Few studies have documented how schizophrenic patients perceived their needs and which coping skills they have spontaneously developed. All 48 patients of the Louis-H. Lafontaine Young Adults Clinic, a specialised schizophrenia clinic in Montreal, were invited to complete the Task Motivation and Problem Appraisal in Long Term Psychiatric Patients questionnaire. Our study utilised a descriptive approach and a classification of patient's reported problems and their coping skills. A panel of researchers and clinical staff then regrouped patient's perceived problems into four categories: symptoms, coping strategies, organisation of daily activities and interpersonal contacts. The main coping strategies utilised by these young patients are confrontation (52%) emotion-centered coping (57%). Clinical applications can be drawn from paying attention to the reports of schizophrenic patients. For example, rehabilitation activities can be developed which cater to their perceived needs. Because of frontal lobe hypoactivity, which make cognitive appreciation more difficult, their coping strategies should be diversified. Patients suffering from negative symptoms of schizophrenia mainly attempt to modify emotional impact, until they have discovered a way of confronting deficit symptoms. Better motivation to therapeutic programmes would result from paying attention to their perspectives. PMID:9035980
Lalonde, P; Lesage, A; Comtois, G; Morin, C; Likavcanova, E; L'Ecuyer, G
"Coping flexibility" was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese college…
Unresolved pediatric pain, both acute and chronic, has been associated with negative short- and long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study sought to determine whether an association existed between self-reported pain coping skills and anxiety levels in a cohort of pediatric burn patients, and whether gender would influence their responses. The sample comprised burn-injured children in attendance at one of three mature burn camp sites. The self-report measures utilized included the 41-item Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders Child Version and the 39-item Pain Coping Questionnaire. Parental consent was obtained. A psychologist administered the measures. Participants included 187 youth, mean age 12.4 ± 2.4 years, girls (n = 89) boys (n = 98) with 67% reporting visible burn scars. Among boys, the use of Internalizing Coping Strategies was moderately correlated with elevated scores on Panic Disorder symptoms (r = .42, P reported using Behavioral Distraction Strategies did not have any elevated anxiety scores. These findings suggest that burn-injured children, who employ Internalization as their pain coping strategy, may be more vulnerable to the development of long-term anxiety disorder, which, if left untreated may result in a negative psycho/social outcome. Applicability to Practice: Assessment of in-patient pediatric patients with the Pain Coping Questionnaire may help to identify children who are more likely to experience long-term anxiety. Future studies should seek to confirm these findings and determine whether improved pain management and early treatment of anxiety can help to diminish the long-term implications of unhelpful pain strategies and increased anxiety in burn-injured children. PMID:25094014
Brubaker Rimmer, Ruth; Bahar Alam, Now; Bay, R Curt; Sadler, Ian J; Foster, Kevin N; Caruso, Daniel M
This paper analyses post-war coping strategies by farm households in developing countries. The analysis is based on a portfolio model of activity choices in war-affected rural Sub- Saharan Africa. A case study using farm household survey data estimates the determinants of agricultural coping strategies in post-war Mozambique. Post-war coping strategies differ from pre- and mid-crisis coping strategies. War-affected households are forced to adopt very risky coping strategies that re-enforce th...
African American men face many socio-cultural, academic, and negative stressors that generate stress experiences and identity conflicts. These stressors, in turn, may lead to psychological pressures that negatively affect relationships that African American men have with African American women, children, other African American men, and the African American community. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that racial identity has on the development of psychological healthy coping...
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to present how often the scholl counselorsexperience the emotions of anger, sadness, fear and hatred and what they do to cope with these emotions. In the study, the qualitative research method was used. From the 49 provinces of Turkey, 140 people comprising of women and 81 men participated and the feedback from 101 of these participants were taken. An open-ended semi- structured question form which was developed by the researchers to collect the data was used. The Nvivo9 package software programme has been used for the process of entering, studying and analysing the data by tabulating it. To cope with manage negative emotions, the participants were in general seen to use some coping strategies with their emotions such as ‘trying to forget and avoid, turning into introvert and share, turning into extrovert and face off and trying to be calm’.
Full Text Available Background: Stress is one of the risk factors for the development of so many physical and especially psychological disorders. Now, the impression is focused on coping strategies versus previous emphasis on nature and severity of stress. The present study was performed to evaluate if fasting, not only as a religious behavior but also as a coping strategy can influence the way of coping with stress in humans. Methods: In a pre-test / post-test survey, 100 medical students were evaluated for stress coping strategies before and after the holy month of Ramadan using CS-R scale. Results: The results revealed that the use of ineffective coping strategies was significantly decreased after the holy month with no alterations in other strategies. In details, uses of superstitiousness, wishful thinking and self-medication coping strategies were statistically lower after Ramadan compared to values before it (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The present study showed that Ramadan fasting (a religious behavior or belief as a coping strategy has beneficial effect on the way of coping with stress in humans. Keywords: Stress, Coping Strategies, Religion, Ramadan, Medical Student
Relations between personality profiles, measured by the Personality Characteristics Inventory (PCI), and habitual coping strategies, measured by the Utrecht Coping List (UCL), were investigated in a sample of submarine personnel and office employees. The predictive validity of these instruments were examined for reported stress, health complaints, and salivary cortisone measures during 3 submarine missions. PCI and UCL were completed before the missions, and questionnaires and saliva were collected weekly. The results showed no significant relations between PCI profiles and coping strategies. Interpersonal orientation, achievement motivation, and habitual coping strategies were predictors for coping during the submarine missions. Problem-directed strategies and interpersonal sensitivity combined with strong achievement motivation were related to low indicated stress from social factors (lack of privacy, interpersonal tension, and crowding) and homesickness. The findings suggest that interpersonal characteristics need to be considered in the selection of submariners and personnel for other military settings in which units are exposed to prolonged stress and isolation. PMID:14552347
Sandal, Gro M; Endresen, Inger M; Vaernes, Ragnar; Ursin, Holger
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english As a large part of South Africa's economy is based on the mining industry, this research focused on exploring the coping strategies of business leaders in the mining industry during an economic downturn. Using qualitative research within a constructivist-interpretive paradigm, the researchers sought [...] a deeper understanding of how mining leaders cope during an economic downturn. A purposive sample of seven executive mining leaders of different mining houses was interviewed and data was analysed using Atlas.ti. A conceptual framework for understanding coping strategies at the individual, group and organisational levels for business leaders during an economic downturn was developed and is discussed here. This study contributed to theory and practice by focusing on coping responses to specific situations within a specific context instead of on general coping strategies.
Marlise, van Zyl; Yvonne, du Plessis.
Background: Stress is one of the risk factors for the development of so many physical and especially psychological disorders. Now, the impression is focused on coping strategies versus previous emphasis on nature and severity of stress. The present study was performed to evaluate if fasting, not only as a religious behavior but also as a coping strategy can influence the way of coping with stress in humans. Methods: In a pre-test / post-test survey, 100 medical students were evaluated for str...
Akuchekian, S.; Ebrahimi, A.; Alvandian, S.
Relations between personality profiles, measured by the Personality Characteristics Inventory (PCI), and habitual coping strategies, measured by the Utrecht Coping List (UCL), were investigated in a sample of submarine personnel and office employees. The predictive validity of these instruments were examined for reported stress, health complaings, and salivary cortisone measures during 3 submarine missions. PCI and UCL were completed before the missions, and questionnaires and saliva were col...
Sandal, Gro M.; Endresen, Inger M.; Vaernes, Ragnar; Ursin, Holger
Estratégias de coping desenvolvidas por cuidadores de idosos portadores de doença crônica Estrategias de coping desarrolladas por cuidadores de ancianos portadores de enfermedad crónica Coping strategies caregivers of elderly with chronic diseases develop
Full Text Available Cuidar de um idoso com doença crônica pode representar uma ameaça e resultar em estresse. O sucesso em lidar com esta situação dependerá do coping, definido como um processo utilizado para controlar as demandas da relação indivíduo-ambiente. Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi detectar as estratégias de coping utilizadas por cuidadores de idosos. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo, com base na análise de discurso. A amostra foi composta por 16 indivíduos. As estratégias de coping mais utilizadas pelos cuidadores foram centradas na emoção e a tarefa de cuidar implica em mudanças em suas vidas, desempenhando as atividades sem auxílio, com sobrecarga, perda da liberdade e frustração. O estresse maior está relacionado à falta de ajuda por parte dos familiares e não à divisão das responsabilidades. Estimular o envolvimento da família, educar e fornecer orientações básicas, que possam minimizar as dificuldades do processo de cuidar, poderão contribuir para o bem-estar dos cuidadores.Cuidar a un anciano con enfermedad crónica puede representar una amenaza y resultar en estrés. El éxito para lidiar con esta situación dependerá del coping, definido como un proceso utilizado para controlar las demandas de la relación individuo-ambiente. En este trabajo, el objetivo fue detectar las estrategias de coping utilizadas por cuidadores de ancianos. Fue realizado un estudio cualitativo, con base en el análisis de discurso. La muestra estuvo conformada por 16 individuos. las estrategias de coping más utilizadas por los cuidadores estuvieron centradas en la emoción y la tarea de cuidar implica en cambios en sus vidas, desempeñando las actividades sin ayuda, con sobrecarga, pérdida de la libertad y frustración. El mayor estrés está relacionado a la falta de ayuda por parte de los familiares y no a la división de las responsabilidades. Estimular el involucramiento de la familia, educar y proporcionar orientaciones básicas, que puedan minimizar las dificultades del proceso de cuidar, podrán contribuir en el bienestar de los cuidadores.Care for a dependent elderly individual with a chronic disease can be a threat and cause stress. Success in dealing with this situation will depend on coping strategies, defined as processes used in order to control the demands of the individual-environment relationship. In this study the goal was to detect coping strategies used by caregivers for the elderly. A qualitative study was carried out through the analysis of coping discourse and theoretical reference. The sample was comprised of 16 individuals. It was observed that the coping strategies most used by caregivers were centered on emotion, and that caregiving tasks imply many changes in the life of caregivers, who perform them with no aid, with work overload, loss of liberty, and frustration. The greatest stress is related to the lack of help from family members and of shared responsibilities. Stimulating the involvement of the family, educating and giving basic orientation, which may reduce the difficulties of caregiving, could improve these individuals' well-being.
Janete Pessuto Simonetti
Estratégias de coping desenvolvidas por cuidadores de idosos portadores de doença crônica / Coping strategies caregivers of elderly with chronic diseases develop / Estrategias de coping desarrolladas por cuidadores de ancianos portadores de enfermedad crónica
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Cuidar de um idoso com doença crônica pode representar uma ameaça e resultar em estresse. O sucesso em lidar com esta situação dependerá do coping, definido como um processo utilizado para controlar as demandas da relação indivíduo-ambiente. Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi detectar as estratégias de [...] coping utilizadas por cuidadores de idosos. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo, com base na análise de discurso. A amostra foi composta por 16 indivíduos. As estratégias de coping mais utilizadas pelos cuidadores foram centradas na emoção e a tarefa de cuidar implica em mudanças em suas vidas, desempenhando as atividades sem auxílio, com sobrecarga, perda da liberdade e frustração. O estresse maior está relacionado à falta de ajuda por parte dos familiares e não à divisão das responsabilidades. Estimular o envolvimento da família, educar e fornecer orientações básicas, que possam minimizar as dificuldades do processo de cuidar, poderão contribuir para o bem-estar dos cuidadores. Abstract in spanish Cuidar a un anciano con enfermedad crónica puede representar una amenaza y resultar en estrés. El éxito para lidiar con esta situación dependerá del coping, definido como un proceso utilizado para controlar las demandas de la relación individuo-ambiente. En este trabajo, el objetivo fue detectar las [...] estrategias de coping utilizadas por cuidadores de ancianos. Fue realizado un estudio cualitativo, con base en el análisis de discurso. La muestra estuvo conformada por 16 individuos. las estrategias de coping más utilizadas por los cuidadores estuvieron centradas en la emoción y la tarea de cuidar implica en cambios en sus vidas, desempeñando las actividades sin ayuda, con sobrecarga, pérdida de la libertad y frustración. El mayor estrés está relacionado a la falta de ayuda por parte de los familiares y no a la división de las responsabilidades. Estimular el involucramiento de la familia, educar y proporcionar orientaciones básicas, que puedan minimizar las dificultades del proceso de cuidar, podrán contribuir en el bienestar de los cuidadores. Abstract in english Care for a dependent elderly individual with a chronic disease can be a threat and cause stress. Success in dealing with this situation will depend on coping strategies, defined as processes used in order to control the demands of the individual-environment relationship. In this study the goal was t [...] o detect coping strategies used by caregivers for the elderly. A qualitative study was carried out through the analysis of coping discourse and theoretical reference. The sample was comprised of 16 individuals. It was observed that the coping strategies most used by caregivers were centered on emotion, and that caregiving tasks imply many changes in the life of caregivers, who perform them with no aid, with work overload, loss of liberty, and frustration. The greatest stress is related to the lack of help from family members and of shared responsibilities. Stimulating the involvement of the family, educating and giving basic orientation, which may reduce the difficulties of caregiving, could improve these individuals' well-being.
Janete Pessuto, Simonetti; Jóice Cristina, Ferreira.
Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to develop a coping typology of minority adolescents (M = 15.5 years). A multiethnic sample (n = 354) was recruited from a program aimed at serving low-income students. LPA revealed three distinct coping profiles. The first comprised adolescents who used a number of specific coping strategies at a low level…
Aldridge, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.
Full Text Available Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses? workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace.
Background. The aim of this review is to present common psychosocial problems in cancer patients and their possible coping strategies. Cancer patients are occupied with many psychosocial problems, which are only partially related to their health state and medical treatments. They are faced with a high social pressure, based on prejudices and stereotypes of this illness. The review presents the process of confrontation with the cancer diagnosis and of managing the psychological consequences of cancer. The effects of specific coping styles, psychosocial interventions and a social support on initiation, progression and recurrence of cancer are also described. Conclusions. Although some recent meta-analysis could not provide scientific evidence for the association between coping strategies and the cancer initiation, the progression or the recurrence (neither have studies rejected the thesis of association), the therapeutic window for the psychosocial intervention is still wide and shows an important effect on the quality of lives of many cancer patients. (author)
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english When compared to Latin America, Asian economies since 1980 have grown faster and have done so with relatively modest inequalities. Why? A comparison of Asia and Latin America underlines the superiority of the nationalist capitalist model of development, which has often been pursued more explicitly i [...] n Asia, over that of a dependent capitalist model, which has often been pursued in Latin America. In comparison to Latin America, the Asian model has facilitated higher and less volatile rates of economic growth and a greater political room to pursue social democratic policies. The "tap root" of these alternate pathways is relative autonomy from global constraints: states and economies in Asia have been more nationalist and autonomous than in Latin America.
Full Text Available When compared to Latin America, Asian economies since 1980 have grown faster and have done so with relatively modest inequalities. Why? A comparison of Asia and Latin America underlines the superiority of the nationalist capitalist model of development, which has often been pursued more explicitly in Asia, over that of a dependent capitalist model, which has often been pursued in Latin America. In comparison to Latin America, the Asian model has facilitated higher and less volatile rates of economic growth and a greater political room to pursue social democratic policies. The "tap root" of these alternate pathways is relative autonomy from global constraints: states and economies in Asia have been more nationalist and autonomous than in Latin America.
The literature reveals a clear deficiency in knowledge of how aircraft pilots cope with psychosocial stress. The subject is not only of intrinsic interest, but because of the nature of the pilots' personality and their work, the subject is also relevant to other occupations. In a study of the coping strategies of 442 commercial aircraft pilots, four factors were identified: stability of relationships and home life, reason and logic, social support, and wife's involvement. Implications for the study of other occupations are also highlighted. PMID:3950782
Sloan, S J; Cooper, C L
Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to develop a coping typology of minority adolescents (M = 15.5 yrs). A multiethnic sample (n = 354) was recruited from a program aimed at serving low-income students. LPA revealed three distinct coping profiles. The first comprised adolescents who used a number of specific coping strategies at a low level (Low Generic Copers). The second comprised adolescents who emphasized active/approach strategies (e.g., planning; Active Copers). The third comprised a...
Aldridge, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.
Full Text Available Problem Statement: According to the relevant literature, strategies for coping with stress affect adolescent’s mental and physical health, school attendance and adaptation, academic achievement. If strategies for coping with stress suggested by Csikszentmihalyi are taught to adolescents, a more effective use of psychic energy and thus an increase in subjective experience quality can be achieved.Purpose of the Study: The aim of this study is to examine whether strategies coping with stress based on the Flow Theory predict adolescents’ mental health to a significant level.Method: The study was conducted on a total of 119 ninth grade students (61 females and 58 males aged 14-17 in a public high school in Ankara (in 2005-2006. The predictor variables of the study, the subscales of the Strategies for Coping with Stress Scale (SCSS, were struggle (S, personal control (PC, and active/effective contact with the environment (ACE. SCSS was developed based on Csikszentmihalyi’s flow theory. The predicted variables of the study were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI whose subscales of Turkish form were anxiety, depression, negative self, hostility and somatization. In the study, multiple linear regression analysis was used.Findings and Results: There were correlations ranging from ? =-.65 p<.001, R2 =.39 to ?=.30 P<.05, R2 =.07 between the subscales of SCSS and the subscales of BSI. Most correlation coefficients were negative as expected. Moreover, the regression models established between predicted and predictor variables were significant at p<.001 level excluding somatization. The most powerful predictor of mental health is the ACE strategy of coping with stress. The findings especially about ACE support the strategy of “focusing attention on the world”, which Csikszentmihalyi suggests as an effective strategy.Conclusions and Recommendations: The results depict that as the levels of adolescents’ stress coping strategies decrease, their psychological symptoms increase. These results support Csikszentmihalyi’s opinions on coping with stress and other relevant literature. Psychological help experts can control adolescents’ mental health and raise the quality of their subjective experiences by teaching them strategies of SCSS.
Kamile Bahar Ayd?n
Problem Statement: According to the relevant literature, strategies for coping with stress affect adolescent’s mental and physical health, school attendance and adaptation, academic achievement. If strategies for coping with stress suggested by Csikszentmihalyi are taught to adolescents, a more effective use of psychic energy and thus an increase in subjective experience quality can be achieved.Purpose of the Study: The aim of this study is to examine whether strategies coping with stress b...
Kamile Bahar Ayd?n
Research literature on adolescent coping is growing, but typically such studies have ignored religious coping strategies and their potential impact on functioning. To address this lack, we developed the Adolescent Religious Coping Scale and used its seven subscales to examine the relationship between religious coping and emotional functioning. A…
Bjorck, Jeffrey P.; Braese, Robert W.; Tadie, Joseph T.; Gililland, David D.
Background and Aim: The majority of people experience problems and stressors, such as job layoffs and illnesses during their lives. However, the way people cope with stress varies. According to previous research, use of effective coping strategies can significantly reduce stress and tension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of stress coping strategies on hearing-impaired students.Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test, and control...
Bahman Akbari; Zohreh Teymori; Shahnam Abolghasemi; Hamidreza Khorshidiyan
Objective. To present information on pain management strategies for children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods. The second author developed a manual to present pain management strategies to children. The use of the manual was pilot-tested with a group of children with JIA. Telephone interviews were used to gather information on implementation of pain management strategies. Results. Children were able to implement the pain management strategies. Children reported a reduction in...
Rosenzweig, Kim J.; Laura Nabors
The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by teens as they attempted to quit smoking. The teens were attending a school-based cessation program titled "Quit 2 Win" that was offered in four high schools. This study examined situations in which teens were tempted to smoke. The study compares coping strategies teens reported in…
Jannone, Laura; O'Connell, Kathleen A.
A wealth of research has examined psychological responses to trauma among male military service members, but few studies have examined sex differences in response to trauma, such as coping strategies. This study assessed coping strategies used by male and female U.S. service members completing an intensely stressful mock-captivity exercise, compared strategies by sex, and assessed the relationship between coping and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Two hundred service members (78% male) completed self-report surveys before and after mock captivity. Surveys assessed demographics, service characteristics, PTSS, and coping strategies used during mock captivity. Participants used seven coping strategies: denial, self-blame, religion, self-distraction, behavioral disengagement, positive reframing, and planning. Women used denial (p?.05), self-blame (p?.05), and positive reinterpretation (p?.05) strategies more frequently than men, and they had higher PTSS levels following the exercise. Structural equation modeling showed that the relationship between sex and PTSS was fully mediated by coping strategies. The results of this study suggest that reducing the use of maladaptive coping strategies may mitigate PTSS among females. Future efforts should target improving coping during highly stressful and traumatic experiences. PMID:25465883
Schmied, Emily A; Padilla, Genieleah A; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Lauby, Melissa D Hiller; Harris, Erica; Taylor, Marcus K
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As estratégias de coping são orientadas para a redução do stress, envolvendo reações físicas ou emocionais. O objetivo geral deste estudo foi identificar estratégias de coping utilizadas por adolescentes diante de eventos estressores, bem como a manifestação de sintomas de stress. Participaram da pe [...] squisa 220 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, provenientes de uma escola da rede pública de Porto Alegre (RS). Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Inventário de Estratégias de Coping e a Escala de Stress Infantil. Os resultados demonstraram que as estratégias mais utilizadas foram autocontrole, afastamento e fuga e esquiva. Entre os indivíduos que apresentaram mais sintomas de stress, as estratégias mais utilizadas foram fuga e esquiva, suporte social, confronto e afastamento. Abstract in english Coping strategies are directed towards the reduction of stress, involving physical or emotional reactions. The overall aim of this study was to identify coping strategies among adolescents exposed to stressful events. Two-hundred and twenty adolescents, ages of 12 and 18 years, male and female, stud [...] ying in a public school in Porto Alegre (RS), took part of this research. The instruments used were the Coping Strategies Inventory, the Child Stress Scale and school grades. It was found that the coping strategies most frequently employed were Self-control, Withdrawal and Escape-Avoidance. Amongst adolescents with the greatest number of stress-related symptoms, the most frequent coping strategies were Escape-Avoidance, Social Support, Confrontation and Withdrawal.
Christian Haag, Kristensen; Luiziana Souto, Schaefer; Fernanda de Bastani, Busnello.
Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to develop a coping typology of minority adolescents (M=15.5 years). A multiethnic sample (n=354) was recruited from a program aimed at serving low-income students. LPA revealed three distinct coping profiles. The first comprised adolescents who used a number of specific coping strategies at a low level (low generic copers). The second comprised adolescents who emphasized active/approach strategies (e.g., planning; active copers). The third comprised adolescents who emphasized avoidant/passive strategies (e.g., substance abuse; avoidant copers). Active copers experienced significantly less depression and more stress-related growth than low generic copers. Low generic copers not only experienced significantly less depression than avoidant copers but also significantly less stress-related growth than active copers. Discussion focuses on integrating the current typology with traditional coping taxonomies. PMID:17904631
Aldridge, Arianna A; Roesch, Scott C
This mail survey measured post-traumatic stress symptoms, spiritual and non-spiritual coping strategies, and positive spiritual outcomes following the tragedies of 9/11/01 in a national, random sample of 1,056 Presbyterians. Respondents reported mild to moderate degrees of re-experiencing and hyper-arousal symptoms of post-traumatic stress, unrelated to location or knowing someone involved. People experiencing high stress used greater frequency and variety of both spiritual and non-spiritual types of coping strategies. Positive spiritual outcomes were remarkably related to positive spiritual coping strategies, in contrast to no association with negative coping. This study illustrates the significant degree of post-traumatic stress experienced with vicarious exposure and a wide spectrum of coping strategies used following the major terrorist attacks. PMID:19229625
Meisenhelder, Janice Bell; Marcum, John P
In the oncology specialty, many factors can result in occupational stress in nursing professionals. As an attempt to controlling this situation, individuals may use coping strategies. Coping is a cognitive and behavioral effort one uses to face a stressful situation. The aims of this study were to identify the stressful factors regarding oncology nurses, and to verify what coping strategies they use. Two questionnaires were used: a demographic data inventory, designed by the researcher, and the Folkman and Lazarus coping strategies inventory. The results showed that the main stressful factors for oncology nurses are patient death (28.6%), emergency situations (16.9%), relationship issues with the nursing team (15.5%), and work-process situations (15.5%). In the studied population, the main coping strategy used was positive reappraisal. PMID:18392526
Rodrigues, Andrea Bezerra; Chaves, Eliane Corrêa
Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college. PMID:23380486
Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan
Introduction: In the process of growing, adolescents experience stress and their coping abilities determine the outcome. School training further adds to this stressful situation. It is noteworthy that persistently high stress levels will impair students’ academic achievement, personal and professional development. This article describes the prevalence of stress, stressors and coping strategies among secondary school students in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, ...
Azriani Abdul Rahman; Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim; Nurul Shazwani Abdul Rahman; Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff; Amirah Hayati Ahmad Hamid; Nadia Rabiyah Rosli; Nor Ayuni Zakaria; Nur Adila Che Rameli
Focusing on the understudied, increasing population of male Alzheimer's disease (AD) caregivers, the purpose of this study was to identify their likelihood of utilizing 3 coping strategies (task focused, emotion focused, and avoidance focused) and to examine the effects of each coping strategy on caregiving burden. Data were collected from 138 male AD caregivers in southern United States, including geographically proportional representation of African Americans in the sample. Stepwise regression revealed effects of each coping strategy on caregiving burden, controlling for demographics. The sample reported high burden. Task focused was the highest reported coping strategy. Yet, regression models indicated no significant effect of task-focused coping on burden outcomes. Emotion-focused and avoidance-focused coping each showed significant proportional effects on burden. Implications suggest that emotion- and avoidance-focused coping among male AD caregivers may be maladaptive, that is, reinforcing burden. Male AD caregivers may benefit from more task-focused coping, such as planning and active problem solving. PMID:25267930
Geiger, Jennifer R; Wilks, Scott E; Lovelace, Lauren L; Spivey, Christina A
This study examined 395 parents (224 mothers and 171 fathers) of children with cancer in Sweden in terms of coping, assessed using the Utrecht Coping List. The use of each of seven coping strategies among parents of children with cancer was compared with data from parents of children with no serious or chronic diseases. In addition, the relationship between coping strategies and anxiety/depression was examined. No differences in the frequency of using the seven coping strategies were found between the study group and the reference group. Neither did the use of coping strategies differ among parents of children with various types of cancer, nor among parents at various points in time after the child's cancer diagnosis. A more frequent use of active problem-focusing, and a less frequent use of avoidance behaviour and passive reaction pattern, was related to lower levels of anxiety and depression in parents of children with cancer and in reference parents. Analyses of parents of children at different time points after diagnosis and in different diagnostic groups indicated that contextual demands influence the relation between coping and anxiety/depression. PMID:15589667
Norberg, Annika Lindahl; Lindblad, Frank; Boman, Krister K
INTRODUCTION A diagnosis of breast cancer regardless of the stage can be stressful, impact multiple spheres of life, and disrupt physical status, emotional and spiritual well-being, and personal relationships for the patient and family. In order to adapt, the patient ought to employ certain coping mechanisms. Individuals with terminal illness who utilize coping strategies have better quality of life compared to those who do not. PATIENTS AND METHODS This study aimed to determine the strategies used by females with breast cancer to cope with such stress by using Brief COPE scale and the hospital anxiety and depression scale. The study included 56 female patients diagnosed with operable breast cancer at Mansoura Oncology Center before surgery. RESULTS Large proportion of patients used acceptance, religion, and emotional support in coping with the stress of having breast cancer. Patients with depressive symptoms scored significantly higher venting while those with anxiety scored higher positive reframing, planning, and venting. CONCLUSION Efforts should be made to encourage women with breast cancer to use coping strategies that have been found to be helpful (eg, acceptance, emotional support, distraction, and active coping strategies). PMID:24940070
Elsheshtawy, Eman A.; Abo-Elez, Warda F.; Ashour, Hala S.; Farouk, Omar; El zaafarany, Maha I. Esmael
Full Text Available Layoffs continue to plague organizations around the world especially as organizations attempt to optimize labor costs and other expenses. While there have been studies to attempt to understand the impact of layoffs, there are still gaps in the literature especially as we look at layoffs in the 21st century. This research examined i the impact of layoffs on individuals’ psychological and physical well-being, ii the impact of layoffs on the employees affective commitment, iii coping strategies used by employees, and iv job search strategies people are using to find new jobs. While, downsizing is a relatively common change management strategy that has been adopted for more than two decades, the prime impetus of most downsizing efforts is the desire for an immediate reduction of costs and simply survival.We found that individuals will experience significant more health problems after being laid off from their jobs. Individuals who have been unemployed for longer periods will have lower affective commitment to their former employers. We also found that maintaining more control-oriented coping strategies will be more progressive in their job searches and more able to cope with layoffs and that coping strategies are positively related to reemployment. In addition, individuals who are receiving unemployment insurance and other benefits, financial hardships exist resulting in significant challenges and life style changes and coping strategies are positively related to financial resources available to an individual.
Sunil J. Ramlall
University education system is undergoing transformation requirements particularly in the developing world. The demands require adaptation to the prevailing circumstances hence the need for relevant strategies for universities. Issues such as institutional profiles, organizational structure and work integration, research activities, and funding…
Extensive in-depth interviews were conducted with all 20 members of the 1988 U.S. Olympic Wrestling Team regarding their efforts to cope with stress experienced during the Seoul Olympics. Qualitative analyses revealed that the wrestlers employed a variety of coping strategies including: (a) thought control strategies (blocking distractions, perspective taking, positive thinking, coping thoughts, and prayer), (b) task focus strategies (narrow, more immediate focus, concentrating on goals), (c) behavioral based strategies (changing or controlling the environment, following a set routine), and (d) emotional control strategies (arousal control, visualization). In accordance with the observations of Compas (1987) and Folkman and Lazarus (1985), the coping efforts of the Olympic wrestlers were not limited to particular strategies nor to single approaches to dealing with a particular stressor but, rather, reflected a dynamic complex process involving a number of strategies, often in combination. The results also suggested that the degree to which coping strategies are well learned or automatized is related to their perceived effectiveness. PMID:8451537
Gould, D; Eklund, R C; Jackson, S A
Full Text Available This study aims to explore how teacher candidates cope with stress according to their gender, age, and major. The data for the study was collected via a personal information form and the Multidimensional Intimate Coping Questionnaire (MICQ with the participation of 307 university students, 183 female (59.6 % and 124 male (40.4. To analyze the data, for the gender and age variables an independent samples t-test, and for the major variable, a one-way ANOVA test was utilized. The results revealed that there was a significant difference in the gender variable in the subscales of ‚Negative and Passive Coping?, ‚Seeking External Support? and ‚Belief in Religion? subscale for the female students. The difference was significant for the male students in the subscale of ‚Use of Alcohol and Drugs?. Also, according to the age variable, the difference was again significant for the participants between the ages of 23 and 31 in the subscale of ‚Positive and Active Coping? and ‚Supporting Oneself?. Moreover, there was a significant difference major variable in the subscales of ‚Denial/Mental Disengagement? for special education students, and ‚Belief in Religion ? subscale for students in science departments. As a result of the study, teacher candidates should be aware of the existing and potential stress sources and problems, and also the problems they will face in their profession. In addition, they should be equipped with the necessary skills to be able to cope with those factors effectively.
Bahtiyar Eraslan Çapan
Summary Researchers have shown that coping style is related to pain and adjustment in people with chronic illness. This study was the first to examine how coping style related to pain, pain coping strategies, and depression in lung cancer outpatients. We conducted a comparative, secondary data analysis of 107 lung cancer patients (73% male, mean age 61.4 ± 10.43 years, 88% Caucasian). As in prior studies, we classified patients into four coping style groups based on Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and Trait Anxiety scores. The coping style groups were low-anxious (n = 25); high-anxious (n = 31); defensive high-anxious (n = 21); and repressive (n = 30). Compared to other coping style groups, the repressive group reported statistically significant lower mean scores for pain quality, pain catastrophizing, and depression. Assessing coping style by measuring personal characteristics such as social desirability and trait anxiety may help clinicians to identify vulnerable individuals with lung cancer who may be candidates for early and timely intervention efforts to enhance adjustment to pain. PMID:20557973
Prasertsri, Nusara; Holden, Janean; Keefe, Francis J.
Coping flexibility may be beneficial for the adjustment in the context of a progressive and unpredictable course of chronic rheumatic diseases. The aim of this study was to develop and initially validate a self-report measure that assesses coping flexibility. Study participants were 147 outpatients with chronic rheumatic diseases (73% women, mean age 59 (range 20-79) years). Principal axis factoring analysis with oblique rotation was applied and internal consistency was determined. To investigate the initial validity of the coping flexibility questionnaire (COFLEX), hypothesised correlations with psychological and physical adjustment outcomes, pain, and coping strategies were examined. Factor analysis yielded a two-factor model of coping flexibility with acceptable internal consistency: versatility, the capability of switching between assimilative and accommodative coping strategies according to personal goals and situational demands (? = .88) and reflective coping, the capability of generating and considering coping options, and appraising the suitability of a coping strategy in a given situation (? = .70). Versatility was correlated with adaptive ways of coping and psychological adjustment, but not with physical adjustment and pain. Reflective coping was correlated with both adaptive and maladaptive ways of coping, but it was not correlated with adjustment outcomes. In conclusion, the current study suggests acceptable internal consistency of the COFLEX. Preliminary evidence of the validity of the versatility dimension is indicated, while the validity of reflective coping could not be firmly established. The associations of versatility with favourable adjustment to the disease warrant future confirmatory and validity research in larger samples of patients with chronic rheumatic diseases. PMID:21660453
Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van Lankveld, Wim G J M; Eijsbouts, Agnes M M; van Helmond, Toon; Geenen, Rinie; van den Ende, Cornelia H M
This article discusses the various sources of athlete stress and the strategies that coaches can use to help young athletes cope with it. The information is based on a study with a competitive adolescent soccer team and its two coaches, and a review of the coaching and sport psychology literature. The suggested coaching strategies can help to…
Gilbert, Jenelle N.; Gilbert, Wade; Morawski, Cynthia
Background: Adolescent self-harm (SH) is a major public health concern, associated with poor outcomes. The use of ineffective coping is often referred to in explanatory models of adolescent SH. Aims: To assess the relationship between SH and coping strategies in a large sample of school-aged adolescents. Method: A sample of public school students (n = 1,713), aged between 12 and 20 years, were examined using an anonymously completed questionnaire. SH was defined according to strict criteria through a two-stage procedure. Study participants were divided into two groups: no self-harm and lifetime self-harm. The differences between groups were explored, including logistic regression analyses (controlling for anxiety and depression effects), to reveal which coping strategies better predicted lifetime SH. Results: The use of nonproductive strategies was associated with SH in both genders, particularly self-blame and tension reduction. Strategies involving consulting significant others for support were used less in the SH group, especially among male subjects. The preferential use of a productive coping style was negatively associated with the SH group in both genders. Conclusion: The results support previous data regarding a different pattern of coping strategies used by adolescents who harm themselves. The use of self-rating instruments and the cross-sectional nature of the study limit our results. PMID:25467046
Guerreiro, Diogo F; Figueira, Maria Luisa; Cruz, Diana; Sampaio, Daniel
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english ORIENTATION: Identification of the inner coping strategies used by South African Police Service (SAPS) officers who do operational work is something the SAPS should consider to ensure the officers' management of trauma and efficiency at work. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to desc [...] ribe inner coping strategies used by officers in the Vhembe district (South Africa) to reconstruct stressful and traumatic experiences at work. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Most studies on coping amongst SAPS officers focus on organisational I stress and not on the impact of the officers' operational work. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: An exploratory design was used and 20 SAPS officers were selected through purposive sampling. In-depth face-to-face and telephone interviews, as well as diaries were used to collect data, which were analysed using content thematic data analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed that the main categories of coping strategies that led to management of the impact of operational work amongst the selected sample were centred around problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies, with some use of reappraisal and minimal use of avoidance. Considering the context of the officers' work, the list of dimensions of inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers should be extended. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Intervention programmes designed for the SAPS, including critical incident stress debriefing, should take the operational officers' inner strategies into account to improve the management of the impact of their work. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers, with special reference to operational work in a specific setting.
Masefako A., Gumani; Mattheus E., Fourie; Martin J., Terre Blanche.
Studies have shown that for developing a resilient profile athletes must deal with adversities in sports using personal resources such as optimism, competitiveness, motivation, maturity, and persistence. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of coping strategies on the resilience of beach volleyball athletes. Forty-eight adult athletes of the Banco do Brasil Beach Volleyball Circuit participated in the study. The following instruments were used: Athletic Coping Skills Inventor...
Isabella Caroline Belem; Nayara Malheiros Caruzzo; José Roberto Andrade do Nascimento Junior; José Luiz Lopes Vieira; Lenamar Fiorese Vieira
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a relação entre fatores de personalidade e estratégias de coping em adolescentes. Participaram desta pesquisa 102 jovens de uma escola municipal de Goiânia com idade entre 11 e 15 anos, utilizando o Coping Response Inventory e a Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade. [...] Os dados obtidos demonstraram que meninas utilizam mais a análise lógica para resolver seus problemas e os meninos apresentam maior pontuação em neuroticismo; que os adolescentes mais jovens utilizam mais coping de evitação e os mais velhos, o coping de aproximação; e que tanto a apreciação do problema como os traços de personalidade relacionam-se significativamente com o uso de estratégias de coping. Os resultados são discutidos de acordo com as teorias de coping. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality factors and coping strategies in adolescents. 102 students from a municipal school in Goiânia aged between 11 and 15 years old was assessed using Coping Response Inventory and the "Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade". Data s [...] howed that girls use more logical analysis to solve their problems and that boys had higher scores on neuroticism; that younger adolescents use more avoidance coping responses and older ones use more approach coping responses; and that both coping appraisal and personality traits are significantly related to the use of coping strategies. The results are discussed according to coping theories.
Simon Santana, Diniz; Daniela S., Zanini.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a relação entre fatores de personalidade e estratégias de coping em adolescentes. Participaram desta pesquisa 102 jovens de uma escola municipal de Goiânia com idade entre 11 e 15 anos, utilizando o Coping Response Inventory e a Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade. Os dados obtidos demonstraram que meninas utilizam mais a análise lógica para resolver seus problemas e os meninos apresentam maior pontuação em neuroticismo; que os adolescentes mais jovens utilizam mais coping de evitação e os mais velhos, o coping de aproximação; e que tanto a apreciação do problema como os traços de personalidade relacionam-se significativamente com o uso de estratégias de coping. Os resultados são discutidos de acordo com as teorias de coping.The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality factors and coping strategies in adolescents. 102 students from a municipal school in Goiânia aged between 11 and 15 years old was assessed using Coping Response Inventory and the "Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade". Data showed that girls use more logical analysis to solve their problems and that boys had higher scores on neuroticism; that younger adolescents use more avoidance coping responses and older ones use more approach coping responses; and that both coping appraisal and personality traits are significantly related to the use of coping strategies. The results are discussed according to coping theories.
Simon Santana Diniz
Full Text Available Our aim was to study the relationship of coping strategies choice and anti-vital experiences and the overall emotional well-being in adolescents. In October 2012, we surveyed 145 students of Moscow secondary school (54 boys, 91 girls aged 12 to 16 years. The survey was conducted by a block of psychodiagnostic methods, testing emotional disadaptation, presence of suicidal thoughts and ways of coping with stressful situations. It was found that 22,8% of the participants reported presence of suicidal thoughts. Specific to adolescents with suicidal attitude were high social and interpersonal anxiety and severity of non-adaptive coping strategies, such as “self-incrimination” and “comparing oneself with the others”.
T. S. Pavlova
Successful aging is a process through which older people actively deal with their age-related changes. This study, as a part of more extensive research, explored and describes coping strategies used by Iranian elderly women in response to age-related changes. Grounded theory was used as method. Nineteen participates were recruited. The…
Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Rafii, Forough; Oskouie, Seyede Fatemeh H.
China has entered into a new stage of demographic dynamics whereby population-related challenges are more complicated than ever before. The current one-child policy should be modified. However, the anticipated impacts of such a policy change should not be over-exaggerated. China's demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy.…
Full Text Available Background: Recent research has emphasized the importance of coping. There is virtually nothing known about coping strategies and their relationship with self-esteem, individual and environmental factors among Chinese female nursing students. This study was to identify different coping strategies, the relationship between coping and self-esteem and influencing individual factors among Chinese female students in different years of nursing school. Method: The study used a cross-sectional design. A representative sample composed of 686 female nursing students aged 14 years or older was surveyed in December 2010 using the Simplified Coping Styles Questionnaire, the Self-Esteem Scale and the Personal Data Form for assessment. Results: Nursing students more often used positive rather than negative coping styles (P?0.001. There was significant difference in the positive coping between nursing students in different years of school (P=0.018. The positive coping style was significantly correlated to a higher level of self-esteem, good interpersonal relationships, enough free time for study alone, a sense of self-fulfillment and satisfaction, adaptation to new study methods, close friendships, help-seeking behavior of an individual, and physical health in the past year (P?0.05. The negative coping style was significantly associated with problems in romantic relationship, relationship with parents, worry about examinations and job assignment after graduation, feeling misunderstood, and frequent surfing on the internet (P?0.05. Conclusion: There were different coping strategies and the important relationship between self-esteem, individual and environmental factors and coping strategies among Chinese female nursing students in different years of school. The teaching strategies that promote the self-esteem and pay more attention to students’ individual and environmental factors will be useful for helping nursing students develop effective coping styles.
Abstract Background College students are prone to stress due to the transitional nature of college life. High levels of stress are believed to affect students' health and academic functions. If the stress is not dealt with effectively, feelings of loneliness, nervousness, sleeplessness and worrying may result. Effective coping strategies facilitate the return to a balanced state, reducing the negative effects of stress. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional s...
Hagani Hamid; Tafreshi Maryam; Seyedfatemi Naiemeh
Insights into daily living in residential care settings are rare. This article draws on a qualitative dataset (semi-structured interviews and recordings of residents’ council meetings) that gives a glimpse of the experiences and coping strategies of (older) people living in residential care. The data highlights the range of unmet needs of the residents, similar to the categories of physiological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualisation needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. Our ...
O Dwyer, Ciara Mary; Timonen, Virpi
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have addressed the challenges that international medical students face and there is a dearth of information on the behavioural strategies these students adopt to successfully progress through their academic program in the face of substantial difficulties of language barrier, curriculum overload, financial constraints and assessment tasks that require high proficiency in communication skills. Methods This study was designed primarily with the aim of enhancing understanding of the coping strategies, skill perceptions and knowledge of assessment expectations of international students as they progress through the third and fourth years of their medical degree at the School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Australia. Results Survey, focus group discussion and individual interviews revealed that language barriers, communication skills, cultural differences, financial burdens, heavy workloads and discriminatory bottlenecks were key factors that hindered their adaptation to the Australian culture. Quantitative analyses of their examination results showed that there were highly significant (p Conclusions Despite the challenges, these students have adopted commendable coping strategies and progressed through the course largely due to their high sense of responsibility towards their family, their focus on the goal of graduating as medical doctors and their support networks. It was concluded that faculty needs to provide both academic and moral support to their international medical students at three major intervention points, namely point of entry, mid way through the course and at the end of the course to enhance their coping skills and academic progression. Finally, appropriate recommendations were made.
Malau-Aduli Bunmi S
This paper studies the adaptation and survival strategies that immigrants develop from the beginning of their migration project through to their establishment in the host country. We are particularly interested in how immigrants make sense of the host country social and institutional environment and the related immigration policy measures and implementation practices, and their strategies for coping with it. More specifically, the study examines how immigrants organise their migration project...
Kosic, Ankica; Triandafyllidou, Anna
Adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) experience stressful social interactions and often utilize maladaptive coping strategies to manage these interactions. We investigated the specific types of Active and Avoidant coping strategies reported by 114 adults with mild ID to deal with stressful social interactions. Open-ended responses to a sentence stem task were coded into five dimensions of Active and Avoidant coping. Adults with mild ID used Problem-Focused coping most frequently and ...
Hartley, Sigan L.; Maclean, William E.
Insights into daily living in residential care settings are rare. This article draws on a qualitative dataset (semi-structured interviews and recordings of residents' council meetings) that gives a glimpse of the experiences and coping strategies of (older) people living in residential care. The data highlight the range of unmet needs of the residents, similar to the categories of physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization needs in Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. Our analysis indicates that "higher" and "lower" needs are closely intertwined and mutually reinforcing and should therefore be accorded equal emphasis by professionals (including social workers) employed within residential care settings. PMID:19860294
Timonen, Virpi; O'Dwyer, Ciara
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo analisa estresse, estratégias de coping, resiliência e bem-estar subjetivo em pacientes oncológicos em tratamento radioterápico. Sessenta pessoas, com idades entre 26 a 82 anos (20 homens e 40 mulheres) responderam as escalas de Bem-Estar Subjetivo, Inventário de Resiliência e de Sintoma [...] s de Estresse e Coping Response Inventory - Adult Form (CRI-A). Os resultados apontam que o uso da estratégia de coping direta esteve associado a nível mais elevado de resiliência e afeto positivo, enquanto o uso da estratégia de evitação pode aumentar a percepção de afeto negativo e diminuir o relato de afeto positivo. Conclui-se que as estratégias de coping podem interferir no bem-estar subjetivo e podem estabelecer relação significativa com fatores de resiliência em paciente oncológico em radioterapia. Abstract in english This study analyzes stress, coping strategies, resilience and subjective well-being of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Sixty subjects, between 26 to 82 years old (20 man and 40 woman), answered the Subjective Well-Being Scale, the Resilience and the Stress Symptoms Inventory and the Coping [...] Response Inventory - Adult Form (CRI-A). The results showed that the use of approach coping strategies is associated with a higher level of resilience and with positive affect, while using avoidant coping strategies can lead to an increased perception of negative affect and to a lower report of positive affect. The results of this study suggest that coping strategies are related to resilience factors and can interfere with the subjective well-being of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment.
Wanderley de, Paula Júnior; Daniela Sacramento, Zanini.
During the last decade the social assistance system in Denmark was been changed and become less generous. One important indication of this trend is that the social assistance benefit level was reduced to a lower level after 6 months. Furthermore the “workfare” obligations for social claiments (e.g. in terms of participation in job training schemes and a requirement? of a certain minimum amount ( app 3 months ) of employment in the open labour market has increased. The arguments in the policy discource has been that lower benefits increases motivation and realistic, rational jobseeking behavior. In short: lower benefit levels increases motivation which in turn increases labour market inclusion. This paper presents empirical results from an ongoing research project ( Consequences of living on the lowest social benefits financed by the Danish Social Council (Rådet for Socialt Udsatte) ,2008-2011) about living conditions and how Danish citizens on the lowest benefits coped with their life situation.The longitudinal data followed the long term receivers of social assistance respondents over 1 year in order to observe changes in (selvreported) health, living conditions and coping strategies The data consisted of 2 national surveys as well as 2 series of qualitative interviews with citizens on social assistance Among other things the respondents were about what they regarded as the most important barriers for improving their labour market and income position. A clear majority of the citizens responded that the reduction of their social assistance benefits after 3 months had reduced their mental health and not improved their social energy for job seeking. These results support the idea that lower benefits has a negative impact on active coping for labour market inclusion. A huge parts of the respondents reported that bad health – including mental health - was the dominant barrier for active coping with their life situation. The results indicates that the present employment and social policy measures should have a much stronger focus on capacity building with regard mental health for citizens on the lowest social benefits
Andersen, John; Larsen, JØrgen Elm
A review of the relevant literature indicates a lack of measurement techniques for coping styles and strategies with school-related stress. This study presents the procedure of constructing "The Coping with School-related Stress Questionnaire" (CSSQ), which makes it possible to investigate dispositional as well as situational aspects of coping.…
Wrzesniewski, Kazimierz; Chylinska, Joanna
This qualitative study of a community sample of 196 African American women aimed to identify the coping strategies that Black women use to manage the stress of racism and sexism. The findings reveal that they use multiple resistance strategies: (a) three ongoing internal coping strategies (resting on faith--relying on prayer and spirituality;…
The proposed integrated coping strategies include operation strategies for specific accident conditions, extension or revision of emergency operating procedures (EOPs), integration between EOPs and severe accident mitigation guidelines (SAMG), and so on. This paper reviewed mitigation strategies adopted in the U. S. EDMG and FLEX approaches, and then proposed extended coping strategies for BDBEEs. The extended coping strategies provide comprehensive mitigation approach including restoration of the RCS inventory and pressure control as well as mitigation strategies of the U. S. EDMG and FLEX. More detailed strategies will be developed in the near future following an evaluation of the various accident mitigation strategies being implemented worldwide in the aftermath of the Fukushima accident. An extended loss of all AC power occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, on March 11, 2011, by a large earthquake and subsequent tsunamis. This event led to loss of reactor core cooling and containment integrity functions at several units of the site, ultimately resulting in large release of radioactive materials into the environment. Extreme events, or beyond-design-basis external events (BDBEEs), as occurred in the Fukushima Daiichi plant, may threaten plant safety by disabling critical safety functions of nuclear power plants for an extended period. Therefore, coping strategies need to be developed to further enhance nuclear safety by maintaining or restoring core cooling and containment integrity for BDBEEs. This paper reviews the U. S. EDMG and FLEX approaches from the perspective of coping strategies, and proposes an integrated strategic approach to cope with BDBEEs by extending the concepts of EDMG and FLEX
Coping strategies are emerging as a predictor of treatment outcome for substance users, and may be particularly important among computerized and self-change approaches. We used data from a randomized clinical trial of a computer-based version of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT4CBT), in order to: (1) examine the association between observer ratings of coping skills and self-reported coping strategies; (2) evaluate whether participants assigned to the CBT4CBT program reported greater use of c...
Sugarman, Dawn E.; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.
This study examined the association between relationship styles, coping strategies, and psychological distress among 144 Anglo-Australian and 250 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. The results indicated that relationship styles (secure, clingy, and fickle) influenced psychological distress through their association with coping strategies…
Leung, Cynthia; Moore, Susan; Karnilowicz, Wally; Lung, C. L.
Strategies that children use for coping with stressors are known to be related to emotional adjustment, but not enough is understood about specific links with social anxiety and depression. The present investigation tested differentiated associations of social anxiety and depression with specific types of coping strategies, and evaluated the…
Wright, Mark; Banerjee, Robin; Hoek, Willemijn; Rieffe, Carolien; Novin, Sheida
Studied job stress, job satisfaction, and coping strategies through self-report measures from 153 Moroccan high school teachers. Results show that 45% of the teachers were satisfied with their jobs, but over half reported high levels of stress, negatively correlated with job satisfaction. Factor analysis of 16 coping strategies produced four…
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between burnout, personality traits and coping strategies. A survey design was used. The study population consisted of 131 employees in a corporate pharmaceutical group. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, NEO Personality Inventory Revised and COPE were administered. Active coping strategies were associated with Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness, while passive coping strategies were associated with Neuroticism, low Agreeableness and low Conscientiousness. Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were associated with lower emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation and higher personal accomplishment. Constructive coping strategies were associated with personal accomplishment.
Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om te bepaal of daar ’n verband tussen uitbranding, persoonlikheidstrekke en coping-strategieë bestaan. ’n Opnameontwerp is gebruik. Die ondersoekgroep het bestaan uit 131 werknemers van ’n korporatiewe apteekgroep. Drie vraelyste is gebruik, naamlik die Maslach-Uitbrandingsvraelys, die NEO Personality Inventory Revised en die COPE. Aktiewe coping-strategieë is geassosieer met Emosionele Stabiliteit, Ekstroversie, Openheid vir Ervaring en Konsensieusheid, terwyl passiewe coping-strategieë geassosieer is met Neurotisisme, lae Inskiklikheid en lae Konsensieusheid. Emosionele Stabiliteit, Ekstroversie, Openheid vir Ervaring, Inskiklikheid en Konsensieusheid is geassosieer met lae emosionele uitputting, lae depersonalisasie en hoë persoonlike bereiking. Konstruktiewe coping-strategieë is geassosieer met persoonlike bereiking.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Etiological researches suggest that biopsychosocial dimensions are responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD. The main goal of the present research was to compare stressful life events and stress coping strategies in coronary heart patients (Acute Myocardial Infarction and non-patients. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional research 102 patients (all males suffering from acute myocardial infarction and 162 non-patient individuals after matching were studied and compared with regard to psychosocial life events and stress coping strategies through coping response inventory (Moos, 1993 , scaling of life Events (paykel , 1971 and researcher made questionnaire. Results: The result established that myocardial infarction patients experienced more stress than the control group during one year before heart- attack and they used more inadequate stress coping strategies comparing with the control individuals. Conclusion: This study showed that stress and inadequate coping strategies are important variables for the development of coronary heart diseases. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3:33-38
A. Heidari Pahlavian
Full Text Available This study examined the sources of stress and mental health of nurses in Hong Kong. It also attempted to explore the functions of coping strategies in determining the stress and mental health of nurses. Results showed that more than one-third of the nurses could be considered as having poor mental health. While supervisory role produced the highest level of stress, organizational environment also created a substantial amount of stress for nurses. The most frequently used coping strategies were positive ones, including direct action coping and positive thinking. This study confirmed the hypotheses that nurses who adopted more positive and fewer negative coping strategies had better mental health, but failed to substantiate the moderating effects of coping on stress and mental health of nurses. Changes in the hospital care delivery system and socio-cultural factors in Hong Kong were put forward to explain the results. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study were discussed.
Studied influence of culture on coping behavior of youngsters in anxiety-provoking situations. Applied a situation-reaction inventory to late adolescents (n=721) from India, Italy, Hungary, Sweden, and Yemen. Consistent results showed adolescents at low-medium anxiety levels employed constructive and assimilative coping and at high anxiety levels…
We intended to evaluate the impact of coping strategies on the intensity of stress on hemato-oncology nurses, using a transversal analytical study conducted with 18 nurses between March and April of 2010. We used a form for socio-demographic characterization, the Occupational Coping Scale to evaluate the coping strategies and the Nurses Stress Inventory to evaluate the stress. There was no significant correlation between coping strategies and stress intensity, however, in the dispersion analysis, the use of control and avoidance strategies increased stress intensity while the use of symptoms management decreased its intensity. Nurses with less time working in the health institution and those without a postgraduate degree presented higher stress intensity. We concluded that Symptoms Management strategy has a positive effect on the stress of hemato-oncological nurses, where the reduced perspective of healing and the chronic condition of the patients are inherent to the nursing work and make proactive and avoidance actions difficult. PMID:25508627
Umann, Juliane; Da Silva, Rodrigo Marques; Benavente, Sonia Betzabeth Ticona; Guido, Laura De Azevedo
Objectives: Secondary school girls, ages 15 – 19 yrs were surveyed to find out the coping strategies they used when stressed. Adolescents, who are affected with stress and depression early in life, suffer from depression throughout their lives especially if they are utilizing improper ways to cope with it.
Korean, Chinese, and Japanese high school students (N=274) responded to a questionnaire concerning their coping strategies about immigrating to the United States. Communication difficulties were the most common problem for the three immigrant groups. The specific means each group used to cope with immigration are discussed along with how…
Yeh, Christine; Inose, Mayuko
Effective use of coping strategies by people with chronic pain conditions is associated with better functioning and adjustment to chronic disease. Although the effects of coping on pain have been well studied, less is known about how specific coping strategies relate to actual physical activity patterns in daily life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how different coping strategies relate to symptoms and physical activity patterns in a sample of adults with knee and hip osteoarthriti...
Plans are described for a 2-year project whose major focus is the identification of ways in which patients with hemophilia and their families assimilate, interpret, and act on information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Findings will be related to perceived risk, anxiety levels, and the development of coping strategies.…
Naji, Simon; And Others
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El estilo atribucional negativo o tendencia relativamente estable a explicar los resultados negativos mediante causas internas, estables y globales se ha asociado tanto con el desarrollo de sintomatología depresiva, como con diferentes índices de peor salud física. La tendencia a explicar los result [...] ados positivos a través de causas internas, estables y globales, al que se denomina estilo explicativo autoensalzante, no ha recibido mucha atención, pero los datos apuntan a un posible rol protector. El principal objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el posible rol mediador de las estrategias de afrontamiento entre los diferentes estilos explicativos y el desarrollo de sintomatología depresiva. El modelo de ecuaciones estructurales mostró que el uso de las estrategias de afrontamiento centradas en la emoción y la no utilización de las estrategias dirigidas a la solución de los problemas media la relación entre el estilo atribucional negativo y el desarrollo de síntomas depresivos, encontrándose el patrón contrario de resultados cuando se analizó el estilo explicativo autoensalzante. Abstract in english Negative attributional style or the relatively steady tendency to put poor outcomes down to internal, stable, and global causes, has been associated with the development of depressive symptoms and poor physical health. On the contrary, the tendency to put good outcomes down to internal, stable, and [...] global causes (normally called enhancing explanatory style) has caught very little attention although results claim its protective role. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the likely mediating role of coping strategies between the explanatory styles and the development of depressive symptoms. Structural equation modelling showed that negative attributional style contributes to the development of depressive symptoms through the use of emotion-focused coping strategies and the non-use of problem-focused coping strategies. The opposite pattern was found for the enhancing explanatory style.
Pilar, Sanjuán; Alejandro, Magallanes.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objectivo identificar os mecanismos de coping (estratégias para lidar com situações difíceis) utilizados por Educadores de Infância quando se encontram em situações de stresse, bem como estudar as características do respectivo instrumento de avaliação na versão Portuguesa [...] . A amostra é constituída por 247 Educadores de Infância (diplomados e em situação de estágio pedagógico) com idades compreendidas entre os 20 e os 57 anos de idade. Da Bateria Differential Stress Inventory (DSI), de Lefèvre e Kubinger (2004) foi utilizado o questionário Estratégias de Coping (EC) tipo Likert, adaptada para a população portuguesa por Gomes, Pereira e Gil (2006), revelando boas características psicométricas. Os principais resultados mostram que perante situações indutoras de stresse os Educadores de Infância utilizam mais as estratégias de coping focadas na emoção, do que as estratégias de coping focadas no problema. São referidas ainda algumas implicações deste estudo para a formação destes profissionais. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los mecanismos de coping (estrategias para lidiar con situaciones difíciles) utilizados por profesores infantiles cuando están en situación de stress, así como también estudiar las características del respectivo instrumento de evaluación en la versión Port [...] uguesa. La muestra es constituida por 247 profesores infantiles (diplomados y en situación de práctica pedagógica) con edades entre los 20 y los 57 años de edad. De la Bateria Differential Stress Inventory (DSI), de Lefèvre y Kubinger (2004) fue utilizado el cuestionario Estratégias de Coping (EC) tipo Likert, adaptada para la población portuguesa por Gomes, Pereira y Gil (2006), revelando buenas características psicométricas. Los resultados principales muestran que frente a situaciones incitadoras de stress los profesores infantiles utilizan más las estrategias de coping focalizadas en la emoción que las estrategias de coping focalizadas en el problema. Todavía, son mencionadas algunas implicaciones de este estudio para la formación de estos profesionales. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to identify the mechanisms of coping (strategies to deal with difficult situations) used by kindergarten Teachers when they face situations of stress, as well as to study respective characteristics of the used evaluation instrument in a Portuguese version. The sample is cons [...] tituted by 247 kindergarten teachers (graduated and training students) with ages between 20 and 57 years old. The Strategies of Coping (EC) likert type scale from the Differential Stress Inventory (DSI), of Lefèvre & Kubinger (2004) was adapted for the Portuguese population by Gomes, Pereira & Gil (2006), which revealed good psychometric characteristics. The main results show that kindergarten Teachers, when experiencing stress inducing situations, frequently appeal to coping strategies with focus in emotion, than based in the problem solving situation. Will be discussed further implications of this research to the professional training.
Rosa Maria Silva, Gomes; Anabela Maria Sousa, Pereira.
Background stress can impair professional performance. Surgery is a highly demanding medical specialty, and performance is a critical factor for patient safety. Nevertheless, research on surgeon's stress, coping strategies and effects on surgical performance is lacking. Moreover, educational programmes addressing stress management for surgeons have not been established. Objectives i a) To identify potential stress factors, surgical coping strategies and effects on performance qualitatively b...
Wetzel, Cordula Magdalena
The study explored the self-generated coping strategies employed by Muslim athletes from South East Asian region during the Ramadan fasting month. Sixty-five National elite Muslim athletes responded to an open-ended question on coping strategies employed during Ramadan fasting. Inductive content analysis identified five general dimensions from 54 meaning units which were abstracted into 14 first-order themes and 10 second order themes. The general dimension included four problem-focused copin...
Jolly Roy; Ooi Cheong Hwa; Rabindarjeet Singh; Abdul Rashid Aziz; Chai Wen Jin
Introduction: As the prevalence of stress is rising rapidly among the community, it is important to understand their stressors and coping strategies for creating a psychological-friendly environment for the students in the future. The study aim was to explore the stress level, stressors, and coping strategies among first year medical students in Malaysian public universities and factors contributed to the stress at the end of year. Methodology: A multicent...
Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim; Tan Chin Siong; Lim Xue Bin; Loke Hon Meng; Liew Yen Yee; Ling Heng Wei; Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
Introduction. In extreme life events basic assumptions are frequently reassessed and changed. Therefore, trauma requires re-education. Effective coping strategies enable individual to tolerate, minimize, accept or ignore what one cannot manage and to moderate the consequences of stressful, traumatic events. Materials and Methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate coping strategies in refugees with post-traumatic stress disorder prior and after group cognitive-behavioural therapy. The sa...
?avi? Tamara; Le?i?-Toševski Dušica; Pejovi? Mirko
The study explored the self-generated coping strategies employed by Muslim athletes from South East Asian region during the Ramadan fasting month. Sixty-five National elite Muslim athletes responded to an open-ended question on coping strategies employed during Ramadan fasting. Inductive content analysis identified five general dimensions from 54 meaning units which were abstracted into 14 first-order themes and 10 second order themes. The general dimension included four problem-focused copin...
Jolly Roy; Ooi Cheong Hwa; Rabindarjeet Singh; Abdul Rashid Aziz; Chai Wen Jin
In many developing countries where agricultural groundwater use led to aquifer overexploitation, direct control over farmers' groundwater use is difficult to implement. This calls for the set up, at least in the short term, of indirect policies, whose efficiency will depend on farmers' strategies. The different strategies adopted by farmers to cope with groundwater crisis are analyzed in the Chaouia Region in Morocco, where intensive agricultural groundwater use for the past fifty years has l...
Berahmani, Adnane; Faysse, Nicolas; Errahj, Mostafa; Gafsi, Mohamed
Full Text Available Aim. To explore the coping strategies responses that the intensive care unit nurses experiment when facing the death of a critical ill patient.Methods. Qualitative study of a phenomenological nature carried out on 16 professionals throughin-depth interviews. The selection of the participants was intentional and the incorporation was progressive until reaching the data saturation. The analytic scheme, proposed by Taylor- Bogdan, was followed to effectuate the data analysis.Results. The coping strategies identified after the qualitative analysis were grouped according to their frequency of appearance in primary and secondary strategies. Acceptance and distance are resources of primary coping strategies, whereas search for social support, self-confidence, cognitive redefinition, generation of positive emotions, denial and search for spiritual support are secondary coping strategies.Conclusion. Bereavement coping strategies on the death of the critical ill patients is a very complex process which implies that nurses mobilize a large group of emotional resources to achieve adaptation. The strategies of acceptance and distance, as they are described in this study, must be considered adaptative strategies that demonstrate very clearly that caring for critical ill patients represents a significant fight for nurses in a personal and professional sense.
María Gálvez González
Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N?=?300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed. PMID:24414302
Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L
Full Text Available The focus of this study was the relatively unexplored link between perceived leadership styles and employees' current levels of workplace stress and coping strategies. The participants were 442 employees in five IT organisations in Slovenia. The theoretical background for leadership styles was taken from the full-range leadership model. Data were collected using three questionnaires: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a single questionnaire item on the current level of workplace stress. Correlations and linear regression were used to test whether leadership style influences the employees' stress-coping strategies.Lower levels of stress at work were found for employees whose leader showed more transformational or transactional leadership behaviours. The results showed low to moderate correlations between the three basic leadership styles and coping strategies such as positive reappraisal, seeking social assistance, and negative escape/avoidance. These coping strategies were more frequently used by employees whose leaders often used transformational and transactional leadership styles. Employees whose leaders frequently used passive-avoidant leadership style more often approach to stress situations with escape, avoidance, and rarely with positive reappraisal. But the regression models explained only 2% to 7% of the variance for certain coping strategie.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study provided essential information, about Turkish patients with type I and type II diabetes, concerning: levels of anxiety, coping strategies used, and relationships that exist among anxiety, coping strategies, sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Methods A sample comprising 161 Turkish adults with both types of diabetes participated in the study. The trait anxiety scale, the brief COPE, sociodemographic and medical questionnaire were administered to patients with diabetes. Results The mean age was 49.01 (SD = 9.74, with a range from 20 to 60 years. The majority of the participants were female (60.9% and type II diabetes (75.8%. 79% of the participants experienced anxiety. A clear majority of the participants reported to integrate their diabetes. Acceptance, religion, planning, positive reframing, instrumental support, emotional support, self-distraction and venting were the most frequently used coping strategies. The most frequently used problem-focused and the emotion-focused coping strategies were found to be similar in both type I and type II diabetes. However, participants with type II diabetes had relatively higher scores on the problem-focused strategies than those with type I. Participants with type I diabetes used humour, venting and self-blame more than those with type II diabetes. Other findings indicated that only a small minority responded to diabetes-related problems by denial, behavioural disengagement and substance use. Significant correlations were found among anxiety, coping strategies and sociodemographic characteristics of the participants. Moreover, Self-blame was found to be correlated significantly with both the problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies. Self-blame was also significantly correlated with both instrumental support and emotional support indicated that higher self-blame caused more frequent use of instrumental and emotional support by patients with diabetes. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that care for patients with diabetes should address their physical, psychological, social and economic wellbeing and the findings point to the importance of taking individual coping strategies into account when evaluating the impact of diabetes on psychosocial wellbeing. Because of the mean of anxiety were not in normal range, for this study, health professionals need to pay attention to patient's psychological state. This is especially true for patients who are likely to use self-blame and behavioural disengagement as a coping strategy. Through psychosocial interventions, professionals need to assist patients in establishing positive self evaluations. Delineation of coping strategies might be useful for identifying patients in need of particular counselling and support.
This article reports on findings of a research project examining farmers' coping strategies in the Brazilian Amazon in response to El Nino related weather events. We examine the extent of vulnerability of small and large farmers to these events in a tropical rainforest environment. Little attention has been given to the impact of ENSO events in Amazonia, despite evidence for devastating fires during ENSOs. Although we found a range of locally developed forecasting techniques and coping mechanisms, farmers have sustained significant losses, and we suggest that increased access to scientific forecasts would greatly enhance the ability of the farmers in our study area to cope with El Nino related weather events. In Amazonia the El Nino phase of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate pattern leads to an extended period of reduced rainfall (Hobbs et al., 1998). This period of reduced rainfall can result in significant agricultural losses for farmers and ranchers in the area and in increased forest flammability. We have found that the majority of our study population uses several methods of forecasting, coping with, and adapting to drought events - and they recognize the economic losses they can experience and the loss of forests through the accidental spread of fire. The poorest farmers in our study area experience El Nino related drought events as a serious threat to their livelihoods. Their vulnerability is heightened during extreme climate events and our observations revealed that all of the farmers in our study would benefit from increased availability of improved forecast information relevant to their locality and their current farming strategies. This paper examines the availability and use of forecasts, the occurrence of accidental fires and techniques to prevent fire related losses, and the coping mechanisms for dealing with El Nino related drought in the agricultural regions surrounding the cities of Altamira and Santarem, in Para State, Brazil. Distribution of an El Nino Prediction Kit at the end of the study and a series of workshops may lead to better local information on rainfall variability and create a farmer-maintained grid of collecting stations to sensitize farmers to the variability of precipitation in the region, and on their property.
Moran, E.F. [Anthropological Center for Training in Global Environmental Change ACT, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Adams, R. [Center for the Study of Population, Institutions, and Environmental Change CIPEC, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Bakoyema, B.; Fiorini, S.T. [Anthropology Department, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Boucek, B. [Geography Department, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States)
Personality Dimensions, Religious Tendencies and Coping Strategies as Predictors of General Health in Iranian Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability: A Comparison with Mothers of Typically Developing Children
Background: Challenges related to rearing children with intellectual disability (ID) may cause mothers of these children to have mental health status problems. Method: A total of 124 mothers who had a child with ID and 124 mothers of typically developing children were selected using random sampling. Data were collected using General health…
Mirsaleh, Y. R.; Rezai, H.; Khabaz, M.; Afkhami Ardekani, I.; Abdi, K.
Full Text Available Alessandro Iavarone,1,2 Antonio Rosario Ziello,3,4 Francesca Pastore,3 Angiola Maria Fasanaro,3 Carla Poderico5 1Neurological and Stroke Unit, CTO Hospital, 2Italian Association on Alzheimer's Disease (AIMA, 3Memory Clinic, Neurological Unit, AORN Cardarelli Hospital, Naples, Italy; 4Clinical Research, Telemedicine and Telepharmacy Centre, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy; 5Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD causes considerable distress in caregivers who are continuously required to deal with requests from patients. Coping strategies play a fundamental role in modulating the psychologic impact of the disease, although their role is still debated. The present study aims to evaluate the burden and anxiety experienced by caregivers, the effectiveness of adopted coping strategies, and their relationships with burden and anxiety. Methods: Eighty-six caregivers received the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Y-1 and Y-2. The coping strategies were assessed by means of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS, according to the model proposed by Endler and Parker in 1990.Results: The CBI scores (overall and single sections were extremely high and correlated with dementia severity. Women, as well as older caregivers, showed higher scores. The trait anxiety (STAI-Y-2 correlated with the CBI overall score. The CISS showed that caregivers mainly adopted task-focused strategies. Women mainly adopted emotion-focused strategies and this style was related to a higher level of distress. Conclusion: AD is associated with high distress among caregivers. The burden strongly correlates with dementia severity and is higher in women and in elderly subjects. Chronic anxiety affects caregivers who mainly rely on emotion-oriented coping strategies. The findings suggest providing support to families of patients with AD through tailored strategies aimed to reshape the dysfunctional coping styles. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, distress, caregiver burden, stress, coping strategies
The aim of this study was to investigate the coping strategies that Swedish 10 and 12 year-olds (N = 694) suggested they would use if they were cyberbullied, with a special focus on whether there are differences in these strategies related to age and gender. The most commonly suggested coping strategy was telling someone, especially parents and teachers (70.5%). Surprisingly few of the pupils reported that they would tell a friend (2.6%). Differences in suggested coping strategies were found related to age and gender. Findings are discussed in relation to the Swedish sociocultural context as well as in relation to the implications for prevention strategies against cyberbullying. PMID:25040330
Frisén, Ann; Berne, Sofia; Marin, Lina
Full Text Available Abstract Background Coping strategies have, in some countries, become so prevalent that it has been widely assumed that the very notion of civil services ethos has completely – and possibly irreversibly – disappeared. This paper describes the importance and the nature of pilfering of drugs by health staff in Mozambique and Cape Verde, as perceived by health professionals from these countries. Their opinions provide pointers as to how to tackle these problems. Methods This study is based on a self-administered questionnaire addressed to a convenience sample of health workers in Mozambique and in Cape Verde. Results The study confirms that misuse of access to pharmaceuticals has become a key element in the coping strategies health personnel develop to deal with difficult living conditions. Different professional groups (misuse their privileged access in different ways, but doctors diversify most. The study identifies the reasons given for misusing access to drugs, shows how the problem is perceived by the health workers, and discusses the implications for finding solutions to the problem. Our findings reflect, from the health workers themselves, a conflict between their self image of what it means to be an honest civil servant who wants to do a decent job, and the brute facts of life that make them betray that image. The manifest unease that this provokes is an important observation as such. Conclusion Our findings suggest that, even in the difficult circumstances observed in many countries, behaviours that depart from traditional civil servant deontology have not been interiorised as a norm. This ambiguity indicates that interventions to mitigate the erosion of proper conduct would be welcome. The time to act is now, before small-scale individual coping grows into large-scale, well-organized crime.
Full Text Available This study aims to find the relationship between quality of life and coping strategies in coronary heart disease patients. Two hundred coronary heart disease patients at Tehran Heart Center, who had been diagnosed with the disease 3 months before, were selected and filled out The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS and Quality of Life-SF36. Results showed a discrepancy between quality of life indices and coping strategies. Task-oriented strategy had a positive and significant relationship with total quality of life and PF indices while it had a negative and significant relationship with MH, RE and RP indices. Emotional-oriented strategy had a positive and significant relationship with RP and RE indices while it had a negative and significant relationship with PF, GH, PH, total psychological health and total quality of life indices. Avoidance-oriented strategy had a negative and significant relationship only with MH index. Furthermore, quality of life aspects (physical and psychological had a positive and significant relationship with emotional-oriented strategy, but it did not have a significant relationship with task-oriented and avoidance-oriented strategies. Also, the social aspect of quality of life did not have a significant relationship with any of the strategies. Considering the effect of stress on decreasing the quality of life, we recommend a psychologist train coping strategies to coronary heart disease patients along with medical treatments in order to improve recovery, maintain health and reduce recurrence.
This study aims to find the relationship between quality of life and coping strategies in coronary heart disease patients. Two hundred coronary heart disease patients at Tehran Heart Center, who had been diagnosed with the disease 3 months before, were selected and filled out The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and Quality of Life-SF36. Results showed a discrepancy between quality of life indices and coping strategies. Task-oriented strategy had a positive and significant relationship with total quality of life and PF indices while it had a negative and significant relationship with MH, RE and RP indices. Emotional-oriented strategy had a positive and significant relationship with RP and RE indices while it had a negative and significant relationship with PF, GH, PH, total psychological health and total quality of life indices. Avoidance-oriented strategy had a negative and significant relationship only with MH index. Furthermore, quality of life aspects (physical and psychological) had a positive and significant relationship with emotional-oriented strategy, but it did not have a significant relationship with task-oriented and avoidance-oriented strategies. Also, the social aspect of quality of life did not have a significant relationship with any of the strategies. Considering the effect of stress on decreasing the quality of life, we recommend a psychologist train coping strategies to coronary heart disease patients along with medical treatments in order to improve recovery, maintain health and reduce recurrence.
Yazdi, Seyedeh-Monavar; Hosseinian, Simin; Eslami, Mansoure; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali
This study examined the relationships between spirituality, intrinsic religiousness, and coping strategies (i.e., problem-focused and avoidant emotion-focused coping) and multiple domains of functioning (i.e., instrumental activities of daily living, life satisfaction, and community engagement) for adults with vision-related disabilities. The results indicated significant positive associations between spirituality and life satisfaction, and spirituality and community engagement. Age of onset,...
Matt, Allyson R.
The search for meaning in life is part of the human experience. A negative life event may threaten perceptions about meaning in life, such as the benevolence of the world and one’s sense of harmony and peace. The authors examined the longitudinal relationship between women’s coping with a diagnosis of breast cancer and their self-reported meaning in life 2 years later. Multiple regression analyses revealed that positive strategies for coping predicted significant variance in the sense of ...
Jim, Heather S.; Richardson, Susan A.; Golden-kreutz, Deanna M.; Andersen, Barbara L.
The focus of this study was the relatively unexplored link between perceived leadership styles and employees' current levels of workplace stress and coping strategies. The participants were 442 employees in five IT organisations in Slovenia. The theoretical background for leadership styles was taken from the full-range leadership model. Data were collected using three questionnaires: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a single questionnaire item on the cur...
Eva Boštjan?i?; Maja Pezdir; Janez Stare
Aim. To explore the coping strategies responses that the intensive care unit nurses experiment when facing the death of a critical ill patient.Methods. Qualitative study of a phenomenological nature carried out on 16 professionals throughin-depth interviews. The selection of the participants was intentional and the incorporation was progressive until reaching the data saturation. The analytic scheme, proposed by Taylor- Bogdan, was followed to effectuate the data analysis.Results. The coping ...
María Gálvez González; Belén del Águila Hidalgo; Lourdes Fernández Vargas; Concepción Fernández Luque; Graciela Muñumel Alameda; Francisca Ríos Gallego
Stress in close relationships can have significant negative consequences for mental health, physical health, and long-term relationship functioning. Dysregulated physiological responses to stress are potential pathways through which relationship stress may lead to these kinds of outcomes, and the ways in which individuals attempt to cope with relationship stress are likely to impact their physiological responses. However, our understanding of the specific coping strategies that predict physio...
Gunlicks-stoessel, Meredith L.; Powers, Sally I.
Abstract Background An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and De...
Guribye Eugene; Sandal Gro; Oppedal Brit
A total of 407 students in a central London secondary school participated in a survey of different approaches to managing traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Student perceptions of individual coping strategies and school interventions for traditional bullying and cyberbullying were measured. Rankings of the strategies for traditional bullying…
Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K.; Blumberg, Herbert H.
Discusses technostress--i.e., stress brought on by changes in technology--in libraries and media centers. Case studies are presented that show stress in community college libraries caused by the rapid implementation of new technologies; coping strategies for librarians and media specialists are discussed; and strategies for managers are suggested.…
Hickey, Kate D., Ed.
To examine the relationships between stress levels and, respectively, stressor appraisal, coping strategies and bio- graphical variables, 107 managers completed a biographical questionnaire. Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire, and Coping Strategy Indicator. Significant negative correlations were found between stress levels and appraisal scores on all work-related stressors. An avoidant coping strategy explained significant variance in stress levels in a model also contain...
Orpen-lyall, Mark R.; Spangenberg, Judora J.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Sport coaching can be a fulfilling and rewarding occupation, but can also be stressful because of the demands and expectations of various external factors. The complex and extraordinary demands placed on coaches, force them to perform multiple roles (e.g. educator, motivator, counsellor, adviser, tr [...] ainer, manager and administrator). Soccer coaches face a number of challenges, frustrations, conflicts and tensions, the enormity of which is often underestimated. This notion is supported by the description of coaching as a perilous occupation in which coaches experience pressures like stress, conflict and tension, media pressure and intrusions into family life. This study explored the perceptions of South African soccer coaches in terms of the mechanisms they use to cope with potential stressors experienced in their jobs and employed a non-experimental design, using a quantitative approach, to assess stress and coping strategies of South African coaches. One hundred and twelve soccer coaches, coaching at the provincial level and higher, completed a questionnaire on stress and stress coping mechanisms used in their coaching jobs. Descriptive data analysis was completed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS - version 16). The sources of stress experienced and coping methods used by the coaches were evaluated. Results revealed that the top three sources of stress were a lack of resources, fixture backlog and games where the outcome is critical, whilst the lowest three sources of stress were political interference, physical assaults from players and substituting a player. Moreover, various coping strategies used by the coaches showed that an average of 5.68%, 5.14% and 89.78% of the sample used maladaptive coping, emotion management coping and problem management coping strategies respectively. Academic and practical implications of the study results are discussed.
Jhalukpreya, Surujlal; Sheila, Nguyen.
Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic patients face with different physical and psychological challenging factors which impress their quality of life. The major problem of these patients, which has made their life circumstances more complicated, is coping and adapting styles with the illness. So, this study aimed to determine quality of life and also different kinds of coping strategies in patients with type 2 diabetes and also to compare it with those of healthy people. Methods: In this study, sixty diabetic patients (30 male, 30 female, were chosen by available sampling method from the people who referred to Sina Diabetes center in Tabriz and were compared with sixty non diabetic people (30 male, 30 female. Data were collected by two questionnaires including the short form health survey (SF-36 and coping style Inventories. MANOVA method was used to analyze the research data. Results: The study results showed that non diabetics were significantly higher than diabetic patients in regard to quality of life and its dimensions (p<0.001. Also results revealed that non diabetic people used the problem–oriented styles (p<0.001, however diabetic patients used emotional-oriented coping and avoidance strategies more (p<0.05. In this study (in both groups, females in comparison with males had lower score in quality of life and used more emotion-oriented coping styles and less problem-oriented styles. Conclusion: The results indicated that individuals’ quality of life was affected by their coping style with different affairs. Emotional-oriented coping and avoidance strategies were related with decrease of quality of life in diabetic patients whereas problem-oriented styles enhanced it. Therefore, it is necessary to perform interventions for teaching problem solving coping in order to improve these patients' quality of life.
J Babapour Kheirodin
On the basis of the stress and coping literature, the authors examined the diverse coping strategies used by expatriate managers in response to the problems encountered while on international assignments. It was hypothesized that although problem-focused coping strategies may be more effective than are emotion-focused coping strategies in affecting cross-cultural adjustment and intention to remain on the international assignment, the relationship is moderated by contextual factors such as hierarchical level in the organization, time on the assignment, and cultural distance. Coded semistructured interview responses from 116 German expatriates on assignment in either Japan or the United States were analyzed with moderated regression analyses. The results suggest that the effectiveness of problem-focused coping strategies in predicting cross-cultural adjustment is moderated by cultural distance and position level but not by time on the assignment. The use of problem-focused coping strategies was not related to expatriates' intention to remain on the assignment. PMID:16060781
Stahl, Günter K; Caligiuri, Paula
Radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent condition that has been the focus of a number of studies identifying factors that are prognostic of continued or worsening pain and function. Although prior prognostic studies have identified a number of demographic, physical, and psychological factors that are predictive of outcome, minimal focus has been placed on pain coping skills as prognostic factors, despite cross-sectional evidence suggesting that pain coping skills are associated with pain and function in knee OA. The present study reports on the use of pain coping skills as prognostic factors for changes in pain and/or function over a 1-year period. Participants were drawn from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of persons recruited from the community who either had knee OA or were at high risk for developing knee OA. Data from the Coping Strategies Questionnaire were compared against 1-year change in pain, function, or both, using established criteria for defining whether the patient got better, worse, or stayed the same over the 1-year period. Results revealed a significant effect for praying/hoping, increased behavioral activities, and pain catastrophizing as prognostic of pain outcomes; ignoring pain and praying/hoping were prognostic of function outcomes; and increased behavioral activities and pain catastrophizing were prognostic of a combined pain and function outcome. The findings provide important new evidence regarding the potential clinical relevance of a number of pain coping responses hypothesized to influence future pain and function in persons with arthritis. PMID:23969326
Alschuler, Kevin N.; Molton, Ivan R.; Jensen, Mark P.; Riddle, Daniel L.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. Results The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students. The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. Conclusion The higher level of psychological morbidity warrants need for interventions like social and psychological support to improve the quality of life for these medical students. Student advisors and counselors may train students about stress management. There is also need to bring about academic changes in quality of teaching and evaluation system. A prospective study is necessary to study the association of psychological morbidity with demographic variables, sources of stress and coping strategies.
Psychological distress may be causally related to multiple, unexplained somatic symptoms. We have investigated job stress, coping strategies and subjective health complaints in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity. Sixty-four patients were compared with 65 controls. All participants filled in questionnaires focusing on job stress, job demands and control, work environment, coping strategies and subjective health complaints. Compared with controls, patients scored significantly lower on job stress and job demands, and significantly higher on authority over job decisions. Coping strategies and satisfaction with work environment did not differ significantly between the two groups, but the patients reported significantly more subjective health complaints than the controls. Scores on job stress and job demands were generally low in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity. It is unlikely, therefore, that the patients' high scores on subjective health complaints are causally related to the work situation. PMID:19961557
Lind, R; Lillestøl, K; Valeur, Jørgen; Eriksen, H R; Tangen, T; Berstad, A; Arslan Lied, G
Full Text Available When a natural disaster hits, the affected households try to cope with its impacts. A variety of coping strategies, from reducing current consumption to disposing of productive assets, may be employed. The latter strategies are especially worrisome because they may reduce the capacity of the household to generate income in the future, possibly leading to chronic poverty. We used the results of a household survey in rural Uganda to ask, first, what coping strategies would tend to be employed in the event of a weather disaster, second, given that multiple strategies can be chosen, in what combinations would they tend to be employed, and, third, given that asset-liquidation strategies can be particularly harmful for the future income prospects of households, what determines their uptake? Our survey is one of the largest of its kind, containing over 3000 observations garnered by local workers using smartphone technology. We found that in this rural sample, by far, the most frequently reported choice would be to sell livestock. This is rather striking because asset-based theories would predict more reliance on strategies like eating and spending less today, which avoid disposal of productive assets. It may well be that livestock is held as a form of liquid savings to, among other things, help bounce back from a weather disaster. Although, we did find that other strategies that might undermine future prospects were avoided, notably selling land or the home and disrupting the children’s education. Our econometric analysis revealed a fairly rich set of determinants of different subsets of coping strategies. Perhaps most notably, households with a more educated head are much less likely to choose coping strategies involving taking their own children out of education.
Jennifer F. Helgeson
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of coping strategies, personality trait and social support as the main social and psychological factors on infertility stress.Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 201 infertile Iranian women referred to the Vali-e-Asr Reproductive health Research Center, and completed the following questionnaires: The fertility problem inventory, measuring perceived infertility related stress (Newton CR, 1999, big five factor personality questionnaire (Farahani, 2009, multidimensional scale of perceived social support MSPS (Zimmet 1988, and multidimensional assessment of coping (Endler, 1990.The results were then analyzed using the Pearson Correlation and stepwise regression.Results: Infertility stress has negative and significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, perceived social support and bring extrovert. It has a positive, significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. The results of the stepwise regression showed that emotion-oriented coping method, OCD and being extrovert are suitable predictors of infertility stress.Conclusion: About 22% of the infertility stress variance was explained by coping strategies and personality trait. Therefore our result demonstrates the importance of social and psychological factors on experiencing the infertility stress.
Mohammad Naghi Farahani
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the coping strategies employed by university athletes who have lost in acompetition. A sample of ten hand ball women athletes (age between 21-24 years old who represented one ofthe largest universities in Kuala Lumpur in the Malaysian Inter-varsity games agreed to participate in this study.All of the athletes have signed the consent letter, giving their permission for the interview to be recorded. Theresult for content analysis has identified two major dimensions; 1 how athletes cope, and 2 ways to cope. In thefirst dimension (how athletes cope, three major themes have emerged from the interview, which are socialsupport, problem solving, and doing other activities. On the other hand, the second dimension (ways to cope hasidentified two major themes, which are concentration and self confidence. However, social support has beenclaimed by losing athletes as the main coping strategy used to overcome their grief after losing the competition.Suggestions are also recommended in the paper.
Full Text Available Cluster headache (CH is a chronic syndrome characterized by excruciatingly painful attacks occurring with circadian and circannual periodicity. The objectives of the present study were, in CH patients, to determine by principal component analysis the factor structure of two instruments commonly used in clinics to evaluate pain locus of control (Cancer Locus of Control Scale–CLCS and coping strategies (Coping Strategies Questionnaire–CSQ, to examine the relationship between internal pain controllability and emotional distress, and to compare psychosocial distress and coping strategies between two subsets of patients with episodic or chronic CH. Results indicate, for CLCS, a 3-factor structure (internal controllability, medical controllability, religious controllability noticeably different in CH patients from the structure reported in patients with other painful pathologies and, for CSQ, a 5-factor structure of CSQ which did not markedly diverge from the classical structure. Perceived internal controllability of pain was strongly correlated with study measures of depression (HAD depression/anhedonia subscale, Beck Depression Inventory. Comparison between subsets of patients with episodic or chronic CH of emotional status, pain locus of control, perceived social support and coping strategies did not reveal significant differences apart for the Reinterpreting pain sensations strategy which was more often used by episodic CH patients. Observed tendencies for increased anxiety and perceived social support in patients with episodic CH, and for increased depression and more frequent use of the Ignoring pain sensations strategy in patients with chronic CH, warrant confirmation in larger groups of patients.
Requirements traceability can in principle support stakeholders coping with rising development complexity. However, studies showed that practitioners rarely use available traceability information after its initial creation. In the position paper for the Dagstuhl seminar 1242, we argued that a more integrated approach allowing interactive traceability queries and context-specific traceability visualizations is needed to let practitioner access and use valuable traceability in...
We explored the role of religiosity and spirituality on (i) feelings and attitudes about breast cancer, (ii) strategies for coping with breast cancer, and (iii) health care seeking behaviors among breast cancer survivors in Iran. We conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 39 breast cancer survivors. We found that spirituality is the primary source of psychological support among participants. Almost all participants attributed their cancer to the will of God. Despite this, they actively have been engaged with their medical treatment. This is in surprising contrast to Western cultures in which a belief in an external health locus of control diminishes participation in cancer screening, detection, and treatment. These findings can help researchers to provide a framework for the development of appropriate and effective culturally sensitive health interventions. PMID:20390638
Harandy, Tayebeh Fasihi; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Montazeri, Ali; Anoosheh, Monireh; Bazargan, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Eesa; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Niknami, Shamsaddin
Full Text Available Background: Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence. Objective: Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo. Design: A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence. Results: Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out. Conclusions: Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms.
Elli Nur Hayati
Background Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence. Objective Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo. Design A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence. Results Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out. Conclusions Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms. PMID:23336615
Hayati, Elli Nur; Eriksson, Malin; Hakimi, Mohammad; Högberg, Ulf; Emmelin, Maria
Fear for the stalking victim's own safety or the safety of people close to them is of primary research interest due to the fact that fear is often required as a necessary condition for repetitive intrusive behavior to be defined as stalking. This study examines factors that increase levels of fear in stalking victims and analyzes their coping strategies, making use of data from a victimization survey among citizens of the Czech Republic (N = 2,503). Overall, 147 stalking victims were identified in the sample. Results show that female victims, those stalked by male offenders, and victims pursued over a long period of time, are most fearful. Higher levels of fear are elicited by strangers as opposed to partners or acquaintances. Among stalking practices, only direct aggression is significantly associated with fear, whereas monitoring the victim (comprising typical stalking behavior such as following the victim) increases the perception of the seriousness of stalking, but does not influence the victim's fear. In addition, three behavioral coping strategies have been identified: proactive behavior (47% of victims), avoidance (30%), and passivity (23%). The examination of the association between these coping strategies and victims' fear reveals that female victims, whose behavior is proactive, express higher levels of fear than male victims and than those choosing avoidance or passivity strategies. Overall, the study confirms gender differences in both the level of fear and coping strategies, and lends further support to appeals for eliminating the fear requirement from the stalking definition. PMID:25392391
Podaná, Zuzana; Imríšková, Romana
Full Text Available Effective use of coping strategies by people with chronic pain conditions is associated with better functioning and adjustment to chronic disease. Although the effects of coping on pain have been well studied, less is known about how specific coping strategies relate to actual physical activity patterns in daily life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how different coping strategies relate to symptoms and physical activity patterns in a sample of adults with knee and hip osteoarthritis (N = 44. Physical activity was assessed by wrist-worn accelerometry; coping strategy use was assessed by the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory. We hypothesized that the use of coping strategies that reflect approach behaviors (e.g., Task Persistence, would be associated with higher average levels of physical activity, whereas avoidance coping behaviors (e.g., Resting, Asking for Assistance, Guarding and Pacing would be associated with lower average levels of physical activity. We also evaluated whether coping strategies moderated the association between momentary symptoms (pain and fatigue and activity. We hypothesized that higher levels of approach coping would be associated with a weaker association between symptoms and activity compared to lower levels of this type of coping. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the momentary association between coping and physical activity. We found that higher body mass index, fatigue, and the use of Guarding were significantly related to lower activity levels, whereas Asking for Assistance was significantly related to higher activity levels. Only Resting moderated the association between pain and activity. Guarding, Resting, Task Persistence, and Pacing moderated the association between fatigue and activity. This study provides an initial understanding of how people with osteoarthritis cope with symptoms as they engage in daily life activities using ecological momentary assessment and objective physical activity measurement.
Individuals respond to threats to affiliation and achievement needs through drawing on a repertoire of coping strategies specific to a given situation. Gifted adolescents in college-preparatory high school programs may be faced with novel stressors, and may have unique coping strategies to manage these challenges. The current study considers…
Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Suldo, Shannon M.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether coping strategies differ in parents of children with disabilities and parents of children without disabilities. Participants consisted of 112 parents, including 50 parents of children with disabilities and 62 parents of children without disabilities. It was hypothesized that coping strategies…
Paster, Angela; Brandwein, David; Walsh, Joanne
The research examined (a) girls' responses to personal experiences of gender and/or ethnic/racial discrimination, (b) social support from parents and friends following the discrimination, and (c) the relationship between girls' reported coping strategies to the discrimination and their self-esteem. Participants were 74 adolescent girls ("M" = 16.3…
Ayres, Melanie M.; Leaper, Campbell
This paper examined the relationships between workplace coping strategies, occupational attributional style, and job satisfaction among a sample of 190 nurses employed with a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. As an occupational group, nurses experience high levels of chronic workplace stressors. Participants completed a questionnaire packet…
Welbourne, Jennifer L.; Eggerth, Donald; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Sanchez, Francisco
Data from 368 families of children with autism and other developmental disabilities in the People's Republic of China were gathered to understand the stresses that families experience and the coping strategies they employ. Chinese families of children with developmental disabilities perceived high levels of stress related to pessimism, child…
Wang, Peishi; Michaels, Craig A.; Day, Matthew S.
Parenting a child with a disability is a lifelong journey. The coping strategies utilized by parents impact the well-being of the family, especially the mothers. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the maternal well-being of Latina and Anglo mothers who have a child with severe to profound disabilities. Predictive variables, such as…
Welch-Scalco, Rhonda Jeannean
Introduction: In the past two decades, increased attention has been given to the importance of non-cognitive factors in learning, and in academic, social and professional success. There are two quite interrelated variables that influence behavior when facing stress in the academic context, resilience and coping strategies, and only recently have…
González-Torres, Mª Carmen; Artuch-Garde, Raquel
Using person-centered and variable-centered analyses, this study examined the relationships between undergraduate students' time perspectives and boredom coping strategies. A total of 719 undergraduate students voluntarily participated in the study. Results of the study showed that undergraduate students' time perspectives can be…
Eren, Altay; Coskun, Hamit
Operational response by firefighters requires an abrupt change from rest to near-maximal physical effort and incorporates almost instant stress management that must be made during extreme heat, limited time and partial information, yet little is known about the coping strategies incorporated to manage the physiological and psychological demands associated with this environment. A sample of 22 UK firefighters took part in focus groups identifying frequently used coping techniques based upon problem-focused and emotion-focused coping methods. Findings suggest problem-orientated coping comprised half of the total coping strategies quoted by participants, with a third of responses being categorized as emotion-focused methods, and 17% were considered to be both problem-focused and emotion-focused techniques. Responses indicate problem-focused methods are often utilized en route to the incident, and at the early stages of operational tasks. Emotion-focused responses are more common during periods of fatigue and exhaustion and post-incident, and problem-focused and emotion-focused techniques were found post-incident, although there was often an overlap between methods and they perhaps should not be treated as three distinct stages. The importance of peer support and potential benefits to firefighter well-being and operational performance are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25312623
Young, Paul M; Partington, Sarah; Wetherell, Mark A; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Partington, Elizabeth
This article reveals women caregivers' perceptions and coping strategies to improve households' food and physical activity habits. Results emerged from the pre-intervention formative research phase of a multi-site, multi-level obesity prevention pilot intervention on American Indian (AI) reservations. Using purposive sampling, 250 adults and children participated in qualitative research. Results reveal that having local institutional support was a key structural facilitator. 'Family connectedness' emerged as a key relational facilitator. Hegemony of systems, food deserts, transportation, and weather were key structural barriers; Childcare needs and time constraints were key relational barriers. Women's coping strategies included planning ahead, maximizing, apportioning, tempting healthy, and social support. Findings informed the development and implementation of a novel obesity prevention pilot intervention tailored for each participating AI community addressing culturally relevant messages, institutional policies, and programs. We conclude with future consideration for comparative, ethnicity-based, class-based, and gender-specific studies on women's coping strategies for household health behaviors. PMID:25402721
Gadhoke, Preety; Christiansen, Karina; Pardilla, Marla; Frick, Kevin; Gittelsohn, Joel
Absolute poverty has been a social problem in rural Nigeria with its rate ever on the increase. All the previous government efforts in terms of poverty reduction projects and programmes failed to improve on the situation. In order to survive, the rural poor decided device survival strategies to cope with poverty. One of such strategies is the formulation of community based organizations (CBOs). The paper examines the nature, activities and impact of the CBOs on the rural poor. The CBOs were a...
In the current investigation, predispositions for coping styles (i.e., passive, flexible, and active) were determined in juvenile male rats. In subsequent behavioral tests, flexible copers exhibited more active responses. In another study, animals were exposed to chronic stress and flexible coping rats had lower levels of corticosteroids. Focusing on the acquired nature of coping strategies, rats receiving extensive training in a task requiring them to dig for food rewards (i.e., effort-based rewards) persisted longer in a challenging task than control animals. Thus, the results suggest that both predisposed coping strategies and acquired behavioral experience contribute to resilience in challenging situations. PMID:17347369
Lambert, Kelly G; Tu, Kelly; Everette, Ashley; Love, Gennifer; McNamara, Ilan; Bardi, Massimo; Kinsley, Craig H
Full Text Available The aim of this review was to evaluate research relating to the effects of coping strategies and resilience on the level of workplace stress. Much of the research focused on working mothers and working females in general. It was found that working females experienced more work stress as compared to men. And currently in Malaysia, social policies that support working females, especially working mothers, has not been adopted fully by most corporations. Furthermore, the evidence for effective problem-focused and emotion-focused coping was inconsistent. It was concluded that correlation between work stressors and the adopted coping strategies may vary depending on the type of problems being dealt with and the interplay between the employee and the demand. Moreover, resilience literature revealed this concept as an enhancement of an individual’s adaptability and survival in the presence of occupational stressors and success in overcoming the stressors results in increased resilience to future hardships. This article identifies a number of research gaps for advancing work stress research, in particular: 1 limited work stress research on Malaysian working women and mothers, and; 2 limited literature on relating resilience to coping strategies and work stress.
Shueh Yi Lian
The aimed of this research to analyze the effect of stress level and coping resorces on family’s coping strategy post disaster after six months and one year in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province. The design of this research was crosssectional study and retrospective studies. Data included the condition of family faced after six months and a year after earthquake and tsunami disaster except for coping resourses was without six months data. Sampling method used random sampling with 138 samp...
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as estratégias de enfrentamento (coping) das gestantes frente ao diagnóstico de cardiopatia fetal. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistadas 50 gestantes que receberam o diagnóstico de cardiopatia fetal. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se uma entrevista semidirigida e o Inventário de Estratégi [...] a de Coping. A entrevista foi realizada, em média, 22 dias após terem recebido o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: Ao investigar como se sentiam em relação ao bebê, 56,0% relataram preocupação e fragilidade, enquanto que as demais (44,0%) afirmaram estarem felizes e bem. As estratégias mais utilizadas pelas gestantes foram: resolução de problemas (73,0%), suporte social (69,1%), fuga/esquiva (62,7%), e a estratégia menos utilizada foi a de afastamento (17,3%). Constatou-se que as mulheres com companheiro, utilizaram mais a estratégia de resolução de problemas (p Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the coping strategies of women facing a diagnosis of fetal heart disease. METHODS: We interviewed 50 women who had received a diagnosis of fetal heart disease. For data collection we used a semi-directed and Coping Strategy Inventory. The interview was conducted, on average, 22 [...] days after the diagnosis. RESULTS: When asked how they felt about the baby, 56.0% reported concern and fragility, while the remaining 44.0% said they were happy and well. The strategies most used by women were problem solving (73.0%), social support (69.1%) and escape/avoidance (62.7%), and the least used strategy was removal (17.3%). It was found that women with partners, as well as those with 1 or 2 children, used more the problem-solving strategy (p
Gláucia Rosana Guerra, Benute; Daniele, Nonnenmacher; Luiz Flávio Mendes, Evangelista; Lilian Maria, Lopes; Mara Cristina Souza, Lucia; Marcelo, Zugaib.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined which adaptive coping strategies, referring to the concept of 'locus of disease control', were of relevance for patients with chronic pain conditions, and how they were interconnected with patients' life satisfaction and interpretation of disease. Methods In a multicenter cross-sectional anonymous survey with the AKU questionnaire, we enrolled 579 patients (mean age 54 ± 14 years with various chronic pain conditions. Results Disease as an adverse interruption of life was the prevalent interpretation of chronic pain conditions. As a consequence, patients relied on external powerful sources to control their disease (i.e., Trust in Medical Help; Search for Information and Alternative Help, but also on internal powers and virtues (i.e., Conscious Way of Living; Positive Attitudes. In contrast, Trust in Divine Help as an external transcendent source and Reappraisal: Illness as Chance as an internal (cognitive strategy were valued moderately. Regression analyses indicated that Positive Attitudes and higher age were significant predictors of patients' life satisfaction, but none of the other adaptive coping strategies. While the adaptive coping strategies were not associated with negative interpretations of disease, the cognitive reappraisal attitude was of significant relevance for positive interpretations such as value and challenge. Conclusions The experience of illness may enhance intensity and depth of life, and thus one may explain the association between internal adaptive coping strategies (particularly Reappraisal and positive interpretations of disease. To restore a sense of self-control over pain (and thus congruence with the situation, and the conviction that one is not necessarily disabled by disease, is a major task in patient care. In the context of health services research, apart from effective pain management, a comprehensive approach is needed which enhances the psycho-spiritual well-being of patients.
This article documents the coping strategies adopted by women victims of spousal violence in Pakistan. By drawing on 21 in-depth interviews conducted in Lahore and Sialkot (Pakistan), we found that the women tried to cope with violence by using various strategies, both emotion focused (e.g., use of religion, placating the husband, etc.) and problem focused (e.g., seeking support from formal institutions, etc.). The data showed that a majority of the women used emotion-focused strategies, especially spiritual therapies, which somehow reduced the violence and provided them with psychosocial solace. Nonetheless, these strategies incurred some costs, such as the consumption of scarce resources, time, and emotional energy. Our data also showed that few women opted for problem-focused strategies, such as seeking help from formal institutions, as these strategies could lead to overt confrontation with their husbands and may result in divorce, the outcome least desired by most of the Pakistani women. We noted that the coping behavior of Pakistani women was complex, subjective, and nonlinear and that the boundaries between emotion-focused and problem-focused strategies were diffuse and blurred. Although the women never surrendered to violence, they were fully aware of their structural limitations and vulnerabilities. Being mindful of the consequences of their actions, women carefully tailored a combination of strategies which could be helpful in resisting or reducing violence but, at the same time, should not be counterproductive. This article argues that Pakistani women alone cannot effectively resist violence while living under a harshly patriarchal regime, where violence against women is embedded in the social, political, and legal structures of society. There are no quick fixes to change the status quo. The Pakistani government, civil society, and formal institutions must proactively support women in reducing their vulnerabilities and facilitate them in expanding their capabilities to address the real causes of violence against them. PMID:22585115
Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Krämer, Alexander
A top executive for New England's biggest independent gas distributor says deregulation of the utility industry offers unprecedented opportunities for growth, but getting there will radically change the way it does business. To achieve dramatic growth, Bay State Gas Co. needs to base their strategies on anticipating the changes in the industry and aggressively positioning themselves to capture the new opportunities that the new business environment is creating. This includes: accelerating the unbundling of transportation service all the way to the residential customer level; forging strategic relationships with retail energy product and service companies as a means of increasing throughput on Bay State's system; implementing performance-based rates that provide financial incentives for lowering costs and improving customer service; accelerating the implementation of sophisticated information systems to streamline key business processes; and aggressively expanding Bay State's nonregulated Energy Products and Services business. These steps are discussed
On the basis of a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional study, our aim was to determine differential traits of adolescent offenders with respect to personality traits, feelings of guilt, level of anger, and coping strategies. 128 adolescent residents of Barcelona (86 high school students and 42 young inmates aged between 16 and 18 years) replied to a variety of questionnaires (SC-35, EPQ-R, STAXI, ACS). Significant differences between the two groups were found. Young offenders present higher levels of guilt feelings, neuroticism, psychoticism, and trait anger. They also tend to repress their anger or, on the contrary, express it verbally and physically and use passive or avoidance coping strategies. Education and psychological therapy focussed on guilt may contribute to reduce recidivism. PMID:20977024
Ferrer, Marta; Carbonell, Xavier; Sarrado, Joan Josep; Cebrià, Jordi; Virgili, Carles; Castellana, Montserrat
Full Text Available The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in a much faster pace than in the past, thanks to communication development so companies are obliged to adopt more specific strategies in order for them to be effective. This essay represents a literary review presenting a documentary research within the scientific articles and strategy and positioning books. The paper begins with the analysis of company strategies and the marketing strategies in general. The first author to group the product positioning strategies is Porter with his three generic strategies. Following the development of brands and because of the lack of competitiveness in the simple generic positioning strategies, this paper has also presented the newer positioning strategies proposed by Kotler, Treacy & Wiersema, and also more complex ones such as Bowman's Strategy Clock and Blankson and Kalafatis positioning strategy based on the type of the consumer. The fast expansion of local brands in all categories has led to mistakes in positioning strategies, categories also presented in the current essay. The results of this study show that new positioning strategies are more and more based on the consumer and market segments and on the product specification - which have also evolved in the last decades. Adaptability to fast changes in the competitive market will represent the future positioning strategies.
Previous work suggests that female asylum seekers and refugees have more constraints on their actions than their male counterparts, as structural forces from the country of origin are reproduced in the host country. This paper explores the use of structuration theory in interpreting the impact of gender upon asylum seeker and refugee experiences in the UK. The experiences of, and coping strategies used by 8 male and 10 female asylum seekers and refugees from two different cities are analysed....
Healey, Ruth L.
Affective forecasting skills have important implications for decision making. However, recent research suggests that immune neglect – the tendency to overlook coping strategies that reduce future distress – may lead to affective forecasting problems. Prior evidence for immune neglect has been indirect. More direct evidence and a deeper understanding of immune neglect are vital to informing the design of future decision-support interventions. In the current study, young adults (N = 325) su...
The purpose of this study is to examine the coping strategies employed by university athletes who have lost in acompetition. A sample of ten hand ball women athletes (age between 21-24 years old) who represented one ofthe largest universities in Kuala Lumpur in the Malaysian Inter-varsity games agreed to participate in this study.All of the athletes have signed the consent letter, giving their permission for the interview to be recorded. Theresult for content analysis ...
Omar-fauzee, M. S.; Rozita Abd-Latif; Sulaiman Tajularipin; Rozita Manja; Raweewat Rattanakoses
Background: Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways i...
Hayati, Elli Nur; Eriksson, Malin; Hakimi, Mohammad; Hogberg, Ulf; Emmelin, Maria
The aim of this review was to evaluate research relating to the effects of coping strategies and resilience on the level of workplace stress. Much of the research focused on working mothers and working females in general. It was found that working females experienced more work stress as compared to men. And currently in Malaysia, social policies that support working females, especially working mothers, has not been adopted fully by most corporations. Furthermore, the evidence for effective pr...
Shueh Yi Lian; Cai Lian Tam
Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the out-of pocket expenditure and coping strategies adopted by families of children admitted in a hospital in Bangladesh with pneumonia. Methods Trained interviewers surveyed parents of 90 children and conducted in-depth interviews with six families below the age of 5 years who were admitted to the largest pediatric hospital in Bangladesh with a diagnosis of pneumonia. We estimated the total cost of illness assoc...
Luby Stephen P; Naheed Aliya; Alamgir Nadia I
Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of coping strategies, personality trait and social support as the main social and psychological factors on infertility stress.Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 201 infertile Iranian women referred to the Vali-e-Asr Reproductive health Research Center, and completed the following questionnaires: The fertility problem inventory, measuring perceived infertility related stress (Newton CR, 1999), big five factor persona...
Mohammad Naghi Farahani; Mahya Ghazizadeh; Pooya Beigi; Soheila Hosseini; Batool Rashidi
Background: Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways i...
Hayati, Elli Nur; Eriksson, Malin; Hakimi, Mohammad; Ho?gberg, Ulf; Emmelin, Maria
A grounded theory was utilized to develop a model of stress and coping experienced by recent immigrants to the United States. Maximum variation sampling was used to gather data from 20 leaders within immigrant and refugee communities in a Midwest U.S. city. A theoretical model was developed by identifying causal conditions, contexts, intervening…
Affective forecasting skills have important implications for decision making. However, recent research suggests that immune neglect – the tendency to overlook coping strategies that reduce future distress – may lead to affective forecasting problems. Prior evidence for immune neglect has been indirect. More direct evidence and a deeper understanding of immune neglect are vital to informing the design of future decision-support interventions. In the current study, young adults (N = 325) supplied predicted, actual, and recollected reactions to an emotionally-evocative interpersonal event, Valentine’s Day. Based on participants’ qualitative descriptions of the holiday, a team of raters reliably coded the effectiveness of their coping strategies. Supporting the immune neglect hypothesis, participants overlooked the powerful role of coping strategies when predicting their emotional reactions. Immune neglect was present not only for those experiencing the holiday negatively (non-daters) but also for those experiencing it positively (daters), suggesting that the bias may be more robust than originally theorized. Immune neglect was greater for immediate emotional reactions than more enduring reactions. Further, immune neglect was conspicuously absent from recollected emotional reactions. Implications for decision-support interventions are discussed. PMID:22375161
Full Text Available Background: Although numerous studies have reported about coping strategies among health care worker throughout the world, but no research-based data are available on the perception of coping strategy among Clinical nurses in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Objective: The aim of the present study was to describe and explore the experiences of Iranian nurses about their coping strategies. Methods: In this study we used a qualitative research approach to explore how Iranian nurses perceive and resolve their burnout at work. Twelve nurses were selected by purposive sampling and in-depth semi structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim and then analyzed by means of the conventional qualitative content analysis method. Results: The 5 main themes that evolved from content analysis included “religious responsibility”, “approximation to God”, “spiritual reward”, “Holiness of the job” and “spiritual journey” emerged as the most important among these. Conclusions: The results of this study emphasized that religious or spiritual beliefs give purpose and meaning to nursing interventions, help them tolerate the problems at work, and make nursing care pleasurable. Therefore, although burnout is an important issue in nursing, attending to this dimension of their job is essential and healthcare authorities should pay a special attention to it.
Mohammad Mehdi Salaree
The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the coping strategies with stres of the students who are from the Turkish Republic and those of the Middle Asian Turkish Republics. The population of the study consists of the students from Middle Asian Turkish Republics at Ondokuz May?s University in 2004-2005 Academic Year. This study was carried out on a total number of 437 students; 125 of them are from Middle Asian Turkish Republics and 312 from Turkish Republic. In this study, to determine the level of stres, Coping Stres Scale (CSS developed by Türküm (2002 based on the Folkman and Lazarus Models was used. According to the results of MANOVA, there is no significant difference between the Coping Strategies with stres of the students from Turkish Republics and the students from Middle Asian Turkish Republics in terms of sub-scale.
Seher BALCI ÇEL?K
Background Emotional support has traditionally been conceived as something a breast cancer patient receives. However, this framework may obscure a more complex process, facilitated by the emerging social media environment, which includes the effects of composing and sending messages to others. Accordingly, this study explores the effects of expression and reception of emotional support messages in online groups and the importance of bonding as a mediator influencing the coping strategies of breast cancer patients. Methods Data were collected as part of two National Cancer Institute–funded randomized clinical trials. Eligible subjects were within 2 months of diagnosis of primary breast cancer or recurrence. Expression and reception of emotionally supportive messages were tracked and coded for 237 breast cancer patients. Analysis resulted from merging 1) computer-aided content analysis of discussion posts, 2) action log analysis of system use, and 3) longitudinal survey data. Results As expected, perceived bonding was positively related to all four coping strategies (active coping: ? = 0.251, P = .000; positive reframing: ? = 0.288, P = .000; planning: ? = 0.213, P = .006; humor: ? = 0.159, P = .009). More importantly, expression (? = 0.138, P = .027), but not reception (? = ?0.018, P = .741), of emotional support increases perceived bonding, which in turn mediates the effects on patients’ positive coping strategies. Conclusions There is increasing importance for scholars to distinguish the effects of expression from reception to understand the processes involved in producing psychosocial benefits. This study shows that emotional support is more than something cancer patients receive; it is part of an active, complex process that can be facilitated by social media. PMID:24395987
CONCLUSIONS: Results from prior studies of quality of life (QoL) in heterogeneous patient groups (regarding disorder type and etiology) with olfactory disorders may be useful also for understanding QoL in homogeneous patient groups. Diagnosis and treatment of smell loss should be given high priority in polyposis with asthma, and coping strategies can be suggested to these patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of smell loss on daily life and coping strategies in patients with smell ...
Nordin, Steven; Hede?n Blomqvist, Ebba; Olsson, Petter; Stja?rne, Pa?r; Ehnhage, Anders
Full Text Available To examine the relationships between stress levels and, respectively, stressor appraisal, coping strategies and bio- graphical variables, 107 managers completed a biographical questionnaire. Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire, and Coping Strategy Indicator. Significant negative correlations were found between stress levels and appraisal scores on all work-related stressors. An avoidant coping strategy explained significant variance in stress levels in a model also containing social support-seeking and problem-solving coping strategies. It was concluded that an avoidant coping strategy probably contributed to increased stress levels. Female managers experienced significantly higher stress levels and utilized a social support-seeking coping strategy significantly more than male managers did.
Om die verband tussen stresvlakke en, onderskeidelik, taksering van stressors, streshanteringstrategiee en biografiese veranderlikes te ondersoek, het 107 bestuurders n biografiese vraelys, Ervaring vanWerk- en Lewensomstandighedevraelys en Streshanteringstrategieskaal voltooi. Beduidende negatiewe korrelasies is aangetref tussen stresvlakke en takseringtellings ten opsigte van alle werkverwante stressors. 'nVermydende streshantermgstrategie het beduidende variansie in stresvlakke verklaar in n model wat ook sosiale ondersteuningsoekende en pro-bleemoplossende streshanteringstrategiee ingesluit het. Die gevolgtrekking is bereik dat n vermydende stres- hanteringstrategie waarskynlik bygedra het tot verhoogde stresvlakke. Vroulike bestuurders het beduidend hoer stresvlakke ervaar en het n sosiale ondersteuningsoekende streshanteringstrategie beduidend meer gebnnk as manlike bestuurders.
Mark R. Orpen-Lyall
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo investigou estratégias de coping, definidas como esforços cognitivos e comportamentais utilizados frente a circunstâncias adversas, e o estilo atribucional de crianças de oito a dez anos. As crianças foram entrevistadas e suas respostas permitiram identificar 100 eventos, as estratégias [...] utilizadas pelas crianças para lidarem com a situação estressante e suas atribuições causais para a ocorrência do evento. Os resultados indicaram uma utilização preferencial de estratégias de busca de apoio social e de ação agressiva frente ao conflito. Como estratégia alternativa, as crianças apontaram preferência pela estratégia de ação direta. A distração foi a estratégia mais utilizada para lidar com as emoções desencadeadas pelo evento. Nos eventos que envolveram conflitos com adultos, as estratégias de ação direta, evitação e aceitação foram mais utilizadas, enquanto que com pares as estratégias de ação agressiva e busca de apoio social foram mais freqüentes. Não foram encontradas relações significativas entre as estratégias de coping e estilo atribucional. Os resultados deste estudo reforçam a posição de que as estratégias de coping não são simplesmente disposicionais, mas determinadas pelo contexto do evento estressante. Abstract in english This study investigated coping strategies, defined as cognitive and behavioral efforts to deal with stressful situations, and the attributional styles utilized by 8-10 year-old children. The children were interviewed and their responses led to the identification of 100 stressful events, the strategi [...] es they employed to deal with theses events, and their causal attributions for the events. The results indicated that the strategies children used more often to deal with conflict were to look for social support and aggressive actions. As an alternative strategy, the children indicated a preference for direct action. Distraction was the main strategy to deal with emotions elicited by the event. Direct action, avoidance, and acceptance strategies were more used in situations involving conflicts with adults, while aggressive actions and seeking social support were more frequent in situations involving peers. No significant differences were identified between coping strategies and attributional styles. The results of this study support the hypothesis that coping strategies are not dispositional and that they seem to be determined by the context of the event
Débora Dalbosco, Dell' Aglio; Cláudio Simon, Hutz.
Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is a neglected tropical disease that causes affected individuals intense social stigma. Although some studies have investigated community-based stigma against podoconiosis, none has yet attempted to assess coping strategies used by patients to counter stigma. This study aimed to describe and categorize the coping strategies employed by podoconiosis patients against stigma. From January-March 2010 data were gathered through in-depth interviews with 44 patients, six focus group discussions (with a total of 42 participants) and two key informant interviews. The coping strategies employed by patients to deal with stigma could be categorized into three areas: active, avoidant and through changing the relational meaning. Of these coping strategies, avoidant coping is the most negative since it encourages isolation and pushes those employing it towards more risky decisions. Many podoconiosis patients are forced to use this strategy through lack of control due to extreme poverty. Intervention programs must therefore create circumstances in which patients are empowered to actively cope with stigma and play a role in stigma reduction. PMID:24038367
Tora, Abebayehu; Davey, Gail; Tadele, Getnet
Eventos estressores e estratégias de coping em adolescentes: implicações na aprendizagem / Stressful events and coping strategies among adolescents: implications for Learning / Eventos estresantes y estrategias de coping en adolescentes: implicaciones en el aprendizaje
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Ao longo da vida, nos deparamos com eventos com os quais não nos percebemos capacitados a lidar, o que pode gerar um estado de tensão no organismo denominado estresse. As alterações decorrentes do estresse e o impacto que provoca na vida das pessoas podem agravar a desadaptação do indivíduo em seu d [...] esenvolvimento, sobretudo no ambiente escolar. O presente artigo explora as relações entre eventos de vida estressores, estresse e estratégias de coping em adolescentes, discutindo as possíveis implicações desses fatores na aprendizagem. Além disso, são descritos os fatores ambientais e a neurobiologia do estresse, bem como o papel da resiliência no enfrentamento de situações estressantes. Abstract in spanish A lo largo de la vida nos enfrentamos con eventos con los cuales no nos sentimos capaces de lidiar, lo que puede generar un estado de tensión en el organismo denominado estrés. Las alteraciones a raíz del estrés y el impacto que provoca en la vida de las personas pueden agravar la falta de adaptació [...] n del individuo en su desarrollo, principalmente en el ambiente escolar. El presente artículo explora las relaciones entre eventos de vida estresantes, estrés y estrategias de Coping en adolescentes, discutiendo las posibles implicaciones de esos factores en el aprendizaje. Además, son descritos los factores ambientales y la neurobiología del estrés, así como el papel de la resiliencia en el enfrentamiento de situaciones estresantes. Abstract in english Throughout our lives we come across events that we think we are not able to deal with, which can generate a state of tension in the body called stress. The changes resulting from the stress and their impact on people’s lives may aggravate the maladjustment on the individual development, particularly [...] in the school environment. This article explores the relationship between stressful events, stress and coping strategies in adolescents, discussing the possible implications of these factors in the learning process. Moreover, environmental factors, the neurobiology of stress and the role of resilience in coping with stressful situations are described.
Fernanda de Bastani, Busnello; Luiziana Souto, Schaefer; Christian Haag, Kristensen.
Full Text Available Sport coaching can be a fulfilling and rewarding occupation, but can also be stressful because of the demands and expectations of various external factors. The complex and extraordinary demands placed on coaches, force them to perform multiple roles (e.g. educator, motivator, counsellor, adviser, trainer, manager and administrator. Soccer coaches face a number of challenges, frustrations, conflicts and tensions, the enormity of which is often underestimated. This notion is supported by the description of coaching as a perilous occupation in which coaches experience pressures like stress, conflict and tension, media pressure and intrusions into family life. This study explored the perceptions of South African soccer coaches in terms of the mechanisms they use to cope with potential stressors experienced in their jobs and employed a non-experimental design, using a quantitative approach, to assess stress and coping strategies of South African coaches. One hundred and twelve soccer coaches, coaching at the provincial level and higher, completed a questionnaire on stress and stress coping mechanisms used in their coaching jobs. Descriptive data analysis was completed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS – version 16. The sources of stress experienced and coping methods used by the coaches were evaluated. Results revealed that the top three sources of stress were a lack of resources, fixture backlog and games where the outcome is critical, whilst the lowest three sources of stress were political interference, physical assaults from players and substituting a player. Moreover, various coping strategies used by the coaches showed that an average of 5.68%, 5.14% and 89.78% of the sample used maladaptive coping, emotion management coping and problem management coping strategies respectively. Academic and practical implications of the study results are discussed.
OpsommingSport afrigting kan ’n baie vervullende en bevredigende beroepskeuse wees, maar as gevolg van die eise en verwagtinge van verskeie omgewings faktore, kan dit ook as ’n spanningsvolle beroep ervaar word. Afrigters moet verskeie rolle vertolk (o.a. opvoeder, motiveerder, sielkundige, adviseerder, afrigter, bestuurder en administrateur wat deel uitmaak van die komplekse en buitengewone eise wat op hulle geplaas word. Sokker afrigters beleef ’n aantal uitdagings, konflik situasies, frustrasies en spanning waarvan die impak of waarde daarvan selde gemeet kan word. Afrigting as ’n konsep word beskryf of gedefinieer as ’n potensieel onveilige en/of wisselvallige beroep waar die meerderheid afrigters spanning ervaar, konflik beleef, media druk moet verwerk en ’n geweldige inbreuk op hul persoonlike en familielewe ervaar. Hierdie studie ondersoek Suid-Afrikaanse sokker afrigters se persepsies aangaande die meganismes wat hulle gebruik om die potensiële spanning van hul beroep te bestuur. Die studie is gebaseer op ’n nie-eksperimentele ontwerp met ’n kwantitatiewe benadering van Suid-Afrikaanse sokker afrigters om spanning te evalueer en te bestuur. Een honderd en twaalf sokker afrigters wat op provinsiale vlak of hoër afgerig het, het vraelyste ingevul aangaande spanning en spanning hanteringstegnieke wat in hul afrigtingsberoepe gebruik is. Beskrywende data analise is met behulp van ’n statistiese pakket in Sosiale Wetenskap (SPSS-weergawe 16 gedoen. Die oorsake van spanning asook die hanteringstegnieke wat deur die afrigters gebruik is, is geevalueer. Die resultate het bevind dat daar drie duidelike oorsake van spanning was, naamlik ’n tekort aan hulpbronne, die akkumulasie van geskeduleerde wedstryde asook wedstryde waarvan die uitslag krities is. Die drie laagste oorsake van spanning was onder andere politieke inmenging, fisiese aanranding deur spelers en die vervanging van spelers. Die afrigters het ’n verskeidenheid van spannings hanteringstegnieke gebruik, maar die resultate toon dat 5.68%, 5.14% en 89.78% van die eksperimente
Psycho-social risks at work: stress and coping strategies in oncology nurses / Riesgos psicosociales en el trabajo: estrés y estrategias de coping en enfermeros en oncología / Riscos psicossociais no trabalho: estresse e estratégias de coping em enfermeiros em oncologia
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: identificar fontes de estresse e estratégias de coping em enfermeiros que exercem funções em três Serviços de Oncologia de Cirurgia Cabeça e Pescoço, de três hospitais centrais de Portugal. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, de carácter descritivo e exploratório, cuja amostra foi constituíd [...] a pelos 96 enfermeiros dos três serviços. Na recolha de dados, foram utilizados: Questionário Sociodemográfico, Questionário de Saúde Geral-12, Inventário de Estressores Ocupacionais e Brief COPE. RESULTADOS: verificaram-se níveis razoáveis de saúde geral. Os estressores mais referidos foram: sobrecarga de trabalho, baixa remuneração salarial, espaço físico onde se desenvolve a profissão, situações emocionalmente perturbadoras e falta de reconhecimento da profissão. As estratégias de coping mais utilizadas foram: planeamento, coping ativo, aceitação e autodistração. CONCLUSÃO: os estressores identificados relacionam-se principalmente a aspetos organizacionais e condições de trabalho, e as estratégias de coping escolhidas estão direcionadas para a resolução de problemas e melhoria do bem-estar dos enfermeiros. Percentagem expressiva de enfermeiros apresentou níveis elevados de pressão e emoções deprimidas. Os resultados apresentados corroboram estudos anteriores que alertam para a importância do desenvolvimento de estratégias de prevenção dos níveis de estresse. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: identificar fuentes de estrés y estrategias de coping en enfermeros que ejercen funciones en tres Servicios de Oncología de Cirugía Cabeza y Cuello, de tres hospitales centrales de Portugal. MÉTODO: estudio transversal, de carácter descriptivo y exploratorio, cuya muestra fue constit [...] uida por los 96 enfermeros de los tres servicios. En la recolección de datos fueron utilizados: Cuestionario Socio-demográfico; Cuestionario de Salud General-12; Inventario de estresores Ocupacionales; Brief COPE. RESULTADOS: se verificaron niveles razonables de salud general. Los estresores más referidos fueron: sobrecarga de trabajo; baja remuneración salarial; espacio físico donde se desarrolla la profesión; situaciones emocionalmente perturbadoras y falta de reconocimiento de la profesión. Las estrategias de coping más utilizadas fueron: planificación; coping activo; aceptación y auto-distracción. CONCLUSIÓN: los estresores identificados se relacionan principalmente con aspectos de organización y condiciones de trabajo, y las estrategias de coping escogidas están dirigidas para la resolución de problemas y la mejoría del bienestar de los enfermeros. Un porcentaje expresivo de enfermeros presentó niveles elevados de presión y emociones de depresión. Los resultados presentados corroboran estudios anteriores que alertan para la importancia del desarrollo de estrategias de prevención de los niveles de estrés. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to identify sources of stress and coping strategies in nurses who work in three Head and Neck Surgery Oncology Services, in three central hospitals in Portugal. METHOD: a cross-sectional descriptive-exploratory study, whose sample was made up of the 96 nurses from the three services [...] . The following were used in the data collection: a socio-demographic questionnaire; the 12-item General Health Questionnaire; and the Occupational Stress Inventory; Brief COPE. RESULTS: reasonable levels of general health were ascertained. The most-mentioned stressors were: burden with work; low pay; the physical space where they work; emotionally-disturbing situations and lack of recognition of the profession. The most-used coping strategies were: planning; active coping; acceptance and self-distraction. CONCLUSION: the stressors identified are mainly related to organizational aspects and work conditions, and the coping strategies chosen are aimed at resolving problems and improving the nurses' well-being. A significant percentage of the nurses presents high levels of pressure and
Sandra da Fonte Sousa, Gomes; Margarida Maria Magalhães Cabugueira Custódio dos, Santos; Elisabete Teresa da Mata Almeida, Carolino.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as estratégias de coping adotadas por crianças vítimas e não vítimas de violência doméstica, quando inseridas no microssistema escolar. Participaram da pesquisa 87 crianças divididas em dois grupos: 49 vítimas e 38 não vítimas de violência doméstica, as quai [...] s responderam a uma entrevista estruturada nas suas escolas, que visava a identificar os problemas mais freqüentes experienciados com os professores e com os colegas e as estratégias de coping utilizadas. As crianças vítimas de violência doméstica apontaram como problema de maior freqüência as agressões verbais por parte da professora e a estratégia de coping de agredir fisicamente para lidar nos conflitos com seus pares. As crianças não vítimas citaram com maior freqüência a busca de apoio de outras pessoas como estratégia para lidar com seus problemas junto aos colegas. As meninas adotaram a inação, quando enfrentam problemas com seus professores e se incomodam mais com as agressões verbais destes. Os resultados são discutidos levando em conta o contexto ecológico e as relações hierárquicas e apontam subsídios para programas de intervenção, que promovam resiliência e adaptação sadia de criançasà escola. Abstract in english The present study aimed to investigate coping strategies of domestic violence victimized and non-victimized children in school's microsystem. Eighty-seven children, divided in two groups participated in this study: 49 victimized and 38 non-victimized children. They answered a structured interview to [...] identify the most frequent conflicts faced with teachers and classmates and the coping strategies to deal with those issues. The victimized children reported higher frequency of verbal aggression from teachers, and physical aggressions as coping strategies to deal with peers. The non-victimized children seemed to look for others' support as coping strategies to deal with problems they have with their classmates. Girls did not seem to act when they faced problems with their teachers, and they felt more upset with teacher's verbal aggression. Results are discussed based on the ecological context and hierarchical relations, and give subsidies out to support intervention programs, to promote resilience and children's healthy adaptation to school.
Carolina, Lisboa; Sílvia Helena, Koller; Fernanda Freitas, Ribas; Kelly, Bitencourt; Letícia, Oliveira; Lízia Pacheco, Porciuncula; Renata Busnello De, Marchi.
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as estratégias de coping adotadas por crianças vítimas e não vítimas de violência doméstica, quando inseridas no microssistema escolar. Participaram da pesquisa 87 crianças divididas em dois grupos: 49 vítimas e 38 não vítimas de violência doméstica, as quais responderam a uma entrevista estruturada nas suas escolas, que visava a identificar os problemas mais freqüentes experienciados com os professores e com os colegas e as estratégias de coping utilizadas. As crianças vítimas de violência doméstica apontaram como problema de maior freqüência as agressões verbais por parte da professora e a estratégia de coping de agredir fisicamente para lidar nos conflitos com seus pares. As crianças não vítimas citaram com maior freqüência a busca de apoio de outras pessoas como estratégia para lidar com seus problemas junto aos colegas. As meninas adotaram a inação, quando enfrentam problemas com seus professores e se incomodam mais com as agressões verbais destes. Os resultados são discutidos levando em conta o contexto ecológico e as relações hierárquicas e apontam subsídios para programas de intervenção, que promovam resiliência e adaptação sadia de criançasà escola.The present study aimed to investigate coping strategies of domestic violence victimized and non-victimized children in school's microsystem. Eighty-seven children, divided in two groups participated in this study: 49 victimized and 38 non-victimized children. They answered a structured interview to identify the most frequent conflicts faced with teachers and classmates and the coping strategies to deal with those issues. The victimized children reported higher frequency of verbal aggression from teachers, and physical aggressions as coping strategies to deal with peers. The non-victimized children seemed to look for others' support as coping strategies to deal with problems they have with their classmates. Girls did not seem to act when they faced problems with their teachers, and they felt more upset with teacher's verbal aggression. Results are discussed based on the ecological context and hierarchical relations, and give subsidies out to support intervention programs, to promote resilience and children's healthy adaptation to school.
The purpose of the present investigation was to identify sources of acute stress, cognitive appraisal (i.e., perceived controllability), and the use of coping strategies as a function of culture among highly skilled tennis players from Mexico and the United States. Participants were 112 competitive tennis players, 54 of whom were from Mexico (44 boys, 10 girls), and 58 of whom were from the United States (30 boys, 28 girls). A qualitative analysis indicated that the most common sources of acute stress in tennis include "receiving negative comments from coaches and relatives" and "opponent cheating." The authors adapted the COPE Instrument (C. Carver, M. F. Scheier, & J. K. Weintraub, 1989) to ascertain the athletes' use of coping strategies. Regression analysis assessed the extent to which culture predicted the athletes' perceived controllability of the stressors and their use of coping strategies. The results indicated that culture significantly predicted both perceived controllability and the use of coping strategies. The authors discussed implications for the role of culture in predicting cognitive appraisal and coping in sport. PMID:16050340
Puente-Díaz, Rogelio; Anshel, Mark H
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the out-of pocket expenditure and coping strategies adopted by families of children admitted in a hospital in Bangladesh with pneumonia. Methods Trained interviewers surveyed parents of 90 children and conducted in-depth interviews with six families below the age of 5 years who were admitted to the largest pediatric hospital in Bangladesh with a diagnosis of pneumonia. We estimated the total cost of illness associated with hospitalization and explored the coping strategies of the families. Results The mean expenditure of the families for the illness episode was US$ 94 (±SD 52.5 with 75% having spent more than half of their total monthly expenditure on this hospitalization. Three fourths (68/90, 76% of the families managed the expenditure by borrowing, mortgaging or selling assets; 64% had to borrow the full cost of hospitalization and 10% borrowed from the formal sector with a monthly interest rate of 5 to 30%. The burden was highest for the people from poor income strata. Families earning ?US$ 59 per month were 10 times more likely than families earning ?US$ 59 per month to borrow money (OR = 10.0, 95% CI: 2.8-38.8. To repay their debts, 22% of families reported that they would work extra hours and 50% planned to reduce spending on food and education for their children. Conclusions Coping strategies adopted by the families to manage the out-of-pocket expenditure for children requiring hospitalization were catastrophic for the majority of the families. Efforts to prevent childhood pneumonia for example, by vaccination against the most common pathogens, by improving air quality and by improving childhood nutrition can provide a double advantage. They can prevent both disease and poverty.
Luby Stephen P
Pain is a serious secondary problem for many persons with cerebral palsy (CP). Cognitive-behavioral models of pain hypothesize that how patients cope with painful episodes plays an important role in their adjustment to chronic pain. The utility of this model, however, has never been tested in persons with CP-related pain. Fifty adults with CP and chronic pain were interviewed to assess pain experience, the interference of pain on activities (BPI), depressive symptoms (CES-D), and coping strategies used for the pain (CSQ and CPCI). The results indicated that pain-contingent rest and catastrophizing were both significantly associated with pain interference and depressive symptoms even when controlling for pain severity. These findings support a cognitive-behavioral model of chronic pain as it might be applied to persons with CP. The results also support the need for research to determine if, and to what extent, cognitive-behavioral interventions that provide training in specific coping responses reduce depressive symptoms and pain interference in persons with CP. PMID:11068109
Engel, J M; Schwartz, L; Jensen, M P; Johnson, D R
People are exposed to different environmental risks, their manifestations harm people according to the magnitude, intensity and the number of people concerned. This subject is very ample, therefore we consider only two kinds of risks: the natural risks (especially earthquakes) that have always threatened humanity, and the industrial risks that characterise our modern society. We are interested in risk perception, stress and coping strategies in these two kinds of extreme situations. We concentrate our study on two Mexican events: an industrial explosion accident in 1984 and 1985 (big earthquake, both devastated big urban zones. The consequences were enormous at all levels: personal, psychological, social, political and economical. Facing risk situations people can have stress reactions when a sign of danger appears. According to Jean RIVOLIER (1994), these situations must not be confounded with banal events of everyday life. Stress in those cases is not the stress we confront everyday, so people have to apply other strategies to face she stress and the incidents of the kind of extreme situations. To tackle our subject we are going to review some concepts used in our study: stress, coping strategies and risk perception. (author)
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Menores aymara han experimentado un proceso migratorio importante durante las últimas décadas, sin embargo, se han desarrollado escasos estudios en población infantil perteneciente a esta etnia. El objetivo de esta investigación es evaluar y comparar las estrategias de afrontamiento utilizado por ni [...] ños y niñas Aymara y no Aymara. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 685 niños/as entre 9 y 15 años de escuelas municipales y colegios particular subvencionados de la ciudad de Arica. Los resultados muestran la inexistencia de diferencias poblacionales entre niños/as aymara y no aymara en relación a los problemas experimentados (p?2> .05), el uso de estrategias de afrontamiento utilizadas (pt> .05) y la eficacia de estas últimas (pt> .05). Se concluye que los niños/as pertenecientes a la etnia estarían logrando adecuados mecanismos de afrontamiento en contextos urbanos. Abstract in english Aymara Childrens have experienced significant migration process over the past decades, however, few studies have been developed in children belonging to this ethnic group. In this reserch, the objective is to evaluate and compare the coping strategies used by Aymara and not Aymara Children. The samp [...] le consisted of 685 boys / girls aged 9 and 15 years of Municipal Schools and Private Schools Funded by the city of Arica. The results show the absence of differences population between Aymara and not Aymara boys and girls, in relation to problems experienced (p?2> .05), the use of coping strategies used (pt> .05) and the effectiveness of the latter (pt > .05). We can conclude that children, as belonging to the ethnic group, are achieving adequate coping mechanisms in urban contexts.
Alejandra, Caqueo-Urízar; Alfonso, Urzúa; Rodrigo, Ferrer; Noemí, Pereda; Catalina, Villena; Matías, Irarrázaval.
This article explores the repercussions of workplace bullying on nurses and the health-care profession as a whole. I discuss the nature of workplace bullying and draw upon prior studies to explore some of the barriers that prevent witnesses to bullying from intervening, as well as barriers faced by targets in taking action to stop the bullying. As overt forms of resistance are often not feasible in situations where nurses occupy subordinate positions to their bullies, I propose that cognitive reappraisal can be an effective coping strategy, and situate this perspective within the research on humour, hope and optimism. PMID:24889001
Everyone suffers from one or other form stress. But how does our medical student fare in this aspect when they enter this vast, ever expanding and demanding field of medicine. This is our small step to look from eyes of our student. The aim of this study was to enumerate the stress symptoms experienced, followed by evaluating the causes of stress and coping strategies in south Indian medical students. A cross-sectional study was performed on first year medical students at Melmaruvathur Adhipa...
Santosh Patil, Madhura M. And Abdul Khadar
Exaustão emocional: relações com a percepção de suporte organizacional e com as estratégias de coping no trabalho / Emotional exhaustion: relationships with the perceived organizational support and coping strategies in the work place
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A exaustão emocional é considerada como o fator central do burnout. Diversas pesquisas mostram que características do ambiente de trabalho e do trabalhador estão associadas ao desenvolvimento da exaustão emocional. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de uma investigação sobre dois aspectos importa [...] ntes para o estudo da exaustão emocional: a percepção de suporte organizacional (PSO) e o coping no trabalho. 369 trabalhadores responderam uma escala de exaustão emocional, uma de PSO e outra de coping no trabalho. Os fatores gestão de desempenho, sobrecarga, suporte social e ascensão e salários da escala de PSO e o fator escape da escala de coping revelaram-se preditores significativos da dimensão exaustão psicológica da escala de exaustão emocional. A segunda dimensão desta escala, percepção de desgaste, só foi predita significativamente pelos fatores suporte social e sobrecarga da escala de PSO. Recomendações para lidar com a exaustão emocional são apresentadas. Abstract in english Emotional exhaustion is regarded as the principal dimension of the burnout. Several studies show that characteristics of job setting and the employee are associated with the development of emotional exhaustion. This study present the results of a research about the relationship among emotional exhau [...] stion, the perceived organizational support (POS) and coping strategies in the work place. 396 workers answered a scale of emotional exhaustion, one of POS and one another of coping. The dimensions performance management, overload, social support and promotion and salaries from the POS scale and the dimension escape from the coping scale were significant predictors of the dimension psychological exhaustion from the emotional exhaustion scale. The second dimension from the emotional exhaustion scale, perception of wear, was significantly predicted only by the factors social support and overload from the POS scale. Recommendations for the management of emotional exhaustion are presented.
Mauricio Robayo, Tamayo; Bartholomeu Tôrres, Tróccoli.
Stressing factors and coping strategies used by oncology nurses / Fatores estressantes e estratégias de coping dos enfermeiros atuantes em oncologia / Factores estresantes y estrategias de coping utilizadas por los enfermeros que actúan en oncología
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Na especialidade oncologia, são muitos os fatores que podem conduzir o profissional de enfermagem ao stress ocupacional. Para tentar controlar essa situação, o indivíduo pode utilizar estratégias de coping, que é um esforço cognitivo e comportamental utilizado frente a evento estressor. Os objetivos [...] desse estudo foram identificar os fatores estressantes para enfermeiros que atuam em oncologia e verificar as estratégias de coping utilizadas pelos mesmos. Foram utilizados dois questionários: um inventário de dados demográficos, construído pela autora, e o inventário de estratégias de coping de Folkman e Lazarus. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que os fatores considerados mais estressantes para os enfermeiros de oncologia são: o óbito dos pacientes (28,6%), as situações de emergência (16,9%), os problemas de relacionamento com a equipe de enfermagem (15,5%) e as situações relacionadas ao processo de trabalho (15,5%). Na população estudada, a estratégia de coping mais utilizada foi a reavaliação positiva. Abstract in spanish En la especialidad de Oncología son muchos los factores que pueden conducir al profesional de enfermería al estrés ocupacional. Para tratar de controlar esa situación, el individuo puede utilizar estrategias de coping, que es un esfuerzo cognitivo y de comportamiento utilizado frente a un evento que [...] causa estrés. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron identificar los factores que causan estrés en los enfermeros que actúan en Oncología y verificar las estrategias de coping utilizadas por los mismos. Se utilizaron dos cuestionarios: uno para el inventario de datos demográficos construido por la autora y otro para el inventario de estrategias de coping de Folkman y Lazarus. Los resultados de la investigación muestran que los factores considerados más estresantes por los enfermeros de Oncología son: la muerte de los pacientes (28,6%), las situaciones de emergencia (16,9%), los problemas de relación dentro del equipo de enfermería (15,5%) y las situaciones relacionadas al proceso de trabajo (15,5%). En la población estudiada, la estrategia de coping más utilizada fue la de reevaluación positiva. Abstract in english In the oncology specialty, many factors can result in occupational stress in nursing professionals. As an attempt to controlling this situation, individuals may use coping strategies. Coping is a cognitive and behavioral effort one uses to face a stressful situation. The aims of this study were to i [...] dentify the stressful factors regarding oncology nurses, and to verify what coping strategies they use. Two questionnaires were used: a demographic data inventory, designed by the researcher, and the Folkman and Lazarus coping strategies inventory. The results showed that the main stressful factors for oncology nurses are patient death (28.6%), emergency situations (16.9%), relationship issues with the nursing team (15.5%), and work-process situations (15.5%). In the studied population, the main coping strategy used was positive reappraisal.
Andrea Bezerra, Rodrigues; Eliane Corrêa, Chaves.
The purpose of the study was fourfold. The first was to develop a sport-specific questionnaire to measure approaches to coping used by the athletes. The second purpose of the study was to test a proposed model of the coping process in sport based on Lazarus' transactional theory of psychological stress and coping and the goal perspective theory. The third purpose was to examine coping effectiveness using the outcome model (i.e., immediate and long-term) and the goodness-of-fit model. The last...
This observational study evaluated utilization of religious coping strategies among 95 African American women who were at increased risk for having a BRCA1/BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation. Overall, women reported high levels of collaborative coping; however, women with fewer than 2 affected relatives (? = ?1.97, P = 0.04) and those who had a lower perceived risk of having a BRCA1/2 mutation (? = ?2.72, P = 0.01) reported significantly greater collaborative coping. These results suggest that Af...
Weathers, Benita; Kessler, Lisa; Collier, Aliya; Stopfer, Jill E.; Domchek, Susan; Halbert, Chanita Hughes
Full Text Available Climate change has profound implications for managing freshwater resources and species dependent on those resources. Water is an essential component of the life support system of the earth, and a basic resource for socio-economic development. The Great Ruaha River Catchment Area is a dynamic and complex ecosystem requiring inclusion climate change adaptation in the management of the freshwater and natural resources available to reduce the severity of climate change impacts. Rainfall has decreased considerably during the last 10 - 30 years, and characterised by high interannual variability, seasonal shifts and variable seasonal distribution with unpredictable onset and ending of rains and shortened growing seasons. Temperature has increased considerably during this period causing increased evapotranspiration losses and incidences of pest and diseases. The freshwater of Ruaha River and it tributaries are vulneable to changing climate, such as drought, which can negatively impact on the livelihoods of the people through de- creased crop and livestock production, and on local biodiversity. The changing climate has had negative impacts on, among other aspects, land use and water shortages for irrigation, livestock and domestic uses. This has compelled riparian communities in the catchment to devises coping strategies including practicing irrigation to provide supplementary water to crops, using drought tolerant crop varieties, rationing of irrigation water in farmlands, wetland cultivation, and diversification to non-agricultural activities. Despite the existence of many indicators used for local climate forecasting, there are limitations to local adaptation, including among others, poverty, institutional aspects and limited integration of climate adaptation in various sectors. The bulk of indigenous knowledge could be integrated into formal adaptation planning, and may be important components of environmental conservation at the local level.
The aim of this study was to validate hypothesized structural and functional relationships between coping strategies and factors associated with burnout syndrome in independent samples of health workers from different hospitals and hospital care settings. We applied the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the scale of Coping with Extreme Risks adapted to the Mexican population, we analyzed the responses of 354 health workers in a tertiary hospital and 300 from a reference hospital. The samples were...
Fernando Austria Corrales; Beatriz Cruz Valde; loredmy Herrera KienHelger; Jorge salas Hernández
INTERVENÇÕES UTILIZADAS NA PROMOÇÃO DE ESTRATÉGIAS DE COPING NA DEPRESSÃO EM MULHERES COM CÂNCER / APPLIED INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE COPING STRATEGIES FOR DEPRESSION AMONG WOMEN WITH CANCER / INTERVENCIONES UTILIZADAS PARA PROMOVER ESTRATEGIAS DE COPING PARA LA DEPRESIÓN ENTRE MUJERES CON CÁNCER
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A depressão tem sido observada em portadores de doenças crônico-degenerativas, incluindo câncer. A utilização de diferentes estratégias de coping nessas condições patológicas pode ser extremamente importante, em face da presença de fatores estressores e sentimentos indesejáveis. Buscou-se identifica [...] r, por meio de revisão sistemática, os tipos de estudo para promover estratégia de coping e as intervenções utilizadas para promover tais estratégias em situação de depressão, em mulheres com câncer. Foram consultadas três bases de dados eletrônicas, utilizando as palavras chave depression, coping e cancer para busca de publicações em Inglês, Português e Espanhol. A busca foi limitada ao gênero feminino e aos tipos de estudo: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial e review. Foram encontrados 376 artigos, excluídos os que não possuíam texto na íntegra disponível e as repetições em diferentes bases de dados; foram eleitos 22 artigos oriundos de diferentes países (63% da America do Norte), e publicados em periódicos de diferentes áreas de conhecimento; são de modelo experimental (63%); recentes (1996 a 2006); foram adotadas estratégias individuais (59,9%) e grupais; o suporte emocional e a terapia cognitiva foram as mais empregadas. As intervenções que promovam estratégias de coping identificadas podem ser eficazes, com diminuição significante de depressão e aumento de coping e qualidade de vida; recomenda-se que o enfermeiro as empregue para redução de depressão ao longo do processo terapêutico do câncer. Abstract in spanish La depresión ha sido observada en portadores de enfermedades cronico-degenerativas, incluyendo el cáncer. El uso de diferentes estrategias de coping para lidiar con estas condiciones patológicas puede ser extremadamente importante, en vista de la presencia de factores de estrés y sentimientos indese [...] ables. Se buscó identificar, por medio de una revisión sistemática, los tipos de estudio para promover estrategias de coping y las intervenciones usadas para promover tales estrategias en situaciones de depresión en mujeres con cáncer. Fueron consultadas 3 bases de datos electrónicas, utilizando las palabras clave depression, coping y cáncer para buscar publicaciones en inglés, portugués y español. La búsqueda fue limitada al género femenino y a los tipos de estudio: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial y review. Fueron encontrados 376 artículos. Excluidos aquéllos sin texto completo disponible y las repeticiones en diferentes bases de datos, fueron elegidos 22 artículos originarios de diferentes países (63% de América del Norte) y publicados en periódicos de diferentes áreas de conocimiento; son del tipo experimental (63%); recientes (1996 a 2006); fueron adoptadas estrategias individuales (59,9%) y grupales; el apoyo emocional y la terapia cognitiva fueron las más empleadas. Las intervenciones que promueven estrategias de coping identificadas pueden ser eficaces, con disminución significativa de la depresión y aumento del coping y calidad de vida. Se recomienda que el enfermero las emplee para reducir la depresión a lo largo del proceso terapéutico del cáncer. Abstract in english Depression has been observed in patients with chronic-degenerative diseases, including cancer. Using different coping strategies can be extremely important under these pathological conditions, considering the presence of stress and unwanted feelings. The purpose of this systematic review was to iden [...] tify types of studies aimed at promoting coping strategies for depression among women with cancer and interventions used to promote these strategies. Three different electronic databases were reviewed, using the key words depression, coping and cancer to seek publications in English, Portuguese and Spanish, which resulted in 376 articles. The search was limited to female gender and the study types: clinical trial, meta-anal
LUCIMARA, MORELI; JEANNE MARIE R, STACCIARINI; ARIANE, DE FREITAS CARDOSO; EMILIA, CAMPOS DE CARVALHO.
INTERVENÇÕES UTILIZADAS NA PROMOÇÃO DE ESTRATÉGIAS DE COPING NA DEPRESSÃO EM MULHERES COM CÂNCER INTERVENCIONES UTILIZADAS PARA PROMOVER ESTRATEGIAS DE COPING PARA LA DEPRESIÓN ENTRE MUJERES CON CÁNCER APPLIED INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE COPING STRATEGIES FOR DEPRESSION AMONG WOMEN WITH CANCER
Full Text Available A depressão tem sido observada em portadores de doenças crônico-degenerativas, incluindo câncer. A utilização de diferentes estratégias de coping nessas condições patológicas pode ser extremamente importante, em face da presença de fatores estressores e sentimentos indesejáveis. Buscou-se identificar, por meio de revisão sistemática, os tipos de estudo para promover estratégia de coping e as intervenções utilizadas para promover tais estratégias em situação de depressão, em mulheres com câncer. Foram consultadas três bases de dados eletrônicas, utilizando as palavras chave depression, coping e cancer para busca de publicações em Inglês, Português e Espanhol. A busca foi limitada ao gênero feminino e aos tipos de estudo: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial e review. Foram encontrados 376 artigos, excluídos os que não possuíam texto na íntegra disponível e as repetições em diferentes bases de dados; foram eleitos 22 artigos oriundos de diferentes países (63% da America do Norte, e publicados em periódicos de diferentes áreas de conhecimento; são de modelo experimental (63%; recentes (1996 a 2006; foram adotadas estratégias individuais (59,9% e grupais; o suporte emocional e a terapia cognitiva foram as mais empregadas. As intervenções que promovam estratégias de coping identificadas podem ser eficazes, com diminuição significante de depressão e aumento de coping e qualidade de vida; recomenda-se que o enfermeiro as empregue para redução de depressão ao longo do processo terapêutico do câncer.La depresión ha sido observada en portadores de enfermedades cronico-degenerativas, incluyendo el cáncer. El uso de diferentes estrategias de coping para lidiar con estas condiciones patológicas puede ser extremadamente importante, en vista de la presencia de factores de estrés y sentimientos indeseables. Se buscó identificar, por medio de una revisión sistemática, los tipos de estudio para promover estrategias de coping y las intervenciones usadas para promover tales estrategias en situaciones de depresión en mujeres con cáncer. Fueron consultadas 3 bases de datos electrónicas, utilizando las palabras clave depression, coping y cáncer para buscar publicaciones en inglés, portugués y español. La búsqueda fue limitada al género femenino y a los tipos de estudio: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial y review. Fueron encontrados 376 artículos. Excluidos aquéllos sin texto completo disponible y las repeticiones en diferentes bases de datos, fueron elegidos 22 artículos originarios de diferentes países (63% de América del Norte y publicados en periódicos de diferentes áreas de conocimiento; son del tipo experimental (63%; recientes (1996 a 2006; fueron adoptadas estrategias individuales (59,9% y grupales; el apoyo emocional y la terapia cognitiva fueron las más empleadas. Las intervenciones que promueven estrategias de coping identificadas pueden ser eficaces, con disminución significativa de la depresión y aumento del coping y calidad de vida. Se recomienda que el enfermero las emplee para reducir la depresión a lo largo del proceso terapéutico del cáncer.Depression has been observed in patients with chronic-degenerative diseases, including cancer. Using different coping strategies can be extremely important under these pathological conditions, considering the presence of stress and unwanted feelings. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify types of studies aimed at promoting coping strategies for depression among women with cancer and interventions used to promote these strategies. Three different electronic databases were reviewed, using the key words depression, coping and cancer to seek publications in English, Portuguese and Spanish, which resulted in 376 articles. The search was limited to female gender and the study types: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized control trial and review. After excluding studies whose full text was not available and repetitions in different
Full Text Available Abstract Background The health insurance system in Taiwan is comprised of public health insurance and private health insurance. The public health insurance, called “universal national health insurance” (NHI, was first established in 1995 and amended in 2011. The goal of this study is to provide an updated description of several important aspects of health insurance in Taiwan. Of special interest are household insurance coverage, medical expenditures (both gross and out-of-pocket, and coping strategies. Methods Data was collected via a phone call survey conducted in August and September of 2011. A household was the unit for survey and data analysis. A total of 2,424 households covering all major counties and cities in Taiwan were surveyed. Results The survey revealed that households with smaller sizes and higher incomes were more likely to have higher coverage of public and private health insurance. In addition, households with the presence of chronic diseases were more likely to have both types of insurance. Analysis of both gross and out-of-pocket medical expenditure was conducted. It was suggested that health insurance could not fully remove the financial burden caused by illness. The presence of chronic disease and inpatient treatment were significantly associated with higher gross and out-of-pocket medical expenditure. In addition, the presence of inpatient treatment was significantly associated with extremely high medical expenditure. Regional differences were also observed, with households in the northern, central, and southern regions having less gross medical expenditures than those on the offshore islands. Households with the presence of inpatient treatment were more likely to cope with medical expenditure using means other than salaries. Conclusion Despite the considerable achievements of the health insurance system in Taiwan, there is still room for improvement. This study investigated coverage, cost, and coping strategies and may be informative to stakeholders of both basic and commercial health insurance.
The goal of the current study was to examine how social support and coping strategies are related in predicting emotional well-being of women with breast cancer. In achieving this goal, we examined two hypothesized models: (1) a moderation model where social support and coping strategies interact with each other in affecting psychological well-being; and (2) a mediation model where the level of social support influences choices of coping strategies between self-blame and positive reframing. I...
Kim, Junghyun; Han, Jeong Yeob; Shaw, Bret; Mctavish, Fiona; Gustafson, David
This investigation examined the relationship of abuse-specific coping strategies and perceived responses to abuse disclosure to symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress among 131 women seeking a protection order against an intimate partner. Disengagement, denial, and self-blame coping strategies, as well as blaming of the participant by others, were associated with greater depressive and posttraumatic symptoms. None of the strategies of coping or responses to abuse disclosure were nega...
Flicker, Sharon M.; Cerulli, Catherine; Swogger, Marc T.; Talbot, Nancy L.
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the relationship between the depressive mood and cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Methods: A total of 143 major depression patients were assessed with a self-designed questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the Chinese version of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ-C and the twenty-item Toronto Scale (TAS-20, and 95 healthy people were involved as controls. Regression analysis was carried out for the influcing factors to depressive mood. Results: Compared with controls, Patients with Depressive Episode showed significantly higher total scores of inadaptability strategy?TAS and BDI(P<0.01. There were lots of factors, such as domestic stress and maladaptive strategy showed significant correlation with total score of BDI in major depression (P<0.05 or P<0.01. The factors of domestic stress and maladaptive strategy et al entered the regression equation for BDI by turns. Conclusions: Patients with depression suffered from maladaptive strategy. Cognitive coping strategies and stressl were the important influence factors of depression emotion in patients with depression.
The objective of this study was to assess whether and how coping strategies affect the welfare of African catfish Clarias gariepinus housed at low and high densities. Group composition influenced feed intake; re-active groups (comprised of 100% re-active fish) had a lower specific growth rate (G) and feed intake and a higher feed conversion ratio (R(FC)) than pro-active groups. Furthermore, re-active groups had a lower energy retention than pro-active groups. The latter was fully due to differences in feed intake, since energy partitioning (on % total gross energy intake basis) was similar among the group composition treatments. Fish held at high stocking density showed a higher R(FC) and feeding speed and a lower energy retention and agonistic behaviour. None of the measured variables was influenced by the interaction effect. In mixed groups, G and number of skin lesions seemed to be affected by different behavioural phenotypes at low stocking density, but not at high density. These results indicate that both stocking density and group composition affect physical and behavioural responses of C. gariepinus. Furthermore, physical and behavioural data of individual fish housed in mixed groups suggest that coping strategy affects the fitness of different behavioural phenotypes at low, but not at high, stocking density. PMID:20557604
Van de Nieuwegiessen, P G; Ramli, N M; Knegtel, B P F J M; Verreth, J A J; Schrama, J W
Until the present day, research on fuel poverty focussing on the point of view of those concerned is few and far between. The present paper aims at filling this gap, analysing experiences with and behavioural responses to fuel poverty. It examines the day-to-day energy situation of households, which are poor/at-risk-of-poverty and/or suffering from fuel poverty in a case study conducted in the Austrian capital Vienna. Qualitative interviews provide the data for investigating the relevant factors in causing fuel poverty (among those, bad housing conditions, outdated appliances, financial problems), and provide a basis for discussion about the respective behavioural strategies of the people concerned. The results show that the ways of handling this problematic situation vary greatly and that people follow different strategies when it comes to inventing solutions for coping with the restrictions and finding ways of satisfying at least a part of their basic energy needs. Nonetheless, it also clearly surfaces that the scope of action is limited in many cases, which in turn only supports the claim that changes in the overall conditions are essential. - Highlights: ? This paper scrutinises experiences with and behavioural reactions to fuel poverty. ? Analysis of 50 qualitative interviews in Viennese low-income households. ? Low-income and/or fuel poor households face various strains. ? Ways of dealing with fuel poverty vary greatly, scope of action is limited. ? Hoscope of action is limited. ? Households are very creative when it comes to coping with restricted conditions.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the intensity of craving and the types of coping skills used by nicotine-dependent patients. METHOD: This was an experimental study. The sample comprised 201 subjects, mean age 38.15 years. The participants were randomly divided into groups of zero, 30 and 60 minutes of nicotine abstinence. The following instruments were administered: the Chart of Sociodemographic Data, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges, and the Coping Strategies Inventory. RESULTS: The most frequently used coping strategies are presented in descending order: accepting responsibility, self-control and distancing. There was a positive correlation between the confrontive coping strategy and the total score on the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (rs = 0.146; p = 0.045 and the score on Factor 1 (rs = 0.165; p = 0.023. CONCLUSION: The most intense craving can lead nicotine-dependent individuals to use confrontive coping strategies that make them unable to control their emotions or to face the situations of high risk of relapse. This finding demonstrates that the treatment of smokers should include psychological education about the pitfalls of using these types of strategy and should teach them new types of coping strategies for craving management.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a associação entre a intensidade do craving e os tipos de habilidade de coping utilizados por dependentes de tabaco. MÉTODO: Estudo experimental. A amostra foi de 201 sujeitos, com uma média de idade de 38,15 anos. Os participantes foram divididos, aleatoriamente, em grupos de zero, 30 e 60 minutos de abstinência do tabaco. Os instrumentos aplicados foram uma ficha com dados sociodemográficos, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Questionnaire of Smoking Urges e Inventário de Estratégias de Coping. RESULTADOS: As estratégias de coping mais utilizadas, em ordem decrescente, foram aceitação de responsabilidade, auto-controle e distanciamento. Foram encontradas correlações positivas entre a estratégia de confrontamento e total de pontos do Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (rs = 0,146; p = 0,045 e pontos no Fator 1 (rs = 0,165; p = 0,023. CONCLUSÃO: O craving mais intenso pode levar o dependente a utilizar estratégias de confrontamento que são pouco eficientes na contenção das emoç??es e no enfrentamento das situações de risco de recaída. Este achado é relevante, pois demonstra que, no tratamento de tabagistas, é preciso psicoeducar os pacientes para os riscos da utilização deste tipo de estratégia e ajudá-los para que utilizem novos tipos de estratégias de coping para o manejo do craving.
Renata Brasil Araujo
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a associação entre a intensidade do craving e os tipos de habilidade de coping utilizados por dependentes de tabaco. MÉTODO: Estudo experimental. A amostra foi de 201 sujeitos, com uma média de idade de 38,15 anos. Os participantes foram divididos, al [...] eatoriamente, em grupos de zero, 30 e 60 minutos de abstinência do tabaco. Os instrumentos aplicados foram uma ficha com dados sociodemográficos, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Questionnaire of Smoking Urges e Inventário de Estratégias de Coping. RESULTADOS: As estratégias de coping mais utilizadas, em ordem decrescente, foram aceitação de responsabilidade, auto-controle e distanciamento. Foram encontradas correlações positivas entre a estratégia de confrontamento e total de pontos do Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (rs = 0,146; p = 0,045) e pontos no Fator 1 (rs = 0,165; p = 0,023). CONCLUSÃO: O craving mais intenso pode levar o dependente a utilizar estratégias de confrontamento que são pouco eficientes na contenção das emoções e no enfrentamento das situações de risco de recaída. Este achado é relevante, pois demonstra que, no tratamento de tabagistas, é preciso psicoeducar os pacientes para os riscos da utilização deste tipo de estratégia e ajudá-los para que utilizem novos tipos de estratégias de coping para o manejo do craving. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the intensity of craving and the types of coping skills used by nicotine-dependent patients. METHOD: This was an experimental study. The sample comprised 201 subjects, mean age 38.15 years. The participants were randomly div [...] ided into groups of zero, 30 and 60 minutes of nicotine abstinence. The following instruments were administered: the Chart of Sociodemographic Data, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges, and the Coping Strategies Inventory. RESULTS: The most frequently used coping strategies are presented in descending order: accepting responsibility, self-control and distancing. There was a positive correlation between the confrontive coping strategy and the total score on the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (rs = 0.146; p = 0.045) and the score on Factor 1 (rs = 0.165; p = 0.023). CONCLUSION: The most intense craving can lead nicotine-dependent individuals to use confrontive coping strategies that make them unable to control their emotions or to face the situations of high risk of relapse. This finding demonstrates that the treatment of smokers should include psychological education about the pitfalls of using these types of strategy and should teach them new types of coping strategies for craving management.
Renata Brasil, Araujo; Margareth da Silva, Oliveira; Rosemeri Siqueira, Pedroso; Maria da Graça Tanori de, Castro.
Navigating the ubiquitous conflict, competition, and complex group dynamics of the peer group is a pivotal developmental task of childhood. Difficulty negotiating these challenges represents a substantial source of risk for psychopathology. Evolutionary developmental psychology offers a unique perspective with the potential to reorganize the way we think about the role of peer relationships in shaping how children cope with the everyday challenges of establishing a social niche. To address this gap, we utilize the ethological reformulation of the emotional security theory as a guide to developing an evolutionary framework for advancing an understanding of the defense strategies children use to manage antagonistic peer relationships and protect themselves from interpersonal threat (Davies and Sturge-Apple, 2007). In this way, we hope to illustrate the value of an evolutionary developmental lens in generating unique theoretical insight and novel research directions into the role of peer relationships in the development of psychopathology. PMID:25299884
Martin, Meredith J; Davies, Patrick T; MacNeill, Leigha A
Given urbanization trend and a higher probability of heat waves in Europe, heat discomfort or heat stress for the population in cities is a growing concern that is addressed from various perspectives, such as urban micro climate, urban and spatial planning, human health, work performance and economic impacts. This presentation focuses on subjective heat stress experienced by urban citizens. In order to better understand individual subjective heat stress of urban citizens and how different measures to cope with heat stress in everyday life are applied, a questionnaire survey was conducted in Karlsruhe, Germany. Karlsruhe is located in one of the warmest regions in Germany and holds the German temperature record of 40.2°C in August 2003. In 2013, two hot weather periods with continuous heat warnings by the German Weather Service for 7 and 8 days occurred during the last 10 days of July and first 10 days of August 2013 with an inofficial maximum temperature of again 40.2°C on July 27th in Karlsruhe (not taken by the official network of the German Weather Service). The survey data was collected in the six weeks after the heat using an online-questionnaire on the website of the South German Climate Office that was announced via newspapers and social media channels to reach a wide audience in Karlsruhe. The questionnaire was additionally sent as paper version to groups of senior citizens to ensure having enough respondents from this heat sensitive social group in the sample. The 428 respondents aged 17-94 show differences in subjective heat stress experienced at home, at work and during various typical activities in daily routine. They differ also in the measures they used to adjust to and cope with the heat such as drinking more, evading the heat, seeking cooler places, changing daily routines, or use of air condition. Differences in heat stress can be explained by housing type, age, subjective health status, employment, and different coping measures and strategies. While some results match with expectations and also with results obtained in other studies, for example that people living in the attic floor experienced higher subjective heat stress levels at home, some results are surprising: against expectations, respondents 65 years and older on average reported lower subjective heat-stress levels than younger ones - a result that can partly be linked to the different coping strategies applied by both groups.
Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Hackenbruch, Julia; Schipper, Hans
Lack of educational projects in the available literature was an inspiration to develop a psychoeducational program. The objective was to provide patients with basic information on the contribution of stressors in the occurrence of temporomandibular joint dysfunction and educate on methods for coping with stress most commonly used in psychology. In the course of three meetings, patients are familiarised with the issue of experienced stress as a potential source of psychosomatic illnesses (in particular, temporomandibular joint dysfunction). Preliminary patients' opinions, expressed through self-report methods, indicate significant usefulness of the developed psychoeducational program for the process of treatment and the quality of patients' lives. PMID:25610871
Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of diabetes self-care is largely the responsibility of the patient. With more emphasis on the prevention of complications, adherence to diabetes self-care regimens can be difficult. Diabetes self-care requires the patient to make many dietary and lifestyle changes. This study will explore patient perceptions of diabetes self-care, with particular reference to the burden of self-care and coping strategies among patients. Methods A maximum variation sample of 17 patients was selected from GP practices and diabetes clinics in Ireland to include patients with types 1 and 2 diabetes, various self-care regimens, and a range of diabetes complications. Data were collected by in-depth interviews; which were tape-recorded and transcribed. The transcripts were analysed using open and axial coding procedures to identify main categories, and were reviewed by an independent corroborator. Discussion of the results is made in the theoretical context of the health belief, health value, self-efficacy, and locus of control frameworks. Results Patients' perceptions of their self-care varied on a spectrum, displaying differences in self-care responsibilities such as competence with dietary planning, testing blood sugar and regular exercise. Three patient types could be distinguished, which were labeled: "proactive manager," a patient who independently monitors blood glucose and adjusts his/her self-care regime to maintain metabolic control; "passive follower," a patient who follows his/her prescribed self-care regime, but does not react autonomously to changes in metabolic control; and "nonconformist," a patient who does not follow most of his/her prescribed self-care regimen. Conclusion Patients have different diabetes self-care coping strategies which are influenced by their self-care health value and consequently may affect their diet and exercise choices, frequency of blood glucose monitoring, and compliance with prescribed medication regimens. Particular attention should be paid to the patient's self-care coping strategy, and self-care protocols should be tailored to complement the different patient types.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Having discussed different factors contributing towards “Burnout Syndrome” (BOS in dentistry students, the aim of this project is to analyze the existing relationship between vocational satisfaction, coping strategies and perceived stress as determining factors of burnout in 4th and 5th year dentistry students. Methods: Prospective cohort study (March-December. The relationship between vocational satisfaction, coping strategies and perceived stress as factors towards BOS in 4th and 5th year dentistry students will be determined. All participants will be required to sign a consent form the project will be evaluated by the Ethics Committee. The sociodemographic variables to be measured are: age, gender and socioeconomic status; the psychological variables are: Burnout Syndrome severity, using Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, coping strategies by Copyng Strategies Inventory (CSI, perceived stress with Perceived Stress Scale Questionnaire (PSS. All versions above have been validated in Spanish, and vocational satisfaction of the Dentistry Degree will be measured using a questionnaire, with 6 questions for 3 parameters: career choice, current feeling and predicted feeling after graduation. The data collection will be carried out in 4 stages: informed consent obtainment; MBI, CSI, PSS scales and vocational satisfaction questionnaire in March. In the second (June, third (September and fourth (November stages, the questionnaires will be repeated: MBI, PSS and vocational satisfaction. The findings and analysis will be processed in STATA 10/SE including descriptive statistics, regression models, measures and tests of association. RESUMEN Se ha descrito la interacción de diversos factores en la aparición del síndrome de Burnout (SBO en estudiantes de odontología, el objetivo de este proyecto es analizar la relación existente entre la satisfacción vocacional, estrategias de afrontamiento y estrés percibido como determinantes del SBO en estudiantes de odontología de cuarto y quinto año. Metodología: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo (marzo-diciembre. Se determinará la relación existente entre la satisfacción vocacional, estrategias de afrontamiento y estrés percibido como determinantes del SBO en estudiantes de odontología de cuarto y quinto año. Todos los participantes accederán previa firma de consentimiento y el proyecto será evaluado Comité de Bioética. Se medirán variables sociodemográficas: edad, género y nivel socioeconómico; variables psicológicas: severidad de SBO utilizando el Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, estrategias de afrontamiento mediante el Coping Strategies Inventory (CSI, estrés percibido con el cuestionario Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, todas las anteriores en sus versiones validadas al español, y satisfacción vocacional con la carrera de odontología mediante cuestionario de 6 preguntas para 3 puntos: elección de la carrera, actual y proyectada después de la titulación. La recolección se hará en 4 tiempos: obtención del consentimiento informado, escalas MBI, CSI, PSS y el cuestionario de satisfacción vocacional en el mes de marzo. En un segundo (junio, tercer (septiembre y cuarto (noviembre tiempo se repetirá el MBI, PSS y el cuestionario de satisfacción vocacional. La tabulación y análisis se realizará en STATA 10/SE incluyendo estadística descriptiva, modelos de regresión, medidas y pruebas de asociación.
This investigation examined the relationship of abuse-specific coping strategies and perceived responses to abuse disclosure to symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress among 131 women seeking a protection order against an intimate partner. Disengagement, denial, and self-blame coping strategies, as well as blaming of the participant by others, were associated with greater depressive and posttraumatic symptoms. None of the strategies of coping or responses to abuse disclosure were negatively related to depressive or posttraumatic stress symptoms. Findings suggest that mental health providers may find it useful to address these negative styles of coping while public education campaigns should target victim blaming. PMID:22735315
Flicker, Sharon M; Cerulli, Catherine; Swogger, Marc T; Talbot, Nancy L
Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresentamos uma investigação realizada com professores, no qual se procura determinar a vulnerabilidade ao stress; identificar as principais fontes de stress; estabelecer as principais estratégias de coping; analisar se as estratégias deste condicionam a presença de stress laboral; e reconhecer se a autoeficácia percebida é preditora desse tipo de stress. Trata-se duma investigação por questionário, do tipo correlacional, e a amostra é constituída por 54 professores do Ensino Básico público português. As respostas ao Questionário sociodemográfico e profissional; ao Questionário de Vulnerabilidade ao Stress - 23QVS (Serra, 2000; ao Questionário de Stress nos Professores - QSP (Gomes et al., 2006; Gomes, 2007; ao Coping Job Scale - CJS de Latack (adaptação de Jesus & Pereira, 1994; e à Escala de Avaliação de Autoeficácia Geral (Ribeiro, 1995 revelam que 20,4% dos docentes são vulneráveis ao stress; os comportamentos inadequados/indisciplina dos alunos são as principais fontes de stress; as estratégias de controlo são as mais utilizadas pelos participantes para enfrentar o stress, seguidas das de escape e das de gestão de sintomas. Os professores não vulneráveis ao stress utilizam principalmente estratégias de controlo e apresentam níveis mais elevados de eficácia perante a adversidade, bem como de iniciativa e persistência em relação aos professores vulneráveis ao stress.In this work we present a research carried out on teachers to determine their vulnerability to stress, to identify the main sources of stress, to recognize teachers' main coping strategies, to analyze whether such strategies condition the presence of stress at work, and to establish whether the self-efficiency perceived can be used to predict work stress. This is a correlational questionnaire-based research performed on a 54-teacher sample from Portugal's public basic education schools. The answers to the Social, Demographic and Professional Questionnaire, to the Stress Vulnerability Questionnaire - 23QVS (Serra, 2000, to the Teacher Stress Questionnaire - QSP (Gomes et al., 2006; Gomes, 2007, to the Coping Job Scale - CJS (Latack, adapted by Jesus and Pereira, 1994 and to the General Self-efficiency Assessment Scale (Ribeiro, 1995 reveal that 20.4% of teachers are vulnerable to stress. The study shows that the main stress sources are found in students' lack of discipline or improper behaviour, and that control strategies are the most common to deal with stress, followed by escape strategies and symptom management. Teachers not vulnerable to stress use mainly control strategies and they display higher efficiency levels under adversity, as well as more initiative and perseverance than the teachers that are vulnerable to stress.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, apresentamos uma investigação realizada com professores, no qual se procura determinar a vulnerabilidade ao stress; identificar as principais fontes de stress; estabelecer as principais estratégias de coping; analisar se as estratégias deste condicionam a presença de stress laboral; [...] e reconhecer se a autoeficácia percebida é preditora desse tipo de stress. Trata-se duma investigação por questionário, do tipo correlacional, e a amostra é constituída por 54 professores do Ensino Básico público português. As respostas ao Questionário sociodemográfico e profissional; ao Questionário de Vulnerabilidade ao Stress - 23QVS (Serra, 2000); ao Questionário de Stress nos Professores - QSP (Gomes et al., 2006; Gomes, 2007); ao Coping Job Scale - CJS de Latack (adaptação de Jesus & Pereira, 1994); e à Escala de Avaliação de Autoeficácia Geral (Ribeiro, 1995) revelam que 20,4% dos docentes são vulneráveis ao stress; os comportamentos inadequados/indisciplina dos alunos são as principais fontes de stress; as estratégias de controlo são as mais utilizadas pelos participantes para enfrentar o stress, seguidas das de escape e das de gestão de sintomas. Os professores não vulneráveis ao stress utilizam principalmente estratégias de controlo e apresentam níveis mais elevados de eficácia perante a adversidade, bem como de iniciativa e persistência em relação aos professores vulneráveis ao stress. Abstract in english In this work we present a research carried out on teachers to determine their vulnerability to stress, to identify the main sources of stress, to recognize teachers' main coping strategies, to analyze whether such strategies condition the presence of stress at work, and to establish whether the self [...] -efficiency perceived can be used to predict work stress. This is a correlational questionnaire-based research performed on a 54-teacher sample from Portugal's public basic education schools. The answers to the Social, Demographic and Professional Questionnaire, to the Stress Vulnerability Questionnaire - 23QVS (Serra, 2000), to the Teacher Stress Questionnaire - QSP (Gomes et al., 2006; Gomes, 2007), to the Coping Job Scale - CJS (Latack, adapted by Jesus and Pereira, 1994) and to the General Self-efficiency Assessment Scale (Ribeiro, 1995) reveal that 20.4% of teachers are vulnerable to stress. The study shows that the main stress sources are found in students' lack of discipline or improper behaviour, and that control strategies are the most common to deal with stress, followed by escape strategies and symptom management. Teachers not vulnerable to stress use mainly control strategies and they display higher efficiency levels under adversity, as well as more initiative and perseverance than the teachers that are vulnerable to stress.
Margarida, Pocinho; Maria Regina, Capelo.
Full Text Available A new phenomenon of violence among pupils has been spreading over Europe in the last few years: Cyberbullying, the repeated and intended hurting of weaker schoolmates via modern communication technologies. This study shows (based on a sample of 1987 pupils, that cyberbullying exists in Germany, although the number of incidents is still rather small. It could also be shown, that the pupils who act as cyberbullies are the same as those who bully others in real life. The same overlap was found to be true for the victims. Cyberbullying can therefore be considered a subcategory of ordinary bullying instead of being considered a whole new phenomenon. The exploration of coping strategies showed, that a common factor structure underlies physical, verbal and cyberbullying. Considering the fact that the findings of the study are based on an online questionnaire with restricted representativeness, the results should however be interpreted carefully.
Full Text Available The goal of this study is to explore risk perception and coping strategies used by adults living near the volcano Popocatépetl in Mexico. Qualitative and semi-quantitative data were collected with a questionnaire from 192 adult respondents. These respondents were divided into four groups (G1-G4 according to the risk zone in which they live (generally the degree of hazard decreases with increasing distances from the volcano. Analyses of the completed questionnaires were made according to sex and age range of the respondents. Not surprisingly volcanic risk was perceived as more worrisome by people living in the zone nearest the volcano’s crater (G1. However, when we asked what risks could affect them directly, perceptions changed, and volcanic risk was appraised as the most important risk potentially affecting them and their homes for risk zones G1, G2 and G3. Despite sporadic information given by the Civil Defense authorities, a high percentage of people exposed to volcanic hazards do not feel prepared to face an eruptive event, and people have no strategy to cope with general perceived risks. A high percentage of participants in the four groups stated that they would leave the area if an eruptive event occurred. This statement reflects the serious misinformation, because civil authorities do not require people living in the third and fourth zones to evacuate. The results of study demonstrate the critical need to reinforce public information campaigns regarding volcanic risk in communities vulnerable to direct damage in the event of a stronger eruption of the volcano Popocatépetl
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a síndrome de "burnout" e as estratégias de "coping" de jogadores de vôlei de praia. Participaram 93 atletas, das categorias sub-21 e "open" do circuito brasileiro de vôlei de praia. Como instrumentos foram utilizados uma ficha com dados de identificação, Questionário de "Burnout" para Atletas e Inventário Atlético das Estratégias de "Coping". Para análise dos dados utilizou-se teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, coeficiente Alpha de Cronbach, teste 'U' de Mann-Whitney, teste de Kruskal-Wallis e coeficiente de correlação de Spearman, adotando p This study aimed to analyze burnout syndrome and coping strategies of beach volleyball players. Ninety-three athletes participated, being one group of under-21 age and another group of adult category. The both group are composed by players of the Brazilian beach volleyball championship. The instruments used were a form with data identification, Burnout Questionnaire for Athletes and Athletic Inventory of Coping Strategies. For data analysis, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, 'U' Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlation coefficient, were used, considering p < 0.05. There was a significant and negative correlation between the dimensions of burnout and coping strategies. For the dimensions of burnout, just ranking obtained significant difference, while for coping strategies, gender, category, ranking and practice time showed significant differences. It was concluded that the higher burnout, fewer beach volleyball athletes use coping strategies.
Lenamar Fiorese Vieira
The authors examined the associations of 3 types of psychological coping (task-based, emotion-based, avoidance), 2 types of religious coping (positive, negative), and their interactions with grief of 57 mothers bereaved by the sudden death of a child. Results indicated that mothers who use emotion-based coping report significantly higher levels of…
Anderson, Miriam J.; Marwit, Samuel J.; Vandenberg, Brian; Chibnall, John T.
Full Text Available This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of zones by severity of flooding, interviews with households, sub-ward leaders, and municipal and city officials. Non-participant observation, primarily taking photographs, complemented these methods. Laboratory tests of water samples taken from shallow wells in the settlement were performed to establish the level of pollution. In addition, records of prevalence of water-borne diseases were gathered from a dispensary within the settlement to corroborate flooding events, water pollution and occurrence of such diseases. Findings show that flooding is contributed to by the lack of a coordinated stormwater drainage system; haphazard housing development within the valley; and blocking of the water stream by haphazard dumping of solid waste and construction. Risks associated with flooding include water and air pollution, diseases, waterlogging and blocked accessibility. The most common coping strategies at household level are use of sandbags and tree logs; raised pit latrines and doorsteps; provision of water outlet pipes above plinth level; construction of embankments, protection walls and elevation of house foundations; seasonal displacement; and boiling and chemical treatment of water. Recommendations for future action at household, community and city level are made.
Pain is a significant problem for many people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). This exploratory study investigated the extent to which severity of pain was related to coping strategies and post-traumatic symptomatology in people with CFS/ME. Participants comprised 27 individuals with CFS/ME and 27 healthy controls. All participants completed the CFS/ME Symptom Questionnaire, the brief pain inventory, the impact of event scale-revised and the brief-COPE. It was found that CFS/ME participants present with significantly more post-traumatic stress symptoms and report significantly less emotion focused strategies and problem focused coping strategies compared with healthy controls. Severity of pain in the CFS/ME subgroup was not associated with traumatic symptomatology, although those with severe pain reported less use of self-distraction, positive re-framing and acceptance than those with mild pain. Our results suggest that the enhancement of certain coping strategies (facilitated by psychological interventions such as acceptance and commitment therapy) may be beneficial in alleviating pain in people with CFS/ME. PMID:25178481
Krzeczkowska, Anna; Karatzias, Thanos; Dickson, Adele
Full Text Available The study investigated challenges encountered and coping strategies adopted by postgraduate students of agricultural education in writing thesis in Nigerian universities. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The study was conducted in Nigerian universities offering post-graduate programme in agricultural education. The population for the study was 118 made up of 14 postgraduate diploma, 66 masters and 38 doctoral students writing thesis in agricultural education. The entire population was involved in the study. An instrument tilted: Challenges and Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CCSQ was used for data collection. Three experts validated the questionnaire. Cronbach alpha reliability method was used to determine the internal consistency of the questionnaire. A reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained. A total of 97 copies of the questionnaire were returned representing 93 percent return rate. Data collected for the study were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while Analysis of Variance was used to test hypothesis of no significant difference at P ? 0.05 level of significance. The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS was the tool employed to analyze the data collected. It was found out that 28 challenges were encountered by postgraduate students of agricultural education in thesis writing while 15 coping strategies were adopted by postgraduate students of agricultural education in thesis writing. The recommendations were that postgraduate students of agricultural education who have abandoned their thesis writing should adopt the identified coping strategies to complete their programme among others.
Vincent C. Asogwa
While studies have shown that adults use smoking to deal with stress, little research has been carried out with children to explore their perceptions of smoking as a coping strategy. Qualitative questionnaire and interview data were generated with children aged 9-11 years. Participants perceived that adults smoked to relieve boredom and stress,…
Milton, Beth S.; Dugdill, Lindsey; Porcellato, Lorna A.; Springett, R. Jane
This study investigates 311 first-year students' psychological and behavior adaptation to college and the mediate role of coping strategies and social support. The investigates reveal that: (1) first-year students who are from countryside, live in poor families, speak in dialects or major in science and engineering have poorer adaptation to…
Wang, Aiping; Chen, Lang; Zhao, Bo; Xu, Yan
The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…
Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.
This is the second report of a multinational project undertaken in 1988 by the International Round Table for the Advancement of Counseling that sought, among other things, to compare and contrast the reported problems, coping strategies, and help-seeking behavior of 2129 male and 2307 female adolescents from a total of three different socioeconomic backgrounds in each of 16 countries (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Greece, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Japan Kuwait, the Netherlands, the Philippines, China, Puerto Rico, Turkey, the US, and Venezuela) and from a "classless" background in Russia. The first report described the study and research methodology and cited preliminary findings that 1) problems and coping strategies tended to be universal and age-related; 2) impoverished subjects from Brazil, India, the Philippines, and Venezuela had more problems than any other adolescents; 3) problems were usually related to school, family, and identity rather than to sexuality; and 4) the most common coping strategy was individual problem-solving. This report compares male/female identification of up to three problems that cause worry, response to such problems, and help-seeking behavior. All adolescents cited problems in school, identity, and family. Males and females reported similar coping strategies and showed a strong dependence on individual coping strategies. Both males and females choose personal friends and family members as those most likely to help with problems. Males exhibited a higher percentage of problems related to school and a lower percentage of family problems. Russian adolescents reported more problems relating to altruism than any other group, especially males. These results imply that strong similarities exist for males and females, and the findings are worrisome in that problems related to sexuality were not cited. Counselors should expect the concerns of adolescents to be developmentally related and to overwhelm gender differences. PMID:12293037
Gibson, J T; Baker, C E; Showalter, S M; Al-sarraf, Q; Atakan, S A; Borgen, W A; Guimaraes, I R; Giusti-ortiz, A L; Ishiyama, F I; Robertson, M
Literature from the U.S. has documented the importance of spirituality on the psychological health of people living with HIV/AIDS; however there is little published data on the ways in which people living with HIV/AIDS in Africa turn to religion for support. We conducted 40 in-depth interviews with HIV-positive women who were pregnant or had recently given birth in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo to inform the development of a comprehensive family-centered HIV treatment and care program. Women described how they relied upon their faith and turned to church leaders when they were diagnosed with HIV and prepared to share their diagnosis with others. The women used prayer to overcome the initial shock, sadness and anger of learning their HIV diagnosis. They turned to their church leaders to help them prepare for disclosing their diagnosis to others, including their partners. Church leaders were also important targets for disclosure by some women. Women's faith played an important role in their long-term coping strategies. Conceptualizing their infection as a path chosen by God, and believing that God has the power to cure their infection comforted women and provided them with hope. In settings like the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where there is a strong foundation of faith, we need to recognize how individuals draw upon their different health belief systems in order to develop and implement coherent and effective prevention, treatment and care strategies. PMID:19136188
Maman, Suzanne; Cathcart, Rebecca; Burkhardt, Gillian; Omba, Serge; Behets, Frieda
Full Text Available Fatigue is one of the symptoms of MS that is often experienced and causes irritating situations. This study was planned and applied as a descriptive and a cross-sectional study. Study was conducted at Neurology Department of Gulhane Military Medical Academy from December 2009 to March 2010. This study was carried out using 53 participants with MS. The data were collected by using Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. 94.3% of the MS patients sampled reported that they experience the fatigue. Their perceptions about the factors affecting the fatigue are as follows: the major factor on fatigue is reported to be “sadness and frustration” (92 %. “Stress” is stated to be the second significant factor affecting the fatigue (86 %. The third significant factor for the participants is found to be “the increase in the physical activity either at home or at work” (78%. The mean FSS score is 5.01 (SD=1.54 for the participants. 92.4 % of the participants (49 persons employ such strategies, while 7.9 % (4 persons of them do not employ any specific coping strategy for the fatigue.
Abstract Background Previous research has found that acceptance of pain is more successful than cognitive coping variables for predicting adjustment to pain. This research has a limitation because measures of cognitive coping rely on observations and reports of thoughts or attempts to change thoughts rather than on overt behaviours. The purpose of the present study, therefore, is to compare the influence of acceptance measures and the influence of different behavioural coping...
Gili Margalida; Luciano Juan V; Casanueva Benigno; Rodero Baltasar; Serrano-Blanco Antoni; García-Campayo Javier
It is a research project that has been developed at Santa Maria University Hospital (HUSM), aiming to identify the coping strategies that patients use when referred for Cardiac Surgery. The data will be collected in the cardiac pre-surgery period through a questionnaire, intending to characterize the participants; besides using the Coping Inventory instrument – Jalowiec – to identify the coping style...
Juliane Umann; Laura Azevedo Guido; Graciele Fernanda da Costa Linch
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo analisa a relação entre o estresse percebido no trabalho, a estratégia de enfrentamento adotada e a qualidade de vida de gerentes atuantes em organizações brasileiras. Foram aplicados três instrumentos em conjunto: o Job Stress Scale, de Karasek, o Coping with Job Stress, de Latack, e o [...] WHOQOL - Bref, da OMS, em uma amostra de 1.290 gerentes distribuídos pelo Brasil. Aplicou-se uma análise de correlação entre as variáveis: estresse, qualidade de vida e estratégia de enfrentamento. Para melhor avaliar a relação das três dimensões de interesse, foram desenvolvidos modelos de regressão linear e regressão logística. Os achados demonstraram que a maior parte dos gerentes encontra-se em um nível elevado de estresse, mas com bom suporte social e boa percepção quanto à sua qualidade de vida. A maioria utiliza estratégias de controle para enfrentamento do estresse. As estratégias de controle e administração de sintomas influenciam significativamente a percepção de qualidade de vida, enquanto que estratégias de evitação implicam em diminuição dessa percepção. Gerentes com alta tensão (Karasek & Theorell, 1990) tendem a ter uma qualidade de vida mais pobre, mesmo moderada pelo apoio social. Abstract in english This study analyzes the relationship between perceived stress at work, the coping strategy adopted, and the quality of life of active managers in Brazilian organizations. Three instruments were applied together: Karasek's Job Stress Scale, Latack's Coping with Job Stress and WHO'S WHOQOL-Bref to a s [...] ample of 1290 managers throughout Brazil. An analysis of the correlation between the variables stress, quality of life and coping strategy was applied. To further evaluate the relationship between the three dimensions of interest, linear and logistic regression models were developed. The findings show that most managers find themselves under a high stress level, but share good social support and have good perceptions about their quality of life. Most use control strategies to cope with stress. Control strategies and symptom management significantly influence the perception of quality of life, whereas avoidance strategies imply a decrease in this perception. Managers with jobs classified as high strain (Karasek & Theorell, 1990) tend to have a poorer quality of life, even when moderated by social support.
Andre, Barcaui; Ana Cristina, Limongi-França.
Full Text Available AbstrakStres merupakan bagian dari kehidupan dan kehidupan tidak lepas dari stres. Stresbisa dialami siapa saja, dari kanak-kanak hingga lanjut usia. Stres bisa bersifat akut danbisa pula bersifat kronis. Banyak penelitian empiris yang membuktikan bahwa stres berdampaksecara negatif bagi kesehatan tubuh dan kesejahteraan psikologis. Namun banyak faktoryang berpengaruh terhadap stres. Diantara faktor faktor tersebut adalah strategi coping yangdigunakan individu.Penelitian ini menguji hubungan antara tiga strategi coping yaitu active coping,avoidance coping dan negative coping dengan stres pada mahasiswa. Subyekpenelitian berjumlah 41 orang yang merupakan mahasiswa psikologi Universitas AhmadDahlan Yogyakarta.Berdasarkan hasil analisis regresi menunjukkan tidak ada hubungan yang signifikanantara active coping, negative coping dan avoidance coping secara bersama-sama dengan stres R = 0.045 F = 1.631 p = 0.199. Hasil uji korelasi product momentpearson antara active coping dengan stres menunjukkan adanya hubungan negatif yangtidak signifikan r = - 0.034 p = 0.417. Korelasi antara avoidance coping dengan stresmenunjukkan adanya hubungan positif yang tidak signifikan r = 0.113 p = 0.241. Korelasiantara negative coping dengan stres menunjukkan hubungan positif yang signifikan r =0.340 p = 0.015. Negative coping menyumbang 9.3 % terhadap stres. Ini menunjukkanmasih terdapat 90.7 % pengaruh variabel lain yang terhadap stres.
Task 4 of this collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focused on the design of the hierarchical supervisory control for multiple-module units. The state of the IRIS plant design--specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design--made developing a detailed hierarchical control difficult at this time. However, other simultaneous and ongoing efforts have contributed to providing the needed information. This report summarizes the results achieved under Task 4 of this Financial Assistance Award. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 discusses the IRIS control functions. Next, it briefly reviews the current control concepts, and then reviews the maneuvering requirements for the IRIS plant. It closes by noting the benefits that automated sequences have in reducing operator workload. Section 3 examines reactor loading in the frequency domain to establish some guidelines for module operation, paying particular attention to strategies for using process steam for desalination and/or district heating. The final subsection discusses the implications for reactor control, and argues that using the envisioned percentage (up to 10%) of the NSSS thermal output for these purposes should not significantly affect the NSSS control strategies. Section 4 uses some very general economic assumptions to suggest how one should approach multi-module operation. It concludes that the well-known algorithms used for economic dispatching could be used to help manage a multi-unit IRIS site. Section 5 addresses the human performance factors of multi-module operation. Section 6 summarizes our conclusions
Task 4 of this collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focused on the design of the hierarchical supervisory control for multiple-module units. The state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – made developing a detailed hierarchical control difficult at this time. However, other simultaneous and ongoing efforts have contributed to providing the needed information. This report summarizes the results achieved under Task 4 of this Financial Assistance Award. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 discusses the IRIS control functions. Next, it briefly reviews the current control concepts, and then reviews the maneuvering requirements for the IRIS plant. It closes by noting the benefits that automated sequences have in reducing operator workload. Section 3 examines reactor loading in the frequency domain to establish some guidelines for module operation, paying particular attention to strategies for using process steam for desalination and/or district heating. The final subsection discusses the implications for reactor control, and argues that using the envisioned percentage (up to 10%) of the NSSS thermal output for these purposes should not significantly affect the NSSS control strategies. Section 4 uses some very general economic assumptions to suggest how one should approach multi-module operation. It concludes that the well-known algorithms used for economic dispatching could be used to help manage a multi-unit IRIS site. Section 5 addresses the human performance factors of multi-module operation. Section 6 summarizes our conclusions.
Gary D. Storrick; Bojan Petrovic
This randomized, controlled intervention study was carried out to investigate the effects of a Family-to-Family Support (FFS) program on the coping strategies and mental health status of caregivers of schizophrenia patients. Data were collected via a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Ways of Coping with Stress Scale (WCSS). During the first phase of the study, the FFS program was developed, followed by a second phase in which the participants of the study were identified and trained. In the third phase, trained caregivers trained other caregivers. The study sample consisted of 46 caregivers. We determined statistically significant differences in the mean GHQ scores of the FFS group over four measurements. In the WCSS subscales, the self-confident approach, optimistic approach and seeking social support approach scores of caregivers participating in the FFS program were high, while their helpless approach score was low. The FFS program had a positive impact on the coping strategies and mental health status of caregivers of schizophrenia patients. PMID:25457690
Bademli, Kerime; Duman, Zekiye Çetinkaya
An association between dental fear and anxiety (DFA) has been confirmed for children younger than 8 years, but this association in older children is less clear. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by studying DFA in older children and their parents with validated measures. This cross-sectional study, conducted at Community Health Centre Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, included 114 children and their parents. DFA, coping, and sociodemographic variables were studied using Corah Dental Anxiety Questionnaire (CDAS), Dental Subscale of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS), Dental Cope Questionnaire, and sociodemographic questionnaire. Maternal CDAS scores had significant positive correlation with child DFA measured with CFSS-DS (r=0.35, P<0.001) and CDAS (r=0.32, P<0.001). Fathers’ CDAS scores were not associated with child CFSS-DS, but showed a moderate correlation with child CDAS (r=0.19, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in children’s fear and anxiety based on age, sex, or socioeconomic variables. Children used internal coping strategies most frequently and external coping strategies were rated by the children as the most effective. We did not find differences in number and type of effective coping strategies in children with high DFA compared with children with low DFA. In conclusion, there is evidence of the coexistence of dental fear in parents and older children. These findings may help to devise interventions that will prevent or alleviate children’s DFA. PMID:25187737
Coric, Anka; Banozic, Adriana; Klaric, Miro; Vukojevic, Katarina; Puljak, Livia
Full Text Available Livestock keeping is increasingly becoming more popular in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. However, lack of feed is a real challenge. Inadequate feed supply in urban areas is due to many interacting factors, which include among others land shortage, high cost of feeds, climate risks and poor quality of feeds. The objective of this study was to identify and examine the effectiveness of the strategies adopted by livestock farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda to cope with feed scarcity. A total of 120 livestock farmers from Kampala were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Dairy cattle (48.3% and chickens (37.5% were the most common species, followed by pigs (34.2%, goats (26.7% and sheep (3.3%. Farm size was generally small both in terms of herd size and total landholding. Cattle and pig farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala ranked feed scarcity as their first major constraint, while chicken farmers had high cost of feeds. These farmers have adopted several strategies for coping with feed scarcity. Among the major coping strategies adopted were: changing of feed resources based on availability and cost (37.5%, purchasing of feed ingredients in bulk (29.7%, using crop/food wastes (26.6%, harvesting of forages growing naturally in open access lands (23.4% and reducing herd size (17.2%. However, most of the coping strategies adopted were largely aimed at dealing with the perennial challenge of feed scarcity on a day-by-day basis rather than dealing with it using sustainable and long-term strategies.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The need to maintain a non-mineral dependent economy and daunting food import bills have been the drive for the provision of extension services, which is dependent on motivated extension work force.. Extension personnel will not stay motivated under circumstances where the risk of job burnout is hig [...] h. A simple random technique was used to select 120 extension agents from 328. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire (reliability coefficient of 0.85) and were analyzed with frequency counts, percentages one-way analysis of variance and multiple regressions. The result shows that 68% of the agents are males 85% married; 50% are above 40 years and 66% have at least a BSc degree. Burnout symptoms manifest mostly as depression (48%), insomnia (40%), headaches (43%), and weight loss (44%). Popular coping strategies are keeping positive attitude at all times, setting self-realistic goals, and maintaining healthy relationship with co-workers. A significant difference exists in burnout symptoms experienced across the states (F = 5.71, df 3117 p
Stress, coping, perceptions of control, and psychological distress of 88 adults with mild mental retardation were assessed. Stressful interpersonal interactions and concerns over personal competencies occurred most frequently. Frequency and stress impact were positively associated with a composite score of psychological distress. Active coping was…
Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.
The effect of coping behaviors on nurses' affective reactions to work-generated stressors was assessed, using data gathered from 215 nurses in a medical center hospital in the Midwest. Adaptive coping, reflecting problem-solving behaviors, was found to moderate the relationships of work overload and resource inadequacy with felt stress. (Author/CH)
Parasuraman, Saroj; Hansen, Donna
Abuse and Suffering A feminist perspective on Domestic Violence, Bodies and Battered Women’s Coping Strategies in Mauritius. “At least one out of every three women around the world has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime- with the abuser usually someone known to her. Violence against women and girls is a universal problem of epidemic proportions. Perhaps the most pervasive human rights violation that we know today, it devastates lives, fractures comm...
Jansen, Karine Aasgaard
Introduction & Objective: Etiological researches suggest that biopsychosocial dimensions are responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD). The main goal of the present research was to compare stressful life events and stress coping strategies in coronary heart patients (Acute Myocardial Infarction) and non-patients. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional research 102 patients (all males ) suffering from acute myocardial infarction and 162 non-patient individuals after matching were stud...
Heidari Pahlavian, A.; Gharakhani, M.; Mahjub, H.
This paper addresses, homesickness, an important issue in the area of international human resource management. It uses psychological and sociological literature to highlight the negative effects of homesickness on migrant workers and expatriates. These effects range from psychological disruptions to physical manifestations that affect the health and welfare of individuals and impact on work performance. The paper presents a model of coping strategies used by expatriates to deal with homesickn...
Employed parents’ work and family conditions provide behavioral contexts for their food choices. Relationships between employed parents’ food-choice coping strategies, behavioral contexts, and dietary quality were evaluated. Data on work and family conditions, sociodemographic characteristics, eating behavior, and dietary intake from two 24-hour dietary recalls were collected in a random sample cross-sectional pilot telephone survey in the fall of 2006. Black, white, and Latino employed m...
Blake, Christine E.; Wethington, Elaine; Farrell, Tracy J.; Bisogni, Carole A.; Devine, Carol M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the 6-minute walk test (6-MWT) and tenderness, symptomatology, quality of life, and coping strategies in women with fibromyalgia. One hundred eighteen women with fibromyalgia aged 51.9 ± 7.3 years participated in the study. The examination included the 6-MWT, tender points, and the following questionnaires: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Short-Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36), and Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory. Fair correlations between the 6-MWT and the subscales of physical impairment (FIQ) and physical function (SF-36) were observed (? -0.365 and 0.347, respectively, both p active coping strategies (? -0.255 and 0.223, both p fibromyalgia shows significant relationships, ranging from weak to fair, between the 6-MWT and tenderness, symptomatology, quality of life, and coping strategies. These findings indicate that functional capacity, as assessed by the distance walked in 6 minutes, might be important when planning the assessment, treatment, and monitoring of patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:24315242
Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel
Full Text Available Georges Brousse1,2, Benjamin Arnaud1, Jordane Durand Roger1, Julie Geneste1, Delphine Bourguet1, Frederic Zaplana1, Olivier Blanc1, Jeannot Schmidt1,2, Louis Jehel31CHU Clermont Ferrand, Unité Urgences Psychiatriques, 28 place Henri Dunant BP 69, 63003 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex 01, France; 2Univ Clermont 1, UFR médecine, Clermont-Ferrand, F63001 France; 3Hopital Tenon (CHU APHP 4 rue de la Chine 75020, France, INSERM U669Abstract: Our aim was to assess the influence of the coping strategies employed for the management of traumatic events on the occurrence of dissociation and traumatic disorders. We carried out a 1-year retrospective study of the cognitive management of a traumatic event in 18 subjects involved in the same road vehicle accident. The diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD was made for 33.3% of the participants. The participants with a PTSD diagnosis 1 year after the event used emotion-centered strategies during the event more often than did those with no PTSD, P < 0.02. In the year after the traumatic event, our results show a strong link between the intensity of PTSD and the severity of the post-traumatic symptoms like dissociation (P = 0.032 and the use of emotion-centered strategies (P = 0.004. Moreover, the participants who presented Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire scores above 15 made greater use of emotion-centered coping strategies than did those who did not show dissociation, P < 0.04. Our results confirm that the cognitive management of traumatic events may play an essential role in the development of a state of post-traumatic stress in the aftermath of a violent event.Keywords: trauma, coping, emotions, peritraumatic dissociation, post-traumatic stress disorder
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Al hablar de afrontamiento psicológico, se hace referencia a la forma como los seres humanos responden a circunstancias externas o internas, según como sean evaluadas por ellos mismos, se puede decir, que en el momento en que una persona se enfrenta a una situación excedente de su alcance, en este c [...] aso la enfermedad crónica, se ponen de manifiesto todas las habilidades y capacidades del sujeto para hacerle frente. La adaptación a esta nueva condición de vida tanto para las pacientes como para sus familias implica un esfuerzo psicológico para aceptar el diagnóstico, los trámites para la atención clínica, el sometimiento a exámenes o exploraciones médicas, consultas con el especialista y el tratamiento con todos sus efectos colaterales que casi siempre resultan aversivos. Es en el transcurso de este proceso, cuando se evidencian las estrategias de afrontamiento psicológico que cada paciente emplea para enfrentar la enfermedad todo esto con el fin de alcanzar el equilibrio o bien para disminuir la ansiedad producida por el evento estresante. Con el propósito de entender este proceso de manera más profunda se realizó una investigación mixta orientada a caracterizar las estrategias de afrontamiento más empleadas por un grupo de mujeres de la región y a partir de los hallazgos fue posible construir una propuesta de intervención psicológica orientada a fortalecer las estrategias de afrontamiento favorecedoras del proceso de recuperación de las pacientes. Abstract in english When people speak about psychological confrontation they refer to the way humans respond to external or internal circumstances. Depending on how they are evaluated by themselves, it can be said that when a person is facing a surplus situation scope, in this case chronic illness, all the skills and a [...] bilities of the individual are highlighted to cope. The adaptation to this new condition of life for both patients and their families involves a psychological effort to accept the diagnosis, the procedures for clinical care, being subjected to tests or medical examinations, specialist consultations and treatment with all the side effects which are almost always unwanted. It is during this process when patients evidence their psychological confrontation strategies that each one of the uses to deal with the disease in order to achieve balance or to reduce the anxiety caused by the stressful event. In order to understand this process more deeply, a mixed research was undertaken to characterize the facing strategies most used by a group of women in the region, and from the findings it was possible to construct a psychological intervention proposal aimed at strengthening these strategies that favor the recovery process of patients.
María Fernanda, Enríquez Villota.
Full Text Available This study sought to establish the psychometric properties of a Coping Strategies Inventory Short Form (CSISF by examining coping skills in the Jackson Heart Study cohort. We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, PearsonÃ¢Â€Â™s correlation, and Cronbach Alpha to examine reliability and validity in the CSI-SF that solicited responses from 5302 African American men and women between the ages of 35 and 84. One item was dropped from the 16-item CSI-SF, making it a 15-item survey. No significant effects were found for age and gender, strengthening the generalizability of the CSI-SF. The internal consistency reliability analysis revealed reliability between alpha = 0.58-0.72 for all of the scales, and all of the fit indices used to examine the CSI-SF provided support for its use as an adequate measure of coping. This study provides empirical support for utilizing this instrument in future efforts to understand the role of coping in moderating health outcomes.
The ways in which a family copes with the physical and psychosocial burdens of sickle cell disease (SCD) can influence the child and family functioning. However, few studies have examined SCD-related stressors beyond pain or how children and parents cope with these stressors. This study aimed to describe child coping and parent attempts to help their children cope (ie, coping assistance) with a range of SCD stressors by using a triangulated mixed methods design. We also explored convergence between findings from qualitative interviews and quantitative coping inventories. Fifteen children (aged 6 to 14 years) with SCD and their parents (N=15) completed semistructured interviews and self-report measures to assess SCD-related stressors, coping, and coping assistance strategies. Findings indicate that children experience numerous stressors related to SCD and its treatment, including, but not limited to, pain. To manage these stressors, families employ a range of approach and avoidance-oriented coping strategies. Quantitative and qualitative assessments provided complementary and unique contributions to understanding coping processes among children with SCD and their parents. Examining a broad range of stressors and integrating multiple assessment methods helps improve our understanding of coping with pediatric SCD, which may inform clinical practice and family-focused intervention development. PMID:24327131
Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Barakat, Lamia P; Alderfer, Melissa A; Marsac, Meghan L
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio es explorar la percepción de riesgo y las estrategias de afrontamiento utilizadas por personas adultas que viven cerca del volcán Popocatépetl en México. Se recolectaron datos tanto cualitativos como semi-cuantitativos a partir de un cuestionario que se aplicó a las 192 p [...] ersonas participantes. Éstos, fueron divididos en cuatro grupos (G1-G4) conforme a la zona de riesgo en la cual viven (en general el grado de peligro volcánico disminuye con la distancia). Sin sorpresa, observamos que el riesgo volcánico fue percibido como más preocupante por la gente que vive en la zona más cercana al cráter del volcán. Sin embargo, cuando preguntamos sobre los riesgos que los afectan más directamente, estas percepciones cambian, y el riesgo volcánico es evaluado como el riesgo más importante para los grupos G1, G2 y G3. A pesar de la información dada por las autoridades de Protección Civil, un alto porcentaje de personas expuestas a los peligros volcánicos no se sienten preparadas para enfrentar un evento eruptivo y no tienen estrategias para enfrentar los riesgos percibidos. Un alto porcentaje de participantes en los cuatro grupos sostuvieron que ellos dejarían la zona si ocurriera una erupción. Esta afirmación refleja una seria falta de información, puesto que las autoridades civiles no sugieren que la gente que vive en las zonas tres y cuatro evacuen. Se sugiere reforzar las campañas de información pública en las comunidades cercanas al Popocatépetl. Abstract in english The goal of this study is to explore risk perception and coping strategies used by adults living near the volcano Popocatépetl in Mexico. Qualitative and semi-quantitative data were collected with a questionnaire from 192 adult respondents. These respondents were divided into four groups (G1-G4) acc [...] ording to the risk zone in which they live (generally the degree of hazard decreases with increasing distances from the volcano). Analyses of the completed questionnaires were made according to sex and age range of the respondents. Not surprisingly volcanic risk was perceived as more worrisome by people living in the zone nearest the volcano's crater (G1). However, when we asked what risks could affect them directly, perceptions changed, and volcanic risk was appraised as the most important risk potentially affecting them and their homes for risk zones G1, G2 and G3. Despite sporadic information given by the Civil Defense authorities, a high percentage of people exposed to volcanic hazards do not feel prepared to face an eruptive event, and people have no strategy to cope with general perceived risks. A high percentage of participants in the four groups stated that they would leave the area if an eruptive event occurred. This statement reflects the serious misinformation, because civil authorities do not require people living in the third and fourth zones to evacuate. The results of study demonstrate the critical need to reinforce public information campaigns regarding volcanic risk in communities vulnerable to direct damage in the event of a stronger eruption of the volcano Popocatépetl.
Full Text Available Several studies have been done to assess job satisfaction and quantify effects of stressors on anaesthesiologists in different regions and countries.Studies related to stress in Indian anaesthesiologists are very limited, which prompted us to design this study not only to identify the stressors but also to find out how anaesthesiologists react to stress and devise means to minimize it to increase their job satisfaction levels. A set of questions was handed over personally to 200 anaesthesiologists at the national- and state-level anaesthesiology conferences and continuing medical educations with a request to return them duly filled in, with an assurance that confidentiality and anonymity would bemaintained.Main outcome measures were demographics, factors causing stress, how the responding anaesthesiologists and their colleagues react to it and methods they adopt to reduce stress at their workplace. Response rate was 96%. The total number of respondents was 192 (54% males and 46% females; juniors, 76%; and seniors, 24%. Identified stressors were as follows: time constraints (34%, medicolegal concerns (24%, interference with home life (22%, clinical problems (20% and communication problems (9%. Different strategies for coping with stress were identified. This survey is just a beginning. Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists is requested to look into the matter and take it further on a larger scale by multicentric studies to lay down standards related to number of working hours, number of night-call duties per week, proper assistance, medicolegal protection, etc., which would not only reduce occupational stress but also improve efficiency and job satisfaction among anaesthesiologists.
Full Text Available This paper is based on the results of a pilot project conducted to strengthen Nigerian Meteorological Agency’s (NIMET capacity to provide reliable planting date forecast in Nigeria. This aspect of the project aimed at understanding traditional knowledge base and farmers’ prediction methods, community perceptions of impacts of rainfall variability, coping strategies and opportunities in Sokoto, Kano, Jigawa, Kaduna, Bauchi states of Nigeria. Based on prevalence of drought, a community was selected for survey in each of the five states. Semi-structured interview and focus group discussion were used to sources for information. The survey indicates that the farmers had good understanding of weather and climatic dynamics of their community. The farmers in the study locations characterize a year into five seasons based on the atmospheric temperature as felt by the body, changes in wind direction, farming activities, and the behavioral changes of some animal and birds and phenological changes in plant species. Rainfall variability in the community has altered the farming systems, either in terms of changes in cropping pattern, elimination/reduction in the level of producing some crops or introduction of new crop varieties that are drought resistant and early maturing, and diversification of source of livelihood (non-farm activities. Impacts of rainfall variability in the communities were asserted to include; poor yield, low prices of crop/livestock, low dowry for their daughters, high cost of labor as a result of migration to urban centers, inadequate water for dry season farming, low income, low standard of living, and high level of poverty. Farmers recommended an integration of traditional proven methods of rainfall prediction with scientific methods to evolve reliable forecast that will reduce risks in their rainfed farming systems.
Nnadozie Okonkwo Nnoli
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate hypothesized structural and functional relationships between coping strategies and factors associated with burnout syndrome in independent samples of health workers from different hospitals and hospital care settings. We applied the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the scale of Coping with Extreme Risks adapted to the Mexican population, we analyzed the responses of 354 health workers in a tertiary hospital and 300 from a reference hospital. The samples were intentional, non-probability, quota. The group was formed by nurses, paramedics, diagnostics services, physicians and resident physicians. Results confirmed the factor structure of the instruments in the twosamples and showed that the use of active coping strategies (control, information seeking, social support, among others has protective effects on the factors associated withthe syndrome (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal fulfillment at work, regardless of the sample, context and type of hospital care. We discuss the results andtheir implications in relation to external validity and findings in other related research.
Fernando Austria Corrales
Recent research has highlighted the need to recognise occupation-specific risk factors contributing to stress and burnout. As health professionals, it is important for dentists to recognise the symptoms and the effects of stress on physical, psychological and professional well being. This article reviews the relevant scientific evidence, and provides practical cognitive psychological measures to guide improved well-being for dentists. Any stigma-related factors need to be acknowledged and addressed for the wellbeing of dentists and their patients, and the dental profession is well placed to provide leadership on this issue. Peer support is central to meeting this challenge.
Full Text Available O conceito de coping tem sido descrito como o conjunto das estratégias utilizadas pelas pessoas para adaptarem-se a circunstâncias adversas ou estressantes. O presente artigo apresenta os modelos de coping de Folkman e Lazarus, e de Rudolph, Denning e Weisz, bem como suas diferentes posições teóricas e metodológicas. As definições de estilos e estratégias de coping, sua eficácia e possíveis relações com traços de personalidade são discutidas. É salientada a necessidade de uma teoria de stress-coping específica para crianças, tendo em vista as mudanças cognitivas que ocorrem no curso de seu desenvolvimento. Este artigo apresenta também questões controversas sobre o tema e aponta a necessidade de pesquisas sobre coping no Brasil, para auxiliar na compreensão e desenvolvimento deste conceito.The concept of coping has been described as the set of strategies utilized by individuals in order to adapt themselves to adverse or stressful events. This review presents two process models of coping: one by Folkman and Lazarus, and the other by Rudolfh, Denning and Weisz, as well as their different theoretical and methodological assumptions. The definitions of styles and strategies of coping, their effectiveness and possible relationships to personality traits are discussed. The need for a theory of stress-coping specific for children is emphasized, due to the cognitive changes which occur along their development. Controversial issues about the subject are discussed and the need for research in Brazil about coping is pointed. This procedure would be helpful for the understanding and development of this concept.
Adriane Scomazzon Antoniazzi
Full Text Available Investigadores, um pouco por todo o mundo, começaram a preocupar-se com o fenómeno do burnout, ao identificarem este sintoma essencialmente nas profissões que envolviam uma relação assistencial ou de ajuda, como o caso dos médicos, enfermeiros e psicólogos. Contudo, não tardou que se percebesse que este fenómeno pudesse também estar presente na profissão docente de uma forma muito significativa. A docência é, na atualidade, uma das profissões mais sujeitas a altos níveis de stresse, podendo levar ao burnout, caso se torne recorrente. Muitos docentes conseguem adaptar-se e reagir de uma forma funcional perante as dificuldades próprias da profissão, tornando-se profissionais engaged, ou seja, enquanto alguns professores vivenciam as dimensões negativas do burnout (exaustão emocional, despersonalização e perda de realização profissional, outros experienciam as três dimensões positivas do engagement(vigor, dedicação e absorção profissional. Com a entrada da chamada "psicologia positiva", surge uma nova perspectiva de estudo que procura respostas para determinadas formas de envolvimento profissional. Assim, apesar do fenómeno do engagement ainda não estar muito estudado, encontrar professores engagedcom a sua profissão também é uma realidade presente em muitos países. O recurso a estratégias de coping é uma forma de lidar com as dificuldades inerentes ao exercício da profissão docente. Logo, é importante perceber de que forma a utilização de determinado tipo de estratégia decoping poderá conduzir ao burnoutou, preferencialmente, ao engagement.Researchers throughout the world have started to worry about the phenomenon of burnout, identifying it mainly in professions that involve a relation of assistance or help, as in the case of medical doctors, nurses, and psychologists. However, it was not long before it was noticed that such phenomenon can also be present in the teaching profession in a very significant way. Teaching is nowadays one of the professions subjected to the highest levels of stress, which can lead to burnout when the situation becomes recurrent. Many teachers manage to adapt and to react in a functional way when faced with the difficulties inherent to their profession, becoming engaged professionals, that is to say, while some teachers experience the negative dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and loss of professional fulfillment, others experience the three positive dimensions of engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption in the profession. With the arrival of the so-called "positive psychology", there comes a new perspective of investigation, which seeks to give answers to certain forms of professional involvement. Thus, despite the fact that the phenomenon of engagement has still been little studied, to find teachers engaged with their profession is also a reality in many countries. Resorting to strategies of coping is one way of dealing with the difficulties inherent to the exercise of the teaching profession. Therefore, it is important to observe in which way the use of certain type of strategy of coping can lead to burnout or, preferably, to engagement.
Full Text Available The article offers an analysis of the theoretical and methodological underpinnings of Ukraine’s sustainable development strategy. The argument is that for such a strategy to take form, it must be built on critical and innovative use of approaches and theories of modern world economics including neoclassic, neo-Keynesian, and neo-institutional schools.
This paper discusses the degree to which recently reported relationships between the classroom management techniques and coping styles of Australian teachers apply in two other national settings: China and Israel. Little is known about which teacher characteristics relate to their approach to classroom management, although researchers in Australia…
Romi, Shlomo; Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel
Women and children coping with issues of domestic violence abuse urgently require help from early childhood professionals. The U.S. Department of Justice (2008) details these women and children are in peril. This article focuses on female domestic violence abuse. It presents some warning signs of domestic violence. It also offers steps on how to…
Haeseler, Lisa Ann
This research replicates the study conducted by Forlin (2001) in Churchlands, Western Australia. Forlin's Inclusive Education "Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire" was adapted from the original questionnaire to more accurately reflect the language and practice of inclusion in Ontario. The purpose of this portion of the study was to determine…
Self-mastery refers to problem-focused coping facilitated through personal agency. Communal mastery describes problem solving through an interwoven social network. This study investigates an adaptation of self- and communal mastery measures for youth. Given the important distinction between family and peers in the lives of youth, these adaptation…
Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Allen, James; Henry, David; Mohatt, Gerald V.
Examined validity of Adult Career Concerns Inventory (ACCI) and Career Adjustment and Development Inventory (CADI) as measures of adult vocational development by comparing responses of 124 salespeople to inventories and to measures of work adjustment. CADI clearly seemed to measure vocational development; ACCI seemed to measure concern about…
Savickas, Mark L.; And Others
Full Text Available Climate change adversely affects Ethiopian economy due to heavy dependence of the agricultural sector on rainfall. A decrease of rainfall and rise in temperature has been increasing the exposure of the country to frequent drought. The study was conducted in central Tigray, Adiha tabia, to examine the perception of farmers on trends of climate changes and existing coping strategies. Farmers’ knowledge of various adaptation strategies, drought early warning system and weather forecasting were assessed using focus group discussion (FGD, which consisted of 144 systematically sampled respondents. Temperature is rising while precipitation is declining from time to time. Untimely rain and frequent drought are challenging crop production in the area. Drought is perceived, both by male and female respondents, as the primary climate related hazard which is occurring frequently and affecting their livelihood. Individual’s vulnerability to this hazard varies based on their hazard coping capacity. Lack of modern early warning systems, inflexible cropping calendar and narrow choice of crop varieties should aggravates the vulnerability. Hence, improving forecasting and dissemination of climate information, developing drought resistant varieties and promoting farm-level adaptation measures like use of irrigation technologies and adjusting planting dates should be prioritized to improve community resilience to climate change.
Dejene K. Mengistu
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Purpose: To investigate in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), which are the coping strategies used and the relation between type of coping, voice symptoms and communicative aspects. Method: 73 subjects, 33 in the experimental group, with diagnosis of PD, and 40 subjects in the control group, he [...] althy and without vocal complaints. They underwent the following procedures: application of the Voice Symptons Scale – VoiSS – Brazilian Version, Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire – VDCQ – Brazilian Version, and the questionnaire Living with Dysarthria – LwD. Results: The experimental group showed deviations in all protocols: VDCQ (p
Flávia Pereira da, Costa.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Stress among students of the health sciences can lead to reduced performance of future healthcare human resources. To address this threat there is a need to develop a robust understanding of the nature and intensity of stress in these professionals. To help approaching this goal, the present study assessed stress-induced life change in students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences by quantifying their stressful life events.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study was carried out. Using a cluster sampling method, 248 students were randomly selected from the students of medicine, nursing, dental medicine, pharmacy, allied-medicine, health, midwifery, medical management and information, and rehabilitation disciplines. Based on the concept of Life Change Units (LCU, a questionnaire was developed to quantify the stressful events in student life. The questionnaire contained 54 weighed items about stressful life events related to four groups of interpersonal (10 items, personal (16 items, academic (14 items, and environmental (14 items stress sources. Validity of the questionnaire was determined by expert opinion. The questionnaire reliability was ensured by Cronbach’s alpha of 0.88. The mean LCU loading of demographic groups was compared using t test and ANOVA.Findings: The average LCU loading in student was 71. Twenty seven percent of the students reported an average LCU loading 300. The highest reported life changes were related to personal factors (86, followed by interpersonal (79, environmental (63, and academic (55 factors. Male students showed significantly higher life change as compared with their female counterparts (P < 0.01. Students of medical and graduate courses jointly expressed significantly higher life change as compared with the under graduate students (P < 0.01. Students of nursing showed significantly higher life change in comparison to other students except medical students (P < 0.01. Upper-year students reported higher life change as compared with freshman students (P < 0.01. LCU loading was found significantly higher in students with sleeplessness (P < 0.05 and muscle spasm (P < 0.05, whereas no significant effect was observed for other clinical symptoms.Conclusions: Our study indicated that a considerable percentage of students are exposed to a high risk of health problems. This observation points out the urgent need for implementing effective stress management strategies to assist students in coping with stress. Such a strategy should primarily focus on enhancing students’ personal life management and communication. Male and upper-year students need to receive particular attention. Stress in students of medical and nursing disciplines needs to be specifically characterized and addressed.
Associations between avoidant focused coping strategies and polymorphisms in genes coding for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in suicide attempters: a preliminary study.
In this study we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the genes coding for BDNF (Val66Met) and VEGF (C2578A) may be associated with maladaptive strategies among suicide attempt patients. We found that BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism probably affect avoidant coping strategies. PMID:25218965
Ambrus, Livia; Sunnqvist, Charlotta; Ekman, Agneta; Suchankova, Petra; Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Westrin, Asa
The development of inertial fusion as a power source will require achieving four principal milestones: ignition and propagating burn; high gain at low drive energy for the reactor driver; pulse repetition rates of a few Hz; and long-term reliability and economics of a reactor. To keep development time and costs to a minimum, these should be accomplished with as few major facilities as possible. A viable scenario for the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Program would include establishing the first milestone in a Nova Upgrade for ignition and gain and the latter three in an upgradable, low-power Engineering Test Facility (ETF)/Demonstration Power Plant (DPP), i.e. two major facilities. To be successful in as short a time as possible operations at the major facilities would have to be supported by off-line reactor driver and other reactor technology development efforts. These efforts would evaluate and prioritize the myriad of options available at present for power plant and subsystem concepts. This paper describes the elements of such a program that could make the first commercial power available in the decade of the 2020s and estimates the resources needed. This program would be carried out in phases with major go/no-go decision points before each large funding change. It is estimated that an IFE evaluation phase in the early 1990s would cost $100--150 M, a concept development phase in the latter 1990s would cost $500--850 M, and an engineering test and demonstration phase after the year 2000 would cost $6--8 over 20 years
Self-mastery refers to problem-focused coping facilitated through personal agency. Communal mastery describes problem solving through an interwoven social network. This study investigates an adaptation of self- and communal mastery measures for youth. Given the important distinction between family and peers in the lives of youth, these adaptation efforts produced Mastery-Family and Mastery-Friends subscales, along with a Mastery-Self subscale. We tested these measures for psychometric propert...
Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Allen, James; Henry, David; Mohatt, Gerald V.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine how coping strategies and perceived social stigmatization predicts the psychological wellbeing of female partners of prisoners in Ibadan, Nigeria. Using the purposive sampling techniques, a total of one hundred and nine (109 female partners of prisoners in Ibadan participated in the study. The ages of the participants ranged between 20 years to 65 years. Data collection was through the use of questionnaires. 2×2×2 ANOVA and T-test was used to test the hypothesis. Findings indicates that coping strategies (problem focused and emotion focused and perceived social stigmatization jointly predicted psychological well-being with (F (1, 101 = 13.50; p<0.001. Also there was significant difference between the psychological wellbeing of partners with low (X = 72.76, SD = 10.28 perceived social stigmatization and High (× = 66.39, SD = 7.37 perceived social stigmatization, (t = 3.65; df = 107; p<0.05.
Bada Bukola Victoria
Smoking prevalence for those ages 45-65 is higher than the national average and the number of mid-life and older smokers is expected to increase as baby boomers age. Cessation, even after age 65, confers health benefits. Both physiologic and psychological mechanisms support use of physical activity (PA) as a coping tool for quitting and improving health. This study focused on use of PA for coping with urges to smoke, factors associated with use, and whether use of PA was associated with abstinence at 12 months for 799 smokers ages 50 and older. Only 11.6% used PA for coping, with walking the most common PA. Females were more likely to use PA relative to males. Though in the predicted direction, use of PA was not significantly associated with 12-month abstinence. Male gender and higher baseline self-efficacy to quit were associated with 12 month abstinence. Encouraging use of PA during smoking cessation does not impede quitting and may improve health outcomes. Further research on whether PA increases abstinence with a larger sample of mid-life and older adults is indicated. PMID:24589870
Treviño, Lara A; Baker, Liana; McIntosh, Scott; Mustian, Karen; Seplaki, Christopher L; Guido, Joseph J; Ossip, Deborah J
When considering the number of movements, schools and wars of position, the professional field of strategic management would appear to be maturing. Four views of the strategy development process can be distinguished: rational planning, planning as a guided learning process, planning on the basis of logical incrementalism and emergent strategy formation. All four of these views play a role: rationality, learning experience and spontaneity supplement one another.
Idenburg, P. J.
This paper reports the results of a study of strategies that Dutch children with dyslexia employ to cope with recurrent academic failure. All of the students in the study had developed strategies for protecting their self-esteem. Using Harter's theory of coping with discrepancies between performance and standards, we distinguish four strategies:…
OBJECTIVE: Coping is shown to affect outcomes in chronic pain patients; however, few studies have examined the role of coping in the course of recovery in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of coping style for 2 key aspects of WAD recovery, reductions in neck pain, and in disability. METHODS: A population-based prospective cohort study design was used to study 2986 adults with traffic-related WAD. Participants were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 4, 8, and 12 months postinjury. Coping was measured at 6 weeks using the Pain Management Inventory, and neck pain recovery was assessed at each subsequent follow-up, using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Disability was assessed at each follow-up using the Pain Disability Index (PDI). Pain recovery was defined as a VAS score of 0 to 10; disability recovery was defined as a PDI score of 0 to 4. Data analysis used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Those using high versus low levels of passive coping at 6 weeks postinjury experienced 28% slower pain recovery and 43% slower disability recovery. Adjusted hazard rate ratios for pain recovery and disability recovery were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.59-0.88) and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.41-0.78), respectively. Active coping was not associated with recovery of neck pain or disability. CONCLUSIONS: Passive coping style predicts neck pain and self-assessed disability recovery. It may be beneficial to assess and improve coping style early in WAD.
Carroll, Linda J; Ferrari, Robert
Full Text Available This paper explains the strategy employed by a case study company to implement lean across the business, and to reflect on the success of this approach so other companies may consider this learning and how it might be useful to them. The strategy to enact lean in the case study company was based on creating a number of standard tools/ways of working. These tools can be considered to be standardised work for key aspects of the construction process that the company undertakes. The aim of the tools was to ensure that critical tasks would be carried out to the correct standard (quality, time, cost, health and safety every time, across the business. Achievement of this is expected to lead to improved performance and elimination of variation (waste. To implement this strategy of using standardised work to eliminate variation and lead to improved performance, a step-by-step process was developed to create the tools/standardised work. The paper describes the process that was undertaken and how it aimed to not only produce a number of tools/standardised work, but also to involve people and managers from across the business such that lean philosophy and thinking might also begin to become embedded. The paper will firstly explain, with reference to the relevant literature, how and why the strategy to implement standardised work was chosen, the process that was defined to develop the standardised work, and what happened when that process was put into practice. The findings of the paper show that whilst the completed tools delivered business benefits, the development of the tools did not follow the planned process. The paper discusses how people within the business responded to this strategy and how the process had to be continuously adapted to cope with the current business environment and path dependencies, further evidencing that lean implementations need to be tailored to suit the needs of the individual firm, rather than there being a one size fits all solution. Further, the conclusions will be set in the context of what lean has become to mean to the case study organisation, and how this sits in the wider debate of whether lean is an all encompassing philosophy or a set of prescriptive tools and techniques.
Full Text Available Abstract Background 20 million migrant workers in China lost their jobs during the economic crisis of 2008. Both urban migration and unemployment have long been documented to be associated with vulnerability to mental problems. This study aims to examine the mental health of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China and its relation to duration of unemployment and coping strategy during the recent economic crisis. Methods The data were collected through interview-based survey with a sample of 210 unemployed migrant workers in Zhejiang Province of China from 2008 to 2009. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and seven short demographic questions were used. Results The majority of the unemployed migrant workers were found to be young male manufacturing industry workers with short-term unemployment and a relatively low education level. Nearly 50% of unemployed migrant workers were classified as mentally unhealthy and the most frequently reported symptom was depression. Compared with the adult norm of 1986, 2003, and 2007 in China, unemployed migrants had more mental problems. Long-term unemployed migrant workers had more psychiatric symptoms than the short-term unemployed workers and employed migrant workers. Unemployed migrant workers with immature coping strategies expressed significantly more psychiatric symptoms than those with mixed and mature coping strategies. Duration of unemployment and two coping strategies, problem-solving and self-blaming, predicted the mental problems of unemployed migrant workers. Conclusions The results indicated that mental health status of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China was poorer than the national adult norm. More psychiatric symptoms are evidenced among unemployed migrant workers who lost their jobs for a long term and who had immature coping strategies. These findings can be used for prevention and intervention of mental illness among unemployed migrant workers.
The library and information sector is undergoing massive change. In a changing world we must create envi-ronments that promote strong development to ensure a viable future and a library that provides benefits to all our customers. Professional development is an essential component of this environment. It must be in line with the organization’s strategy and values. Changes in customer expectations, behavior and technological development make it even more important to form the library’s ide...
In patients with acute leukemia we investigated the illness perceptions, lay theories and coping strategies 1 week after diagnosis. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 patients. The transcribed interviews were analyzed by methods of qualitative research. Dramatic narrations of overwhelming threat in younger patients contrast to rationalization in elderly patients. Feelings of helplessness and efforts of normalization become apparent. Intense descriptions of physical injury due to invasive procedures allow verbalizing the fear of the disease. While coping strategies are complex, the overall importance of trust is recognized. Mortal fears are indirectly indicated. The results have consequences for psycho-oncological training and patient education. PMID:16458356
Koenigsmann, Michael; Koehler, Katharina; Regner, Andreas; Franke, Astrid; Frommer, Jörg
Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between coping styles and strategies, and personality styles in a sample of 41 young volunteers of an institution that alleviates poverty in Lima. Peruvian adaptations of COPE and MIPS scales were administered. The results show that volunteers have higher scores on adaptive coping strategies. High scores in some particular personality styles were reported, which allowed to establish a personality profile of this group. According with theoretical framework, most coping strategies correlated with most personality styles, revealing four particular tendencies in these volunteers: they wish to have contact with other people, they usually see positive aspects of situations, they look forward for challenges, and they developed adaptive coping strategies.
Camila Gastelumendi Gonçalves
Åberg, Madelene, Uniza Kahn, John Fleng Steffensen, Øyvind Øverli, Hans Magnus Gjoen and Erik Höglund Abstract: Proactive and reactive stress coping styles is widespread amongst animal groups. Reactive individuals are generally shy and subordinate whereas proactive individuals show the opposite behavior. In salmonids, differences in larval development have been related to these styles. In this study we investigated larval development and time to emergence in two strains of Rainbow trout selected for low (LR) and high (HR) post stress plasma cortisol levels. These strains have previously been characterized with proactive and reactive stress coping, respectively. A line specific SNP was used to distinguish the emerging larvae and a clear link between stress coping style and emergence time was demonstrated by LR larvae emerging earlier than HR larvae. LR larvae also had more yolk reserves at the time of emergence. Establishing territories and energy reserves are important factors for inducing social dominance, raising the question about the effect of initial social experience in shaping Salmonide behavioral profiles
Steffensen, John Fleng
Purpose: to explore the role of religious beliefs coping with disease symptoms and treatment-related side effects in patients with head-and-neck cancer under radiotherapy. Patients and methods: prospectively collected data were used with a cohort of head-and-neck cancer patients treated by radiotherapy and epoetin beta or placebo within a double-blind multicenter trial. All patients were divided into believers and nonbelievers. Answers to a quality of life questionnaire at four points in time during radiotherapy were analyzed according to both groups. Clinical parameters and therapy side effects were controlled regularly. Results: 62.1% of the patients (66/105) sent back a baseline questionnaire discriminating between believers and nonbelievers. For 34.2% (40/105) data of all four measures could be obtained. On average, believers felt better in all categories of side effects at all points of time before, during and directly after therapy. Conclusion: religious faith seems to play an important role in coping strategies of radiotherapy patients. More research in this area would be worthwhile. (orig.)
Becker, G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Research Group on Palliative Medicine, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Momm, F. [Research Group on Palliative Medicine, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Xander, C. [Research Group on Palliative Medicine, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Bartelt, S.; Henke, M.; Frommhold, H. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Zander-Heinz, A.; Budischewski, K.; Domin, C. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Adamietz, I.A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Marienhospital Herne Univ. Clinic, Herne (Germany)
Sudden economic change can have devastating effects on the wellbeing of a country, as witnessed by the dramatic increases in suicide rates in the former Soviet Socialist Republics. However, it is possible to use economic development to promote happiness, if one understands the relationship between culture, coping, and resilience to stress. Cultures shape both normative stressors and individuals’ responses to them; individual coping strategies and cultural institutions must change to accommo...
Aldwin, Carolyn M.
We present an overview of the VL approach to promote research and education in developing countries and to help reduce the technology gap of the digital divide. We discuss software tools for instrument control, data sharing and e-collaboration with special attention on low-bandwidth networks. We analyse the VL tentative costs involved and the skills needed for the VL administration. We conclude by identifying some VL strategies for development. (author)
One of the key problems in effective enterprise management is development of corresponding to its operation conditions strategy, and estimation of its efficiency. This can be solved by means of corresponding system of indicators which is one of the main visualization instruments of estimation of productivity of enterprise work. Development of such system of indicators at electric power production enterprise is described in this article.???????????? ?????????? ????...
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Background The setting of realistic performance-based financing rewards necessitates not just knowledge of health workers’ salaries, but of the revenue that accrues from their additional income-generating activities. This study examined the coping mechanisms of health workers in the public health sector of Nasarawa and Ondo states in Nigeria to supplement their salaries and benefits; it also estimated the proportionate value of the revenues from those coping mechanisms in relation to the health workers’ official incomes. Methods This study adopted a mixed-methods approach, consisting of semi-structured interviews, a review of policy documents, a survey using self-administered questionnaires, and the randomized response technique (RRT). In all, 170 health workers (86 in Ondo, 84 in Nasarawa) participated in the survey. In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 health workers (12 per state) and nine policy makers from both states. Results The health workers perceived their salaries as inadequate, though most policy makers differed in this assessment. There appeared to be a considerable expenditure–income disparity among the respondents. Approximately 56% (n?=?93) of the study population reported having additional earning arrangements: most reported non-medical activities such as farming and trading, but private practice was also frequently reported. Half of the respondents with additional earning arrangements stated that their income from those activities was the equivalent of half or more of their monthly salaries. Specifically, 35% (n?=?32) said that they earned about half of their official monthly salaries and 15% (n?=?14) reported earning the same or more than their monthly salaries from these activities. Other coping mechanisms used by the health workers included prioritizing activities that enabled the earning of per diems, collecting informal payments and gifts from patients, and pilfering drugs from facilities. Conclusions Predatory and non-predatory mechanisms accounted for the health workers’ additional income. It may be difficult for the health workers to meet their expenses with their salaries and financial incentives; this highlights the need for the regulation of additional earnings and to implement targeted accountability mechanisms. This study indicates the value of using mixed methods when investigating sensitive issues. Future studies of this type should employ mixed methods for triangulation purposes to provide better insight into health workers’ responses. PMID:24093219
Sustained destructive leadership behaviours are associated with negative outcomes that produce serious workplace problems, yet there is scant research into how followers effectively cope with toxic leader behaviours. Despite numerous attempts to develop typologies of coping behaviours, there remains much to learn, especially in relation to this specific workplace stressor. This mixed method research investigates the coping strategies reported by 76 followers to cope with the psychological, emotional and physical consequences of their leader's adverse behaviour. Coping instances were categorized using two existing theoretical coping frameworks, and the ability of these frameworks to explain responses to real-world experiences with toxic leadership are discussed. Common coping strategies reported included assertively challenging the leader, seeking social support, ruminating, taking leave and leaving the organization. Organizational interventions to increase effectiveness of follower coping with the impact of toxic leadership are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25470138
Webster, Vicki; Brough, Paula; Daly, Kathleen
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the ego-state of obese people in terms of transactional analysis and to determine the relationship between coping with overweight strategies, Ego-structure, global self-esteem, and body self-esteem levels. Methods: One-hundred-seventy-one overweight and obese adult females were examined by a general practitioner and a specialist in obesity management. The ego-state, global self-esteem, and body self-esteem were assessed using the Ego State Questionnaire (ESQ, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Body-Esteem Scale, respectively. Results: Participants were divided into three subgroups: A – no attempts at weight loss currently (35.1%, B – self-attempted weight loss (33.9%, C – professional obesity treatment (31.0%. Age, education level, professional status, marital status, and number of children,along with the onset of being overweight/obese were similar in all subgroups. Subgroups B and C statistically and significantly made frequent attempts at weight loss (p<0.001 and experienced yo-yo effect (p<0.001 more than subgroup A. Effective weight loss attempts were observed significantly more often in subgroups C (p<0.001. Only mean lies scale results were significantly higher in subgroups A and C compared to B (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. While self-esteem, sexual attractiveness, weight concern, physical condition and ego-states were similar in all study subgroups. Conclusions: Structure of the Ego-states, self-esteem and body-esteem did not influence the strategies of coping with overweight. Self-esteem is related to spontaneous Ego-child and Ego-adult levels, while the sense of sexual attractiveness is affected only by Ego-spontaneous child.
Full Text Available Introduction Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH represents an extremely important problem in perinatology. Despite numerous clinical observations and studies, the etiology and exact sequence of pathophysiological events accompanying this specific disorder have remained still unresolved. The concepts most often considered are those that include genetic, endocrine and immunological mechanisms. Besides, one can also find in the literature considerations addressing potential participation of psychological factors in pregnancy-induced hypertension. Material and methods The study included two groups of women - 100 women with PIH and 100 of women with normal course of pregnancy, which were tested using two questionnaires concerning pregnancy as a stressful event and using strategies for coping with stress. Results and discussion Women with PIH experience pregnancy in a more stressful way than women with regular course of pregnancy. However, it is necessary to point out that respondents of both groups thought that pregnant women seek attention from everyone from their environment, and that their husbands/partners should pay special attention to them during pregnancy. The importance of relationship between partners during pregnancy and the emotional life of pregnant woman has been also examined by other researchers. These data suggest that pregnancy is an emotionally vulnerable period during which women demand special attention from the environment and especially from their husbands/partners. In view of using particular strategies to cope with stress, certain differences have been registered between the two groups of women. Namely, women with PIH utilize much more the mechanism of seeking social support and much less the mechanism of positive redefinition, compared with women with normal course of pregnancy. Conclusion From the psychosocial approach, pregnancy may be considered as a specific state of high emotional tension, which can represent a potent stressor. In the frame of specific reactions to stress, pregnancy as a stress-inducing situation may lead to transformation of emotional tension to biochemical and vegetative response, and thus contribute to onset of pregnancy-induced hypertension.
Bjelica Artur L.
In this book authors analyse the present state of economy as well as strategy of perspectives of development of Slovak society. A key issue in the next 5 to 10 years in the energy sector will mainly address energy security, diversification of energy sources, renewable energy sources and energy savings. The strategic goal is to transform energy into a form that will ensure long competition-capable and reliable supply of all forms of energy, taking into account sustainable development, security of supply and technical security. The strategy of energy security of Slovakia in 2030 is to achieve a competitive energy industry, ensuring safe, reliable and efficient supply of all forms of energy at affordable prices with regard to consumer protection, environmental protection, sustainable development, security of supply and technical security.
Full Text Available The deep benthic communities of tropical lakes are poorly understood with respect to their composition, abundance, biomass and regulatory factors. Whereas the hypolimnia of temperate oligotrophic lakes remain oxygenated, the higher temperatures in tropical lakes frequently lead to the rapid development of hypolimnetic anoxia independent of trophic status. The deep benthic communities of tropical lakes must therefore develop strategies to respond to anoxic conditions. The dynamics of the deep benthic community of Lake Alchichica were studied over 15 months. We hypothesized that the sedimentation of the winter diatom bloom constitutes an input of high-quality food that contributes to the establishment and development of the deep benthic community. However, the remineralization of this organic matter leads to the prompt development of hypolimnetic anoxia, thus limiting the establishment and/or persistence of the deep benthic community. In contrast with the diverse littoral benthic community (50 taxa in Lake Alchichica, only two species constitute its deep benthic community, the ostracod Candona cf. patzcuaro and the chironomid Chironomus cf. austini, which combined exhibit a low density (1197±1976 ind m-2 and biomass (16.13±30.81 mg C m-2. C. patzcuaro is dominant and is present throughout the year, whereas Ch. austini is recorded only when the bottom water of the lake is oxygenated. A comparison with the analogous but temperate Lake Mergozzo in Italy illustrates the role that anoxia plays in tropical lakes by diminishing not only taxonomic richness (13 versus 2 spp. in temperate versus tropical lakes, respectively but also abundance (1145 versus 287 ind m-2, respectively. C. patzcuaro is found throughout the annual cycle of the lake’s profundal zone, entering into diapause during the anoxic period and recovering as soon as the profundal zone reoxygenates. Ch. austini has adjusted its life cycle to use the habitat and available resources while the bottom of the lake is oxygenated and emerges en masse at the onset of anoxia. The presence of oxygen and abundant fresh food favors the development of the deep benthic community and yields increases in density and biomass. However, the anoxia that rapidly occurs during the stratification period and the presence of hydrogen sulfide are the key factors that limit deep benthic community colonization and/or permanence in the profundal zone of the tropical Lake Alchichica.
María del Carmen Hernández
Estratégias de enfrentamento, dificuldades funcionais e fatores associados em idosos institucionalizados Coping strategies, functional difficulties, and associated factors in institutionalized elderly
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é verificar as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas pelos idosos em face das dificuldades funcionais e a existência de associação entre o uso das estratégias e variáveis como sintomas depressivos, sexo, escolaridade, idade, estado civil e percepção da saúde. Participaram do estudo 103 idosos institucionalizados, que apresentavam necessidade de assistência em no mínimo uma atividade de vida diária. O delineamento foi transversal, com a utilização dos seguintes instrumentos: Ficha de Dados Pessoais, Escala de Atividades da Vida Diária, Breve Entrevista Internacional de Neuropsiquiatria Modificada, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental, Inventário de Estratégias de Coping e Escala de Depressão Geriátrica. As estratégias de enfrentamento mais utilizadas pela amostra foram a de autocontrole e resolução de problemas. Encontraram-se associações significativas entre as variáveis escolaridade e depressão. Os resultados da pesquisa sugerem que a avaliação das estratégias utilizadas em face de eventos estressores pode auxiliar na análise da situação e na adequação das estratégias escolhidas, ajudando também em processos de mudança no contexto clínico.The aim of this study was to analyze the strategies used by elderly people to cope with functional difficulties, and to investigate a possible association between such strategies and variables like depressive symptoms, gender, schooling, marital status, and self-perceived health. 103 institutionalized elderly individuals participated in the study. They required assistance for at least one activity of daily living. The study was cross-sectional and used the following indicators: Personal Data Chart, Activities of Daily Living Scale, Modified Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Mini-Mental Examination, Coping Strategies Inventory, and Geriatric Depression Scale. The most widely used coping strategies in the sample were self-control and problem solving. Significant associations were found between schooling and depression. The findings suggest that assessing coping strategies for stressful events can assist analysis of the situation and appropriate adaptation of the chosen strategies, so as to foster changes within the medical context.
Analise de Souza Vivan
INTERVENÇÕES UTILIZADAS NA PROMOÇÃO DE ESTRATÉGIAS DE COPING NA DEPRESSÃO EM MULHERES COM CÂNCER INTERVENCIONES UTILIZADAS PARA PROMOVER ESTRATEGIAS DE COPING PARA LA DEPRESIÓN ENTRE MUJERES CON CÁNCER APPLIED INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE COPING STRATEGIES FOR DEPRESSION AMONG WOMEN WITH CANCER
A depressão tem sido observada em portadores de doenças crônico-degenerativas, incluindo câncer. A utilização de diferentes estratégias de coping nessas condições patológicas pode ser extremamente importante, em face da presença de fatores estressores e sentimentos indesejáveis. Buscou-se identificar, por meio de revisão sistemática, os tipos de estudo para promover estratégia de coping e as intervenções utilizadas para promover tais estratégias em situação de depressão, ...
LUCIMARA MORELI; Stacciarini, Jeanne Marie R.; ARIANE DE FREITAS CARDOSO; EMILIA CAMPOS DE CARVALHO
Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who…
Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina
Food systems are of increasing interest in both research and policy communities. Surveys of post-socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) show high rates of food self-provisioning. These practices have been explained in terms of being "coping strategies of the poor". Alber and Kohler's "Informal Food Production in the Enlarged…
Jehlicka, Petr; Kostelecky, Tomas; Smith, Joe
Background: Parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) face greater caregiving demands than parents of children without DD. There is considerable variability in parents' adjustment to raising a child with DD, however. In line with a strengths-based approach, this study explores coping strategies as potential mechanisms of…
Woodman, A. C.; Hauser-Cram, P.
The purpose of the current study was to examine the tripartite model of depression and anxiety in a community-based sample of 278 African American adolescents (M age = 12.89) from low-income communities and to identify stressors and coping strategies that were associated with the specific features of each disorder. Participants reported on…
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Elmore, Corinn A.; Campbell, Cynthya L.; Wethington, Anna
Background: In May 2012, Northern Italy was struck by a tremendous series of earthquakes, which had devastating consequences and persisted for several months. Previous research shows that coping strategies and Theory of Mind (ToM) can help sustaining cognitive performance after a traumatic experience. Objective: We conducted a study to examine…
Cadamuro, Alessia; Versari, Annalisa; Vezzali, Loris; Giovannini, Dino; Trifiletti, Elena
Full Text Available Resumen: La presente investigación se basa en el diagnóstico sobre las estrategias de afrontamiento utilizadas por un grupo de once técnicos en emergencias médicas (TEM de la Cruz Roja Costarricense. Se hizo un análisis integrativo por medio de la triangulación de datos obtenidos en entrevistas y observaciones realizadas durante y posterior a las emergencias tomando como categorías de estudio las situaciones de emergencia y las estrategias de afrontamiento. Los datos se codificaron y categorizaron mediante el programa de análisis cualitativo Atlas.ti 5.0. Desde el enfoque teórico de la crisis, los hallazgos del diagnóstico mostraron afectadas todas las áreas conductuales, afectivas, somáticas, interpersonales y cognoscitivas, así como el área espiritual. Los factores desencadenantes del estrés en los TEM remitieron más a aspectos contextuales que rodearon a las situaciones atendidas, que a las mismas situaciones de emergencia. Las estrategias de afrontamiento, a pesar de ser funcionales, no resultaron ser las más saludables. Con base en los resultados, se elaboró y aplicó un programa de intervención psicológico para la promoción y puesta en práctica de nuevas estrategias de afrontamiento y una adecuada translaboración de pensamientos, emociones y conductas. La investigación muestra la necesidad de potenciar la salud de manera integral de la población a través de las áreas de autocuidado, habilidades sociales, expresión de sentimientos y manejo del estrés, además hace necesario superar, a nivel institucional, la falta de comunicación y conocimiento entre los TEM y la Unidad de Soporte Psicológico. Abstract: The present study is based on a diagnosis of coping strategies used by a group of eleven emergency medical technicians (EMT of the Costa Rican Red Cross. An integrated analysis was done by triangulation of data obtained in interviews and field observations made during and following emergencies, using emergency situations and coping strategies as categories for study. Data were encoded and categorized by the qualitative research program Atlas.ti.5.0. From the theoretical approach of crisis intervention, the diagnosis showed all behavioral, affective, somatic, interpersonal and cognitive areas as having been affected, as well as spiritual aspects. Factors identified as triggering stress in the EMTs related to contextual issues surrounding the emergency situations rather than to the situations themselves. Coping strategies, despite being functional, were not the healthiest. Based on the results, a psychological intervention program was developed and implemented which consisted of promoting and practicing new coping strategies and more suitable reworking of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. The research revealed the need to promote the health of this population in an integral way by improving the following areas: self-care, social skills, expression of feelings, and stress management, in addition to overcoming, at an institutional level, the lack of communication and knowledge between EMTs and the Psychological Support Unit.
María José Pérez Molina
Burnout, Depression und Depersonalisation – Psychologische Faktoren und Bewältigungsstrategien bei Studierenden der Zahn- und Humanmedizin [Burnout, depression and depersonalisation – Psychological factors and coping strategies in dental and medical students
Full Text Available [english] Background: Previous studies found that stress, depression, burnout, anxiety, and depersonalisation play a significant role amongst dental and medical students. We wanted to examine if students of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg also would report elevated values as can been found in similar publications. Furthermore, particularly coping strategies were investigated.Methods: The data collection took place in April 2008 including 182 dental and medical students of the 4 and 5 academic year at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Demographic data and the following screening instruments were used: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale (CDS-9, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Brief COPE. Results: Descriptive statistics showed higher pathological values in dental students than in medical students. The difference was especially pronounced on the depersonalisation scale (CDS-9, with 20.4% of the dental students, but only 5.5% of the medical students showing scores above a cut-off of 19. The scores decreased in the course of 3 semesters of dentistry. The students with elevated values showed a higher degree of dysfunctional coping. Conclusion: Our results obtained with the screening instruments are in line with the results of previous investigations of other authors and point out the importance of this issue. It might be useful to develop programs teaching dental students more adaptive coping strategies before their first patient contact.[german] Hintergrund: Studien der vergangenen Jahre zeigten, dass Stress, Depression, Burnout-Syndrom, Angst und Depersonalisation während des Studiums der Zahn- und Humanmedizin einen besonderen Stellenwert einnehmen. Es stellt sich die Frage, ob auch bei Studierenden der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg erhöhte Werte, wie sie in der Literatur gefunden werden, nachweisbar sind. Zudem soll untersucht werden, welche Arten von Bewältigungsstrategien vorkommen.Methodik: Die Datenerhebung fand im April 2008 bei 182 Studenten der Human- und Zahnmedizin des 4. und 5. Studienjahres an der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg statt. Neben der demographischen Erhebung kamen folgende Screening Instrumente zum Einsatz: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale (CDS-9, Kurzversion, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Brief COPE. Ergebnisse: In der deskriptiven Statistik zeigten sich bei den Zahnmedizinstudenten erhöhte Werte im Vergleich zu den Humanmedizinstudenten. Besonders deutlich war der Unterschied bei den Werten der Depersonalisations-Skala (CDS-9. Es hatten 20.4% der Zahnmedizin- und nur 5,5% der Humanmedizinstudenten Werte über dem cut-off von 19. Im Querschnitt der drei Studiensemester Zahnmedizin nahm die Anzahl der Studierenden mit auffälligen Werten ab. Studierende mit auffälligen Werten zeigten ein höheres Maß an dysfunktionalen Bewältigungsstrategien. Schlussfolgerung: Die Messwerte der Screening Instrumente ähneln der Untersuchungen anderer Autoren und unterstreichen die Bedeutung der Thematik. Aus Sicht der Prävention könnte sich bei Studenten der Zahnmedizin die Zeit vor dem ersten Patientenkontakt anbieten, um geeignete Bewältigungsstrategien zu vermitteln.
Full Text Available Estudos têm apontado evidências de estresse em famílias de portadores de autismo. Neste processo, deve-se considerar as estratégias de coping utilizadas pelos familiares frente às circunstâncias adversas. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as estratégias de coping maternas frente a dificuldades dos portadores de autismo, assim como as estratégias das mães para lidar com as próprias emoções desencadeadas pelo estresse. Participaram 30 mães, entre 30 a 56 anos, cujos filhos apresentam diagnóstico de autismo e freqüentam instituições de atendimento. Utilizou-se uma entrevista semi-estruturada, a qual foi transcrita e analisada com base na Análise de Conteúdo. As principais dificuldades se referem ao comportamento do filho, frente às quais as mães utilizam predominantemente as estratégias de ação direta e de aceitação. Quanto às estratégias para lidar com as emoções, as categorias mais freqüentes foram distração, busca de apoio social/religioso, inação e evitação. Os resultados são discutidos considerando-se o estresse e a adaptação materna.Many studies have shown evidence of high levels of stress in families with autistic children. Concerning this process, it is important to consider the coping strategies used by family members in face of the adverse circumstances. The purpose of this study is to investigate the coping strategies of mothers when dealing with their autistic children, as well as how they deal with their own emotions unleashed by the stress. Thirty mothers, between 30 and 56 years old participated in the study. Their children have met the criteria for autism and attended special education schools. The coping strategies were investigated using a semi-structured interview, which was transcribed and analyzed by content analysis. The main difficulties refer to the child's behavior. In relation to these difficulties, the strategy used by the mothers was predominantly direct action and acceptance. Concerning the strategies to deal with their own emotions, the most frequent categories were distraction, reaching out for social/religious support, lack of action and avoidance. Results are discussed in terms of stress and maternal adaptation model.
Caregivers with greatest supporting need based on the relationship between personality, overload and coping strategies related to caregivers of dependent patients from the hospitable area Virgen Macarena of Seville
Full Text Available Objective: Find a relationship between personality, the overhead of caregivers and the coping strategies that develop these to meet the care, allowing us to detect carers need greater supportMaterial and Methods: There has been realized a descriptive study in which there have taken part 23 carer of major dependent persons admitted to the Hospitable Area "Virgen Macarena" of Seville. Demographic and clinical variables have been collected through: general interview, Revised Eysenck Questionnaire of Personality, brief version (EPQ-RA, Coping Strategies Inventory, Zarit Scale Overload.Outcomes: The majority of caregivers are women (86.96% with an average age of 54.9 years old, with studies of basic education. Among them, 56.52% suffer from some kind of disease and 92.86% of these caregivers have no help. Statistical significance was found for extraversion, neuroticism, pretention-conformity, overload and coping strategies. Conclusions: Caregivers, with high scores on the extroversion scale, perform a proper handling of the situation, while those who obtained higher scores on the neuroticism scale, performed improper handling of the situation.
Mª Angustias Navarro Arquelladas
The populations of Pomatoschistus minutus and Pomatoschistus microps were studied from June 2003 to May 2006 in the Mondego estuary, in order to understand the ability of these species to withstand environmental variability. During this period a severe drought occurred (2005), with consequent lower freshwater runoff and higher salinity incursion into the estuary. Occasional abnormal high water temperatures were observed in 2003 and 2005. The fish populations were sampled monthly along an estuarine gradient, from which population density, structure, growth and biomass production was assessed. Pomatoschistus minutus distributed mainly at the most saline downstream area, while P. microps distributed within the whole estuary, in accordance to the salinity and temperature tolerances for the species. A clear decrease in density and production was observed for P. minutus in the dry year, with non-expressive recruitments and the quick disappearance of the parental cohort. For P. microps, the decrease was not so pronounced. No direct effects were attributable to the salinity and temperatures variations (resulting from the drought and high temperatures). Yet, higher predation pressure on P. minutus hypothesis was raised, as the salinity incursion increased the piscivorous marine adventitious species in the downstream areas. Pomatoschistus microps benefited from a wider temperature and salinity range tolerance, allowing the species to occupy different areas in the estuary and by this seemed better able to cope with the environmental conditionings during the 3-year studied period.
Dolbeth, M.; Martinho, F.; Leitão, R.; Cabral, H.; Pardal, M. A.
South Africa as a developing country is faced with numerous challenges amongst them is the shortage of skills in the working environment. Skills shortage has been aggravated by the retirement of the ageing skilled workforce and emigration of most experienced professionals to first world countries. Some professionals once they acquire the experience they opt out for a consultative business. This leaves a gap or void in the industries which can results into poor performance and quality, lessening of business standards and loosing competition. This challenge need to be attended to, because it will lead to hiring of consultants in most jobs or having many young and less experienced professionals and new graduates filling these gaps. The South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has developed a strategic plan to serve as a guideline on how these challenges mentioned above can be addressed . The proposed strategy will be aligned with skills development in the line of work and should get support from the nuclear Industry. Young professionals and recent graduates are the most affected people who lack skills and shall benefit from these programmes. In order for skill development and transfer to be accomplished there should be a Skill Development and Transfer Strategy and procedures to be followed. (authors)
Increasing attention is paid to impacts of HIV/AIDS on women's mental health, often framed by decontextualized psychiatric understandings of emotional distress and treatment. We contribute to the small qualitative literature extending these findings through exploring HIV/AIDS--affected women's own accounts of their distress-focusing on the impacts of social context, and women's efforts to cope outside of medical support services. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with women experiencing depression or anxiety-like symptoms in a wider study of services in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Thematic analysis was framed by Summerfield's emphasis on contexts and resilience. Women highlighted family conflicts (particularly abandonment by men), community-level violence, poverty and HIV/AIDS as drivers of distress. Whilst HIV/AIDS placed significant burdens on women, poverty and relationship difficulties were more central in their accounts. Four coping mechanisms were identified. Women drew on indigenous local resources in their psychological re-framing of negative situations, and their mobilisation of emotional and financial support from inter-personal networks, churches and HIV support groups. Less commonly, they sought expert advice from traditional healers, medical services or social workers, but access to these was limited. Though all tried to supplement government grants with income generation efforts, only a minority regarded these as successful. Findings support ongoing efforts to bolster strained mental health services with support groups, which often offer valuable emotional and practical support. Without parallel poverty alleviation strategies, however, support groups may sometimes offer little more than encouraging passive acceptance of the inevitability of suffering--potentially exacerbating the hopelessness underpinning women's distress. PMID:24670517
Burgess, Rochelle; Campbell, Catherine
Background: Maladjusted coping strategies after motor vehicle accidents (MVA) can contribute to the development of psychological symptoms, as PTSD. Methods: Measures of Acute Stress Disorder, PTSD scale, Coping, Social Support and physical health were used to evaluate 101MVA victims with serious injuries 5 days, 4 and 12 months after the accident Findings: 67% of the participants had ASD (T1), 58% had PTSD at T2 and 47% had PTSD at T3. Victims that report more general coping strategies...
Pires, Ta?nia Sofia Fernandes; Maia, A?ngela
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: Investigar as estratégias de enfrentamento, as características de humor e a associação entre estes aspectos em pacientes com diagnóstico de esclerose múltipla em comparação a indivíduos saudáveis. Método: Foram incluídos no estudo 50 pacientes com diagnóstico de esclerose múltipla de [...] acordo com os critérios de McDonald e 31 pessoas saudáveis. Além da caracterização sócio-econômica, foram aplicados a todos os pacientes testes para avaliar o Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), o Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Scale (COPE) e o Profile of Mood States (POMS). Resultados: Escores referentes a estratégias de enfrentamento não funcionais foram significativamente maiores na forma secundariamente progressiva (p?0.05). Escores relativos a depressão-abatimento, fadiga-inércia e escores totais POMS foram significativamente maiores na forma secundariamente progressiva (p?0.05). Conclusão: Os resultados deste estudo mostram a importância de programas de reabilitação que encorajem os pacientes com esclerose múltipla a praticar exercícios com maiores níveis de vigor e atividade. Abstract in english Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the coping strategies, mood characteristics and the association between these aspects in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and healthy subjects. Method: Fifty consecutive patients who were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis acco [...] rding to McDonald criteria and thirty-one healthy subjects were included in the study. In addition to the sociodemographic form, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Scale (COPE), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) tests were applied to the participants. Results: Non-functional coping strategies were significantly higher in the secondary-progressive type (p?0.05). Depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia and total POMS scores were significantly higher in the secondary-progressive type (p?0.05). Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrate the importance of rehabilitation programs that encourage exercise among patients with multiple sclerosis to increase vigor-activity levels.
Aysel, Milanlioglu; Pinar Güzel, Özdemir; Vedat, Cilingir; Tezay Çakin, Gülec; Mehmet Nuri, Aydin; Temel, Tombul.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O conceito de coping tem sido descrito como o conjunto das estratégias utilizadas pelas pessoas para adaptarem-se a circunstâncias adversas ou estressantes. O presente artigo apresenta os modelos de coping de Folkman e Lazarus, e de Rudolph, Denning e Weisz, bem como suas diferentes posições teórica [...] s e metodológicas. As definições de estilos e estratégias de coping, sua eficácia e possíveis relações com traços de personalidade são discutidas. É salientada a necessidade de uma teoria de stress-coping específica para crianças, tendo em vista as mudanças cognitivas que ocorrem no curso de seu desenvolvimento. Este artigo apresenta também questões controversas sobre o tema e aponta a necessidade de pesquisas sobre coping no Brasil, para auxiliar na compreensão e desenvolvimento deste conceito. Abstract in english The concept of coping has been described as the set of strategies utilized by individuals in order to adapt themselves to adverse or stressful events. This review presents two process models of coping: one by Folkman and Lazarus, and the other by Rudolfh, Denning and Weisz, as well as their differen [...] t theoretical and methodological assumptions. The definitions of styles and strategies of coping, their effectiveness and possible relationships to personality traits are discussed. The need for a theory of stress-coping specific for children is emphasized, due to the cognitive changes which occur along their development. Controversial issues about the subject are discussed and the need for research in Brazil about coping is pointed. This procedure would be helpful for the understanding and development of this concept.
Adriane Scomazzon, Antoniazzi; Débora Dalbosco, Dell' Aglio; Denise Ruschel, Bandeira.
This paper tends to explore the relationship between structural victimisation and criminal behavior of people traffickers in Serbia. Looking for conditions under which people in transition and war affected societies create individual choices and motivations, the author attempted to contribute to better understanding of trafficking in people in Serbia, as the form of organized and professional crime, as well as survival strategy. The main theoretical departure of the analysis is economic appro...
In todays sport careers there is no room for error. This is why athletes should be on top of their game every time they compete. It is very important for athletes to keep their emotions under control, because emotions can sometimes determine success or failure. But more important is how the athlete reacts to success and failure. Therefore, in this study the aim was to establish an athletes reaction to success and failure. An athlete should have the ability or strategy to handle...
Potgieter, Roelof Daniel
Community interventions represent a key component of the current anti-smoking strategies. We propose a conceptual framework for classifying these interventions, based on the concept of community utilised in different studies. We identified 5 different focuses: geographical areas (i.e. city, county, region); targets (sub-group of a population); settings (school, workplace); culture and individual attitudes; multilevel networks. These two latter views refer to functional rather than to structur...
Molinar, Roberta; Charrier, Lorena; Segnan, Nereo
Aim To affirm experience of acute stress event and strategy of facing stress within trauma patients, so that, nurse/technician in their further work could help overcome mentioned event and it's intensity, with help of their intercession and experience.Methods The Impact of Event Scale – Revised (IES-R), also with sociodemographic questionnaire were used as an instrument of measuring. The research has been conducted on 100 examinees which were hospitalisated at Clinical section of traumato...
Nikolina Far?i?; Ivana Bara?
This study was conducted in Kenya. Samples of children and caregivers were selected using the EPI method. Food vendors and procurement strategy, demographic and socio-economic indicators of household were analyzed. A social economic index was derived. To understand the association between D ietary D iversity Score and mean anthropometric indices, confounding factors were identified on the basis of the UNICEF conceptual model of causes of malnutrition. A stepwise testing of confounders was don...
Ayieko, Monica A.; Midikila, K. F.
Full Text Available The article discusses the participatory elaboration of strategies for sustainable regional development in an Alpine tourist region in Austria to cope with global change effects evolving locally, considering climate change, economic change as well as (local societal change. Local stakeholders in an Alpine village in the Montafon region contributed in workshops to achieve the final results: participant teams conducted system analyses of the regional system to explore key elements of the region. Narrative scenarios described possible positive and negative development trends and indicated the critical issues controlling future development; 3D-images of landscape transition simulations show the consequences of certain development directions. Alternative development directions supported the local stakeholders to elaborate regional development strategies. In the end, the scientist team derived generic strategies for Alpine regions based on the locally developed strategy bundle. The article presents the intention, progress and outcome of the participatory approach and elaborates the potential to derive generic strategies from local ones and discusses the possibly occurring conflicts regarding cross-scale transfers of these local strategies. Overall, tourism was seen as a key element for future regional development, which can on the one hand derogate Alpine regions and is on the other hand threatened by climate change and diminution of landscape attractiveness. The suggested development strategies will help to cope with global change issues mitigating the negative consequences on the local society and environment.
This plan provides an overview, work to date, and the path forward for the design development strategy of the Aging cask for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository site. Waste for subsurface emplacement at the repository includes US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (HLW), DOE SNF, commercial fuel in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), uncanistered bare fuel, naval fuel, and other waste types. Table 1-1 lists the types of radioactive materials that may be aged at YMP, and those materials that will not be placed in an aging cask or module. This plan presents the strategy for design development of the Aging system. The Aging system will not handle naval fuel, DOE HLW, MCOs, or DOE SNF since those materials will be delivered to the repository in a state and sequence that allows them to be placed into waste packages for emplacement. Some CSNF from nuclear reactors, especially CSNF that is thermally too hot for emplacement underground, will need to be aged at the repository
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar la relación entre las estrategias de afrontamiento y el síndrome de burnout en docentes de primaria y bachillerato de un colegio distrital de la ciudad de Bogotá (Colombia). Para esto se utilizó un diseño descriptivo correlacional y se trabajó con un [...] a muestra de 47 docentes de primaria y bachillerato. Se utilizó el Inventario de Burnout de Maslash y la Escala de Estrategias de Coping Modificada. Los resultados indican niveles medios del síndrome de burnout en los participantes, con diferencias mayores en los docentes de grados sexto, séptimo y octavo. Las estrategias de afrontamiento que están relacionadas positivamente con el síndrome son: a) espera; b) evitación emocional; y c) expresión de la dificultad de afrontamiento. Las que están relacionadas negativamente son: a) solución de problemas y b) reevaluación positiva. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to identify the relationship between coping strategies and burnout in primary and secondary school teachers from a school district of the city of Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia). For this we used a descriptive correlational design and worked with a sample of 47 elementary [...] and high school teachers. Was used Maslash Burnout Inventory and the Coping Strategies Scale Modified. The results indicate average levels of burnout in participants, with major differences in teachers of grades six, seven and eight. Coping strategies are positively related with the syndrome are: a) wait b) emotional avoidance, and c) reflects the difficulty of coping. Those who are negatively related: a) solving problems and b) positive reappraisal.
Carlos Andrés, Gantiva Díaz; Steffany, Jaimes Tabares; Maria Clara, Villa Orozco.
A condensed test battery (the CODE) based on the Utrecht Coping List (UCL) and part of the Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI) has been developed to assess coping and defense in large population studies. It was tested for reliability and validity in students and back pain patients. Principal components factor analysis of the subscales of the UCL and DMI in the student sample revealed two coping clusters: "Instrumental mastery-oriented coping" and "Emotion-focused coping" and two defensive clusters: "Cognitive defense" and "Defensive hostility". "Instrumental mastery-oriented coping" was negatively related to subjective health complaints measured with Ursins Health Inventory (UHI). The back pain patients were clearly different from the students, using less coping and more defensive strategies. They had more subjective health complaints that showed negative correlations with "Instrumental mastery-oriented coping". The CODE is a comprehensive battery that may be valid for large population studies of psychological determinants of muscle pain and other subjective health problems. PMID:9309949
Eriksen, H R; Olff, M; Ursin, H
Shell Canada's social performance plan was outlined in this presentation. Stakeholder engagement is a key strategy in the company's response to the concerns and broader priorities of different groups and individuals affected by their operations. A review of the business and societal values of stakeholder engagement was presented. Key benefits include greater profitability; protection of the environment; effective resource management; community benefits; and the delivery of value to customers. It was suggested that a continuous engagement process helps companies to assess impacts and work on strategies to avoid and mitigate negative impacts. A framework for social performance management was presented. It was noted that accountability and transparency are key components of Shell's progress towards sustainable development, and their direct and indirect contributions to the communities and societies where they operate. The social impact of core business operations is now a focus of the company. Key concerns of the social performance plan include environmental and health impacts; land use and changes in local economies; cultural concerns; and infrastructure impacts. An outline of Shell's Listening and Responding Program was also provided. refs., tabs., figs
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: los estilos de personalidad tienden a ser determinantes en la selección de un oficio o disciplina, no obstante esto no quiere decir que estos no se vean permeados por la forma como el sujeto afronta las situaciones determinantes de su entorno. Objetivo: determinar la relación entre est [...] ilos de Personalidad y Estrategias de Afrontamiento en estudiantes de psicología de una universidad colombiana, a partir del Inventario de Estilos de Personalidad MIPS y la escala de estrategias de Coping Modifica EEC-M. Materiales y métodos: se trabajó con un diseño descriptivo correlacional, no experimental con una muestra de 120 participantes (85 mujeres y 35 hombres). Resultados: se encontró que los estilos de personalidad característicos en mujeres son sensación, sistematización, conformismo y descontento; mientras que en hombres, son los de adecuación, intuición, pensamiento, retraimiento y discrepancia. Respecto a las estrategias de afrontamiento, las mujeres se caracterizan por estrategias de apoyo social y los hombres por reevaluación positiva. Conclusiones: la relación entre los estilos de personalidad y las estrategias de afrontamiento evidencia que los estilos expansión, modificación, individualidad, extraversión, pensamiento, sistematización, sociabilidad y decisión se relacionan frecuentemente con estrategias de afrontamiento tales como la solución de problemas, la reevaluación positiva, la autonomía y el apoyo social. (MÉD.UIS. 2014;27(2):15-27) Abstract in english Introduction: personality styles tend to be decisive in the choice of a profession or discipline, however this does not mean that these are not seen as permeated by the way the subject is facing the determining conditions of their environment. Objective: To determine the relationship between styles [...] of Personality and Coping Strategies in psychology students from a Colombian university, from the Inventory of Personality Styles MIPS and Coping Strategies Scale Amendment to EEC- M. Materials and methods: It worked with a non-experimental descriptive correlational design with a sample of 120 participants (85 women and 35 men). Results: It found that the characteristic personality styles in women are feeling, systematization, complacency and discontent; while men are the adequacy, intuition, thinking, and withdrawal discrepancy. Regarding coping strategies, women are characterized by strategies of social support and positive reappraisal men. Conclusions: The relationship between personality styles and coping styles evidence that expansion, modification, individuality, extraversion, thinking, systematization, sociability and decision are often related to coping strategies such as problem solving, positive reappraisal, autonomy and social support. (MÉD.UIS. 2014;27(2):15-27)
Helvy Giovanny, Sierra Vargas; Ángela Marcela, Güichá-Duitama; Yenny, Salamanca Camargo.
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O desemprego constitui um flagelo na nossa sociedade. Os professores são uma das categorias profissionais mais atingidas. Esta situação tem consequências sociais e psicológicas que se reflectem na saúde do indivíduo. O objectivo deste estudo é compreender o stress e a forma como os professores lidam [...] com ele, ou seja a utilização de estratégias de adaptação (coping). A amostra contempla 100 professores do 2º ciclo, 50 desempregados e 50 exercendo a docência, em ambos os casos 25 homens e 25 mulheres a residir na zona norte de Portugal. Os professores do primeiro grupo encontravam-se desempregados ou aguardando a entrada na profissão. Os instrumentos utilizados para a avaliação do stress foram a Escala Toulosana de Stress (ETS) e a Escala Toulousana de Coping (STC) para perceber as estratégias face ao stress. Os resultados mostram que os professores desempregados ou com retardamento na entrada para a docência têm um stress elevado (p. Abstract in english Unemployment is one of the scourges of modern society and teachers are among the professional categories most affected by it. This situation gives rise to social and psychological consequences with repercussions on an individual's health. The objective of this study is to understand the nature of th [...] e stress and how teachers cope with it. The sample consisted of 100 secondary school teachers in Northern Portugal, 50 of whom were unemployed and 50 who were actively teaching, each group being equally divided in gender (25 men and 25 women). The teachers in the first group had either been made unemployed or were still waiting to enter the profession. The instruments used for the purposes of evaluation were the Toulouse Stress Scale (TSS) to measure the level of stress and the Toulouse Coping Scale (TCS) to determine the strategies used to deal with it. The results showed that teachers who are unemployed or whose entry into the profession has been delayed, suffer increased stress in comparison with teachers practising their profession. The nature of the stress can be summarised as: socio-emotional tension, physical tension and depression, physical perturbations and agitation. Both groups demonstrated increased stress with regard to the future, tiredness and temporary anguish. There were no differences between men and women, though the youngest individuals demonstrated significantly higher levels of stress than the older teachers. The strategy of coping most employed by unemployed teachers is withdrawing from society to reduce stress.
Maria Neves, Alves; Eusébio Augusto Medeiros de, Oliveira.
Full Text Available This paper tends to explore the relationship between structural victimisation and criminal behavior of people traffickers in Serbia. Looking for conditions under which people in transition and war affected societies create individual choices and motivations, the author attempted to contribute to better understanding of trafficking in people in Serbia, as the form of organized and professional crime, as well as survival strategy. The main theoretical departure of the analysis is economic approach to crime as well as concept of organized crime as criminal enterprise, which represents illegal counterpart of the legal enterprise. Trafficking in people is explored primarily from the prospective of labor market as well as criminal enterprise where division of jobs, status and power is organized in the similar way as in legal enterprise. In the concluding part, possible social responses are mapped which may be considered as alternatives or supplements to penalties for low level people traffickers.
Full Text Available Aim To affirm experience of acute stress event and strategy of facing stress within trauma patients, so that, nurse/technician in their further work could help overcome mentioned event and it's intensity, with help of their intercession and experience.Methods The Impact of Event Scale – Revised (IES-R, also with sociodemographic questionnaire were used as an instrument of measuring. The research has been conducted on 100 examinees which were hospitalisated at Clinical section of traumatology in Osijek Univesity Hospital Center during period of 14 June 2011. to 28 August 2011. Descriptive statistics was used, and the differences between categorical variables were tested with Kruskall Walis test.Results The examenees were using an avoidance as their first line of a deffence within first few days after the accidant. The middle valuation of a subscale amounted 14.50. The value of final result of IES-R was flactuating between 0-88. The middle value was 33 (interquartile range 21-49 points. Acute stress reaction was noted in seven (7% examenees, 26 (26% had clinically considerable simptoms. Statistically significant difference in acute stress event were obtained between gender (p=.001, while the age, class of accident, matrimonial status, education and sociodemographic standard of living, were not considerable in perception of stress.Conclusion Acute stress situation was present in almost every patients after experienced trauma. Research has shown that females experienced more stressful events than males, and use more strategies to avoid, as well as the intrusion of increased arousal when confronted with stressful events.
Dosidicus gigas (jumbo or Humboldt squid) is a semelparous, major predator of the eastern Pacific that is ecologically and commercially important. In the Gulf of California, these animals mature at large size (>55 cm mantle length) in 1-1.5 years and have supported a major commercial fishery in the Guaymas Basin during the last 20 years. An El Niño event in 2009-2010, was accompanied by a collapse of this fishery, and squid in the region showed major changes in the distribution and life-history strategy. Large squid abandoned seasonal coastal-shelf habitats in 2010 and instead were found in the Salsipuedes Basin to the north, an area buffered from the effects of El Niño by tidal upwelling and a well-mixed water column. The commercial fishery also relocated to this region. Although large squid were not found in the Guaymas Basin from 2010 to 2012, small squid were abundant and matured at an unusually small mantle-length (offshore environment. Both small and large mature squid, were present in the Salsipuedes Basin during 2011, indicating that both life- history strategies can coexist. Hydro-acoustic data, reveal that squid biomass in this study area nearly doubled between 2010 and 2011, primarily due to a large increase in small squid that were not susceptible to the fishery. Such a climate-driven switch in size-at-maturity may allow D. gigas to rapidly adapt to and cope with El Niño. This ability is likely to be an important factor in conjunction with longerterm climate-change and the potential ecological impacts of this invasive predator on marine ecosystems. PMID:23505049
Hoving, Henk-Jan T; Gilly, William F; Markaida, Unai; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; -Brown, Zachary W; Daniel, Patrick; Field, John C; Parassenti, Liz; Liu, Bilin; Campos, Bernardita
Full Text Available It is a research project that has been developed at Santa Maria University Hospital (HUSM, aiming to identify the coping strategies that patients use when referred for Cardiac Surgery. The data will be collected in the cardiac pre-surgery period through a questionnaire, intending to characterize the participants; besides using the Coping Inventory instrument – Jalowiec – to identify the coping styles that the participants use against the stressors confront. From the coping process identification of the patients who were referred for cardiac surgery, it will be possible to analyze and base the professionals’ actions who deal with these patients, aiming to attend the emotional and physiological adaptation demands to the surgical process.
Graciele Fernanda da Costa Linch
Full Text Available It is a research project that has been developed at Santa Maria University Hospital (HUSM, aiming to identify the coping strategies that patients use when referred for Cardiac Surgery. The data will be collected in the cardiac pre-surgery period through a questionnaire, intending to characterize the participants; besides using the Coping Inventory instrument – Jalowiec – to identify the coping styles that the participants use against the stressors confront. From the coping process identification of the patients who were referred for cardiac surgery, it will be possible to analyze and base the professionals’ actions who deal with these patients, aiming to attend the emotional and physiological adaptation demands to the surgical process.
Eight Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. clones (GT1, YUNYAN77-4, IRCA707, IRCA317, PB217, PB260, PR107 and RRIM600) were compared for their tolerance towards chilling stress. Net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), optimal and effective photochemical efficiencies (F(v)/F(m) and ), non-photochemical quenching, cellular lysis and leaf necrosis were measured on trees chilled at 10 °C for 96 h, as well as upon recovery at 28 °C. In addition, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase and superoxide dismutase activities were monitored. Clone RRIM600 appeared to be the most tolerant, because it showed no cellular lysis or leaf necrosis and the best recovery as revealed by Pn, Gs, F(v)/F(m) and . Its ability to sustain chilling stress seemed related in part to the fast closure of stomata, suggesting an 'avoidance strategy' for this clone. IRCA707, GT1 and YUNYAN77-4 were also tolerant to the cold treatment as only a few leaf injuries were observed. However, YUNYAN77-4 showed a particular behaviour with a large stomata opening during the first hour of chilling, some photosynthetic activity after 96 h at 10 °C, but the slowest recovery in Pn. The greatest cell or leaf damage was observed on PB260, IRCA317, PR107 and PB217 clones, thus classified as sensitive to chilling. These clones showed the strongest decrease in Pn, F(v)/F(m) and and the slowest recovery for F(v)/F(m) and , indicating a high sensitivity of photosystem II to cold temperatures. Punctual increases of various enzymatic activities were observed for all clones during chilling kinetics. During recovery, the strongest increases in enzymatic activity were observed for the most tolerant clones, suggesting that efficient reactive oxygen species elimination is a crucial step for determining chilling tolerance in Hevea although the enzymes implicated varied from one tolerant clone to another. This study points out contrasted strategies of the Hevea clones in copping with chilling stress and recovery. PMID:20884609
Mai, Jing; Herbette, Stephane; Vandame, Marc; Cavaloc, Eric; Julien, Jean-Louis; Ameglio, Thierry; Roeckel-Drevet, Patricia
The objective of this research was to identify coping strategies undertaken by patients with kidney failure on current dialysis. The approach chosen for this research was quantitative, since the empirical analytical paradigm, with a rate of descriptive design. The sample comprised 10 patients aged between 20 and 60 years, on current hemodialysis in Clinica de la Costa Renal Unit, Patients were intentionally selected besides their voluntary participation. Standardized questionnaire was used in...
JUAN CARLOS JULIO; CARMEN ALICIA SIERRA LLAMAS
This research had the objective to examine the occurrence of stress among 27 master students of health sciences of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe [Federal University of Sergipe], of which 16 were women and 11 were men. And, it also sought to delineate the coping strategies used to deal with the stress and the stressors perceived by the graduate students. Lipp's Stress Symptoms for Adults Inventory, the Ways to Confront Problems Scale and a questionary about possible stressors were used. ...
André Faro Santos; Antônio Alves Júnior
Research has indicated that bereavement associated with the loss of a loved one may result in depression, a decline in social relationships, and poorer health amongst the bereaved. Studies on bereavement suggest that bereaved persons try to have continuity of roles in their lives and eventually recover from the loss of a loved one. The current study examines whether widowed persons engage in health-related coping strategies (H-RCS) (ie. smoking, drinking, and exercise) as an initial result of...
Nuriddin, Tariqah A.
Objectives: To assess whether a psychosocial intervention teaching coping strategies to women can improve quality of life (QOL) in groups of Iranian women exposed to social pressures. Design: Quasi-experimental nonrandomized group design involving two categories of Iranian women, each category represented by nonequivalent intervention and comparison groups. Setting: A large urban area in Iran. Participants: 44 women; 25 single mothers and 19 newly married women. Interventions: Seventh-month p...
Addelyan Rasi, Hamideh; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent; Moula, Alireza
Abstract Background 20 million migrant workers in China lost their jobs during the economic crisis of 2008. Both urban migration and unemployment have long been documented to be associated with vulnerability to mental problems. This study aims to examine the mental health of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China and its relation to duration of unemployment and coping strategy during the recent economic crisis. Methods The data were collected through interv...
Chen Li; Li Wenhu; He Jincai; Wu Lanhua; Yan Zheng; Tang Wenjie
Until recently, disabled children have been hidden from the lenses of research in both the social model of disability and the new sociology of childhood. In an attempt to give a voice to children with disability who are often objectified and silenced, this study aimed at exploring the experiences and coping strategies of visually impaired young people in a mainstream school in Ghana. The study further tried to explore views of children and young people with disability themselves who have been...
Sam, Sarah Tara
When an artificial biomaterial (e.g., a stent or implantable pump) is exposed to blood, plasma proteins immediately adhere to the surface, creating a new interface between the biomaterial and the blood. The recognition proteins within the complement and contact activation/coagulation cascade systems of the blood will be bound to, or inserted into, this protein film and generate different mediators that will activate polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as platelets. Under clinical conditions, the ultimate outcome of these processes may be thrombotic and inflammatory reactions, and consequently the composition and conformation of the proteins in the initial layer formed on the surface will to a large extent determine the outcome of a treatment involving the biomaterial, affecting both the functionality of the material and the patient’s life quality. This review presents models of biomaterial-induced activation processes and describes various strategies to attenuate potential adverse reactions by conjugating bioactive molecules to surfaces or by introducing nanostructures. PMID:21771620
Ekdahl, Kristina N; Lambris, John D.; Elwing, Hans; Ricklin, Daniel; Nilsson, Per H.; Teramura, Yuji; Nicholls, Ian A.; Nilsson, Bo
With the increasingly more serious environmental pollution in China in recent years, effective intervention with PM25-induced health risks has become a major scientific issue to be addressed urgently in medical research field in China. NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are a family of cytoplasmic pattern-recognition receptors that have critical roles in innate immunity. On the basis of study progresses in international cardiovascular disease research "Fine particulate matter exposure is a modifiable risk factor for the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases", and with reference to the current understanding of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress in PM2.5-induced acute coronary syndrome, this study intended to investigate whether intracellular pattern recognition NL-RP3 plays a important role in the inital event of PM2.5 induced vessel inflammation as a foreign matter in the process of plaque destabilization and to thoroughly explore the underlying mechanisms responsible for PM2.5-induced acute cardiovascular events. On the other hand, it also studies the feasibility of using traditional Chinese medicine to treat plaque destabilization cause by PM2.5 exposure and discuss it's pathogenesis and intervention strategy based on TCM theory. This paper in order to provide scientific basis for social focal issues in public health proactively and offers the references for relevant research. PMID:25507566
Li, Yu-Jie; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ya-Jie; Yao, Hong-Mei; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Zhu, Xiao-Xin; Li, Han-Qing; Liu, Xu-Cen; Zhou, Bing-Bing; Guo, Yan
Insulin therapy or intensification of insulin therapy commonly results in weight gain in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This weight gain can be excessive, adversely affecting cardiovascular risk profile. The spectre of weight gain can increase diabetic morbidity and mortality when it acts as a psychological barrier to the initiation or intensification of insulin, or affects adherence with prescribed regimens. Insulin-associated weight gain may result from a reduction of blood glucose to levels below the renal threshold without a compensatory reduction in calorie intake, a defensive or unconscious increase in calorie intake caused by the fear or experience of hypoglycaemia, or the 'unphysiological' pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles that follow subcutaneous administration. There is, however, scope for limiting insulin-associated weight gain. Strategies include limiting dose by increasing insulin sensitivity through diet and exercise or by using adjunctive anorectic or insulin-sparing pharmacotherapies such as pramlintide or metformin. Insulin replacement regimens that attempt to mimic physiological norms should also enable insulin to be dosed with maximum efficiency. The novel acylated analogue, insulin detemir, appears to lack the usual propensity for causing weight gain. Elucidation of the pharmacological mechanisms underlying this property might help clarify the mechanisms linking insulin with weight regulation. PMID:17924864
Russell-Jones, David; Khan, Rehman
Full Text Available The question of methodology of cluster strategy development, which is based on the enterprise strategy as a cluster constituent, are considered.The most important stage of the process of cluster functioning management is elaboration of its development strategy. As a cluster is a set of enterprises united to produce a certain kind of product or service, the strategy of its activity should be designed from the basic level of enterprises.Successful functioning of any subject of market relations is impossible without strategy specification. Forming enterprise strategy with the method described in the article will afford an opportunity to create an overall cluster strategy on the basis of participants' strategies.The article represents the method of enterprise strategy development as an enterprise is a cluster basis. Also the question of enterprise mission design has been considered, the components of forming cluster development strategy on the basis of local enterprise strategies have been defined, the approach to mission development as an attribute to an open system has been presented, the essence of the strategy has been specified as well as the process of its realization, the strategic positioning of an enterprise has been carried out. The enterprise strategy development has been examined through the stages which give an opportunity to conceive the process more clearly.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El optimismo disposicional aparece como un recurso personal que determina el estilo de afrontamiento y respuesta adaptativa ante enfermedades crónicas. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron averiguar las relaciones entre el constructo de optimismo disposicional y las estrategias de afro [...] ntamiento en pacientes con trasplante renal reciente, y evaluar diferencias en la utilización de estrategias de afrontamiento según el grado de optimismo disposicional. Material y métodos: Consecutivamente se eligen pacientes hospitalizados en el servicio de nefrología tras realizar el trasplante renal. Los instrumentos de evaluación fueron el Life Orientation Test-Revised y el Inventario de Estrategias de Afrontamiento. Los datos son analizados con medidas de tendencia central, análisis correlacional y comparación de medias con la prueba t de Student. Resultados: Participan 66 pacientes con trasplante renal. El estilo de afrontamiento que caracteriza a pacientes con trasplante renal reciente sería la Retirada social y la Evitación de problemas. Las correlaciones entre optimismo disposicional y estrategias de afrontamiento son significativas, en sentido positivo en Resolución de problemas (p Abstract in english Introduction: Dispositional optimism is a personal resource that determines the coping style and adaptive response to chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between dispositional optimism and coping strategies in patients with recent kidney transplantation and evaluat [...] e the differences in the use of coping strategies in accordance with the level of dispositional optimism. Material and method: Patients who were hospitalised in the nephrology department were selected consecutively after kidney transplantation was performed. The evaluation instruments were the Life Orientation Test-Revised, and the Coping Strategies Inventory. The data were analysed with central tendency measures, correlation analyses and means were compared using Student's t-test. Results: 66 patients with a kidney transplant participated in the study. The coping styles that characterised patients with a recent kidney transplantation were Social withdrawal and Problem avoidance. Correlations between dispositional optimism and coping strategies were significant in a positive direction in Problem-solving (p
Gemma, Costa-Requena; M. Carmen, Cantarell-Aixendri; Gemma, Parramon-Puig; Daniel, Serón-Micas.
Coping is the necessary outcome of any stressful situation and the major determinant of stress resilience. Coping strategies can be divided into two broad categories, based on the presence (active) or absence (passive) of attempts to act upon the stressor. The role of brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in coping behavior that is emerging from studies in animals and humans is the subject of this article. We have focused attention on studies that consider the coping behavior exhibited when the individual is faced with a new stressful experience. Coping styles characterize different species with different evolutionary histories, from fishes to mammals, and evidence shows that serotonin transmission in the central nervous system, with differences in transporter, receptor types and hormone or neurotransmitter influences is critical in determining coping behavior. Moreover, a major role of environmental challenges throughout the lifespan affects brain systems that control coping outcomes through 5-HT transmission. In particular early experiences, for their long-term effects in adulthood, and social experiences throughout the life span, for the effects on serotonin functioning, received attention in preclinical research because of their parallelism in humans and animals. Based on growing evidence pointing to a medial prefrontal cortex-amygdala system in mediating adaptive and maladaptive stress responses, we propose a brain circuit in which serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe depending on the CRF (corticotropin releasing factor) regulatory action engage a prefrontal cortical-amygdala pathway through 5-HT1A receptors, GABA and Glutamate to moderate coping behavior. PMID:25108244
Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Andolina, Diego
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify coping strategies undertaken by patients with kidney failure on current dialysis. The approach chosen for this research was quantitative, since the empirical analytical paradigm, with a rate of descriptive design. The sample comprised 10 patients aged between 20 and 60 years, on current hemodialysis in Clinica de la Costa Renal Unit, Patients were intentionally selected besides their voluntary participation. Standardized questionnaire was used in Colombia to the stress of coping Sandin & Chorot. According to the results, the coping style they use, is focused on the problem with its three dimensions: focus on the problem, with a score of 80% of the population, also in the positive reappraisal with 80% of the population studied, and seeking support with 60% of the population, indicating that this group of patients take an active role, are still concrete steps, what they do to appropriately respond to changes and demands, and treatment imposed by the disease. It is then the religion as a coping style with a 60% higher in the standings. Religion belongs to the dimension of avoidance and escape, indicates that this sample perceived as a significant interference of their health condition on their physical function and consequently feel less vital, turns to their religious beliefs as a way of relief that the situation will improve.
JUAN CARLOS JULIO
Promising Building with Nature solutions for flood protection, such as vegetated foreshores, inherently have a dynamic nature. Therefore there is a relatively large degree of uncertainty with respect to their contribution to flood protection. This hampers innovation and the implementation of vegetated foreshores in flood risk management worldwide. We aim to develop new methods to assess how, and how much vegetated foreshores can contribute to flood risk reduction. The project will lead to a better understanding of (uncertainties in) the functioning and stability of these ecosystems and the development of novel governance arrangements. This requires integration of knowledge from ecology, biogeomorphology, hydraulic engineering, and governance. By field observations on several sites and flume measurements we will analyse fundamental ecological and physical processes for various types of wetland vegetations. The knowledge obtained will be applied in one implementation case study for a location in the Netherlands where dike reinforcement is needed in the future. This case study integrates fundamental knowledge from all the disciplines. It is used to design governance and implementation arrangements, and to demonstrate how vegetated foreshores can contribute to flood risk reduction. The project will provide the knowledge, methods and tools (e.g. a maptable) required for the design and implementation of vegetated foreshores as a safe, ecologically desirable, and cost effective alternative in flood management. Strong cooperation with end-users from the private sector, government and non-governmental organizations is embedded in the project to enhance the implementation of our findings in practice. In the full-paper, we present a multidisciplinary research agenda how to address the uncertainties hampering application, how to develop probabilistic tools to derive failure chance in legally imposed terms and how to derive at suitable governance arrangements.
Borsje, Bas; Bouma, Tjeerd; De Vries, Mindert; Timmermans, Jos; Vuik, Vincent; Hermans, Leon; Hulscher, Suzanne; Jonkman, Bas
Full Text Available O estudo avaliou as estratégias de enfrentamento, rede e apoio social de pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço atendidos em um hospital do interior paulista. Os 22 participantes responderam a um Questionário Sociodemográfico, Questionário de Hábitos de Vida, Ficha Clínica, Escala Modos de Enfrentamento de Problemas (EMEP e Medidas de Rede e Apoio Social. Os resultados indicaram que as estratégias de enfrentamento menos utilizadas foram: focalização na emoção (M=2,08, DP=0,63 e busca por suporte social (M=2,62, DP=0,80, a rede social apresentou-se ampla, mas com grau de intimidade baixo, e a média geral do apoio social foi baixa (M=71, DP=10. As principais correlações encontradas foram: apoio emocional e de informação (r=0,785, pEl estudio evaluó las estrategias del enfrentamiento, red social, apoyo social de pacientes con cáncer de cabeza y cuello atendidos en un hospital del interior paulista. Los participantes contestaron uno Cuestionario Socio-demográfico y de Costumbres de vida, Ficha Clínica, Escala Modos de Enfrentamento de Problemas (EMEP (Escala Modos de Enfrentamiento de Problemas y Medidas de Red y Apoyo Social. Las estrategias menos utilizadas fueran enfrentamiento en la emoción (media: 2,08, DP: 0.63 y la busca por soporte social (media=2,62, DP=0,80. La red social es numerosa, mas con grado de intimidad bajo, lo apoyo social presentó nota media general baja (media=71, DP=10. Las principales correlaciones encontradas fueron: apoyo emocional y de información (r=0,785, pThis study assessed coping strategies, social network and support in patients, with head and neck cancer, treated in a hospital in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The 22 participants completed a Social Demographic Questionnaire Inquiring on Life Style, Clinical File, the Escala Modos de Enfrentamento de Problemas (EMEP (Ways of Coping with Problems Scale with Measures of Social Network and Support. The least used coping strategies were emotion focused-coping (M: 2,08, SD: 0.63 and search for social support (M: 2.62, SD: 0.80, participants had a large network with low level of intimacy, the general average score for social support was low (M: 71, SD: 10. The main correlations found in the study were emotional support and information (r=0.785, p<0.01, and problem-focused coping and religion (r=0.579, p<0.05. Factorial analysis identified interactions between certain coping strategies and social support. Implications for psychological practice aimed to improve adjustment to health stressors and social support are discussed.
Jeanny Joana Rodrigues Alves de Santana
Tyrimo tikslas: Atskleisti asmen?, patyrusi? apatini? gal?ni? amputacij?, asmenyb?s bruož?, streso, susijusio su liga, ?veikos strategij? bei depresiškumo s?sajas. Tyrime dalyvavo 70 asmen?, patyrusi? apatini? gal?ni? amputacij? (53 vyrai, 17 moter?). Tyrime buvo naudojami trys klausimynai: 1. COPE (angl. Coping Orientation of Problem Experience)- streso, susijusio su liga, ?veikos strategij? nustatymui. 2. „Penketo svarbiausi?“ bruož? klausimynas- The Big F...
Qualidade de vida de mulheres com cancro da mama nas diversas fases da doença: o papel de variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e das estratégias de coping enquanto factores de risco/protecção / Quality of life of women with breast cancer at different phases of the disease: the role of sociodemographic, clinical variables and coping strategies as factors of risk/protection
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: Embora o cancro da mama possa comprometer significativamente a qualidade de vida (QdV) da mulher, sobretudo nas fases iniciais da doença, variáveis de ordem psicossocial podem intervir como factores de risco ou de protecção. Este estudo pretende analisar e comparar a QdV de mulheres com [...] cancro da mama em diferentes fases da trajectória da doença e identificar o papel de variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e das estratégias de coping na QdV. Material e métodos: A amostra é constituída por 55 mulheres recentemente diagnosticadas com cancro da mama, 63 a receber quimioterapia, 85 sobreviventes e 160 mulheres da população geral, que responderam ao WHOQOL-Bref e ao Brief COPE. Resultados: Durante a fase de tratamento o cancro da mama compromete significativamente a QdV global e física da mulher. Um nível de escolaridade mais elevado, assim como o recurso a estratégias de coping Cognitivas Activas associam-se a uma melhor QdV global e Psicológica, após o diagnóstico e durante o tratamento. O recurso a um coping de Evitamento associa-se a uma pior QdV em todas as fases da doença. Conclusões: Os resultados deste estudo ao contribuírem para um melhor conhecimento das implicações do cancro da mama na QdV em diferentes fases da trajectória da doença, bem como das variáveis que poderão intervir como factores de risco/protecção, revelam-se importantes para o desenvolvimento de intervenções psicológicas mais eficazes e ajustadas às necessidades da mulher. Abstract in english Introduction: Although breast cancer may significantly compromise women's quality of life (QoL), especially during the initial phases of the disease, psychosocial variables may act as factors of risk or protection. This study aims to analyse and compare the QoL of women in different phases of breast [...] cancer and to identify the role of sociodemographic and clinical variables as well as coping strategies on QoL. Method: The sample is composed of 55 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, 63 women undergoing chemotherapy, 85 breast cancer survivors and 160 women from the general population. They all answered the WHOQOL-Bref and the Brief COPE. Results: The results show that global and physical QoL is significantly impaired during treatment. Higher education and Active Cognitive Coping strategies are significantly associated with improved global and Psychological QoL, after diagnosis and during treatment. Avoidant coping relates to worse QoL in all phases of the disease. Conclusions: The results of this study contribute to a better knowledge of the impact of breast cancer on QoL, in different phases of the disease trajectory, as well as give important information about the factors of risk/protection. Thus, they are helpful in developing more effective psychological interventions, tailored to the particular needs of women.
Sónia, Silva; Danielle, Bettencourt; Helena, Moreira; Maria Cristina, Canavarro.
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar la relación que existe entre los niveles de depresión y las estrategias de afrontamiento de mujeres con alto riesgo gestacional. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio correlacional de corte transversal, en el que participaron 70 mujeres con riesgo gestacional. Los instrumentos utilizad [...] os fueron: el inventario de estrategias de afrontamiento (CSI) en la versión española de Cano, Rodríguez y García, que cuenta con coeficientes de consistencia interna entre 0,63 y 0,89 y, la Escala de depresión del centro de estudios epidemiológicos (CES-D) que cuenta con validez factorial y con una alta consistencia interna expresada en un coeficiente de Alfa de Cronbach igual a 0,87. Los datos obtenidos se organizaron con ayuda del paquete estadístico SPSS versión 13.0 y para analizar la relación entre las variables se aplicó la prueba estadística del coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Conclusiones: La depresión presenta una relación inversa altamente significativa con las estrategias resolución de problemas y apoyo social y una relación directa altamente significativa con las estrategias autocritica, evitación de problemas y retirada social. Los sentimientos de culpa como una forma de afrontamiento son comunes durante el embarazo de riesgo. La presencia de síntomas de depresión durante el embarazo de riesgo tiene una relación directa con las estrategias de afrontamiento autocritica, evitación, retirada social y pensamiento desiderativo. Existe relación inversa entre depresión y las estrategias de afrontamiento: resolución de problemas y apoyo social. Las estrategias más utilizadas por las adolescentes que presentan embarazo de riesgo son autocritica y evitación, las mujeres en edad adulta, utilizan en mayor proporción estrategias de afrontamiento como resolución de problemas y reevaluación positiva. Las mujeres que realizan alguna actividad laboral presentan mayor uso de la estrategia búsqueda de apoyo social. No existe asociación entre los niveles de depresión presentados por las gestantes de alto riesgo y las variables sociodemográficas. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the relationship between levels of depression and coping strategies in women with gestational risk. Methods: A correlational cross-sectional study was performed in which 70 women with gestational risk were involved. The instruments used were: the coping strategies inventory ( [...] CSI) in the Spanish version of Cano, Rodriguez and Garcia which count with internal consistency coefficients between 0.63 and 0.89, and the Depression scale of the epidemiological study center (CES-D), which has factorial validity and a high internal consistency expressed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient equal to 0.87. The data was organized using the statistical package SPSS 13.0 version, and the statistical test Pearson correlation coefficient was applied to analyze the relationship between the variables. Conclusions: Depression has a highly significant inverse relationship with problem solving strategies and social support, and a highly significant direct relationship with self-critical strategies, problem avoidance and social withdrawal. Feelings of guilt are common during pregnancy risk as a way of coping. The presence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy risk has a direct relationship with self-critical coping strategies, avoidance, social withdrawal and wishful thinking. There is an inverse relationship between depression and coping strategies: problem solving and social support. The strategies most used by adolescents with high-risk pregnancy are avoidance and self-criticism, women in adulthood use to a greater extent coping strategies such as problem solving and positive reappraisal. Women doing some work activity have greater use of social support search strategy. No association between levels of depression presented by high risk pregnancies and sociodemographic variables exist.
Yanneth Cecilia, Ardila Villarreal; Claudia Patricia, Lara Villarreal; Adriana del Pilar, Perugache Rodríguez.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: El objetivo de la investigación se centra en el estudio de las estrategias de afrontamiento utilizada por el paciente para hacer frente a su dolor, siendo definidas estas como los pensamientos y acciones que los individuos realizan en sus esfuerzos por manejar el dolor, y su repercusión so [...] bre la calidad de vida del paciente. Material y métodos: La muestra del estudio está formada por 32 mujeres diagnosticadas de fibromialgia que acuden por primera vez al Servicio de Psicología de la Unidad Multidisciplinar del Dolor en el Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia previa exploración médica. Los pacientes completaron una batería de cuestionarios donde además de recoger las variables sociodemográficas (edad, sexo, estado civil, nivel de estudios), se evaluó el nivel de dolor informado a través del EVA (escala analógica visual), valoración del dolor (por ejemplo, "el dolor depende de mí", "puedo anticipar cuándo me va a doler"...), las estrategias de afrontamiento al dolor a partir del cuestionario de afrontamiento al dolor (CAD) y el cuestionario de calidad de vida ICV-2R. Resultados y conclusiones: A nivel descriptivo, los resultados muestran que las pacientes informan de un nivel de dolor moderadamente elevado, siendo las estrategias de afrontamiento al dolor más utilizadas, la autoafirmación y la búsqueda de información, y presentando un índice de calidad de vida inferior al de la población general. A nivel correlacional, no se ha encontrado ninguna relación significativa entre el índice general de calidad de vida y las estrategias de afrontamiento al dolor, aunque el uso de estrategias de afrontamiento más bien pasivas (como por ejemplo, la religión) se asocian significativa y positivamente con la dimensiones de calidad de vida que implican cierto grado de desadaptación por parte del paciente a la enfermedad, mientras que el uso de estrategias más activas ante el dolor (por ejemplo, distracción y autocontrol mental) se relacionan significativa y negativamente con dichas dimensiones. Abstract in english Objective: The objective of this research focused on the study of coping strategies used by patients to face pain, these being defined as the thoughts and actions taken by individuals in their efforts to handle pain and their impact on the patient quality of life. Material and methods: The study pop [...] ulation included 32 women diagnosed of fibromyalgia that attended for the first time the Psychology Service of the Multidisciplinary Pain Unit at the Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia prior medical examination. The patients completed a set of questionnaires that, in addition to obtain sociodemographic variables (age, sex, marital status, educational level), the following was assessed: pain severity determined using a VAS (visual analogic scale), pain valuation (for example, "pain depends on me", "I can anticipate when it is going to hurt"...), pain coping strategies based on the pain coping questionnaire (PCQ) and the quality of life questionnaire ICV-2R. Results and conclusions: At the descriptive level, the results show that the patients reported a moderately severe pain, being self-assertion and information seeking the pain coping strategies more frequently used. Furthermore, they presented a quality of life index lower than the general population. At the correlational level, no significant relationship has been found between the general quality of life index and the pain coping strategies, although the use of more passive coping strategies (such as religion) are significantly and positively associated to dimensions of quality of life that involve certain degree of maladjustment of the patient to the disease, while the use of more active pain coping strategies (such as distraction and mental self-control) are significantly and negatively associated to such dimensions.
B., Soucase; V., Monsalve; J. F., Soriano; J. de, Andrés.
Full Text Available A violência na escola é um problema social que perpassa o âmbito da educação e da saúde pública, envolve aspectos bioéticos e requer mecanismos de enfrentamento, a partir da educação em saúde. Este estudo objetiva discutir estratégias fundamentadoras da educação em saúde, sobre aspectos bioéticos no domínio da violência escolar. Consiste em uma revisão bibliográfica crítico-reflexiva por meio do acesso a banco de dados da Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS, utilizando os descritores "violência and bioética" e "violência na escola", considerando os estudos publicados no período de 2004 a 2009. Realizamos também levantamento das obras de Paulo Freire e Pedro Demo, teóricos da Educação Libertadora. A leitura do material conduziu-nos a definição e discussão de três eixos temáticos: 1 bioética como instrumento reflexivo para a retomada dos valores morais na sociedade; 2 escola como formadora ética e de exercício de cidadania; 3 educação em saúde como instrumento para o enfrentamento da violência na escola. Acreditamos que a violência escolar envolve questões bioéticas que devem ser alvo de intervenções educativas na perspectiva libertadora, no intuito de gerar reflexões sobre o caráter negativo da violência escolar, tanto para o ensino-aprendizagem, como para o adoecimento dos atores envolvidos nessa problemática. Os profissionais da saúde poderão estabelecer a intersetorialidade com a educação e contribuir na prevenção da violência na escola, por meio de ações educativas em saúde, mobilizando cidadãos para uma sociedade comprometida em promover a vida; e que os profissionais da educação sejam receptivos e coparticipantes do processo intersetorial de educação e saúde.School violence is a social problem that pervades the educational and public health context, involving bioethical issues and requires coping mechanisms from health education. This study aims to discuss strategies that underlie health education, on bioethical issues in the school violence field. It consists of a critical-reflexive literature review by accessing the Virtual Health Library (VHL database, using the keywords: "violence and bioethics", and "violence at school", considering the studies published from 2004 to 2009. We also surveyed Paulo Freire's and Pedro Demo's works, theorists of Libertarian Education, which led us define and discuss three thematic areas: 1 bioethics as a reflective instrument for the moral values resumption in the society, 2 school as an ethics and citizenship practice creator, 3 health education as a contributor to coping with violence at school. We believe that school violence involves bioethical issues that should be the target of educational interventions in the liberating perspective, in order to generate reflections on the negative character of school violence, both for teaching and learning, as to the sickening of the actors involved in this issue. Health professionals may establish the intersectoriality with the education and contribute in preventing violence at school, through health education actions, mobilizing citizens for a society committed to promoting life. And the education professionals must be receptive and co-participants in the education and health intersectorial process.
Flavia Pedro dos Anjos Santos
/ Coping Strategies of Children who have a Mother or Father in a Hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU) / Estrategias de enfrentamiento (Coping) de hijos que tienen la madre o el padre internado en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI)
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas por filhos que possuem a mãe ou o pai internado em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Participaram 30 filhos, de ambos os sexos, que responderam: Uma Ficha Sócio Demográfica e o Inventário de Estratégias de Copi [...] ng de Folkman e Lazarus (1985). A análise das respostas no inventário se deu em dois momentos: 1) contagem da pontuação obtida por cada participante, nos itens de cada fator correspondente às estratégias de enfrentamento; 2) cálculo dos coeficientes de Correlação de Spearman entre as 66 questões do Inventário e algumas variáveis: Religião; Faixa etária, Escolaridade e Filiação. Foi verificada correlação significativa positiva ou negativa entre estas variáveis e alguns itens do inventário, porém isto não é o suficiente para afirmar que há correlação entre as variáveis e determinadas estratégias. Embora os participantes tenham usado todas as estratégias de enfrentamento, as que predominaram foram: Reavaliação Positiva (97%); Suporte Social (93%) e Resolução de Problemas (77%). Estes resultados corroboram estudos já realizados sobre esta temática e podem subsidiar uma prática mais efetiva da equipe de saúde junto a essa população. Abstract in spanish La presente investigación tuvo el objetivo de verificar las estrategias de enfrentamiento utilizadas por hijos que tienen la madre o el padre internado en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Participaron 30 hijos, de ambos sexos, que contestaron a un cuestionario sociodemográfico y el inventario [...] de estrategias de Coping de Folkman & Lazarus (1985). El procedimiento de análisis del inventario fue: 1) Puntuación obtenida por el participante, en los ítems de cada factor correspondiente a las estrategias de enfrentamiento; 2) Cálculo de los coeficientes de correlación de Spearman, entre las 66 cuestiones del inventario y algunas variables como: religión, franja de edad, escolaridad y filiación. Existe correlación significativa positiva o negativa entre estas variables y algunos ítems del inventario, pero esto no es lo suficiente para afirmar que hay correlación entre las variables y determinadas estrategias. A pesar de que los participantes utilizaran todas las estrategias de enfrentamiento, las predominantes fueron: revaluación positiva (97%); soporte social (93%); y resolución de problemas (77%). Estos datos corroboran los hallazgos de otras investigaciones sobre la temática y pueden subsidiar una práctica más efectiva del equipo de salud junto a esa populación. Abstract in english This study aimed to examine the coping strategies used by children who have the mother or father admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). 30 children of both sexes participated, they answerd the- Demographic and Socio Sheet and Coping Strategies Inventory of Folkman and Lazarus (1985). The analysis [...] of responses in the inventory took place in two stages: 1) counting the score of each participant, the items of each factor corresponding to the coping strategies. 2) calculation of Spearman correlation coefficients among the and some 66 issues of the inventory variables like: religion, age, education and filiation. There is a significant positive or negative correlation between these variables and some inventory items, but this is not enough to say that there is correlation between the variables specific and strategies. Although participants used all strategies, those that predominated were: positive reappraisal (97%), social support (93%) and problem solving (77%). These results corroborate previous studies' findings on this topic and can support a more effective practice of the health team whit this population.
Fernanda, de Azevedo Lima; Maria Cristina, Lopes de Almeida Amazonas; Walfrido, Nunes de Menezes.
Coping strategies used by family members of individuals receiving hemodialysis / Estratégias de coping utilizadas por familiares de indivíduos em tratamento hemodialítico / Estrategias de afrontamiento utilizadas por las familias de las personas en tratamiento de hemodiálisis
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudo descritivo, de natureza quali-quantitativa, que objetivou identificar as estratégias de enfrentamento mais utilizadas por familiares de pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista, com aplicação do Inventário de Estratégias de Coping a de [...] z familiares, e submetidos à estatística descritiva e à análise de conteúdo temática. A estratégia mais utilizada foi fuga e esquiva, demonstrando que os familiares preferiam não enfrentar a situação. A segunda estratégia mais usada foi suporte social, ratificada ao afirmarem que conversaram com outras pessoas e profissionais buscando informações sobre o problema, e por aceitarem positivamente o apoio recebido. A terceira foi resolução de problemas, representada pela atitude em assumir o cuidado, seja pelo forte vínculo afetivo ou pelo sentimento de responsabilidade já estabelecido antes da doença. As famílias empregaram estratégias de enfrentamento com intensidades diferentes, porém indicando envolvimento e grande participação no cuidado ao doente. Abstract in spanish Estudio cualitativo, que trató de identificar las estrategias de afrontamiento empleadas por las familias de los pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica en hemodiálisis. Se aplicó el Inventario de Estrategias de Afrontamiento y una questión abierta con diez familiares. Los datos cuantitativos fuer [...] on sometidos a procedimientos estatísticos y análisis de contenido cualitativo. La estrategia de mayor utilización fue el escape y evitación (oito), lo que demuestra que los miembros de las familisa preferían no tener que enfrentar esta situación. La siguiente estrategia fue utilizada más apoyo social, ya hablé con otras personas y profesionales que buscan información sobre el problema, y aceptar el apoyo positivo recibido. A terceira foi resolução de problemas, representada pela atitude em assumir o cuidado, seja pelo forte vínculo afetivo ou pelo sentimento de responsabilidade já estabelecido antes da doença. Familias de las estrategias de afrontamiento empleadas con diferentes intensidades, pero mostrando una gran implicación y la participación en el cuidado del paciente crónico. Abstract in english This descriptive, qualitative study aims to identify the coping strategies used most by the family members of patients with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis. The data were collected through interviews, with the Coping Strategies Inventory questionnaire administered to ten family members [...] , and were submitted to descriptive statistics and to thematic content analysis. The strategy used most was escape-avoidance, demonstrating that the family members prefer not to face the situation. The second most-used strategy was social support, ratified by the fact that they stated that they talk with other persons and professionals, seeking information about the problem, and because they accept the support received positively. The third was problem resolution, represented by the attitude of accepting responsibility for the care, either through strong affective bonds or through a feeling of responsibility established prior to the disease. The families use coping strategies of different intensities, while, nevertheless, indicating involvement and major participation in the care for the patient.
Fernanda Ribeiro Baptista, Marques; Marina Raduy, Botelho; Sonia Silva, Marcon; Jussara Simone Lenzi, Pupulim.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past few years, information retrieval has become more and more professionalized, and information specialists are considered full members of a research team conducting systematic reviews. Research groups preparing systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines have been the driving force in the development of search strategies, but open questions remain regarding the transparency of the development process and the available resources. An empirically guided approach to the development of a search strategy provides a way to increase transparency and efficiency. Methods Our aim in this paper is to describe the empirically guided development process for search strategies as applied by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen, or "IQWiG". This strategy consists of the following steps: generation of a test set, as well as the development, validation and standardized documentation of the search strategy. Results We illustrate our approach by means of an example, that is, a search for literature on brachytherapy in patients with prostate cancer. For this purpose, a test set was generated, including a total of 38 references from 3 systematic reviews. The development set for the generation of the strategy included 25 references. After application of textual analytic procedures, a strategy was developed that included all references in the development set. To test the search strategy on an independent set of references, the remaining 13 references in the test set (the validation set were used. The validation set was also completely identified. Discussion Our conclusion is that an objectively derived approach similar to that used in search filter development is a feasible way to develop and validate reliable search strategies. Besides creating high-quality strategies, the widespread application of this approach will result in a substantial increase in the transparency of the development process of search strategies.
Background Over the past few years, information retrieval has become more and more professionalized, and information specialists are considered full members of a research team conducting systematic reviews. Research groups preparing systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines have been the driving force in the development of search strategies, but open questions remain regarding the transparency of the development process and the available resources. An empirically guided approach to the development of a search strategy provides a way to increase transparency and efficiency. Methods Our aim in this paper is to describe the empirically guided development process for search strategies as applied by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen, or "IQWiG"). This strategy consists of the following steps: generation of a test set, as well as the development, validation and standardized documentation of the search strategy. Results We illustrate our approach by means of an example, that is, a search for literature on brachytherapy in patients with prostate cancer. For this purpose, a test set was generated, including a total of 38 references from 3 systematic reviews. The development set for the generation of the strategy included 25 references. After application of textual analytic procedures, a strategy was developed that included all references in the development set. To test the search strategy on an independent set of references, the remaining 13 references in the test set (the validation set) were used. The validation set was also completely identified. Discussion Our conclusion is that an objectively derived approach similar to that used in search filter development is a feasible way to develop and validate reliable search strategies. Besides creating high-quality strategies, the widespread application of this approach will result in a substantial increase in the transparency of the development process of search strategies. PMID:22587829
In this article, we present a case study of one the successful government organisation strategy development exercises in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The 2010-2013 strategy of Emirates Identity Authority (Emirates ID) supported organisational development and allowed the Emirates ID to become a pioneer in its field of practice. Its strategy was among the reasons behind its selection and winning the Best Federal Authority Award in the 2012 UAE's federal Government Excellence Programme. This ...
Al-khouri, Ali M.
"The Dual Process Model of Coping with Bereavement" (M. Stroebe & H. Schut, 1999) suggests that the most effective adaptation involves oscillation between 2 coping processes: loss-orientation (LO) and restoration-orientation (RO). A 22-item Inventory of Daily Widowed Life (IDWL) was developed to measure these processes and the oscillation between…
Caserta, Michael S.; Lund, Dale A.
This paper seeks to provide teachers with a sampling of before, during, and after reading strategies that are appropriate for use in K-12 classrooms. The paper first discusses diagnostic assessment methods in the classroom and presents activities which provide samples of informal diagnostic assessment. It then outlines some "before reading"…
Orme, Liz; Masson, Susan
This report summarizes the comparative evaluation of alternative strategies for the development of the commercial fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the United States. For planning purposes, a range of possible FBR development paths called strategies were selected for evaluation. These strategies, designed to be technically and economically feasible, were expressed in terms of the timing and nature of facilities/research and development programs required to reach full power operation of the first commercial FBR. Four of the seven strategies resulted in a large (1457 MWe) FBR as an end point, the other three in a 1000-MWe plant. Probability distributions were calculated for total strategy costs and time to completion. For the seven strategies analyzed, the costs (discounted 1980 dollars) ranged from $1.8 billion to $4.9 billion; the completion times ranged from 24 to 55 years
Understanding the determinants of social and coping inequalities in subclinical cardiovascular disease is an important prerequisite in developing and implementing preventive strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between social factors and coping status, respectively, and subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in middle-aged Danes.
Mols, Rikke Elmose; Sand, Niels Peter
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O cyberbullying, caracterizado como um dos tipos de violência em contexto educativo, apresenta-se como uma das principais causas do mal-estar vivido por seus protagonistas. O estudo inserido no Projeto Cyberbullying - o diagnóstico da situação em Portugal pretendeu compreender o fenômeno a partir da [...] s vivências de 118 estudantes do primeiro ano do Ensino Superior público português, que responderam a um questionário. Pudemos perceber a percepção dos alunos sobre o fenômeno e a importância que pares, professores e pais apresentam no enfrentamento e prevenção do cyberbullying. Tais resultados orientam-se no sentido do desenvolvimento sistêmico de comunidades que se fortalecem internamente para que cada um se sinta autorizado a intervir e a cuidar dos que nelas são vítimas de violência. Abstract in english Cyberbullying is characterized as one of the different types of violence in educational contexts and is one of the main causes of uneasiness felt by its protagonists. It is also considered as one of the challenges of contemporary education. The study inserted in the project Cyberbullying - a diagnos [...] is of the situation in Portugal intended to understand the phenomenon, its extension and nature through the experience of 118 first year psychology students in the Portuguese public higher education system. Participants responded to a questionnaire of open and closed-ended questions. From the analyses done we understand the students' perceptions regarding the phenomenon, as well as the fundamental importance peers, teachers and parents/legal guardians have in coping with and preventing cyberbullying. These results demonstrate that there is the need to systemically develop communities that may internally strengthen themselves so that each individual feels authorized to intervene and care for those that are the victims of violence.
Sidclay Bezerra, Souza; Ana Margarida Veiga, Simão; Ana Paula, Caetano.
Full Text Available This research had the objective to examine the occurrence of stress among 27 master students of health sciences of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe [Federal University of Sergipe], of which 16 were women and 11 were men. And, it also sought to delineate the coping strategies used to deal with the stress and the stressors perceived by the graduate students. Lipp's Stress Symptoms for Adults Inventory, the Ways to Confront Problems Scale and a questionary about possible stressors were used. The results indicated that 40,7% of subjects had stress and that there was an association between stress and sex (p<0,05, showing that women were more vulnerable to stress. The association between sex and the main coping strategies used by the participants that didn't have stress (p<0,05 was verified, showing that focalizing on the problem was a more frequent strategy among men. We believe that more investigation on this topic is important, because the performance of master level students may be influenced by the stress during graduate education.
André Faro Santos
This document is one of eight in a series of guides designed to help teach and counsel troubled youth. It presents 20 lessons designed to teach the coping skills necessary to control one's temper. The first lesson teaches students the meaning of aggressive behavior; this lesson and several others throughout the guide focus on helping aggressive…
Wells, Ruth Herman
The aim of this study is to compare the coping strategies with stres of the students who are from the Turkish Republic and those of the Middle Asian Turkish Republics. The population of the study consists of the students from Middle Asian Turkish Republics at Ondokuz May?s University in 2004-2005 Academic Year. This study was carried out on a total number of 437 students; 125 of them are from Middle Asian Turkish Republics and 312 from Turkish Republic. In this study, to determine the level ...
Balci C?eli?k, Seher
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to describe the personality traits and the copingstyles used by 99 college students, and observe if this variable are related.The NEO Five Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI], and the Coping StrategiesQuestionnaire [CAE] was used. The results confirm that Neuroticism isrelated with passive and emotion focused coping strategies (maladaptivecopings whereas, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness arerelated with rational and active focused coping. Openness to Experienceit was not associate with no one coping strategies. The findings provideevidence for the understanding of individual’s differences about how theyoung people cope the several environment requests.
Françoise V. Contreras-Torres
Developing and implementing a national information strategy has been of key interest to Scotland’s political and LIS fraternity alike. This paper describes the components necessary to bring such a national information strategy to fruition and the role institutional repositories are to play in such a strategy. The use of institutional repositories – as a means of opening access to Scottish research output - supports a number of key political, social and economic factors intrinsic to the S...
Law, Derek; Macgregor, George; Mcculloch, Emma; Wallis, Jake
This study focuses on how valid information about learner perception of strategy use during communicative tasks can be gathered systematically from English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. First, the study attempted to develop a questionnaire for statistical analysis, named the Oral Communication Strategy Inventory (OCSI). The research…
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o grau de apego materno-fetal, ansiedade, depressão e modos de enfrentamento de gestantes com diagnóstico de fetos malformados. Participaram 22 gestantes atendidas nos Serviços de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia de cidades do estado de São Paulo/Br. Para tal, foram util [...] izados os seguintes instrumentos: 1) Escala de Apego Materno Fetal (Cranley, 1981); 2) Inventário de Ansiedade (BAI) e Depressão (BDI) (Beck, 1961) e 4) Escala de Modos de Enfrentamento de Problemas - EMEP (Vitaliano et al., 1985). Os resultados apontam que 21 (95,4%) gestantes participantes deste estudo apresentam o vínculo materno-fetal máximo, três (13,6%) apresentam indicadores clínicos para depressão e ansiedade e 12 (54,5%) delas utilizam como estratégias de enfrentamento a Busca de Práticas Religiosas, isto é, estratégias que englobam sentimentos de esperança e fé, diante do diagnóstico de malformação fetal. Conclui-se que, mesmo frente ao diagnóstico, as gestantes tendem a manter o apego materno-fetal e utilizam diversas estratégias de enfretamento, sendo a principal delas a busca pelas práticas religiosas. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to know how to establish the maternalfetal attachment, anxiety, depression and the manners of pregnant women coping with diagnosis of malformed fetuses. We studied 22 pregnant women assisted in the gynecology and obstetric services of two cities in São Paulo state, Br [...] azil. They were applied: 1) Scale of Maternal-fetal Attachment (Cranley, 1981); Inventory of Anxiety (BAI) and Depression (BDI) Beck (1961) and 4 the Scale of Manners of Coping of the Problem EMEP (Vitaliano et al., 1985). The results point that 21 (95,4%) participant pregnant women of this study show the maximum maternal-fetal bond, three of them (13,6%) show clinical indicators for depression and anxiety and 12 (54,5%) of them use as coping strategies the search of Religious Practices. That means, strategies that include hope and faith feelings, in front the diagnosis of fetal malformation. We can conclude that even in front to the diagnosis, the pregnant women tend to maintain the fetal maternal attachment and they use of several coping strategies, being the main of them looking for it for religious practices.
Lívia, Vasconcelos; Eucia Beatriz Lopes, Petean.
International assistance agencies have turned increasingly to integrated rural development policies in an attempt to ameliorate the inequitable distribution of economic growth plaguing Third World nations since World War II. This paper reviews the functionally and spatially integrated investment strategies of the World Bank, US Agency for International Development, and the United Nations, outlines their objectives, perceptions of the problem, basic assumptions and programs, and evaluates them in terms of potential difficulties for implementation. Those factors crucial to making integrated development policies operational--knowledge of human ecosystems in rural areas, analytical ability, operational procedures, arrangements for local participation, subsistence systems indicators and administrative capacity of local and national governments--are discussed and assessed.
Rondinelli, D.A. (Syracuse Univ., NY); Ruddle, K.
Full Text Available The paper investigates the aspects of strategies formation of innovative development of agroindustrial complex; priorities and strategic aims of innovative processes realization and institutional grounds of its realization.Formation of development strategy should include the world experience in planning and national peculiarities of agricultural sphere development. It must be noted that a successful functioning of agroindustrial complex of any country is impossible without scientifically grounded strategic and tactical aims, objectives and ways of their realization.Strategic guidelines for efficient functioning of agroindustrial complex are based on creation of appropriate development strategy which includes a set of actions and measures of functioning efficiency improvement of all its constituents in the nearest future.Thus, the activities strategy development identifies the ways of achieving the forecasted results, and exactly the strategic guidelines outline the scope of questions that are important for the development of a process or phenomenon.An increasing role of strategic planning of innovative activity can be first of all explained by intention of each entrepreneur to ensure the product competitiveness under the conditions of global changes, which increase the requirements for production quality features.The formation and realization of the strategy of innovational development of agriindustrial complex should be based on the principles of social and economic development; rational combination of economic and ecological factors; organizational factors, restructuring of agricultural enterprises; step-by-step introduction of research and engineering developments into practice; deepening of interconnections with agricultural formations on the basis of innovative development model of economy.
B. V. Pohrishchuk
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the cultural worldview perspective and coping styles of Puerto Rican females in the study. According to Hobfoll's "Conservation of Resources Theory," people strive to retain, protect, and build resources. Hobfoll's theory addresses some of the issues associated with the stress…
Quinones del Valle, Rose M.; Arredondo, Patricia
From a global perspective, the typical person living with HIV/AIDS is likely a sub-Saharan African woman. Yet despite calls from NASW to adopt a global outlook on the HIV/AIDS crisis, little research has examined how such women cope. In this study, the authors used a mixed-methods approach to explore how one sample of sub-Saharan African women (N…
Hodge, David R.; Roby, Jini L.
This study investigated the costs of illness to households in different socio-economic status (SES) groups and geographic places of abode in addition to the mechanisms that the different population groups used to pay for health services and cope with payments. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 3,200 households selected from six communities in two states was conducted using interviewer-administered pre-tested questionnaires. An SES index was used to divide the households into quartiles, a...
Ezeoke, Ogochukwu P.; Onwujekwe, Obinna E.; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S.
Increasing attention is paid to impacts of HIV/AIDS on women's mental health, often framed by decontextualized psychiatric understandings of emotional distress and treatment. We contribute to the small qualitative literature extending these findings through exploring HIV/AIDS-affected women's own accounts of their distress—focusing on the impacts of social context, and women's efforts to cope outside of medical support services. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with women experie...
Burgess, Rochelle; Campbell, Catherine
Šio tyrimo tikslas nustatyti moksleivi? su sveikata susijusio elgesio ir mokykloje patiriamos prievartos bei stresogenini? situacij? ?veikimo strategij? s?sajas. Buvo tirta 200 Vilniaus miesto Petro Vileišio ir Var?nos „?žuolo“ vidurini? mokykl? moksleivi?. Tyrimas vyko 2008 m. kovo - balandžio m?n. ?veikimo strategijoms ir b?dams ištirti panaudotas COPE klausimynas (Autoriai - C. Carver, M. Scheier, J. Weinbtraub. ? lietuvi? kalb? išvert? E. Kavaliauskait?....
The aim of this research is to develop and validate a self-report measure of mindfulness and coping, the mindful coping scale (MCS). Dimensions of mindful coping were theoretically deduced from mindfulness theory and coping theory. The MCS was empirically evaluated by use of factor analyses, reliability testing and nomological network validation.…
Tharaldsen, Kjersti B.; Bru, Edvin
Prior clinical research supports the effectiveness of cancer support groups for cancer patients and their families, yet African-American families continue to be underrepresented in cancer support groups and in cancer clinical research studies. In order to fill this gap, we developed and evaluated a culturally adapted family support group for African-American families coping with parental cancer. We encountered unexpected challenges in overcoming barriers to recruitment, partnering with oncology providers, and building trust with the African-American community and African-American families coping with parental cancer. We describe actions taken during the two phases of this study and lessons learned along the way about recruiting and engaging African-American families in cancer support group studies, partnering with oncology providers, networking with the African-American community, and the importance of demonstrating cultural sensitivity to overcome the understandable historical legacy of mistrust. PMID:22791545
Davey, Maureen P; Kissil, Karni; Lynch, Laura; Harmon, La-Rhonda; Hodgson, Nancy
This study explored the coping processes of couples experiencing infertility. Participants included 420 couples referred for advanced reproductive treatments. Couples were divided into groups based on the frequency of their use of eight coping strategies. Findings suggest that coping processes, which are beneficial to individuals, may be…
Peterson, Brennan D.; Newton, Christopher R.; Rosen, Karen H.; Schulman, Robert S.
Shin-Kori units 3 and 4 are new reactors under construction as an APR 1400 type reactor. The plants which considered coping with severe accident from design phase are different from other operating plants in view of severe accident management strategies. The purpose of this paper is to establish optimal strategies for Shin-Kori 3 and 4. A scheme for optimized severe accident management was drawn up with the object of achieving core cooling, containment integrity, and decreased release of fission product. Shin-Kori units 3 and 4 are a new reactor and designed to add mitigating systems for coping with severe accident such as ECSBS, PAR, and CFS. Also the plants are reflected as a part of Fukushima followup measures The strategies of SAMG for Shin-Kori 3 and 4 were developed. The strategic approach was based on the concept of defense in depth. Firstly, strategies for core cooling were chosen such as RCS depressurization, injection to SG, injection to RCS, and injection to reactor cavity. Secondly, the plans for containment integrity were developed for controlling pressure and hydrogen in containment. Lastly, reduced release of fission product was considered for protection of the public after containment failure. The achieved strategies meet the needs of effective methods for severe accident management and enhancement of safety
Coping strategies may help explain why some minority women experience more stress and poorer birth outcomes, so a psychometrically sound instrument to assess coping is needed. We examined the psychometric properties, readability, and correlates of coping in pregnant Black (n = 186) and Hispanic (n = 220) women using the Brief COPE. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis tested psychometric properties. The Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level test assessed readability. Linear regression models tested correlates of coping. Findings suggested two factors for the questionnaire: active and disengaged coping, as well as adequate reliability, validity, and readability level. For disengaged coping, Cronbach's ? was .78 (English) and .70 (Spanish), and for active coping .86 (English) and .92 (Spanish). A two group confirmatory factor analysis revealed both minority groups had equivalent factor loadings. The reading level was at the sixth grade. Age, education, and gravidity were all found to be significant correlates with active coping. PMID:24658289
Ruiz, Roberta Jeanne; Gennaro, Susan; O'Connor, Caitlin; Marti, C Nathan; Lulloff, Amanda; Keshinover, Tayra; Gibeau, Anne; Melnyk, Bernadette
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A criança com câncer precisa se adaptar à hospitalização, utilizando estratégias de enfrentamento adequadas a fim de minimizar os efeitos negativos. Visando à elaboração de um instrumento de avaliação das estratégias de enfrentamento da hospitalização, 28 crianças, de 6 a 12 anos, inscritas no servi [...] ço de oncologia de um hospital público de Vitória, ES, foram submetidas à aplicação do instrumento: Avaliação das Estratégias de Enfrentamento da Hospitalização, com 41 pranchas ilustradas, divididas nos conjuntos: A: Enfrentamento da hospitalização, e B: Brincar no hospital. Os resultados referentes à adequação do instrumento mostraram um percentual de 88,4% e 94,6% de adequação das pranchas do Conjunto A e do Conjunto B, respectivamente. Os resultados das respostas ao instrumento indicaram um padrão de respostas de enfrentamento mais facilitador (brincar, conversar, tomar remédio e rezar) do que não-facilitador (esconder-se, brigar, sentir culpa, fazer chantagem). O instrumento mostrou-se adequado à compreensão e ao atendimento psicológico à criança hospitalizada. Abstract in english In order to diminish the negative effects of hospitalization, the child who has cancer needs to adapt herself/himself by using adequate coping strategies. Focused on the design of an assessment tool for the hospitalization coping strategies, 28 children (6 to 12) registered on the Oncology Service f [...] rom a public hospital in Vitória, Espírito Santo, were submitted to the following instruments: coping Hospitalization Assessment Instrument, with 41 pictures, divided by sets: Set A: Facing hospitalization and Set B: Playing in the hospital. The instrument adequacy results have shown a percentage of 88.4% e 94.6% of adequacy in the pictures from Set A and Set B, respectively. The instrument responses results have revealed a larger tendency to the optimistic pattern of coping answers (play, talk, take medicine and pray), than to the non-optimistic (hide, fight, blame yourself, blackmail). The instrument was adequate to the psychological comprehension and attendance for the hospitalized children.
Alessandra Brunoro, Motta; Sônia Regina Fiorim, Enumo.
Pacientes com câncer: enfrentamento, rede social e apoio social / Cancer patients: coping strategies, social network and social support / Pacientes con cáncer: enfrentamiento, red social y apoyo social
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo avaliou as estratégias de enfrentamento, rede e apoio social de pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço atendidos em um hospital do interior paulista. Os 22 participantes responderam a um Questionário Sociodemográfico, Questionário de Hábitos de Vida, Ficha Clínica, Escala Modos de Enfrent [...] amento de Problemas (EMEP) e Medidas de Rede e Apoio Social. Os resultados indicaram que as estratégias de enfrentamento menos utilizadas foram: focalização na emoção (M=2,08, DP=0,63) e busca por suporte social (M=2,62, DP=0,80), a rede social apresentou-se ampla, mas com grau de intimidade baixo, e a média geral do apoio social foi baixa (M=71, DP=10). As principais correlações encontradas foram: apoio emocional e de informação (r=0,785, p Abstract in spanish El estudio evaluó las estrategias del enfrentamiento, red social, apoyo social de pacientes con cáncer de cabeza y cuello atendidos en un hospital del interior paulista. Los participantes contestaron uno Cuestionario Socio-demográfico y de Costumbres de vida, Ficha Clínica, Escala Modos de Enfrentam [...] ento de Problemas (EMEP) (Escala Modos de Enfrentamiento de Problemas) y Medidas de Red y Apoyo Social. Las estrategias menos utilizadas fueran enfrentamiento en la emoción (media: 2,08, DP: 0.63) y la busca por soporte social (media=2,62, DP=0,80). La red social es numerosa, mas con grado de intimidad bajo, lo apoyo social presentó nota media general baja (media=71, DP=10). Las principales correlaciones encontradas fueron: apoyo emocional y de información (r=0,785, p Abstract in english This study assessed coping strategies, social network and support in patients, with head and neck cancer, treated in a hospital in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The 22 participants completed a Social Demographic Questionnaire Inquiring on Life Style, Clinical File, the Escala Modos de Enfrentament [...] o de Problemas (EMEP) (Ways of Coping with Problems Scale) with Measures of Social Network and Support. The least used coping strategies were emotion focused-coping (M: 2,08, SD: 0.63) and search for social support (M: 2.62, SD: 0.80), participants had a large network with low level of intimacy, the general average score for social support was low (M: 71, SD: 10). The main correlations found in the study were emotional support and information (r=0.785, p
Jeanny Joana Rodrigues Alves de, Santana; Carla Rodrigues, Zanin; José Victor, Maniglia.
Evidências de validade e precisão da Escala de Coping através de Ouvir Música / Evidence of validity and accuracy of the Coping by Music Listening Scale / Evidencias de validez y precisión de la "Escala de Coping através de ouvir música"
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo buscou verificar a validade de construto e precisão da Escala de Coping através de Ouvir Música (ECOM), cujos fatores representam estratégias de coping focadas na emoção, no problema e evitação/desligamento. Contou com a participação de 248 estudantes de escolas e universidades púb [...] licas e particulares da cidade de Aracaju, no Nordeste brasileiro. Os principais resultados corroboram a estrutura original da escala com três fatores. Foram verificados índices de precisão adequados para o fator coping focado na emoção, mas índices menores para os fatores de coping focado no problema e evitação. Foram verificadas ainda diferenças por gênero nas estratégias de coping relacionadas a ouvir música. Os dados são discutidos considerando a literatura sobre psicometria e sugestões de pesquisa são realizadas para se desenvolverem os estudos na área de coping. Abstract in spanish El presente estudio buscó verificar la validez de constructo y precisión de la "Escala de Coping através de Ouvir Música" (ECOM), cuyos factores representan estrategias de coping focalizadas en la emoción, en el problema y evitación/desligamiento. Contó con la participación de 248 estudiantes de esc [...] uelas y universidades públicas y particulares de la ciudad de Aracaju, en el Nordeste brasileño. Los principales resultados corroboran la estructura original de la escala con tres factores. Fueron verificados índices de precisión adecuados para el factor coping focalizado en la emoción y de la escala total, pero índices menores para los factores de coping focalizado en el problema y evitación. Fueron verificadas aún diferencias por género en las estrategias de coping relacionadas a oír música. Los datos son discutidos considerando la literatura sobre psicometría y sugestiones de investigaciones son realizadas para el desarrollo de estudios en el área de coping. Abstract in english This study aims at evaluating the construct validity and accuracy of the Coping by Music Listening Scale (CMLS) whose factors represent coping strategies as emotion in the problem and avoidance/disconnexion. It acounted on the participation of 248 students from schools and public and private univers [...] ities in the city of Aracaju, Brazilian Northeast. The main results confirm the scale's original structure with three factors. Appropriate accuracy indices of emotion-oriented coping factor and the scale as a whole were verified, but lower rates for the problem-oriented and avoidance factors. It was also found gender differences in coping strategies by music listening. The results are discussed considering the psychometric literature and suggestions for research were carried out to develop studies on the coping research.
Carlos Eduardo, Pimentel; Marlizete Maldonado, Vargas; Thiago Oliveira de, Almeida; Viviane Andrade Prado, Maynart; Sarah Monteiro de C. T., Figueiredo.
Afrontamiento activo y adaptacion al envejecimiento en mujeres de la ciudad de Mar del Plata: una revision de la estrategia de autodistraccion / Active coping and adaptation to aging in women of Mar del Plata city: A review of the coping strategy of self-distraction
Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo propone, a partir de datos empíricos obtenidos en un grupo de adultas mayores, una reconceptualización de las estrategias de afrontamiento evitativas, especialmente la autodistracción, destacando su valor adaptativo frente a la crisis vital que genera el proceso de envejecimiento [...] en las mujeres. Clínicos e investigadores sugieren que el envejecimiento implica una crisis del desarrollo que afecta la adaptación vital. La literatura científica considera que existe relación entre estrategias de afrontamiento y adaptación a situaciones críticas. Mediante un diseño cuasi-experimental de tipo pretest - postest con grupo control, se evaluaron las estrategias de afrontamiento antes y después de un programa de aprendizaje social, en una muestra de sesenta mujeres ancianas, de las cuales, treinta participaron de un curso de aprendizaje social en la Universidad de Adultos Mayores de la Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (Mar del Plata - Argentina), y treinta no lo hicieron. Se realizó un análisis comparativo y cuantitativo de los datos. Los resultados evidencian que las mujeres que participaron del programa de aprendizaje social presentan un estilo de afrontamiento activo y adaptativo y a la vez, un uso significativo de la estrategia de autodistracción, caracterizada teóricamente como evitativa y no adaptativa. Los resultados permiten elaborar una comprensión alternativa de la estrategia de autodistracción en función del afrontamiento a los sucesos críticos de la vejez. Se propone que frente a situaciones que no constituyen un problema a resolver como el proceso de envejecimiento en particular, la autodistracción debería considerarse como una estrategia de afrontamiento que promueve una adaptación efectiva. Abstract in english This paper reviews the concept of avoidance coping (particularly the coping strategy of self-distraction), pointing out its adaptative value in coping with critical life-events during old age in women. Scientific literature considers that there is a relationship between coping strategies and adaptat [...] ion to critical events. Some studies suggest that active coping strategies promote effective adaptation, but avoidant strategies are considered less effective. The coping strategy of self-distraction is a mental and behavioural disengagement which occurs via a wide variety of activities that serve to distract the person from thinking about the goal with which the stressor is interfering. Tactics that reflect disengagement include: using alternative activities to take one's mind off a problem (a tendency opposite to problem focused coping or active coping), escaping through reading, cooking, visiting friends, studying, going out for a conference, or escape by immersion in television or in new projects. This paper discusses the empirical data obtained from a study on coping with critical life-events in female aging in a group of senior women in the city of Mar del Plata. By means of a quasi-experimental design using a pretest-postest technique and a control group, we evaluated coping strategies through the Brief-Cope Inventory, before and after a social learning program in a sample of 60 senior women who did not have any neurological symptomatology. The sample was divided into two groups: intervention group and control group. The intervention group consisted of 30 individuals, who participated in a social learning program at the Universidad de Adultos Mayores (Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata), and the control group, consisting of 30 individuals, did not do it. A comparative and quantitative analysis of data was done. Results of the study showed that critical life-events senior women have to cope with were loneliness, illness, widowhood, parental death or oncoming personal death, and social discrimination. There were significant differences in coping styles in both post-test groups. In general, the use of active and adaptative strategies (particularly the behavioural and cognitive
Deisy, Krzemien; Alicia, Monchietti; Sebastián, Urquijo.
Coping responses to stress can be divided into three broad categories. The first coping category involves voluntarily mobilizing social supports. The second category involves voluntary coping strategies like rehearsing responses to danger. The third coping category, like fever and leukocytosis, is involuntary. It entails deploying unconscious homeostatic mechanisms that reduce the disorganizing effects of sudden stress, DSM-5 offers a tentative hierarchy of defenses, from psychotic to immatur...
Vaillant, George E.
Stressful events, coping strategies, self-efficacy and depressive symptoms among the elderly residing in the community / Eventos estressantes, estratégias de enfrentamento, auto-eficácia e sintomas depressivos entre idosos residentes na comunidade
Full Text Available The relationship among stressful life events, coping strategies, self-efficacy in coping and depression in 544 participants of a study on successful aging involving elderly who reside in the community was assessed (74,6% women; age = 72.11; + 8.29; 42,1% age 60-69; 39% 70-79 and 18,9% 80-99. Stressful life events were classified into categories related to: finitude, problems concerning offspring, care, crisis and psychological well-being. Coping strategies generated five factors: negative emotions, environment control, religiosity, avoidance behaviors, and emotional inhibition. Self-efficacy of coping was evaluated between appropriate versus inappropriate. Mean score of depression assessed through CES-D was 10.24, + 8,66; prevalence was 32% to a cut-off score >11. Major risk for depression was associated with negative emotions, uncontrollable events, age 60-69 and inappropiate self-efficacy of coping. The stressful life events seemed less predictive of depression than the cognitive assessment and the coping did.
Andréa Cristina Garofe Fortes-Burgos
Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home-living with a spouse. The analysis revealed that the basic social psychological problem faced by patients with mild AD was their awareness of decline in personal dignity and value. Coping strategies used to meet these problems were adaptations to the altered situation in order to maintain a feeling of well-being. The spouse appeared to be the most important social relation. The most significant worries of the patients were about communication in relation to their spouse, and about the reaction of the spouse to the consequences of the disease. Keywords coping; dementia; everyday life; patients’ perspective; social relations
SØrensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch
Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou conhecer a ocorrência de estresse em 27 mestrandos em ciências da saúde da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, sendo 16 mulheres e 11 homens. Buscou-se também delinear as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas para lidar com o estresse e os estressores percebidos na pós-graduação. Utilizou-se o Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp, a Escala de Modos de Enfrentamento de Problemas e um questionário sobre possíveis estressores. Os resultados mostraram que 40,7% dos sujeitos apresentaram estresse e houve associação entre estresse e sexo (pThis research had the objective to examine the occurrence of stress among 27 master students of health sciences of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe [Federal University of Sergipe], of which 16 were women and 11 were men. And, it also sought to delineate the coping strategies used to deal with the stress and the stressors perceived by the graduate students. Lipp's Stress Symptoms for Adults Inventory, the Ways to Confront Problems Scale and a questionary about possible stressors were used. The results indicated that 40,7% of subjects had stress and that there was an association between stress and sex (p<0,05, showing that women were more vulnerable to stress. The association between sex and the main coping strategies used by the participants that didn't have stress (p<0,05 was verified, showing that focalizing on the problem was a more frequent strategy among men. We believe that more investigation on this topic is important, because the performance of master level students may be influenced by the stress during graduate education.
André Faro Santos
Objectives: This article describes the development, content, feasibility and first results of a short educational program for preparing for aging, based on the process model of proactive coping [Aspinwall LG, Taylor SE. A stitch in time: self regulation and proactive coping. Psychol Bull 1997; 121: 417–36]. The aim of the program is to increase proactive competencies and improve proactive orientations and behaviour. The program consists of four-weekly meetings with 8–10 participants an...
Bode, C.; Ridder, D. T. D.; Bensing, J.
After an introduction on the assessment and perspectives of the French national strategy for a sustainable development, this report presents actions which are associated with different themes: social dimension of the sustainable development, the citizen as an actor of sustainable development, territories, economic activities, companies and consumers, climate change and energy, transports, agriculture and fishery, prevention of risks, pollutions and other hazards for health and the environment, an exemplary State, research and innovation, international action
Full Text Available The Sámi novelist Jovnna-Ánde Vest has written the trilogy Árbbola??at, where he writes about the lives of the people living in Máhtebáiki, a small Sámi village in Northern Finland, from the late 1950s until the early 1980s. This is a time when new great changes coming from the majority society also has impact on the living conditions in a society where agriculture and fishing are the main lines of work. The article focuses on the protagonist Heaika and how he interacts and what kind of coping strategies he chooses in his endeavor to become a writer. Heaika serves both as a witness and a mediator of how the characters in the local society meet the impacts of the new time
Lill Tove Fredriksen
Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) task force personnel face various forms of child exploitation on a daily basis; their jobs require them to view child pornography, participate in undercover chats, interact with offenders in person, and interview abuse survivors. Although exposure to child exploitation and sexual violence has been shown to cause secondary traumatic stress (STS) in certain professions, this is the first large-scale study to investigate risk for STS among ICAC personnel. We circulated an Internet-based survey to ICAC personnel throughout the country and more than 600 individuals responded. Results provide insight into how STS impacts personal and professional well-being. In addition, they highlight which coping mechanisms were inversely related to STS scores. Implications and limitations of the results are discussed. PMID:24259539
Bourke, Michael L; Craun, Sarah W
This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must include strategies of how to integrate the renewable sources in coherent energy systems influenced by energy savings and efficiency measures. Based on the case of Denmark, this paper discusses the problems and perspectives of converting present energy systems into a 100 percent renewable energy system. The conclusion is that such development will be possible. The necessary renewable energy sources are present, if further technological improvements of the energy system are achieved. Especially technologies of converting the transportation and the introduction of flexible energy system technologies are crucial.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A personal history of childhood maltreatment has been associated with unfavorable outcomes in bipolar disorder (BD). The impact of early life stressors on the course of BD may be influenced by individual differences in coping skills. The coping construct relies on neurocognitive mechanisms that are [...] usually influenced by childhood maltreatment. The objective of the present study was to verify the association between childhood maltreatment and coping skills in individuals with BD Type 1. Thirty female euthymic outpatients with BD Type 1 were evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and two additional instruments to measure their coping preferences: Ways of Coping Questionnaire (coping strategies) and Brief COPE (coping styles). Reports of physical abuse (B = .64, p
Ledo, Daruy-Filho; Elisa, Brietzke; Bruno, Kluwe-Schiavon; Cristiane da Silva, Fabres; Rodrigo, Grassi-Oliveira.
Full Text Available Introdução: Para os profissionais da saúde lidar com situações de estresse, como por exemplo, a eminência da morte dos pacientes, parece ser uma das maiores dificuldades vividas em sue ambiente de trabalho. Frente a este contexto, cada pessoa lança mão de estratégias próprias para o enfrentamento de situações estressantes (coping, as quais são determinadas pelo ambiente e por características de personalidade. Objetivo: Identificar as estratégias de enfrentamento (coping dos profissionais de enfermagem de um CTI adulto diante de situações estressantes inerentes a sua profissão. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo transversal, no qual foi aplicado o Inventário COPE, em trinta e oito técnicos de enfermagem e/ou enfermeiros. Os dados do inventário foram analisados em termos descritivos. Resultados: As estratégias de enfrentamento mais utilizadas foram as relacionadas à capacidade pró-ativa do sujeito (reinterpretação positiva, coping ativo e busca por suporte social e as menos utilizadas foram as relacionadas às emoções (foco nas emoções e humor. Conclusão: Na amostra estudada, os profissionais buscam estratégias que antecedam as dificuldades inerentes a sua prática diária, isolando os aspectos mais irrelevantes dos estressores e focalizando a atenção no resultado de suas ações, o que permite uma melhor percepção de seu trabalho e o sentimento de realização profissional.Introduction: For health professionals, to deal with stressful situations, such as the imminence of death of their patients, seems to be one of the greatest difficulties experienced in the workplace. In these situations, each person makes use of their own strategies in order to cope with stressful situations, which are determined by the environment and the personality traits. Objective: To identify the coping strategies used by nursing professionals of an adult ICU while facing stressful situations inherent to their profession. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study in which the COPE Inventory was applied in thirty-eight nursing technicians and/or nurses. The data were analyzed using descriptive techniques. Results: The coping strategies most frequently used were those related to the proactive capacity of the subject (positive reinterpretation, active coping and seeking for social support and the less used were those related to emotions (focus on emotions and mood. Conclusion: Considering the sample studied, the professionals used strategies that precede the difficulties inherent to their daily practice, isolating the most irrelevant aspects of the stressors and focusing the attention in the outcome of their actions, allowing a better perception of their work and a sense of professional achievement.
Emanuelle Graziottin Colossi
Relación entre las estrategias de afrontamiento, ansiedad, depresión y autoestima, en un grupo de adultos con diagnóstico de cáncer / Relationship between coping strategies, anxiety, depression and self-estee m in a group of adult patients diagnosed with cancer
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente estudio es de tipo descriptivo correlacional, tiene como objetivo identificar la relación existente entre las estrategias de afrontamiento, los niveles de autoestima, ansiedad y depresión en un grupo de 17 pacientes adultos con diagnóstico de cáncer, para lo cual se emplearon la Escala d [...] e Autoestima de Rosemberg, la Escala Hospitalaria de Ansiedad y Depresión (HAD) y la Escala de Estrategias de Coping Modificada (EEC-M). Se obtuvo como resultado una correlación significativa entre los niveles de ansiedad y los niveles de autoestima y entre los niveles de ansiedad y las estrategias de afrontamiento de solución de problemas, reevaluación positiva y reacción agresiva. Al igual que una correlación significativa entre los niveles de depresión y las estrategias de afrontamiento de solución de problemas, negación, reacción agresiva y la expresión de la dificultad de afrontamiento. Abstract in english To carry out this project a descriptive correlational design was used in order to identify the existent relationship between coping strategies, self-esteem, anxiety levels and depression in a group of 17 adult patients diagnosed with cancer. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, The Hospital Anxiety and [...] Depression Scale (HAD) and the modified Coping Strategies Scale (EEC-M) were applied for this purpose. This research showed the following results: A correlation between anxiety and self-esteem levels, anxiety levels and coping strategies for problem solving, positive reappraisal and aggressive reaction. Likewise, a meaningful correlation between depression levels and coping strategies for problem solving, negation, aggressive reaction and the expression of the coping difficulty were observed.
Eliana, Ortiz Garzón; Laura Patricia, Méndez Salazar; José Antonio, Camargo Barrero; Sandra Andrea, Chavarro; Gina Isabel, Toro Cardona; María Beatriz, Vernaza Guerrero.
Research into how dyslexics cope and the effects of their coping has received little attention in the 100 years since dyslexia has been recognized. Why is this? Well it is not an easy area to investigate, partly as most qualitative studies have looked only at coping strategies of specific dyslexics. These are individuals and are unsuitable for…
Liverpool John Moores University (JMU) is one of the largest universities in the United Kingdom. It is a multi-faculty institution with in excess of 20,000 students. Its first learning strategy, in 1995, sought to identify and make explicit the University's commitment to learning development and to integrate this in the context of other University…
McClelland, Robert J.
Applicability of auriculotherapy in reducing stress and as a coping strategy in nursing professionals Aplicabilidad de la auriculoterapia para reducir estrés y como estrategia de coping en profesionales de enfermería Aplicabilidade da auriculoterapia para reduzir estresse e como estratégia de coping em profissionais de enfermagem
Full Text Available AIMS: randomized clinical trial aimed at evaluating the auriculotherapy in reducing stress levels in 75 nursing professionals and analyze the coping domains that have changed after treatment. METHODOLOGY: volunteers were divided into 3 groups (Control, Needles and Seeds and received eight sessions at Shenmen, Kidney and Brainstem points. The Control Group didn't receive any intervention. RESULTS: ANOVA test showed statistical differences in stress levels for Needle/Control Groups in the third and fourth assessments, according to Stress Symptoms List when compared the three groups in four assessments. For the Inventory of Folkman/Lazarus, a significant difference was obtained for Spacing domain between needle/control. In analysis within the same group, differences were found for Confrontation in fourth assessment between Needle/Control Groups and for Social Support in the third one between Seeds/Control Groups. CONCLUSION: The auriculotherapy decreased stress levels, changed Coping domains after treatment, suggesting that both Auriculotherapy with needles and seeds can produce positive impact to improve strategy Coping in the nursing team. However, more studies are needed to conceive the extent of the technique.OBJETIVOS: Ensayo clínico hecho aleatorio objetivó evaluar la auriculoterapia para disminución de niveles de estrés en 75 profesionales de Enfermería de un hospital y analizar los principales dominios de Coping que se modificaron después del tratamiento. METODOLOGÍA: los sujetos fueron divididos en grupos (Control, Agujas, Semillas, recibieron 8 sesiones en los puntos Shenmen, Riñón y Tronco Cerebral. El Grupo Control no recibió ninguna intervención. RESULTADOS: se constataron diferencias significativas por la ANOVA para niveles de estrés entre el Grupo Aguja/Controle en la tercera y cuarta evaluaciones, según scores de estrés de la Lista de Síntoma de Estrés de Vasconcelos. Para el Inventario de Folkman y Lazarus, se logró diferencia estadística para el dominio Alejamiento entre los Grupos Aguja/Controle después del tratamiento; y en el análisis dentro del mismo grupo, se lograron diferencias significativas para el dominio Confrontación en la cuarta evaluación entre Grupos Aguja/Controle y para Soporte Social, en la tercera evaluación para los Grupos Aguja/Semillas. CONCLUSIONES:la auriculoterapia con agujas apocó los niveles de estrés significativamente y hubo disminución de la utilización de los dominios Alejamiento, Confrontación y Soporte Social para los grupos de intervención después del tratamiento, sugiriendo que la auriculoterapia tanto con agujas cuanto con semillas puede producir un impacto positivo para mejorar estrategia de Coping en el equipo de Enfermería. Más estudios, sin embargo, se hacen necesarios para que se pueda conocer el alcance de la técnica.OBJETIVOS: trata-se de ensaio clínico randomizado com o objetivo de avaliar a auriculoterapia, para diminuição de níveis de estresse, em 75 profissionais de enfermagem de um hospital e analisar os principais domínios de coping que se modificaram após o tratamento. METODOLOGIA: os sujeitos foram divididos em grupos (controle, agulhas, sementes, receberam 8 sess?es nos pontos Shenmen, rim e tronco cerebral. O grupo controle não recebeu nenhuma intervenção. RESULTADOS: constataram-se diferenças significativas pela ANOVA, para níveis de estresse entre o grupo agulha/controle na terceira e quarta avaliações, segundo escores de estresse da Lista de Sintoma de Stress de Vasconcelos. Para o Inventário de Folkman e Lazarus, obteve-se diferença estatística para o domínio afastamento entre os grupos agulha/controle, após tratamento; e, na análise dentro do mesmo grupo, obtiveram-se diferenças significativas para o domínio confronto, na quarta avaliação entre grupos agulha/controle e para suporte social, na terceira avaliação para os grupos agulha/semente. CONCLUSÕES: a auriculoterapia com agulhas diminuiu os níveis de estresse significativamente e houve diminuição da utilização d
Leonice Fumiko Sato Kurebayashi
The paper offers a reflection on tourism issues and development strategies relating to Caribbean destinations, and more particularly, insular destinations. When faced with intense competition from popular destinations around the region, the smaller islands have had to reaffirm their market position. Mass tourism development models have not created the expected knock-on effects for these territories of limited size and vulnerable resources. Any wish for alternative tourism practices, which f...
Olivier Dehoorne; Corina T?tar
Abstract Background Over the past few years, information retrieval has become more and more professionalized, and information specialists are considered full members of a research team conducting systematic reviews. Research groups preparing systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines have been the driving force in the development of search strategies, but open questions remain regarding the transparency of the development process and the available resources. An empir...
Hausner Elke; Waffenschmidt Siw; Kaiser Thomas; Simon Michael
In this study, how to develop FLEX strategy for beyond-design-basis external events for U. S. NRC design certification is examined. The development method of FLEX strategy for U. S. NRC design certification is examined. The applicants should make unit-specific FLEX strategy and establish the minimum coping capabilities consistent with unit-specific evaluation of the potential impacts and responses to BDBEEs. NEI 12-06 outlines the process to define and deploy the diverse and flexible mitigation strategies(FLEX strategy) that will increase defense-in-depth for beyond-design-basis scenarios to address the extended loss of alternating current (ac) power (ELAP) and loss of normal access to the ultimate heat sink (LUHS) occurring simultaneously at all units on a site. The order (EA-12-049) is issued to all reactor licensees, including holders of active, Construction Permit (CP) holders, and Combined License (COL) holders. Applicants for the new reactor design certification should prepare and submit FLEX strategy for NRC staff's review. Site-specific data related with the new reactor can't be determined during the new reactor design certification applications so that the unit-specific FLEX strategy should be developed
Full Text Available ... seem insurmountable, good intentions alone cannot sustain the behavior. Coping becomes difficult and a person’s ability to ... work is identifying the individual’s motivation to change behavior, then helping set achievable behavioral goals and guiding ...
Full Text Available The term “sustainability” has been used in various forms and definitions. The earliest use of “sustainability” or “sustainable development” can be traced back to 1972. To cope with four decades of global economic, social, and environmental challenges, sustainable development was adopted as a mantra by international agencies, national and local governments, especially after Habitat II in the local level. On the other hand, new approaches in urban planning were put to use to achieve sustainable development. City Development Strategies (CDS, as a strategic planning approach, were established in 200 cities worldwide to achieve these goals. However, CDSs and sustainable urban development are defined in many different ways and CDSs enjoy different levels of success in the area of sustainability. This paper studies these achievements, specifically in developing countries by selecting two specific definitions of CDS by cities Alliance and the World Bank on one hand and specific definition of sustainable urban development.
S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh
Full Text Available The deepening of the processes of market transformations in Ukraine requires a change of existing stereotypes of the economy management, methods of strategic planning, programming, forecasting, management principles and mechanisms of realization of the appropriate measures. So, the problem of the formation of strategic directions of the economic adjustment of the regional development is becoming urgent nowadays.The territorial development strategies, forecasting, and strategic planning of the development of territories, programming, and perspective (indicative planning of territorial development as well as the mechanism of realization of appropriate arrangements are the basic constituents of economic adjustment of regional development (due to the spatiotemporal aspect of their realization.The purpose of the article is to ground the methodological base of the strategic planning of economic development of a region (territory in the transition period by generalizing the available scientific experience as to the constituents of the up-to-date tools of economic adjustment of regional development.The object of the research is the analysis of interregional differences in economic development of regions.The subject of the research is the strategic planning of economic adjustment of regional development.The methodological base of the research and solution of the problem of overcoming the differences in the economic development of regions is the scientific research logic, the theoretical works of domestic and foreign scientists, who are the specialists in regionalistics (research in the field of regional development.It is stated that the tools of the regional development adjustment are not only to provide the harmonization of interests and constructive cooperation of different parties of social relations (the bodies of state and local power, population and business structures but also to smooth interregional differences existing in economic development. It is determined that the regional (territorial development strategy is a definite set of regulative measures which first of all are to coordinate the joint actions to specify some potential positive prospects of the spatiotemporal changes in the major parameters.The development strategy is a target document. It is formed in the process of strategic development, the idea of which is the statement of the research goals, a choice of the main priorities (directions of a region development, determination of the ways to advance, the selection of necessary technologies and institutes, the establishment of a necessary sector structure of the economy and the methods of solving social problems.
Most of the farmers in the arid and semi arid are poorly endowed with resources. Market liberalisation and withdrawal of government support (subsidies) in accessing some of the modern technologies has led to decreased use of most of the modern recommended technologies due to their high prices. A a coping strategy most of the resources poor farmers have turned to utilization of the indigenous technology to sustain their agricultural production. The main objective of this paper is to document the indigenous technologies utilized by farmers, explore the possibility of refining/calibrating and up-scaling them and the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing them as identified by the farmers. The method for data collection was by use of interviews the farmers who were stratified in terms of gender and age sets (young, middle aged and old) and data analysed by use of qualitative methods. The results indicate that, most farmers do utilize indigenous technology in crops, livestock pests, diseases, soil and water conservation as cropping strategies to increase input prices due to market liberalization and withdrawal of government subsidies. It was also observed that, there is need for scientists to calibrate the most important practices for improved adoption and up-scaling of the main indigenous technologies within and outside the study areas
Salt acclimation in moderately halophilic bacteria is the result of act