactivity (p= 0.0212). Conclusions: Strategies of coping with stress and temperamental traits according to the Regulative Theory of Temperament in asthmatic patients are determined by personal and environmental factors. PMID:26079811
Hoving, Henk-Jan T; Gilly, William F; Markaida, Unai; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; -Brown, Zachary W; Daniel, Patrick; Field, John C; Parassenti, Liz; Liu, Bilin; Campos, Bernardita
Dosidicus gigas (jumbo or Humboldt squid) is a semelparous, major predator of the eastern Pacific that is ecologically and commercially important. In the Gulf of California, these animals mature at large size (>55 cm mantle length) in 1-1.5 years and have supported a major commercial fishery in the Guaymas Basin during the last 20 years. An El Niño event in 2009-2010, was accompanied by a collapse of this fishery, and squid in the region showed major changes in the distribution and life-history strategy. Large squid abandoned seasonal coastal-shelf habitats in 2010 and instead were found in the Salsipuedes Basin to the north, an area buffered from the effects of El Niño by tidal upwelling and a well-mixed water column. The commercial fishery also relocated to this region. Although large squid were not found in the Guaymas Basin from 2010 to 2012, small squid were abundant and matured at an unusually small mantle-length (life-history trajectory in which gigantism and high fecundity in normally productive coastal-shelf habitats were traded for accelerated reproduction at small size in an offshore environment. Both small and large mature squid, were present in the Salsipuedes Basin during 2011, indicating that both life- history strategies can coexist. Hydro-acoustic data, reveal that squid biomass in this study area nearly doubled between 2010 and 2011, primarily due to a large increase in small squid that were not susceptible to the fishery. Such a climate-driven switch in size-at-maturity may allow D. gigas to rapidly adapt to and cope with El Niño. This ability is likely to be an important factor in conjunction with longerterm climate-change and the potential ecological impacts of this invasive predator on marine ecosystems. PMID:23505049
Full Text Available The question of methodology of cluster strategy development, which is based on the enterprise strategy as a cluster constituent, are considered.The most important stage of the process of cluster functioning management is elaboration of its development strategy. As a cluster is a set of enterprises united to produce a certain kind of product or service, the strategy of its activity should be designed from the basic level of enterprises.Successful functioning of any subject of market relations is impossible without strategy specification. Forming enterprise strategy with the method described in the article will afford an opportunity to create an overall cluster strategy on the basis of participants' strategies.The article represents the method of enterprise strategy development as an enterprise is a cluster basis. Also the question of enterprise mission design has been considered, the components of forming cluster development strategy on the basis of local enterprise strategies have been defined, the approach to mission development as an attribute to an open system has been presented, the essence of the strategy has been specified as well as the process of its realization, the strategic positioning of an enterprise has been carried out. The enterprise strategy development has been examined through the stages which give an opportunity to conceive the process more clearly.
Full Text Available Introduction: Hardiness is a personality characteristic which facilitates effective coping with stress and prevents from mental and physical problems. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hardiness trait on the use of coping styles. Methods: The population of the study included students at Payam-noor University of Golpaygan. Using a cluster sampling procedure, 8 humanities classes and 8 basic sciences classes were selected and 280 students from these classes participated in the study. The participants completed Ahvaz Hardiness Inventory and Young People Coping Style Scale. The data were analyzed through t-test, ANOVA and stepwise regression analysis. Results: The results showed no difference between boys and girls and humanities and basic sciences students in terms of the level of hardiness. Results of F test showed no significant difference between three coping styles in groups of basic sciences and humanities, but in refer- to others strategy and non-efficient coping style, women had a higher average than men. A significant relationship was observed between hardiness and the problem-solving and refer to others coping strategies (P<0.001. Results of stepwise regression analysis showed that coping styles of problem solving and non-efficient coping predicted respectively 44 and 47 percent of the variance in hardiness. In other words, the relationship between hardiness and coping styles is influenced only by coping style of problem-solving and non-efficient coping strategies. Conclusion: The results of the research suggest that hardiness creates the inner attitude that will affect confronting of people with life problems and makes people to view mental stress realistically and open-mindedly. In this regard, developing educational and remedial programs at universities can be very helpful.
Sam, Sarah Tara
Until recently, disabled children have been hidden from the lenses of research in both the social model of disability and the new sociology of childhood. In an attempt to give a voice to children with disability who are often objectified and silenced, this study aimed at exploring the experiences and coping strategies of visually impaired young people in a mainstream school in Ghana. The study further tried to explore views of children and young people with disability themselves who have been...
Chen Li; Li Wenhu; He Jincai; Wu Lanhua; Yan Zheng; Tang Wenjie
Abstract Background 20 million migrant workers in China lost their jobs during the economic crisis of 2008. Both urban migration and unemployment have long been documented to be associated with vulnerability to mental problems. This study aims to examine the mental health of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China and its relation to duration of unemployment and coping strategy during the recent economic crisis. Methods The data were collected through interview-based survey with a sample ...
Today, the occupational education is needed not only by the graduates but also by the development of our society. The occupational education provides a new space for the university library in Re-positioning and development. So the libraries should conform to the situation and do entrepreneurship education and the role service orientation conversion. The university libraries have some unique advantages of enterprise education, so they have the mission and responsibilities of training ...
Sirajul Haque; Javed Ahmed Chandio
The public administration plays a vital role in running the affairs of governmental activities at the all levels of government. The efficiency of public personnel in respect of performance depends on the ways the public personnel are managed to be responsive in performing the respective jobs. The flight of human capital from the country not only affects the human resource development of the country but as well as overall development of the country. The brain drain is one of the critical issue...
Ma, Weixing; Huang, Tinglin; Li, Xuan; Zhou, Zizhen; Li, Yang; Zeng, Kang
Storm runoff events in the flooding season affect the water quality of reservoirs and increase risks to the water supply, but coping strategies have seldom been reported. The phenomenon of turbid current intrusion resulting in water turbidity and anoxic conditions reappearing after storm runoff, resulting in the deterioration of water quality, was observed in the flooding season in the deep canyon-shaped Heihe Reservoir. The objective of this work was to elucidate the effects of storm runoff on the Heihe Reservoir water quality and find a coping strategy. In this study, an intensive sampling campaign measuring water temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, nutrients, and metals were conducted in the reservoir over a period of two years, and the water-lifting aerators were improved to achieve single aeration and a full layer of mixing and oxygenation functions using different volumes of gas. The operation of the improved water-lifting aerators mixed the reservoir three months ahead of the natural mixing time, and good water quality was maintained during the induced mixing period, thereby extending the good water quality period. The results can provide an effective coping strategy to improve the water quality of a source water reservoir and ensure the safety of drinking water. PMID:26184258
Ma, Weixing; Huang, Tinglin; Li, Xuan; Zhou, Zizhen; Li, Yang; Zeng, Kang
Storm runoff events in the flooding season affect the water quality of reservoirs and increase risks to the water supply, but coping strategies have seldom been reported. The phenomenon of turbid current intrusion resulting in water turbidity and anoxic conditions reappearing after storm runoff, resulting in the deterioration of water quality, was observed in the flooding season in the deep canyon-shaped Heihe Reservoir. The objective of this work was to elucidate the effects of storm runoff on the Heihe Reservoir water quality and find a coping strategy. In this study, an intensive sampling campaign measuring water temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, nutrients, and metals were conducted in the reservoir over a period of two years, and the water-lifting aerators were improved to achieve single aeration and a full layer of mixing and oxygenation functions using different volumes of gas. The operation of the improved water-lifting aerators mixed the reservoir three months ahead of the natural mixing time, and good water quality was maintained during the induced mixing period, thereby extending the good water quality period. The results can provide an effective coping strategy to improve the water quality of a source water reservoir and ensure the safety of drinking water. PMID:26184258
Paulyane T.M., Gomes; Leonardo H.L., Lima; Mayza K.G., Bueno; Liubiana A., Araújo; Nathan M., Souza.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os desafios encontrados pelas famílias na convivência com crianças portadoras de transtorno do espectro autista (TEA) no Brasil e as estratégias de superação empregadas. FONTE DOS DADOS: Revisão sistemática da literatura com inclusão de artigos publicados até setembro de 2013, s [...] em restrições de idioma. Os artigos incluídos foram submetidos à avaliação de qualidade metodológica por meio do Amstar e Casp/Oxford. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Incluem-se estudos provenientes de São Paulo e Rio Grande do Sul com alta e moderada qualidade metodológica. A literatura mostra sobrecarga emocional dos pais como um dos principais desafios encontrados pelas famílias, inclusive com grande tensão sobre as mães. Dentre os fatores relacionados ao estresse estão: postergação diagnóstica, dificuldade de lidar com o diagnóstico e com os sintomas associados, acesso precário ao serviço de saúde e apoio social. Dentre as estratégias de superação destacaram-se: troca de informações entre as famílias afetadas e assistência integralizada da rede de saúde no atendimento do paciente e suporte à família. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se que o TEA exerce forte influência na dinâmica familiar com sobrecarga dos cuidadores, geralmente da mãe. O Sistema Único de Saúde necessita prover cuidado integral, longitudinal e coordenado com vistas ao fortalecimento do binômio paciente-família e o pleno desenvolvimento e a plena inserção dessas crianças na sociedade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To describe the challenges faced by families caring for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Brazil and the coping strategies employed. SOURCES: Systematic review of articles published until September of 2013, without language restrictions, using quality appraisal (AMSTAR and [...] CASP/Oxford instruments). SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The literature shows parental emotional overload as one of the main challenges faced by families, especially mothers. The main stressors were diagnostic postponement, difficulty dealing with the diagnosis and associated symptoms, and poor access to health services and social support. The predominant coping strategies found included information exchange between affected families and integrated healthcare network for patient and family support. CONCLUSION: ASD exerts strong influence on family dynamics, resulting in caregiver overload, especially in mothers. The Brazilian Unified Health System needs to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to strengthen the patient-family dyad and promote the full development and societal inclusion of children with ASD.
Full Text Available The public administration plays a vital role in running the affairs of governmental activities at the all levels of government. The efficiency of public personnel in respect of performance depends on the ways the public personnel are managed to be responsive in performing the respective jobs. The flight of human capital from the country not only affects the human resource development of the country but as well as overall development of the country. The brain drain is one of the critical issues faced by the public organization in Pakistan. The proposed strategic approach has been developed on the basis of Harvard HRM Model. Hence study focuses on issues of Human capital flight. The research study has tried to explore the causes of the brain drain situation and finally it has proposed strategic approach to overcome the brain drain situation in the Pakistan.
Dalhousie : Resilience Research Centre, School of Social Work, Dalhousie University, 2010. s. 42-42. [Path ways to Resilience II: The social ecology of Resilience. 07.06.2010-10.06.2010, Nova Scotia] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA406/09/2096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : coping * resilience * development Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Zhou Jia; Li Zhong-Fu; Miao Chang-Qing; Liang Dong-Ling
Information Technology (IT) plays a key role for the development of Chinese construction enterprises, which has important strategic significance. But in the actual application process, it has encountered some difficulties and obstacles in the Chinese construction enterprises. A questionnaire-based research approach, at the three levels of industry, enterprise and project, was adopted to analyze the factors that affect the selection and use of project manage...
Family has a very important role in children's life, because it influences their development in many ways. Also children themselves influence family members with their developmental and behavioral characteristics and they have an effect on the dynamics of what is happening in the family. The diagnosis of Down syndrome, a chromosomal disorder, which causes characteristic facial features, hypotonic muscles, hyperflexibility of conclusions, sensitive skin, sparse hair and big tongue, touches...
Richard Kangalawe; Shadrack Mwakalila; Petro Masolwa
Climate change has profound implications for managing freshwater resources and species dependent on those resources. Water is an essential component of the life support system of the earth, and a basic resource for socio-economic development. The Great Ruaha River Catchment Area is a dynamic and complex ecosystem requiring inclusion climate change adaptation in the management of the freshwater and natural resources available to reduce the severity of climate change impacts. Rainfall has decre...
Full Text Available In recent years, wild fluctuations in international soybean prices have brought tremendous price risks to domestic soybean enterprises, which are mainly rooted in China soybean industrys relatively high dependence on foreign market; multinational grain merchants intensive control on Chinese soybean industry; Chinas loss of pricing of global soybeans and the huge fluctuation of soybean prices. Therefore, we should deal with this by taking measures to improve self-sufficiency rate of domestic soybean, restrict foreign capitals control of the soybean industry, and strive to promote domestic soybean enterprises to develop bigger and stronger. Key words: Chinas soybean industry; Price risk; Pricing
Nishio, Midori; Ono, Mitsu
Objective: The number of male caregivers has increased, but male caregivers face several problems that reduce their quality of life and psychological condition. This study focused on the coping problems of men who care for people with dementia at home. It aimed to develop a coping scale for male caregivers so that they can continue caring for people with dementia at home and improve their own quality of life. The study also aimed to verify the reliability and validity of the scale. Patients/Material and Methods: The subjects were 759 men who care for people with dementia at home. The Care Problems Coping Scale consists of 21 questions based on elements of questions extracted from a pilot study. Additionally, subjects completed three self-administered questionnaires: the Japanese version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale, the Depressive Symptoms and the Self-esteem Emotional Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results: There were 274 valid responses (36.1% response rate). Regarding the answer distribution, each average value of the 21 items ranged from 1.56 to 2.68. The median answer distribution of the 21 items was 39 (SD = 6.6). Five items had a ceiling effect, and two items had a floor effect. The scale stability was about 50%, and Cronbachs ? was 0.49. There were significant correlations between the Care Problems Coping Scale and total scores of the Japanese version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale, the Depressive Symptoms and Self-esteem Emotional Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Conclusion: The answers provided on the Care Problems Coping Scale questionnaire indicated that male caregivers experience care problems. In terms of validity, there were significant correlations between the external questionnaires and 19 of the 21 items in this scale. This scale can therefore be used to measure problems with coping for male caregivers who care for people with dementia at home.
Tayyari Dehbarez, Nasrin; Lynggaard, Vibeke
Background Learning and coping education strategies (LC) was implemented to enhance patient attendance in the cardiac rehabilitation programme. This study assessed the cost-utility of LC compared to standard education (standard) as part of a rehabilitation programme for patients with ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Methods The study was conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial with 825 patients who were allocated to LC or standard rehabilitation and followed for 5 months. The LC approach was identical to the standard approach in terms of physical training and education, but with the addition of individual interviews and weekly team evaluations by professionals. A societal cost perspective including the cost of intervention, health care, informal time and productivity loss was applied. Cost was based on a micro-costing approach for the intervention and national administrative registries for other cost categories. Quality adjusted life years (QALY) were based on SF-6D measurements at baseline, after intervention and follow-up using British preference weights. Multiple imputation was used to handle non-response on the SF-6D. Conventional cost effectiveness methodology was employed to estimate the net benefit of the LC and to illustrate cost effectiveness acceptability curves. The statistical analysis was based on means and bootstrapped standard errors. Results An additional cost of DKK 6,043 (95 % CI ?5,697; 17,783) and a QALY gain of 0.005 (95 % CI ?0.001; 0.012) was estimated for LC. However, better utility scores in both arms were due to higher utility while receiving the intervention than better health after the intervention. The probability that LC would be cost-effective did not exceed 29 % for any threshold values of willingness to pay per QALY. The alternative scenario analysis was restricted to a health care perspective and showed that the probability of cost-effectiveness increased to 62 % over the threshold values. Discussion The LC was unlikely to be cost-effective within 5 months of follow-up from a societal perspective, but longer-term follow-up should be evaluated before a definite conclusion is drawn. Conclusion Future research should assess the LC strategies' long-term efficacy and cost-utility.
Yanneth Cecilia, Ardila Villarreal; Claudia Patricia, Lara Villarreal; Adriana del Pilar, Perugache Rodríguez.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la relación que existe entre los niveles de depresión y las estrategias de afrontamiento de mujeres con alto riesgo gestacional. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio correlacional de corte transversal, en el que participaron 70 mujeres con riesgo gestacional. Los instrumentos utilizad [...] os fueron: el inventario de estrategias de afrontamiento (CSI) en la versión española de Cano, Rodríguez y García, que cuenta con coeficientes de consistencia interna entre 0,63 y 0,89 y, la Escala de depresión del centro de estudios epidemiológicos (CES-D) que cuenta con validez factorial y con una alta consistencia interna expresada en un coeficiente de Alfa de Cronbach igual a 0,87. Los datos obtenidos se organizaron con ayuda del paquete estadístico SPSS versión 13.0 y para analizar la relación entre las variables se aplicó la prueba estadística del coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Conclusiones: La depresión presenta una relación inversa altamente significativa con las estrategias resolución de problemas y apoyo social y una relación directa altamente significativa con las estrategias autocritica, evitación de problemas y retirada social. Los sentimientos de culpa como una forma de afrontamiento son comunes durante el embarazo de riesgo. La presencia de síntomas de depresión durante el embarazo de riesgo tiene una relación directa con las estrategias de afrontamiento autocritica, evitación, retirada social y pensamiento desiderativo. Existe relación inversa entre depresión y las estrategias de afrontamiento: resolución de problemas y apoyo social. Las estrategias más utilizadas por las adolescentes que presentan embarazo de riesgo son autocritica y evitación, las mujeres en edad adulta, utilizan en mayor proporción estrategias de afrontamiento como resolución de problemas y reevaluación positiva. Las mujeres que realizan alguna actividad laboral presentan mayor uso de la estrategia búsqueda de apoyo social. No existe asociación entre los niveles de depresión presentados por las gestantes de alto riesgo y las variables sociodemográficas. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the relationship between levels of depression and coping strategies in women with gestational risk. Methods: A correlational cross-sectional study was performed in which 70 women with gestational risk were involved. The instruments used were: the coping strategies inventory ( [...] CSI) in the Spanish version of Cano, Rodriguez and Garcia which count with internal consistency coefficients between 0.63 and 0.89, and the Depression scale of the epidemiological study center (CES-D), which has factorial validity and a high internal consistency expressed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient equal to 0.87. The data was organized using the statistical package SPSS 13.0 version, and the statistical test Pearson correlation coefficient was applied to analyze the relationship between the variables. Conclusions: Depression has a highly significant inverse relationship with problem solving strategies and social support, and a highly significant direct relationship with self-critical strategies, problem avoidance and social withdrawal. Feelings of guilt are common during pregnancy risk as a way of coping. The presence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy risk has a direct relationship with self-critical coping strategies, avoidance, social withdrawal and wishful thinking. There is an inverse relationship between depression and coping strategies: problem solving and social support. The strategies most used by adolescents with high-risk pregnancy are avoidance and self-criticism, women in adulthood use to a greater extent coping strategies such as problem solving and positive reappraisal. Women doing some work activity have greater use of social support search strategy. No association between levels of depression presented by high risk pregnancies and sociodemographic variables exist.
Ariane Walz; Wolfgang Loibl
The article discusses the participatory elaboration of strategies for sustainable regional development in an Alpine tourist region in Austria to cope with global change effects evolving locally, considering climate change, economic change as well as (local) societal change. Local stakeholders in an Alpine village in the Montafon region contributed in workshops to achieve the final results: participant teams conducted system analyses of the regional system to explore key elements of the region...
Full Text Available Objetivo: El objetivo de la investigación se centra en el estudio de las estrategias de afrontamiento utilizada por el paciente para hacer frente a su dolor, siendo definidas estas como los pensamientos y acciones que los individuos realizan en sus esfuerzos por manejar el dolor, y su repercusión sobre la calidad de vida del paciente. Material y métodos: La muestra del estudio está formada por 32 mujeres diagnosticadas de fibromialgia que acuden por primera vez al Servicio de Psicología de la Unidad Multidisciplinar del Dolor en el Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia previa exploración médica. Los pacientes completaron una batería de cuestionarios donde además de recoger las variables sociodemográficas (edad, sexo, estado civil, nivel de estudios, se evaluó el nivel de dolor informado a través del EVA (escala analógica visual, valoración del dolor (por ejemplo, "el dolor depende de mí", "puedo anticipar cuándo me va a doler"..., las estrategias de afrontamiento al dolor a partir del cuestionario de afrontamiento al dolor (CAD y el cuestionario de calidad de vida ICV-2R. Resultados y conclusiones: A nivel descriptivo, los resultados muestran que las pacientes informan de un nivel de dolor moderadamente elevado, siendo las estrategias de afrontamiento al dolor más utilizadas, la autoafirmación y la búsqueda de información, y presentando un índice de calidad de vida inferior al de la población general. A nivel correlacional, no se ha encontrado ninguna relación significativa entre el índice general de calidad de vida y las estrategias de afrontamiento al dolor, aunque el uso de estrategias de afrontamiento más bien pasivas (como por ejemplo, la religión se asocian significativa y positivamente con la dimensiones de calidad de vida que implican cierto grado de desadaptación por parte del paciente a la enfermedad, mientras que el uso de estrategias más activas ante el dolor (por ejemplo, distracción y autocontrol mental se relacionan significativa y negativamente con dichas dimensiones.Objective: The objective of this research focused on the study of coping strategies used by patients to face pain, these being defined as the thoughts and actions taken by individuals in their efforts to handle pain and their impact on the patient quality of life. Material and methods: The study population included 32 women diagnosed of fibromyalgia that attended for the first time the Psychology Service of the Multidisciplinary Pain Unit at the Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia prior medical examination. The patients completed a set of questionnaires that, in addition to obtain sociodemographic variables (age, sex, marital status, educational level, the following was assessed: pain severity determined using a VAS (visual analogic scale, pain valuation (for example, "pain depends on me", "I can anticipate when it is going to hurt"..., pain coping strategies based on the pain coping questionnaire (PCQ and the quality of life questionnaire ICV-2R. Results and conclusions: At the descriptive level, the results show that the patients reported a moderately severe pain, being self-assertion and information seeking the pain coping strategies more frequently used. Furthermore, they presented a quality of life index lower than the general population. At the correlational level, no significant relationship has been found between the general quality of life index and the pain coping strategies, although the use of more passive coping strategies (such as religion are significantly and positively associated to dimensions of quality of life that involve certain degree of maladjustment of the patient to the disease, while the use of more active pain coping strategies (such as distraction and mental self-control are significantly and negatively associated to such dimensions.
B., Soucase; V., Monsalve; J. F., Soriano; J. de, Andrés.
Full Text Available Objetivo: El objetivo de la investigación se centra en el estudio de las estrategias de afrontamiento utilizada por el paciente para hacer frente a su dolor, siendo definidas estas como los pensamientos y acciones que los individuos realizan en sus esfuerzos por manejar el dolor, y su repercusión so [...] bre la calidad de vida del paciente. Material y métodos: La muestra del estudio está formada por 32 mujeres diagnosticadas de fibromialgia que acuden por primera vez al Servicio de Psicología de la Unidad Multidisciplinar del Dolor en el Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia previa exploración médica. Los pacientes completaron una batería de cuestionarios donde además de recoger las variables sociodemográficas (edad, sexo, estado civil, nivel de estudios), se evaluó el nivel de dolor informado a través del EVA (escala analógica visual), valoración del dolor (por ejemplo, "el dolor depende de mí", "puedo anticipar cuándo me va a doler"...), las estrategias de afrontamiento al dolor a partir del cuestionario de afrontamiento al dolor (CAD) y el cuestionario de calidad de vida ICV-2R. Resultados y conclusiones: A nivel descriptivo, los resultados muestran que las pacientes informan de un nivel de dolor moderadamente elevado, siendo las estrategias de afrontamiento al dolor más utilizadas, la autoafirmación y la búsqueda de información, y presentando un índice de calidad de vida inferior al de la población general. A nivel correlacional, no se ha encontrado ninguna relación significativa entre el índice general de calidad de vida y las estrategias de afrontamiento al dolor, aunque el uso de estrategias de afrontamiento más bien pasivas (como por ejemplo, la religión) se asocian significativa y positivamente con la dimensiones de calidad de vida que implican cierto grado de desadaptación por parte del paciente a la enfermedad, mientras que el uso de estrategias más activas ante el dolor (por ejemplo, distracción y autocontrol mental) se relacionan significativa y negativamente con dichas dimensiones. Abstract in english Objective: The objective of this research focused on the study of coping strategies used by patients to face pain, these being defined as the thoughts and actions taken by individuals in their efforts to handle pain and their impact on the patient quality of life. Material and methods: The study pop [...] ulation included 32 women diagnosed of fibromyalgia that attended for the first time the Psychology Service of the Multidisciplinary Pain Unit at the Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia prior medical examination. The patients completed a set of questionnaires that, in addition to obtain sociodemographic variables (age, sex, marital status, educational level), the following was assessed: pain severity determined using a VAS (visual analogic scale), pain valuation (for example, "pain depends on me", "I can anticipate when it is going to hurt"...), pain coping strategies based on the pain coping questionnaire (PCQ) and the quality of life questionnaire ICV-2R. Results and conclusions: At the descriptive level, the results show that the patients reported a moderately severe pain, being self-assertion and information seeking the pain coping strategies more frequently used. Furthermore, they presented a quality of life index lower than the general population. At the correlational level, no significant relationship has been found between the general quality of life index and the pain coping strategies, although the use of more passive coping strategies (such as religion) are significantly and positively associated to dimensions of quality of life that involve certain degree of maladjustment of the patient to the disease, while the use of more active pain coping strategies (such as distraction and mental self-control) are significantly and negatively associated to such dimensions.
Ali M. Al - Khouri
In this article, we present a case study of one the successful government organisation strategy development exercises in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The 2010-2013 strategy of Emirates Identity Authority (Emirates ID) supported organisational development and allowed the Emirates ID to become a pioneer in its field of practice. Its strategy was among the reasons behind its selection and winning the Best Federal Authority Award in the 2012 UAE's federal Government Excellence Programme. This ...
Flavia Pedro dos Anjos Santos
Full Text Available A violência na escola é um problema social que perpassa o âmbito da educação e da saúde pública, envolve aspectos bioéticos e requer mecanismos de enfrentamento, a partir da educação em saúde. Este estudo objetiva discutir estratégias fundamentadoras da educação em saúde, sobre aspectos bioéticos no domínio da violência escolar. Consiste em uma revisão bibliográfica crítico-reflexiva por meio do acesso a banco de dados da Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS, utilizando os descritores "violência and bioética" e "violência na escola", considerando os estudos publicados no período de 2004 a 2009. Realizamos também levantamento das obras de Paulo Freire e Pedro Demo, teóricos da Educação Libertadora. A leitura do material conduziu-nos a definição e discussão de três eixos temáticos: 1 bioética como instrumento reflexivo para a retomada dos valores morais na sociedade; 2 escola como formadora ética e de exercício de cidadania; 3 educação em saúde como instrumento para o enfrentamento da violência na escola. Acreditamos que a violência escolar envolve questões bioéticas que devem ser alvo de intervenções educativas na perspectiva libertadora, no intuito de gerar reflexões sobre o caráter negativo da violência escolar, tanto para o ensino-aprendizagem, como para o adoecimento dos atores envolvidos nessa problemática. Os profissionais da saúde poderão estabelecer a intersetorialidade com a educação e contribuir na prevenção da violência na escola, por meio de ações educativas em saúde, mobilizando cidadãos para uma sociedade comprometida em promover a vida; e que os profissionais da educação sejam receptivos e coparticipantes do processo intersetorial de educação e saúde.School violence is a social problem that pervades the educational and public health context, involving bioethical issues and requires coping mechanisms from health education. This study aims to discuss strategies that underlie health education, on bioethical issues in the school violence field. It consists of a critical-reflexive literature review by accessing the Virtual Health Library (VHL database, using the keywords: "violence and bioethics", and "violence at school", considering the studies published from 2004 to 2009. We also surveyed Paulo Freire's and Pedro Demo's works, theorists of Libertarian Education, which led us define and discuss three thematic areas: 1 bioethics as a reflective instrument for the moral values resumption in the society, 2 school as an ethics and citizenship practice creator, 3 health education as a contributor to coping with violence at school. We believe that school violence involves bioethical issues that should be the target of educational interventions in the liberating perspective, in order to generate reflections on the negative character of school violence, both for teaching and learning, as to the sickening of the actors involved in this issue. Health professionals may establish the intersectoriality with the education and contribute in preventing violence at school, through health education actions, mobilizing citizens for a society committed to promoting life. And the education professionals must be receptive and co-participants in the education and health intersectorial process.
Flavia Pedro dos Anjos, Santos; Lícia Marques, Vidal; Isaiane Santos, Bittencourt; Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira, Boery; Edite Lago da Silva, Sena.
Full Text Available A violência na escola é um problema social que perpassa o âmbito da educação e da saúde pública, envolve aspectos bioéticos e requer mecanismos de enfrentamento, a partir da educação em saúde. Este estudo objetiva discutir estratégias fundamentadoras da educação em saúde, sobre aspectos bioéticos no [...] domínio da violência escolar. Consiste em uma revisão bibliográfica crítico-reflexiva por meio do acesso a banco de dados da Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS), utilizando os descritores "violência and bioética" e "violência na escola", considerando os estudos publicados no período de 2004 a 2009. Realizamos também levantamento das obras de Paulo Freire e Pedro Demo, teóricos da Educação Libertadora. A leitura do material conduziu-nos a definição e discussão de três eixos temáticos: 1) bioética como instrumento reflexivo para a retomada dos valores morais na sociedade; 2) escola como formadora ética e de exercício de cidadania; 3) educação em saúde como instrumento para o enfrentamento da violência na escola. Acreditamos que a violência escolar envolve questões bioéticas que devem ser alvo de intervenções educativas na perspectiva libertadora, no intuito de gerar reflexões sobre o caráter negativo da violência escolar, tanto para o ensino-aprendizagem, como para o adoecimento dos atores envolvidos nessa problemática. Os profissionais da saúde poderão estabelecer a intersetorialidade com a educação e contribuir na prevenção da violência na escola, por meio de ações educativas em saúde, mobilizando cidadãos para uma sociedade comprometida em promover a vida; e que os profissionais da educação sejam receptivos e coparticipantes do processo intersetorial de educação e saúde. Abstract in english School violence is a social problem that pervades the educational and public health context, involving bioethical issues and requires coping mechanisms from health education. This study aims to discuss strategies that underlie health education, on bioethical issues in the school violence field. It c [...] onsists of a critical-reflexive literature review by accessing the Virtual Health Library (VHL) database, using the keywords: "violence and bioethics", and "violence at school", considering the studies published from 2004 to 2009. We also surveyed Paulo Freire's and Pedro Demo's works, theorists of Libertarian Education, which led us define and discuss three thematic areas: 1) bioethics as a reflective instrument for the moral values resumption in the society, 2) school as an ethics and citizenship practice creator, 3) health education as a contributor to coping with violence at school. We believe that school violence involves bioethical issues that should be the target of educational interventions in the liberating perspective, in order to generate reflections on the negative character of school violence, both for teaching and learning, as to the sickening of the actors involved in this issue. Health professionals may establish the intersectoriality with the education and contribute in preventing violence at school, through health education actions, mobilizing citizens for a society committed to promoting life. And the education professionals must be receptive and co-participants in the education and health intersectorial process.
Alessandra Brunoro, Motta; Sônia Regina Fiorim, Enumo.
Full Text Available A criança com câncer precisa se adaptar à hospitalização, utilizando estratégias de enfrentamento adequadas a fim de minimizar os efeitos negativos. Visando à elaboração de um instrumento de avaliação das estratégias de enfrentamento da hospitalização, 28 crianças, de 6 a 12 anos, inscritas no servi [...] ço de oncologia de um hospital público de Vitória, ES, foram submetidas à aplicação do instrumento: Avaliação das Estratégias de Enfrentamento da Hospitalização, com 41 pranchas ilustradas, divididas nos conjuntos: A: Enfrentamento da hospitalização, e B: Brincar no hospital. Os resultados referentes à adequação do instrumento mostraram um percentual de 88,4% e 94,6% de adequação das pranchas do Conjunto A e do Conjunto B, respectivamente. Os resultados das respostas ao instrumento indicaram um padrão de respostas de enfrentamento mais facilitador (brincar, conversar, tomar remédio e rezar) do que não-facilitador (esconder-se, brigar, sentir culpa, fazer chantagem). O instrumento mostrou-se adequado à compreensão e ao atendimento psicológico à criança hospitalizada. Abstract in english In order to diminish the negative effects of hospitalization, the child who has cancer needs to adapt herself/himself by using adequate coping strategies. Focused on the design of an assessment tool for the hospitalization coping strategies, 28 children (6 to 12) registered on the Oncology Service f [...] rom a public hospital in Vitória, Espírito Santo, were submitted to the following instruments: coping Hospitalization Assessment Instrument, with 41 pictures, divided by sets: Set A: Facing hospitalization and Set B: Playing in the hospital. The instrument adequacy results have shown a percentage of 88.4% e 94.6% of adequacy in the pictures from Set A and Set B, respectively. The instrument responses results have revealed a larger tendency to the optimistic pattern of coping answers (play, talk, take medicine and pray), than to the non-optimistic (hide, fight, blame yourself, blackmail). The instrument was adequate to the psychological comprehension and attendance for the hospitalized children.
/ Coping Strategies of Children who have a Mother or Father in a Hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU) / Estrategias de enfrentamiento (Coping) de hijos que tienen la madre o el padre internado en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI)
Fernanda, de Azevedo Lima; Maria Cristina, Lopes de Almeida Amazonas; Walfrido, Nunes de Menezes.
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas por filhos que possuem a mãe ou o pai internado em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Participaram 30 filhos, de ambos os sexos, que responderam: Uma Ficha Sócio Demográfica e o Inventário de Estratégias de Copi [...] ng de Folkman e Lazarus (1985). A análise das respostas no inventário se deu em dois momentos: 1) contagem da pontuação obtida por cada participante, nos itens de cada fator correspondente às estratégias de enfrentamento; 2) cálculo dos coeficientes de Correlação de Spearman entre as 66 questões do Inventário e algumas variáveis: Religião; Faixa etária, Escolaridade e Filiação. Foi verificada correlação significativa positiva ou negativa entre estas variáveis e alguns itens do inventário, porém isto não é o suficiente para afirmar que há correlação entre as variáveis e determinadas estratégias. Embora os participantes tenham usado todas as estratégias de enfrentamento, as que predominaram foram: Reavaliação Positiva (97%); Suporte Social (93%) e Resolução de Problemas (77%). Estes resultados corroboram estudos já realizados sobre esta temática e podem subsidiar uma prática mais efetiva da equipe de saúde junto a essa população. Abstract in spanish La presente investigación tuvo el objetivo de verificar las estrategias de enfrentamiento utilizadas por hijos que tienen la madre o el padre internado en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Participaron 30 hijos, de ambos sexos, que contestaron a un cuestionario sociodemográfico y el inventario [...] de estrategias de Coping de Folkman & Lazarus (1985). El procedimiento de análisis del inventario fue: 1) Puntuación obtenida por el participante, en los ítems de cada factor correspondiente a las estrategias de enfrentamiento; 2) Cálculo de los coeficientes de correlación de Spearman, entre las 66 cuestiones del inventario y algunas variables como: religión, franja de edad, escolaridad y filiación. Existe correlación significativa positiva o negativa entre estas variables y algunos ítems del inventario, pero esto no es lo suficiente para afirmar que hay correlación entre las variables y determinadas estrategias. A pesar de que los participantes utilizaran todas las estrategias de enfrentamiento, las predominantes fueron: revaluación positiva (97%); soporte social (93%); y resolución de problemas (77%). Estos datos corroboran los hallazgos de otras investigaciones sobre la temática y pueden subsidiar una práctica más efectiva del equipo de salud junto a esa populación. Abstract in english This study aimed to examine the coping strategies used by children who have the mother or father admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). 30 children of both sexes participated, they answerd the- Demographic and Socio Sheet and Coping Strategies Inventory of Folkman and Lazarus (1985). The analysis [...] of responses in the inventory took place in two stages: 1) counting the score of each participant, the items of each factor corresponding to the coping strategies. 2) calculation of Spearman correlation coefficients among the and some 66 issues of the inventory variables like: religion, age, education and filiation. There is a significant positive or negative correlation between these variables and some inventory items, but this is not enough to say that there is correlation between the variables specific and strategies. Although participants used all strategies, those that predominated were: positive reappraisal (97%), social support (93%) and problem solving (77%). These results corroborate previous studies' findings on this topic and can support a more effective practice of the health team whit this population.
Coping strategies used by family members of individuals receiving hemodialysis / Estratégias de coping utilizadas por familiares de indivíduos em tratamento hemodialítico / Estrategias de afrontamiento utilizadas por las familias de las personas en tratamiento de hemodiálisis
Fernanda Ribeiro Baptista, Marques; Marina Raduy, Botelho; Sonia Silva, Marcon; Jussara Simone Lenzi, Pupulim.
Full Text Available Estudo descritivo, de natureza quali-quantitativa, que objetivou identificar as estratégias de enfrentamento mais utilizadas por familiares de pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista, com aplicação do Inventário de Estratégias de Coping a de [...] z familiares, e submetidos à estatística descritiva e à análise de conteúdo temática. A estratégia mais utilizada foi fuga e esquiva, demonstrando que os familiares preferiam não enfrentar a situação. A segunda estratégia mais usada foi suporte social, ratificada ao afirmarem que conversaram com outras pessoas e profissionais buscando informações sobre o problema, e por aceitarem positivamente o apoio recebido. A terceira foi resolução de problemas, representada pela atitude em assumir o cuidado, seja pelo forte vínculo afetivo ou pelo sentimento de responsabilidade já estabelecido antes da doença. As famílias empregaram estratégias de enfrentamento com intensidades diferentes, porém indicando envolvimento e grande participação no cuidado ao doente. Abstract in spanish Estudio cualitativo, que trató de identificar las estrategias de afrontamiento empleadas por las familias de los pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica en hemodiálisis. Se aplicó el Inventario de Estrategias de Afrontamiento y una questión abierta con diez familiares. Los datos cuantitativos fuer [...] on sometidos a procedimientos estatísticos y análisis de contenido cualitativo. La estrategia de mayor utilización fue el escape y evitación (oito), lo que demuestra que los miembros de las familisa preferían no tener que enfrentar esta situación. La siguiente estrategia fue utilizada más apoyo social, ya hablé con otras personas y profesionales que buscan información sobre el problema, y aceptar el apoyo positivo recibido. A terceira foi resolução de problemas, representada pela atitude em assumir o cuidado, seja pelo forte vínculo afetivo ou pelo sentimento de responsabilidade já estabelecido antes da doença. Familias de las estrategias de afrontamiento empleadas con diferentes intensidades, pero mostrando una gran implicación y la participación en el cuidado del paciente crónico. Abstract in english This descriptive, qualitative study aims to identify the coping strategies used most by the family members of patients with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis. The data were collected through interviews, with the Coping Strategies Inventory questionnaire administered to ten family members [...] , and were submitted to descriptive statistics and to thematic content analysis. The strategy used most was escape-avoidance, demonstrating that the family members prefer not to face the situation. The second most-used strategy was social support, ratified by the fact that they stated that they talk with other persons and professionals, seeking information about the problem, and because they accept the support received positively. The third was problem resolution, represented by the attitude of accepting responsibility for the care, either through strong affective bonds or through a feeling of responsibility established prior to the disease. The families use coping strategies of different intensities, while, nevertheless, indicating involvement and major participation in the care for the patient.
Ali M. Al-Khouri
Full Text Available In this article, we present a case study of one the successful government organisation strategy development exercises in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. The 2010-2013 strategy of Emirates Identity Authority (Emirates ID supported organisational development and allowed the Emirates ID to become a pioneer in its field of practice. Its strategy was among the reasons behind its selection and winning the Best Federal Authority Award in the 2012 UAE's federal Government Excellence Programme. This article attempts to describe the principles on which the organisational strategy was developed. It also outlines major accomplishments and the strategy's impact on overall organisational performance. We conclude that the new strategy helped the organisation become a successful example in the UAE and that further lessons can be learned from it, as we outline and discuss them to influence the field of practice.
This report summarizes the comparative evaluation of alternative strategies for the development of the commercial fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the United States. For planning purposes, a range of possible FBR development paths called strategies were selected for evaluation. These strategies, designed to be technically and economically feasible, were expressed in terms of the timing and nature of facilities/research and development programs required to reach full power operation of the first commercial FBR. Four of the seven strategies resulted in a large (1457 MWe) FBR as an end point, the other three in a 1000-MWe plant. Probability distributions were calculated for total strategy costs and time to completion. For the seven strategies analyzed, the costs (discounted 1980 dollars) ranged from $1.8 billion to $4.9 billion; the completion times ranged from 24 to 55 years
Mols, Rikke Elmose; Sand, Niels Peter
Understanding the determinants of social and coping inequalities in subclinical cardiovascular disease is an important prerequisite in developing and implementing preventive strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between social factors and coping status, respectively, and subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in middle-aged Danes.
This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must include strategies of how to integrate the renewable s...
Sidclay Bezerra, Souza; Ana Margarida Veiga, Simão; Ana Paula, Caetano.
Full Text Available O cyberbullying, caracterizado como um dos tipos de violência em contexto educativo, apresenta-se como uma das principais causas do mal-estar vivido por seus protagonistas. O estudo inserido no Projeto Cyberbullying - o diagnóstico da situação em Portugal pretendeu compreender o fenômeno a partir da [...] s vivências de 118 estudantes do primeiro ano do Ensino Superior público português, que responderam a um questionário. Pudemos perceber a percepção dos alunos sobre o fenômeno e a importância que pares, professores e pais apresentam no enfrentamento e prevenção do cyberbullying. Tais resultados orientam-se no sentido do desenvolvimento sistêmico de comunidades que se fortalecem internamente para que cada um se sinta autorizado a intervir e a cuidar dos que nelas são vítimas de violência. Abstract in english Cyberbullying is characterized as one of the different types of violence in educational contexts and is one of the main causes of uneasiness felt by its protagonists. It is also considered as one of the challenges of contemporary education. The study inserted in the project Cyberbullying - a diagnos [...] is of the situation in Portugal intended to understand the phenomenon, its extension and nature through the experience of 118 first year psychology students in the Portuguese public higher education system. Participants responded to a questionnaire of open and closed-ended questions. From the analyses done we understand the students' perceptions regarding the phenomenon, as well as the fundamental importance peers, teachers and parents/legal guardians have in coping with and preventing cyberbullying. These results demonstrate that there is the need to systemically develop communities that may internally strengthen themselves so that each individual feels authorized to intervene and care for those that are the victims of violence.
Mutenje, Munyaradzi J; Ortmann, Gerald F; Ferrer, Stuart Rd
This article examines the role of the extraction of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) as a coping strategy in response to HIV/AIDS-related economic shocks among rural households in the semi-arid Sengwe communal lands in south-eastern Zimbabwe. Using panel data for 200 households in 2008 and 2009, an econometric analysis revealed NTFP extraction as an important ex-post coping mechanism for the HIV/AIDS-afflicted households. Many of the households responded to HIV-related economic crises by increasing NTFP extraction to smooth both consumption and income. On average, the additional income from NTFPs offset about 48% of a household's income shortfalls due to the impact of HIV or AIDS. The importance of NTFPs as an economic safety-net for households depends more on the timing of extraction than on the magnitude (i.e. as a share of total household contribution). Hence, sustainable forest management is of great value for semi-arid tropical areas, such as the Sengwe communal lands, which are hard hit by the HIV epidemic. Consequently, government and other stakeholders would be well advised to implement programmes that reduce pressure on the forest resources, such as by introducing other incomegenerating enterprises like raising small livestock, while improvements in access to education and healthcare will further help the rural poor cope with HIV/AIDS-induced economic crises. PMID:25859788
Mariana Carolina, Miracco; Guillermina, Rutsztein; Leonora, Lievendag; Fernán Guido, Arana; María Luz, Scappatura; Luciana, Elizathe; Eduardo, Keegan.
Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar aquellas estrategias de afrontamiento presentes en las mujeres que sufren violencia doméstica. Se diferencian las estrategias que resultarían disfuncionales de aquellas funcionales o adaptativas por su impacto en la salud y en la calidad de vida de las mu [...] jeres. Se presentan los resultados de una primera exploración cualitativa acerca de estas estrategias en nuestra población. La metodología se basó en entrevistas en profundidad a 8 mujeres que se encuentran en proceso de afrontamiento o que ya han superado la situación de violencia en su pareja. Asimismo, se utilizó la observación de dinámicas de grupos de autoayuda específicamente orientados a esta conflictiva. La muestra total estuvo conformada por 12 mujeres de entre 35 y 69 años, asistentes a centros especializados en la problemática. Los resultados destacan la relevancia del apoyo psicosocial para el afrontamiento adaptativo de esta problemática. Abstract in english The present paper analyzes the coping strategies of women who suffer intimate partner violence. Maladaptive and adaptive strategies are differentiated on the basis of their impact on health and quality of life. The results of a first qualitative exploration of these strategies in our population are [...] presented. The methodology was based on in-depth interviews to 8 women who were coping with or had already overcome violence in their couple. The dynamics of self-help groups specifically oriented to this issue have been observed as well. The total sample was formed by 12 women, whose age ranged from 35 to 69, attending to centers specialized in domestic violence. Results highlight the relevance of psychosocial support for an adaptive coping.
André Faro Santos
Full Text Available This research had the objective to examine the occurrence of stress among 27 master students of health sciences of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe [Federal University of Sergipe], of which 16 were women and 11 were men. And, it also sought to delineate the coping strategies used to deal with the stress and the stressors perceived by the graduate students. Lipp's Stress Symptoms for Adults Inventory, the Ways to Confront Problems Scale and a questionary about possible stressors were used. The results indicated that 40,7% of subjects had stress and that there was an association between stress and sex (p<0,05, showing that women were more vulnerable to stress. The association between sex and the main coping strategies used by the participants that didn't have stress (p<0,05 was verified, showing that focalizing on the problem was a more frequent strategy among men. We believe that more investigation on this topic is important, because the performance of master level students may be influenced by the stress during graduate education.
Full Text Available This article - The Elaboration Stages of Local Development Strategies - aims to present a topic of current interest for Romanian local public administrations. The author presents a possible way of elaborating local and micro-regional strategies, with emphasis on the characteristics of these documents and the stages of their application.
Tharaldsen, Kjersti B.; Bru, Edvin
The aim of this research is to develop and validate a self-report measure of mindfulness and coping, the mindful coping scale (MCS). Dimensions of mindful coping were theoretically deduced from mindfulness theory and coping theory. The MCS was empirically evaluated by use of factor analyses, reliability testing and nomological network validation.
Afrontamiento activo y adaptacion al envejecimiento en mujeres de la ciudad de Mar del Plata: una revision de la estrategia de autodistraccion / Active coping and adaptation to aging in women of Mar del Plata city: A review of the coping strategy of self-distraction
Deisy, Krzemien; Alicia, Monchietti; Sebastián, Urquijo.
Full Text Available El presente trabajo propone, a partir de datos empíricos obtenidos en un grupo de adultas mayores, una reconceptualización de las estrategias de afrontamiento evitativas, especialmente la autodistracción, destacando su valor adaptativo frente a la crisis vital que genera el proceso de envejecimiento [...] en las mujeres. Clínicos e investigadores sugieren que el envejecimiento implica una crisis del desarrollo que afecta la adaptación vital. La literatura científica considera que existe relación entre estrategias de afrontamiento y adaptación a situaciones críticas. Mediante un diseño cuasi-experimental de tipo pretest - postest con grupo control, se evaluaron las estrategias de afrontamiento antes y después de un programa de aprendizaje social, en una muestra de sesenta mujeres ancianas, de las cuales, treinta participaron de un curso de aprendizaje social en la Universidad de Adultos Mayores de la Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (Mar del Plata - Argentina), y treinta no lo hicieron. Se realizó un análisis comparativo y cuantitativo de los datos. Los resultados evidencian que las mujeres que participaron del programa de aprendizaje social presentan un estilo de afrontamiento activo y adaptativo y a la vez, un uso significativo de la estrategia de autodistracción, caracterizada teóricamente como evitativa y no adaptativa. Los resultados permiten elaborar una comprensión alternativa de la estrategia de autodistracción en función del afrontamiento a los sucesos críticos de la vejez. Se propone que frente a situaciones que no constituyen un problema a resolver como el proceso de envejecimiento en particular, la autodistracción debería considerarse como una estrategia de afrontamiento que promueve una adaptación efectiva. Abstract in english This paper reviews the concept of avoidance coping (particularly the coping strategy of self-distraction), pointing out its adaptative value in coping with critical life-events during old age in women. Scientific literature considers that there is a relationship between coping strategies and adaptat [...] ion to critical events. Some studies suggest that active coping strategies promote effective adaptation, but avoidant strategies are considered less effective. The coping strategy of self-distraction is a mental and behavioural disengagement which occurs via a wide variety of activities that serve to distract the person from thinking about the goal with which the stressor is interfering. Tactics that reflect disengagement include: using alternative activities to take one's mind off a problem (a tendency opposite to problem focused coping or active coping), escaping through reading, cooking, visiting friends, studying, going out for a conference, or escape by immersion in television or in new projects. This paper discusses the empirical data obtained from a study on coping with critical life-events in female aging in a group of senior women in the city of Mar del Plata. By means of a quasi-experimental design using a pretest-postest technique and a control group, we evaluated coping strategies through the Brief-Cope Inventory, before and after a social learning program in a sample of 60 senior women who did not have any neurological symptomatology. The sample was divided into two groups: intervention group and control group. The intervention group consisted of 30 individuals, who participated in a social learning program at the Universidad de Adultos Mayores (Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata), and the control group, consisting of 30 individuals, did not do it. A comparative and quantitative analysis of data was done. Results of the study showed that critical life-events senior women have to cope with were loneliness, illness, widowhood, parental death or oncoming personal death, and social discrimination. There were significant differences in coping styles in both post-test groups. In general, the use of active and adaptative strategies (particularly the behavioural and cognitive coping style or type) increased in the intervention grou
Dias, Cláudia S.; José Fernando A. Cruz; Fonseca, António Manuel
El objetivo de este studio fue examinar las propiedades psicométricas de las versiones portuguesas del Sport Anxiety Scale, el Brief COPE, y el Cognitive Appraisal Scale in Sport Competition Threat Perception, atendiendo a su validez de estructura factorial y consistencia interna. Los participantes fueron 550 atletas de ambos sexos y diversos deportes con edades entre 15 y 35 años (M=19.8; DT=4.5). Los análisis factoriales exploratorio y confirmatorio indicaron que los instr...
Ana Isabel Cunha; Ana Paula Relvas; Isabel Soares
Este estudio ex post facto ha explorado las diferencias entre la percepción de características familiares de 34 mujeres jóvenes con anorexia nerviosa y 34 mujeres jóvenes sin patología alimentaria. Todas las participantes completaron los siguientes instrumentos de auto-respuesta: FACES II, F-COPES, IPPA y el Cuestionario de Creencias Familiares. Los resultados demostraron que, en comparación con el grupo de mujeres sin patología alimentaria, las pacientes consideran a sus familias menos unida...
Bakibinga, Pauline; Vinje, Hege Forbech; Mittelmark, Maurice B.
This qualitative study explored self-care among fifteen Ugandan nurses with reputations for thriving despite having difficult working conditions. The analysis revealed that in the face of potential threats to the nurses job engagement they engaged in self-tuning, a salutogenic process involving introspection, sensibility and reflection leading to coping in one or several of these ways: sharing of experiences, trusting in Gods providence, engaging in other enjoyable activities, letting go,...
Peterson, Brennan D.; Newton, Christopher R.; Rosen, Karen H.; Schulman, Robert S.
This study explored the coping processes of couples experiencing infertility. Participants included 420 couples referred for advanced reproductive treatments. Couples were divided into groups based on the frequency of their use of eight coping strategies. Findings suggest that coping processes, which are beneficial to individuals, may be
Occupational violence in nursing: explanations and coping strategies Violencia laboral en enfermeras: explicaciones y estrategias de afrontamiento Violência laboral em enfermeiras: explicações e estratégias de enfrentamento
Angelina María Dois Castellón
Full Text Available This study explored part of the experience of occupational harassment, experienced by thirteen Chilean nurses, analyzing the relationship between the explanations and their coping strategies, to formulate a comprehensive model that includes the involved elements and that can be used to develop preventive strategies. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, using theoretical saturation as the ending criterion and were analyzed according to the procedures of Grounded Theory. The relational analysis shows the influence of factors that perpetuate the phenomenon, both the organizational factors and the ones related to the execution of professional roles. According to the comprehensive model, this kind of violence is a circular phenomenon, in which the involved elements influence each other and are related to the narrative constructions of the phenomenon and to contextual elements, which can also be considered as part of the most probable cause of it.El objetivo del estudio fue explorar parte de la experiencia de hostigamiento laboral vivida por trece enfermeras chilenas, analizando la relación entre sus explicaciones y sus estrategias de afrontamiento, para luego formular un modelo comprensivo que contenga los elementos involucrados y que pueda utilizarse para desarrollar estrategias preventivas. Los datos se recolectaron a través de entrevistas semi estructuradas utilizando como criterio de finalización la saturación teórica y se analizaron según los procedimientos de la Grounded Theory. El análisis relacional muestra la influencia de factores que perpetuán el fenómeno, tanto los organizacionales como los relativos a la ejecución del rol profesional; utilizando el modelo comprensivo se postula que este tipo de violencia es un fenómeno circular, en el cual los elementos intervinientes se influyen mutuamente relacionándose con las construcciones narrativas del fenómeno y con los elementos contextuales, los cuales también pueden considerarse como parte de la causalidad más próxima del mismo.O objetivo do estudo foi explorar parte da experiência do assédio laboral, vivenciado por treze enfermeiras chilenas, analisando a relação entre as explicações e as estratégias de enfrentamento, para formular um modelo compreensivo que inclua os elementos envolvidos e que possa ser utilizado para desenvolver estratégias preventivas. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semiestruturadas, utilizando como critério de finalização a saturação teórica e analisados segundo os procedimentos da Grounded Theory. A análise relacional mostra a influência de fatores perpetuantes do fenômeno, também dos fatores organizacionais e dos relacionados à execução do papel profissional. A partir do modelo compreensivo se postula que esse tipo de violência é fenômeno circular, no qual os elementos envolvidos se influenciariam e se relacionariam com as construções narrativas do fenômeno e com elementos contextuais, todos podem, também, ser considerados como parte da causalidade mais provável do mesmo.
Occupational violence in nursing: explanations and coping strategies / Violencia laboral en enfermeras: explicaciones y estrategias de afrontamiento / Violência laboral em enfermeiras: explicações e estratégias de enfrentamento
Angelina María Dois, Castellón.
Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi explorar parte da experiência do assédio laboral, vivenciado por treze enfermeiras chilenas, analisando a relação entre as explicações e as estratégias de enfrentamento, para formular um modelo compreensivo que inclua os elementos envolvidos e que possa ser utilizado para de [...] senvolver estratégias preventivas. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semiestruturadas, utilizando como critério de finalização a saturação teórica e analisados segundo os procedimentos da Grounded Theory. A análise relacional mostra a influência de fatores perpetuantes do fenômeno, também dos fatores organizacionais e dos relacionados à execução do papel profissional. A partir do modelo compreensivo se postula que esse tipo de violência é fenômeno circular, no qual os elementos envolvidos se influenciariam e se relacionariam com as construções narrativas do fenômeno e com elementos contextuais, todos podem, também, ser considerados como parte da causalidade mais provável do mesmo. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue explorar parte de la experiencia de hostigamiento laboral vivida por trece enfermeras chilenas, analizando la relación entre sus explicaciones y sus estrategias de afrontamiento, para luego formular un modelo comprensivo que contenga los elementos involucrados y que pueda [...] utilizarse para desarrollar estrategias preventivas. Los datos se recolectaron a través de entrevistas semi estructuradas utilizando como criterio de finalización la saturación teórica y se analizaron según los procedimientos de la Grounded Theory. El análisis relacional muestra la influencia de factores que perpetuán el fenómeno, tanto los organizacionales como los relativos a la ejecución del rol profesional; utilizando el modelo comprensivo se postula que este tipo de violencia es un fenómeno circular, en el cual los elementos intervinientes se influyen mutuamente relacionándose con las construcciones narrativas del fenómeno y con los elementos contextuales, los cuales también pueden considerarse como parte de la causalidad más próxima del mismo. Abstract in english This study explored part of the experience of occupational harassment, experienced by thirteen Chilean nurses, analyzing the relationship between the explanations and their coping strategies, to formulate a comprehensive model that includes the involved elements and that can be used to develop preve [...] ntive strategies. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, using theoretical saturation as the ending criterion and were analyzed according to the procedures of Grounded Theory. The relational analysis shows the influence of factors that perpetuate the phenomenon, both the organizational factors and the ones related to the execution of professional roles. According to the comprehensive model, this kind of violence is a circular phenomenon, in which the involved elements influence each other and are related to the narrative constructions of the phenomenon and to contextual elements, which can also be considered as part of the most probable cause of it.
Adrian Gheorghe ZUGRAVU; Soare, Ionica
The paper follows two main objectives: to understand farmers perception and image of social services and to identify communication levers in order to improve the perceived image of social farming. Orientations in terms of communication are product-focused and aim at enhancing the reputation of social farming consequently with impact on rural development. This paper conducted a questionnaire survey of Romanian farmers perception toward social agricultural. The empirical study indicated that ...
Adrian Gheorghe ZUGRAVU
Full Text Available The paper follows two main objectives: to understand farmers perception and image of social services and to identify communication levers in order to improve the perceived image of social farming. Orientations in terms of communication are product-focused and aim at enhancing the reputation of social farming consequently with impact on rural development. This paper conducted a questionnaire survey of Romanian farmers perception toward social agricultural. The empirical study indicated that farmers shown different awareness to social farming.
Marjan Laal; Nasrin Aliramaie
Introduction: Stress could be defined simply as the rate of wear and tear on the body systems caused by life. Stress at work is a big problem. Working in the profession of nursing is a demanding and often stressful occupation. Thus, nurses health could be affected by stress dangerous consequences. Coping strategies are key elements of nurses' stress reactions. Coping strategy as a stabilizing factor may be as important as the stressful event itself. Purpose: To determine how and how much nur...
Evidências de validade e precisão da Escala de Coping através de Ouvir Música / Evidence of validity and accuracy of the Coping by Music Listening Scale / Evidencias de validez y precisión de la "Escala de Coping através de ouvir música"
Carlos Eduardo, Pimentel; Marlizete Maldonado, Vargas; Thiago Oliveira de, Almeida; Viviane Andrade Prado, Maynart; Sarah Monteiro de C. T., Figueiredo.
Full Text Available O presente estudo buscou verificar a validade de construto e precisão da Escala de Coping através de Ouvir Música (ECOM), cujos fatores representam estratégias de coping focadas na emoção, no problema e evitação/desligamento. Contou com a participação de 248 estudantes de escolas e universidades púb [...] licas e particulares da cidade de Aracaju, no Nordeste brasileiro. Os principais resultados corroboram a estrutura original da escala com três fatores. Foram verificados índices de precisão adequados para o fator coping focado na emoção, mas índices menores para os fatores de coping focado no problema e evitação. Foram verificadas ainda diferenças por gênero nas estratégias de coping relacionadas a ouvir música. Os dados são discutidos considerando a literatura sobre psicometria e sugestões de pesquisa são realizadas para se desenvolverem os estudos na área de coping. Abstract in spanish El presente estudio buscó verificar la validez de constructo y precisión de la "Escala de Coping através de Ouvir Música" (ECOM), cuyos factores representan estrategias de coping focalizadas en la emoción, en el problema y evitación/desligamiento. Contó con la participación de 248 estudiantes de esc [...] uelas y universidades públicas y particulares de la ciudad de Aracaju, en el Nordeste brasileño. Los principales resultados corroboran la estructura original de la escala con tres factores. Fueron verificados índices de precisión adecuados para el factor coping focalizado en la emoción y de la escala total, pero índices menores para los factores de coping focalizado en el problema y evitación. Fueron verificadas aún diferencias por género en las estrategias de coping relacionadas a oír música. Los datos son discutidos considerando la literatura sobre psicometría y sugestiones de investigaciones son realizadas para el desarrollo de estudios en el área de coping. Abstract in english This study aims at evaluating the construct validity and accuracy of the Coping by Music Listening Scale (CMLS) whose factors represent coping strategies as emotion in the problem and avoidance/disconnexion. It acounted on the participation of 248 students from schools and public and private univers [...] ities in the city of Aracaju, Brazilian Northeast. The main results confirm the scale's original structure with three factors. Appropriate accuracy indices of emotion-oriented coping factor and the scale as a whole were verified, but lower rates for the problem-oriented and avoidance factors. It was also found gender differences in coping strategies by music listening. The results are discussed considering the psychometric literature and suggestions for research were carried out to develop studies on the coping research.
Evidências de validade e precisão da Escala de Coping através de Ouvir Música Evidencias de validez y precisión de la "Escala de Coping através de ouvir música" Evidence of validity and accuracy of the Coping by Music Listening Scale
Carlos Eduardo Pimentel
Full Text Available O presente estudo buscou verificar a validade de construto e precisão da Escala de Coping através de Ouvir Música (ECOM, cujos fatores representam estratégias de coping focadas na emoção, no problema e evitação/desligamento. Contou com a participação de 248 estudantes de escolas e universidades públicas e particulares da cidade de Aracaju, no Nordeste brasileiro. Os principais resultados corroboram a estrutura original da escala com três fatores. Foram verificados índices de precisão adequados para o fator coping focado na emoção, mas índices menores para os fatores de coping focado no problema e evitação. Foram verificadas ainda diferenças por gênero nas estratégias de coping relacionadas a ouvir música. Os dados são discutidos considerando a literatura sobre psicometria e sugestões de pesquisa são realizadas para se desenvolverem os estudos na área de coping.El presente estudio buscó verificar la validez de constructo y precisión de la "Escala de Coping através de Ouvir Música" (ECOM, cuyos factores representan estrategias de coping focalizadas en la emoción, en el problema y evitación/desligamiento. Contó con la participación de 248 estudiantes de escuelas y universidades públicas y particulares de la ciudad de Aracaju, en el Nordeste brasileño. Los principales resultados corroboran la estructura original de la escala con tres factores. Fueron verificados índices de precisión adecuados para el factor coping focalizado en la emoción y de la escala total, pero índices menores para los factores de coping focalizado en el problema y evitación. Fueron verificadas aún diferencias por género en las estrategias de coping relacionadas a oír música. Los datos son discutidos considerando la literatura sobre psicometría y sugestiones de investigaciones son realizadas para el desarrollo de estudios en el área de coping.This study aims at evaluating the construct validity and accuracy of the Coping by Music Listening Scale (CMLS whose factors represent coping strategies as emotion in the problem and avoidance/disconnexion. It acounted on the participation of 248 students from schools and public and private universities in the city of Aracaju, Brazilian Northeast. The main results confirm the scale's original structure with three factors. Appropriate accuracy indices of emotion-oriented coping factor and the scale as a whole were verified, but lower rates for the problem-oriented and avoidance factors. It was also found gender differences in coping strategies by music listening. The results are discussed considering the psychometric literature and suggestions for research were carried out to develop studies on the coping research.
Pacientes com câncer: enfrentamento, rede social e apoio social / Cancer patients: coping strategies, social network and social support / Pacientes con cáncer: enfrentamiento, red social y apoyo social
Jeanny Joana Rodrigues Alves de, Santana; Carla Rodrigues, Zanin; José Victor, Maniglia.
Full Text Available O estudo avaliou as estratégias de enfrentamento, rede e apoio social de pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço atendidos em um hospital do interior paulista. Os 22 participantes responderam a um Questionário Sociodemográfico, Questionário de Hábitos de Vida, Ficha Clínica, Escala Modos de Enfrent [...] amento de Problemas (EMEP) e Medidas de Rede e Apoio Social. Os resultados indicaram que as estratégias de enfrentamento menos utilizadas foram: focalização na emoção (M=2,08, DP=0,63) e busca por suporte social (M=2,62, DP=0,80), a rede social apresentou-se ampla, mas com grau de intimidade baixo, e a média geral do apoio social foi baixa (M=71, DP=10). As principais correlações encontradas foram: apoio emocional e de informação (r=0,785, p Abstract in spanish El estudio evaluó las estrategias del enfrentamiento, red social, apoyo social de pacientes con cáncer de cabeza y cuello atendidos en un hospital del interior paulista. Los participantes contestaron uno Cuestionario Socio-demográfico y de Costumbres de vida, Ficha Clínica, Escala Modos de Enfrentam [...] ento de Problemas (EMEP) (Escala Modos de Enfrentamiento de Problemas) y Medidas de Red y Apoyo Social. Las estrategias menos utilizadas fueran enfrentamiento en la emoción (media: 2,08, DP: 0.63) y la busca por soporte social (media=2,62, DP=0,80). La red social es numerosa, mas con grado de intimidad bajo, lo apoyo social presentó nota media general baja (media=71, DP=10). Las principales correlaciones encontradas fueron: apoyo emocional y de información (r=0,785, p Abstract in english This study assessed coping strategies, social network and support in patients, with head and neck cancer, treated in a hospital in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The 22 participants completed a Social Demographic Questionnaire Inquiring on Life Style, Clinical File, the Escala Modos de Enfrentament [...] o de Problemas (EMEP) (Ways of Coping with Problems Scale) with Measures of Social Network and Support. The least used coping strategies were emotion focused-coping (M: 2,08, SD: 0.63) and search for social support (M: 2.62, SD: 0.80), participants had a large network with low level of intimacy, the general average score for social support was low (M: 71, SD: 10). The main correlations found in the study were emotional support and information (r=0.785, p
Juan Pedro, Martínez Ramón.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio descriptivo transversal de diseño ex post facto ha sido conocer el modo de defenderse del estrés el profesorado de secundaria, analizando la relación existente entre el síndrome de burnout y las estrategias de afrontamiento en una muestra de 221 docentes de centros públic [...] os y centros concertados-privados en el municipio de Murcia. Para ello, se aplicó un cuestionario sociodemográfico ad hoc, el Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) y el Cuestionario de Afrontamiento del Estrés (CAE). Los resultados derivados del análisis descriptivo e inferencial muestran que las estrategias de autofocalización negativa (AFN) y de expresión emocional abierta (EEA) son utilizadas en mayor medida cuando el profesorado presenta indicadores del síndrome. Por otro lado, las estrategias de focalización en la solución del problema (FSP) y la reevaluación positiva (REP) se relacionan con una mayor realización personal en el trabajo y por tanto menores niveles de estrés. En conclusión, el conocimiento de las estrategias más eficaces para combatir el burnout permitirá diseñar programas de prevención más ajustados a la realidad educativa. Abstract in english The aim of this cross-sectional study with an ex post facto design was to study the way secondary school teachers defend themselves from stress by analyzing the relationship between burnout and coping strategies in a sample of 221 teachers from public and private/state-subsidized schools in the muni [...] cipality of Murcia. To do this, we applied a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and the Stress Coping Questionnaire (CAE in Spanish). The results of the descriptive and inferential analysis show that negative self-targeting strategies (NST) and open emotional expression (OEE) are associated more with the presence of the syndrome, in contrast to the focus on solving the problem (FSP) and positive reappraisal (PR) that are associated with greater personal fulfillment at work. In conclusion, identifying the strategies that are associated with burnout or lack of it will allow the design of more adjusted prevention programs.
Presents music-enhanced kinesthetic visualization therapeutic methods to assist young children in coping with problems and to enhance their development. Highlights results from 9 therapy sessions over 2 months with 6 third graders that illustrate positive growth in emotional, social, and motor development. Shows how organized intersemiotic motoric
After an introduction on the assessment and perspectives of the French national strategy for a sustainable development, this report presents actions which are associated with different themes: social dimension of the sustainable development, the citizen as an actor of sustainable development, territories, economic activities, companies and consumers, climate change and energy, transports, agriculture and fishery, prevention of risks, pollutions and other hazards for health and the environment, an exemplary State, research and innovation, international action
Variables sociodemográficas y procesos de enfrentamiento al estrés en pacientes portadores de Rectocolitis Ulcerativa Idiopática Socio-demographic variables and stress coping strategies among ulcerative colitis patients
Ana Lucia Siqueira Costa
Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo verificar la asociación existente entre las variables sociodemográficas y los procesos de enfrentamiento al estrés de los individuos portadores de Rectocolitis Ulcerativa Idiopática atendidos en el Ambulatorio de Enfermedades Inflamatorias de Colon del Hospital de las Clínicas de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de San Pablo. Del total de 100 individuos participantes del estudio se verificó que la variable practicante de creencia religiosa presentó resultado estadísticamente significativo para los factores fuga/ esquiva, aceptación de responsabilidad y alejamiento. Con este estudio se pudo concluir que la creencia religiosa favorece la utilización de diversos factores de enfrentamiento para el manejo de situaciones adversas como la enfermedad y de este modo contribuir para mejorar la calidad de vida de los portadores de la enfermedad aquí estudiada.The objective of this research was verify any association between socio-demographic characteristics and and stress coping strategies among ulcerative colitis patients. This study took place in the Inflammatory Diseases Outpatient Clinic of Hospital das Clinicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School. The 100 individual participants of this study verified that the variable of those who practiced their religious faith presented statistically significant results in the factors disdainful escapement, acceptance of responsibility and separation. Conclusion: individuals of this study who practiced their religious faith predominantly used disdainful escapement, acceptance of responsibility, self-control as a way of coping with adverse situations such as this disease, contributed to an improvement in their quality of life.
Creencias desadaptativas, estilos de afrontamiento y apoyo social como factores predictores de la vulnerabilidad psicopatológica en mujeres víctimas de agresión sexual / Maladaptive beliefs, coping strategies, and social support as predictive factors of psychopathological vulnerability in female victims of sexual assault
María Ángeles de la, Cruz; María Elena, Peña; José Manuel, Andreu.
Full Text Available Se han recogido los principales factores de vulnerabilidad descritos en la literatura con objeto de comprobar su efecto sobre la sintomatología desarrollada en víctimas de agresión sexual. Las participantes fueron 77 mujeres víctimas de agresiones sexuales en la edad adulta que acudieron al Centro d [...] e Atención a Víctimas de Agresiones Sexuales (C.A.V.A.S.) de Madrid, entre los años 2010 y 2013. Los factores que mayor valor predictivo han presentado han sido: elevadas creencias desadaptativas sobre uno mismo, la creencia de control futuro o la realización de conductas preventivas y, como estrategias de afrontamiento, la planificación, el apoyo social instrumental y el uso de sustancias. En cuanto a los factores que han resultado ser predictores de un mejor ajuste destacan el control presente o control sobre la recuperación, la estrategia de autodistracción y la satisfacción con el apoyo social. Finalmente, se describen las implicaciones de los resultados y se sugieren futuras líneas de investigación. Abstract in english The main vulnerability factors subsequent to rape described in the literature have been included in this research to check their effects on the symptomatology developed in sexual assault victims. The participants were 77 women victims of sexual assaults when they were adults, attending the Victms of [...] Sexual Assaults Centre (C.A.V.A.S.) in Madrid between 2010 and 2013. The factors with a higher predictive value were high maladaptive beliefs about one's self, the belief about future control, or developing preventative behaviors; coping strategies include planning, instrumental social support, and substance use. Factors standing out as predictors of a better adjustment include present control or control over the recovery, self-distraction (as coping strategy), and satisfaction with the social support. Finally, implications of results are described and future directions of research are suggested.
Lund, Henrik [Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark). Department of Development and Planning
This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must include strategies for integrating renewable sources in coherent energy systems influenced by energy savings and efficiency measures. Based on the case of Denmark, this paper discusses the problems and perspectives of converting present energy systems into a 100% renewable energy system. The conclusion is that such development is possible. The necessary renewable energy sources are present, and if further technological improvements of the energy system are achieved the renewable energy system can be created. Especially technologies of converting the transportation sector and the introduction of flexible energy system technologies are crucial. (author)
This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must include strategies of how to integrate the renewable sources in coherent energy systems influenced by energy savings and efficiency measures. Based on the case of Denmark, this paper discusses the problems and perspectives of converting present energy systems into a 100 percent renewable energy system. The conclusion is that such development will be possible. The necessary renewable energy sources are present, if further technological improvements of the energy system are achieved. Especially technologies of converting the transportation and the introduction of flexible energy system technologies are crucial.
Pettersson, Karen Odberg; Christensson, Kyllike; de Freitas, Engracia da Gloria Gomes; Johansson, Eva
Our aim in this study was to explore women's responses to reported ad-hoc demands for unauthorized user fees during pregnancy and childbirth in Luanda, Angola. Ten focus group discussions were conducted and data were analysed using grounded theory. Women were found to apply six strategies as they "endeavored to cope with demands for unauthorized user fees" (core category): (i) blowing the whistle, (ii) searching for comprehension, (iii) manipulating the system, (iv) bargaining, (v) extending the limits, and (vi) balancing. The system of unauthorized user fees appears to be a symptom of a deeper structural problem, which requires multifaceted and long-term interventions such as insti-tutional reforms and clear policies on accountability and transparency. Better resource availability for the MHC sector is required in order to secure adequate salaries to maternal health care providers. The fact that unethical behavior is unveiled implies that interventions also need to target the national midwifery training. PMID:17364983
Marly Johana, Bahamón Muñetón.
Full Text Available El artículo presenta resultados de la investigación dirigida a identicar y relacionar la presencia de síntomas bulímicos con el uso de estrategias de afrontamiento y variables socio-demográcas en mujeres entre los 10 y 17 años de edad. Se utilizó un diseño correlacional y se aplicó el BITE para la m [...] edición de síntomas bulímicos y el ACS para la identicación de las estrategias de afrontamiento. Se identicó que el 59% de las 278 participantes no presenta comportamientos alterados frente a la comida y 41% presenta síntomas de bulimia. Se identicaron correlaciones entre la gravedad y el estrato socio-económico. Se hallaron correlaciones positivas entre síntomas de bulimia y las estrategias de autoinculparse y búsqueda de apoyo espiritual. También se encontró correlación positiva entre gravedad y las estrategias de búsqueda de apoyo espiritual y distracción física. Los resultados coinciden parcialmente con estudios previos sobre el tema puesto que las estrategias que se relacionan con los síntomas y gravedad de la bulimia son evitativas y centradas en la emoción. Finalmente, se expone la necesidad de realizar más estudios comparando muestras clínicas y no clínicas. Abstract in english The article presents the results of an investigation directed to identify and relate the presence of bulimic symptoms with the use of coping strategies and socio-demographic variables in women between 10 and 17 years of age. A correlational design was used and BITE was applied to measure bulimic sym [...] ptoms and the ACS to identify coping strategies. We found out that 59% of the 278 participants do not present altered behaviors with food and 41% have symptoms of bulimia. Correlations were identied between the severity of cases and socioeconomic stratum. Positive correlations were found between symptoms of bulimia and self-incrimination and searching strategies for spiritual support. There was also positive correlation between severity of cases and searching strategies for spiritual support and physical distraction. The results are consistent with previous studies on the subject since the strategies related to the severity of symptoms and Bulimia are avoidant and emotion-focused. Finally, we illustrate the need for more studies comparing clinical and nonclinical samples
Ledo, Daruy-Filho; Elisa, Brietzke; Bruno, Kluwe-Schiavon; Cristiane da Silva, Fabres; Rodrigo, Grassi-Oliveira.
Full Text Available A personal history of childhood maltreatment has been associated with unfavorable outcomes in bipolar disorder (BD). The impact of early life stressors on the course of BD may be influenced by individual differences in coping skills. The coping construct relies on neurocognitive mechanisms that are [...] usually influenced by childhood maltreatment. The objective of the present study was to verify the association between childhood maltreatment and coping skills in individuals with BD Type 1. Thirty female euthymic outpatients with BD Type 1 were evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and two additional instruments to measure their coping preferences: Ways of Coping Questionnaire (coping strategies) and Brief COPE (coping styles). Reports of physical abuse (B = .64, p
Bourke, Michael L; Craun, Sarah W
Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) task force personnel face various forms of child exploitation on a daily basis; their jobs require them to view child pornography, participate in undercover chats, interact with offenders in person, and interview abuse survivors. Although exposure to child exploitation and sexual violence has been shown to cause secondary traumatic stress (STS) in certain professions, this is the first large-scale study to investigate risk for STS among ICAC personnel. We circulated an Internet-based survey to ICAC personnel throughout the country and more than 600 individuals responded. Results provide insight into how STS impacts personal and professional well-being. In addition, they highlight which coping mechanisms were inversely related to STS scores. Implications and limitations of the results are discussed. PMID:24259539
?. Volkan GÜLÜM
Full Text Available Objective: Depending on an observation in which some of the subjects nonrandom irresponsiveness to repetitive thinking questionnaire items among fully answered others in a study of current researchers, the aims of the present study were to test that whether the ignorance of repetitive thinking items is a stress coping strategy or not, to compare people who ignore the repetitive thinking items (IRT with people who have high repetitive thinking (HRT and low repetitive thinking (LRT in context of attachment patterns, sychopathological symptoms and cognitive flexibility.Method: 432 (278 women and 154 men college students were selected from a larger research project sample pool which had funded by TÜB?TAK. Participants were divided into three groups according to their repetitive thinking conditions (ignorance, high and low score. All participants have completed the Experiences in Close Relationships Revised Inventory, Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire, Cognitive Flexibility Inventory and Brief Symptom Inventory.Results: To test our hypothesis series of ANOVA, MANOVA and discriminant analysis were conducted. According the variance analysis, the IRT group had more psychopathology symptoms and attachment anxiety than the LRT group and less than the HRT group. The IRT group had more cognitive flexibility than the HRT group and less than the LRT group. According to discriminant analysis, the LRT and IRT groups had been distinguished the HRT group in the context of psychopathology symptoms and attachment anxiety; the LRT and HRT groups had been distinguished the IRT group in the context of cognitive flexibility-control dimension.Conclusion: According to the results, the ignorance of the repetitive thinking items may be a defensive mechanism or stress coping strategy.
Relación entre las estrategias de afrontamiento, ansiedad, depresión y autoestima, en un grupo de adultos con diagnóstico de cáncer / Relationship between coping strategies, anxiety, depression and self-estee m in a group of adult patients diagnosed with cancer
Eliana, Ortiz Garzón; Laura Patricia, Méndez Salazar; José Antonio, Camargo Barrero; Sandra Andrea, Chavarro; Gina Isabel, Toro Cardona; María Beatriz, Vernaza Guerrero.
Full Text Available El presente estudio es de tipo descriptivo correlacional, tiene como objetivo identificar la relación existente entre las estrategias de afrontamiento, los niveles de autoestima, ansiedad y depresión en un grupo de 17 pacientes adultos con diagnóstico de cáncer, para lo cual se emplearon la Escala d [...] e Autoestima de Rosemberg, la Escala Hospitalaria de Ansiedad y Depresión (HAD) y la Escala de Estrategias de Coping Modificada (EEC-M). Se obtuvo como resultado una correlación significativa entre los niveles de ansiedad y los niveles de autoestima y entre los niveles de ansiedad y las estrategias de afrontamiento de solución de problemas, reevaluación positiva y reacción agresiva. Al igual que una correlación significativa entre los niveles de depresión y las estrategias de afrontamiento de solución de problemas, negación, reacción agresiva y la expresión de la dificultad de afrontamiento. Abstract in english To carry out this project a descriptive correlational design was used in order to identify the existent relationship between coping strategies, self-esteem, anxiety levels and depression in a group of 17 adult patients diagnosed with cancer. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, The Hospital Anxiety and [...] Depression Scale (HAD) and the modified Coping Strategies Scale (EEC-M) were applied for this purpose. This research showed the following results: A correlation between anxiety and self-esteem levels, anxiety levels and coping strategies for problem solving, positive reappraisal and aggressive reaction. Likewise, a meaningful correlation between depression levels and coping strategies for problem solving, negation, aggressive reaction and the expression of the coping difficulty were observed.
Applicability of auriculotherapy in reducing stress and as a coping strategy in nursing professionals Aplicabilidad de la auriculoterapia para reducir estrés y como estrategia de coping en profesionales de enfermería Aplicabilidade da auriculoterapia para reduzir estresse e como estratégia de coping em profissionais de enfermagem
Leonice Fumiko Sato Kurebayashi
Full Text Available AIMS: randomized clinical trial aimed at evaluating the auriculotherapy in reducing stress levels in 75 nursing professionals and analyze the coping domains that have changed after treatment. METHODOLOGY: volunteers were divided into 3 groups (Control, Needles and Seeds and received eight sessions at Shenmen, Kidney and Brainstem points. The Control Group didn't receive any intervention. RESULTS: ANOVA test showed statistical differences in stress levels for Needle/Control Groups in the third and fourth assessments, according to Stress Symptoms List when compared the three groups in four assessments. For the Inventory of Folkman/Lazarus, a significant difference was obtained for Spacing domain between needle/control. In analysis within the same group, differences were found for Confrontation in fourth assessment between Needle/Control Groups and for Social Support in the third one between Seeds/Control Groups. CONCLUSION: The auriculotherapy decreased stress levels, changed Coping domains after treatment, suggesting that both Auriculotherapy with needles and seeds can produce positive impact to improve strategy Coping in the nursing team. However, more studies are needed to conceive the extent of the technique.OBJETIVOS: Ensayo clínico hecho aleatorio objetivó evaluar la auriculoterapia para disminución de niveles de estrés en 75 profesionales de Enfermería de un hospital y analizar los principales dominios de Coping que se modificaron después del tratamiento. METODOLOGÍA: los sujetos fueron divididos en grupos (Control, Agujas, Semillas, recibieron 8 sesiones en los puntos Shenmen, Riñón y Tronco Cerebral. El Grupo Control no recibió ninguna intervención. RESULTADOS: se constataron diferencias significativas por la ANOVA para niveles de estrés entre el Grupo Aguja/Controle en la tercera y cuarta evaluaciones, según scores de estrés de la Lista de Síntoma de Estrés de Vasconcelos. Para el Inventario de Folkman y Lazarus, se logró diferencia estadística para el dominio Alejamiento entre los Grupos Aguja/Controle después del tratamiento; y en el análisis dentro del mismo grupo, se lograron diferencias significativas para el dominio Confrontación en la cuarta evaluación entre Grupos Aguja/Controle y para Soporte Social, en la tercera evaluación para los Grupos Aguja/Semillas. CONCLUSIONES:la auriculoterapia con agujas apocó los niveles de estrés significativamente y hubo disminución de la utilización de los dominios Alejamiento, Confrontación y Soporte Social para los grupos de intervención después del tratamiento, sugiriendo que la auriculoterapia tanto con agujas cuanto con semillas puede producir un impacto positivo para mejorar estrategia de Coping en el equipo de Enfermería. Más estudios, sin embargo, se hacen necesarios para que se pueda conocer el alcance de la técnica.OBJETIVOS: trata-se de ensaio clínico randomizado com o objetivo de avaliar a auriculoterapia, para diminuição de níveis de estresse, em 75 profissionais de enfermagem de um hospital e analisar os principais domínios de coping que se modificaram após o tratamento. METODOLOGIA: os sujeitos foram divididos em grupos (controle, agulhas, sementes, receberam 8 sessões nos pontos Shenmen, rim e tronco cerebral. O grupo controle não recebeu nenhuma intervenção. RESULTADOS: constataram-se diferenças significativas pela ANOVA, para níveis de estresse entre o grupo agulha/controle na terceira e quarta avaliações, segundo escores de estresse da Lista de Sintoma de Stress de Vasconcelos. Para o Inventário de Folkman e Lazarus, obteve-se diferença estatística para o domínio afastamento entre os grupos agulha/controle, após tratamento; e, na análise dentro do mesmo grupo, obtiveram-se diferenças significativas para o domínio confronto, na quarta avaliação entre grupos agulha/controle e para suporte social, na terceira avaliação para os grupos agulha/semente. CONCLUSÕES: a auriculoterapia com agulhas diminuiu os níveis de estresse significativamente e houve diminuição da utilização d
Food insecurity is turning out to be one of the worst crises of world in future. Developing countries are especially considered vulnerable to be hit most severely by this impending danger. Resource scarce regions of Pakistan are also included in the list of marginalized areas where population is not able to manage its food by herself. The present study was designed to analyze the state of household food security concerns and identify managing strategies for dealing with shortage of food patterns in Northern Pakistan. The research was based upon a survey of randomly selected two districts. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used for data collection. The results indicated that prices of food items were very high. It also delineated that lack of irrigational water; limited market access, and high cost of fertilizers were leading production related constraints. As a resort to these constraints and due to low output from the food crops there was found a shift from subsistence to cash seeking cropping patterns of the growers. This increase in income was perceived as a mean to ensure household food security. Furthermore, at household level the respondents expressed to reduce their expenses on the agricultural inputs in future. (author)
The purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare resource requirements and other fuel cycle quantities for alternative reactor deployment strategies. The paper examines from global and national perspectives the interaction of various fuel cycle alternatives described in the previous U.S. submissions to Working Groups 4, 5, 8 and Subgroup 1A/2A. Nuclear energy forecasts of Subgroup 1A/2A are used in the calculation of uranium demand for each strategy. These uranium demands are then compared to U.S. estimates of annual uranium producibility. Annual rather than cumulative producibility was selected because it does not assume preplanned stockpiling, and is therefore more conservative. The strategies attempt to span a range of nuclear power mixes which could evolve if appropriate commercial and governmental climates develop
The development of nuclear power industry in Guangdong results from the steady implementation of a catch-up strategy aimed at the advanced world level in the nuclear power industry. China Guangdong Nuclear Power (Holding) Co., Ltd. (CGNPC) started from Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS). In the form of joint venture, GNPS has obtained sophisticated technology, management expertise and human resources both at home and abroad, and has successfully completed the learning curve from importing, digesting, absorbing to innovating and self-improving. Under the principle of maintaining continuous nuclear power development by reinvesting the returns on the operating nuclear power stations, the second nuclear power project, Ling Ao Nuclear Power Station (LNPS) is progressing well and preparation for the third nuclear power project is now in full swing. With a rolling-on development mechanism being established, Daya Bay has become the cradle for nuclear power development in Guangdong. In the 21 st century, CGNPC is facing new challenges and opportunity. CGNPC will uphold the principle of maintaining continuous nuclear power development by reinvesting the returns on the operating nuclear power stations, brace itself for the market competition and explore sustained development of nuclear power in China by pursuing constant innovation in technology, management, system and concept. The strategy framework for future development of CGNPC is defined as follows: - to establish three-dimension strategic targets; - to pursue two-step development with the year 2015 as the dividing point; - to promote concerted development of nuclear power, associated industries and supporting services
Full Text Available Introduction: Workplace stress can influence healthcare professionals' physical and emotional well-being by curbing their efficiency and having a negative impact on their overall quality of life. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact that work environment in a local public general hospital can have on the health workers' mental-emotional health and find strategies in order to cope with negative consequences.Materials and Methods: Our sample consisted of 200 healthcare professionals aged 21-58 years working in a 240-bed general hospital. Our research protocol was first approved by the hospital's review board. A standardized questionnaire that investigates strategies for coping with stressful conditions was used. The questionnaire was first tested for validity and reliability which were found satisfactory (Cronbachs a= 0,862. Strict anonymity of the participants was observed. The SPSS 16.0 software was used for the statistical analysis.Results: Regression analysis showed that health professionals' emotional health can be influenced by strategies for dealing with stressful events, since positive re-assessment, quitting and seeking social support are predisposing factors regarding the three first quality of life factors of WHOQOL-BREF. More specifically, for the physical health factor, positive re-assessment ( t=3.370, p=0.001 and quitting (t=-2.564, p=0.011 are predisposing factors. For the 'mental health and spirituality' regression model, positive re-assessment (t=5.528, p=0.000 and seeking social support (t=-1.991, p=0.048 are also predisposing factors, while regarding social relationships positive re-assessment (t=4.289, p= 0.000 is a predisposing factor. Conclusions: According to our findings, there was a notable lack of workplace stress management strategies, which the participants usually perceive as a lack of interest on behalf of the Management regarding their emotional state. Some significant factors for lowering workplace stress were found to be the need to encourage and morally reward the staff and also to provide them with opportunities for further or continuous education.
In this study we propose some green energy strategies for sustainable development. In this regard, seven green energy strategies are taken into consideration to determine the sectoral, technological, and application impact ratios. Based on these ratios, we derive a new parameter as the green energy impact ratio. In addition, the green energy-based sustainability ratio is obtained by depending upon the green energy impact ratio, and the green energy utilization ratio that is calculated using actual energy data taken from literature. In order to verify these parameters, three cases are considered. Consequently, it can be considered that the sectoral impact ratio is more important and should be kept constant as much as possible in a green energy policy implementation. Moreover, the green energy-based sustainability ratio increases with an increase of technological, sectoral, and application impact ratios. This means that all negative effects on the industrial, technological, sectoral and social developments partially and/or completely decrease throughout the transition and utilization to and of green energy and technologies when possible sustainable energy strategies are preferred and applied. Thus, the sustainable energy strategies can make an important contribution to the economies of the countries where green energy (e.g., wind, solar, tidal, biomass) is abundantly produced. Therefore, the investment in green energy supply and progress should be encouraged by governme progress should be encouraged by governments and other authorities for a green energy replacement of fossil fuels for more environmentally benign and sustainable future
Full Text Available The deepening of the processes of market transformations in Ukraine requires a change of existing stereotypes of the economy management, methods of strategic planning, programming, forecasting, management principles and mechanisms of realization of the appropriate measures. So, the problem of the formation of strategic directions of the economic adjustment of the regional development is becoming urgent nowadays.The territorial development strategies, forecasting, and strategic planning of the development of territories, programming, and perspective (indicative planning of territorial development as well as the mechanism of realization of appropriate arrangements are the basic constituents of economic adjustment of regional development (due to the spatiotemporal aspect of their realization.The purpose of the article is to ground the methodological base of the strategic planning of economic development of a region (territory in the transition period by generalizing the available scientific experience as to the constituents of the up-to-date tools of economic adjustment of regional development.The object of the research is the analysis of interregional differences in economic development of regions.The subject of the research is the strategic planning of economic adjustment of regional development.The methodological base of the research and solution of the problem of overcoming the differences in the economic development of regions is the scientific research logic, the theoretical works of domestic and foreign scientists, who are the specialists in regionalistics (research in the field of regional development.It is stated that the tools of the regional development adjustment are not only to provide the harmonization of interests and constructive cooperation of different parties of social relations (the bodies of state and local power, population and business structures but also to smooth interregional differences existing in economic development. It is determined that the regional (territorial development strategy is a definite set of regulative measures which first of all are to coordinate the joint actions to specify some potential positive prospects of the spatiotemporal changes in the major parameters.The development strategy is a target document. It is formed in the process of strategic development, the idea of which is the statement of the research goals, a choice of the main priorities (directions of a region development, determination of the ways to advance, the selection of necessary technologies and institutes, the establishment of a necessary sector structure of the economy and the methods of solving social problems.
Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.
Designing for Networked Communications: Strategies and Development explains how to plan, use, and understand the products and the dynamic social processes and tasks some of the most vital innovations in the knowledge society depend upon? social as well as technological. Focusing on various forms of design, implementation and integration of computer mediated communication, this book bridges the academic fields of computer science and communication studies. Designing for Networked Communications: Strategies and Development uses an interdisciplinary approach, and presents results from recent and important research in a variety of forms for networked communications. A constructive and critical view of the interplay between the new electronic and the more conventional modes of communication are utilized, while studies of organizational work practices demonstrate that the use of new technologies and media is best understood and integrated into work practices. In this process of merging, both are remodelled and rearranged while being adapted to the practices and activities for which they were designed.
Ana Isabel Cunha
Full Text Available Este estudio ex post facto ha explorado las diferencias entre la percepción de características familiares de 34 mujeres jóvenes con anorexia nerviosa y 34 mujeres jóvenes sin patología alimentaria. Todas las participantes completaron los siguientes instrumentos de auto-respuesta: FACES II, F-COPES, IPPA y el Cuestionario de Creencias Familiares. Los resultados demostraron que, en comparación con el grupo de mujeres sin patología alimentaria, las pacientes consideran a sus familias menos unidas y menos capaces de redefinir de una forma más aceptable las experiencias y situaciones de estrés. Sin embargo, consideran a sus familias más capaces de buscar y aceptar ayuda, y presentan más creencias familiares relacionadas con la responsabilidad individual/ auto-censura. En comparación con el grupo sin patología alimentaria, las pacientes parecen confiar menos en sus madres y amigos, parecen comunicarse menos con los amigos, y tienden a demostrar una mayor alienación en relación a la madre, al padre y a los amigos. De todas las variables en estudio, la alienación en relación a los amigos y a la madre, así como la mayor capacidad para buscar y aceptar ayuda fueron las variables más importantes para discriminar los grupos.
Christopher, Martin; Towill, Denis R.
The issues underlying the appropriate matching of pipelines to marketplace needs under conditions of demand volatility and price pressure are examined. The authors describe a scenario where the philosophy of one size fits all does not apply to pipeline design, implementation, and control. Research conducted by the authors and others is used to show how appropriate global supply chain strategies can be developed contingent upon market characteristics and which seek simultaneously to achieve ...
Tummers, L.G.; Bekkers, V.J.J.M.; de Vink, E; Musheno, M.
Stress is endemic to street-level work. How frontline workers handle conflicting pressures and changes in their environment bears substantially on policy performance and the delivery of human services. Coping is the current term for understanding frontline workers responses to stress. Coping in the field of policy implementation is a sensitizing concept, not yet harmonized with extensive coping literature in clinical psychology nor operationalized to enable its measurement of its prevalence...
Saum, Stephan H; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Palm, Peter; Rampp, Markus; Schuster, Stephan C; Müller, Volker; Oesterhelt, Dieter
Salt acclimation in moderately halophilic bacteria is the result of action of a grand interplay orchestrated by signals perceived from the environment. To elucidate the cellular players involved in sensing and responding to changing salinities we have determined the genome sequence of Halobacillus halophilus, a Gram-positive moderate halophilic bacterium that has a strict requirement for the anion chloride. Halobacillus halophilus synthesizes a multitude of different compatible solutes and switches its osmolyte strategy with the external salinity and growth phase. Based on the emerging genome sequence, the compatible solutes glutamate, glutamine, proline and ectoine have already been experimentally studied. The biosynthetic routes for acetyl ornithine and acetyl lysine are also delineated from the genome sequence. Halobacillus halophilus is nutritionally very versatile and most compatible solutes cannot only be produced but also used as carbon and energy sources. The genome sequence unravelled isogenes for many pathways indicating a fine regulation of metabolism. Halobacillus halophilus is unique in integrating the concept of compatible solutes with the second fundamental principle to cope with salt stress, the accumulation of molar concentrations of salt (Cl(-)) in the cytoplasm. Extremely halophilic bacteria/archaea, which exclusively rely on the salt-in strategy, have a high percentage of acidic proteins compared with non-halophiles with a low percentage. Halobacillus halophilus has an intermediate position which is consistent with its ability to integrate both principles. PMID:22583374
Most of the farmers in the arid and semi arid are poorly endowed with resources. Market liberalisation and withdrawal of government support (subsidies) in accessing some of the modern technologies has led to decreased use of most of the modern recommended technologies due to their high prices. A a coping strategy most of the resources poor farmers have turned to utilization of the indigenous technology to sustain their agricultural production. The main objective of this paper is to document the indigenous technologies utilized by farmers, explore the possibility of refining/calibrating and up-scaling them and the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing them as identified by the farmers. The method for data collection was by use of interviews the farmers who were stratified in terms of gender and age sets (young, middle aged and old) and data analysed by use of qualitative methods. The results indicate that, most farmers do utilize indigenous technology in crops, livestock pests, diseases, soil and water conservation as cropping strategies to increase input prices due to market liberalization and withdrawal of government subsidies. It was also observed that, there is need for scientists to calibrate the most important practices for improved adoption and up-scaling of the main indigenous technologies within and outside the study areas
Attempt to formulate strategies of the future development are formulated based on raw materials for energy needs, which will be in our disposal for the interval up to the start of nuclear fast breeder reactors. Main tendencies should be broader nuclear energy use and nonelectric application. As an externally given boundary condition it is supposed that world society model will be kept as a continuity of mankind history. There are recommendation of the demands for the development of new technologies to substitute decreasing external fossil energy resources and generally growing demand for living standard. Most of the considerations are growing from the INPRO studies published in IAEA Vienna. (Author)
This paper reviews the reservoir performance and management of the Statfjord Field after eight years of production. The reason behind the reservoir development strategies and field experiences are presented. The original development plans have been refined based on field performance through an extensive monitoring program and use of reservoir simulation. The acquired data has improved the geological model and the knowledge of fluid movements in all three reservoirs. This has resulted in a large and complex reservoir simulation model with more than 20,000 grid blocks
Full Text Available One of the earliest and most consistent findings in behavioral neuroscience research is that learning changes the brain. Here we consider how learning as an aspect of coping in the context of stress exposure induces neuroadaptations that enhance emotion regulation and resilience. A systematic review of the literature identified 15 brain imaging studies in which humans with specific phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder were randomized to stress exposure therapies that diminished subsequent indications of anxiety. Most of these studies focused on functional changes in the amygdala and anterior corticolimbic brain circuits that control cognitive, motivational, and emotional aspects of physiology and behavior. Corresponding structural brain changes and the timing, frequency, and duration of stress exposure required to modify brain functions remain to be elucidated in future research. These studies will advance our understanding of coping as a learning process and provide mechanistic insights for the development of new interventions that promote stress coping skills.
This study aims to contribute to the understanding of how existing theories of strategy and strategic changes may be applied in a real-world Balanced Scorecard (BSC) context. In other words, how a strategy is connected to an existing BSC in a real-world setting. What makes this study interesting and relevant is the current turbulent state of the worldwide economy that is likely to lead to strategic adjustments and changes to a larger extent, which should be reflected in a strategic tool such ...
Luu Trong Tuan
Full Text Available The researched firm is a state-owned company of more than forty years of operation and is one of pioneer companies providing textile and garment to Vietnam market. Its vision is to be the sustainable multidisciplinary firm which operates in three main areas: textile and gament industry, travel real estate and financial investment in global market. After more than forty years of operation in the market, company has obtained some recognized results but these are still low and do not meet companys strategic goals and companys shareholders expectation. A need of a development of strategy which will help company to take market positioning and to develop. This research will help to have an overview of company, its business environment, its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Business environment and SWOT analysis are used for alternatives of strategies. Each activity of the company is reviewed to find the real problem that company is facing and helps to find a solution. A strategy is finally given for companys competitiveness anddevelopment.
This study was designed to examine the effectiveness of the "Fear and Loathing of Speaking Out in Public" program. The program, a personal initiative, adapts primary features of the treatment offered by Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for clients suffering from fears and phobias. CBT strategies include progressive desensitization, identifying
Reenberg, Anette; Birch-Thomsen, Torben
The paper focuses on assessing the wider perspectives of adaptive resource management strategies in former subsistence agriculture societies in the SW Pacific. Firstly, we will briefly introduce the theoretical context related to the livelihood framework, adaptation to socio-environmental change and the concept of coupled human-environmental timelines. Secondly, with point of departure in a baseline characterization of Bellona Island derived from a comprehensive survey in the late 1960s and resent fieldwork in late 2006, we present the case of Bellona Island. Key issues addressed concern climatic events, population, agricultural strategies, land use, livelihood strategies, non-agricultural activities, etc. Satellite imagery and aerial photos show relative stability in agricultural land despite an increase in de facto population (51% from 1966-2006). A questionnaire survey of 48 households provide data on the entire household livelihood portfolio and reveal that the natural resources remains a widespread activity, yet increasingly supplemented by other income generating activities( ex. shop keeping, private business, government employment). Group interviews have been employed to reveal how local farmers perceive cause-effect relationships between societal and environmental events and their individual and collective management of resources. The coupled human-environment timelines are used to discuss ways in which the local communities' adaptive resource management strategies have been employed in the face of main drivers of change, incl. climatic and socio-economic changes in the recent past.
Full Text Available The socio-economic development of Malaysia is greatly influenced by human resources activities in both the private and public sectors. But the private sector, particularly the industrial sector is the key player for the country?s economic growth. In acknowledging human resources importance in this sector, the country?s developmental plans developed thrusts that support the development of human resources to become skilled, creative and innovative. This article examines the concepts and nature of human resource development (HRD at the national level in Malaysia. In examining HRD from the national perspective, a review of documentary evidence from relevant Governmental reports and documents was utilised. The plans, policies, strategies, roles and responsibilities in HRD at the national level were discussed.
... coping can improve both of your lives. Patient Acceptance Patient acceptance refers to how well an individual adapts to ... Strategy 7: Be Assertive in Expressing Your Struggles Clear communication can help couples cope positively with life ...
Antonio Miguel, Pérez-Sánchez; Patricia, Poveda-Serra; Raquel, Gilar-Corbí.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es demostrar que el uso de técnicas de aprendizaje colaborativo en el aula permite a los alumnos utilizar estrategias mediante las cuales aprenden a afrontar situaciones problemáticas derivadas de las relaciones interpersonales que se producen en el espacio educativo, esp [...] ecialmente entre iguales. Participaron 50 niños y niñas de primer curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (edad media 12.4 años) distribuidos en dos grupos: experimental y control. En el primer grupo, se utilizó un programa basado en el aprendizaje individual asistido por un equipo; en el segundo, se utilizó una metodología de corte tradicional. Para probar las hipótesis formuladas, utilizamos un diseño de grupo de control pretest-postest con grupo de control no equivalente. Consideramos la inteligencia como covariable para mantener constantes sus efectos sobre los resultados independientemente del efecto del programa. Empleamos un análisis de varianza split-plot univariado como procedimiento estadístico. Los resultados muestran que los alumnos que siguen un programa de aprendizaje colaborativo utilizan más y mejores estrategias de afrontamiento que aquellos que no lo hacen. Los participantes de los grupos experimental y control parten de una situación de igualdad para separarse en la situación postest: el grupo experimental aumenta significativamente sus puntuaciones con respecto al grupo de control en lo que se refiere al uso de las estrategias de afrontamiento, y sus participantes tienden a compartir sus problemas con los demás en mayor medida que los miembros del grupo de control, todo ello independientemente del CI. Abstract in english The purpose of this work is to show that the use of collaborative learning techniques in the classroom allows students to use strategies through which they learn to cope with problematic situations derived from the interpersonal relations that take place at school, especially among peers. The partic [...] ipants have been 50 boys and girls, in first year of compulsory secondary education (average age, 12.4) distributed into two groups: experimental and control. In the first group Team Assisted Individualization has been used. In the second group a traditional methodology has been adopted. A pretest-posttest control group design with non-equivalent control group has been used to test the hypotheses. Intelligence has been used as covariable to keep its effect on the results constant, independently of the effects of the program. A univariate split-plot analysis has been used as statistic procedure. The results show that those students on a collaborative learning program use more and more effective coping strategies than those who are not on a collaborative program. The participants in both the experimental and the control groups set out from a situation of equality to move farther away from each other in the posttest situation: the experimental group noticeably increases scores over the control group as regards the use of coping strategies, and the participants in the experimental group tend to share their problems with their peers in a greater scale than the participants in the control group, independently of the IQ.
The world's uranium market is very uncertain at the moment while other front-end fuel cycle services including enrichment show a surplus of supply. Therefore, a current concern of developing countries is how to assure a long-term stable supply of uranium, so far as front-end fuel cycle operation is concerned. So, as for the front-end fuel cycle strategy, I would like to comment only on uranium procurement strategy. I imagine that you are familiar with, yet let me begin my talk by having a look at, the nuclear power development program and current status of fuel cycle technology of developing countries. It is a nice thing to achieve the full domestic control of fuel cycle operation. The surest way to do so is localization of related technology. Nevertheless, developing at a time due to enormous capital requirements, not to mention the non-proliferation restrictions. Therefore, the important which technology to localize prior to other technology and how to implement. The non-proliferation restriction excludes the enrichment and reprocessing technology for the time being. As for the remaining technology the balance between the capital costs and benefits must dictate the determination of the priority as mentioned previously. As a means to reduce the commercial risk and heavy financial burdens, the multi-national joint venture of concerned countries is desirable in implementing the localization projects
This article discusses the strategy repertoires and strategy development of six English children who learned foreign languages at primary school. My study differs from mainstream research, in that it focuses on young children and on the development of their strategies, draws on sociocultural theory and uses ethnographic methods. My findings show that the six children developed a range of strategies over the course of a calendar year in spite of receiving no direct strategy instruction. The pr...
Villa, Valentina; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Pagnini, Francesco; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Cesa, Gian Luca; Molinari, Enrico
The purpose of this explorative research was to examine how the COPE (Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced Inventory), an established instrument for measuring coping styles, and EDI-2 (Eating Disorder Inventory-2), a widely used questionnaire for assessing psychological and behavioural features of eating disorders (ED), discriminate among healthy individuals, inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and inpatients with bulimia nervosa (BN). A discriminant analysis approach was used. Results showed that coping styles such as positive attitude, planning and social support are even more discriminative variables than eating disorder features. Implications for further studies are discussed. PMID:19680792
Reenberg, Anette; Birch-Thomsen, Torben
The paper focuses on assessing the wider perspectives of adaptive resource management strategies in former subsistence agriculture societies in the SW Pacific. Firstly, we will briefly introduce a number of key theoretical concepts related to vulnerability research and adaptation to climate change. Secondly, with point of departure in a baseline characterization of Bellona Island derived from a comprehensive survey in the late 1960s and resent fieldwork in late 2006, we will propose a simple analytical framework which will be used to describe coupled human-environmental time lines and explore the temporal co-evolution of driving forces and resource management strategies. The case of Bellona Island will be characterized using a selected number of parameters of specific relevance in the present context. The key issues addressed concern climatic events, population dynamics, agricultural strategies, agro-environmental conditions, non-agricultural activities, transport & infrastructure, migration, education, political conditions etc. A range of methods are used to bring about the empirical basis for the analysis. Satellite imagery and aerial photos show relative stability in agricultural land despite an increase in de facto population (47% from 1966-2006). A questionnaire survey of 48 households provide data on the entire household livelihood portfolio and reveal that the natural resources remains a widespread activity, yet increasingly supplemented by other income generating activities( ex. shop keeping, private business, government employment). Group interviews have been employed to reveal how local farmers perceive cause-effect relationships between societal and ecological events and their individual and collective management of resources. The coupled human-environment timelines are used to discuss ways in which the local communities adaptive resource management strategies have been employed in the face of climatic changes in the recent past. Finally, we will discuss the perspectives for a sustainable future for the populations and civilizations of the Southwest (SW) Pacific islands.
Full Text Available Due to their rapid and widespread development, DNA vaccines have entered into a variety of human clinical trials for vaccines against various diseases including cancer. Evidence that DNA vaccines are well tolerated and have an excellent safety profile proved to be of advantage as many clinical trials combines the first phase with the second, saving both time and money. It is clear from the results obtained in clinical trials that such DNA vaccines require much improvement in antigen expression and delivery methods to make them sufficiently effective in the clinic. Similarly, it is clear that additional strategies are required to activate effective immunity against poorly immunogenic tumor antigens. Engineering vaccine design for manipulating antigen presentation and processing pathways is one of the most important aspects that can be easily handled in the DNA vaccine technology. Several approaches have been investigated including DNA vaccine engineering, co-delivery of immunomodulatory molecules, safe routes of administration, prime-boost regimen and strategies to break the immunosuppressive networks mechanisms adopted by malignant cells to prevent immune cell function. Combined or single strategies to enhance the efficacy and immunogenicity of DNA vaccines are applied in completed and ongoing clinical trials, where the safety and tolerability of the DNA platform are substantiated. In this review on DNA vaccines, salient aspects on this topic going from basic research to the clinic are evaluated. Some representative DNA cancer vaccine studies are also discussed.
Full Text Available Reflecting on the experiences of applying OR approaches in a variety of contexts, the paper draws attention to some of the ways that OR can be brought to bear on strategic issues. Perhaps most frequently the strategic contribution derives from projects aimed at operational issues which have strategic implications. The paper argues that OR practitioners cannot expect to be given a role in strategy questions as of right, nor is there an "OR solution" to strategic questions. However, many OR scientists do have the skills, approaches and methods that can be usefully deployed, if they develop the confidence to do so.
This analytical study analyses the present state as well as strategy of perspectives of development of Slovak society. This strategy of development of Slovak society is scientific testimony of the authors, the manner and extent of its use will determine political representation. Future economic growth and development of Slovak's regions will mainly depend on the availability of raw materials, energy resources, water, food processes and improving the environment. A key issue in the next 5 to 10 years in the energy sector will address energy security, diversification of energy sources, utilization of domestic raw materials and renewable energy and energy savings. The energy security strategy is to achieve a competitive energy industry for reliable and efficient supply of all forms of energy at affordable prices, with a view to protection of the customer and the environment.
The skyrocketing cost of medical and scientific journals has caused most Canadian universities to cut their subscription lists by an average of 20% over the last 3 years. Researchers say this causes delays in getting pertinent articles and journals and is an impediment to their work, but on the positive side the continuing decline in library holdings is stimulating libraries and researchers alike to use alternative strategies when seeking information, including computer databases, e-mail and ...
Full Text Available The exposure of fish to air is normally expected to interfere with the nitrogen excretion process. Hoplias malabaricus and Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus, two teleost species, display distinct behaviors in response to decreases in natural reservoir water levels, although they may employ similar biochemical strategies. To investigate this point, plasma levels of ammonia, urea, uric acid, and the two urea cycle enzymes, ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT and arginase (ARG, as well as glutamine synthetase (GS were determined for both species after exposure to air. Plasma ammonia increased gradually during exposure to air, but only H. malabaricus showed increased concentrations of urea. Plasma uric acid remained very low in both fish. Enzymatic activities (mean ± SD, µmol min-1 g protein-1 of H. malabaricus showed significant increases (P<0.05, N = 6 in OCT from 0.84 ± 0.05 to 1.42 ± 0.03, in ARG from 8.07 ± 0.47 to 9.97 ± 0.53 and in GS from 1.15 ± 0.03 to 2.39 ± 0.04. The OCT and ARG enzymes remained constant in H. unitaeniatus (N = 6, but GS increased from 1.49 ± 0.02 to 2.06 ± 0.03. Although these species are very closely related and share the same environment, their biochemical strategies in response to exposure to air or to increased plasma ammonia are different.
Kuo, Ben C H
A burgeoning body of cultural coping research has begun to identify the prevalence and the functional importance of collective coping behaviors among culturally diverse populations in North America and internationally. These emerging findings are highly significant as they evidence culture's impacts on the stress-coping process via collectivistic values and orientation. They provide a critical counterpoint to the prevailing Western, individualistic stress and coping paradigm. However, current research and understanding about collective coping appear to be piecemeal and not well integrated. To address this issue, this review attempts to comprehensively survey, summarize, and evaluate existing research related to collective coping and its implications for coping research with culturally diverse populations from multiple domains. Specifically, this paper reviews relevant research and knowledge on collective coping in terms of: (a) operational definitions; (b) theories; (c) empirical evidence based on studies of specific cultural groups and broad cultural values/dimensions; (d) measurements; and (e) implications for future cultural coping research. Overall, collective coping behaviors are conceived as a product of the communal/relational norms and values of a cultural group across studies. They also encompass a wide array of stress responses ranging from value-driven to interpersonally based to culturally conditioned emotional/cognitive to religion- and spirituality-grounded coping strategies. In addition, this review highlights: (a) the relevance and the potential of cultural coping theories to guide future collective coping research; (b) growing evidence for the prominence of collective coping behaviors particularly among Asian nationals, Asian Americans/Canadians and African Americans/Canadians; (c) preference for collective coping behaviors as a function of collectivism and interdependent cultural value and orientation; and (d) six cultural coping scales. This study brings to light the present theoretical and methodological contributions as well as limitations of this body of literature and the implications it holds for future coping research. PMID:22335198
André Faro, Santos; Antônio, Alves Júnior.
Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou conhecer a ocorrência de estresse em 27 mestrandos em ciências da saúde da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, sendo 16 mulheres e 11 homens. Buscou-se também delinear as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas para lidar com o estresse e os estressores percebidos na pós-graduação. [...] Utilizou-se o Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp, a Escala de Modos de Enfrentamento de Problemas e um questionário sobre possíveis estressores. Os resultados mostraram que 40,7% dos sujeitos apresentaram estresse e houve associação entre estresse e sexo (p Abstract in english This research had the objective to examine the occurrence of stress among 27 master students of health sciences of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe [Federal University of Sergipe], of which 16 were women and 11 were men. And, it also sought to delineate the coping strategies used to deal with the [...] stress and the stressors perceived by the graduate students. Lipp's Stress Symptoms for Adults Inventory, the Ways to Confront Problems Scale and a questionary about possible stressors were used. The results indicated that 40,7% of subjects had stress and that there was an association between stress and sex (p
Francisco Javier, Rodríguez-Díaz; Cristina, Estrada-Pineda; Luis, Rodríguez-Franco; Carolina, Bringas-Molleda.
Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio es adaptar el CSI - Inventario de Estrategias de Afrontamiento - al contexto penitenciario. La muestra - 261 penados, 97% varones (n=253) - del Sistema Postpenitenciario y Atención a Liberados (DSPAL) del Estado Jalisco, México. Los instrumentos utilizados: Ficha Penitenciari [...] a de Historia de Vida y el Inventario CSI. Los resultados refieren una estructura de primer orden casi idéntica a la obtenida para la población general, con niveles de consistencia interna satisfactorios, al mismo tiempo que la interpretación de segundo orden no confirma la estructura de segundo y tercer orden. Se discuten las implicaciones de los resultados para intervención penitenciaria. Abstract in english The aim of the present study is to adapt the Coping Strategies Inventory (CSI) to the prison context. The sample consisted of 261 prisoners, 97% were male (n = 253) from Sistema Postpenitenciario y Atención a Liberados (DSPAL) of Jalisco, Mexico. The instruments used were Record of Prison Life Histo [...] ry and the CSI. The results reported a first-order structure almost identical to that obtained for the general population with satisfactory levels of internal consistency whereas the results of second-order interpretation do not confirm the original structure of second and third order. The implications of the results for prison intervention are discussed.
Electricity generation as an economic sector contributes to the national GDP through increasing investments and exports. In the period from 2000 to 2008 the annual growth rate of final electricity demand was 3,8% which was higher than for any other energy form. Almost 1200 MW of thermal power plants will go out of system due to lifetime (more than 30 years). Energy Strategy is a basic document of the Energy Act with the purpose to define energy policy and future plans for energy development of the Republic of Croatia till 2020. Based on the adopted strategy the Government will create the Energy Strategy Implementation Programme for the four-year period. Croatian's energy development should be based on best available technologies as well as on energy-related, economic and environmental assessment of all available energy options. Energy strategy of Croatia (NN 130/09) puts up next goals: 300 MW hydro power plants (bigger than 10 MW), 1200 MW gas-fired thermal power plants (including 300 MW of cogeneration), 1200 MW of coal-fired thermal power plants, and 35% of renewable (including hydro). The market, i.e. a competitive generation, is the driving force in the construction of new power plants. The main stimulus for the construction is the possibility of definite return of invested capital as well as earning of reasonable profit for investors. Choose of location, environmental