This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development. PMID:1469598
Berzonsky, M D
This thesis explores Finnish business repatriates coping strategies. Managing repatriation has been recognized as a demanding task for companies and an important issue in international human resource management. However, we still know relatively little about how repatriates respond to the demands of the return. This thesis addresses this problem by applying a process approach to coping with repatriation. The focus is on identifying repatriates coping strategies and the various forms of ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little prior research on the burden of arthritis in the developing world. We sought to document how patients with advanced arthritis living in the Dominican Republic are affected by and cope with their disease. Methods We conducted semi-structured, one-to-one interviews with economically disadvantaged Dominican patients with advanced knee and/or hip arthritis in the Dominican Republic. The interviews, conducted in Spanish, followed a moderator's guide that included topics such as the patients' understanding of disease etiology, their support networks, and their coping mechanisms. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim in Spanish, and systematically analyzed using content analysis. We assessed agreement in coding between two investigators. Results 18 patients were interviewed (mean age 60 years, median age 62 years, 72% women, 100% response rate. Patients invoked religious and environmental theories of disease etiology, stating that their illness had been caused by God's will or through contact with water. While all patients experienced pain and functional limitation, the social effects of arthritis were gender-specific: women noted interference with homemaking and churchgoing activities, while men experienced disruption with occupational roles. The coping strategies used by patients appeared to reflect their beliefs about disease causation and included prayer and avoidance of water. Conclusions Patients' explanatory models of arthritis influenced the psychosocial effects of the disease and coping mechanisms used. Given the increasing reach of global health programs, understanding these culturally influenced perceptions of disease will be crucial in successfully treating chronic diseases in the developing world.
Bogart Laura M
Although researchers have identified beneficial coping strategies for cancer patients, existing coping measures do not capture the preferred coping strategies of older African American cancer survivors. A new measure, the Ways of Helping Questionnaire (WHQ), was evaluated with 385 African American cancer survivors. Validity evidence from factor analysis resulted in 10 WHQ subscales (Others There for Me, Physical and Treatment Care Needs, Help from God, Church Family Support, Helping Others, B...
Hamilton, Jill B.; Stewart, Barbara J.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Lynn, Mary
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to present how often the scholl counselorsexperience the emotions of anger, sadness, fear and hatred and what they do to cope with these emotions. In the study, the qualitative research method was used. From the 49 provinces of Turkey, 140 people comprising of women and 81 men participated and the feedback from 101 of these participants were taken. An open-ended semi- structured question form which was developed by the researchers to collect the data was used. The Nvivo9 package software programme has been used for the process of entering, studying and analysing the data by tabulating it. To cope with manage negative emotions, the participants were in general seen to use some coping strategies with their emotions such as trying to forget and avoid, turning into introvert and share, turning into extrovert and face off and trying to be calm.
Tests Coleman's (1995) hypotheses that the strategies adolescents use to cope with cultural diversity will be organized in a sequential manner and that adolescents will use different strategies depending on the situation. To test these hypotheses, 398 adolescents rated the likelihood of using 6 strategies for coping with cultural diversity. Makes
Coleman, Hardin L. K.; Casali, Sherry B.; Wampold, Bruce E.
Full Text Available Background: Stress is one of the risk factors for the development of so many physical and especially psychological disorders. Now, the impression is focused on coping strategies versus previous emphasis on nature and severity of stress. The present study was performed to evaluate if fasting, not only as a religious behavior but also as a coping strategy can influence the way of coping with stress in humans. Methods: In a pre-test / post-test survey, 100 medical students were evaluated for stress coping strategies before and after the holy month of Ramadan using CS-R scale. Results: The results revealed that the use of ineffective coping strategies was significantly decreased after the holy month with no alterations in other strategies. In details, uses of superstitiousness, wishful thinking and self-medication coping strategies were statistically lower after Ramadan compared to values before it (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The present study showed that Ramadan fasting (a religious behavior or belief as a coping strategy has beneficial effect on the way of coping with stress in humans. Keywords: Stress, Coping Strategies, Religion, Ramadan, Medical Student
This paper analyzes the agricultural economy organizations appeared in recent years in the industry structure of agriculture and their current conditions and functions and explores the problems existing in the development of economy organizations for agricultural cooperation, based on which the authors of this paper puts forward strategies to push the sound development of economy organizations for agricultural cooperation.
Kuan Lin; Huiqing Huang
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the agricultural economy organizations appeared in recent years in the industry structure of agriculture and their current conditions and functions and explores the problems existing in the development of economy organizations for agricultural cooperation, based on which the authors of this paper puts forward strategies to push the sound development of economy organizations for agricultural cooperation.
The purpose of this study is to analyze international and domestic constraints on the development of nuclear fuel cycle technology in Korea and to develop response strategies to deal with these constraints. This study proceeded as follows: Chapter 2 examined multilateral international constrains including IAEA safeguards system and NPT, bilateral international constraints such as the U.S.-Korea Nuclear Energy Cooperation Agreement and the U.S. nonproliferation policy, and domestic constraints like residents' anti nuclear movement and environmental protest movement. In Chapter 3, this study conducted a case study on Japan's nuclear fuel cycle programs as a basic research for the establishment of relevant response strategies vis-a-vis the international and domestic constraints. In this chapter, the focus of analysis was on Japan's strategies to deal with multilateral and bilateral pressures and domestic constraints. In Chapters 4 and 5, this study sought to elaborate Korea's strategies to cope with multilateral international constraints and U.S. constraints on the development of a domestic nuclear fuel cycle in Korea, respectively. The response strategies to domestic constraints were also illuminated in Chapter 6. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs. (author)
Moon, Chung in; Park, Hahn Kyu; Kim, Tak Won; Lee, Dong Yoon; Lee, Yong Hwan [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Background: Having a set of effective coping skills can prevent suicidal behavior by increasing self-control and self-direction. This study examines coping styles used by suicidal patients. Objectives: The researchers in this study try to identify coping strategies used by suicide attempters admitted to Shiraz Shahid Faghihi Hospital emergency room. Materials and Methods: This is a analytical cross-sectional study. Participants consisted of 50 suicide-attempted people admitted to Shiraz Faghihi Hospital. Instruments for data collections were a demographic checklist and the coping styles scale of Carver, Schier and Wintrope. Data were collected conveniently and analyzed using descriptive and analytic (Pearson Correlation, Students t-tests, and ANOVA) statistical methods. Results: Suicide attempted people used less useful coping strategies (Mean = 49.32) more than the other strategies (respectively mean of problem focused and emotion focused strategies were 30.27 and 27.83). Using ANOVA, in different educational level, problem focused and less effective coping skills of samples differed significantly (P = 0.009, P = 0.006, respectively). People with low educational level used less effective coping skills. There was a significant difference between men and women scores in use of less effective coping skills (P = 0.029). Conclusions: Teaching effective coping skills by psychological consultants in suicide attempted people, especially for women and people with low educational level, is important
Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Jahangir, Fereidun; Mansouri, Amir; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan
Background: Stress is one of the risk factors for the development of so many physical and especially psychological disorders. Now, the impression is focused on coping strategies versus previous emphasis on nature and severity of stress. The present study was performed to evaluate if fasting, not only as a religious behavior but also as a coping strategy can influence the way of coping with stress in humans. Methods: In a pre-test / post-test survey, 100 medical students were evaluated for str...
The coping strategies that people use after a stroke may influence recovery. Coping measures are generally used to assess the mediating behaviour between a stressor (ie, disease or condition) and the physical or psychological outcome of an individual. This review evaluates measures that quantified coping strategies in studies on psychological adaptation to stroke. The main aspects of the coping measures reviewed were (a) conceptual basis; (b) coping domains assessed; (c) coping strategies use...
Donnellan, C.; Hevey, D.; Hickey, A.; O Neill, D.
Responses of 218 urban husbands and wives and 202 rural husbands and wives were used to test the hypotheses that these two populations would use different coping strategies to deal with the stressors they faced in their different environments and that women would use different strategies than men. Neither hypothesis was supported. (Author/BL)
Marotz-Baden, Ramona; Colvin, Peggy Lester
With the disconfirmation paradigm, Day and Landon's taxonomy of complaint behaviour, and the cognitive appraisal theory developed by Lazarus and colleagues as theoretical approach, this study explored and described consumers' anger and coping strategies following appraisals of appliance failure. In addition, consumers' reasons for engaging in particular complaint behavioural responses were investigated in terms of the cognitive and emotional types of reasoning underlying the different coping ...
Donoghue, Sune?; Klerk, Helena Maria
Full Text Available Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses? workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace.
Background. The aim of this review is to present common psychosocial problems in cancer patients and their possible coping strategies. Cancer patients are occupied with many psychosocial problems, which are only partially related to their health state and medical treatments. They are faced with a high social pressure, based on prejudices and stereotypes of this illness. The review presents the process of confrontation with the cancer diagnosis and of managing the psychological consequences of cancer. The effects of specific coping styles, psychosocial interventions and a social support on initiation, progression and recurrence of cancer are also described. Conclusions. Although some recent meta-analysis could not provide scientific evidence for the association between coping strategies and the cancer initiation, the progression or the recurrence (neither have studies rejected the thesis of association), the therapeutic window for the psychosocial intervention is still wide and shows an important effect on the quality of lives of many cancer patients. (author)
Individual coping strategies and dyadic coping independently predict partner well-being and relationship functioning; however, it is unclear whether the coping processes are inter-related and whether they uniquely contribute to romantic relationship functioning. One hundred heterosexual dating couples rated the individual coping strategy of negative mood regulation as well as positive and negative dyadic coping. Relationship functioning was assessed via partners reports of relationship sat...
Papp, Lauren M.; Witt, Nicole L.
The aims of the sessions were to improve the participants' coping strategies and \\..... 7.6 Group Dynamic & Characteristics..........................................................................\\.61 .... Feelings of liking or disliking toward an object (an idea, a person) that has \\an ..... theory, each one can represent a potential stressor, a stimulus that needs ...
When compared to Latin America, Asian economies since 1980 have grown faster and have done so with relatively modest inequalities. Why? A comparison of Asia and Latin America underlines the superiority of the nationalist capitalist model of development, which has often been pursued more explicitly in Asia, over that of a dependent capitalist model, which has often been pursued in Latin America. In comparison to Latin America, the Asian model has facilitated higher and less volatile rates of e...
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english When compared to Latin America, Asian economies since 1980 have grown faster and have done so with relatively modest inequalities. Why? A comparison of Asia and Latin America underlines the superiority of the nationalist capitalist model of development, which has often been pursued more explicitly i [...] n Asia, over that of a dependent capitalist model, which has often been pursued in Latin America. In comparison to Latin America, the Asian model has facilitated higher and less volatile rates of economic growth and a greater political room to pursue social democratic policies. The "tap root" of these alternate pathways is relative autonomy from global constraints: states and economies in Asia have been more nationalist and autonomous than in Latin America.
Full Text Available When compared to Latin America, Asian economies since 1980 have grown faster and have done so with relatively modest inequalities. Why? A comparison of Asia and Latin America underlines the superiority of the nationalist capitalist model of development, which has often been pursued more explicitly in Asia, over that of a dependent capitalist model, which has often been pursued in Latin America. In comparison to Latin America, the Asian model has facilitated higher and less volatile rates of economic growth and a greater political room to pursue social democratic policies. The "tap root" of these alternate pathways is relative autonomy from global constraints: states and economies in Asia have been more nationalist and autonomous than in Latin America.
Background Burnout occurs when professionals use ineffective coping strategies to try to protect themselves from work-related stress. The dimensions of overload, lack of development and neglect, belonging to the frenetic, under-challenged and worn-out subtypes, respectively, comprise a brief typological definition of burnout. The aim of the present study was to estimate the explanatory power of the different coping strategies on the development of burnout subtypes. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey with a random sample of university employees, stratified by occupation (n?=?429). Multivariate linear regression models were constructed between the Burnout Clinical Subtypes Questionnaire, with its three dimensions overload, lack of development and neglect as dependent variables, and the Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences, with its fifteen dimensions, as independent variables. Adjusted multiple determination coefficients and beta coefficients were calculated to evaluate and compare the explanatory capacity of the different coping strategies. Results The Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences subscales together explained 15% of the overload (p<0.001), 9% of the lack of development (p<0.001), and 21% of the neglect (p<0.001). Overload was mainly explained by venting of emotions (Beta?=?0.34; p<0.001); lack of development by cognitive avoidance (Beta?=?0.21; p<0.001); and neglect by behavioural disengagement (Beta?=?0.40; p<0.001). Other interesting associations were observed. Conclusions These findings further our understanding of the way in which the effectiveness of interventions for burnout may be improved, by influencing new treatments and preventive programmes using features of the strategies for handling stress in the workplace.
Montero-Marin, Jesus; Prado-Abril, Javier; Piva Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos; Gascon, Santiago; Garcia-Campayo, Javier
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study Coping Strategies as explanatory variables of Job Burnout, in employees (University graduates vs. non-university graduates working at government offices in Mendoza Argentina. In order to develop a more comprehensive approach to this issue, the methodology used includes quantitative techniques and qualitative techniques. The research entailed a comparative study. The results obtained from the quantitative data, show significant differences between university graduates who use strategies that seem to be closer to action and problem solving; and non-university graduates who use strategies linked to emotion. From an applied point of view, it is expected that the results may generate Ongoing Training Programs focusing on burnout and stress related to the development of positive Coping Strategies.
Aparicio, Miriam Teresita
Full Text Available Problem Statement: According to the relevant literature, strategies for coping with stress affect adolescents mental and physical health, school attendance and adaptation, academic achievement. If strategies for coping with stress suggested by Csikszentmihalyi are taught to adolescents, a more effective use of psychic energy and thus an increase in subjective experience quality can be achieved.Purpose of the Study: The aim of this study is to examine whether strategies coping with stress based on the Flow Theory predict adolescents mental health to a significant level.Method: The study was conducted on a total of 119 ninth grade students (61 females and 58 males aged 14-17 in a public high school in Ankara (in 2005-2006. The predictor variables of the study, the subscales of the Strategies for Coping with Stress Scale (SCSS, were struggle (S, personal control (PC, and active/effective contact with the environment (ACE. SCSS was developed based on Csikszentmihalyis flow theory. The predicted variables of the study were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI whose subscales of Turkish form were anxiety, depression, negative self, hostility and somatization. In the study, multiple linear regression analysis was used.Findings and Results: There were correlations ranging from ? =-.65 p<.001, R2 =.39 to ?=.30 P<.05, R2 =.07 between the subscales of SCSS and the subscales of BSI. Most correlation coefficients were negative as expected. Moreover, the regression models established between predicted and predictor variables were significant at p<.001 level excluding somatization. The most powerful predictor of mental health is the ACE strategy of coping with stress. The findings especially about ACE support the strategy of focusing attention on the world, which Csikszentmihalyi suggests as an effective strategy.Conclusions and Recommendations: The results depict that as the levels of adolescents stress coping strategies decrease, their psychological symptoms increase. These results support Csikszentmihalyis opinions on coping with stress and other relevant literature. Psychological help experts can control adolescents mental health and raise the quality of their subjective experiences by teaching them strategies of SCSS.
Kamile Bahar Ayd?n
The present study examined the role of parenting styles in the experience and expression of homesickness, and the way of coping with the feelings involved. Using a sample of 670 first year college and university students, aged 16 to 25, we tested three hypotheses: (1) authoritarian, permissive as well as uninvolved parenting are associated with the experience of homesickness, contrary to students with authoritative parents who are less likely to have feelings of homesickness; (2) students with authoritarian, permissive or uninvolved parents show their homesickness by internalizing and externalizing problems; and (3) students raised by authoritative or permissive parents use more effective coping strategies to deal with homesickness. Results indicated that students raised by authoritative and permissive parents experienced more homesickness with stronger feelings of homesickness than students raised by authoritarian or uninvolved parents. However, they hardly express homesickness by internalizing or externalizing problems when they use effective ways of coping, namely support-seeking and/or problem-solving. Students with parents endorsing an authoritarian or uninvolved parenting style, on the other hand, showed more internalizing and externalizing problems in reaction to feelings of homesickness. They also use less effective coping strategies. The results revealed the importance of a loving and accepting home environment for the development and expression of homesickness, as well as the importance of the way in which students learn to cope with their problems. PMID:17258804
Nijhof, Karin S; Engels, Rutger C M E
Researchers have shown that coping style is related to pain and adjustment in people with chronic illness. This study was the first to examine how coping style related to pain, pain coping strategies, and depression in lung cancer outpatients. We conducted a comparative, secondary data analysis of 107 lung cancer patients (73% male, mean age 61.4 ± 10.43 years, 88% Caucasian). As in prior studies, we classified patients into four coping style groups based on Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirabilit...
Prasertsri, Nusara; Holden, Janean; Keefe, Francis J.; Wilkie, Diana J.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: The majority of people experience problems and stressors, such as job layoffs and illnesses during their lives. However, the way people cope with stress varies. According to previous research, use of effective coping strategies can significantly reduce stress and tension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of stress coping strategies on hearing-impaired students.Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test, and control group. The sample consisted of 40 hearing-impaired male students of guidance and high schools of the city of Sari, Iran, in the years 2010 and 2011. They were randomly selected and assigned to two experimental and control groups (n=20. The data collection tool was the General Health Questionnaire-28. The experimental group was administered eight sessions of stress coping strategies based on cognitive-behavioral techniques two hours weekly. Data were analyzed using statistical indices including mean, standard deviation, and two-way analysis of variance.Results: There was a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores in the subscales of somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, depression, and social function (p<0.05. Moreover, after the eight sessions the rate of general health of the experimental group was higher than the control group.Conclusion: Stress coping strategies based on cognitive-behavioral techniques increased the general health of hearing-impaired people. Therefore, stress management training should be developed and expanded as an appropriate intervention.
Investigated needs and coping strategies of 124 university students, five university staff, and five other persons involved in long-distance relationships. Most effective coping strategies appeared to be frequency of visits and quality of verbal communication. Results support the importance of relationship subtypes and frequent visits. (Author/NB)
Holt, Paul A.; Stone, Gerald L.
Abstract Background Physicians experience workplace stress and draw on different coping strategies. The primary goal of this paper is to use interview data to explore physicians' self reported coping strategies. In addition, questionnaire data is utilized to explore the degree to which the coping strategies are used and are associated with feelings of emotional exhaustion, a key symptom of burnout. Methods This mixed methods study explores factors related to phy...
Background: Since the stress and coping are the most reported problems by adolescents, this study aims toapprise the stressors, coping strategies and influential factors among male adolescents.Methods: The effect of stressors, coping strategies and some demographics variables were studied in 402 maleadolescents in Tehran, Iran. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. A multiple regressionwas performed to assess factors related to perceived stress.Results: The mean age ...
Asserts that, in some situations, one of the most useful strategies for helping cancer patients to cope can be denial. Presents definitions of coping in general and denial in particular. Discusses potential positive functions of denial for cancer patients and provides an overview of potential negative consequences. Concludes with brief summary and
Matt, Denise A.; And Others
Full Text Available We conducted a descriptive study to evaluate the stressors and coping strategies of 150 infertile women presenting to Tabriz Al-Zahra Hospital since Aug. 2000 to Feb. 2002. Tiredness due to frequent trips to the clinic was the most common physical stressor in 67.3% of cases with severe and very severe intensities; and anxiety about effectiveness of treatment was the most common mental stressor in 87.3% of cases with severe and very severe intensities. Of affection-oriented coping strategies, praying and trust in GOD was the most used coping strategy (79.3%. Of the problem-oriented coping strategies, accepting the situation was used always in 74%. Psychosocial stressors were more frequent in comparison with physical stressors. So, obviating the affective problems of infertile women will have significant role in decrease of their stress and anxiety.
INTRODUCTION A diagnosis of breast cancer regardless of the stage can be stressful, impact multiple spheres of life, and disrupt physical status, emotional and spiritual well-being, and personal relationships for the patient and family. In order to adapt, the patient ought to employ certain coping mechanisms. Individuals with terminal illness who utilize coping strategies have better quality of life compared to those who do not. PATIENTS AND METHODS This study aimed to determine the strategies used by females with breast cancer to cope with such stress by using Brief COPE scale and the hospital anxiety and depression scale. The study included 56 female patients diagnosed with operable breast cancer at Mansoura Oncology Center before surgery. RESULTS Large proportion of patients used acceptance, religion, and emotional support in coping with the stress of having breast cancer. Patients with depressive symptoms scored significantly higher venting while those with anxiety scored higher positive reframing, planning, and venting. CONCLUSION Efforts should be made to encourage women with breast cancer to use coping strategies that have been found to be helpful (eg, acceptance, emotional support, distraction, and active coping strategies).
Elsheshtawy, Eman A.; Abo-Elez, Warda F.; Ashour, Hala S.; Farouk, Omar; El zaafarany, Maha I. Esmael
Full Text Available Layoffs continue to plague organizations around the world especially as organizations attempt to optimize labor costs and other expenses. While there have been studies to attempt to understand the impact of layoffs, there are still gaps in the literature especially as we look at layoffs in the 21st century. This research examined i the impact of layoffs on individuals psychological and physical well-being, ii the impact of layoffs on the employees affective commitment, iii coping strategies used by employees, and iv job search strategies people are using to find new jobs. While, downsizing is a relatively common change management strategy that has been adopted for more than two decades, the prime impetus of most downsizing efforts is the desire for an immediate reduction of costs and simply survival.We found that individuals will experience significant more health problems after being laid off from their jobs. Individuals who have been unemployed for longer periods will have lower affective commitment to their former employers. We also found that maintaining more control-oriented coping strategies will be more progressive in their job searches and more able to cope with layoffs and that coping strategies are positively related to reemployment. In addition, individuals who are receiving unemployment insurance and other benefits, financial hardships exist resulting in significant challenges and life style changes and coping strategies are positively related to financial resources available to an individual.
Sunil J. Ramlall
University education system is undergoing transformation requirements particularly in the developing world. The demands require adaptation to the prevailing circumstances hence the need for relevant strategies for universities. Issues such as institutional profiles, organizational structure and work integration, research activities, and funding
In the absence of formal coping mechanisms in the face of health expenditures, households are forced to penalize their resources and to use one or more strategies. Those strategies include using own resources, selling assets or borrowing from others outside the household. We show that different factors influence how families in developing countries cope with health spending. Given the data available, the study identifies the relevant factors to recognize households in financial distress du...
Mendes, Sara Isabel Ferreira
Full Text Available The aim of present study is to investigate the particularities of usingvarious stress coping strategies by undergraduate students at theCzech University of Life Sciences (CULS with a special regard tothe balance between positive and negative stress coping strategies,and resulting consequences. Authors focused on comparingdifferences in the use of coping strategies between standardizedscores of the Czech population and student population, as well ason identifying differences in the use of coping strategies betweenboth genders. The data were collected using the standardized stresscoping strategies questionnaire - SVF 78. Of the total number of 177students, 63 were male and 114 were female undergraduate studentsof Faculty of Economics and Management (FEM at CULS. Themost important outcome of the current study research is a provensignificant distinction between the positive-negative stress copingstrategies employed by CULS undergraduate students and those ofthe Czech population sample. From the global point of view, the useof positive stress coping techniques seems comparatively high andmight therefore be considered as satisfactory. However, significantlylower use of the most constructive and, in longer prospective, mostapproved group of strategies is rather disappointing.
Describes the types of coping strategies household families use to manage problems that affect them when the mother has a chronic illness. Reports alterations in household management as the most frequently used strategy (38 percent) employed by these families. (Author/ABB)
Stetz, Kathleen M.; And Others
The maintenance of self-reported quality of life (QL) among people on the liver transplantation waiting list is one of the priority objectives of transplantation teams. Although there are different determinant factors of QL, results are not conclusive. In our study, the goal was to evaluate both the influence of cirrhosis etiology (ethylic and non-ethylic) and the coping strategies used concerning QL. A sample of 93 patients was selected, divided into two groups: ethylic cirrhosis (EC) and non-ethylic cirrhosis (NEC). QL was evaluated through the SF-36 Health Survey, and coping strategies through the Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ). Our results indicated that subjects with EC obtained similar QL levels to subjects with NEC, on all the SF-36 and MCMQ subscales. Furthermore, negative correlations were found between avoidance and acceptance-resignation coping strategies with the SF-36 components. Consequently, the acceptance-resignation strategy was associated with a worse perception of physical functioning, general and mental health, and vitality and role-emotional. Overall, these results suggest that cirrhosis etiology is not a determinant factor of QL, whereas the acceptance-resignation coping strategy might lead to lower self-perception of QL. PMID:21266145
Jurado, Rosa; Morales, Isabel; Taboada, Diana; Denia, Francisca; Mingote, José Carlos; Jiménez, Miguel Ángel; Palomo, Tomás; Rubio, Gabriel
Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively w...
Lambert Vickie; Lambert Clinton
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english ORIENTATION: Identification of the inner coping strategies used by South African Police Service (SAPS) officers who do operational work is something the SAPS should consider to ensure the officers' management of trauma and efficiency at work. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to desc [...] ribe inner coping strategies used by officers in the Vhembe district (South Africa) to reconstruct stressful and traumatic experiences at work. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Most studies on coping amongst SAPS officers focus on organisational I stress and not on the impact of the officers' operational work. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: An exploratory design was used and 20 SAPS officers were selected through purposive sampling. In-depth face-to-face and telephone interviews, as well as diaries were used to collect data, which were analysed using content thematic data analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed that the main categories of coping strategies that led to management of the impact of operational work amongst the selected sample were centred around problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies, with some use of reappraisal and minimal use of avoidance. Considering the context of the officers' work, the list of dimensions of inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers should be extended. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Intervention programmes designed for the SAPS, including critical incident stress debriefing, should take the operational officers' inner strategies into account to improve the management of the impact of their work. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers, with special reference to operational work in a specific setting.
Masefako A., Gumani; Mattheus E., Fourie; Martin J., Terre Blanche.
Full Text Available Introduction: In the process of growing, adolescents experience stress and their coping abilities determine the outcome. School training further adds to this stressful situation. It is noteworthy that persistently high stress levels will impair students academic achievement, personal and professional development. This article describes the prevalence of stress, stressors and coping strategies among secondary school students in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on secondary school students in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Secondary school and participant selections were done via stratified random sampling with a sample size of 505 students. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Secondary School Stressors Questionnaire (3SQ and Brief COPE inventory were self-administered to measure stress level, sources of stress and coping strategies respectively among the participants. Results: Out of 505 selected participants, 421 (83.36% responded to this survey. This study found that the prevalence of distressed secondary school students was 32.8%. The major stressors for all types of schools were academic-related issues. This study showed that the students in technical school were more distressed than students elsewhere. Among the most frequent coping strategies used by the students were religion, positive reinterpretation, use of instrumental support, active coping and planning. There were relationships between intrapersonal and interpersonal related stressor, academic achievements, level of school and academic related stressor, attention from parent, behavioral disengagement, self-blame and planning coping strategies with stress level of the students. Conclusion: This study found that there was a high prevalence of distressed negatively stressed secondary school students, the major stressors were related to academic and contributing factors of stress were related to school training, students and parents. Training students on positive coping strategies, reducing stressor-related school training, and improving parent and teacher supports to the students will help to improve this condition.Key Words: Secondary school students, stressors, stress, coping, mental health
Azriani Abdul Rahman
We conducted a descriptive study to evaluate the stressors and coping strategies of 150 infertile women presenting to Tabriz Al-Zahra Hospital since Aug. 2000 to Feb. 2002. Tiredness due to frequent trips to the clinic was the most common physical stressor in 67.3% of cases with severe and very severe intensities; and anxiety about effectiveness of treatment was the most common mental stressor in 87.3% of cases with severe and very severe intensities. Of affection-oriented coping strategies, ...
Laya Farzadi; Faezeh Mohammadi-Hosseini; Naeimeh Seyyed-Fatemi; Hossein Alikhah
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a relação entre fatores de personalidade e estratégias de coping em adolescentes. Participaram desta pesquisa 102 jovens de uma escola municipal de Goiânia com idade entre 11 e 15 anos, utilizando o Coping Response Inventory e a Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade. [...] Os dados obtidos demonstraram que meninas utilizam mais a análise lógica para resolver seus problemas e os meninos apresentam maior pontuação em neuroticismo; que os adolescentes mais jovens utilizam mais coping de evitação e os mais velhos, o coping de aproximação; e que tanto a apreciação do problema como os traços de personalidade relacionam-se significativamente com o uso de estratégias de coping. Os resultados são discutidos de acordo com as teorias de coping. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality factors and coping strategies in adolescents. 102 students from a municipal school in Goiânia aged between 11 and 15 years old was assessed using Coping Response Inventory and the "Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade". Data s [...] howed that girls use more logical analysis to solve their problems and that boys had higher scores on neuroticism; that younger adolescents use more avoidance coping responses and older ones use more approach coping responses; and that both coping appraisal and personality traits are significantly related to the use of coping strategies. The results are discussed according to coping theories.
Simon Santana, Diniz; Daniela S., Zanini.
Full Text Available Introduction. In extreme life events basic assumptions are frequently reassessed and changed. Therefore, trauma requires re-education. Effective coping strategies enable individual to tolerate, minimize, accept or ignore what one cannot manage and to moderate the consequences of stressful, traumatic events. Materials and Methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate coping strategies in refugees with post-traumatic stress disorder prior and after group cognitive-behavioural therapy. The sample included 70 refugees who experienced multiple stressors such as organized violence, ethnic conflicts, bombing, expelling from their homes and life in exile. Impact Event Scales-Revised, Ways of Coping-Revised, Scale of Cognitive Self-regulation and Scale of Coping Strategies were administered before and after six months of group cognitive-behavioural therapy. Results. Post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees after therapy significantly decreased. Cognitive self-regulation was improved by moving locus of control from external to internal resources. Coping was qualitatively different, with a wider repertoire of adaptive strategies. Discussion. Cognitive group work facilitates processes of grieving, working-through of traumatic material, increasing emotional awareness and developing creativity in coping. Conclusion. Our findings highlight the positive impact of cognitive-behavioural treatment on post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic adjustment. .
This paper presents a theoretical and clinical account of a psychotherapeutic approach to the aged. The approach is called "competent coping" therapy. It is oriented to helping older adults acquire and practice better adaptive strategies in handling problem situations. The author notes that unlike most work with older adults which is based largely
Full Text Available Este estudo avalia a associação entre bem-estar psicológico e estratégias de coping nos gêneros masculino e feminino, bem como o perfil diferencial destas entre os gêneros. A amostra foi composta de 389 jovens, estudantes do terceiro ano do ensino médio de escolas de diferentes regiões de Porto Alegre. Os resultados evidenciam que as meninas, ao assumirem uma postura ativa na resolução dos problemas, apresentam maior bem-estar psicológico. Já os meninos apresentam melhor bem-estar na medida em que buscam pertença e procuram amigos íntimos e ajuda profissional. A análise do perfil diferencial entre os gêneros em relação às estratégias de coping nos permite identificar uma função discriminante composta por 9 variáveis, que se distribuem diferencialmente de acordo com a utilização de estratégias referentes a papéis de gênero socialmente construídos.Este estudio evalúa la asociación entre bienestar psicológico y estrategias de afrontamiento (coping en los géneros masculino y femenino, así como el perfil diferencial de éstas entre los géneros. La muestra se compuso de 389 jóvenes, estudiantes de la enseñanza secundaria de la ciudad de Porto Alegre. Los resultados evidencian que las chicas, al asumir una postura activa en la resolución de los problemas, presentan mayor bienestar psicológico. Los chicos, a su vez, presentan mejor bienestar a la medida que buscan pertenencia y buscan amigos íntimos y ayuda profesional. El análisis del perfil diferencial entre los géneros, con relación a las estrategias de afrontamiento (coping permite identificar una función discriminante, compuesta por 9 variables que se distribuyen diferencialmente, según la utilización de estrategias referentes a roles de género socialmente construidos.The association between psychological well-being and coping strategies in males and females and the differential profile between the genders are evaluated. Sample comprised 389 final year upper junior school young people from different regions in Porto Alegre RS Brazil. Results show young women with a high psychological well-being when they take on an active stance in problem resolution. On the other hand, young men demonstrate a high well-being when they seek a state of belonging, intimate relationships and professional help. Differential profile analysis between genders with regard to coping strategies identifies a discriminating function composed of nine variables. The latter are distributed differentially according to use of strategies involving socially built gender roles.
Sheila Gonçalves Câmara
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avalia a associação entre bem-estar psicológico e estratégias de coping nos gêneros masculino e feminino, bem como o perfil diferencial destas entre os gêneros. A amostra foi composta de 389 jovens, estudantes do terceiro ano do ensino médio de escolas de diferentes regiões de Porto Aleg [...] re. Os resultados evidenciam que as meninas, ao assumirem uma postura ativa na resolução dos problemas, apresentam maior bem-estar psicológico. Já os meninos apresentam melhor bem-estar na medida em que buscam pertença e procuram amigos íntimos e ajuda profissional. A análise do perfil diferencial entre os gêneros em relação às estratégias de coping nos permite identificar uma função discriminante composta por 9 variáveis, que se distribuem diferencialmente de acordo com a utilização de estratégias referentes a papéis de gênero socialmente construídos. Abstract in spanish Este estudio evalúa la asociación entre bienestar psicológico y estrategias de afrontamiento (coping) en los géneros masculino y femenino, así como el perfil diferencial de éstas entre los géneros. La muestra se compuso de 389 jóvenes, estudiantes de la enseñanza secundaria de la ciudad de Porto Ale [...] gre. Los resultados evidencian que las chicas, al asumir una postura activa en la resolución de los problemas, presentan mayor bienestar psicológico. Los chicos, a su vez, presentan mejor bienestar a la medida que buscan pertenencia y buscan amigos íntimos y ayuda profesional. El análisis del perfil diferencial entre los géneros, con relación a las estrategias de afrontamiento (coping) permite identificar una función discriminante, compuesta por 9 variables que se distribuyen diferencialmente, según la utilización de estrategias referentes a roles de género socialmente construidos. Abstract in english The association between psychological well-being and coping strategies in males and females and the differential profile between the genders are evaluated. Sample comprised 389 final year upper junior school young people from different regions in Porto Alegre RS Brazil. Results show young women with [...] a high psychological well-being when they take on an active stance in problem resolution. On the other hand, young men demonstrate a high well-being when they seek a state of belonging, intimate relationships and professional help. Differential profile analysis between genders with regard to coping strategies identifies a discriminating function composed of nine variables. The latter are distributed differentially according to use of strategies involving socially built gender roles.
Câmara, Sheila Gonçalves; Carlotto, Mary Sandra.
Using unique representative data containing self-reported functional and clinically measured hearing ability for the Danish population aged 50-64, we estimate the effect of hearing loss on receipt of disability benefits accounting for potential endogeneity of functional hearing. Our identification strategy involves simultaneous estimation of labor supply, functional hearing and coping strategies i.e. using assistive devices at work or informing one's employer about the problem. We find that f...
Christensen, Vibeke T.; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Rasmussen, Martin V.
Full Text Available Background: Recent research has emphasized the importance of coping. There is virtually nothing known about coping strategies and their relationship with self-esteem, individual and environmental factors among Chinese female nursing students. This study was to identify different coping strategies, the relationship between coping and self-esteem and influencing individual factors among Chinese female students in different years of nursing school. Method: The study used a cross-sectional design. A representative sample composed of 686 female nursing students aged 14 years or older was surveyed in December 2010 using the Simplified Coping Styles Questionnaire, the Self-Esteem Scale and the Personal Data Form for assessment. Results: Nursing students more often used positive rather than negative coping styles (P?0.001. There was significant difference in the positive coping between nursing students in different years of school (P=0.018. The positive coping style was significantly correlated to a higher level of self-esteem, good interpersonal relationships, enough free time for study alone, a sense of self-fulfillment and satisfaction, adaptation to new study methods, close friendships, help-seeking behavior of an individual, and physical health in the past year (P?0.05. The negative coping style was significantly associated with problems in romantic relationship, relationship with parents, worry about examinations and job assignment after graduation, feeling misunderstood, and frequent surfing on the internet (P?0.05. Conclusion: There were different coping strategies and the important relationship between self-esteem, individual and environmental factors and coping strategies among Chinese female nursing students in different years of school. The teaching strategies that promote the self-esteem and pay more attention to students individual and environmental factors will be useful for helping nursing students develop effective coping styles.
Full Text Available Abstract Background College students are prone to stress due to the transitional nature of college life. High levels of stress are believed to affect students' health and academic functions. If the stress is not dealt with effectively, feelings of loneliness, nervousness, sleeplessness and worrying may result. Effective coping strategies facilitate the return to a balanced state, reducing the negative effects of stress. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed to determine sources of stress and coping strategies in nursing students studying at the Iran Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery. All undergraduate nursing students enrolled in years 1-4 during academic year 2004-2005 were included in this study, with a total of 366 questionnaires fully completed by the students. The Student Stress Survey and the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Inventory (ACOPE were used for data collection. Results Most students reported "finding new friends" (76.2%, "working with people they did not know" (63.4% as interpersonal sources of stress, "new responsibilities" (72.1%, "started college" (65.8% as intrapersonal sources of stress more than others. The most frequent academic source of stress was "increased class workload" (66.9% and the most frequent environmental sources of stress were being "placed in unfamiliar situations" (64.2% and "waiting in long lines" (60.4%. Interpersonal and environmental sources of stress were reported more frequently than intrapersonal and academic sources. Mean interpersonal (P=0.04 and environmental (P=0.04 sources of stress were significantly greater in first year than in fourth year students. Among coping strategies in 12 areas, the family problem solving strategies, "trying to reason with parents and compromise" (73% and "going along with family rules" (68% were used "often or always" by most students. To cope with engaging in demanding activity, students often or always used "trying to figure out how to deal with problems" (66.4% and "trying to improve themselves" (64.5%. The self-reliance strategy, "trying to make their own decisions" (62%; the social support strategies, "apologizing to people" (59.6%, "trying to help other people solve their problems" (56.3%, and "trying to keep up friendships or make new friends" (54.4%; the spiritual strategy, "praying" (65.8%; the seeking diversions strategy, "listening to music" (57.7%, the relaxing strategy "day dreaming" (52.5%, and the effort to "be close with someone cares about you" (50.5% were each used "often or always" by a majority of students. Most students reported that the avoiding strategies "smoking" (93.7% and "drinking beer or wine" (92.9%, the ventilating strategies "saying mean things to people" and "swearing" (85.8%, the professional support strategies "getting professional counseling" (74.6% and "talking to a teacher or counselor" (67.2% and the humorous strategy "joking and keeping a sense of humor" (51.9% were used "seldom or never". Conclusion First year nursing students are exposed to a variety of stressors. Establishing a student support system during the first year and improving it throughout nursing school is necessary to equip nursing students with effective coping skills. Efforts should include counseling helpers and their teachers, strategies that can be called upon in these students' future nursing careers.
The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between burnout, personality traits and coping strategies. A survey design was used. The study population consisted of 131 employees in a corporate pharmaceutical group. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, NEO Personality Inventory Revised and COPE were administered. Active coping strategies were associated with Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness, while passive coping strategies were assoc...
Storm, K.; Rothmann, S.
Insights into daily living in residential care settings are rare. This article draws on a qualitative dataset (semi-structured interviews and recordings of residents council meetings) that gives a glimpse of the experiences and coping strategies of (older) people living in residential care. The data highlights the range of unmet needs of the residents, similar to the categories of physiological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualisation needs in Maslows hierarchy of needs theory. Our ...
O Dwyer, Ciara Mary; Timonen, Virpi
Abstract Background College students are prone to stress due to the transitional nature of college life. High levels of stress are believed to affect students' health and academic functions. If the stress is not dealt with effectively, feelings of loneliness, nervousness, sleeplessness and worrying may result. Effective coping strategies facilitate the return to a balanced state, reducing the negative effects of stress. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional s...
This study identifies the negative effects of bullying behaviour on thirty people in their place of work. Personality differences between participants in the study who claim to have been bullied and a matched control group, and the coping strategies employed in stressful periods were sought. Possible individual and organisational antecedents to bullying were identified. In addition, to using psychometric measures to obtain quantitative data the findings were enriched by including qualitative ...
Lynch, Jean Margaret
Abstract Background This study provided essential information, about Turkish patients with type I and type II diabetes, concerning: levels of anxiety, coping strategies used, and relationships that exist among anxiety, coping strategies, sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Methods A sample comprising 161 Turkish adults with both types of diabetes participated in the study. The trait anxiety scale, the brief COPE, sociodemographic and medical questionna...
Tuncay Tarik; Musabak Ilgen; Gok Deniz; Kutlu Mustafa
According to previous researchers, parents of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) consistently report more stress than parents of typically developing children or children with other developmental disorders (e.g., Down syndrome). This has peaked interest in the field in a related area, that being, identifying the coping
Mancil, G. Richmond; Boyd, Brian A.; Bedesem, Pena
Mental skills have been shown to be effective in helping endurance athletes cope with the challenges of their sport. The purpose of this research was to examine ultraendurance triathletes cognitive coping strategies, while also exploring their motivational profiles.
Mental health consumers depend on social benefits in the forms of supplemental security income and social security disability insurance for their livelihood. Although these programs pay meager benefits, little research has been undertaken into how this population makes ends meet. Using a qualitative approach, this study asks what are the financial coping strategies of mental health consumers? Seven approaches were identified: subsidies, cost-effective shopping, budgeting, prioritizing, technology, debt management, and saving money. Results illustrate the resourcefulness of mental health consumers in managing meager social benefits and highlight the need to strengthen community mental health efforts with financial capabilities education. PMID:24346222
Caplan, Mary Ager
Little research has been conducted on the reactions of parents, and fathers in particular, following the birth of a child with Down syndrome. Previous studies suggest that gender differences exist in coping strategies and a number of theories have supported this. The current study is informed by Pleck's (1981) Gender Role Strain model which attempts to explain the different socialisation processes males encounter which influence their development in our society. Questionnaires from Carver, Scheier and Weintraub's COPE inventory (1989) were given to parents (n = 150) to measure coping strategies and a number of gender differences were found. Females scored significantly higher than males in seeking instrumental and emotional support; in focusing on and venting emotions; and suppression of competing activities. An additional analysis carried out on parents of young children (n = 74) yielded similar results. The overall findings from the study provides mixed implications for Pleck's theory. Gender differences were found but no value can be ascribed to these different coping strategies. PMID:12407971
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir y analizar las estrategias de afrontamiento que presentan los adolescentes escolarizados. La muestra total estuvo conformada por 323 adolecentes, estudiantes (184 hombres y 139 mujeres) de Octavo Básico a Cuarto Año Medio pertenecientes a diferentes tipos Es [...] tablecimientos Educacionales de la ciudad de Arica (Chile): Privado (90), Particular Subvencionado (114) y Municipal (119). A todos ellos se les aplicó la escala ASC de Frydenberg y Lewis (1997). Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tipos de Establecimiento Educacional, siendo el Establecimiento Particular Subvencionado el que evidenció mayor variedad de estrategias de afrontamiento utilizadas. Se discuten las implicancias a la luz de los resultados hallados. Abstract in english This study aimed to describe and analyze the coping strategies that adolescents have in school. The total sample consisted of 323 adolescents, students (184 men and 139 women) from Eighth to Fourth Year Basic Middle belonging to different Educational Institutions in the city of Arica (Chile): Privat [...] e (90), Private Subsidized (114) and Municipal (119). All of them received the ASC scale Frydenberg and Lewis (1997). There were significant differences between the types of Educational Establishments, with the individual establishment funded which showed greater variety of coping strategies used. Implications are discussed in light of the results found.
Constanza, Veloso-Besio; Washington, Caqueo-Arancibia; Alejandra, Caqueo-Urízar; Zunilda, Muñoz-Sánchez; Francisca, Villegas-Abarzúa.
Full Text Available The paper presents the field notes about the local coping strategies adopted by the tribal's and forest dwellers to escape from hunger in the forest-based and mining areas of Kalahandi district of Odisha in Eastern India. It analyses the methods which the poor people employ to combat recurrent drought conditions and food shortages in the study area. The paper also highlights various aspects of the tribal households and villagers such as: the social identity and livelihoods of Dongaria Kondh, health and nutritional status, food consumption-related coping strategies, functioning of PDS, benefit that the villagers received from different government schemes, land-holding system, indebtedness, impact of mining on people, and perception of villager's about the food security situation over the past 10 years. The paper provides a critical appraisal of development in these tribal regions in the lines of rights based framework and further suggest strengthening the livelihood strategies of the local people.
Although maladaptive coping strategies in eating disorder patients have been reported, the relationship between impulsivity and coping strategy has not previously been studied. Subjects consisted of 43 patients with anorexia nervosa restricting type (AN-R), 42 patients with anorexia nervosa binge eating/purging type (AN-BP), 71 patients with bulimia nervosa purging type (BN), and 97 controls. The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was used to evaluate coping strategies. Only AN-BP patients had a significantly lower task oriented-coping score than controls, and AN-R and BN patient groups used significantly less social diversion-avoidance coping strategies than controls. Emotion-oriented coping scores of AN-BP and BN patients were significantly higher than those of controls. In addition, impulsive BN patients had significantly higher emotional coping scores than less impulsive BN patients. These results suggest that maladaptive coping strategies may be a perpetuating factor even for impulsive patients and emphasizing a change in maladaptive coping strategies may be a useful treatment strategy even for highly impulsive patients. PMID:10830565
Nagata, T; Matsuyama, M; Kiriike, N; Iketani, T; Oshima, J
Background The undergraduate medical course is a period full of stressors, which may contribute to the high prevalence of mental disorders among students and a decrease in lifes quality. Research shows that interventions during an undergraduate course can reduce stress levels. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the Strategies for Coping with Professional Stress class offered to medical students of the Federal University of Goiás, at Goiânia, Goiás, in Brazil. Methods Qualitative research, developed with medical students in an elective class addressing strategies for coping with stress after a focal group (composed of nine of the 33 students taking this course) identified stress factors in the medical course and the coping strategies that these students use. Analysis of the results of the class evaluation questionnaire filled out by the students on the last day of class. Results Stress factors identified by students in the focus group: lack of time, excessive class content, tests, demanding too much of themselves, overload of extracurricular activities, competitiveness among students and family problems. Coping strategies mentioned in the focus group: respecting ones limits, setting priorities, avoiding comparisons, leisure activities (movies, literature, sports, meeting with friends and family). Results of the questionnaires: class content that was considered most important: quality of life, strategies for coping with stress, stress factors, assertiveness, community therapy, relaxation, cognitive restructuring, career choice, breathing, social networking, taking care of the caregiver, music therapy and narcissism. Most popular methodologies: relaxation practice, drawing words and discussion them in a group, community therapy, music therapy, simulated jury, short texts and discussion. Meaning of the class: asking questions and reinforcing already known strategies (22.6%), moment of reflection and self-assessment (19.4%), new interest and a worthwhile experience (19.4%), improvement in quality of life (16.1%), expressions opportunity (9.7%), other (6.4%). Conclusion The stressors perceived by the medical students are intense and diverse, and the coping strategies used by them are wide-ranging. Most students felt that the class was a worthwhile learning experience, incorporated new practices for improving quality of life and recognized the importance of sharing and reflecting on ones stressors and life choices.
Full Text Available Health sector workers respond to inadequate salaries and working conditions by developing various individual "coping strategies" - some, but not all, of which are of a predatory nature. The paper reviews what is known about these practices and their potential consequences (competition for time, brain drain and conflicts of interest. By and large, governments have rarely been proactive in dealing with such problems, mainly because of their reluctance to address the issue openly. The effectiveness of many of these piecemeal reactions, particularly attempts to prohibit personnel from developing individual coping strategies, has been disappointing. The paper argues that a more proactive approach is required. Governments will need to recognize the dimension of the phenomenon and systematically assess the consequences of policy initiatives on the situation and behaviour of the individuals that make up their workforce.
Van Lerberghe Wim
Full Text Available The Peruvian anchovy fishery is the largest worldwide in terms of catches. The fishery started during the mid 1950s, and since then it has been highly dependent on natural stock fluctuations, due to the sensitivity of anchovy stocks to ocean-climate variability. The main driver of anchovy stock variability is the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO, and three extreme ENSO warm events were recorded in 19721973, 19831984 and 19971998. This study investigates the evolution of coping strategies developed by the anchovy fisheries to deal with climate variability and extreme ENSO events. Results showed eight coping strategies to reduce impacts on the fishery. These included: decentralized installation of anchovy processing factories; simultaneous ownership of fishing fleet and processing factories; use of low-cost unloading facilities; opportunistic utilization of invading fish populations; low cost intensive monitoring; rapid flexible management; reduction of fishmeal price uncertainty through controlled production based on market demand; and decoupling of fishmeal prices from those of other protein-rich feed substitutes like soybean. This research shows that there are concrete lessons to be learned from successful adaptations to cope with climate change-related extreme climatic events that impact the supply of natural resources. The lessons can contribute to improved policies for coping with climate change in the commercial fishery sector.
Health sector workers respond to inadequate salaries and working conditions by developing various individual "coping strategies"--some, but not all, of which are of a predatory nature. The paper reviews what is known about these practices and their potential consequences (competition for time, brain drain and conflicts of interest). By and large, governments have rarely been proactive in dealing with such problems, mainly because of their reluctance to address the issue openly. The ef...
Lerberghe, W.; Conceic?ao, C.; Damme, W.; Ferrinho, P.
Structured interviews were conducted with 224 HIV-positive women diagnosed during pregnancy, at antenatal clinics in Tshwane, South Africa, in order to investigate the use of coping strategies during the first two years after diagnosis. Interviews were conducted between one and four weeks after diagnosis during pregnancy, with three follow-up interviews conducted post-partum. Coping strategies were assessed with an adapted version of the Brief COPE. It was found that active coping was used more often than avoidant coping throughout the study period. Active coping increased over time, while avoidant coping decreased at first but increased again between 6 and 21 months after diagnosis. The most frequently used coping strategies included acceptance, direct action, positive reframing, religion and distraction. At first, women coped through internalised strategies. Over time, outward-focused strategies developed. Avoidant coping patterns differed from previous research indicating that women diagnosed during pregnancy deal with the consequences of HIV after the baby is born. Recommendations for mental health services are made. PMID:23442202
Kotzé, Marinda; Visser, Maretha; Makin, Jennifer; Sikkema, Kathy; Forsyth, Brian
The Spiritual Coping Strategies (SCS) Scale measures how frequently religious and nonreligious (spiritual) coping strategies are used to cope with a stressful experience. This studys purpose is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the newly translated Spanish version of the SCS. A total of 51 bilingual adults completed the SCS in Spanish and English, with 25 completing them again 23 weeks later. Internal consistency reliability for the Spanish (r = 0.83) and English (r = 0.82) ver...
Hawthorne, Dawn; Youngblut, Joanne M.; Brooten, Dorothy
Coping strategies are emerging as a predictor of treatment outcome for substance users, and may be particularly important among computerized and self-change approaches. We used data from a randomized clinical trial of a computer-based version of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT4CBT), in order to: (1) examine the association between observer ratings of coping skills and self-reported coping strategies; (2) evaluate whether participants assigned to the CBT4CBT program reported greater use of c...
Sugarman, Dawn E.; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.
This cross-sectional study investigated attachment style, coping strategies, social support, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in 54 cancer survivors. Secure attachment was significantly associated with active coping, positive reframing, and religion, and these were all associated with PTG. Insecure types of attachment and social support variables were unrelated to PTG. Regression analysis suggests that positive reframing and religion as coping strategies may mediate the relationship between secure attachment and PTG. PMID:22253327
Schmidt, Steven D; Blank, Thomas O; Bellizzi, Keith M; Park, Crystal L
This study examined the association between relationship styles, coping strategies, and psychological distress among 144 Anglo-Australian and 250 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. The results indicated that relationship styles (secure, clingy, and fickle) influenced psychological distress through their association with coping strategies
Leung, Cynthia; Moore, Susan; Karnilowicz, Wally; Lung, C. L.
Baccalaureate students enrolled in 6 accelerated programs reported their stress level, sources of stress, and coping strategies. They differentiated helpful from unhelpful coping strategies. Findings indicate that accelerated nursing students experienced high stress levels over prolonged periods that exceeded stress levels in prior life events. Implications for nurse educators in accelerated nursing programs are explored. PMID:18091468
Hegge, Marge; Larson, Vicky
Introduction: Empathy and coping strategies have been shown to be closely associated with the perceived psychological well-being of students. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between empathy and coping strategies and psychological distress among students in teacher education. Method: A cross-sectional study. Ninety
Carnicer, Josep Gustems; Calderón, Caterina
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between burnout, personality traits and coping strategies. A survey design was used. The study population consisted of 131 employees in a corporate pharmaceutical group. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, NEO Personality Inventory Revised and COPE were administered. Active coping strategies were associated with Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness, while passive coping strategies were associated with Neuroticism, low Agreeableness and low Conscientiousness. Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were associated with lower emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation and higher personal accomplishment. Constructive coping strategies were associated with personal accomplishment.
Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om te bepaal of daar n verband tussen uitbranding, persoonlikheidstrekke en coping-strategieë bestaan. n Opnameontwerp is gebruik. Die ondersoekgroep het bestaan uit 131 werknemers van n korporatiewe apteekgroep. Drie vraelyste is gebruik, naamlik die Maslach-Uitbrandingsvraelys, die NEO Personality Inventory Revised en die COPE. Aktiewe coping-strategieë is geassosieer met Emosionele Stabiliteit, Ekstroversie, Openheid vir Ervaring en Konsensieusheid, terwyl passiewe coping-strategieë geassosieer is met Neurotisisme, lae Inskiklikheid en lae Konsensieusheid. Emosionele Stabiliteit, Ekstroversie, Openheid vir Ervaring, Inskiklikheid en Konsensieusheid is geassosieer met lae emosionele uitputting, lae depersonalisasie en hoë persoonlike bereiking. Konstruktiewe coping-strategieë is geassosieer met persoonlike bereiking.
This study aimed at understanding the experience of individuals with intestinal diversions as regards coping with their new life conditions. The qualitative approach was used, involving 11 ostomized subjects. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews which were taped and later fully transcribed and analyzed according to Content Analysis as proposed by Bardin and the Coping theoretical framework . The findings in the study were evidenced by three core categories denominate...
Natalia Campos Barnabe; Magda Cristina Queiroz Dell'Acqua
Evaluated the emotional consequences of using wish-fulfilling fantasy (palliative) and information-seeking (instrumental) coping strategies among patients (N=151) faced with chronic illness. Results showed information-seeking to have positive effects on adjustment and wish-fulfilling fantasy to have deleterious consequences. (LLL)
Felton, Barbara J.; Revenson, Tracey A.
The relationship among coping strategies, locus of control, and workplace wellbeing is examined. The model hypothesizes that coping strategies mediate the relationship between locus of control and work place well being. To test the model, data was collected from 154 software professionals using separate tools to assess coping strategies, locus of control and work place wellbeing. Model fit for the collected data was examined using structural equation modeling technique with the help of AMOS. Results support the view that coping strategies mediate the relationship between locus of control and work place wellbeing. While the path between locus of control and wellbeing is significant, the path between coping distraction and wellbeing is not significant. PMID:22379706
Thiruchelvi, Arunachalam; Supriya, Mangatvadakkeveetil V
Growing national and international competition for students puts pressure on higher education institutions (HEIs) to develop marketing and student recruitment strategies; these are also driven by financial stress caused by performance-based funding mechanisms. In this paper we explore Norwegian HEIs' student recruitment strategies. What type of
Frolich, Nicoline; Brandt, Synnove; Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth; Aamodt, Per Olaf
Abstract Background The number of patients suffering from unexplained chest pain (UCP) is increasing. Intervention programmes are needed to reduce the chest pain and suffering experienced by these patients and effective preventive strategies are also required to reduce the incidence of these symptoms. The aim of this study was to describe general coping strategies in patients with UCP and examine the relationships between coping strategies, negative life events, sleep problem...
Jerlock Margaretha; Gaston-Johansson Fannie; Kjellgren Karin I; Welin Catharina
Research studies on the determinants of self-esteem of deaf individuals often yield inconsistent findings. The current study assessed the effects on self-esteem of factors related to deafness, such as the means of communication at home and severity of hearing loss with hearing aid, as well as the coping styles that deaf people adopt to cope with
Jambor, Edina; Elliott, Marta
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Etiological researches suggest that biopsychosocial dimensions are responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD. The main goal of the present research was to compare stressful life events and stress coping strategies in coronary heart patients (Acute Myocardial Infarction and non-patients. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional research 102 patients (all males suffering from acute myocardial infarction and 162 non-patient individuals after matching were studied and compared with regard to psychosocial life events and stress coping strategies through coping response inventory (Moos, 1993 , scaling of life Events (paykel , 1971 and researcher made questionnaire. Results: The result established that myocardial infarction patients experienced more stress than the control group during one year before heart- attack and they used more inadequate stress coping strategies comparing with the control individuals. Conclusion: This study showed that stress and inadequate coping strategies are important variables for the development of coronary heart diseases. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3:33-38
A. Heidari Pahlavian
The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-sectional and prospective relationships between cognitive coping strategies and parental stress in parents of children with Down syndrome. A total of 621 participants filled out questionnaires, including the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire to measure cognitive coping and the Nijmeegse
van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia
Numerous studies have underscored the importance of religious coping in psychological health and illness; however, the majority of research in this area has been conducted with Christian samples and knowledge about other religious groups is lacking. Although recent investigations have developed scales to measure religious coping among Hindus and Muslims, the potential for future research in Jewish populations remains limited as no measures of religious coping have been validated in the general Jewish community. This two-part study reports on the development and validation of the 16-item Jewish Religious Coping Scale (JCOPE). In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis identified two factors reflecting positive and negative religious coping strategies, and the concurrent validity for the measure was evaluated by examining correlations with indices of Jewish beliefs and practices. In Study 2, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) verified the JCOPE's 2-factor structure, and the scale's incremental validity was evaluated by examining Jewish religious coping as a predictor of psychological distress over and above significant covariates. Results suggest that the JCOPE has good psychometric properties, and that religious coping is a significant predictor of psychological distress among Jews. PMID:19294739
Rosmarin, David H; Pargament, Kenneth I; Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Flannelly, Kevin J
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objectivo identificar os mecanismos de coping (estratégias para lidar com situações difíceis) utilizados por Educadores de Infância quando se encontram em situações de stresse, bem como estudar as características do respectivo instrumento de avaliação na versão Portuguesa [...] . A amostra é constituída por 247 Educadores de Infância (diplomados e em situação de estágio pedagógico) com idades compreendidas entre os 20 e os 57 anos de idade. Da Bateria Differential Stress Inventory (DSI), de Lefèvre e Kubinger (2004) foi utilizado o questionário Estratégias de Coping (EC) tipo Likert, adaptada para a população portuguesa por Gomes, Pereira e Gil (2006), revelando boas características psicométricas. Os principais resultados mostram que perante situações indutoras de stresse os Educadores de Infância utilizam mais as estratégias de coping focadas na emoção, do que as estratégias de coping focadas no problema. São referidas ainda algumas implicações deste estudo para a formação destes profissionais. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los mecanismos de coping (estrategias para lidiar con situaciones difíciles) utilizados por profesores infantiles cuando están en situación de stress, así como también estudiar las características del respectivo instrumento de evaluación en la versión Port [...] uguesa. La muestra es constituida por 247 profesores infantiles (diplomados y en situación de práctica pedagógica) con edades entre los 20 y los 57 años de edad. De la Bateria Differential Stress Inventory (DSI), de Lefèvre y Kubinger (2004) fue utilizado el cuestionario Estratégias de Coping (EC) tipo Likert, adaptada para la población portuguesa por Gomes, Pereira y Gil (2006), revelando buenas características psicométricas. Los resultados principales muestran que frente a situaciones incitadoras de stress los profesores infantiles utilizan más las estrategias de coping focalizadas en la emoción que las estrategias de coping focalizadas en el problema. Todavía, son mencionadas algunas implicaciones de este estudio para la formación de estos profesionales. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to identify the mechanisms of coping (strategies to deal with difficult situations) used by kindergarten Teachers when they face situations of stress, as well as to study respective characteristics of the used evaluation instrument in a Portuguese version. The sample is cons [...] tituted by 247 kindergarten teachers (graduated and training students) with ages between 20 and 57 years old. The Strategies of Coping (EC) likert type scale from the Differential Stress Inventory (DSI), of Lefèvre & Kubinger (2004) was adapted for the Portuguese population by Gomes, Pereira & Gil (2006), which revealed good psychometric characteristics. The main results show that kindergarten Teachers, when experiencing stress inducing situations, frequently appeal to coping strategies with focus in emotion, than based in the problem solving situation. Will be discussed further implications of this research to the professional training.
Rosa Maria Silva, Gomes; Anabela Maria Sousa, Pereira.
Full Text Available Abstract Background An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and December 2008. Results Tamil refugees in Norway co-operated to appraise their shared life situation and accumulate resources communally to improve it in culturally meaningful ways. Long term aspirations were related to both the situation in the homeland and in exile. However, unforeseen social events created considerable challenges and forced them to modify and adapt their coping strategies. Conclusions We describe a form of coping previously not described in the scientific literature: Communal proactive coping strategies, defined as the process by which group members feel collectively responsible for their future well-being and co-operate to promote desired outcomes and prevent undesired changes. The study shows that proactive coping efforts occur in a dynamic social setting which may force people to use their accumulated proactive coping resources in reactive coping efforts. Theoretical and clinical implications are explored.
Full Text Available This book deals with coping strategies and defense mechanisms as two kinds of self-regulation of human behaviour. The defense mechanisms are described with some examples of fiction books.
This cross-sectional study assessed household food insecurity among low-income rural communities and examined its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as coping strategies to minimize food insecurity. Demographic, socioeconomic, expenditure and coping strategy data were collected from 200 women of poor households in a rural community in Malaysia. Households were categorized as either food secure (n=84) or food insecure (n=116) using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Foo...
Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin
Introduction: As the prevalence of stress is rising rapidly among the community, it is important to understand their stressors and coping strategies for creating a psychological-friendly environment for the students in the future. The study aim was to explore the stress level, stressors, and coping strategies among first year medical students in Malaysian public universities and factors contributed to the stress at the end of year. Methodology: A multicent...
Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff; Liew Yen Yee; Ling Heng Wei; Loke Hon Meng; Lim Xue Bin; Tan Chin Siong; Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim
Background stress can impair professional performance. Surgery is a highly demanding medical specialty, and performance is a critical factor for patient safety. Nevertheless, research on surgeon's stress, coping strategies and effects on surgical performance is lacking. Moreover, educational programmes addressing stress management for surgeons have not been established. Objectives i a) To identify potential stress factors, surgical coping strategies and effects on performance qualitatively b...
Wetzel, Cordula Magdalena
The psychological reactions and coping strategies used in response to a behavioral contingency (confinement in a magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] scanner) during a biological challenge (sodium lactate infusion) were systematically studied in 13 subjects with panic disorder (PD) and 11 control subjects using the Claustrophobia Questionnaire (CQ) and the Revised Ways of Coping Checklist (RWCCL). All participants were able to successfully complete the experimental procedure. Findings suggest between-group coping strategy differences in response to general stressors, but relative convergence of coping strategies in response to the experimental procedure, with relatively greater emphasis on problem-focused coping approaches. These observations suggest that PD patients are able to engage in effective coping strategies in response to stressful but highly structured experimental situations. An overall pre-post MR scanning reduction in the fear of restriction but not suffocation was observed for the combined sample, primarily reflecting changes in the control group. Among PD subjects, higher levels of suffocation fears were maintained despite emergence of more problem-focused coping in the experimental situation. PMID:12764706
Nazemi, Hamid; Dager, Stephen R
High levels of stress and depression in medical students is raising concern. In this study, we sought to identify coping strategies and other factors influencing academic stress in medical students. We enrolled 157 students from the University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Korea, in November, 2010. We used the Medical Stress Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Coping Response Inventory to assess psychological parameters. We used Pearson's correlation and linear regression analyses to analyze the data. Novelty-seeking, self-directedness, cooperativeness, coping strategy, and depression scale scores all correlated significantly with stress level. Linear regression analysis indicated that students who are novelty-seeking, likely to use avoidant coping strategies, and unlikely to use active-cognitive and active-behavioral strategies tend to have higher stress levels. Reduction of stress in medical students may be achieved through evaluation of coping strategies and personality features and use of interventions to promote active coping strategies. PMID:22901439
An, Hoyoung; Chung, Seockhoon; Park, Jangho; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Ki-Soo
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudos têm apontado que, para desenvolver um perfil resiliente, os atletas precisam enfrentar as adversidades do contexto esportivo, utilizando recursos pessoais como otimismo, competitividade, motivação, maturidade e persistência. Este estudo objetivou analisar o impacto das estratégias de coping [...] na resiliência de atletas de vôlei de praia. Participaram 48 atletas adultos do Circuito Banco do Brasil de Vôlei de Praia. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Inventário de Estratégias de Coping (ACSI-28) e a Escala de Resiliência de Connor-Davidson (CD-RISC). Para a análise dos dados, utilizaram-se o teste de Shapiro-Wilk, "U" de Mann-Whitney, Anova de Medidas Repetidas seguida do Post Hoc de Bonferroni, Correlação de Spearman e Regressão Linear Simples (p Abstract in english Studies have shown that for developing a resilient profile athletes must deal with adversities in sports using personal resources such as optimism, competitiveness, motivation, maturity, and persistence. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of coping strategies on the resilience of [...] beach volleyball athletes. Forty-eight adult athletes of the Banco do Brasil Beach Volleyball Circuit participated in the study. The following instruments were used: Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 (ACSI-28) and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The data were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, Mann-Whitney U test, repeated-measures ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni test, Spearman's correlation test, and simple linear regression (p
Isabella Caroline, Belem; Nayara Malheiros, Caruzzo; José Roberto Andrade do, Nascimento Junior; José Luiz Lopes, Vieira; Lenamar Fiorese, Vieira.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has found that acceptance of pain is more successful than cognitive coping variables for predicting adjustment to pain. This research has a limitation because measures of cognitive coping rely on observations and reports of thoughts or attempts to change thoughts rather than on overt behaviours. The purpose of the present study, therefore, is to compare the influence of acceptance measures and the influence of different behavioural coping strategies on the adjustment to chronic pain. Methods A sample of 167 individuals diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome completed the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory (CPCI and the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ. Results Correlational analyses indicated that the acceptance variables were more related to distress and functioning than were behavioural coping variables. The average magnitudes of the coefficients for activity engagement and pain willingness (both subscales of pain acceptance across the measures of distress and functioning were r = 0.42 and 0.25, respectively, meanwhile the average magnitude of the correlation between coping and functioning was r = 0.17. Regression analyses examined the independent, relative contributions of coping and acceptance to adjustment indicators and demonstrated that acceptance accounted for more variance than did coping variables. The variance contributed by acceptance scores ranged from 4.0 to 40%. The variance contributed by the coping variables ranged from 0 to 9%. Conclusions This study extends the findings of previous work in enhancing the adoption of acceptance-based interventions for maintaining accurate functioning in fibromyalgia patients.
In many developing countries where agricultural groundwater use led to aquifer overexploitation, direct control over farmers' groundwater use is difficult to implement. This calls for the set up, at least in the short term, of indirect policies, whose efficiency will depend on farmers' strategies. The different strategies adopted by farmers to cope with groundwater crisis are analyzed in the Chaouia Region in Morocco, where intensive agricultural groundwater use for the past fifty years has l...
Berahmani, Adnane; Faysse, Nicolas; Errahj, Mostafa; Gafsi, Mohamed
Stressing factors and coping strategies used by oncology nurses Factores estresantes y estrategias de coping utilizadas por los enfermeros que actúan en oncología Fatores estressantes e estratégias de coping dos enfermeiros atuantes em oncologia
In the oncology specialty, many factors can result in occupational stress in nursing professionals. As an attempt to controlling this situation, individuals may use coping strategies. Coping is a cognitive and behavioral effort one uses to face a stressful situation. The aims of this study were to identify the stressful factors regarding oncology nurses, and to verify what coping strategies they use. Two questionnaires were used: a demographic data inventory, designed by the researcher, and t...
Andrea Bezerra Rodrigues; Eliane Corrêa Chaves
Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of patients suffering from unexplained chest pain (UCP is increasing. Intervention programmes are needed to reduce the chest pain and suffering experienced by these patients and effective preventive strategies are also required to reduce the incidence of these symptoms. The aim of this study was to describe general coping strategies in patients with UCP and examine the relationships between coping strategies, negative life events, sleep problems, physical activity, stress and chest pain intensity. Method The sample consisted of 179 patients younger than 70 years of age, who were evaluated for chest pain at the emergency department daytime Monday through Friday and judged by a physician to have no organic cause for their chest pain. The study had a cross-sectional design. Results Emotive coping was related to chest pain intensity (r = 0.17, p = 0.02. Women used emotive coping to a greater extent than did men (p = 0.05. In the multivariate analysis was shown that physical activity decreased emotive coping (OR 0.13, p Conclusion Our results indicated that patients with more intense UCP more often apply emotive coping in dealing with their pain. Given that emotive coping was also found to be related to disturbed sleep, negative life events, mental strain at work and physical activity, it may be of value to help these patients to both verbalise their emotions and to become cognizant of the influence of such factors on their pain experience.
Kjellgren Karin I
Full Text Available Introduction: As the prevalence of stress is rising rapidly among the community, it is important to understand their stressors and coping strategies for creating a psychological-friendly environment for the students in the future. The study aim was to explore the stress level, stressors, and coping strategies among first year medical students in Malaysian public universities and factors contributed to the stress at the end of year. Methodology: A multicenter cross-sectional study involving four Malaysian public universities. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Medical Student Stressor Questionnaire (MSSQ and Brief COPE inventory were self-administered to measure stress level, sources of stress and coping strategies respectively among the participants. Calculated sample size was 387. Results: Out of 387 selected participants, 359 (92.7% responded to this survey. This study found that the prevalence of distressed first year medical students at the end of year was 50%. The major stressors across the universities were academic-related issues. The top five coping strategies were religion, active coping, positive reinterpretation, acceptance and planning. University, parent income, and academic, group activities, and desire related stressors were significant factors contributing to the students stress (p-value < 0.05. Conclusion: This study found that there was a high prevalence of distressed among first year medical students at the end of year, the major stressors were related to academic and contributing factors of stress were related to university, coping strategy, types of stressor and parent income status. Training first year medical students on adaptive coping strategies, managing stressors, and improving peer-group supports to the students will help to improve this condition.
Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim
Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N?=?300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54 % of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed. PMID:24414302
Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study provided essential information, about Turkish patients with type I and type II diabetes, concerning: levels of anxiety, coping strategies used, and relationships that exist among anxiety, coping strategies, sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Methods A sample comprising 161 Turkish adults with both types of diabetes participated in the study. The trait anxiety scale, the brief COPE, sociodemographic and medical questionnaire were administered to patients with diabetes. Results The mean age was 49.01 (SD = 9.74, with a range from 20 to 60 years. The majority of the participants were female (60.9% and type II diabetes (75.8%. 79% of the participants experienced anxiety. A clear majority of the participants reported to integrate their diabetes. Acceptance, religion, planning, positive reframing, instrumental support, emotional support, self-distraction and venting were the most frequently used coping strategies. The most frequently used problem-focused and the emotion-focused coping strategies were found to be similar in both type I and type II diabetes. However, participants with type II diabetes had relatively higher scores on the problem-focused strategies than those with type I. Participants with type I diabetes used humour, venting and self-blame more than those with type II diabetes. Other findings indicated that only a small minority responded to diabetes-related problems by denial, behavioural disengagement and substance use. Significant correlations were found among anxiety, coping strategies and sociodemographic characteristics of the participants. Moreover, Self-blame was found to be correlated significantly with both the problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies. Self-blame was also significantly correlated with both instrumental support and emotional support indicated that higher self-blame caused more frequent use of instrumental and emotional support by patients with diabetes. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that care for patients with diabetes should address their physical, psychological, social and economic wellbeing and the findings point to the importance of taking individual coping strategies into account when evaluating the impact of diabetes on psychosocial wellbeing. Because of the mean of anxiety were not in normal range, for this study, health professionals need to pay attention to patient's psychological state. This is especially true for patients who are likely to use self-blame and behavioural disengagement as a coping strategy. Through psychosocial interventions, professionals need to assist patients in establishing positive self evaluations. Delineation of coping strategies might be useful for identifying patients in need of particular counselling and support.
This article reports on findings of a research project examining farmers' coping strategies in the Brazilian Amazon in response to El Nino related weather events. We examine the extent of vulnerability of small and large farmers to these events in a tropical rainforest environment. Little attention has been given to the impact of ENSO events in Amazonia, despite evidence for devastating fires during ENSOs. Although we found a range of locally developed forecasting techniques and coping mechanisms, farmers have sustained significant losses, and we suggest that increased access to scientific forecasts would greatly enhance the ability of the farmers in our study area to cope with El Nino related weather events. In Amazonia the El Nino phase of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate pattern leads to an extended period of reduced rainfall (Hobbs et al., 1998). This period of reduced rainfall can result in significant agricultural losses for farmers and ranchers in the area and in increased forest flammability. We have found that the majority of our study population uses several methods of forecasting, coping with, and adapting to drought events - and they recognize the economic losses they can experience and the loss of forests through the accidental spread of fire. The poorest farmers in our study area experience El Nino related drought events as a serious threat to their livelihoods. Their vulnerability is heightened during extreme climate events and our observations revealed that all of the farmers in our study would benefit from increased availability of improved forecast information relevant to their locality and their current farming strategies. This paper examines the availability and use of forecasts, the occurrence of accidental fires and techniques to prevent fire related losses, and the coping mechanisms for dealing with El Nino related drought in the agricultural regions surrounding the cities of Altamira and Santarem, in Para State, Brazil. Distribution of an El Nino Prediction Kit at the end of the study and a series of workshops may lead to better local information on rainfall variability and create a farmer-maintained grid of collecting stations to sensitize farmers to the variability of precipitation in the region, and on their property.
Moran, E.F. [Anthropological Center for Training in Global Environmental Change ACT, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Adams, R. [Center for the Study of Population, Institutions, and Environmental Change CIPEC, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Bakoyema, B.; Fiorini, S.T. [Anthropology Department, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Boucek, B. [Geography Department, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States)
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing focus on patient-centred communicative approaches in medical consultations, but few studies have shown the extent to which patients' positive coping strategies and psychological assets are addressed by general practitioners (GPs on a regular day at the office. This study measures the frequency of GPs' use of questions and comments addressing their patients' coping strategies or resources. Methods Twenty-four GPs were video-recorded in 145 consultations. The consultations were coded using a modified version of the Roter Interaction Analysis System. In this study, we also developed four additional coding categories based on cognitive therapy and solution-focused therapy: attribution, resources, coping, and solution-focused techniques. The reliability between coders was established, a factor analysis was applied to test the relationship between the communication categories, and a tentative validating exercise was performed by reversed coding. Results Cohen's kappa was 0.52 between coders. Only 2% of the utterances could be categorized as resource or coping oriented. Six GPs contributed 59% of these utterances. The factor analysis identified two factors, one task oriented and one patient oriented. Conclusion The frequency of communication about coping and resources was very low. Communication skills training for GPs in this field is required. Further validating studies of this kind of measurement tool are warranted.
Personality Dimensions, Religious Tendencies and Coping Strategies as Predictors of General Health in Iranian Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability: A Comparison with Mothers of Typically Developing Children
Background: Challenges related to rearing children with intellectual disability (ID) may cause mothers of these children to have mental health status problems. Method: A total of 124 mothers who had a child with ID and 124 mothers of typically developing children were selected using random sampling. Data were collected using General health
Mirsaleh, Y. R.; Rezai, H.; Khabaz, M.; Afkhami Ardekani, I.; Abdi, K.
The Adolescent Coping Scale was administered to 749 gifted students attending two different summer enrichment programs. Results indicate little evidence of gender or grade differences but found racial differences on the Seek Spiritual Support scale (African and Hispanic students had the highest scores), the Self-Blame scale, and the Worry scale.
Plucker, Jonathan A.
BACKGROUND: Coping strategies have, in some countries, become so prevalent that it has been widely assumed that the very notion of civil services ethos has completely - and possibly irreversibly - disappeared. This paper describes the importance and the nature of pilfering of drugs by health staff in Mozambique and Cape Verde, as perceived by health professionals from these countries. Their opinions provide pointers as to how to tackle these problems. METHODS: This study is based on a self-administered questionnaire addressed to a convenience sample of health workers in Mozambique and in Cape Verde. RESULTS: The study confirms that misuse of access to pharmaceuticals has become a key element in the coping strategies health personnel develop to deal with difficult living conditions. Different professional groups (mis)use their privileged access in different ways, but doctors diversify most. The study identifies the reasons given for misusing access to drugs, shows how the problem is perceived by the health workers, and discusses the implications for finding solutions to the problem.Our findings reflect, from the health workers themselves, a conflict between their self image of what it means to be an honest civil servant who wants to do a decent job, and the brute facts of life that make them betray that image. The manifest unease that this provokes is an important observation as such. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that, even in the difficult circumstances observed in many countries, behaviours that depart from traditional civil servant deontology have not been interiorised as a norm. This ambiguity indicates that interventions to mitigate the erosion of proper conduct would be welcome. The time to act is now, before small-scale individual coping grows into large-scale, well-organized crime. PMID:15115548
Ferrinho, Paulo; Omar, Maria Carolina; Fernandes, Maria De Jesus; Blaise, Pierre; Bugalho, Ana Margarida; Lerberghe, Wim Van
Full Text Available Abstract Background Coping strategies have, in some countries, become so prevalent that it has been widely assumed that the very notion of civil services ethos has completely and possibly irreversibly disappeared. This paper describes the importance and the nature of pilfering of drugs by health staff in Mozambique and Cape Verde, as perceived by health professionals from these countries. Their opinions provide pointers as to how to tackle these problems. Methods This study is based on a self-administered questionnaire addressed to a convenience sample of health workers in Mozambique and in Cape Verde. Results The study confirms that misuse of access to pharmaceuticals has become a key element in the coping strategies health personnel develop to deal with difficult living conditions. Different professional groups (misuse their privileged access in different ways, but doctors diversify most. The study identifies the reasons given for misusing access to drugs, shows how the problem is perceived by the health workers, and discusses the implications for finding solutions to the problem. Our findings reflect, from the health workers themselves, a conflict between their self image of what it means to be an honest civil servant who wants to do a decent job, and the brute facts of life that make them betray that image. The manifest unease that this provokes is an important observation as such. Conclusion Our findings suggest that, even in the difficult circumstances observed in many countries, behaviours that depart from traditional civil servant deontology have not been interiorised as a norm. This ambiguity indicates that interventions to mitigate the erosion of proper conduct would be welcome. The time to act is now, before small-scale individual coping grows into large-scale, well-organized crime.
Abstract Background An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and De...
Guribye Eugene; Sandal Gro; Oppedal Brit
Background: An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods: To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and December 2008. Results: T...
Guribye, Eugene; Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim; Oppedal, Brit
Stress in close relationships can have significant negative consequences for mental health, physical health, and long-term relationship functioning. Dysregulated physiological responses to stress are potential pathways through which relationship stress may lead to these kinds of outcomes, and the ways in which individuals attempt to cope with relationship stress are likely to impact their physiological responses. However, our understanding of the specific coping strategies that predict physio...
Gunlicks-stoessel, Meredith L.; Powers, Sally I.
The search for meaning in life is part of the human experience. A negative life event may threaten perceptions about meaning in life, such as the benevolence of the world and ones sense of harmony and peace. The authors examined the longitudinal relationship between womens coping with a diagnosis of breast cancer and their self-reported meaning in life 2 years later. Multiple regression analyses revealed that positive strategies for coping predicted significant variance in the sense of ...
Jim, Heather S.; Richardson, Susan A.; Golden-kreutz, Deanna M.; Andersen, Barbara L.
Introduction: Diabetic patients face with different physical and psychological challenging factors which impress their quality of life. The major problem of these patients, which has made their life circumstances more complicated, is coping and adapting styles with the illness. So, this study aimed to determine quality of life and also different kinds of coping strategies in patients with type 2 diabetes and also to compare it with those of healthy people. Methods: In this study, sixty diabet...
This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies) as moderators of the relation between perceived racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Moderated mediation examined if the relation between perceived racial discrimination and depressive symptoms varied by the mediators and moderators. Results revealed that avoidant coping strategies mediated the relation between perceptions of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The results indicated that avoidant coping strategies mediated the relation between perceived racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among youth with high levels of the minority/oppressive ideology. PMID:23668685
Seaton, Eleanor K; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa
AIM: To explore (1) intergroup differences in comfortable interpersonal distances (CIDs) and the use of coping strategies; (2) the association of these parameters with individual symptomatology; and (3) the interplay between CIDs and coping styles in patients with depression and schizophrenia. METHODS: The parameters of interest were assessed by means of standardized questionnaires: CID and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Psychopathology was evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory and Positive and Negative Syndromes Scale. ANOVA, Pearsons correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine relationships among the variables. RESULTS: Compared with controls, depressed patients were more distanced from family members, significant others and self-images, whereas patients with schizophrenia were less distanced from neutral and threat-related stimuli. Distancing from self-images was mostly associated with depression severity in depressed patients, whereas distancing from hostile and threat-related stimuli with the severity of psychotic and affective symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Both patient groups used more emotion-oriented than task-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping strategies. Self-distancing among patients with schizophrenia was positively associated with the use of the social diversion coping, implying social support seeking. CONCLUSION: Patients with depression and schizophrenia use different maladaptive emotion - regulation strategies to cope with their symptoms and related distress. Training in stress management might provide these patients with skills for more effective emotion regulation.
Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Finkelstein, Irena; Poliakova, Inna; Mostovoy, Dimitry; Goldberger, Nehama; Rosca, Paula
A total of 407 students in a central London secondary school participated in a survey of different approaches to managing traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Student perceptions of individual coping strategies and school interventions for traditional bullying and cyberbullying were measured. Rankings of the strategies for traditional bullying
Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K.; Blumberg, Herbert H.
To examine the relationships between stress levels and, respectively, stressor appraisal, coping strategies and bio- graphical variables, 107 managers completed a biographical questionnaire. Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire, and Coping Strategy Indicator. Significant negative correlations were found between stress levels and appraisal scores on all work-related stressors. An avoidant coping strategy explained significant variance in stress levels in a model also contain...
Spangenberg, Judora J.; Orpen-lyall, Mark R.
Full Text Available Background: This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the relationship between several dimensions of the burnout syndrome with certain stress-coping strategies, seniority level and marital status in male staff from National Police in Vaparaíso, Chile.Methods: The sample collected in 2010 was composed of 338 male officers coming from various special units of a National Police in Valparaíso. Burnout and Coping Strategies were assessed and classified according Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and COPE Inventory, respectively. Data was analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlation, t-test for independent measures and Multiple Linear Regression to generate a predictive model.Results: The prevalence of the burnout syndrome disaggregated by grouping criteria, the dimensions concentrated in middle levels for emotional exhaustion with a 52.1%, a 51.8% for depersonalization and finally, personal achievement with a 48.8%. Only 28% of participants showed more exacerbated dimensions of the burnout syndrome. There was a weak and direct yet statistically significant relationship between personal achievement and active coping. Mental disconnection had a weak direct relationship between both coping strategies and emotional exhaustion also existed. Certain correlations between burnout dimensions and coping strategies focused on emotion as predictor variables over the criterion variable corresponding to emotional exhaustion were mental disconnection in first place, secondly, focusing on emotions, and emotional social support.Conclusions: Burnout dimensions scored medium values ??focusing mainly on emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment. Coping strategies are used in parallel and in general are not mutually exclusive. Finally, there were not any relationship between variables seniority level and marital status.
Daniel Briones Mella
Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic patients face with different physical and psychological challenging factors which impress their quality of life. The major problem of these patients, which has made their life circumstances more complicated, is coping and adapting styles with the illness. So, this study aimed to determine quality of life and also different kinds of coping strategies in patients with type 2 diabetes and also to compare it with those of healthy people. Methods: In this study, sixty diabetic patients (30 male, 30 female, were chosen by available sampling method from the people who referred to Sina Diabetes center in Tabriz and were compared with sixty non diabetic people (30 male, 30 female. Data were collected by two questionnaires including the short form health survey (SF-36 and coping style Inventories. MANOVA method was used to analyze the research data. Results: The study results showed that non diabetics were significantly higher than diabetic patients in regard to quality of life and its dimensions (p<0.001. Also results revealed that non diabetic people used the problemoriented styles (p<0.001, however diabetic patients used emotional-oriented coping and avoidance strategies more (p<0.05. In this study (in both groups, females in comparison with males had lower score in quality of life and used more emotion-oriented coping styles and less problem-oriented styles. Conclusion: The results indicated that individuals quality of life was affected by their coping style with different affairs. Emotional-oriented coping and avoidance strategies were related with decrease of quality of life in diabetic patients whereas problem-oriented styles enhanced it. Therefore, it is necessary to perform interventions for teaching problem solving coping in order to improve these patients' quality of life.
J Babapour Kheirodin
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. Results The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students. The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. Conclusion The higher level of psychological morbidity warrants need for interventions like social and psychological support to improve the quality of life for these medical students. Student advisors and counselors may train students about stress management. There is also need to bring about academic changes in quality of teaching and evaluation system. A prospective study is necessary to study the association of psychological morbidity with demographic variables, sources of stress and coping strategies.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of coping strategies, personality trait and social support as the main social and psychological factors on infertility stress.Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 201 infertile Iranian women referred to the Vali-e-Asr Reproductive health Research Center, and completed the following questionnaires: The fertility problem inventory, measuring perceived infertility related stress (Newton CR, 1999, big five factor personality questionnaire (Farahani, 2009, multidimensional scale of perceived social support MSPS (Zimmet 1988, and multidimensional assessment of coping (Endler, 1990.The results were then analyzed using the Pearson Correlation and stepwise regression.Results: Infertility stress has negative and significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, perceived social support and bring extrovert. It has a positive, significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. The results of the stepwise regression showed that emotion-oriented coping method, OCD and being extrovert are suitable predictors of infertility stress.Conclusion: About 22% of the infertility stress variance was explained by coping strategies and personality trait. Therefore our result demonstrates the importance of social and psychological factors on experiencing the infertility stress.
Mohammad Naghi Farahani
Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate EFL classroom anxiety coping strategies employed by the Chinese Bouyei college students through semi-structured individual interviews of 25 Chinese Bouyei college students from five colleges located in the southern and southwestern areas of Guizhou Province, China. The findings demonstrate five categories of the participants reported EFL classroom anxiety coping strategies, i.e., preparation, help/peer seeking, relaxation, resignation, and positive thinking, which were mostly supportive to the results of the rotated component matrix of factor analysis for the FLCACSQ conducted in the researchers previous study. In addition, implications were made on the research findings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-pocket spending (OOPS is the major payment strategy for healthcare in Nigeria. Hence, the paper assessed the determinants socio-economic status (SES of OOPS and strategies for coping with payments for healthcare in urban, semi-urban and rural areas of southeast Nigeria. This paper provides information that would be required to improve financial accessibility and equity in financing within the public health care system. Methods The study areas were three rural and three urban areas from Ebonyi and Enugu states in South-east Nigeria. Cross-sectional survey using interviewer-administered questionnaires to randomly selected householders was the study tool. A socio-economic status (SES index that was developed using principal components analysis was used to examine levels of inequity in OOPS and regression analysis was used to examine the determinants of use of OOPS. Results All the SES groups equally sought healthcare when they needed to. However, the poorest households were most likely to use low level and informal providers such as traditional healers, whilst the least poor households were more likely to use the services of higher level and formal providers such as health centres and hospitals. The better-off SES more than worse-off SES groups used OOPS to pay for healthcare. The use of own money was the commonest payment-coping mechanism in the three communities. The sales of movable household assets or land were not commonly used as payment-coping mechanisms. Decreasing SES was associated with increased sale of household assets to cope with payment for healthcare in one of the communities. Fee exemptions and subsidies were almost non-existent as coping mechanisms in this study Conclusions There is the need to reduce OOPS and channel and improve equity in healthcare financing by designing and implementing payment strategies that will assure financial risk protection of the poor such pre-payment mechanisms with government paying for the poor.
We explored the role of religiosity and spirituality on (i) feelings and attitudes about breast cancer, (ii) strategies for coping with breast cancer, and (iii) health care seeking behaviors among breast cancer survivors in Iran. We conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 39 breast cancer survivors. We found that spirituality is the primary source of psychological support among participants. Almost all participants attributed their cancer to the will of God. Despite this, they actively have been engaged with their medical treatment. This is in surprising contrast to Western cultures in which a belief in an external health locus of control diminishes participation in cancer screening, detection, and treatment. These findings can help researchers to provide a framework for the development of appropriate and effective culturally sensitive health interventions. PMID:20390638
Harandy, Tayebeh Fasihi; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Montazeri, Ali; Anoosheh, Monireh; Bazargan, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Eesa; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Niknami, Shamsaddin
Ideal coping strategies enhance positive aspects of well-being as well as reduce distress. Although researchers have identified several "positive coping" strategies, it is unclear which are most strongly associated with well-being or whether all strategies are equally appropriate for all kinds of stressors. Participants completed well-being measures, and described the most negative event of the day and their emotion regulation strategies for the next 7 days. Dispositional use of positive emotion-inducing coping strategies was most strongly associated with positive aspects of well-being. Use of positive coping did not decrease with increased objective stress during the week, and use of particular strategies was partly predicted by the types of stressors that were reported. Implications for theories of positive coping are discussed. PMID:16768566
Shiota, Michelle N
Full Text Available Effective use of coping strategies by people with chronic pain conditions is associated with better functioning and adjustment to chronic disease. Although the effects of coping on pain have been well studied, less is known about how specific coping strategies relate to actual physical activity patterns in daily life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how different coping strategies relate to symptoms and physical activity patterns in a sample of adults with knee and hip osteoarthritis (N = 44. Physical activity was assessed by wrist-worn accelerometry; coping strategy use was assessed by the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory. We hypothesized that the use of coping strategies that reflect approach behaviors (e.g., Task Persistence, would be associated with higher average levels of physical activity, whereas avoidance coping behaviors (e.g., Resting, Asking for Assistance, Guarding and Pacing would be associated with lower average levels of physical activity. We also evaluated whether coping strategies moderated the association between momentary symptoms (pain and fatigue and activity. We hypothesized that higher levels of approach coping would be associated with a weaker association between symptoms and activity compared to lower levels of this type of coping. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the momentary association between coping and physical activity. We found that higher body mass index, fatigue, and the use of Guarding were significantly related to lower activity levels, whereas Asking for Assistance was significantly related to higher activity levels. Only Resting moderated the association between pain and activity. Guarding, Resting, Task Persistence, and Pacing moderated the association between fatigue and activity. This study provides an initial understanding of how people with osteoarthritis cope with symptoms as they engage in daily life activities using ecological momentary assessment and objective physical activity measurement.
This cross-sectional study assessed household food insecurity among low-income rural communities and examined its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as coping strategies to minimize food insecurity. Demographic, socioeconomic, expenditure and coping strategy data were collected from 200 women of poor households in a rural community in Malaysia. Households were categorized as either food secure (n=84) or food insecure (n=116) using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity instrument. T-test, Chi-square and logistic regression were utilized for comparison of factors between food secure and food insecure households and determination of factors associated with household food insecurity, respectively. More of the food insecure households were living below the poverty line, had a larger household size, more children and school-going children and mothers as housewives. As food insecure households had more school-going children, reducing expenditures on the children's education is an important strategy to reduce household expenditures. Borrowing money to buy foods, receiving foods from family members, relatives and neighbors and reducing the number of meals seemed to cushion the food insecure households from experiencing food insufficiency. Most of the food insecure households adopted the strategy on cooking whatever is available at home for their meals. The logistic regression model indicates that food insecure households were likely to have more children (OR=1.71; p<0.05) and non-working mothers (OR=6.15; p<0.05), did not own any land (OR=3.18; p<0.05) and adopted the strategy of food preparation based on whatever is available at their homes (OR=4.33; p<0.05). However, mothers who reported to borrow money to purchase food (OR=0.84; p<0.05) and households with higher incomes of fathers (OR=0.99; p<0.05) were more likely to be food secure. Understanding the factors that contribute to household food insecurity is imperative so that effective strategies could be developed and implemented. PMID:20126362
Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo é descrita a adaptação e avaliação psicométrica do Schoolagers' Coping Strategies Inventory (Ryan-Wenger, 1990) numa amostra de crianças entre os 8 e os 12 anos de idade. Procurou-se ainda caracterizar as estratégias de coping em crianças e pré-adolescentes, examinar o seu desenvolvimen [...] to e diferenças de sexo. A versão portuguesa demonstrou possuir qualidades psicométricas satisfatórias e o instrumentou revelou possuir três sub-escalas, correspondentes a três tipos de estratégias de coping que podem ser conceptualmente definidas como de distracção cognitiva-comportamental, de acting-out e activas. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que as crianças e pré-adolescentes utilizam grande variedade de estratégias de coping, sendo as mais salientes as do tipo distracção cognitivo-comportamental e as menos salientes, as do tipo acting out. Pudemos ainda constatar que à medida que, as crianças crescem, vão utilizando menos estratégias do tipo distracção cognitivo-comportamental e, simultaneamente, vão-nas considerando como menos eficazes para lidar com os seus problemas. Foram também encontradas diferenças de sexo, no sentido em que as raparigas tendem a percepcionar as estratégias activas como sendo mais eficazes do que os rapazes. Já estes últimos recorrem mais às estratégias do tipo acting-out e percepcionam-nas também como mais eficazes. Abstract in english This article describes the adaptation and the psychometric study of the Schoolagers' Coping Strategies Inventory (Ryan-Wenger, 1990) in a sample of Portuguese children aged 8 to 12. The authors also aimed to describe the children´s coping strategies and to examine age and gender differences. T [...] he Portuguese version of SCSI has good psychometric properties and results revealed a three-factor structure, corresponding to three types of coping strategies, which can be conceptualised as cognitive-behavioural distraction, acting out and active strategies. Results also showed that children and pre-adolescents use a wide variety of coping strategies, and that there are different patterns of use according to age and gender.
Lima, Lígia; Lemos, Marina Serra de; Guerra, Marina Prista.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Verificar as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas por indivíduos que tiveram o coração transplantado e suas relações com percepção da doença e do transplante. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com análise quantitativa e qualitativa. A amostra de 32 pacientes foi avaliada pela Escala Modos de [...] Enfretamento de Problemas e questionário sociodemográfico; e cinco deles foram sorteados para entrevista. Realizou-se a avaliação da consistência interna da escala, cruzamentos entre as variáveis e os estilos de enfrentamento e a análise de conteúdo das entrevistas, relacionando os resultados ao discurso dos participantes. RESULTADOS: Os indivíduos utilizaram todos os estilos de enfrentamento, predominando o focalizado no problema. Nos participantes que receberam preparo psicológico, houve aumento estatisticamente significativo dos enfrentamentos focalizados no problema e na busca de suporte social. Entretanto, naqueles que não receberam preparo, houve aumento significativo da utilização do enfrentamento focalizado na emoção. Através do método de Bardin, revelaram-se como categorias: doença, reação ao chamado, transplante, fantasias, pós-operatório, equipe e enfrentamento. CONCLUSÕES: Os participantes utilizaram todos os estilos de enfrentamento, predominando a estratégia focalizada no problema. Os que receberam preparo psicológico usaram maior número de estratégias de enfrentamento ativas, o que evidencia a importância do acompanhamento psicológico durante o processo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To investigate coping strategies used by patients submitted to heart transplantation and whether they are related to the perception of the disease and transplantation. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with quantitative and qualitative analysis. The sample of 32 patients was assessed by the [...] Ways of Coping Scale and socio-demographic questionnaire, and five of them were selected for interviews. The internal consistency of the scale was assessed, the variables and strategies involved were crossed and content analysis of interviews, investigating the existence of a relationship with the speech of the participants. RESULTS: The individuals have used all coping styles, with a predominance of the problem-focused strategy. Psychologically prepared patients showed a statistically significant increase in the use of problem-focused coping and seek for social support. However, a significant increase in the use of emotion-focused coping was observed in patients who were not prepared. Analysis through the method of Bardin showed as categories: disease; reaction to call; transplantation; fantasies; postoperative; team and coping. CONCLUSION: Patients with a transplanted heart make use of all coping strategies, with a predominance of the problem-focused strategy. Psychologically prepared individuals used more active coping strategies, which highlights the importance of psychological support during the process.
Pfeifer, Paula Moraes; Ruschel, Patricia Pereira; Bordignon, Solange.
Individuals respond to threats to affiliation and achievement needs through drawing on a repertoire of coping strategies specific to a given situation. Gifted adolescents in college-preparatory high school programs may be faced with novel stressors, and may have unique coping strategies to manage these challenges. The current study considers
Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Suldo, Shannon M.
Background: Previous studies found that stress, depression, burnout, anxiety, and depersonalisation play a significant role amongst dental and medical students. We wanted to examine if students of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg also would report elevated values as can been found in similar publications. Furthermore, particularly coping strategies were investigated.
Prinz, Patrick; Hertrich, Klaus; Hirschfelder, Ursula; Zwaan, Martina
The research examined (a) girls' responses to personal experiences of gender and/or ethnic/racial discrimination, (b) social support from parents and friends following the discrimination, and (c) the relationship between girls' reported coping strategies to the discrimination and their self-esteem. Participants were 74 adolescent girls ("M" = 16.3
Ayres, Melanie M.; Leaper, Campbell
The economic consequences of a partnership dissolution have been described consistently in the research literature. For women all studies indicate severe financial losses, whereas men do not experience income decreases to the same extent. This article focuses on the 2 main strategies to cope with the economic consequences of a separation:
Jansen, Mieke; Mortelmans, Dimitri; Snoeckx, Laurent
A survey found that American graduate students tend to use an individual coping strategy (self-serving attributions) more than Japanese students in dealing with success and failure experiences related to ability. However, the findings suggest that different cultural groups react similarly in the face of obvious situational information. (KH)
Kashima, Yoshihisa; Triandis, Harry C.
Speakers at this meeting addressed the following topics: the crude oil supply outlook; coping with petroleum market surplus; product demand and availability; the economics of refinery upgrading; automotive fuel trends; product marketing strategies; petroleum markets in the 1980's; and investment perspectives. (DMC)
Objective: To establish the nature and extent of maltreatment experiences, coping strategies, and behavioral/emotional problems, and their relationships, in a sample of Palestinian adolescents. Method: A study of 97 male adolescents aged 15-19 years, and attending a vocational training center based in the Gaza Strip. Adolescents completed the
Thabet, Aziz Mousa Thabet; Tischler, Victoria; Vostanis, Panos
In this study, parent history of bullying was examined in terms of general involvement with bullying, specific types of bullying experienced, level of hurtfulness associated with the experience, and when bullying occurred. Parent current views, levels of concern, and strategies used to cope with bullying were also evaluated. Finally, the
Cooper, Leigh A.; Nickerson, Amanda B.
Objective: How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Design: Pilot telephone survey. Setting: City in the northeastern United States (US). Participants: Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible
Devine, Carol M.; Farrell, Tracy J.; Blake, Christine E.; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A.
Full Text Available A survey was conducted to identify the family roles female students in five public universities in Ghana played and the strategies they used to manage the roles while in school, to ensure academic excellence. Questionnaire was used to collect data in order to allow for a wide coverage and generalization. Family roles performed by the students while in school were found to include: running errands; meal provision; fulfilling marital obligations; decision making; laundering; settling disputes; cleaning; supervising domestic work; shopping; helping children to do school assignments; financial support; disciplining children; fetching water; mending clothes; child, elderly and invalid care; and leading religious activities. Coping strategies adopted by the students to manage these family roles and academic work were: creation of new social boundaries; delegation of roles; acting in context; prioritizing activities; postponing responsibilities; pre-planning activities; dovetailing family and academic work. Mature and married students had more family roles to play than non-mature and single students. It is recommended that Ghanaian universities should strategies for retention and academic excellence of female students to make gender equity meaningful. Consequently, the universities have to create a continuum of services that will reduce the time female students spend on non-academic issues to enable them concentrate on their intellectual development.
Full Text Available Background: There is little information about the relationship of alexithymia and cognitive/behavioral coping strategies with psychological vulnerability. The recent studies indicate that alexithymia and coping strategies affect psychological vulnerability. The present study aims to determine the relationship of alexithymia and cognitive/behavioral coping strategies with psychological vulnerability of women with somatization disorder. Materials and Methods: The samples of this study included 120 patients with somatization disorder who were selected as convenience sampling among those who attended the psychology centers of Ardabil. Pain coping questionnaire, alexithymia questionnaire, and symptom questionnaire were used to collect the information. The research data were analyzed using the Pearsons correlation coefficient and multivariate regression analysis methods. Results: The results indicated that there are significant correlations between alexithymia (r = 0.52, cognitive coping strategies (r = -0.27, behavioral coping strategies (r = -0.33 and psychological vulnerability of women with somatization disorder. The results of step-by-step multivariate regression analysis suggested that alexithymia and cognitive/ behavioral coping strategies clarifies 37 percent of the variance of psychological vulnerability of women with somatization disorder.Conclusion: These findings indicate that cognitive/behavioral coping strategies and alexithymia are associated to psychological vulnerability of women with somatization disorder. In addition, these results have special application in prevention, pathology as well as psychotherapy of this disorder.
Shift work (SW) can affect worker health and productivity. Working at night, workers often accumulate fatigue and are less productive. In Brazil, laws have been drafted aiming to reduce night work and rotating shift hours. In order to slash costs, companies have been looking for new arrangements to improve productivity under these conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine management changes and their outcomes in a large glass factory located in an industrial region of Brazil. The results show that the management, seeking equal productivity among shifts, focused its efforts mainly on distributing employee expertise. The arrangement resulted in 12 different groups that combine to serve three fixed shifts. A same shift can be served by more than one group, and the members of a same group share days off on different days. There was no statistically significant productivity difference among the three shifts. The on-site examination showed that part of the production was held by the workers and transferred to the next shift in order for them to be able to meet the management's performance rate requirements. The finding shows how a Brazilian cultural trait (resistance without conflict) is used to drive coping in SW. PMID:22317707
Lieber, Renato Rocha; Kvieska, Rodrigo Neiva; Delamaro, Maurício Cesar
Conclusions Since these concerns cause suffering and distress, intervention models targeting existential and spiritual suffering should be disseminated among professionals involved in caring for people with life-threatening illnesses. Coping with existential and spiritual concerns is inescapable in end-of-life care although not enough is known about the strategies and mechanisms involved. This pilot study focused on identifying the strategies for coping with existential and spiritual suffering at the end of life of secular Jews with advanced-stage cancer. Using the phenomenological approach to data collection, in-depth interviews were conducted with 22 patients receiving symptom relief care at a daycare oncology clinic. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and the content was analyzed. Advanced-stage cancer patients employ several approaches to cope with existential and spiritual concerns. The themes emerging from the interviews present five dimensions of coping strategies: openness and choosing to face reality, connectedness and the significance of family, pursuit of meaning, the connection of body, mind and spirit and, lastly, humor and a positive outlook.
Full Text Available The aim of this review was to evaluate research relating to the effects of coping strategies and resilience on the level of workplace stress. Much of the research focused on working mothers and working females in general. It was found that working females experienced more work stress as compared to men. And currently in Malaysia, social policies that support working females, especially working mothers, has not been adopted fully by most corporations. Furthermore, the evidence for effective problem-focused and emotion-focused coping was inconsistent. It was concluded that correlation between work stressors and the adopted coping strategies may vary depending on the type of problems being dealt with and the interplay between the employee and the demand. Moreover, resilience literature revealed this concept as an enhancement of an individuals adaptability and survival in the presence of occupational stressors and success in overcoming the stressors results in increased resilience to future hardships. This article identifies a number of research gaps for advancing work stress research, in particular: 1 limited work stress research on Malaysian working women and mothers, and; 2 limited literature on relating resilience to coping strategies and work stress.
Shueh Yi Lian
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of psychological features in the choice of coping strategies in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and their influence on quality of life (QoL). One hundred four patients (72 women, age 45.3 +/- 10.9 years, disease duration 17.9 +/- 13.2 years, Expanded Disability Status Scale 2.8 +/- 2.0) were assessed through the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences-New Italian version and the MSQoL-54. MS patients were less likely to use problem-focused strategies, whereas avoiding strategies were adopted more frequently. The use of positive strategies positively influenced both mental and overall QoL. Depression had a negative impact on all QoL domains and anxiety on mental domains. These data point out the importance of a comprehensive assessment of MS patients. Orienting therapeutic interventions, to oppose depression and anxiety and to favour more appropriate coping strategies can improve the patients' QoL. PMID:19153648
Goretti, Benedetta; Portaccio, Emilio; Zipoli, Valentina; Hakiki, Bahia; Siracusa, Gianfranco; Sorbi, Sandro; Amato, Maria Pia
Full Text Available Central Eastern Europe, the research area this paper is concerned with, is a region characterized by a high diversity of languages and cultures. It is, at the same time, an area where political, cultural and social conflicts have emerged over time, nowadays especially in border zones, where people of different ethnic, cultural or linguistic background live. In this context, it is important for us researchers to get balanced interview data, and consequently we very often have to conduct interviews in several different languages and within changing cultural contexts. In order to avoid "communication problems" or even conflictual (interview situations, which might damage the outcome of the research, we are thus challenged to find appropriate communication strategies for any of these situations. This is especially difficult when we are confronted with language or culture-specific terminology or taboo expressions that carry political meaning(s.
Once the interview data is collected and it comes to translating and analysing it, we face further challenges and new questions arise. First of all, we have to decide what a good translation strategy would be. Many words and phrases that exist in one language do not have an exact equivalent in another. Therefore we have to find a solution for translating these expressions and concepts in a way that their meanings do not get "lost by translation".
In this paper I discuss and provide insights to these challenges by presenting and discussing numerous examples from the region in question. Specifically, I focus on the deconstruction of the meaning of geographical names and politically loaded expressions in order to show the sensitivities of language, the difficulties of research in multilingual settings and with multilingual data as well as the strategies or "ways out" of certain dilemmas.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined which adaptive coping strategies, referring to the concept of 'locus of disease control', were of relevance for patients with chronic pain conditions, and how they were interconnected with patients' life satisfaction and interpretation of disease. Methods In a multicenter cross-sectional anonymous survey with the AKU questionnaire, we enrolled 579 patients (mean age 54 ± 14 years with various chronic pain conditions. Results Disease as an adverse interruption of life was the prevalent interpretation of chronic pain conditions. As a consequence, patients relied on external powerful sources to control their disease (i.e., Trust in Medical Help; Search for Information and Alternative Help, but also on internal powers and virtues (i.e., Conscious Way of Living; Positive Attitudes. In contrast, Trust in Divine Help as an external transcendent source and Reappraisal: Illness as Chance as an internal (cognitive strategy were valued moderately. Regression analyses indicated that Positive Attitudes and higher age were significant predictors of patients' life satisfaction, but none of the other adaptive coping strategies. While the adaptive coping strategies were not associated with negative interpretations of disease, the cognitive reappraisal attitude was of significant relevance for positive interpretations such as value and challenge. Conclusions The experience of illness may enhance intensity and depth of life, and thus one may explain the association between internal adaptive coping strategies (particularly Reappraisal and positive interpretations of disease. To restore a sense of self-control over pain (and thus congruence with the situation, and the conviction that one is not necessarily disabled by disease, is a major task in patient care. In the context of health services research, apart from effective pain management, a comprehensive approach is needed which enhances the psycho-spiritual well-being of patients.
A top executive for New England's biggest independent gas distributor says deregulation of the utility industry offers unprecedented opportunities for growth, but getting there will radically change the way it does business. To achieve dramatic growth, Bay State Gas Co. needs to base their strategies on anticipating the changes in the industry and aggressively positioning themselves to capture the new opportunities that the new business environment is creating. This includes: accelerating the unbundling of transportation service all the way to the residential customer level; forging strategic relationships with retail energy product and service companies as a means of increasing throughput on Bay State's system; implementing performance-based rates that provide financial incentives for lowering costs and improving customer service; accelerating the implementation of sophisticated information systems to streamline key business processes; and aggressively expanding Bay State's nonregulated Energy Products and Services business. These steps are discussed
This study attempted to determine whether the level of experience affected sources of stress, coping responses and emotional experience in primary school teachers. The first aim was to identify sources of stress and to evaluate coping strategies using the questionnaire of Graziani et al. ("Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et
Carton, Annie; Fruchart, Eric
Full text: The adaptive responses of plants to an increase in radioactivity of environment were established in radiobiological researches carried out in the Zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. It has been shown that there are two types of adaptive strategies to the environment contaminated with radionuclides, namely ontogenetic and phylogenetic strategies. The ontogenetic adaptive strategy is attained by induction of DNA reparation. Increasing of the genetic variability in irradiated population performs the phylogenetic adaptive strategy. The mechanism of this strategy is associated with induction of genetic instability. Rise in the frequency of genetic recombination as well as heterozygosity is at the time essential components of phylogenetic adaptation. Ontogenetic and phylogenetic adaptation strategies are an important feature in coping of plants to the elevated chronic irradiation. Most likely plant cells as a stress signal into adaptive responses perceive the low doses of irradiation. (author)
Full Text Available College students at university have to face several stress factors. Although sports practice has been considered as having beneficial effects upon stress and general health, few studies have documented its influence on this specific population. The aim of this comparative study was to determine whether the intensity of the college students sports practice (categorized into three groups: rare, regular or intensive would influence their levels of stress and self-efficacy, their coping strategies and their academic success/failure. Three self-completion questionnaires were administered to 1071 French freshmen during their compulsory medical visit at the preventive medicine service of the university. Results indicated that students with intensive sport practice reported lower scores of general stress, academic stress and emotion-focused coping strategies, and higher scores of self-efficacy than those with rare practice. However, the proportion of successful students did not differ significantly between the three groups of sports practice.
This paper reports findings from an ethnographic study that explored how market-based policies were implemented in one local health economy in England. We identified a number of coping strategies employed by local agents in response to multiple, rapidly changing and often contradictory central policies. These included prioritising the most pressing concern, relabelling existing initiatives as new policy and using new policies as a lever to realise local objectives. These coping strategies diluted the impact of market-based reforms. The impact of market-based policies was also tempered by the persistence of local social relationships in the form of 'sticky' referral patterns and agreements between organisations not to compete. Where national market-based policies disrupted local relationships they produced unintended consequences by creating an adversarial environment that prevented collaboration. PMID:23601569
Jones, Lorelei; Exworthy, Mark; Frosini, Francesca
Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of coping strategies, personality trait and social support as the main social and psychological factors on infertility stress.Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 201 infertile Iranian women referred to the Vali-e-Asr Reproductive health Research Center, and completed the following questionnaires: The fertility problem inventory, measuring perceived infertility related stress (Newton CR, 1999), big five factor persona...
Batool Rashidi; Soheila Hosseini; Pooya Beigi; Mahya Ghazizadeh; Mohammad Naghi Farahani
Full Text Available Everyone suffers from one or other form stress. But how does our medical student fare in this aspect when they enter this vast, ever expanding and demanding field of medicine. This is our small step to look from eyes of our student. The aim of this study was to enumerate the stress symptoms experienced, followed by evaluating the causes of stress and coping strategies in south Indian medical students. A cross-sectional study was performed on first year medical students at Melmaruvathur Adhiparasakthi institute of medical sciences, Melmaruvathur, Tamilnadu. A total of 141 students were participating in the study; semi structured questionnaire was designed, and they have to grade them in order of which they experienced first. One-way ANOVA for symptoms of stress, causes and coping strategies and Independent Samples Test- Levene's Test for Equality of Variances was used to find out the difference between hostilities and days scholars. Symptom of Fatigue/weakness is more in boys than the girls <0.018; home sickness was more in girls than boys<0.002, the coping strategies like taking rest, involving in sports and cultural programs; self-isolation was significantly more in boys than girls. Hostilities are having more low moods compare to days scholars <0.025, coping strategy is by listening to music<0.01. Medical students will be having different types of causes for their stress, so medical faculties need to be aware of these problems and identify and deal with them as soon as possible.
Santosh Patil*, Madhura M and Abdul khadar
This study aimed to understand parents evaluations of the way they integrated work-family demands to manage food and eating. Employed, low/moderate-income, urban, U.S., Black, White, and Latino mothers (35) and fathers (34) participated in qualitative interviews exploring work and family conditions and spillover, food roles, and food-choice coping and family-adaptive strategies. Parents expressed a range of evaluations from overall satisfaction to overall dissatisfaction as well as dissati...
Blake, Christine E.; Devine, Carol M.; Wethington, Elaine; Jastran, Margaret; Farrell, Tracy J.; Bisogni, Carole A.
Abstract Background Coping strategies have, in some countries, become so prevalent that it has been widely assumed that the very notion of civil services ethos has completely and possibly irreversibly disappeared. This paper describes the importance and the nature of pilfering of drugs by health staff in Mozambique and Cape Verde, as perceived by health professionals from these countries. Their opinions provide pointers as to how to tackle these problems. Metho...
BACKGROUND: Coping strategies have, in some countries, become so prevalent that it has been widely assumed that the very notion of civil services ethos has completely - and possibly irreversibly - disappeared. This paper describes the importance and the nature of pilfering of drugs by health staff in Mozambique and Cape Verde, as perceived by health professionals from these countries. Their opinions provide pointers as to how to tackle these problems. METHODS: This study is based on a self-ad...
Background: Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways i...
Hayati, Elli Nur; Eriksson, Malin; Hakimi, Mohammad; Hogberg, Ulf; Emmelin, Maria
Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergra...
Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T; Shankar Pathiyil R; Vs, Binu; Mukhopadhyay Chiranjoy; Ray Biswabina; Menezes Ritesh G
Abstract Background We examined which adaptive coping strategies, referring to the concept of 'locus of disease control', were of relevance for patients with chronic pain conditions, and how they were interconnected with patients' life satisfaction and interpretation of disease. Methods In a multicenter cross-sectional anonymous survey with the AKU questionnaire, we enrolled 579 patients (mean age 54 ± 14 years) with various chronic pain conditions. Resu...
Büssing Arndt; Ostermann Thomas; Am, Neugebauer Edmund; Heusser Peter
This longitudinal study investigated whether cybervictimisation is an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms over and beyond traditional victimisation in adolescents. Furthermore, it explored whether certain coping strategies moderate the impact of cybervictimisation on depressive symptoms. A total of 765 Swiss seventh graders (mean age at time-point 1 (t1) = 13.18 years) reported on the frequency of traditional and cybervictimisation, and of depressive symptoms twice in six months. A...
Machmutow, K.; Perren, S.; Sticca, F.; Alsaker, F.
The clinical course of localized scleroderma may consist of bodily deformations, and bodily functions may also be affected. Additionally, the secondary lesions, such as discoloration, contractures, and atrophy, are unlikely to regress. The aforementioned symptoms and functional disturbances may decrease one's quality of life (QoL). Although much has been mentioned in the medical literature regarding QoL in persons suffering from dermatologic diseases, no data specifically describing patients with localized scleroderma exist. The aim of the study was to explore QoL in localized scleroderma patients and to examine their coping strategies in regard to optimism and QoL. The study included 41 patients with localized scleroderma. QoL was evaluated using the SKINDEX questionnaire, and levels of dispositional optimism were assessed using the Life Orientation Test-Revised. In addition, individual coping strategy was determined using the Mini-MAC scale and physical condition was assessed using the Localized Scleroderma Severity Index. The mean QoL score amounted to 51.10 points, with mean scores for individual components as follows: symptoms?=?13.49 points, emotions?=?21.29 points, and functioning?=?16.32 points. A relationship was detected between QoL and the level of dispositional optimism as well as with coping strategies known as anxious preoccupation and helplessness-hopelessness. Higher levels of optimism predicted a higher general QoL. In turn, greater intensity of anxious preoccupied and helpless-hopeless behaviors predicted a lower QoL. Based on these results, it may be stated that localized scleroderma patients have a relatively high QoL, which is accompanied by optimism as well as a lower frequency of behaviors typical of emotion-focused coping strategies. PMID:23398519
Szramka-Pawlak, B; Da?czak-Pazdrowska, A; Rzepa, T; Szewczyk, A; Sadowska-Przytocka, A; ?aba, R
This study evaluates the perceptions of stress among Information and Communications Technology (ICT) students and their coping strategies in dealing with English as the medium of instruction during their university studies. A semi-structured administered survey was conducted using a sample of 267 male students of a Computer Science college from a midsize Middle Eastern university The study also used a phenomenological approach with semi-structured interviews carried out with ten students in o...
Alginahi, Y. M.; Ahmed, M.; Tayan, O.; Siddiqi, A. A.; Sharif, L.; Alharby, A.; Nour, R.
Sintomas de estresse e estratégias de coping em idosos saudáveis / Stress symptoms and coping strategies in healthy elderly subjects / Síntomas de estrés y estrategias de coping en ancianos saludables
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Idosos podem manifestar sintomas de estresse em decorrência das mudanças biopsicossociais do envelhecimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar sintomas de estresse em idosos e o estilo de coping utilizado por eles, verificando a relação entre estas variáveis. Foram aplicados a Lista de Sintoma [...] s de Stress (LSS) e o Inventário de Coping de Jalowiec, em 41 idosos saudáveis. Os idosos apresentaram sintomas de estresse, com intensidade média de 42.8 pontos. Observou-se predomínio do coping focado no problema, porém não houve diferença significativa entre as médias dos escores do LSS entre os indivíduos que utilizaram coping focado no problema ou na emoção (p=0.737). Neste estudo, embora os idosos tendessem a eleger o coping focado no problema, a intensidade dos sintomas de estresse independeu do tipo de coping utilizado, evidenciando que tanto o coping focado no problema como o focado na emoção estão associados a níveis semelhantes de estresse. Abstract in spanish Los ancianos pueden manifestar síntomas de estrés como consecuencia de los cambios biopsicosociales del envejecimiento. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar síntomas de estrés en ancianos y el estilo de coping utilizado por ellos, verificando la relación entre estas variables. Fueron aplicado [...] s la Lista de Síntomas de Estrés (LSS) y el Inventario de Coping de Jalowiec, en 41 ancianos saludables. Los ancianos presentaron síntomas de estrés, con intensidad promedio de 42.8 pontos. Se observó el predominio del coping enfocado en el problema, sin embargo no hubo diferencia significativa entre los promedios de los puntajes del LSS entre los individuos que utilizaron el coping enfocado en el problema o en la emoción (p = 0.737). En este estudio, a pesar de que los ancianos tendieron a escoger el coping enfocado en el problema, la intensidad de los síntomas de estrés fue independiente del tipo de coping utilizado, evidenciando que tanto el coping enfocado en el problema como el enfocado en la emoción están asociados a niveles semejantes de estrés. Abstract in english Elderly subjects may present stress symptoms due to physical, psychological and social changes during aging process. The aim of this study was to identify stress symptoms in elderly subjects and the coping strategies they used, verifying the relationship between these variables. The Stress Symptoms [...] List (SSL) and the Jalowiec Coping Scale were administered to 41 healthy elderly subjects. Elderly subjects presented stress symptoms with a mean score of 42.8. Although problem-focused coping was predominantly observed, no significant difference was observed between mean SSL scores among elderly subjects who used problem-focused or emotion-focused coping. Although elderly subjects mainly elected problem-focused coping, stress intensity was independent of the coping style, showing that both problem- and emotion-focused coping are associated with similar stress levels.
Juliana Nery de Souza, Talarico; Paulo, Caramelli; Ricardo, Nitrini; Eliane Corrêa, Chaves.
Full Text Available Idosos podem manifestar sintomas de estresse em decorrência das mudanças biopsicossociais do envelhecimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar sintomas de estresse em idosos e o estilo de coping utilizado por eles, verificando a relação entre estas variáveis. Foram aplicados a Lista de Sintomas de Stress (LSS e o Inventário de Coping de Jalowiec, em 41 idosos saudáveis. Os idosos apresentaram sintomas de estresse, com intensidade média de 42.8 pontos. Observou-se predomínio do coping focado no problema, porém não houve diferença significativa entre as médias dos escores do LSS entre os indivíduos que utilizaram coping focado no problema ou na emoção (p=0.737. Neste estudo, embora os idosos tendessem a eleger o coping focado no problema, a intensidade dos sintomas de estresse independeu do tipo de coping utilizado, evidenciando que tanto o coping focado no problema como o focado na emoção estão associados a níveis semelhantes de estresse.Los ancianos pueden manifestar síntomas de estrés como consecuencia de los cambios biopsicosociales del envejecimiento. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar síntomas de estrés en ancianos y el estilo de coping utilizado por ellos, verificando la relación entre estas variables. Fueron aplicados la Lista de Síntomas de Estrés (LSS y el Inventario de Coping de Jalowiec, en 41 ancianos saludables. Los ancianos presentaron síntomas de estrés, con intensidad promedio de 42.8 pontos. Se observó el predominio del coping enfocado en el problema, sin embargo no hubo diferencia significativa entre los promedios de los puntajes del LSS entre los individuos que utilizaron el coping enfocado en el problema o en la emoción (p = 0.737. En este estudio, a pesar de que los ancianos tendieron a escoger el coping enfocado en el problema, la intensidad de los síntomas de estrés fue independiente del tipo de coping utilizado, evidenciando que tanto el coping enfocado en el problema como el enfocado en la emoción están asociados a niveles semejantes de estrés.Elderly subjects may present stress symptoms due to physical, psychological and social changes during aging process. The aim of this study was to identify stress symptoms in elderly subjects and the coping strategies they used, verifying the relationship between these variables. The Stress Symptoms List (SSL and the Jalowiec Coping Scale were administered to 41 healthy elderly subjects. Elderly subjects presented stress symptoms with a mean score of 42.8. Although problem-focused coping was predominantly observed, no significant difference was observed between mean SSL scores among elderly subjects who used problem-focused or emotion-focused coping. Although elderly subjects mainly elected problem-focused coping, stress intensity was independent of the coping style, showing that both problem- and emotion-focused coping are associated with similar stress levels.
Juliana Nery de Souza Talarico
The present study was conducted to assess the problems faced by adolescents whose parents suffer from major mental illness at selected mental health institutes of Delhi. The objectives also included assessment of the coping strategies of the adolescents in dealing with these problems. The Stuart Stress Adaptation Model of Psychiatric Nursing Care was used as the conceptual framework. A descriptive survey approach with cross-sectional design was used in the study. A structured interview schedule was prepared. Purposive non-probability sampling technique was employed to interview 50 adolescents whose parents suffer from major mental illness. Data gathered was analysed and interpreted using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study showed that majority of the adolescents had moderate problems as a result of their parent's mental illness. Area-wise analysis of the problems revealed that the highest problems faced were in family relationship and support and majority of the adolescents used maladaptive coping strategies. A set of guidelines on effective coping strategies was disseminated to these adolescents. PMID:23534178
George, Shoba; Shaiju, Bindu; Sharma, Veena
Abstract Purpose: The article discusses the different forms of abuse experienced by physically disabled women in Ghana, and seeks to provide an understanding of the coping strategies used by these women. Method: This is a qualitative inquiry based on data collected after informed consent from five female informants using in-depth interviews and focus groups. Presentation of results and discussion: The data revealed that our informants experienced social, physical/verbal and sexual abuse to which they adopt coping strategies such as help-seeking, avoidance, confrontation, confidence building and an exchange of sympathy. Conclusion: Disabled women in Ghana still face various forms of abuse that appear to be generally accepted because of cultural beliefs and norms, and they employ various strategies to cope with abuse and sustain their female identity. There is the need for awareness programmes at all societal levels to eradicate prejudices and practices that expose disabled women to abuse. Implications for Rehabilitation The rehabilitation of abused disabled women should include empowering processes that enable them to overcome abusive relationships. The dignity of abused disabled women can be restored by increasing their access to rehabilitation facilities. Cultural stereotypes that legitimate abuse should be addressed in efforts to rehabilitate abused, disabled women. Abused, disabled women may increase their female identity when they engage in rehabilitation processes such as networking and participation in full-time work. PMID:23841563
Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Agbota, Tete Kobla
This research investigates the levels of occupational stress and professional burnout of teachers of primary and secondary education. It also aims to investigate the coping strategies that they adopt, and the relationship between them. The survey involved ...
Alexander-Stamatios Antoniou; Aikaterini Ploumpi; Marina Ntalla
CONCLUSIONS: Results from prior studies of quality of life (QoL) in heterogeneous patient groups (regarding disorder type and etiology) with olfactory disorders may be useful also for understanding QoL in homogeneous patient groups. Diagnosis and treatment of smell loss should be given high priority in polyposis with asthma, and coping strategies can be suggested to these patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of smell loss on daily life and coping strategies in patients with smell ...
Nordin, Steven; Hede?n Blomqvist, Ebba; Olsson, Petter; Stja?rne, Pa?r; Ehnhage, Anders
The aim of this study was to determine the coping strategies that non-elite athletes use to overcome environmental factors during endurance events. A sample of 53 nonelite endurance athletes completed a questionnaire and interviews were conducted. The research focused on exploring individual experiences as well as identifying themes and patterns of behaviour during endurance events. The results indicated that endurance athletes used basically three coping strategies (responses) that were iden...
Oneil, John W.; Steyn, Ben J. M.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the coping strategies with stres of the students who are from the Turkish Republic and those of the Middle Asian Turkish Republics. The population of the study consists of the students from Middle Asian Turkish Republics at Ondokuz May?s University in 2004-2005 Academic Year. This study was carried out on a total number of 437 students; 125 of them are from Middle Asian Turkish Republics and 312 from Turkish Republic. In this study, to determine the level of stres, Coping Stres Scale (CSS developed by Türküm (2002 based on the Folkman and Lazarus Models was used. According to the results of MANOVA, there is no significant difference between the Coping Strategies with stres of the students from Turkish Republics and the students from Middle Asian Turkish Republics in terms of sub-scale.
Seher BALCI ÇEL?K
This experimental study, grounded in Hobfoll's conservation of resources (COR) theory, assessed the effects of manipulating a social stressor on loss of psychological resources, negative affect, and coping strategies. Israeli student volunteers were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: (1) social stressor (n = 66) and (2.) nonstressor (n = 59). The social stressor, aimed at reducing participant's personal resources, was experimentally induced via the Trier Social Stress Test protocol. The protocol consisted of a mock job interview administered under evaluative conditions, followed by performing a difficult arithmetic calculation task. The nonstressor condition involved a neutral interaction with an experimenter, followed by performing a relatively easy mental calculation task. Consistent with our hypotheses, the social stressor, compared to the nonstressor condition, resulted in statistically significant lower mean levels of psychological resources, higher levels of negative affect, and increased emotion-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping. Furthermore, under the social stressor condition, compared with the nonstressor condition, negative affect was more strongly related to loss of psychological resources and various coping strategies. Overall, the data provide experimental support for key tenets of COR theory. PMID:24192220
Zeidner, Moshe; Ben-Zur, Hasida
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo investigou estratégias de coping, definidas como esforços cognitivos e comportamentais utilizados frente a circunstâncias adversas, e o estilo atribucional de crianças de oito a dez anos. As crianças foram entrevistadas e suas respostas permitiram identificar 100 eventos, as estratégias [...] utilizadas pelas crianças para lidarem com a situação estressante e suas atribuições causais para a ocorrência do evento. Os resultados indicaram uma utilização preferencial de estratégias de busca de apoio social e de ação agressiva frente ao conflito. Como estratégia alternativa, as crianças apontaram preferência pela estratégia de ação direta. A distração foi a estratégia mais utilizada para lidar com as emoções desencadeadas pelo evento. Nos eventos que envolveram conflitos com adultos, as estratégias de ação direta, evitação e aceitação foram mais utilizadas, enquanto que com pares as estratégias de ação agressiva e busca de apoio social foram mais freqüentes. Não foram encontradas relações significativas entre as estratégias de coping e estilo atribucional. Os resultados deste estudo reforçam a posição de que as estratégias de coping não são simplesmente disposicionais, mas determinadas pelo contexto do evento estressante. Abstract in english This study investigated coping strategies, defined as cognitive and behavioral efforts to deal with stressful situations, and the attributional styles utilized by 8-10 year-old children. The children were interviewed and their responses led to the identification of 100 stressful events, the strategi [...] es they employed to deal with theses events, and their causal attributions for the events. The results indicated that the strategies children used more often to deal with conflict were to look for social support and aggressive actions. As an alternative strategy, the children indicated a preference for direct action. Distraction was the main strategy to deal with emotions elicited by the event. Direct action, avoidance, and acceptance strategies were more used in situations involving conflicts with adults, while aggressive actions and seeking social support were more frequent in situations involving peers. No significant differences were identified between coping strategies and attributional styles. The results of this study support the hypothesis that coping strategies are not dispositional and that they seem to be determined by the context of the event
Dell' Aglio, Débora Dalbosco; Hutz, Cláudio Simon.
Full Text Available Este estudo investigou estratégias de coping, definidas como esforços cognitivos e comportamentais utilizados frente a circunstâncias adversas, e o estilo atribucional de crianças de oito a dez anos. As crianças foram entrevistadas e suas respostas permitiram identificar 100 eventos, as estratégias utilizadas pelas crianças para lidarem com a situação estressante e suas atribuições causais para a ocorrência do evento. Os resultados indicaram uma utilização preferencial de estratégias de busca de apoio social e de ação agressiva frente ao conflito. Como estratégia alternativa, as crianças apontaram preferência pela estratégia de ação direta. A distração foi a estratégia mais utilizada para lidar com as emoções desencadeadas pelo evento. Nos eventos que envolveram conflitos com adultos, as estratégias de ação direta, evitação e aceitação foram mais utilizadas, enquanto que com pares as estratégias de ação agressiva e busca de apoio social foram mais freqüentes. Não foram encontradas relações significativas entre as estratégias de coping e estilo atribucional. Os resultados deste estudo reforçam a posição de que as estratégias de coping não são simplesmente disposicionais, mas determinadas pelo contexto do evento estressante.This study investigated coping strategies, defined as cognitive and behavioral efforts to deal with stressful situations, and the attributional styles utilized by 8-10 year-old children. The children were interviewed and their responses led to the identification of 100 stressful events, the strategies they employed to deal with theses events, and their causal attributions for the events. The results indicated that the strategies children used more often to deal with conflict were to look for social support and aggressive actions. As an alternative strategy, the children indicated a preference for direct action. Distraction was the main strategy to deal with emotions elicited by the event. Direct action, avoidance, and acceptance strategies were more used in situations involving conflicts with adults, while aggressive actions and seeking social support were more frequent in situations involving peers. No significant differences were identified between coping strategies and attributional styles. The results of this study support the hypothesis that coping strategies are not dispositional and that they seem to be determined by the context of the event
Débora Dalbosco Dell'Aglio
Performing under high pressure is an emotional experience. Hence, the use of emotion regulation strategies may prove to be highly effective in preventing choking under pressure. Using a golf putting task, we investigated the role of arousal on declined sport performance under pressure (pilot study) and the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies in alleviating choking under pressure (main study). The pilot study showed that pressure resulted in decreased performance and this effect was partially mediated by increased arousal. The main study, a field study, showed that whereas the choking effect was observed in the control condition, reappraisal and, particularly, distraction were effective emotion regulation strategies in helping people to cope instead of choke under pressure. These findings suggest that interventions that aim to prevent choking under pressure could benefit from including emotion regulation strategies. PMID:23966450
Balk, Yannick A; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise T D; Evers, Catharine
Occupational violence in nursing: explanations and coping strategies Violencia laboral en enfermeras: explicaciones y estrategias de afrontamiento Violência laboral em enfermeiras: explicações e estratégias de enfrentamento
This study explored part of the experience of occupational harassment, experienced by thirteen Chilean nurses, analyzing the relationship between the explanations and their coping strategies, to formulate a comprehensive model that includes the involved elements and that can be used to develop preventive strategies. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, using theoretical saturation as the ending criterion and were analyzed according to the procedures of Grounded Theory. The ...
Angelina María Dois Castellón
Full Text Available Introduction: In South Africa where HIV prevalence is high, mentor mother programmes have been used to promote the health and wellbeing of women enrolled in government programmes preventing vertical transmission. The Masihambisane Project trained mentors to be educators and facilitators as expert patients in self-help groups. While this and other similar interventions demonstrate positive outcomes for mothers and their children, the long-term repercussions for mentors delivering the intervention are seldom considered. This article explores the personal impact of being a mentor, the potentially traumatizing effects of repeatedly sharing their experiences of living with HIV and the coping strategies they adopt. Results: Towards the end of the Masihambisane intervention, 10 semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with locally recruited mentors living with HIV and were thematically analysed. Mentors found the repeated telling of their stories a painful reminder of adverse personal experiences. In some cases, retelling caused a physical reaction. Mentors relied on coping strategies like taking breaks, writing their experiences down and debriefing sessions. Despite the difficulties associated with their role, some mentors found being advisors and the group sessions therapeutic and empowering. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the inclusion of peer mentors comes with certain responsibilities. While the mentors were resilient and some found the experience therapeutic and empowering found creative ways to cope with secondary trauma, the negative implications cannot be ignored. To effectively deliver a mentor-driven intervention to mothers enrolled in a programme to prevent vertical transmission, the possibilities of secondary trauma should be considered and mentors provided with ongoing counselling, training on coping skills and regular debriefing sessions.
Alastair van Heerden
Eventos estressores e estratégias de coping em adolescentes: implicações na aprendizagem / Stressful events and coping strategies among adolescents: implications for Learning / Eventos estresantes y estrategias de coping en adolescentes: implicaciones en el aprendizaje
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Ao longo da vida, nos deparamos com eventos com os quais não nos percebemos capacitados a lidar, o que pode gerar um estado de tensão no organismo denominado estresse. As alterações decorrentes do estresse e o impacto que provoca na vida das pessoas podem agravar a desadaptação do indivíduo em seu d [...] esenvolvimento, sobretudo no ambiente escolar. O presente artigo explora as relações entre eventos de vida estressores, estresse e estratégias de coping em adolescentes, discutindo as possíveis implicações desses fatores na aprendizagem. Além disso, são descritos os fatores ambientais e a neurobiologia do estresse, bem como o papel da resiliência no enfrentamento de situações estressantes. Abstract in spanish A lo largo de la vida nos enfrentamos con eventos con los cuales no nos sentimos capaces de lidiar, lo que puede generar un estado de tensión en el organismo denominado estrés. Las alteraciones a raíz del estrés y el impacto que provoca en la vida de las personas pueden agravar la falta de adaptació [...] n del individuo en su desarrollo, principalmente en el ambiente escolar. El presente artículo explora las relaciones entre eventos de vida estresantes, estrés y estrategias de Coping en adolescentes, discutiendo las posibles implicaciones de esos factores en el aprendizaje. Además, son descritos los factores ambientales y la neurobiología del estrés, así como el papel de la resiliencia en el enfrentamiento de situaciones estresantes. Abstract in english Throughout our lives we come across events that we think we are not able to deal with, which can generate a state of tension in the body called stress. The changes resulting from the stress and their impact on peoples lives may aggravate the maladjustment on the individual development, particularly [...] in the school environment. This article explores the relationship between stressful events, stress and coping strategies in adolescents, discussing the possible implications of these factors in the learning process. Moreover, environmental factors, the neurobiology of stress and the role of resilience in coping with stressful situations are described.
Fernanda de Bastani, Busnello; Luiziana Souto, Schaefer; Christian Haag, Kristensen.
Full Text Available Sport coaching can be a fulfilling and rewarding occupation, but can also be stressful because of the demands and expectations of various external factors. The complex and extraordinary demands placed on coaches, force them to perform multiple roles (e.g. educator, motivator, counsellor, adviser, trainer, manager and administrator. Soccer coaches face a number of challenges, frustrations, conflicts and tensions, the enormity of which is often underestimated. This notion is supported by the description of coaching as a perilous occupation in which coaches experience pressures like stress, conflict and tension, media pressure and intrusions into family life. This study explored the perceptions of South African soccer coaches in terms of the mechanisms they use to cope with potential stressors experienced in their jobs and employed a non-experimental design, using a quantitative approach, to assess stress and coping strategies of South African coaches. One hundred and twelve soccer coaches, coaching at the provincial level and higher, completed a questionnaire on stress and stress coping mechanisms used in their coaching jobs. Descriptive data analysis was completed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16. The sources of stress experienced and coping methods used by the coaches were evaluated. Results revealed that the top three sources of stress were a lack of resources, fixture backlog and games where the outcome is critical, whilst the lowest three sources of stress were political interference, physical assaults from players and substituting a player. Moreover, various coping strategies used by the coaches showed that an average of 5.68%, 5.14% and 89.78% of the sample used maladaptive coping, emotion management coping and problem management coping strategies respectively. Academic and practical implications of the study results are discussed.
OpsommingSport afrigting kan n baie vervullende en bevredigende beroepskeuse wees, maar as gevolg van die eise en verwagtinge van verskeie omgewings faktore, kan dit ook as n spanningsvolle beroep ervaar word. Afrigters moet verskeie rolle vertolk (o.a. opvoeder, motiveerder, sielkundige, adviseerder, afrigter, bestuurder en administrateur wat deel uitmaak van die komplekse en buitengewone eise wat op hulle geplaas word. Sokker afrigters beleef n aantal uitdagings, konflik situasies, frustrasies en spanning waarvan die impak of waarde daarvan selde gemeet kan word. Afrigting as n konsep word beskryf of gedefinieer as n potensieel onveilige en/of wisselvallige beroep waar die meerderheid afrigters spanning ervaar, konflik beleef, media druk moet verwerk en n geweldige inbreuk op hul persoonlike en familielewe ervaar. Hierdie studie ondersoek Suid-Afrikaanse sokker afrigters se persepsies aangaande die meganismes wat hulle gebruik om die potensiële spanning van hul beroep te bestuur. Die studie is gebaseer op n nie-eksperimentele ontwerp met n kwantitatiewe benadering van Suid-Afrikaanse sokker afrigters om spanning te evalueer en te bestuur. Een honderd en twaalf sokker afrigters wat op provinsiale vlak of hoër afgerig het, het vraelyste ingevul aangaande spanning en spanning hanteringstegnieke wat in hul afrigtingsberoepe gebruik is. Beskrywende data analise is met behulp van n statistiese pakket in Sosiale Wetenskap (SPSS-weergawe 16 gedoen. Die oorsake van spanning asook die hanteringstegnieke wat deur die afrigters gebruik is, is geevalueer. Die resultate het bevind dat daar drie duidelike oorsake van spanning was, naamlik n tekort aan hulpbronne, die akkumulasie van geskeduleerde wedstryde asook wedstryde waarvan die uitslag krities is. Die drie laagste oorsake van spanning was onder andere politieke inmenging, fisiese aanranding deur spelers en die vervanging van spelers. Die afrigters het n verskeidenheid van spannings hanteringstegnieke gebruik, maar die resultate toon dat 5.68%, 5.14% en 89.78% van die eksperimente
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the out-of pocket expenditure and coping strategies adopted by families of children admitted in a hospital in Bangladesh with pneumonia. Methods Trained interviewers surveyed parents of 90 children and conducted in-depth interviews with six families below the age of 5 years who were admitted to the largest pediatric hospital in Bangladesh with a diagnosis of pneumonia. We estimated the total cost of illness associated with hospitalization and explored the coping strategies of the families. Results The mean expenditure of the families for the illness episode was US$ 94 (±SD 52.5 with 75% having spent more than half of their total monthly expenditure on this hospitalization. Three fourths (68/90, 76% of the families managed the expenditure by borrowing, mortgaging or selling assets; 64% had to borrow the full cost of hospitalization and 10% borrowed from the formal sector with a monthly interest rate of 5 to 30%. The burden was highest for the people from poor income strata. Families earning ?US$ 59 per month were 10 times more likely than families earning ?US$ 59 per month to borrow money (OR = 10.0, 95% CI: 2.8-38.8. To repay their debts, 22% of families reported that they would work extra hours and 50% planned to reduce spending on food and education for their children. Conclusions Coping strategies adopted by the families to manage the out-of-pocket expenditure for children requiring hospitalization were catastrophic for the majority of the families. Efforts to prevent childhood pneumonia for example, by vaccination against the most common pathogens, by improving air quality and by improving childhood nutrition can provide a double advantage. They can prevent both disease and poverty.
Luby Stephen P
Full Text Available Rural households in Nigeria are vulnerable to shock becauseof their limited capacity to make informed decision onsecured coping strategies which is further aggravated by somehouseholds specific socio-economic characteristics. Attemptswere made to identify shocks being faced by households headsand coping strategies. Multistage sampling technique was usedto select 80 respondents and well structured questionnaire wasused to collect data through in-depth interview. Data wereanalysed using descriptive statistics to describe households socio-economic variables; Probit analysis was also used to determinethe relationship between personal socio-economic characteristicsof the respondents, shocks and choice of coping actions. Theresults revealed that a large share of households experiencemultidimensional shocks, which are mainly associated toecological but also suffer from other economic, demographicand social factors. Majority of households undertake copingactions in response to shocks; coping strategies employed butnot limited to include borrowing, distress sales of assets,remittances, adjustment in food intake, drawing on savings. Educational status, household size, per capita income, shocks type,coping strategies, among others are found to significantly affectthe choice of coping actions and are likely to have implicationsfor households future welfare status.
Seyi Olalekan, Olawuyi
A total of 13 to 14% of European and North American workers are involved in shift work. The present aim is to explore the relationships between coping strategies adopted by shift workers and their leisure-time energy expenditure. Twenty-four female and 71 male shift workers (mean ± SD age: 37 ± 9 years) completed an adapted version of the Standard Shift-work Index (SSI), together with a leisure-time physical activity questionnaire. Predictors of age, time spent in shift work, gender, marita...
Fullick, S.; Grindey, C.; Edwards, B.; Morris, C.; Reilly, T.; Richardson, D.; Waterhouse, J.; Atkinson, G.
This article explores the repercussions of workplace bullying on nurses and the health-care profession as a whole. I discuss the nature of workplace bullying and draw upon prior studies to explore some of the barriers that prevent witnesses to bullying from intervening, as well as barriers faced by targets in taking action to stop the bullying. As overt forms of resistance are often not feasible in situations where nurses occupy subordinate positions to their bullies, I propose that cognitive reappraisal can be an effective coping strategy, and situate this perspective within the research on humour, hope and optimism. PMID:24889001
Exaustão emocional: relações com a percepção de suporte organizacional e com as estratégias de coping no trabalho Emotional exhaustion: relationships with the perceived organizational support and coping strategies in the work place
Full Text Available A exaustão emocional é considerada como o fator central do burnout. Diversas pesquisas mostram que características do ambiente de trabalho e do trabalhador estão associadas ao desenvolvimento da exaustão emocional. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de uma investigação sobre dois aspectos importantes para o estudo da exaustão emocional: a percepção de suporte organizacional (PSO e o coping no trabalho. 369 trabalhadores responderam uma escala de exaustão emocional, uma de PSO e outra de coping no trabalho. Os fatores gestão de desempenho, sobrecarga, suporte social e ascensão e salários da escala de PSO e o fator escape da escala de coping revelaram-se preditores significativos da dimensão exaustão psicológica da escala de exaustão emocional. A segunda dimensão desta escala, percepção de desgaste, só foi predita significativamente pelos fatores suporte social e sobrecarga da escala de PSO. Recomendações para lidar com a exaustão emocional são apresentadas.Emotional exhaustion is regarded as the principal dimension of the burnout. Several studies show that characteristics of job setting and the employee are associated with the development of emotional exhaustion. This study present the results of a research about the relationship among emotional exhaustion, the perceived organizational support (POS and coping strategies in the work place. 396 workers answered a scale of emotional exhaustion, one of POS and one another of coping. The dimensions performance management, overload, social support and promotion and salaries from the POS scale and the dimension escape from the coping scale were significant predictors of the dimension psychological exhaustion from the emotional exhaustion scale. The second dimension from the emotional exhaustion scale, perception of wear, was significantly predicted only by the factors social support and overload from the POS scale. Recommendations for the management of emotional exhaustion are presented.
Mauricio Robayo Tamayo
Background: An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods: To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and December 2008. Results: Tamil refugees i...
Guribye, Eugene; Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim; Oppedal, Brit
INTERVENÇÕES UTILIZADAS NA PROMOÇÃO DE ESTRATÉGIAS DE COPING NA DEPRESSÃO EM MULHERES COM CÂNCER / APPLIED INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE COPING STRATEGIES FOR DEPRESSION AMONG WOMEN WITH CANCER / INTERVENCIONES UTILIZADAS PARA PROMOVER ESTRATEGIAS DE COPING PARA LA DEPRESIÓN ENTRE MUJERES CON CÁNCER
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A depressão tem sido observada em portadores de doenças crônico-degenerativas, incluindo câncer. A utilização de diferentes estratégias de coping nessas condições patológicas pode ser extremamente importante, em face da presença de fatores estressores e sentimentos indesejáveis. Buscou-se identifica [...] r, por meio de revisão sistemática, os tipos de estudo para promover estratégia de coping e as intervenções utilizadas para promover tais estratégias em situação de depressão, em mulheres com câncer. Foram consultadas três bases de dados eletrônicas, utilizando as palavras chave depression, coping e cancer para busca de publicações em Inglês, Português e Espanhol. A busca foi limitada ao gênero feminino e aos tipos de estudo: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial e review. Foram encontrados 376 artigos, excluídos os que não possuíam texto na íntegra disponível e as repetições em diferentes bases de dados; foram eleitos 22 artigos oriundos de diferentes países (63% da America do Norte), e publicados em periódicos de diferentes áreas de conhecimento; são de modelo experimental (63%); recentes (1996 a 2006); foram adotadas estratégias individuais (59,9%) e grupais; o suporte emocional e a terapia cognitiva foram as mais empregadas. As intervenções que promovam estratégias de coping identificadas podem ser eficazes, com diminuição significante de depressão e aumento de coping e qualidade de vida; recomenda-se que o enfermeiro as empregue para redução de depressão ao longo do processo terapêutico do câncer. Abstract in spanish La depresión ha sido observada en portadores de enfermedades cronico-degenerativas, incluyendo el cáncer. El uso de diferentes estrategias de coping para lidiar con estas condiciones patológicas puede ser extremadamente importante, en vista de la presencia de factores de estrés y sentimientos indese [...] ables. Se buscó identificar, por medio de una revisión sistemática, los tipos de estudio para promover estrategias de coping y las intervenciones usadas para promover tales estrategias en situaciones de depresión en mujeres con cáncer. Fueron consultadas 3 bases de datos electrónicas, utilizando las palabras clave depression, coping y cáncer para buscar publicaciones en inglés, portugués y español. La búsqueda fue limitada al género femenino y a los tipos de estudio: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial y review. Fueron encontrados 376 artículos. Excluidos aquéllos sin texto completo disponible y las repeticiones en diferentes bases de datos, fueron elegidos 22 artículos originarios de diferentes países (63% de América del Norte) y publicados en periódicos de diferentes áreas de conocimiento; son del tipo experimental (63%); recientes (1996 a 2006); fueron adoptadas estrategias individuales (59,9%) y grupales; el apoyo emocional y la terapia cognitiva fueron las más empleadas. Las intervenciones que promueven estrategias de coping identificadas pueden ser eficaces, con disminución significativa de la depresión y aumento del coping y calidad de vida. Se recomienda que el enfermero las emplee para reducir la depresión a lo largo del proceso terapéutico del cáncer. Abstract in english Depression has been observed in patients with chronic-degenerative diseases, including cancer. Using different coping strategies can be extremely important under these pathological conditions, considering the presence of stress and unwanted feelings. The purpose of this systematic review was to iden [...] tify types of studies aimed at promoting coping strategies for depression among women with cancer and interventions used to promote these strategies. Three different electronic databases were reviewed, using the key words depression, coping and cancer to seek publications in English, Portuguese and Spanish, which resulted in 376 articles. The search was limited to female gender and the study types: clinical trial, meta-anal
LUCIMARA, MORELI; JEANNE MARIE R, STACCIARINI; ARIANE, DE FREITAS CARDOSO; EMILIA, CAMPOS DE CARVALHO.
INTERVENÇÕES UTILIZADAS NA PROMOÇÃO DE ESTRATÉGIAS DE COPING NA DEPRESSÃO EM MULHERES COM CÂNCER INTERVENCIONES UTILIZADAS PARA PROMOVER ESTRATEGIAS DE COPING PARA LA DEPRESIÓN ENTRE MUJERES CON CÁNCER APPLIED INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE COPING STRATEGIES FOR DEPRESSION AMONG WOMEN WITH CANCER
Full Text Available A depressão tem sido observada em portadores de doenças crônico-degenerativas, incluindo câncer. A utilização de diferentes estratégias de coping nessas condições patológicas pode ser extremamente importante, em face da presença de fatores estressores e sentimentos indesejáveis. Buscou-se identificar, por meio de revisão sistemática, os tipos de estudo para promover estratégia de coping e as intervenções utilizadas para promover tais estratégias em situação de depressão, em mulheres com câncer. Foram consultadas três bases de dados eletrônicas, utilizando as palavras chave depression, coping e cancer para busca de publicações em Inglês, Português e Espanhol. A busca foi limitada ao gênero feminino e aos tipos de estudo: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial e review. Foram encontrados 376 artigos, excluídos os que não possuíam texto na íntegra disponível e as repetições em diferentes bases de dados; foram eleitos 22 artigos oriundos de diferentes países (63% da America do Norte, e publicados em periódicos de diferentes áreas de conhecimento; são de modelo experimental (63%; recentes (1996 a 2006; foram adotadas estratégias individuais (59,9% e grupais; o suporte emocional e a terapia cognitiva foram as mais empregadas. As intervenções que promovam estratégias de coping identificadas podem ser eficazes, com diminuição significante de depressão e aumento de coping e qualidade de vida; recomenda-se que o enfermeiro as empregue para redução de depressão ao longo do processo terapêutico do câncer.La depresión ha sido observada en portadores de enfermedades cronico-degenerativas, incluyendo el cáncer. El uso de diferentes estrategias de coping para lidiar con estas condiciones patológicas puede ser extremadamente importante, en vista de la presencia de factores de estrés y sentimientos indeseables. Se buscó identificar, por medio de una revisión sistemática, los tipos de estudio para promover estrategias de coping y las intervenciones usadas para promover tales estrategias en situaciones de depresión en mujeres con cáncer. Fueron consultadas 3 bases de datos electrónicas, utilizando las palabras clave depression, coping y cáncer para buscar publicaciones en inglés, portugués y español. La búsqueda fue limitada al género femenino y a los tipos de estudio: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial y review. Fueron encontrados 376 artículos. Excluidos aquéllos sin texto completo disponible y las repeticiones en diferentes bases de datos, fueron elegidos 22 artículos originarios de diferentes países (63% de América del Norte y publicados en periódicos de diferentes áreas de conocimiento; son del tipo experimental (63%; recientes (1996 a 2006; fueron adoptadas estrategias individuales (59,9% y grupales; el apoyo emocional y la terapia cognitiva fueron las más empleadas. Las intervenciones que promueven estrategias de coping identificadas pueden ser eficaces, con disminución significativa de la depresión y aumento del coping y calidad de vida. Se recomienda que el enfermero las emplee para reducir la depresión a lo largo del proceso terapéutico del cáncer.Depression has been observed in patients with chronic-degenerative diseases, including cancer. Using different coping strategies can be extremely important under these pathological conditions, considering the presence of stress and unwanted feelings. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify types of studies aimed at promoting coping strategies for depression among women with cancer and interventions used to promote these strategies. Three different electronic databases were reviewed, using the key words depression, coping and cancer to seek publications in English, Portuguese and Spanish, which resulted in 376 articles. The search was limited to female gender and the study types: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized control trial and review. After excluding studies whose full text was not available and repetitions in different
Full Text Available Abstract Background The health insurance system in Taiwan is comprised of public health insurance and private health insurance. The public health insurance, called universal national health insurance (NHI, was first established in 1995 and amended in 2011. The goal of this study is to provide an updated description of several important aspects of health insurance in Taiwan. Of special interest are household insurance coverage, medical expenditures (both gross and out-of-pocket, and coping strategies. Methods Data was collected via a phone call survey conducted in August and September of 2011. A household was the unit for survey and data analysis. A total of 2,424 households covering all major counties and cities in Taiwan were surveyed. Results The survey revealed that households with smaller sizes and higher incomes were more likely to have higher coverage of public and private health insurance. In addition, households with the presence of chronic diseases were more likely to have both types of insurance. Analysis of both gross and out-of-pocket medical expenditure was conducted. It was suggested that health insurance could not fully remove the financial burden caused by illness. The presence of chronic disease and inpatient treatment were significantly associated with higher gross and out-of-pocket medical expenditure. In addition, the presence of inpatient treatment was significantly associated with extremely high medical expenditure. Regional differences were also observed, with households in the northern, central, and southern regions having less gross medical expenditures than those on the offshore islands. Households with the presence of inpatient treatment were more likely to cope with medical expenditure using means other than salaries. Conclusion Despite the considerable achievements of the health insurance system in Taiwan, there is still room for improvement. This study investigated coverage, cost, and coping strategies and may be informative to stakeholders of both basic and commercial health insurance.
Full Text Available This study was undertaken to establish strategies adopted by public universities in Kenya in response to changes in the environment. The study design was descriptive and utilized a cross-sectional survey of all the public universities in Kenya through administration of a structured questionnaire to the top management team. Additional primary data were collected through observations and interviews. Secondary data were collected from published works and, universities and government documents in public domain in order to corroborate the data collected from the primary sources. Positive responses were received from 63 respondents out of 91, yielding a 69.4% response rate. The universities adopted Porters generic competitive strategy model, of cost leadership, differentiation and focus to counter the challenges experienced, and in particular cost leadership and differentiation. The extent of adoption of differentiation strategy was significantly different (p<0.05 between the old and new universities and not among the three categories of public universities, that is, old, new and university colleges. Grand strategies adopted were diversification in related business, expansion and strategic alliances. The major operational strategies adopted included, management leadership in the formulation of response strategies, distributed leadership, benchmarking, and mounting of evening and weekend programmes. Some operational strategies adopted by some universities were, however, unethical and may compromise quality. The results indicate that the coping strategies adopted by public universities in Kenya in response to changes in the environment are more or less similar to those applied by corporate organizations among them, grand strategies and Porters generic competitive strategy.
Francis M. Mathooko
The goal of the current study was to examine how social support and coping strategies are related in predicting emotional well-being of women with breast cancer. In achieving this goal, we examined two hypothesized models: (1) a moderation model where social support and coping strategies interact with each other in affecting psychological well-being; and (2) a mediation model where the level of social support influences choices of coping strategies between self-blame and positive reframing. I...
Kim, Junghyun; Han, Jeong Yeob; Shaw, Bret; Mctavish, Fiona; Gustafson, David
Until the present day, research on fuel poverty focussing on the point of view of those concerned is few and far between. The present paper aims at filling this gap, analysing experiences with and behavioural responses to fuel poverty. It examines the day-to-day energy situation of households, which are poor/at-risk-of-poverty and/or suffering from fuel poverty in a case study conducted in the Austrian capital Vienna. Qualitative interviews provide the data for investigating the relevant factors in causing fuel poverty (among those, bad housing conditions, outdated appliances, financial problems), and provide a basis for discussion about the respective behavioural strategies of the people concerned. The results show that the ways of handling this problematic situation vary greatly and that people follow different strategies when it comes to inventing solutions for coping with the restrictions and finding ways of satisfying at least a part of their basic energy needs. Nonetheless, it also clearly surfaces that the scope of action is limited in many cases, which in turn only supports the claim that changes in the overall conditions are essential. - Highlights: ? This paper scrutinises experiences with and behavioural reactions to fuel poverty. ? Analysis of 50 qualitative interviews in Viennese low-income households. ? Low-income and/or fuel poor households face various strains. ? Ways of dealing with fuel poverty vary greatly, scope of action is limited. ? Households are very creative when it comes to coping with restricted conditions.
Spiritual strategies may provide an effective way of coping with disease. This study sought to investigate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the spiritual coping strategies (SCS) scale among Iranian hemodialysis patients. A convenience sample of 204 hemodialysis patients was recruited to participate in the study. A forward-backward translation method was used to produce the Persian version of the scale. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha and item-total score correlation. Two-week test-retest reliability was also assessed. The convergent and divergent validity of the scale was evaluated using the Duke University Religion Index and a visual analogue scale for health status. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess the factor structure. Participants consisted of 113 males and 91 females (mean age 57.2 [SD = 9.7]). Cronbach's alpha was acceptable (0.87). We found two underlying factors similar to the original scale. The correlations between the study scales confirmed the convergent and divergent validity of the SCS. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit to the data (GFI = 0.923, CFI = 0.948 and RMSEA = 0.068). The Persian version of the SCS has sound psychometric properties in Iranian hemodialysis patients. Future research should consider applying the scale to populations with other religious/cultural backgrounds. PMID:23504574
Saffari, Mohsen; Koenig, Harold G; Ghanizadeh, Ghader; Pakpour, Amir H; Baldacchino, Donia R
The objective of this study was to assess whether and how coping strategies affect the welfare of African catfish Clarias gariepinus housed at low and high densities. Group composition influenced feed intake; re-active groups (comprised of 100% re-active fish) had a lower specific growth rate (G) and feed intake and a higher feed conversion ratio (R(FC)) than pro-active groups. Furthermore, re-active groups had a lower energy retention than pro-active groups. The latter was fully due to differences in feed intake, since energy partitioning (on % total gross energy intake basis) was similar among the group composition treatments. Fish held at high stocking density showed a higher R(FC) and feeding speed and a lower energy retention and agonistic behaviour. None of the measured variables was influenced by the interaction effect. In mixed groups, G and number of skin lesions seemed to be affected by different behavioural phenotypes at low stocking density, but not at high density. These results indicate that both stocking density and group composition affect physical and behavioural responses of C. gariepinus. Furthermore, physical and behavioural data of individual fish housed in mixed groups suggest that coping strategy affects the fitness of different behavioural phenotypes at low, but not at high, stocking density. PMID:20557604
Van de Nieuwegiessen, P G; Ramli, N M; Knegtel, B P F J M; Verreth, J A J; Schrama, J W
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Submetido a contingências estressoras, o psicólogo clínico pode ter a qualidade do seu trabalho comprometida, acarretando conseqüências para clientes em tratamento. Este estudo teve como objetivos: avaliar níveis de stress, levantar estressores presentes no contexto de trabalho e estratégias de copi [...] ng utilizadas. Participaram desta pesquisa 15 psicólogos. Aplicou-se o Inventário de Sintomas de Stress de Lipp e realizaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas. Os resultados indicaram que 12 participantes não apresentaram stress. Todos mencionaram estratégias de coping. O estressor mais assinalado foi "preocupação com clientes específicos"; as estratégias mais marcadas foram "tirar férias" e "praticar exercícios físicos". Concluiu-se que o uso de estratégias de coping pode relacionar-se ao fato de que muitos estressores foram percebidos no exercício da profissão, mas não têm desencadeado o processo de stress nesse grupo. Discutiu-se se o conhecimento e as habilidades adquiridas pelos psicólogos clínicos também poderiam colaborar para seu sucesso no enfrentamento dos estressores presentes em seu trabalho. Abstract in english Under stress contingencies, clinical psychologists might have their work quality compromised, what can bring consequences to clients in treatment as well. This paper objectified: to assess stress levels, to point out stress sources in the practical context, and list coping used. Fifteen psychologist [...] s participated of this research. The Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory was applied and semi-structured interviews took place. The results indicated that 12 participants didn't present stress. They all mentioned coping. The most quoted stress agent was the "concern with specific clients"; the most cited coping was to take vacation and to practice physical exercises. The research revealed that coping might be related to the fact that many stress agents were noticed during their practice, but these agents haven't unleashed the stress process in this group. It was discussed if the knowledge and the abilities acquired by the clinical psychologists could also contribute to their success facing stress agents.
Cristiane Élis, Sanzovo; Myrna Elisa Chagas, Coelho.
Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed to evaluate depression and anxiety levels and coping strategies with stress in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD and hemodialysis (HD patients.Method: Study which was planned as a descriptive cross-sectional research has been made among patients who were under treatment with CAPD or HD for chronic renal failure in Cumhuriyet University Hospital in 01-31 August 2007. Questions were asked to determine the demographic profile, tobacco and alcohol use patterns and psychological status of the patients. Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory I-II (STAI-I, STAI-II and Coping Strategies With Stress Inventory (COPE were used for psychological evaluation.Results: Depression rate was 33.3% in CAPD patients and 61.3% in HD patients. Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory I-II (STAI-I, STAI-II scores were 14.1±8.4, 39.3±4.7, 47.6±5.1 and 19.9±9.9, 41.0±3.7, 49.5±6.2 in CAPD and HD patients respectively. CAPD patients depression scores were significantly lower than HD patients (p0.05. In both groups the most frequently used coping strategy was religious coping followed by positive reinterpretation and development methods. The only significant difference between groups were in to laugh it off and not to worry about it strategies. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety appeared frequently in all dialysis patients, but depression was more frequent in HD patients. Therefore it is considered necessary for dialysis patients (CAPD and HD to be under regular psychiatric evaluation. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2008; 45: 78-84
Given urbanization trend and a higher probability of heat waves in Europe, heat discomfort or heat stress for the population in cities is a growing concern that is addressed from various perspectives, such as urban micro climate, urban and spatial planning, human health, work performance and economic impacts. This presentation focuses on subjective heat stress experienced by urban citizens. In order to better understand individual subjective heat stress of urban citizens and how different measures to cope with heat stress in everyday life are applied, a questionnaire survey was conducted in Karlsruhe, Germany. Karlsruhe is located in one of the warmest regions in Germany and holds the German temperature record of 40.2°C in August 2003. In 2013, two hot weather periods with continuous heat warnings by the German Weather Service for 7 and 8 days occurred during the last 10 days of July and first 10 days of August 2013 with an inofficial maximum temperature of again 40.2°C on July 27th in Karlsruhe (not taken by the official network of the German Weather Service). The survey data was collected in the six weeks after the heat using an online-questionnaire on the website of the South German Climate Office that was announced via newspapers and social media channels to reach a wide audience in Karlsruhe. The questionnaire was additionally sent as paper version to groups of senior citizens to ensure having enough respondents from this heat sensitive social group in the sample. The 428 respondents aged 17-94 show differences in subjective heat stress experienced at home, at work and during various typical activities in daily routine. They differ also in the measures they used to adjust to and cope with the heat such as drinking more, evading the heat, seeking cooler places, changing daily routines, or use of air condition. Differences in heat stress can be explained by housing type, age, subjective health status, employment, and different coping measures and strategies. While some results match with expectations and also with results obtained in other studies, for example that people living in the attic floor experienced higher subjective heat stress levels at home, some results are surprising: against expectations, respondents 65 years and older on average reported lower subjective heat-stress levels than younger ones - a result that can partly be linked to the different coping strategies applied by both groups.
Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Hackenbruch, Julia; Schipper, Hans
Women with a positive family history of breast cancer have a higher relative breast cancer risk. Research pertinent to this "at-risk" population has focused primarily on the early detection measures of breast self-exam, clinical breast exam, and mammography. Other specific primary prevention coping behaviors have received little research attention and, while there are instruments that measure general coping behaviors in the face of illness threat, there are no known instruments that measure coping behaviors specific to dealing with breast cancer threat. This study tested the psychometric properties of the Coping with Breast Cancer Threat instrument (CBCT). The CBCT was designed to measure primary prevention and early detection coping strategies used by women with family histories of breast cancer in response to their appraised breast cancer threat. The tool's format was modeled after the Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS) and included use and effectiveness scales. Internal consistency reliabilities and content and construct validity of the CBCT were assessed in a sample of 209 women with a family history of breast cancer. Alpha coefficients for the CBCT's total use and effectiveness scales were .70 and .76, respectively. Principal components factor analysis with a varimax rotation revealed three conceptually relevant subcales that accounted for 52% of the variance in breast cancer threat coping behaviors. The CBCT was shown to be a reliable and valid measure of coping with breast cancer threat in a well-educated, European Amercian sample of middle-aged women. PMID:15916318
Lancaster, Diane R
Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of diabetes self-care is largely the responsibility of the patient. With more emphasis on the prevention of complications, adherence to diabetes self-care regimens can be difficult. Diabetes self-care requires the patient to make many dietary and lifestyle changes. This study will explore patient perceptions of diabetes self-care, with particular reference to the burden of self-care and coping strategies among patients. Methods A maximum variation sample of 17 patients was selected from GP practices and diabetes clinics in Ireland to include patients with types 1 and 2 diabetes, various self-care regimens, and a range of diabetes complications. Data were collected by in-depth interviews; which were tape-recorded and transcribed. The transcripts were analysed using open and axial coding procedures to identify main categories, and were reviewed by an independent corroborator. Discussion of the results is made in the theoretical context of the health belief, health value, self-efficacy, and locus of control frameworks. Results Patients' perceptions of their self-care varied on a spectrum, displaying differences in self-care responsibilities such as competence with dietary planning, testing blood sugar and regular exercise. Three patient types could be distinguished, which were labeled: "proactive manager," a patient who independently monitors blood glucose and adjusts his/her self-care regime to maintain metabolic control; "passive follower," a patient who follows his/her prescribed self-care regime, but does not react autonomously to changes in metabolic control; and "nonconformist," a patient who does not follow most of his/her prescribed self-care regimen. Conclusion Patients have different diabetes self-care coping strategies which are influenced by their self-care health value and consequently may affect their diet and exercise choices, frequency of blood glucose monitoring, and compliance with prescribed medication regimens. Particular attention should be paid to the patient's self-care coping strategy, and self-care protocols should be tailored to complement the different patient types.
Effective coping strategies and adaptive behavioral training build resilience against stress-induced pathology. Both predisposed and acquired coping strategies were investigated in rats to determine their impact on stress responsiveness and emotional resilience. Male Long-Evans rats were assigned to one of the three coping groups: passive, active, or variable copers. Rats were then randomly assigned to either an effort-based reward (EBR) contingent training group or a non-contingent training group. Following EBR training, rats were tested in appetitive and stressful challenge tasks. Physiological responses included changes in fecal corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) metabolites as well as neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and amygdala. Regardless of a rat's predisposed coping strategy, EBR rats persisted longer than non-contingent rats in the appetitive problem-solving task. Furthermore, training and coping styles interacted to yield the seemingly most adaptive DHEA/corticosterone ratios in the EBR-trained variable copers. Regardless of training group, variable copers exhibited increased NPY-immunoreactivity in the CA1 region. PMID:22257065
Bardi, Massimo; Rhone, Alexandra P; Franssen, Catherine L; Hampton, Joseph E; Shea, Eleanor A; Hyer, Molly M; Huber, Jordan; Lambert, Kelly G
Full Text Available The wellbeing and livelihoods of people are two important aspects of poverty which in turn area dependent on the households' coping capabilities and their abilities to manage risks. The roles of institutions such as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs and particularly the government are important in ensuring the welfare of the people. Empirically, little is known on the link between households' coping strategies, government policies and institutions. This study investigates and analyzes the role of people's risk management and coping strategies in building their capacities. Using a structured socio-economic questionnaire, 302 randomly selected farmers in both states were tested. Household income decreased by RM52, RM81 and RM102 due to illnesses, floods and economic recession respectively. In order to cope with these stressors, households implemented coping strategies rather than preparatory ones which can strengthen their capacities to manage against any unexpected threat. In some cases these strategies threatened households welfare. Less risky production activities, spending saving and out-migration looking for job led to decrease households monthly income by as high as RM123, RM139 and RM166, respectively. Although the results showed that institutions did not lead households to fall into poverty trap, their supports also made no difference. These institutions are active and provide the needed services to the communities only after a disaster have occurred. This observation is based on the positive relationship between households coping strategies and institutional supports (r = 0.310, p = 0.000. The relationship between households risk management and institutional support was not significant (r = 0.087, p = 0.067 based on this study.
Since the incidence of cancer in this country is high and the cancer survival rates are increasing, it is important to study coping strategies in cancer patients. As survival time lengthens, coping strategies that might affect the quality of a patient's life become increasingly important. A study was conducted to examine coping strategies in newly
Manuel, Gerdenio M.; And Others
Several studies on households and individuals coping with disasters have been made. The Philippines, being a disaster prone area, has to grapple with the yearly damage caused by deluge or drought. The eruption of the Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 has the greatest toll to the country's economy because it did not only claim lives, properties, and resources at that time, but continues to do so up to the present day, which is why the disaster has been characterised as a lingering disaster. This study prov...
Mula, R. P.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, apresentamos uma investigação realizada com professores, no qual se procura determinar a vulnerabilidade ao stress; identificar as principais fontes de stress; estabelecer as principais estratégias de coping; analisar se as estratégias deste condicionam a presença de stress laboral; [...] e reconhecer se a autoeficácia percebida é preditora desse tipo de stress. Trata-se duma investigação por questionário, do tipo correlacional, e a amostra é constituída por 54 professores do Ensino Básico público português. As respostas ao Questionário sociodemográfico e profissional; ao Questionário de Vulnerabilidade ao Stress - 23QVS (Serra, 2000); ao Questionário de Stress nos Professores - QSP (Gomes et al., 2006; Gomes, 2007); ao Coping Job Scale - CJS de Latack (adaptação de Jesus & Pereira, 1994); e à Escala de Avaliação de Autoeficácia Geral (Ribeiro, 1995) revelam que 20,4% dos docentes são vulneráveis ao stress; os comportamentos inadequados/indisciplina dos alunos são as principais fontes de stress; as estratégias de controlo são as mais utilizadas pelos participantes para enfrentar o stress, seguidas das de escape e das de gestão de sintomas. Os professores não vulneráveis ao stress utilizam principalmente estratégias de controlo e apresentam níveis mais elevados de eficácia perante a adversidade, bem como de iniciativa e persistência em relação aos professores vulneráveis ao stress. Abstract in english In this work we present a research carried out on teachers to determine their vulnerability to stress, to identify the main sources of stress, to recognize teachers' main coping strategies, to analyze whether such strategies condition the presence of stress at work, and to establish whether the self [...] -efficiency perceived can be used to predict work stress. This is a correlational questionnaire-based research performed on a 54-teacher sample from Portugal's public basic education schools. The answers to the Social, Demographic and Professional Questionnaire, to the Stress Vulnerability Questionnaire - 23QVS (Serra, 2000), to the Teacher Stress Questionnaire - QSP (Gomes et al., 2006; Gomes, 2007), to the Coping Job Scale - CJS (Latack, adapted by Jesus and Pereira, 1994) and to the General Self-efficiency Assessment Scale (Ribeiro, 1995) reveal that 20.4% of teachers are vulnerable to stress. The study shows that the main stress sources are found in students' lack of discipline or improper behaviour, and that control strategies are the most common to deal with stress, followed by escape strategies and symptom management. Teachers not vulnerable to stress use mainly control strategies and they display higher efficiency levels under adversity, as well as more initiative and perseverance than the teachers that are vulnerable to stress.
Pocinho, Margarida; Capelo, Maria Regina.
Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresentamos uma investigação realizada com professores, no qual se procura determinar a vulnerabilidade ao stress; identificar as principais fontes de stress; estabelecer as principais estratégias de coping; analisar se as estratégias deste condicionam a presença de stress laboral; e reconhecer se a autoeficácia percebida é preditora desse tipo de stress. Trata-se duma investigação por questionário, do tipo correlacional, e a amostra é constituída por 54 professores do Ensino Básico público português. As respostas ao Questionário sociodemográfico e profissional; ao Questionário de Vulnerabilidade ao Stress - 23QVS (Serra, 2000; ao Questionário de Stress nos Professores - QSP (Gomes et al., 2006; Gomes, 2007; ao Coping Job Scale - CJS de Latack (adaptação de Jesus & Pereira, 1994; e à Escala de Avaliação de Autoeficácia Geral (Ribeiro, 1995 revelam que 20,4% dos docentes são vulneráveis ao stress; os comportamentos inadequados/indisciplina dos alunos são as principais fontes de stress; as estratégias de controlo são as mais utilizadas pelos participantes para enfrentar o stress, seguidas das de escape e das de gestão de sintomas. Os professores não vulneráveis ao stress utilizam principalmente estratégias de controlo e apresentam níveis mais elevados de eficácia perante a adversidade, bem como de iniciativa e persistência em relação aos professores vulneráveis ao stress.In this work we present a research carried out on teachers to determine their vulnerability to stress, to identify the main sources of stress, to recognize teachers' main coping strategies, to analyze whether such strategies condition the presence of stress at work, and to establish whether the self-efficiency perceived can be used to predict work stress. This is a correlational questionnaire-based research performed on a 54-teacher sample from Portugal's public basic education schools. The answers to the Social, Demographic and Professional Questionnaire, to the Stress Vulnerability Questionnaire - 23QVS (Serra, 2000, to the Teacher Stress Questionnaire - QSP (Gomes et al., 2006; Gomes, 2007, to the Coping Job Scale - CJS (Latack, adapted by Jesus and Pereira, 1994 and to the General Self-efficiency Assessment Scale (Ribeiro, 1995 reveal that 20.4% of teachers are vulnerable to stress. The study shows that the main stress sources are found in students' lack of discipline or improper behaviour, and that control strategies are the most common to deal with stress, followed by escape strategies and symptom management. Teachers not vulnerable to stress use mainly control strategies and they display higher efficiency levels under adversity, as well as more initiative and perseverance than the teachers that are vulnerable to stress.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Conhecer as situações estressantes e as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas por alunos de medicina na relação de atendimento ao paciente. MÉTODO: Estudo exploratório, descritivo e qualitativo realizado na Universidade Federal de Sergipe com 50 alunos do 10º período do curso médico. Uti [...] lizou-se questionário autoaplicável com perguntas abertas e fechadas. Os dados foram interpretados pela análise de conteúdo categorial. RESULTADOS: As relações interpessoais aluno-professor, aluno-paciente e aluno-familiar do paciente proporcionaram aos estudantes vivências embaraçosas e constrangedoras, fazendo-os sentir-se expostos e vulneráveis. O sofrimento do paciente também constituiu uma situação estressora que mobilizou nos estudantes a adoção de estratégias de enfrentamento (aceitação de responsabilidade, resolução de problemas, suporte social, reavaliação positiva, fuga-esquiva e religiosidade) para controlar e minimizar seus sentimentos. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo revelou as situações e fatores estressantes inerentes à vivência acadêmica, os quais levaram o estudante a desenvolver comportamentos adaptativos identificados como estratégias de enfrentamento. A pesquisa também sinalizou a importância de se dar atenção às especificidades e necessidades do aluno e do docente. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To understand stressful situations and coping strategies used by medicine students in relation to patient care. METHODS: Exploratory, descriptive and qualitative study conducted at the Federal University of Sergipe with fifty 5th year medicine students. A self-report containing open-ended [...] and closed questions was used. The data was interpreted through categorical content analysis. RESULTS: The interpersonal relationships between student-teacher, student-patient, and student-patient's family led to undergraduates experiencing embarrassing and awkward situations, making them feel exposed and vulnerable. Patient suffering was a really stressful situation, forcing students to adopt coping strategies (acceptance of responsibility, problem solving, social support, positive reappraisal, escape-avoidance, and religious belief) to control and minimize their feelings. CONCLUSION: The study revealed situations and stressors inherent to the academic experience, which led the student to develop adaptive behaviors identified as coping strategies. The survey also indicated the importance of giving attention to the specificities and needs of the student and the teacher.
Leda Maria Delmondes Freitas, Trindade; Maria Jésia, Vieira.
Full Text Available Teaching profession was once viewed as a low stress occupation and they have been envied for tenure, light workloads, flexibility and other perks such as foreign trips for study and conference. However, some recent studies suggest that university faculty is among the most stressed occupational group. The present study was conducted to explore the faculty perception towards occupational stress using established questionnaire, data collected from five departments in the private university. Research findings on the coping strategies that faculty used to tackle stress were also reviewed. Through this study, it is suggested that the top management and University Administration should focus their attention on faculty stress, especially on two areas (student Interactions and Professional Identity to reduce the stress among the faculty members. Care should be taken to make even remote faculty feel a part of the greater whole of this institution thorough regular communication and support.
Full Text Available A new phenomenon of violence among pupils has been spreading over Europe in the last few years: Cyberbullying, the repeated and intended hurting of weaker schoolmates via modern communication technologies. This study shows (based on a sample of 1987 pupils, that cyberbullying exists in Germany, although the number of incidents is still rather small. It could also be shown, that the pupils who act as cyberbullies are the same as those who bully others in real life. The same overlap was found to be true for the victims. Cyberbullying can therefore be considered a subcategory of ordinary bullying instead of being considered a whole new phenomenon. The exploration of coping strategies showed, that a common factor structure underlies physical, verbal and cyberbullying. Considering the fact that the findings of the study are based on an online questionnaire with restricted representativeness, the results should however be interpreted carefully.
Developing a health insurance exchange strategy begins with: Understanding how both the public and private exchanges work. Conducting a thorough analysis to quantify how exchanges will affect the organization's current and future patient populations and revenue base. Determining when to participate in the exchanges, keeping in mind current market position as well as competitors' actions. PMID:24511779
Cohen, Andrew S; Kim, Charles; O'Riordan, Jason; Pizzo, James J
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Postpartum depression is one of most important health problems in women. This study was performed with the purpose of comparing the frequency of postpartum depression in pregnant women with emotion and problem-focused coping strategies. Methods: This study was conducted as a prospective cohort study on 200 pregnant women with stress (low and high levels. The samples were pregnant women referred to all health-treatment, centers of Ardabil, which were selected using a multi-stage sampling method; and according to coping strategy, they were divided into two groups: emotion-focused and problem-focused. Low-risk pregnant women completed questionnaires about demographic characteristics, perceived stress, and Billings and Moos coping strategies in the 38th to 42th week of their pregnancy, and completed the Edinburgh depression scale in the 3th to 4th weeks after childbirth. Data were analyzed using chi 2 and t tests. p<0.05 considered significant.Results: In this study, 170 participant women (85% used emotion-focused strategy and 30 women (15% used problem-focused strategy. Frequency of postpartum depression was 6.7% in the problem-focused group and 8.2% in the emotion-focused group. There was no significant difference in the frequency of postpartum depression between women with the problem- and emotion-focused strategies. Relative risk for postpartum depression was 1.2 times more among the women used emotion-focused strategy than women used problem-focused strategy (p<0.05.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, there was no significant relationship between postpartum depression and the two emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies. This can be due to high influence of postpartum specific endocrine factors in the etiology of this type of depression compared to other depressions.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether pain-specific beliefs and coping strategies of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) independently predict their reported pain, while controlling for relevant demographic variables, disease activity, and parent-rated disability. To compare use of pain-coping strategies and pain-related beliefs of a selected subgroup of patients with high pain and low disease activity (high pain group) with the remaining patients. METHODS: Children with JIA (n = 56) completed the Pain Coping Questionnaire, a revised version of the Survey of Pain Attitudes, and a 3-week pain diary. The parents completed the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ). Second order principal component analyses were conducted in order to reduce the number of independent variables. Regression analyses of the dependent measure were performed. The use of coping strategies and health beliefs were compared using t-tests for independent samples. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to examinethe direct associations between each individual coping and belief scale, and the pain measure. RESULTS: Only the CHAQ and the cognitive belief composite factor score made statistically significant contribution to the prediction of pain after controlling for other variables. Significant differences were found between the scores of high pain patients and the rest of the group for the health belief subscale of disability (mean +/- SD 2.0 +/- 0.6 and 1.2 +/- 0.7, respectively), and for the health belief subscale of harm (mean +/- SD 2.7 +/- 0.6 and 1.8 +/- 0.7, respectively). Significant correlations were obtained between the pain measure and the pain-coping subscale of catastrophizing, the pain belief subscales of disability, harm, solicitude (inverse), control, and medical cure. CONCLUSION: These results support a model of pain experience in patients with JIA where psychological factors are strongly influential. It may be efficient to focus behavioral interventions on a subgroup of children where the pain experience seems to be in discordance with the disease activity.
Thastum, Mikael; Herlin, Troels
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although empirical evidence is available on the coping-health link in older age, research on this topic is needed with non-clinical samples of ethnically diverse older women. To contribute to filling such a research gap, we tested whether these women's general health and functional limitations were associated with specific coping strategies (selected for their particular relevance to health issues and with known health-related demographics, i.e., age, ethnicity, income, and married status. Methods In this cross-sectional study, respondents were recruited at community facilities including stores and senior centers. The sample consisted of 180 community-dwelling women (age 52-98 screened for dementia; 64% of them reported having an ethnic minority status. The assessment battery contained the Mini-Cog, a demographics list, the Brief COPE, and the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Results Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that older women who used behavioral disengagement and, to a smaller degree, self-distraction as a form of coping reported lower levels of general health. The opposite was the case for positive reframing and, to a lesser degree, substance use. Moreover, lower income was related to worse general health and (together with more advanced age physical functioning. None of the coping strategies achieved significance in the physical functioning model. Conclusions These cross-sectional findings need corroboration by longitudinal research prior to developing related clinical interventions. Based on the initial evidence provided herein, clinicians working with this population should consider establishing the therapeutic goal of increasing the use of positive reframing while diminishing behavioral disengagement.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los profesionales de enfermería de salud mental trabajan principalmente con la palabra. El conocimiento y uso adecuado de estrategias de afrontamiento adaptativas, ante los problemas, favorece su trabajo. Este estudio tiene como principales objetivos: conocer las estrategias de afrontamiento que usa [...] n un grupo de profesionales de enfermería y comprobar cuáles de ellas correlacionan con satisfacción laboral. Para ello se tomado como población las enfermeras de salud mental de tres servicios del Hospital Virgen de la Victoria de Málaga. La muestra, compuesta por 44 sujetos, ha supuesto el 81,48 de la población. Las variables estudiadas se han obtenido de la contestación de autoinformes y cuestionarios anónimos tras la aceptación voluntaria de participar en el estudio. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que las enfermeras de salud mental no usan en su mayoría estrategias adaptativas. No obstante existe una correlación positiva entre el uso de estrategias adaptativas, principalmente resolución de problemas y satisfacción laboral. Estos hallazgos sugieren la necesidad de formación y entrenamiento en el uso de estrategias de afrontamiento. Abstract in english The present work has two main aims: knowing the nurses? uses about coping strategies and testing if there is any relationship between coping strategies and job satisfaction. It were applied several questionnaires to a sample of 44 nurses which were working en three services of mental health in the V [...] irgen de la Victoria Hospital of Málaga. The results showed that the mental health nurses did not uses adaptive coping strategies. However there is a positive relationship between adaptive coping strategies and job satisfaction. These results suggest that the mental heath nurses need training about adaptive coping strategies.
Perea-Baena, J.M.; Sánchez-Gil, L.M..
The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific
Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.
Full Text Available This study evaluates the perceptions of stress among Information and Communications Technology (ICT students and their coping strategies in dealing with English as the medium of instruction during their university studies. A semi-structured administered survey was conducted using a sample of 267 male students of a Computer Science college from a midsize Middle Eastern university The study also used a phenomenological approach with semi-structured interviews carried out with ten students in order to clarify some of the findings of this study. Since the research topic is based on student's stress perceptions, the phenomenological analysis of transcribed student's interviews was also an appropriate tool for this study. Phenomenology enables participants to express their feelings about a particular situation or incident in their own point of view which may not be easy to express on a survey. All students who took part in this study thought that they had been stressed at one time or another due to having English as the medium of instruction without a Preparatory Year English Program (PYEP before entering ICT courses. 62% of the students maintained that they have had episodes of stress due to the English language during their studies at one time or another. The students use different mechanisms to cope up with stress outside the university by engaging themselves in sports, surfing the web, Meditation, hanging out with, friends, sleeping or going in to isolation. The students demand interactive' English language courses, more leisure time activities on campus, proper guidance in English language courses to ease their ICT course-studies. advisory services and peer counsel ling on campus to reduce their stress.
Full Text Available Fatigue is one of the symptoms of MS that is often experienced and causes irritating situations. This study was planned and applied as a descriptive and a cross-sectional study. Study was conducted at Neurology Department of Gulhane Military Medical Academy from December 2009 to March 2010. This study was carried out using 53 participants with MS. The data were collected by using Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. 94.3% of the MS patients sampled reported that they experience the fatigue. Their perceptions about the factors affecting the fatigue are as follows: the major factor on fatigue is reported to be sadness and frustration (92 %. Stress is stated to be the second significant factor affecting the fatigue (86 %. The third significant factor for the participants is found to be the increase in the physical activity either at home or at work (78%. The mean FSS score is 5.01 (SD=1.54 for the participants. 92.4 % of the participants (49 persons employ such strategies, while 7.9 % (4 persons of them do not employ any specific coping strategy for the fatigue.
Abstract Background Previous research has found that acceptance of pain is more successful than cognitive coping variables for predicting adjustment to pain. This research has a limitation because measures of cognitive coping rely on observations and reports of thoughts or attempts to change thoughts rather than on overt behaviours. The purpose of the present study, therefore, is to compare the influence of acceptance measures and the influence of different behavioural coping...
Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The aggressive patrons outrageous and unreasonable behavior would have serious influence on circulation librarians. However, in order to maintain the service quality, emotional labor is usually performed by the librarians when encounter aggressive patrons. Emotional labor is the manipulation of the required emotional expression, and the strategies used to maintain the service quality. To understand circulation librarians service strategies coping with aggressive patrons from the perspective of emotional labor, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted in this study. The interviewees consisted of 15 university circulation librarians all over Taiwan. The findings revealed that the factors which may elicit aggressive reaction included library services and the patrons personal traits. And to cope with the aggressive patrons, the circulation librarians would employ self-controlling, surface acting, and other service strategies such as persuasion or active listening.
Chen Su-May Sheih
The effect of coping behaviors on nurses' affective reactions to work-generated stressors was assessed, using data gathered from 215 nurses in a medical center hospital in the Midwest. Adaptive coping, reflecting problem-solving behaviors, was found to moderate the relationships of work overload and resource inadequacy with felt stress. (Author/CH)
Parasuraman, Saroj; Hansen, Donna
Purpose in life and coping skills are hypothesized to mediate association between cognitive abilities (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence) and polydrug use. Results indicated relationship between crystallized intelligence and alcohol use was mediated by purpose in life. Older age predicted higher cognitive abilities, stronger coping
Minehan, Janet A.; Newcomb, Michael D.; Galaif, Elisha R.
Envy is the religion of the mediocre. It comforts them, it responds to the worries that gnaw at them and finally it rots their souls, allowing them to justify their meanings and their greed until they believe these to be virtues.â??Carlos Ruiz ZafÃ³n â??The niche of envyâ? is a cross-disciplinary attempt to capture and understand the complex and self-conscious emotion of envy as unfolded within social relationships and cultural settings. One of our main interests concerns how children come to understand envy in ontogenesis. Accordingly, we review existing theoretical approaches to understanding envy and introduce preliminary data about childrenâ??s understanding of envy. This paper consists of three sections. In the first section, we define envy by introducing the conditions and components that form part of it. We emphasize the fact that envy is a complex and embodied emotion, which embraces a triadic relationship, social comparison, and inequality. In this section, we also introduce social conditions that may facilitate envy and its consequences, such as hostility and aggression. The second section deals with coping strategies for envy. Here, we integrate research from different disciplines, e.g., socio-cultural, psychological, and anthropological research. Finally, in the third section, we introduce a cross-cultural and developmental view of how envy is embodied. We briefly address and offer a critique of Kleinâ??s psychoanalytic view and present recent results from our cross-cultural studies of the ontogenesis of understanding envy.
Quintanilla, Laura; Jensen de LÃ³pez, Kristine M.
This study examined whether childrens coping strategies are related to post-concussive symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) versus orthopedic injury (OI). Participants were 8- to 15-year-old children with mild TBI (n =167) or OI (n =84). They rated their current preferred coping strategies and post-injury symptoms at 2 weeks (baseline) and 1, 3, and 12 months post-injury. Childrens reported use of coping strategies did not vary significantly over time, so their baseline ...
Woodrome, Stacey E.; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Rusin, Jerome; Bangert, Barbara; Dietrich, Ann; Nuss, Kathryn; Wright, Martha
Full Text Available This study was conducted in Kenya. Samples of children and caregivers were selected using the EPI method. Food vendors and procurement strategy, demographic and socio-economic indicators of household were analyzed. A social economic index was derived. To understand the association between D ietary D iversity Score and mean anthropometric indices, confounding factors were identified on the basis of the UNICEF conceptual model of causes of malnutrition. A stepwise testing of confounders was done systematically resulting in a final m ultivariate model of regression on the mean nutritional indices. Only 32.8% were able to produce enough to last a year, most households did not meet their dietary needs. 48% of the households received food remittance as supplementary. Coping strategies within households were identified based on their frequency of occurrence. The observed poor breastfeeding beyond infancy underscores the need to stress on the contribution and benefits of breastfeeding to children, communities, and health system s. Dietary diversity positively correlated to household food availability. Increased consumption of common staples negatively correlated to food availability and dietary diversity. Stepw ise regression identified access to roots and tubers, legumes and pulses, and carbonated drinks as the main determinants of food procurement and availability. Study shows that food production in households cannot meet food needs of even an area w ith adequate rainfall patterns. Low levels of education, employment and income observed among female caregivers constrain household purchasing power and knowledge required to select nutritious foods. Thus, empowering the women has far reaching benefits for nutritional outcomes of children.
Monica A. Ayieko
Full Text Available This research investigates the Human Resources Development and strategies for the sustainable rural development in Pakistan. The data were collected from 300 respondents from five Districts Dadu, Nawabshah, Shikarpur, Jacobabad and Kashmore by using simple random technique. It was revealed that the HRD policies are not effective in the rural development in rural Sindh. Studies suggest that the success of a small firm depend more upon the policies it adopted than the buoyancy of the market in which it operates. It was further revealed that external influences are less important, than individual factors, particularly the management competencies and the personal attributes to cope with the small business environment. Some individuals successes as entrepreneur when the odds seems stacked against them, whilst other fail when the conditions for success are relatively good. Micro and Macro both strategies should be properly designed to address the problems of rural people.
Access to water and land resources underpins the socio-economic fabric of many societies in the Southern Africa region, which is characterized broadly as underdeveloped with widespread food insecurity, exacerbated by persistent droughts, erratic rainfalls and increasing human populations. The availability of land and water resources is increasingly diminishing and becoming a stumbling block to the development of the agrarian societies in the region. The poor households have in turn adopted new livelihood coping mechanisms but little research has been done to assess the effectiveness of these instruments. Consequently, the concepts of sustainable water resources management and agricultural development have remained elusive and poorly understood by policy makers as well as by water resources planners and managers. Recognizing this, a study was conducted between 2002 and 2005 under the RIPARWIN (Raising Irrigation Productivity and Releasing Water for Intersectoral Needs) project to assess the spatial dynamics of livelihood capital, vulnerability and coping strategies for the poor agrarian households in the Upper Great Ruaha River Catchment (GRRC) in Tanzania. The results of analysis showed an array of livelihood platforms and institutional contexts that act to shape the existing livelihood typologies in the GRRC. In addition, the results showed a gradual increase in household vulnerability from upstream to downstream, particularly in terms of access to physical and natural assets. Vulnerability was found to be directly associated with the number of dependants. The female-headed households were relatively more likely to be vulnerable than the male-headed households (cf. probabilities of 27% and 21%, respectively). The value of collective arrangements and drawing on social networks crosscut all social strata and ranked as the most common livelihood strategy. This suggests that the scope for reducing vulnerability among the poor households in the GRRC critically depends on the existing institutional arrangements and mechanisms. Of paramount importance is perhaps the need to facilitate the establishment and empowerment of water use associations and apex bodies. In the study area, this appears to be promising enough to build strong institutional platforms through which water and land resources would be managed sustainably.
Kadigi, Reuben M. J.; Mdoe, N. S. Y.; Ashimogo, G. C.
This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of zones ...
Tumpale Sakijege; John Lupala; Shaaban Sheuya
Abuse and Suffering A feminist perspective on Domestic Violence, Bodies and Battered Womens Coping Strategies in Mauritius. At least one out of every three women around the world has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime- with the abuser usually someone known to her. Violence against women and girls is a universal problem of epidemic proportions. Perhaps the most pervasive human rights violation that we know today, it devastates lives, fractures comm...
Jansen, Karine Aasgaard
This paper addresses, homesickness, an important issue in the area of international human resource management. It uses psychological and sociological literature to highlight the negative effects of homesickness on migrant workers and expatriates. These effects range from psychological disruptions to physical manifestations that affect the health and welfare of individuals and impact on work performance. The paper presents a model of coping strategies used by expatriates to deal with homesickn...
Employed parents' work and family conditions provide behavioral contexts for their food choices. Relationships between employed parents' food-choice coping strategies, behavioral contexts, and dietary quality were evaluated. Data on work and family conditions, sociodemographic characteristics, eating behavior, and dietary intake from two 24-hour dietary recalls were collected in a random sample cross-sectional pilot telephone survey in the fall of 2006. Black, white, and Latino employed mothers (n=25) and fathers (n=25) were recruited from a low/moderate income urban area in upstate New York. Hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward's method) identified three clusters of parents differing in use of food-choice coping strategies (ie, Individualized Eating, Missing Meals, and Home Cooking). Cluster sociodemographic, work, and family characteristics were compared using ?(2) and Fisher's exact tests. Cluster differences in dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index 2005) were analyzed using analysis of variance. Clusters differed significantly (P?0.05) on food-choice coping strategies, dietary quality, and behavioral contexts (ie, work schedule, marital status, partner's employment, and number of children). Individualized Eating and Missing Meals clusters were characterized by nonstandard work hours, having a working partner, single parenthood and with family meals away from home, grabbing quick food instead of a meal, using convenience entrées at home, and missing meals or individualized eating. The Home Cooking cluster included considerably more married fathers with nonemployed spouses and more home-cooked family meals. Food-choice coping strategies affecting dietary quality reflect parents' work and family conditions. Nutritional guidance and family policy needs to consider these important behavioral contexts for family nutrition and health. PMID:21338739
Blake, Christine E; Wethington, Elaine; Farrell, Tracy J; Bisogni, Carole A; Devine, Carol M
Full Text Available Absolute poverty has been a social problem in rural Nigeria with its rate ever on the increase. All the previous government efforts in terms of poverty reduction projects and programmes failed to improve on the situation. In order to survive, the rural poor decided device survival strategies to cope with poverty. One of such strategies is the formulation of community based organizations (CBOs. The paper examines the nature, activities and impact of the CBOs on the rural poor. The CBOs were able to minimally mobilize both human and material resources, established both primary and secondary schools, built cottage industries, constructed culverts and bridges, established community health clinics, local financial institutions, donation of relief materials contributed food and cloths to less-privileged, widows and orphans. The CBOS are handicapped due to certain problems such as lack of adequate funds, corruption, accountability, credibility among their leaders, illiteracy, and lack of commitment among some members and limited sustainability of projects. The paper advocates for government to intervene in form of finding lasting solutions to these problems. Key words: Absolute rural poverty; Coping strategy; Benue State NigeriaResumé: La pauvreté absolue a été un problème social dans le Nigeria rural avec un taux qui augmentent de façon constante. Tous les efforts gouvernementaux précédents en termes de projets de réduction de la pauvreté et des programmes ont échoué, la situation ne s'améliore guère. Afin de survivre les pauvres ruraux ont décidé une stratégie de survivance dartifice pour régler le problème de la pauvreté. Une de telles stratégies est la formulation dorganisations basées de communauté (CBOs. Le papier examine la nature, les activités et limpact du CBOs sur les pauvres ruraux. Les CBOs étaient capables mobiliser très peu de ressources sur le plan humain et matériel, les écoles primaires et secondaires ont été établies, les travaux artisanaux à domicile ont été construits, les caniveaux et les ponts ont été construit, des cliniques de santé de communauté ont été établies, ainsi que des institutions financiers locales, la donation de matériel pour soulager la situation comme les aliments et les vêtements aux peuple qui sont des moins favorises, les veuves et des orphelins. la donation de matériels(matières de soulagement la nourriture contribuée et des tissus à moins - privilégié, des veuves et des orphelins. On handicape le CBOS en raison de certains problèmes comme le manque de fonds adéquats, la corruption, la responsabilité, la crédibilité parmi leurs leaders, lanalphabétisme et le manque dengagement parmi certains membres ont limite ce projet. Le papier recommande pour le gouvernement dintervenir dans la forme de trouver des solutions durables a ces problèmes.Mots-clés: Pauvretérurale absolue; Stratégie dadaptation; LEtat Benue Nigeria
Task 4 of this collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focused on the design of the hierarchical supervisory control for multiple-module units. The state of the IRIS plant design--specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design--made developing a detailed hierarchical control difficult at this time. However, other simultaneous and ongoing efforts have contributed to providing the needed information. This report summarizes the results achieved under Task 4 of this Financial Assistance Award. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 discusses the IRIS control functions. Next, it briefly reviews the current control concepts, and then reviews the maneuvering requirements for the IRIS plant. It closes by noting the benefits that automated sequences have in reducing operator workload. Section 3 examines reactor loading in the frequency domain to establish some guidelines for module operation, paying particular attention to strategies for using process steam for desalination and/or district heating. The final subsection discusses the implications for reactor control, and argues that using the envisioned percentage (up to 10%) of the NSSS thermal output for these purposes should not significantly affect the NSSS control strategies. Section 4 uses some very general economic assumptions to suggest how one should approach multi-module operation. It concludes that the well-known algorithms used for economic dispatching could be used to help manage a multi-unit IRIS site. Section 5 addresses the human performance factors of multi-module operation. Section 6 summarizes our conclusions
Task 4 of this collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor focused on the design of the hierarchical supervisory control for multiple-module units. The state of the IRIS plant design specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design made developing a detailed hierarchical control difficult at this time. However, other simultaneous and ongoing efforts have contributed to providing the needed information. This report summarizes the results achieved under Task 4 of this Financial Assistance Award. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 discusses the IRIS control functions. Next, it briefly reviews the current control concepts, and then reviews the maneuvering requirements for the IRIS plant. It closes by noting the benefits that automated sequences have in reducing operator workload. Section 3 examines reactor loading in the frequency domain to establish some guidelines for module operation, paying particular attention to strategies for using process steam for desalination and/or district heating. The final subsection discusses the implications for reactor control, and argues that using the envisioned percentage (up to 10%) of the NSSS thermal output for these purposes should not significantly affect the NSSS control strategies. Section 4 uses some very general economic assumptions to suggest how one should approach multi-module operation. It concludes that the well-known algorithms used for economic dispatching could be used to help manage a multi-unit IRIS site. Section 5 addresses the human performance factors of multi-module operation. Section 6 summarizes our conclusions.
Gary D. Storrick; Bojan Petrovic
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Al hablar de afrontamiento psicológico, se hace referencia a la forma como los seres humanos responden a circunstancias externas o internas, según como sean evaluadas por ellos mismos, se puede decir, que en el momento en que una persona se enfrenta a una situación excedente de su alcance, en este c [...] aso la enfermedad crónica, se ponen de manifiesto todas las habilidades y capacidades del sujeto para hacerle frente. La adaptación a esta nueva condición de vida tanto para las pacientes como para sus familias implica un esfuerzo psicológico para aceptar el diagnóstico, los trámites para la atención clínica, el sometimiento a exámenes o exploraciones médicas, consultas con el especialista y el tratamiento con todos sus efectos colaterales que casi siempre resultan aversivos. Es en el transcurso de este proceso, cuando se evidencian las estrategias de afrontamiento psicológico que cada paciente emplea para enfrentar la enfermedad todo esto con el fin de alcanzar el equilibrio o bien para disminuir la ansiedad producida por el evento estresante. Con el propósito de entender este proceso de manera más profunda se realizó una investigación mixta orientada a caracterizar las estrategias de afrontamiento más empleadas por un grupo de mujeres de la región y a partir de los hallazgos fue posible construir una propuesta de intervención psicológica orientada a fortalecer las estrategias de afrontamiento favorecedoras del proceso de recuperación de las pacientes. Abstract in english When people speak about psychological confrontation they refer to the way humans respond to external or internal circumstances. Depending on how they are evaluated by themselves, it can be said that when a person is facing a surplus situation scope, in this case chronic illness, all the skills and a [...] bilities of the individual are highlighted to cope. The adaptation to this new condition of life for both patients and their families involves a psychological effort to accept the diagnosis, the procedures for clinical care, being subjected to tests or medical examinations, specialist consultations and treatment with all the side effects which are almost always unwanted. It is during this process when patients evidence their psychological confrontation strategies that each one of the uses to deal with the disease in order to achieve balance or to reduce the anxiety caused by the stressful event. In order to understand this process more deeply, a mixed research was undertaken to characterize the facing strategies most used by a group of women in the region, and from the findings it was possible to construct a psychological intervention proposal aimed at strengthening these strategies that favor the recovery process of patients.
María Fernanda, Enríquez Villota.
Full Text Available This study sought to establish the psychometric properties of a Coping Strategies Inventory Short Form (CSISF by examining coping skills in the Jackson Heart Study cohort. We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, PearsonÃ¢ÂÂs correlation, and Cronbach Alpha to examine reliability and validity in the CSI-SF that solicited responses from 5302 African American men and women between the ages of 35 and 84. One item was dropped from the 16-item CSI-SF, making it a 15-item survey. No significant effects were found for age and gender, strengthening the generalizability of the CSI-SF. The internal consistency reliability analysis revealed reliability between alpha = 0.58-0.72 for all of the scales, and all of the fit indices used to examine the CSI-SF provided support for its use as an adequate measure of coping. This study provides empirical support for utilizing this instrument in future efforts to understand the role of coping in moderating health outcomes.
Full Text Available Georges Brousse1,2, Benjamin Arnaud1, Jordane Durand Roger1, Julie Geneste1, Delphine Bourguet1, Frederic Zaplana1, Olivier Blanc1, Jeannot Schmidt1,2, Louis Jehel31CHU Clermont Ferrand, Unité Urgences Psychiatriques, 28 place Henri Dunant BP 69, 63003 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex 01, France; 2Univ Clermont 1, UFR médecine, Clermont-Ferrand, F63001 France; 3Hopital Tenon (CHU APHP 4 rue de la Chine 75020, France, INSERM U669Abstract: Our aim was to assess the influence of the coping strategies employed for the management of traumatic events on the occurrence of dissociation and traumatic disorders. We carried out a 1-year retrospective study of the cognitive management of a traumatic event in 18 subjects involved in the same road vehicle accident. The diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD was made for 33.3% of the participants. The participants with a PTSD diagnosis 1 year after the event used emotion-centered strategies during the event more often than did those with no PTSD, P < 0.02. In the year after the traumatic event, our results show a strong link between the intensity of PTSD and the severity of the post-traumatic symptoms like dissociation (P = 0.032 and the use of emotion-centered strategies (P = 0.004. Moreover, the participants who presented Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire scores above 15 made greater use of emotion-centered coping strategies than did those who did not show dissociation, P < 0.04. Our results confirm that the cognitive management of traumatic events may play an essential role in the development of a state of post-traumatic stress in the aftermath of a violent event.Keywords: trauma, coping, emotions, peritraumatic dissociation, post-traumatic stress disorder
Full Text Available Research purpose was to describe quality-of-life (QoL and coping process in a sample of 194 elderly people in MexicoCity, towards their problems and illnesses. Results showed that 63.9% presented some illness, mainly chronicdegenerative(53.9%. QoL among ill adults vs non-ill persons was significantly different (t = -4.38, d.f. = 184,p<0,000, however QoL resulted a non dependent variable of the problems presented by the subjects, nor the type ofillness, neither the coping process. The problem presented more frequently was with family members (33.7% and thecoping process was towards the behavior (54.2%. Factorial analysis of the coping questionnaire provided four factors(explained variance = 37.49%: active, confrontative, with positive re-appreciation and avoiding. It is concluded that QoL goeswith the coping process of illness.
ANA LUISA GONZÁLEZ-CELIS
Full Text Available This paper is based on the results of a pilot project conducted to strengthen Nigerian Meteorological Agencys (NIMET capacity to provide reliable planting date forecast in Nigeria. This aspect of the project aimed at understanding traditional knowledge base and farmers prediction methods, community perceptions of impacts of rainfall variability, coping strategies and opportunities in Sokoto, Kano, Jigawa, Kaduna, Bauchi states of Nigeria. Based on prevalence of drought, a community was selected for survey in each of the five states. Semi-structured interview and focus group discussion were used to sources for information. The survey indicates that the farmers had good understanding of weather and climatic dynamics of their community. The farmers in the study locations characterize a year into five seasons based on the atmospheric temperature as felt by the body, changes in wind direction, farming activities, and the behavioral changes of some animal and birds and phenological changes in plant species. Rainfall variability in the community has altered the farming systems, either in terms of changes in cropping pattern, elimination/reduction in the level of producing some crops or introduction of new crop varieties that are drought resistant and early maturing, and diversification of source of livelihood (non-farm activities. Impacts of rainfall variability in the communities were asserted to include; poor yield, low prices of crop/livestock, low dowry for their daughters, high cost of labor as a result of migration to urban centers, inadequate water for dry season farming, low income, low standard of living, and high level of poverty. Farmers recommended an integration of traditional proven methods of rainfall prediction with scientific methods to evolve reliable forecast that will reduce risks in their rainfed farming systems.
Nnadozie Okonkwo Nnoli
Full Text Available Several studies have been done to assess job satisfaction and quantify effects of stressors on anaesthesiologists in different regions and countries.Studies related to stress in Indian anaesthesiologists are very limited, which prompted us to design this study not only to identify the stressors but also to find out how anaesthesiologists react to stress and devise means to minimize it to increase their job satisfaction levels. A set of questions was handed over personally to 200 anaesthesiologists at the national- and state-level anaesthesiology conferences and continuing medical educations with a request to return them duly filled in, with an assurance that confidentiality and anonymity would bemaintained.Main outcome measures were demographics, factors causing stress, how the responding anaesthesiologists and their colleagues react to it and methods they adopt to reduce stress at their workplace. Response rate was 96%. The total number of respondents was 192 (54% males and 46% females; juniors, 76%; and seniors, 24%. Identified stressors were as follows: time constraints (34%, medicolegal concerns (24%, interference with home life (22%, clinical problems (20% and communication problems (9%. Different strategies for coping with stress were identified. This survey is just a beginning. Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists is requested to look into the matter and take it further on a larger scale by multicentric studies to lay down standards related to number of working hours, number of night-call duties per week, proper assistance, medicolegal protection, etc., which would not only reduce occupational stress but also improve efficiency and job satisfaction among anaesthesiologists.
The Quality of Life (QoL) represents a dimension of the overall status and of the wellbeing that might be influenced by various factors. Mothers emotional and behavioral reactions, when having a child with diagnosis of mental disorder, are different depending on the emotional distress and cognitive coping strategies used. The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive coping strategies, emotional distress and the relationship between them...
Elena Predescu; Roxana ?ipo?
Abstract Objective. To study coping differences between young and experienced GPs in primary care who experience medical errors and uncertainty. Design. Questionnaire-based survey (self-assessment) conducted in 2011. Setting. Finnish primary practice offices in Southern Finland. Subjects. Finnish GPs engaged in primary health care from two different respondent groups: young (working experience ? 5years, n = 85) and experienced (working experience > 5 years, n = 80). Main outcome measures. Outcome measures included experiences and attitudes expressed by the included participants towards medical errors and tolerance of uncertainty, their coping strategies, and factors that may influence (positively or negatively) sources of errors. Results. In total, 165/244 GPs responded (response rate: 68%). Young GPs expressed significantly more often fear of committing a medical error (70.2% vs. 48.1%, p = 0.004) and admitted more often than experienced GPs that they had committed a medical error during the past year (83.5% vs. 68.8%, p = 0.026). Young GPs were less prone to apologize to a patient for an error (44.7% vs. 65.0%, p = 0.009) and found, more often than their more experienced colleagues, on-site consultations and electronic databases useful for avoiding mistakes. Conclusion. Experienced GPs seem to better tolerate uncertainty and also seem to fear medical errors less than their young colleagues. Young and more experienced GPs use different coping strategies for dealing with medical errors. Implications. When GPs become more experienced, they seem to get better at coping with medical errors. Means to support these skills should be studied in future research. PMID:24914458
Nevalainen, Maarit; Kuikka, Liisa; Pitkälä, Kaisu
Recent research has highlighted the need to recognise occupation-specific risk factors contributing to stress and burnout. As health professionals, it is important for dentists to recognise the symptoms and the effects of stress on physical, psychological and professional well being. This article reviews the relevant scientific evidence, and provides practical cognitive psychological measures to guide improved well-being for dentists. Any stigma-related factors need to be acknowledged and addressed for the wellbeing of dentists and their patients, and the dental profession is well placed to provide leadership on this issue. Peer support is central to meeting this challenge.
In the last years there has been a growing interest in self assessment of Health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Studies show a reduced HRQOL in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A sample of n=3?157 members of the German Multiple Sclerosis Association (71.7% women, aged 48.2 years on average) was analyzed regarding the correlation between coping styles and HRQOL in MS patients. The findings show reduced HRQOL in MS patients in comparison to the general population in West Germany. MSQOL-54- and MSIS-29-sumscales and FKV-LIS-scales "depressive coping" and "minimizing importance" correlate significant: a depressive or trivializing coping style accompanies with reduced mental and physical HRQOL. PMID:21557148
Schipper, Sabine; Wiesmeth, Susanne; Wirtz, Markus; Twork, Sabine; Kugler, Joachim
In this paper, it is argued that local knowledge for adapting to water scarcity is important for integrated resource management by taking into consideration both the natural and social constraints in a particular setting based on accumulated experience. The paper examines the relevance of local knowledge in sustaining agricultural production in the semiarid areas of central Tanzania. The paper specifically focuses on how water scarcity, as the major limiting factor, is addressed in the study area using local knowledge to sustain livelihoods of its people. The study was conducted in four villages; Mzula, Ilolo, Chanhumba and Ngahelezi, situation in Mvumi Division in Dodoma Region. The study mainly employed qualitative data collection techniques. Participatory methods provided a means of exploring perceptions and gaining deeper insights regarding natural resource utilization in terms of problems and opportunities. The main data sources drawn upon in this study were documentation, group interviews and field observations. Group interviews involved discussions with a group of 6-12 people selected on the basis of gender, age and socio-economic groups. Data analysis entailed structural and content analysis within the adaptive livelihood framework in relation to management of water scarcity using local knowledge. The findings confirm that rainfall is the main limiting factor for agricultural activities in the drylands of Central Tanzania. As such, local communities have developed, through time, indigenous knowledge to cope with such environments utilizing seasonality and diversity of landscapes. Use of this local knowledge is therefore effective in managing water scarcity by ensuring a continuous production of crops throughout the year. This practice implies increased food availability and accessibility through sales of such agricultural products. Local innovations for water management, such as cultivation in sandy rivers, appear to be very important means of accessing water in these dryland areas. It can therefore be concluded that utilization of local knowledge has wide impact on integrated water resource management. These implications are important considerations for development of adaptive water system innovations at community level.
Liwenga, Emma T.
Research has identified that coping strategies used by individuals depend on temporal locations of stressors. Dispositional attributes are also identified as predictors of coping. The current study identified commonalities of proactive coping, reactive coping, and learned resourcefulness measures. The analysis yielded three factors reflective of
Moring, John; Fuhrman, Robert; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.
Full Text Available Investigadores, um pouco por todo o mundo, começaram a preocupar-se com o fenómeno do burnout, ao identificarem este sintoma essencialmente nas profissões que envolviam uma relação assistencial ou de ajuda, como o caso dos médicos, enfermeiros e psicólogos. Contudo, não tardou que se percebesse que este fenómeno pudesse também estar presente na profissão docente de uma forma muito significativa. A docência é, na atualidade, uma das profissões mais sujeitas a altos níveis de stresse, podendo levar ao burnout, caso se torne recorrente. Muitos docentes conseguem adaptar-se e reagir de uma forma funcional perante as dificuldades próprias da profissão, tornando-se profissionais engaged, ou seja, enquanto alguns professores vivenciam as dimensões negativas do burnout (exaustão emocional, despersonalização e perda de realização profissional, outros experienciam as três dimensões positivas do engagement(vigor, dedicação e absorção profissional. Com a entrada da chamada "psicologia positiva", surge uma nova perspectiva de estudo que procura respostas para determinadas formas de envolvimento profissional. Assim, apesar do fenómeno do engagement ainda não estar muito estudado, encontrar professores engagedcom a sua profissão também é uma realidade presente em muitos países. O recurso a estratégias de coping é uma forma de lidar com as dificuldades inerentes ao exercício da profissão docente. Logo, é importante perceber de que forma a utilização de determinado tipo de estratégia decoping poderá conduzir ao burnoutou, preferencialmente, ao engagement.Researchers throughout the world have started to worry about the phenomenon of burnout, identifying it mainly in professions that involve a relation of assistance or help, as in the case of medical doctors, nurses, and psychologists. However, it was not long before it was noticed that such phenomenon can also be present in the teaching profession in a very significant way. Teaching is nowadays one of the professions subjected to the highest levels of stress, which can lead to burnout when the situation becomes recurrent. Many teachers manage to adapt and to react in a functional way when faced with the difficulties inherent to their profession, becoming engaged professionals, that is to say, while some teachers experience the negative dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and loss of professional fulfillment, others experience the three positive dimensions of engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption in the profession. With the arrival of the so-called "positive psychology", there comes a new perspective of investigation, which seeks to give answers to certain forms of professional involvement. Thus, despite the fact that the phenomenon of engagement has still been little studied, to find teachers engaged with their profession is also a reality in many countries. Resorting to strategies of coping is one way of dealing with the difficulties inherent to the exercise of the teaching profession. Therefore, it is important to observe in which way the use of certain type of strategy of coping can lead to burnout or, preferably, to engagement.
Objective: To investigate the relative associations of coping strategy and depression on health-related quality of life in patients in the chronic phase after stroke. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 213 patients after stroke (>?18 months post-onset), mean age 59 years (standard deviation (SD) 9.86 years), 56% men, mean time post-stroke 53 months (SD 37.8 months). Methods: Coping strategy was measured using the assimilative-accommodative coping scale, depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and quality of life using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF. Multivariable regression analyses were performed, adjusted for patient characteristics. Results: Depression score was independently related to all domains of quality of life (Psychological Health (B?=?-0.924; p?=?0.000), Physical Health (B?=?-0.832; p?=?0.000), Social Relationships (B?=?-0.917; p?=?0.000), Environment (B?=?-0.662, p?=?0.000)). Accommodative coping (B?=?0.305; p?=?0.024) and assimilative coping (B?=?0.235; p?=?0.070) were independently related to the domain Psychological Health, adjusted for depression and education level. Conclusion: Coping strategies and depression score were independently associated with Psychological Health in patients in the chronic phase after stroke. Patients who prefer an accommodative coping strategy may show less symptoms of depression. Preferable coping strategies may be trained in order to improve both depression score and health-related quality of life in future research. PMID:24687167
Visser, Marieke M; Aben, Laurien; Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka H; Busschbach, Jan J V; Ribbers, Gerard M
This article outlines an 8-week curriculum that was created to help outpatients develop cognitive and behavioral skills for coping with delusions and hallucinations as well as to reduce patients' comorbid subjective levels of distress (e.g., depression, anxiety). The manualized protocol consisted of psychoeducation and training in a variety of CBT
Goldberg, Joel O.; Wheeler, Heather; Lubinsky, Tobi; Van Exan, Jessica
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Purpose: To investigate in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), which are the coping strategies used and the relation between type of coping, voice symptoms and communicative aspects. Method: 73 subjects, 33 in the experimental group, with diagnosis of PD, and 40 subjects in the control group, he [...] althy and without vocal complaints. They underwent the following procedures: application of the Voice Symptons Scale VoiSS Brazilian Version, Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire VDCQ Brazilian Version, and the questionnaire Living with Dysarthria LwD. Results: The experimental group showed deviations in all protocols: VDCQ (p
Flávia Pereira da, Costa.
Full Text Available Climate change adversely affects Ethiopian economy due to heavy dependence of the agricultural sector on rainfall. A decrease of rainfall and rise in temperature has been increasing the exposure of the country to frequent drought. The study was conducted in central Tigray, Adiha tabia, to examine the perception of farmers on trends of climate changes and existing coping strategies. Farmers knowledge of various adaptation strategies, drought early warning system and weather forecasting were assessed using focus group discussion (FGD, which consisted of 144 systematically sampled respondents. Temperature is rising while precipitation is declining from time to time. Untimely rain and frequent drought are challenging crop production in the area. Drought is perceived, both by male and female respondents, as the primary climate related hazard which is occurring frequently and affecting their livelihood. Individuals vulnerability to this hazard varies based on their hazard coping capacity. Lack of modern early warning systems, inflexible cropping calendar and narrow choice of crop varieties should aggravates the vulnerability. Hence, improving forecasting and dissemination of climate information, developing drought resistant varieties and promoting farm-level adaptation measures like use of irrigation technologies and adjusting planting dates should be prioritized to improve community resilience to climate change.
Dejene K. Mengistu
Transverse myelitis (TM) is a rare auto-immune inflammatory disease in which the patients immune system attacks their spinal cord resulting in an unpredictable degree of neurologic disability, ranging from complete recovery to quadriplegia. TM patients often experience insufficient assistance towards understanding causes of the illness and have little to depend on in trying to deal with it. This study explores psychological strengths and coping strategies used by TM patients in coping with...
The purpose in this study is to investigate how the educational system in Tanzania is seen to enable the transformations of globalization in order to develop the economy, society and individuals. I look at how educational development in Tanzania is described, what the purpose of educational development is and under which conditions educational development is seen to enable global transformations. The main perspectives of this study are globalization and governmentality to highlight global tra...
Recent research on social and ecological resilience has recognised the importance of identifying opportunities in adversities, providing a wealth of theoretical knowledge; but empirical evidence remains a major gap not only for sustainability debates but also for focusing development objectives. The aim of this paper is to identify aspect of rural livelihoods that assists in sustaining households coping and adaptive capacities during a crisis, thus attempting to diagnose which element of a...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Stress among students of the health sciences can lead to reduced performance of future healthcare human resources. To address this threat there is a need to develop a robust understanding of the nature and intensity of stress in these professionals. To help approaching this goal, the present study assessed stress-induced life change in students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences by quantifying their stressful life events.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study was carried out. Using a cluster sampling method, 248 students were randomly selected from the students of medicine, nursing, dental medicine, pharmacy, allied-medicine, health, midwifery, medical management and information, and rehabilitation disciplines. Based on the concept of Life Change Units (LCU, a questionnaire was developed to quantify the stressful events in student life. The questionnaire contained 54 weighed items about stressful life events related to four groups of interpersonal (10 items, personal (16 items, academic (14 items, and environmental (14 items stress sources. Validity of the questionnaire was determined by expert opinion. The questionnaire reliability was ensured by Cronbachs alpha of 0.88. The mean LCU loading of demographic groups was compared using t test and ANOVA.Findings: The average LCU loading in student was 71. Twenty seven percent of the students reported an average LCU loading 300. The highest reported life changes were related to personal factors (86, followed by interpersonal (79, environmental (63, and academic (55 factors. Male students showed significantly higher life change as compared with their female counterparts (P < 0.01. Students of medical and graduate courses jointly expressed significantly higher life change as compared with the under graduate students (P < 0.01. Students of nursing showed significantly higher life change in comparison to other students except medical students (P < 0.01. Upper-year students reported higher life change as compared with freshman students (P < 0.01. LCU loading was found significantly higher in students with sleeplessness (P < 0.05 and muscle spasm (P < 0.05, whereas no significant effect was observed for other clinical symptoms.Conclusions: Our study indicated that a considerable percentage of students are exposed to a high risk of health problems. This observation points out the urgent need for implementing effective stress management strategies to assist students in coping with stress. Such a strategy should primarily focus on enhancing students personal life management and communication. Male and upper-year students need to receive particular attention. Stress in students of medical and nursing disciplines needs to be specifically characterized and addressed.
Smoking prevalence for those ages 45-65 is higher than the national average and the number of mid-life and older smokers is expected to increase as baby boomers age. Cessation, even after age 65, confers health benefits. Both physiologic and psychological mechanisms support use of physical activity (PA) as a coping tool for quitting and improving health. This study focused on use of PA for coping with urges to smoke, factors associated with use, and whether use of PA was associated with abstinence at 12 months for 799 smokers ages 50 and older. Only 11.6% used PA for coping, with walking the most common PA. Females were more likely to use PA relative to males. Though in the predicted direction, use of PA was not significantly associated with 12-month abstinence. Male gender and higher baseline self-efficacy to quit were associated with 12 month abstinence. Encouraging use of PA during smoking cessation does not impede quitting and may improve health outcomes. Further research on whether PA increases abstinence with a larger sample of mid-life and older adults is indicated. PMID:24589870
Treviño, Lara A; Baker, Liana; McIntosh, Scott; Mustian, Karen; Seplaki, Christopher L; Guido, Joseph J; Ossip, Deborah J
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine how coping strategies and perceived social stigmatization predicts the psychological wellbeing of female partners of prisoners in Ibadan, Nigeria. Using the purposive sampling techniques, a total of one hundred and nine (109 female partners of prisoners in Ibadan participated in the study. The ages of the participants ranged between 20 years to 65 years. Data collection was through the use of questionnaires. 2Ã?2Ã?2 ANOVA and T-test was used to test the hypothesis. Findings indicates that coping strategies (problem focused and emotion focused and perceived social stigmatization jointly predicted psychological well-being with (F (1, 101 = 13.50; p<0.001. Also there was significant difference between the psychological wellbeing of partners with low (X = 72.76, SD = 10.28 perceived social stigmatization and High (Ã? = 66.39, SD = 7.37 perceived social stigmatization, (t = 3.65; df = 107; p<0.05.
Bada Bukola Victoria
Full Text Available In recent years, Jamaica has been seriously affected by a number of extreme meteorological events. The one discussed here, Hurricane Dean, passed along the south coast of the island in August 2007, damaging crops and disrupting livelihood activities for many small-scale farmers. This study is based on detailed ethnographic research in the southern coastal region of St. Elizabeth parish during the passage of Hurricane Dean, and explores the ways in which small farmers negotiate the stressors associated with hurricane events. The study employed a mix methods approach based on a survey of 282 farming households. The paper documents coping strategies employed by farmers in the immediate period of Hurricane Dean to reduce damage to their farming systems, and highlights the positive correlation between farmers perceptions of hurricanes and degree of damage to local farming systems. In addition, through an analysis of socio-economic and environmental data, the paper provides an understanding of the determinants of adaptive capacity and strategy among farmers in the area. The study indicated that despite high levels of vulnerability, farmers have achieved successful coping and adaptation at the farm level.
OBJECTIVE: Coping is shown to affect outcomes in chronic pain patients; however, few studies have examined the role of coping in the course of recovery in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of coping style for 2 key aspects of WAD recovery, reductions in neck pain, and in disability. METHODS: A population-based prospective cohort study design was used to study 2986 adults with traffic-related WAD. Participants were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 4, 8, and 12 months postinjury. Coping was measured at 6 weeks using the Pain Management Inventory, and neck pain recovery was assessed at each subsequent follow-up, using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Disability was assessed at each follow-up using the Pain Disability Index (PDI). Pain recovery was defined as a VAS score of 0 to 10; disability recovery was defined as a PDI score of 0 to 4. Data analysis used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Those using high versus low levels of passive coping at 6 weeks postinjury experienced 28% slower pain recovery and 43% slower disability recovery. Adjusted hazard rate ratios for pain recovery and disability recovery were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.59-0.88) and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.41-0.78), respectively. Active coping was not associated with recovery of neck pain or disability. CONCLUSIONS: Passive coping style predicts neck pain and self-assessed disability recovery. It may be beneficial to assess and improve coping style early in WAD.
Carroll, Linda J; Ferrari, Robert
Full Text Available The development of the different regions of Europe throughout history has known different phases and evolutions according to the conditions which they have gone through. The aim of this article is to present an analysis of European regions depending on three essential elements of a unitary development including: concentration of resources, connecting regions and cooperation, highlighting a number of directions for a sustainable development.From this perspective in the EU financial period 2014-2020, national targets and regional funding should take into account varied issues, focusing on the structure and the concentration of population for the necessary conditions of housing and living (infrastructure, utilities, public services, education, health and social services to be satisfied.
As a deltaic plain, Bangladesh annually experiences riverbank erosion hazard due to sudden and rapid channel shifting, particularly in the major floodplain areas of the country. Consequently, valuable cultivable land is lost; also village settlements, markets and towns are destroyed, displacing tens of thousands of people. This paper examines the magnitude of river channel migration and encroachment on land, and the nature of human adjustment systems in the Brahmaputra-Jamuna floodplain, by investigating aspects of the social and cultural dynamics of resettlement of the displaced people. Some policy measures are recommended to improve the ability of the people in the floodplain to cope with these hazards. PMID:20958684
Haque, C E; Zaman, M Q
This paper reports the results of a study of strategies that Dutch children with dyslexia employ to cope with recurrent academic failure. All of the students in the study had developed strategies for protecting their self-esteem. Using Harter's theory of coping with discrepancies between performance and standards, we distinguish four strategies:
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a síndrome de "burnout" e as estratégias de "coping" de jogadores de vôlei de praia. Participaram 93 atletas, das categorias sub-21 e "open" do circuito brasileiro de vôlei de praia. Como instrumentos foram utilizados uma ficha com dados de identificação, Ques [...] tionário de "Burnout" para Atletas e Inventário Atlético das Estratégias de "Coping". Para análise dos dados utilizou-se teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, coeficiente Alpha de Cronbach, teste 'U' de Mann-Whitney, teste de Kruskal-Wallis e coeficiente de correlação de Spearman, adotando p Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze burnout syndrome and coping strategies of beach volleyball players. Ninety-three athletes participated, being one group of under-21 age and another group of adult category. The both group are composed by players of the Brazilian beach volleyball championship. The instrume [...] nts used were a form with data identification, Burnout Questionnaire for Athletes and Athletic Inventory of Coping Strategies. For data analysis, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, 'U' Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlation coefficient, were used, considering p
Lenamar Fiorese, Vieira; Nayara Malheiros, Carruzo; Paulo Vitor Suto, Aizava; Patrícia Aparecida Gaion, Rigoni.
Full Text Available In the process of strategic planning the strategy of development as well as applications realizing it are formulated. Planning is the basis for preparing and taking decisions referring to principles, trends and the pace of far-reaching development. Elaboration of the strategy of regional development management is the undertaking of large scale complexity. It comprises decisions referring to development perspectives, formulating purposes and determining (choice the methods of their realization, analysis of social and political conditions, collecting and processing the information. Conditioning of defining the strategy has a versatile character. None of the above-mentioned areas can be regarded as less important. The purpose of this study is to attempt to identify basic problems of forming the strategy of regional development management. The study contains a brief description of planning regional development on the basis of the literature of the subject, and then empirical verification of the accepted hypothesis. Considerations and based upon them conclusions can be useful in working out the strategy of regional development management.
In patients with acute leukemia we investigated the illness perceptions, lay theories and coping strategies 1 week after diagnosis. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 patients. The transcribed interviews were analyzed by methods of qualitative research. Dramatic narrations of overwhelming threat in younger patients contrast to rationalization in elderly patients. Feelings of helplessness and efforts of normalization become apparent. Intense descriptions of physical injury due to invasive procedures allow verbalizing the fear of the disease. While coping strategies are complex, the overall importance of trust is recognized. Mortal fears are indirectly indicated. The results have consequences for psycho-oncological training and patient education. PMID:16458356
Koenigsmann, Michael; Koehler, Katharina; Regner, Andreas; Franke, Astrid; Frommer, Jörg
Side effects from HIV treatments impact quality of life (QOL) and adherence to care, and influence decisions about health care. The purposes of this study are to describe the development of a measure of coping with HIV treatment side effects, the SECope, and to provide support for the reliability and validity of the measure. Based in Stress and Coping Theory, the 20-item measure assesses strategies for coping with HIV treatment side effects, and includes scales of Positive Emotion Focused Cop...
Full Text Available This paper addresses, homesickness, an important issue in the area of international human resource management. It uses psychological and sociological literature to highlight the negative effects of homesickness on migrant workers and expatriates. These effects range from psychological disruptions to physical manifestations that affect the health and welfare of individuals and impact on work performance. The paper presents a model of coping strategies used by expatriates to deal with homesickness. This model is built on the empirical evidence collected. It concludes that there is significant amount of evidence found to substantiate that homesickness is an illness and detrimental to psychological and social well-being. It is crucial that further research is undertaken in this area as affecting expatriates because the size of the investment in expatriates commands that risks of failure are minimized.
Full Text Available Introduction Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH represents an extremely important problem in perinatology. Despite numerous clinical observations and studies, the etiology and exact sequence of pathophysiological events accompanying this specific disorder have remained still unresolved. The concepts most often considered are those that include genetic, endocrine and immunological mechanisms. Besides, one can also find in the literature considerations addressing potential participation of psychological factors in pregnancy-induced hypertension. Material and methods The study included two groups of women - 100 women with PIH and 100 of women with normal course of pregnancy, which were tested using two questionnaires concerning pregnancy as a stressful event and using strategies for coping with stress. Results and discussion Women with PIH experience pregnancy in a more stressful way than women with regular course of pregnancy. However, it is necessary to point out that respondents of both groups thought that pregnant women seek attention from everyone from their environment, and that their husbands/partners should pay special attention to them during pregnancy. The importance of relationship between partners during pregnancy and the emotional life of pregnant woman has been also examined by other researchers. These data suggest that pregnancy is an emotionally vulnerable period during which women demand special attention from the environment and especially from their husbands/partners. In view of using particular strategies to cope with stress, certain differences have been registered between the two groups of women. Namely, women with PIH utilize much more the mechanism of seeking social support and much less the mechanism of positive redefinition, compared with women with normal course of pregnancy. Conclusion From the psychosocial approach, pregnancy may be considered as a specific state of high emotional tension, which can represent a potent stressor. In the frame of specific reactions to stress, pregnancy as a stress-inducing situation may lead to transformation of emotional tension to biochemical and vegetative response, and thus contribute to onset of pregnancy-induced hypertension.
Bjelica Artur L.
Sudden economic change can have devastating effects on the wellbeing of a country, as witnessed by the dramatic increases in suicide rates in the former Soviet Socialist Republics. However, it is possible to use economic development to promote happiness, if one understands the relationship between culture, coping, and resilience to stress. Cultures shape both normative stressors and individuals responses to them; individual coping strategies and cultural institutions must change to accommo...
Aldwin, Carolyn M.
Clinical effectiveness of a manual based coping strategy programme (START, STrAtegies for RelaTives) in promoting the mental health of carers of family members with dementia: pragmatic randomised controlled trial
Objective: To assess whether a manual based coping strategy compared with treatment as usual reduces depression and anxiety symptoms in carers of family members with dementia. Design: Randomised, parallel group, superiority trial. Setting: Three mental health community services and one neurological outpatient dementia service in London and Essex, UK. Participants: 260 carers of family members with dementia. Intervention: A manual based coping intervention comprising eight sess...
Livingston, Gill; Barber, Julie; Rapaport, Penny; Knapp, Martin; Griffin, Mark; King, Derek; Livingston, Debbie; Mummery, Cath; Walker, Zuzana; Hoe, Juanita; Sampson, Elizabeth L.; Cooper, Claudia
Background Abuse of older people is a serious issue and is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and professionals will encounter elderly victims of abuse in all areas of the health care system. An important health determinant is behavioral factors, including coping style, which will impact on how older people manage stress and maintain control in their lives, and thereby protect themselves from abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the coping strategies elderly people abused by their offspring used to manage everyday life. Methods A qualitative approach was used and 14 elderly victims of abuse were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Results Five main coping strategies were identified. The main strategy was linked to the role of parent. Another prominent strategy was attitude towards being victimized. Further strategies were associated with hope for a better relationship with offspring in the future, while others felt that they had done the best they could, or that their offspring were no longer their responsibility. The results are discussed in light of theoretical perspectives related to coping and resilience. Conclusion Abuse of older people by their offspring imposes severe stress on victims and challenges the values and beliefs about the caring nature of families. The findings of this study indicate that victims of abuse use a wide range of coping techniques to manage everyday life, and that some strategies help them to maintain their self-respect in their role as parents and find some sort of resilience.
Sandmoe, Astrid; Hauge, Solveig
Full Text Available The deep benthic communities of tropical lakes are poorly understood with respect to their composition, abundance, biomass and regulatory factors. Whereas the hypolimnia of temperate oligotrophic lakes remain oxygenated, the higher temperatures in tropical lakes frequently lead to the rapid development of hypolimnetic anoxia independent of trophic status. The deep benthic communities of tropical lakes must therefore develop strategies to respond to anoxic conditions. The dynamics of the deep benthic community of Lake Alchichica were studied over 15 months. We hypothesized that the sedimentation of the winter diatom bloom constitutes an input of high-quality food that contributes to the establishment and development of the deep benthic community. However, the remineralization of this organic matter leads to the prompt development of hypolimnetic anoxia, thus limiting the establishment and/or persistence of the deep benthic community. In contrast with the diverse littoral benthic community (50 taxa in Lake Alchichica, only two species constitute its deep benthic community, the ostracod Candona cf. patzcuaro and the chironomid Chironomus cf. austini, which combined exhibit a low density (1197±1976 ind m-2 and biomass (16.13±30.81 mg C m-2. C. patzcuaro is dominant and is present throughout the year, whereas Ch. austini is recorded only when the bottom water of the lake is oxygenated. A comparison with the analogous but temperate Lake Mergozzo in Italy illustrates the role that anoxia plays in tropical lakes by diminishing not only taxonomic richness (13 versus 2 spp. in temperate versus tropical lakes, respectively but also abundance (1145 versus 287 ind m-2, respectively. C. patzcuaro is found throughout the annual cycle of the lakes profundal zone, entering into diapause during the anoxic period and recovering as soon as the profundal zone reoxygenates. Ch. austini has adjusted its life cycle to use the habitat and available resources while the bottom of the lake is oxygenated and emerges en masse at the onset of anoxia. The presence of oxygen and abundant fresh food favors the development of the deep benthic community and yields increases in density and biomass. However, the anoxia that rapidly occurs during the stratification period and the presence of hydrogen sulfide are the key factors that limit deep benthic community colonization and/or permanence in the profundal zone of the tropical Lake Alchichica.
María del Carmen Hernández
Food systems are of increasing interest in both research and policy communities. Surveys of post-socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) show high rates of food self-provisioning. These practices have been explained in terms of being "coping strategies of the poor". Alber and Kohler's "Informal Food Production in the Enlarged
Jehlicka, Petr; Kostelecky, Tomas; Smith, Joe
Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who
Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina
Smoking cigarettes is prevalent among individuals with chronic pain. Some studies indicate nicotine reduces pain and others suggest it may cause or exacerbate pain. Participants in this cross-sectional study were 151 chronic pain patients from a large, urban VA medical center. Patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) non-smokers, (2) smokers who deny using cigarettes to cope with pain, and (3) smokers who report using cigarettes to cope with pain. Patients who reported smoking as a coping strategy for chronic pain scored significantly worse compared to the other 2 groups on the majority of measures of pain-related outcome. Non-smokers and smokers who denied smoking to cope did not differ on any variable examined. After controlling for the effects of demographic and clinical factors, smoking cigarettes as a coping strategy for pain was significantly and positively associated with pain intensity (p=0.04), pain interference (p=0.005), and fear of pain (p=0.04). In addition to the assessment of general smoking status, a more specific assessment of the chronic pain patients reasons for smoking may be an important consideration as part of interdisciplinary pain treatment.
Patterson, Alexander L.; Gritzner, Susan; Resnick, Michael P.; Dobscha, Steven K.; Turk, Dennis C.; Morasco, Benjamin J.
Full Text Available Resumen: La presente investigación se basa en el diagnóstico sobre las estrategias de afrontamiento utilizadas por un grupo de once técnicos en emergencias médicas (TEM de la Cruz Roja Costarricense. Se hizo un análisis integrativo por medio de la triangulación de datos obtenidos en entrevistas y observaciones realizadas durante y posterior a las emergencias tomando como categorías de estudio las situaciones de emergencia y las estrategias de afrontamiento. Los datos se codificaron y categorizaron mediante el programa de análisis cualitativo Atlas.ti 5.0. Desde el enfoque teórico de la crisis, los hallazgos del diagnóstico mostraron afectadas todas las áreas conductuales, afectivas, somáticas, interpersonales y cognoscitivas, así como el área espiritual. Los factores desencadenantes del estrés en los TEM remitieron más a aspectos contextuales que rodearon a las situaciones atendidas, que a las mismas situaciones de emergencia. Las estrategias de afrontamiento, a pesar de ser funcionales, no resultaron ser las más saludables. Con base en los resultados, se elaboró y aplicó un programa de intervención psicológico para la promoción y puesta en práctica de nuevas estrategias de afrontamiento y una adecuada translaboración de pensamientos, emociones y conductas. La investigación muestra la necesidad de potenciar la salud de manera integral de la población a través de las áreas de autocuidado, habilidades sociales, expresión de sentimientos y manejo del estrés, además hace necesario superar, a nivel institucional, la falta de comunicación y conocimiento entre los TEM y la Unidad de Soporte Psicológico. Abstract: The present study is based on a diagnosis of coping strategies used by a group of eleven emergency medical technicians (EMT of the Costa Rican Red Cross. An integrated analysis was done by triangulation of data obtained in interviews and field observations made during and following emergencies, using emergency situations and coping strategies as categories for study. Data were encoded and categorized by the qualitative research program Atlas.ti.5.0. From the theoretical approach of crisis intervention, the diagnosis showed all behavioral, affective, somatic, interpersonal and cognitive areas as having been affected, as well as spiritual aspects. Factors identified as triggering stress in the EMTs related to contextual issues surrounding the emergency situations rather than to the situations themselves. Coping strategies, despite being functional, were not the healthiest. Based on the results, a psychological intervention program was developed and implemented which consisted of promoting and practicing new coping strategies and more suitable reworking of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. The research revealed the need to promote the health of this population in an integral way by improving the following areas: self-care, social skills, expression of feelings, and stress management, in addition to overcoming, at an institutional level, the lack of communication and knowledge between EMTs and the Psychological Support Unit.
María José Pérez Molina
Full Text Available Estudos têm apontado evidências de estresse em famílias de portadores de autismo. Neste processo, deve-se considerar as estratégias de coping utilizadas pelos familiares frente às circunstâncias adversas. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as estratégias de coping maternas frente a dificuldades dos portadores de autismo, assim como as estratégias das mães para lidar com as próprias emoções desencadeadas pelo estresse. Participaram 30 mães, entre 30 a 56 anos, cujos filhos apresentam diagnóstico de autismo e freqüentam instituições de atendimento. Utilizou-se uma entrevista semi-estruturada, a qual foi transcrita e analisada com base na Análise de Conteúdo. As principais dificuldades se referem ao comportamento do filho, frente às quais as mães utilizam predominantemente as estratégias de ação direta e de aceitação. Quanto às estratégias para lidar com as emoções, as categorias mais freqüentes foram distração, busca de apoio social/religioso, inação e evitação. Os resultados são discutidos considerando-se o estresse e a adaptação materna.Many studies have shown evidence of high levels of stress in families with autistic children. Concerning this process, it is important to consider the coping strategies used by family members in face of the adverse circumstances. The purpose of this study is to investigate the coping strategies of mothers when dealing with their autistic children, as well as how they deal with their own emotions unleashed by the stress. Thirty mothers, between 30 and 56 years old participated in the study. Their children have met the criteria for autism and attended special education schools. The coping strategies were investigated using a semi-structured interview, which was transcribed and analyzed by content analysis. The main difficulties refer to the child's behavior. In relation to these difficulties, the strategy used by the mothers was predominantly direct action and acceptance. Concerning the strategies to deal with their own emotions, the most frequent categories were distraction, reaching out for social/religious support, lack of action and avoidance. Results are discussed in terms of stress and maternal adaptation model.
Burnout, Depression und Depersonalisation Psychologische Faktoren und Bewältigungsstrategien bei Studierenden der Zahn- und Humanmedizin [Burnout, depression and depersonalisation Psychological factors and coping strategies in dental and medical students
Full Text Available [english] Background: Previous studies found that stress, depression, burnout, anxiety, and depersonalisation play a significant role amongst dental and medical students. We wanted to examine if students of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg also would report elevated values as can been found in similar publications. Furthermore, particularly coping strategies were investigated.Methods: The data collection took place in April 2008 including 182 dental and medical students of the 4 and 5 academic year at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Demographic data and the following screening instruments were used: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale (CDS-9, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Brief COPE. Results: Descriptive statistics showed higher pathological values in dental students than in medical students. The difference was especially pronounced on the depersonalisation scale (CDS-9, with 20.4% of the dental students, but only 5.5% of the medical students showing scores above a cut-off of 19. The scores decreased in the course of 3 semesters of dentistry. The students with elevated values showed a higher degree of dysfunctional coping. Conclusion: Our results obtained with the screening instruments are in line with the results of previous investigations of other authors and point out the importance of this issue. It might be useful to develop programs teaching dental students more adaptive coping strategies before their first patient contact.[german] Hintergrund: Studien der vergangenen Jahre zeigten, dass Stress, Depression, Burnout-Syndrom, Angst und Depersonalisation während des Studiums der Zahn- und Humanmedizin einen besonderen Stellenwert einnehmen. Es stellt sich die Frage, ob auch bei Studierenden der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg erhöhte Werte, wie sie in der Literatur gefunden werden, nachweisbar sind. Zudem soll untersucht werden, welche Arten von Bewältigungsstrategien vorkommen.Methodik: Die Datenerhebung fand im April 2008 bei 182 Studenten der Human- und Zahnmedizin des 4. und 5. Studienjahres an der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg statt. Neben der demographischen Erhebung kamen folgende Screening Instrumente zum Einsatz: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale (CDS-9, Kurzversion, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Brief COPE. Ergebnisse: In der deskriptiven Statistik zeigten sich bei den Zahnmedizinstudenten erhöhte Werte im Vergleich zu den Humanmedizinstudenten. Besonders deutlich war der Unterschied bei den Werten der Depersonalisations-Skala (CDS-9. Es hatten 20.4% der Zahnmedizin- und nur 5,5% der Humanmedizinstudenten Werte über dem cut-off von 19. Im Querschnitt der drei Studiensemester Zahnmedizin nahm die Anzahl der Studierenden mit auffälligen Werten ab. Studierende mit auffälligen Werten zeigten ein höheres Maß an dysfunktionalen Bewältigungsstrategien. Schlussfolgerung: Die Messwerte der Screening Instrumente ähneln der Untersuchungen anderer Autoren und unterstreichen die Bedeutung der Thematik. Aus Sicht der Prävention könnte sich bei Studenten der Zahnmedizin die Zeit vor dem ersten Patientenkontakt anbieten, um geeignete Bewältigungsstrategien zu vermitteln.
This report presents the findings of a study for low carbon development strategy for Maldives. The study was implemented under the Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Environment and Energy (MEE), Maldives and URC and was financed by Danida, Denmarkâ??s development aid agency under its Green Facility Phase II. The study work was conducted from October 2010 to March 2014 and comprised a number of study missions.
Fenhann, JÃ¸rgen Villy
Climate change adversely affects Ethiopian economy due to heavy dependence of the agricultural sector on rainfall. A decrease of rainfall and rise in temperature has been increasing the exposure of the country to frequent drought. The study was conducted in central Tigray, Adiha tabia, to examine the perception of farmers on trends of climate changes and existing coping strategies. Farmers knowledge of various adaptation strategies, drought early warning system and weather forecasting were...
Mengistu, Dejene K.
Caregivers with greatest supporting need based on the relationship between personality, overload and coping strategies related to caregivers of dependent patients from the hospitable area Virgen Macarena of Seville
Full Text Available Objective: Find a relationship between personality, the overhead of caregivers and the coping strategies that develop these to meet the care, allowing us to detect carers need greater supportMaterial and Methods: There has been realized a descriptive study in which there have taken part 23 carer of major dependent persons admitted to the Hospitable Area "Virgen Macarena" of Seville. Demographic and clinical variables have been collected through: general interview, Revised Eysenck Questionnaire of Personality, brief version (EPQ-RA, Coping Strategies Inventory, Zarit Scale Overload.Outcomes: The majority of caregivers are women (86.96% with an average age of 54.9 years old, with studies of basic education. Among them, 56.52% suffer from some kind of disease and 92.86% of these caregivers have no help. Statistical significance was found for extraversion, neuroticism, pretention-conformity, overload and coping strategies. Conclusions: Caregivers, with high scores on the extroversion scale, perform a proper handling of the situation, while those who obtained higher scores on the neuroticism scale, performed improper handling of the situation.
Mª Angustias Navarro Arquelladas
Neste trabalho, apresentamos uma investigação realizada com professores, no qual se procura determinar a vulnerabilidade ao stress; identificar as principais fontes de stress; estabelecer as principais estratégias de coping; analisar se as estratégias deste condicionam a presença de stress laboral; e reconhecer se a autoeficácia percebida é preditora desse tipo de stress. Trata-se duma investigação por questionário, do tipo correlacional, e a amostra é constituída por 54 professor...
In this book authors analyse the present state of economy as well as strategy of perspectives of development of Slovak society. A key issue in the next 5 to 10 years in the energy sector will mainly address energy security, diversification of energy sources, renewable energy sources and energy savings. The strategic goal is to transform energy into a form that will ensure long competition-capable and reliable supply of all forms of energy, taking into account sustainable development, security of supply and technical security. The strategy of energy security of Slovakia in 2030 is to achieve a competitive energy industry, ensuring safe, reliable and efficient supply of all forms of energy at affordable prices with regard to consumer protection, environmental protection, sustainable development, security of supply and technical security.
Explores how the individuality of students affects their time management strategies in doing undergraduate final year projects. Investigates how four students responded differently to the same time management advice given by the supervisor of their final year projects in two different teacher education programs on teaching English as a Second
This research article explores the use of the hermeneutic approach in understanding practice challenges for occupational therapists in the contemporary health care arena. It provides insights into factors that lead to therapist burnout and the strategies they utilize to maintain competent practice. In this mixed methods study, hermeneutics was
Gupta, Sangeeta; Paterson, Margo; von Zweck, Claudia; Lysaght, Rosemary
End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) have a lot of anxiety. Anxiety and coping are associated with the locus of control; the present investigation aimed to study the state and trait anxiety, locus of control, and active and passive coping among patients on MHD. Thirty MHD patients and 30 controls were administered StateTrait Anxiety Inventory, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale, and Coping Responses Inventory. There were significantly higher scores on sta...
Kohli, S.; Batra, P.; Aggarwal, H. K.
There is a growing recognition among mental health professionals of the need for more ethnographic studies on local mental health needs, conceptions, and resources in order to formulate more culturally-informed and effective therapeutic strategies at the health-care planning and policy levels. R.L Kapur(1992), for instance, underscores the need for detailed family ethnographies on behavioural patterns and intra-familial relationships, especially in the wake of the changes brought on by indust...
This paper tends to explore the relationship between structural victimisation and criminal behavior of people traffickers in Serbia. Looking for conditions under which people in transition and war affected societies create individual choices and motivations, the author attempted to contribute to better understanding of trafficking in people in Serbia, as the form of organized and professional crime, as well as survival strategy. The main theoretical departure of the analysis is economic appro...
South Africa as a developing country is faced with numerous challenges amongst them is the shortage of skills in the working environment. Skills shortage has been aggravated by the retirement of the ageing skilled workforce and emigration of most experienced professionals to first world countries. Some professionals once they acquire the experience they opt out for a consultative business. This leaves a gap or void in the industries which can results into poor performance and quality, lessening of business standards and loosing competition. This challenge need to be attended to, because it will lead to hiring of consultants in most jobs or having many young and less experienced professionals and new graduates filling these gaps. The South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has developed a strategic plan to serve as a guideline on how these challenges mentioned above can be addressed . The proposed strategy will be aligned with skills development in the line of work and should get support from the nuclear Industry. Young professionals and recent graduates are the most affected people who lack skills and shall benefit from these programmes. In order for skill development and transfer to be accomplished there should be a Skill Development and Transfer Strategy and procedures to be followed. (authors)
Mutshena, M.T.; Nkuna, K.K. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Pty (Ltd), P O Box 9394, Centurion, 0046 (South Africa); South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (South Africa); Thugwane, S.J. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (South Africa); Rasweswe, M.A. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (South Africa); Nuclear Energy Cooperation of South Africa, P O Box 582, PRETORIA 0001 (South Africa)
Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El siguiente trabajo se enmarca dentro de un proyecto UBACyT sobre conductas de afrontamiento en trastornos de ansiedad. En el presente artículo se muestran los resultados de una revisión bibliográica sobre la utilización de la preocupación como estrategia de afrontamiento en pacientes con trastorno [...] de ansiedad generalizada. El método utilizado consistió en una búsqueda de los trabajos disponibles en las bases de datos PubMed, Scielo, Lilacs y Ebsco utilizando como palabras clave afrontamiento, ansiedad generalizada y preocupación. En primer lugar se describen brevemente las características del cuadro y se define el concepto de afrontamiento y sus diversos tipos. Seguidamente, en base a los resultados obtenidos en la búsqueda se analiza el concepto de preocupación así como las consecuencias de su uso como estrategia de afrontamiento en pacientes con trastorno de ansiedad generalizada. Finalmente se discuten las implicancias de los resultados para el tratamiento del cuadro. Abstract in english The following work is part of a research project about coping behaviors in anxiety disorders. In this paper we show the results of a literature review focused on the use of worry as a coping strategy in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. The method used consisted of a bibliographic search o [...] f the available studies in the PubMed, Scielo, Lilacs and Ebsco databases using the terms coping strategies, generalized anxiety and concern as keywords. First, we briely describe the characteristics of the disorder and deine the concept of coping and its diverse forms. Then, following the results found in the search we explore the concept of worry and the consequences of its use as a coping strategy in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Finally, we discuss the implications of the results for the treatment of the disorder.
Vetere, Giselle; Azrilevich, Paula; Colombo, María Cecilia; Rodríguez Biglieri, Ricardo.
Estratégias de Coping de Crianças e Adolescentes em Eventos Estressantes com Pares e com Adultos / Stratégie de Comportement des Enfants et des Adolescents (Coping) Dans les Conflits Impliquant des Pairs et des Adultes / Strategies Used by Children and Adolescents to Cope with Conflicts Involving Peers and Adults
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram investigadas estratégias de coping em 215 crianças e adolescentes de ambos os sexos, de 7 a 15 anos, que freqüentavam escolas públicas de periferia. Metade dos participantes (n=105, M=10,6 anos) estavam abrigados num órgão governamental de proteção e os demais (n=110, M=9,9 anos) freqüentavam [...] as mesmas escolas e moravam com a família. Através de entrevistas os participantes relataram eventos estressantes recentes e a forma como lidaram com a situação. Os eventos foram classificados considerando se envolviam pares (ou seja, pessoas de mesma idade) ou adultos e foram identificados sete tipos de estratégias de coping: ação agressiva, evitação, busca de apoio, ação direta, inação, aceitação e expressão emocional. Análises demonstraram que crianças de 7 a 10 anos utilizaram mais as estratégias de inação e busca de apoio, enquanto que o grupo de 11 a 15 anos utilizou mais a estratégia de ação direta. Nos eventos com adultos, foram mais freqüentes as estratégias de evitação, aceitação e expressão emocional, enquanto que com pares a ação agressiva e busca de apoio foram mais utilizadas. Estes resultados sugerem que a idade e as pessoas envolvidas na situação estressante são fatores determinantes na escolha da estratégia a ser utilizada, entendendo-se coping como um processo situacional. Abstract in english The present study investigated coping strategies of 215 children and adolescents of both sexes, 7 to 15 years old, who attended public schools on the periphery of a southern Brazilian capital. About half the participants were living in state institutions for abandoned children (n=105, mean age=10.6) [...] . The remaining (n=110, mean age=9.9) attended the same schools but were living with their families. The participants were asked about recent stressing events and how they had dealt with the situation. The events were classified as involving either peers or adults. Content analyses led to the identification of seven categories of coping strategies: support seeking, aggressive actions, acceptance, avoidance, direct actions, doing nothing, and emotional expression. Analyses showed that younger children (seven to 10 years of age) used more strategies involving seeking support or doing nothing whereas older children used more direct action strategies. In situations involving adults, avoidance, acceptance, and emotional expression strategies were more frequent than in situations involving peers. In the latter, aggressive actions and support seeking strategies were used more often. These findings suggest that the age and the persons who are involved in a stressful situation may affect the use of strategies and that coping may be a situational process.
Débora Dalbosco, Dell' Aglio; Cláudio Simon, Hutz.
Full Text Available This article reviews the strategies of doctors to face the crisis perceived in medical practice. The results of a descriptive study are compared with current data in medical literature. In that preliminary report, where physicians in different settings of practice were interviewed, the authors found a great variety of strategies, from passive resignation and escape behaviors, to a proactive conduct of information search and analysis of the changes under way. All groups interviewed reported the importance of systematic reflection, the need of life options, of adopting healthy life styles and spirituality, as strategies to cope with professional frustrations
Juan Pablo Jiménez de la J
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english This article reviews the strategies of doctors to face the crisis perceived in medical practice. The results of a descriptive study are compared with current data in medical literature. In that preliminary report, where physicians in different settings of practice were interviewed, the authors found [...] a great variety of strategies, from passive resignation and escape behaviors, to a proactive conduct of information search and analysis of the changes under way. All groups interviewed reported the importance of systematic reflection, the need of life options, of adopting healthy life styles and spirituality, as strategies to cope with professional frustrations
Juan Pablo, Jiménez de la J.
Full Text Available The academic burnout might be accompanied of inadequate strategies of coping, contributing to the accentuation of difficulties in the GPA or aca- demicperformance.Takingintoaccounttheimplicationsofthesevariables in the performance and the dropout rate at university level, is relevant to investigate the relationship of the academic burnout and coping strategies with the academic performance. A correlational study with a sample of 283 students of the programs of Psychology and Physical therapy of the daytime hours of a private university of Barranquilla, who answered to the MBI-SS and to the Scale of Strategies of Coping Modified (EEC-M was conduc- ted. The results showed that the majority of the students were presenting low levels of academic burnout. Nevertheless, it was corroborated that the high Exhaustion and Cynicism can negatively affect academic performan- ce; on the contrary, the Self-efficacy to studies, favored it significantly; for what it is possible to establish a negative relation between burnout and the academic performance. Inside the strategies more frequently used by the students, it was found that those that use the one of Solution of Problems in university activities tend to obtain more favorable results in their academic performance.
Jorge enrique Palacio Sañudo
The Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) recovery guideline of the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) Emergency Operating Guidelines (EOG) provides operator actions which must be accomplished in the event of a SGTR. The goal of the guideline is to safely establish Shutdown Cooling System (SCS) entry conditions while minimizing radiological releases to the environment and maintaining adequate core cooling. The current KSNP SGTR EOG uses the strategy that requires immediate rapid cooldown of Reactor Coolant System (RCS) using Atmospheric Dump Valves (ADVs) on both steam generators to a temperature lower than the saturation temperature corresponding to the lowest Main Steam Safety Valves (MSSVs) opening setpoint, followed by an isolation of the affected steam generator. This strategy helps to prevent unnecessary lifting and possible stuck-open of MSSVs on the affected steam generator side after isolation. Generally, the safety analysis for SGTR is performed based on the automatic mitigation actions provided by the engineered safety features and operator actions as directed in the SGTR EOG. For a conservatism, this analysis assumes a Loss of Off-site Power (LOOP) and a postulated single-failure of stuck-open ADV which is used for the initial rapid RCS cooldown. However, a concern on the radiological release through the stuck-open ADV can be eliminated by changing the SGTR recovery strategy. Therefore, a feasibility study has been performed to develop a new SGTR recovery strategy which requires an immediate isolation of the affected steam generator followed by a rapid cooldown of RCS using the ADV on the intact steam generator only. The results of the analyses have been evaluated from the standpoint of the total amount of radiological release to the environment and the possibility of overfill of the affected steam generator. The best-estimate analysis results with the new SGTR recovery strategy show that the amount of radiological release to the environment can be reduced and the time that the affected steam generator reaches the maximum indicated level can be delayed as compared to the former strategy although the possibility of MSSV lift after isolation increases. (authors)
Full Text Available Aim To affirm experience of acute stress event and strategy of facing stress within trauma patients, so that, nurse/technician in their further work could help overcome mentioned event and it's intensity, with help of their intercession and experience.Methods The Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R, also with sociodemographic questionnaire were used as an instrument of measuring. The research has been conducted on 100 examinees which were hospitalisated at Clinical section of traumatology in Osijek Univesity Hospital Center during period of 14 June 2011. to 28 August 2011. Descriptive statistics was used, and the differences between categorical variables were tested with Kruskall Walis test.Results The examenees were using an avoidance as their first line of a deffence within first few days after the accidant. The middle valuation of a subscale amounted 14.50. The value of final result of IES-R was flactuating between 0-88. The middle value was 33 (interquartile range 21-49 points. Acute stress reaction was noted in seven (7% examenees, 26 (26% had clinically considerable simptoms. Statistically significant difference in acute stress event were obtained between gender (p=.001, while the age, class of accident, matrimonial status, education and sociodemographic standard of living, were not considerable in perception of stress.Conclusion Acute stress situation was present in almost every patients after experienced trauma. Research has shown that females experienced more stressful events than males, and use more strategies to avoid, as well as the intrusion of increased arousal when confronted with stressful events.
This plan provides an overview, work to date, and the path forward for the design development strategy of the Aging cask for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository site. Waste for subsurface emplacement at the repository includes US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (HLW), DOE SNF, commercial fuel in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), uncanistered bare fuel, naval fuel, and other waste types. Table 1-1 lists the types of radioactive materials that may be aged at YMP, and those materials that will not be placed in an aging cask or module. This plan presents the strategy for design development of the Aging system. The Aging system will not handle naval fuel, DOE HLW, MCOs, or DOE SNF since those materials will be delivered to the repository in a state and sequence that allows them to be placed into waste packages for emplacement. Some CSNF from nuclear reactors, especially CSNF that is thermally too hot for emplacement underground, will need to be aged at the repository.
Abstract Background 20 million migrant workers in China lost their jobs during the economic crisis of 2008. Both urban migration and unemployment have long been documented to be associated with vulnerability to mental problems. This study aims to examine the mental health of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China and its relation to duration of unemployment and coping strategy during the recent economic crisis. Methods The data were collected through interv...
Chen Li; Li Wenhu; He Jincai; Wu Lanhua; Yan Zheng; Tang Wenjie
Objective: This study is aimed to evaluate depression and anxiety levels and coping strategies with stress in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients.Method: Study which was planned as a descriptive cross-sectional research has been made among patients who were under treatment with CAPD or HD for chronic renal failure in Cumhuriyet University Hospital in 01-31 August 2007. Questions were asked to determine the demographic profile, tobacco and alcohol u...
Full Text Available The article discusses the participatory elaboration of strategies for sustainable regional development in an Alpine tourist region in Austria to cope with global change effects evolving locally, considering climate change, economic change as well as (local societal change. Local stakeholders in an Alpine village in the Montafon region contributed in workshops to achieve the final results: participant teams conducted system analyses of the regional system to explore key elements of the region. Narrative scenarios described possible positive and negative development trends and indicated the critical issues controlling future development; 3D-images of landscape transition simulations show the consequences of certain development directions. Alternative development directions supported the local stakeholders to elaborate regional development strategies. In the end, the scientist team derived generic strategies for Alpine regions based on the locally developed strategy bundle. The article presents the intention, progress and outcome of the participatory approach and elaborates the potential to derive generic strategies from local ones and discusses the possibly occurring conflicts regarding cross-scale transfers of these local strategies. Overall, tourism was seen as a key element for future regional development, which can on the one hand derogate Alpine regions and is on the other hand threatened by climate change and diminution of landscape attractiveness. The suggested development strategies will help to cope with global change issues mitigating the negative consequences on the local society and environment.
Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is a prevalent and highly disabling psychiatric condition. Despite the widely acknowledged importance of psychosocial interventions that involve a complex cognitive, behavioral, and biological process to help patients cope better with their illness, few studies have systematically evaluated coping in BD. Therefore, our objective was to examine recent developments in current research on coping in BD. Several studies have documented a strong association between BD and numerous neuroanatomical and neuropsychological abnormalities, particularly multiple episodes and longer durations of the disorder. The most marked effects of BD encompass brain areas involved in executive function, which may affect the mechanisms underlying an adequate selection of coping strategies. Thus, the ability of individuals to reduce their own stress burden is impaired, increasing vulnerability to stressful life events and negatively affecting the course of BD. Psychosocial interventions that focus on BD should be evaluated for their ability to improve coping abilities, and research on BD should consider neuropsychological impairment and cognitive-behavioral strategies for coping with stress.
Full Text Available The public administration plays a vital role in running the affairs of governmental activities at the all levels of government. The efficiency of public personnel in respect of performance depends on the ways the public personnel are managed to be responsive in performing the respective jobs. The flight of human capital from the country not only affects the human resource development of the country but as well as overall development of the country. The brain drain is one of the critical issues faced by the public organization in Pakistan. The proposed strategic approach has been developed on the basis of Harvard HRM Model. Hence study focuses on issues of Human capital flight. The research study has tried to explore the causes of the brain drain situation and finally it has proposed strategic approach to overcome the brain drain situation in the Pakistan.
Family has a very important role in children's life, because it influences their development in many ways. Also children themselves influence family members with their developmental and behavioral characteristics and they have an effect on the dynamics of what is happening in the family.
Children with chronic ear infections experience a lag time in understanding speech, which inhibits classroom participation and the ability to make friends, and ultimately reduces self-esteem. Difficulty in hearing affects speech and vocabulary development, reading and writing proficiency, and academic performance, and could lead to placement in
Shell Canada's social performance plan was outlined in this presentation. Stakeholder engagement is a key strategy in the company's response to the concerns and broader priorities of different groups and individuals affected by their operations. A review of the business and societal values of stakeholder engagement was presented. Key benefits include greater profitability; protection of the environment; effective resource management; community benefits; and the delivery of value to customers. It was suggested that a continuous engagement process helps companies to assess impacts and work on strategies to avoid and mitigate negative impacts. A framework for social performance management was presented. It was noted that accountability and transparency are key components of Shell's progress towards sustainable development, and their direct and indirect contributions to the communities and societies where they operate. The social impact of core business operations is now a focus of the company. Key concerns of the social performance plan include environmental and health impacts; land use and changes in local economies; cultural concerns; and infrastructure impacts. An outline of Shell's Listening and Responding Program was also provided. refs., tabs., figs.
Nixon, J.A. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)
The authors evaluated the psychometric properties of the Firefighter Coping Self-Efficacy (FFCSE) Scale, a new measure developed to assess firefighters' perceived competence in managing stressful and traumatic experiences encountered on the job. Two samples of firefighters completed the FFCSE Scale at two different time points. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a unidimensional structure, which was further supported with confirmatory factor analysis using a second sample. Internal consistency of the measure was excellent. Analysis of cross-sectional data indicated FFCSE was positively associated with measures of psychological well-being and social support, and negatively associated with work-related stress and psychological distress. FFCSE also uniquely contributed to the variance in psychological distress, over and above variables previously shown to be associated with distress among this population. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:21476153
Lambert, Jessica E; Benight, Charles C; Harrison, Erica; Cieslak, Roman
Promising Building with Nature solutions for flood protection, such as vegetated foreshores, inherently have a dynamic nature. Therefore there is a relatively large degree of uncertainty with respect to their contribution to flood protection. This hampers innovation and the implementation of vegetated foreshores in flood risk management worldwide. We aim to develop new methods to assess how, and how much vegetated foreshores can contribute to flood risk reduction. The project will lead to a better understanding of (uncertainties in) the functioning and stability of these ecosystems and the development of novel governance arrangements. This requires integration of knowledge from ecology, biogeomorphology, hydraulic engineering, and governance. By field observations on several sites and flume measurements we will analyse fundamental ecological and physical processes for various types of wetland vegetations. The knowledge obtained will be applied in one implementation case study for a location in the Netherlands where dike reinforcement is needed in the future. This case study integrates fundamental knowledge from all the disciplines. It is used to design governance and implementation arrangements, and to demonstrate how vegetated foreshores can contribute to flood risk reduction. The project will provide the knowledge, methods and tools (e.g. a maptable) required for the design and implementation of vegetated foreshores as a safe, ecologically desirable, and cost effective alternative in flood management. Strong cooperation with end-users from the private sector, government and non-governmental organizations is embedded in the project to enhance the implementation of our findings in practice. In the full-paper, we present a multidisciplinary research agenda how to address the uncertainties hampering application, how to develop probabilistic tools to derive failure chance in legally imposed terms and how to derive at suitable governance arrangements.
Borsje, Bas; Bouma, Tjeerd; De Vries, Mindert; Timmermans, Jos; Vuik, Vincent; Hermans, Leon; Hulscher, Suzanne; Jonkman, Bas
Neuer Habitus in tradierten Machtstrukturen? Geschlechterspezifische Bewältigungsstrategien in der Wissenschaft New Habitus in Established Power Structures? Gender-Specific Coping Strategies in Science and Scholarship
Full Text Available auen und Männer in der Hochschulkarriere wählen und wie sich diese auf die Arbeitsteilung zwischen den Geschlechtern auswirken.The university can only remain an attractive work place if junior scholars are granted a fair chance, this in addition to the demand for internationalization of research and increased ability for innovation. In this venture, the assumption of equality should not be forgotten, as Ulrich Vogel and Christiana Hinzs study shows. As the authors illustrate through a qualitative and a quantitative study of professors professional development in the social sciences and mathematics, the professional situation of scholars in Germany is still marked by the repeated lower placement of women: female scholars concentrate, particularly in the humanities and the social sciences, on the lower positions in the hierarchy, on temporary positions, and on part time positions. Both partial studies pursue particularly the question as to which coping strategies women and men in careers in higher education choose and how this affects the distribution of work among the sexes.
Qualidade de vida de mulheres com cancro da mama nas diversas fases da doença: o papel de variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e das estratégias de coping enquanto factores de risco/protecção / Quality of life of women with breast cancer at different phases of the disease: the role of sociodemographic, clinical variables and coping strategies as factors of risk/protection
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: Embora o cancro da mama possa comprometer significativamente a qualidade de vida (QdV) da mulher, sobretudo nas fases iniciais da doença, variáveis de ordem psicossocial podem intervir como factores de risco ou de protecção. Este estudo pretende analisar e comparar a QdV de mulheres com [...] cancro da mama em diferentes fases da trajectória da doença e identificar o papel de variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e das estratégias de coping na QdV. Material e métodos: A amostra é constituída por 55 mulheres recentemente diagnosticadas com cancro da mama, 63 a receber quimioterapia, 85 sobreviventes e 160 mulheres da população geral, que responderam ao WHOQOL-Bref e ao Brief COPE. Resultados: Durante a fase de tratamento o cancro da mama compromete significativamente a QdV global e física da mulher. Um nível de escolaridade mais elevado, assim como o recurso a estratégias de coping Cognitivas Activas associam-se a uma melhor QdV global e Psicológica, após o diagnóstico e durante o tratamento. O recurso a um coping de Evitamento associa-se a uma pior QdV em todas as fases da doença. Conclusões: Os resultados deste estudo ao contribuírem para um melhor conhecimento das implicações do cancro da mama na QdV em diferentes fases da trajectória da doença, bem como das variáveis que poderão intervir como factores de risco/protecção, revelam-se importantes para o desenvolvimento de intervenções psicológicas mais eficazes e ajustadas às necessidades da mulher. Abstract in english Introduction: Although breast cancer may significantly compromise women's quality of life (QoL), especially during the initial phases of the disease, psychosocial variables may act as factors of risk or protection. This study aims to analyse and compare the QoL of women in different phases of breast [...] cancer and to identify the role of sociodemographic and clinical variables as well as coping strategies on QoL. Method: The sample is composed of 55 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, 63 women undergoing chemotherapy, 85 breast cancer survivors and 160 women from the general population. They all answered the WHOQOL-Bref and the Brief COPE. Results: The results show that global and physical QoL is significantly impaired during treatment. Higher education and Active Cognitive Coping strategies are significantly associated with improved global and Psychological QoL, after diagnosis and during treatment. Avoidant coping relates to worse QoL in all phases of the disease. Conclusions: The results of this study contribute to a better knowledge of the impact of breast cancer on QoL, in different phases of the disease trajectory, as well as give important information about the factors of risk/protection. Thus, they are helpful in developing more effective psychological interventions, tailored to the particular needs of women.
Sónia, Silva; Danielle, Bettencourt; Helena, Moreira; Maria Cristina, Canavarro.
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar qualidade de vida pré e pós-transplante renal e identificar estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas após o transplante. Participaram 17 pacientes (nove mulheres e oito homens com idade entre 23 e 55 anos (M = 38 anos; DP = 8, que responderam ao Inventário de Qualidade de Vida SF-36, ao Inventário de Enfrentamento e a um roteiro de entrevista (pré e pós-transplante. Não houve diferença significante entre a avaliação de qualidade de vida nos períodos pré e pós-transplante para as variáveis investigadas pelo SF-36. As principais preocupações apontadas foram efeitos colaterais das medicações, consultas médicas, alterações da imagem corporal e tempo de hospitalização. Estratégias de enfrentamento centradas na emoção foram as mais utilizadas, isto é, estratégias mais subjetivas para enfrentar dificuldades. O transplante renal não influenciou de forma significante a qualidade de vida destes pacientes.The aim of the present study was to compare patients quality of life before and after renal transplantation, and identify coping strategies after surgery. Participants were 17 patients (9 female, and 8 men with ages ranging from 23 to 55 years old (M: 37.9 years; SD: 8 assessed with the SF-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a structured interview (before and after transplant. There was no significant difference in the quality of life assessment before and after the transplantation for the variables assessed by the SF-36. Patients major concerns were: effects of the medication, medical consultation, changes in corporal appearance, and hospitalization. Patients tended to use more emotion centered coping strategies, i.e., more subjective ways to cope with difficulties. There was no significant change in patients quality of life after transplantation.
Leda Maria Branco Ravagnani
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar qualidade de vida pré e pós-transplante renal e identificar estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas após o transplante. Participaram 17 pacientes (nove mulheres e oito homens) com idade entre 23 e 55 anos (M = 38 anos; DP = 8), que responderam ao Inventário de [...] Qualidade de Vida SF-36, ao Inventário de Enfrentamento e a um roteiro de entrevista (pré e pós-transplante). Não houve diferença significante entre a avaliação de qualidade de vida nos períodos pré e pós-transplante para as variáveis investigadas pelo SF-36. As principais preocupações apontadas foram efeitos colaterais das medicações, consultas médicas, alterações da imagem corporal e tempo de hospitalização. Estratégias de enfrentamento centradas na emoção foram as mais utilizadas, isto é, estratégias mais subjetivas para enfrentar dificuldades. O transplante renal não influenciou de forma significante a qualidade de vida destes pacientes. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to compare patients quality of life before and after renal transplantation, and identify coping strategies after surgery. Participants were 17 patients (9 female, and 8 men) with ages ranging from 23 to 55 years old (M: 37.9 years; SD: 8) assessed with the SF-36 Qua [...] lity of Life Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a structured interview (before and after transplant). There was no significant difference in the quality of life assessment before and after the transplantation for the variables assessed by the SF-36. Patients major concerns were: effects of the medication, medical consultation, changes in corporal appearance, and hospitalization. Patients tended to use more emotion centered coping strategies, i.e., more subjective ways to cope with difficulties. There was no significant change in patients quality of life after transplantation.
Leda Maria Branco, Ravagnani; Neide Aparecida Micelli, Domingos; Maria Cristina de Oliveira Santos, Miyazaki.
Estrategias de enfrentamiento (Coping) de hijos que tienen la madre o el padre internado en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) / Coping Strategies of Children who have a Mother or Father in a Hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas por filhos que possuem a mãe ou o pai internado em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Participaram 30 filhos, de ambos os sexos, que responderam: Uma Ficha Sócio Demográfica e o Inventário de Estratégias de Copi [...] ng de Folkman e Lazarus (1985). A análise das respostas no inventário se deu em dois momentos: 1) contagem da pontuação obtida por cada participante, nos itens de cada fator correspondente às estratégias de enfrentamento; 2) cálculo dos coeficientes de Correlação de Spearman entre as 66 questões do Inventário e algumas variáveis: Religião; Faixa etária, Escolaridade e Filiação. Foi verificada correlação significativa positiva ou negativa entre estas variáveis e alguns itens do inventário, porém isto não é o suficiente para afirmar que há correlação entre as variáveis e determinadas estratégias. Embora os participantes tenham usado todas as estratégias de enfrentamento, as que predominaram foram: Reavaliação Positiva (97%); Suporte Social (93%) e Resolução de Problemas (77%). Estes resultados corroboram estudos já realizados sobre esta temática e podem subsidiar uma prática mais efetiva da equipe de saúde junto a essa população. Abstract in spanish La presente investigación tuvo el objetivo de verificar las estrategias de enfrentamiento utilizadas por hijos que tienen la madre o el padre internado en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Participaron 30 hijos, de ambos sexos, que contestaron a un cuestionario sociodemográfico y el inventario [...] de estrategias de Coping de Folkman & Lazarus (1985). El procedimiento de análisis del inventario fue: 1) Puntuación obtenida por el participante, en los ítems de cada factor correspondiente a las estrategias de enfrentamiento; 2) Cálculo de los coeficientes de correlación de Spearman, entre las 66 cuestiones del inventario y algunas variables como: religión, franja de edad, escolaridad y filiación. Existe correlación significativa positiva o negativa entre estas variables y algunos ítems del inventario, pero esto no es lo suficiente para afirmar que hay correlación entre las variables y determinadas estrategias. A pesar de que los participantes utilizaran todas las estrategias de enfrentamiento, las predominantes fueron: revaluación positiva (97%); soporte social (93%); y resolución de problemas (77%). Estos datos corroboran los hallazgos de otras investigaciones sobre la temática y pueden subsidiar una práctica más efectiva del equipo de salud junto a esa populación. Abstract in english This study aimed to examine the coping strategies used by children who have the mother or father admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). 30 children of both sexes participated, they answerd the- Demographic and Socio Sheet and Coping Strategies Inventory of Folkman and Lazarus (1985). The analysis [...] of responses in the inventory took place in two stages: 1) counting the score of each participant, the items of each factor corresponding to the coping strategies. 2) calculation of Spearman correlation coefficients among the and some 66 issues of the inventory variables like: religion, age, education and filiation. There is a significant positive or negative correlation between these variables and some inventory items, but this is not enough to say that there is correlation between the variables specific and strategies. Although participants used all strategies, those that predominated were: positive reappraisal (97%), social support (93%) and problem solving (77%). These results corroborate previous studies' findings on this topic and can support a more effective practice of the health team whit this population.
de Azevedo Lima, Fernanda; Lopes de Almeida Amazonas, Maria Cristina; Nunes de Menezes, Walfrido.
Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar aquellas estrategias de afrontamiento presentes en las mujeres que sufren violencia doméstica. Se diferencian las estrategias que resultarían disfuncionales de aquellas funcionales o adaptativas por su impacto en la salud y en la calidad de vida de las mu [...] jeres. Se presentan los resultados de una primera exploración cualitativa acerca de estas estrategias en nuestra población. La metodología se basó en entrevistas en profundidad a 8 mujeres que se encuentran en proceso de afrontamiento o que ya han superado la situación de violencia en su pareja. Asimismo, se utilizó la observación de dinámicas de grupos de autoayuda específicamente orientados a esta conflictiva. La muestra total estuvo conformada por 12 mujeres de entre 35 y 69 años, asistentes a centros especializados en la problemática. Los resultados destacan la relevancia del apoyo psicosocial para el afrontamiento adaptativo de esta problemática. Abstract in english The present paper analyzes the coping strategies of women who suffer intimate partner violence. Maladaptive and adaptive strategies are differentiated on the basis of their impact on health and quality of life. The results of a first qualitative exploration of these strategies in our population are [...] presented. The methodology was based on in-depth interviews to 8 women who were coping with or had already overcome violence in their couple. The dynamics of self-help groups specifically oriented to this issue have been observed as well. The total sample was formed by 12 women, whose age ranged from 35 to 69, attending to centers specialized in domestic violence. Results highlight the relevance of psychosocial support for an adaptive coping.
Mariana Carolina, Miracco; Guillermina, Rutsztein; Leonora, Lievendag; Fernán Guido, Arana; María Luz, Scappatura; Luciana, Elizathe; Eduardo, Keegan.
Cost effectiveness of a manual based coping strategy programme in promoting the mental health of family carers of people with dementia (the START (STrAtegies for RelaTives) study): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial
Objective: To assess whether the START (STrAtegies for RelatTives) intervention added to treatment as usual is cost effective compared with usual treatment alone. Design: Cost effectiveness analysis nested within a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Setting: Three mental health and one neurological outpatient dementia service in London and Essex, UK. Participants: Family carers of people with dementia. Intervention: Eight session, manual based, coping intervention delivere...
Knapp, Martin; King, Derek; Romeo, Renee; Schehl, Barbara; Barber, Julie; Griffin, Mark; Rapaport, Penny; Livingston, Debbie; Mummery, Cath; Walker, Zuzana; Hoe, Juanita; Sampson, Elizabeth L.; Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill
Full Text Available This research had the objective to examine the occurrence of stress among 27 master students of health sciences of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe [Federal University of Sergipe], of which 16 were women and 11 were men. And, it also sought to delineate the coping strategies used to deal with the stress and the stressors perceived by the graduate students. Lipp's Stress Symptoms for Adults Inventory, the Ways to Confront Problems Scale and a questionary about possible stressors were used. The results indicated that 40,7% of subjects had stress and that there was an association between stress and sex (p<0,05, showing that women were more vulnerable to stress. The association between sex and the main coping strategies used by the participants that didn't have stress (p<0,05 was verified, showing that focalizing on the problem was a more frequent strategy among men. We believe that more investigation on this topic is important, because the performance of master level students may be influenced by the stress during graduate education.
André Faro Santos
The aim of this thesis is to provide insight into the psychosocial morbidity and itch cognitions of patients with chronic pruritic skin disease and to develop, test and implement a nursing programme, to help patients to cope with itch. In a study of 168 patients, it became clear that patients with a pruritic skin disease often have a high level of psychosocial morbidity. The most important predictor of psychosocial morbidity is catastrophizing and helpless coping strategies; frequency and int...
Full Text Available The intensity of stress experiences and elaboration of coping essentially depend on individuals' cognitive assessment. Considering the cognitive impairment of elderly persons with Alzheimer's disease (DA, this study aimed to identify their coping style. The Jalowiec Coping Inventory was applied to 60 elderly, 30 in the control group and 30 in the DA group. The results demonstrated a predominance of emotion-focused coping in the DA group and problem-focused coping in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.124. In addition, it was observed that individuals with better cognitive development in the DA group selected problem-focused coping strategies (p=0.0074. Thus, it seems there is a tendency to select evasive and emotional control strategies in demented elderly with worsened cognitive performance, rather than attempting to solve the problem or minimize its consequences.La elaboración de estrategias de ataque a las situaciones estresantes depende de la evaluación cognitiva hecha por el individuo. Considerando el déficit cognitivo de los ancianos con la enfermedad de Alzheimer (DA, este estudio tuvo por objetivo verificar el estilo de coping predominantemente utilizado por ellos. Para esto, fue aplicado el inventario de Coping de Jalowiec en 60 ancianos, de los cuales 30 individuos eran cognitivamente saludables (grupo control y 30 individuos con DA. Se observó un predominio del coping enfocado en la emoción en el grupo DA y enfocado en el problema en el grupo control, aunque no hubo una diferencia significativa. Así, parece haber una tendencia, en los ancianos con demencia, a elegir estrategias evasivas y de control emocional, en detrimento de la tentativa de solucionar el problema o minimizar sus consecuencias.A intensidade da experiência do estresse e a elaboração do coping dependem, fundamentalmente, da avaliação cognitiva feita pelo indivíduo. Considerando o déficit cognitivo de idosos com doença de Alzheimer (DA, este estudo teve por objetivo identificar o estilo de coping utilizado por eles. Para isso, foi aplicado o Inventário de Coping de Jalowiec em 60 idosos, sendo 30 do grupo controle e 30 com DA. Os resultados evidenciaram o predomínio do coping focado na emoção no grupo DA e focado no problema no grupo controle, porém, não houve diferença significativa (p=0,124. Além disso, observou-se que, quanto melhor o desempenho cognitivo dos idosos com DA, maior a tendência em utilizar estratégias de coping focadas no problema (p=0,0074. Assim, parece haver tendência à seleção de estratégias evasivas e de controle emocional nos idosos dementes com pior desempenho cognitivo, em detrimento da tentativa de solucionar o problema ou minimizar suas conseqüências.
Juliana Nery de Souza
The ways adolescents develop and use strategies to cope with stress vary according to cultural scripts and values. This cross-sectional study tested the impact of region and gender on adolescents' stress perceptions and coping styles. A total sample of 10,941 adolescents (51.3% female) from 20 countries completed questionnaires on stress and
Persike, Malte; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to describe the personality traits and the copingstyles used by 99 college students, and observe if this variable are related.The NEO Five Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI], and the Coping StrategiesQuestionnaire [CAE] was used. The results confirm that Neuroticism isrelated with passive and emotion focused coping strategies (maladaptivecopings whereas, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness arerelated with rational and active focused coping. Openness to Experienceit was not associate with no one coping strategies. The findings provideevidence for the understanding of individuals differences about how theyoung people cope the several environment requests.
Françoise V. Contreras-Torres
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past few years, information retrieval has become more and more professionalized, and information specialists are considered full members of a research team conducting systematic reviews. Research groups preparing systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines have been the driving force in the development of search strategies, but open questions remain regarding the transparency of the development process and the available resources. An empirically guided approach to the development of a search strategy provides a way to increase transparency and efficiency. Methods Our aim in this paper is to describe the empirically guided development process for search strategies as applied by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen, or "IQWiG". This strategy consists of the following steps: generation of a test set, as well as the development, validation and standardized documentation of the search strategy. Results We illustrate our approach by means of an example, that is, a search for literature on brachytherapy in patients with prostate cancer. For this purpose, a test set was generated, including a total of 38 references from 3 systematic reviews. The development set for the generation of the strategy included 25 references. After application of textual analytic procedures, a strategy was developed that included all references in the development set. To test the search strategy on an independent set of references, the remaining 13 references in the test set (the validation set were used. The validation set was also completely identified. Discussion Our conclusion is that an objectively derived approach similar to that used in search filter development is a feasible way to develop and validate reliable search strategies. Besides creating high-quality strategies, the widespread application of this approach will result in a substantial increase in the transparency of the development process of search strategies.
This report summarizes the comparative evaluation of alternative strategies for the development of the commercial fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the United States. For planning purposes, a range of possible FBR development paths called strategies were selected for evaluation. These strategies, designed to be technically and economically feasible, were expressed in terms of the timing and nature of facilities/research and development programs required to reach full power operation of the first commercial FBR. Four of the seven strategies resulted in a large (1457 MWe) FBR as an end point, the other three in a 1000-MWe plant. Probability distributions were calculated for total strategy costs and time to completion. For the seven strategies analyzed, the costs (discounted 1980 dollars) ranged from $1.8 billion to $4.9 billion; the completion times ranged from 24 to 55 years
Full Text Available In this article, we present a case study of one the successful government organisation strategy development exercises in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. The 2010-2013 strategy of Emirates Identity Authority (Emirates ID supported organisational development and allowed the Emirates ID to become a pioneer in its field of practice. Its strategy was among the reasons behind its selection and winning the Best Federal Authority Award in the 2012 UAE's federal Government Excellence Programme. This article attempts to describe the principles on which the organisational strategy was developed. It also outlines major accomplishments and the strategy's impact on overall organisational performance. We conclude that the new strategy helped the organisation become a successful example in the UAE and that further lessons can be learned from it, as we outline and discuss them to influence the field of practice.
Ali M. Al-Khouri
This study investigated the costs of illness to households in different socio-economic status (SES) groups and geographic places of abode in addition to the mechanisms that the different population groups used to pay for health services and cope with payments. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 3,200 households selected from six communities in two states was conducted using interviewer-administered pre-tested questionnaires. An SES index was used to divide the households into quartiles, a...
Ezeoke, Ogochukwu P.; Onwujekwe, Obinna E.; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S.
While most lifespan developmental theories of personality predict age-related changes in coping, little direct evidence exists for determining whether age differences in coping style are due to intrinsic developmental processes or to age differences in the kinds of stresses encountered. To evaluate age differences in coping strategies and whether
Felton, Barbara J.; Revenson, Tracey A.
This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must include strategies of how to integrate the renewable s...
Occupational violence in nursing: explanations and coping strategies Violencia laboral en enfermeras: explicaciones y estrategias de afrontamiento Violência laboral em enfermeiras: explicações e estratégias de enfrentamento
Full Text Available This study explored part of the experience of occupational harassment, experienced by thirteen Chilean nurses, analyzing the relationship between the explanations and their coping strategies, to formulate a comprehensive model that includes the involved elements and that can be used to develop preventive strategies. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, using theoretical saturation as the ending criterion and were analyzed according to the procedures of Grounded Theory. The relational analysis shows the influence of factors that perpetuate the phenomenon, both the organizational factors and the ones related to the execution of professional roles. According to the comprehensive model, this kind of violence is a circular phenomenon, in which the involved elements influence each other and are related to the narrative constructions of the phenomenon and to contextual elements, which can also be considered as part of the most probable cause of it.El objetivo del estudio fue explorar parte de la experiencia de hostigamiento laboral vivida por trece enfermeras chilenas, analizando la relación entre sus explicaciones y sus estrategias de afrontamiento, para luego formular un modelo comprensivo que contenga los elementos involucrados y que pueda utilizarse para desarrollar estrategias preventivas. Los datos se recolectaron a través de entrevistas semi estructuradas utilizando como criterio de finalización la saturación teórica y se analizaron según los procedimientos de la Grounded Theory. El análisis relacional muestra la influencia de factores que perpetuán el fenómeno, tanto los organizacionales como los relativos a la ejecución del rol profesional; utilizando el modelo comprensivo se postula que este tipo de violencia es un fenómeno circular, en el cual los elementos intervinientes se influyen mutuamente relacionándose con las construcciones narrativas del fenómeno y con los elementos contextuales, los cuales también pueden considerarse como parte de la causalidad más próxima del mismo.O objetivo do estudo foi explorar parte da experiência do assédio laboral, vivenciado por treze enfermeiras chilenas, analisando a relação entre as explicações e as estratégias de enfrentamento, para formular um modelo compreensivo que inclua os elementos envolvidos e que possa ser utilizado para desenvolver estratégias preventivas. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semiestruturadas, utilizando como critério de finalização a saturação teórica e analisados segundo os procedimentos da Grounded Theory. A análise relacional mostra a influência de fatores perpetuantes do fenômeno, também dos fatores organizacionais e dos relacionados à execução do papel profissional. A partir do modelo compreensivo se postula que esse tipo de violência é fenômeno circular, no qual os elementos envolvidos se influenciariam e se relacionariam com as construções narrativas do fenômeno e com elementos contextuais, todos podem, também, ser considerados como parte da causalidade mais provável do mesmo.
Angelina María Dois Castellón
Afrontamiento activo y adaptacion al envejecimiento en mujeres de la ciudad de Mar del Plata: una revision de la estrategia de autodistraccion / Active coping and adaptation to aging in women of Mar del Plata city: A review of the coping strategy of self-distraction
Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo propone, a partir de datos empíricos obtenidos en un grupo de adultas mayores, una reconceptualización de las estrategias de afrontamiento evitativas, especialmente la autodistracción, destacando su valor adaptativo frente a la crisis vital que genera el proceso de envejecimiento [...] en las mujeres. Clínicos e investigadores sugieren que el envejecimiento implica una crisis del desarrollo que afecta la adaptación vital. La literatura científica considera que existe relación entre estrategias de afrontamiento y adaptación a situaciones críticas. Mediante un diseño cuasi-experimental de tipo pretest - postest con grupo control, se evaluaron las estrategias de afrontamiento antes y después de un programa de aprendizaje social, en una muestra de sesenta mujeres ancianas, de las cuales, treinta participaron de un curso de aprendizaje social en la Universidad de Adultos Mayores de la Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (Mar del Plata - Argentina), y treinta no lo hicieron. Se realizó un análisis comparativo y cuantitativo de los datos. Los resultados evidencian que las mujeres que participaron del programa de aprendizaje social presentan un estilo de afrontamiento activo y adaptativo y a la vez, un uso significativo de la estrategia de autodistracción, caracterizada teóricamente como evitativa y no adaptativa. Los resultados permiten elaborar una comprensión alternativa de la estrategia de autodistracción en función del afrontamiento a los sucesos críticos de la vejez. Se propone que frente a situaciones que no constituyen un problema a resolver como el proceso de envejecimiento en particular, la autodistracción debería considerarse como una estrategia de afrontamiento que promueve una adaptación efectiva. Abstract in english This paper reviews the concept of avoidance coping (particularly the coping strategy of self-distraction), pointing out its adaptative value in coping with critical life-events during old age in women. Scientific literature considers that there is a relationship between coping strategies and adaptat [...] ion to critical events. Some studies suggest that active coping strategies promote effective adaptation, but avoidant strategies are considered less effective. The coping strategy of self-distraction is a mental and behavioural disengagement which occurs via a wide variety of activities that serve to distract the person from thinking about the goal with which the stressor is interfering. Tactics that reflect disengagement include: using alternative activities to take one's mind off a problem (a tendency opposite to problem focused coping or active coping), escaping through reading, cooking, visiting friends, studying, going out for a conference, or escape by immersion in television or in new projects. This paper discusses the empirical data obtained from a study on coping with critical life-events in female aging in a group of senior women in the city of Mar del Plata. By means of a quasi-experimental design using a pretest-postest technique and a control group, we evaluated coping strategies through the Brief-Cope Inventory, before and after a social learning program in a sample of 60 senior women who did not have any neurological symptomatology. The sample was divided into two groups: intervention group and control group. The intervention group consisted of 30 individuals, who participated in a social learning program at the Universidad de Adultos Mayores (Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata), and the control group, consisting of 30 individuals, did not do it. A comparative and quantitative analysis of data was done. Results of the study showed that critical life-events senior women have to cope with were loneliness, illness, widowhood, parental death or oncoming personal death, and social discrimination. There were significant differences in coping styles in both post-test groups. In general, the use of active and adaptative strategies (particularly the behavioural and cognitive
Deisy, Krzemien; Alicia, Monchietti; Sebastián, Urquijo.
Evidências de validade e precisão da Escala de Coping através de Ouvir Música / Evidence of validity and accuracy of the Coping by Music Listening Scale / Evidencias de validez y precisión de la "Escala de Coping através de ouvir música"
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo buscou verificar a validade de construto e precisão da Escala de Coping através de Ouvir Música (ECOM), cujos fatores representam estratégias de coping focadas na emoção, no problema e evitação/desligamento. Contou com a participação de 248 estudantes de escolas e universidades púb [...] licas e particulares da cidade de Aracaju, no Nordeste brasileiro. Os principais resultados corroboram a estrutura original da escala com três fatores. Foram verificados índices de precisão adequados para o fator coping focado na emoção, mas índices menores para os fatores de coping focado no problema e evitação. Foram verificadas ainda diferenças por gênero nas estratégias de coping relacionadas a ouvir música. Os dados são discutidos considerando a literatura sobre psicometria e sugestões de pesquisa são realizadas para se desenvolverem os estudos na área de coping. Abstract in spanish El presente estudio buscó verificar la validez de constructo y precisión de la "Escala de Coping através de Ouvir Música" (ECOM), cuyos factores representan estrategias de coping focalizadas en la emoción, en el problema y evitación/desligamiento. Contó con la participación de 248 estudiantes de esc [...] uelas y universidades públicas y particulares de la ciudad de Aracaju, en el Nordeste brasileño. Los principales resultados corroboran la estructura original de la escala con tres factores. Fueron verificados índices de precisión adecuados para el factor coping focalizado en la emoción y de la escala total, pero índices menores para los factores de coping focalizado en el problema y evitación. Fueron verificadas aún diferencias por género en las estrategias de coping relacionadas a oír música. Los datos son discutidos considerando la literatura sobre psicometría y sugestiones de investigaciones son realizadas para el desarrollo de estudios en el área de coping. Abstract in english This study aims at evaluating the construct validity and accuracy of the Coping by Music Listening Scale (CMLS) whose factors represent coping strategies as emotion in the problem and avoidance/disconnexion. It acounted on the participation of 248 students from schools and public and private univers [...] ities in the city of Aracaju, Brazilian Northeast. The main results confirm the scale's original structure with three factors. Appropriate accuracy indices of emotion-oriented coping factor and the scale as a whole were verified, but lower rates for the problem-oriented and avoidance factors. It was also found gender differences in coping strategies by music listening. The results are discussed considering the psychometric literature and suggestions for research were carried out to develop studies on the coping research.
Pimentel, Carlos Eduardo; Vargas, Marlizete Maldonado; Almeida, Thiago Oliveira de; Maynart, Viviane Andrade Prado; Figueiredo, Sarah Monteiro de C. T..
Third year PhD candidate at the University of Oradea, under the guidance of Professor Mrs. Alina BÃÆdulescu in the doctoral research project entitled: "Doctoral studies and Ph.D. candidates for competitive research on a knowledge based society", a co-financed project by the European Social Fund through the Sectoral Operational Program for Human Resources Development 2007 - 2013, Priority Axis 1. "Education and training in support for growth and development of a knowledge based society...
Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimerâ??s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home-living with a spouse. The analysis revealed that the basic social psychological problem faced by patients with mild AD was their awareness of decline in personal dignity and value. Coping strategies used to meet these problems were adaptations to the altered situation in order to maintain a feeling of well-being. The spouse appeared to be the most important social relation. The most significant worries of the patients were about communication in relation to their spouse, and about the reaction of the spouse to the consequences of the disease. Keywords coping; dementia; everyday life; patientsâ?? perspective; social relations
SÃ¸rensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch
Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou conhecer a ocorrência de estresse em 27 mestrandos em ciências da saúde da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, sendo 16 mulheres e 11 homens. Buscou-se também delinear as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas para lidar com o estresse e os estressores percebidos na pós-graduação. Utilizou-se o Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp, a Escala de Modos de Enfrentamento de Problemas e um questionário sobre possíveis estressores. Os resultados mostraram que 40,7% dos sujeitos apresentaram estresse e houve associação entre estresse e sexo (pThis research had the objective to examine the occurrence of stress among 27 master students of health sciences of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe [Federal University of Sergipe], of which 16 were women and 11 were men. And, it also sought to delineate the coping strategies used to deal with the stress and the stressors perceived by the graduate students. Lipp's Stress Symptoms for Adults Inventory, the Ways to Confront Problems Scale and a questionary about possible stressors were used. The results indicated that 40,7% of subjects had stress and that there was an association between stress and sex (p<0,05, showing that women were more vulnerable to stress. The association between sex and the main coping strategies used by the participants that didn't have stress (p<0,05 was verified, showing that focalizing on the problem was a more frequent strategy among men. We believe that more investigation on this topic is important, because the performance of master level students may be influenced by the stress during graduate education.
André Faro Santos
Shin-Kori units 3 and 4 are new reactors under construction as an APR 1400 type reactor. The plants which considered coping with severe accident from design phase are different from other operating plants in view of severe accident management strategies. The purpose of this paper is to establish optimal strategies for Shin-Kori 3 and 4. A scheme for optimized severe accident management was drawn up with the object of achieving core cooling, containment integrity, and decreased release of fission product. Shin-Kori units 3 and 4 are a new reactor and designed to add mitigating systems for coping with severe accident such as ECSBS, PAR, and CFS. Also the plants are reflected as a part of Fukushima followup measures The strategies of SAMG for Shin-Kori 3 and 4 were developed. The strategic approach was based on the concept of defense in depth. Firstly, strategies for core cooling were chosen such as RCS depressurization, injection to SG, injection to RCS, and injection to reactor cavity. Secondly, the plans for containment integrity were developed for controlling pressure and hydrogen in containment. Lastly, reduced release of fission product was considered for protection of the public after containment failure. The achieved strategies meet the needs of effective methods for severe accident management and enhancement of safety.
Lee, Youngseung; Kim, Hyeongtaek; Shin, Jungmin [Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory is applied as a framework for understanding coping with work-family conflict. The effectiveness of four work-family coping strategies (i.e., preventive and episodic forms of both problem-focused and emotion-focused coping) is considered with emphasis on how the LMX relationship contributes to each form of coping with work interference with family. The LMX-based model of work-family coping accounts for the development of family-friendly work roles, use of organizational family-friendly policies, and the negotiation of flextime and flexplace accommodations. Constraints on the relationship between LMX and work-family coping associated with supervisor authority and resources and aspects of the organizational context are also discussed. Research and applied implications of the model are offered. PMID:21280949
Major, Debra A; Morganson, Valerie J
Full Text Available The paper follows two main objectives: to understand farmers perception and image of social services and to identify communication levers in order to improve the perceived image of social farming. Orientations in terms of communication are product-focused and aim at enhancing the reputation of social farming consequently with impact on rural development. This paper conducted a questionnaire survey of Romanian farmers perception toward social agricultural. The empirical study indicated that farmers shown different awareness to social farming.
Adrian Gheorghe ZUGRAVU
The main objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate the proactive and effective inertisation strategies and techniques to reduce the risk of spontaneous combustion and heatings in active longwall panel goafs. The project has combined extensive field studies, together with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of goaf gas flow, to develop proactive inertisation strategies. The project has developed a detailed understanding of the effects of various inertisation strategies on goaf gas distribution in longwall panels. Field studies involving low flow inertisation of the working longwall panel goafs have also been conducted at two underground operations. The project results have shown that the proactive inertisation strategies implemented at the field sites were highly successful in reducing oxygen ingress into the goaf and the consequent risk of heatings in the longwall panels during the field demonstration periods. Results of various modelling investigations and field studies are presented in this report.
Rao Balusu; Ting Ren; Patrick Humphries [CSIRO Exploration & Mining (Australia)
Our aim in this study was to explore women's responses to reported ad-hoc demands for unauthorized user fees during pregnancy and childbirth in Luanda, Angola. Ten focus group discussions were conducted and data were analysed using grounded theory. Women were found to apply six strategies as they "endeavored to cope with demands for unauthorized user fees" (core category): (i) blowing the whistle, (ii) searching for comprehension, (iii) manipulating the system, (iv) bargaining, (v) extending the limits, and (vi) balancing. The system of unauthorized user fees appears to be a symptom of a deeper structural problem, which requires multifaceted and long-term interventions such as insti-tutional reforms and clear policies on accountability and transparency. Better resource availability for the MHC sector is required in order to secure adequate salaries to maternal health care providers. The fact that unethical behavior is unveiled implies that interventions also need to target the national midwifery training. PMID:17364983
Pettersson, Karen Odberg; Christensson, Kyllike; de Freitas, Engracia da Gloria Gomes; Johansson, Eva
Objectives: This article describes the development, content, feasibility and first results of a short educational program for preparing for aging, based on the process model of proactive coping [Aspinwall LG, Taylor SE. A stitch in time: self regulation and proactive coping. Psychol Bull 1997; 121: 41736]. The aim of the program is to increase proactive competencies and improve proactive orientations and behaviour. The
Bode, C.; Ridder, D. T. D.; Bensing, J.
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo presenta resultados de la investigación dirigida a identicar y relacionar la presencia de síntomas bulímicos con el uso de estrategias de afrontamiento y variables socio-demográcas en mujeres entre los 10 y 17 años de edad. Se utilizó un diseño correlacional y se aplicó el BITE para la m [...] edición de síntomas bulímicos y el ACS para la identicación de las estrategias de afrontamiento. Se identicó que el 59% de las 278 participantes no presenta comportamientos alterados frente a la comida y 41% presenta síntomas de bulimia. Se identicaron correlaciones entre la gravedad y el estrato socio-económico. Se hallaron correlaciones positivas entre síntomas de bulimia y las estrategias de autoinculparse y búsqueda de apoyo espiritual. También se encontró correlación positiva entre gravedad y las estrategias de búsqueda de apoyo espiritual y distracción física. Los resultados coinciden parcialmente con estudios previos sobre el tema puesto que las estrategias que se relacionan con los síntomas y gravedad de la bulimia son evitativas y centradas en la emoción. Finalmente, se expone la necesidad de realizar más estudios comparando muestras clínicas y no clínicas. Abstract in english The article presents the results of an investigation directed to identify and relate the presence of bulimic symptoms with the use of coping strategies and socio-demographic variables in women between 10 and 17 years of age. A correlational design was used and BITE was applied to measure bulimic sym [...] ptoms and the ACS to identify coping strategies. We found out that 59% of the 278 participants do not present altered behaviors with food and 41% have symptoms of bulimia. Correlations were identied between the severity of cases and socioeconomic stratum. Positive correlations were found between symptoms of bulimia and self-incrimination and searching strategies for spiritual support. There was also positive correlation between severity of cases and searching strategies for spiritual support and physical distraction. The results are consistent with previous studies on the subject since the strategies related to the severity of symptoms and Bulimia are avoidant and emotion-focused. Finally, we illustrate the need for more studies comparing clinical and nonclinical samples
Marly Johana, Bahamón Muñetón.
Full Text Available Objective: Depending on an observation in which some of the subjects nonrandom irresponsiveness to repetitive thinking questionnaire items among fully answered others in a study of current researchers, the aims of the present study were to test that whether the ignorance of repetitive thinking items is a stress coping strategy or not, to compare people who ignore the repetitive thinking items (IRT with people who have high repetitive thinking (HRT and low repetitive thinking (LRT in context of attachment patterns, sychopathological symptoms and cognitive flexibility.Method: 432 (278 women and 154 men college students were selected from a larger research project sample pool which had funded by TÜB?TAK. Participants were divided into three groups according to their repetitive thinking conditions (ignorance, high and low score. All participants have completed the Experiences in Close Relationships Revised Inventory, Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire, Cognitive Flexibility Inventory and Brief Symptom Inventory.Results: To test our hypothesis series of ANOVA, MANOVA and discriminant analysis were conducted. According the variance analysis, the IRT group had more psychopathology symptoms and attachment anxiety than the LRT group and less than the HRT group. The IRT group had more cognitive flexibility than the HRT group and less than the LRT group. According to discriminant analysis, the LRT and IRT groups had been distinguished the HRT group in the context of psychopathology symptoms and attachment anxiety; the LRT and HRT groups had been distinguished the IRT group in the context of cognitive flexibility-control dimension.Conclusion: According to the results, the ignorance of the repetitive thinking items may be a defensive mechanism or stress coping strategy.
?. Volkan GÜLÜM
This study addresses the measurement of two composite Lisbon strategy indices that quantifies the level and patterns of development for ranking countries. The first index is nonparametric labelled as Lisbon strategy index (LSI). It is composed of six components: general economics, employment, innovation research, economic reform, social cohesion and environment, each generated from a number of Lisbon indicators. LSI by reducing the complexity of the set of indicators, it makes the ranking pro...
Heshmati, Almas; Oh, Jong-eun
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A personal history of childhood maltreatment has been associated with unfavorable outcomes in bipolar disorder (BD). The impact of early life stressors on the course of BD may be influenced by individual differences in coping skills. The coping construct relies on neurocognitive mechanisms that are [...] usually influenced by childhood maltreatment. The objective of the present study was to verify the association between childhood maltreatment and coping skills in individuals with BD Type 1. Thirty female euthymic outpatients with BD Type 1 were evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and two additional instruments to measure their coping preferences: Ways of Coping Questionnaire (coping strategies) and Brief COPE (coping styles). Reports of physical abuse (B = .64, p
Daruy-Filho, Ledo; Brietzke, Elisa; Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Fabres, Cristiane da Silva; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo.
Full Text Available Introdução: Para os profissionais da saúde lidar com situações de estresse, como por exemplo, a eminência da morte dos pacientes, parece ser uma das maiores dificuldades vividas em sue ambiente de trabalho. Frente a este contexto, cada pessoa lança mão de estratégias próprias para o enfrentamento de situações estressantes (coping, as quais são determinadas pelo ambiente e por características de personalidade. Objetivo: Identificar as estratégias de enfrentamento (coping dos profissionais de enfermagem de um CTI adulto diante de situações estressantes inerentes a sua profissão. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo transversal, no qual foi aplicado o Inventário COPE, em trinta e oito técnicos de enfermagem e/ou enfermeiros. Os dados do inventário foram analisados em termos descritivos. Resultados: As estratégias de enfrentamento mais utilizadas foram as relacionadas à capacidade pró-ativa do sujeito (reinterpretação positiva, coping ativo e busca por suporte social e as menos utilizadas foram as relacionadas às emoções (foco nas emoções e humor. Conclusão: Na amostra estudada, os profissionais buscam estratégias que antecedam as dificuldades inerentes a sua prática diária, isolando os aspectos mais irrelevantes dos estressores e focalizando a atenção no resultado de suas ações, o que permite uma melhor percepção de seu trabalho e o sentimento de realização profissional.Introduction: For health professionals, to deal with stressful situations, such as the imminence of death of their patients, seems to be one of the greatest difficulties experienced in the workplace. In these situations, each person makes use of their own strategies in order to cope with stressful situations, which are determined by the environment and the personality traits. Objective: To identify the coping strategies used by nursing professionals of an adult ICU while facing stressful situations inherent to their profession. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study in which the COPE Inventory was applied in thirty-eight nursing technicians and/or nurses. The data were analyzed using descriptive techniques. Results: The coping strategies most frequently used were those related to the proactive capacity of the subject (positive reinterpretation, active coping and seeking for social support and the less used were those related to emotions (focus on emotions and mood. Conclusion: Considering the sample studied, the professionals used strategies that precede the difficulties inherent to their daily practice, isolating the most irrelevant aspects of the stressors and focusing the attention in the outcome of their actions, allowing a better perception of their work and a sense of professional achievement.
Emanuelle Graziottin Colossi
The report presents the constraints facing the consulting profession in developing countries and proposes a strategy for developing it. The report deals mainly with the consulting engineering and architecture professions, which are extensively involved in...
S. S. Kirmani W. C. Baum
Full Text Available A personal history of childhood maltreatment has been associated with unfavorable outcomes in bipolar disorder (BD. The impact of early life stressors on the course of BD may be influenced by individual differences in coping skills. The coping construct relies on neurocognitive mechanisms that are usually influenced by childhood maltreatment. The objective of the present study was to verify the association between childhood maltreatment and coping skills in individuals with BD Type 1. Thirty female euthymic outpatients with BD Type 1 were evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and two additional instruments to measure their coping preferences: Ways of Coping Questionnaire (coping strategies and Brief COPE (coping styles. Reports of physical abuse (B = .64, p ? .01 and emotional abuse (B = .44, p = .01 were associated with the use of maladaptive strategies that focused on emotional control. Adaptive strategies and styles of coping, such as focusing on the problem, were chosen less frequently by women who had experienced emotional neglect (B = .53, p ? .01 and physical abuse (B = -.48, p ? .01 in childhood. The small sample size in the present study prevented subgroup analyses. The sample did not include male BD participants. Our results indicate that early traumatic events may have a long-lasting deleterious influence on coping abilities in female BD patients. Future prospective studies may investigate whether the negative impact of childhood maltreatment over the course of BD is mediated by individual differences in coping abilities.
Applicability of auriculotherapy in reducing stress and as a coping strategy in nursing professionals Aplicabilidad de la auriculoterapia para reducir estrés y como estrategia de coping en profesionales de enfermería Aplicabilidade da auriculoterapia para reduzir estresse e como estratégia de coping em profissionais de enfermagem
Full Text Available AIMS: randomized clinical trial aimed at evaluating the auriculotherapy in reducing stress levels in 75 nursing professionals and analyze the coping domains that have changed after treatment. METHODOLOGY: volunteers were divided into 3 groups (Control, Needles and Seeds and received eight sessions at Shenmen, Kidney and Brainstem points. The Control Group didn't receive any intervention. RESULTS: ANOVA test showed statistical differences in stress levels for Needle/Control Groups in the third and fourth assessments, according to Stress Symptoms List when compared the three groups in four assessments. For the Inventory of Folkman/Lazarus, a significant difference was obtained for Spacing domain between needle/control. In analysis within the same group, differences were found for Confrontation in fourth assessment between Needle/Control Groups and for Social Support in the third one between Seeds/Control Groups. CONCLUSION: The auriculotherapy decreased stress levels, changed Coping domains after treatment, suggesting that both Auriculotherapy with needles and seeds can produce positive impact to improve strategy Coping in the nursing team. However, more studies are needed to conceive the extent of the technique.OBJETIVOS: Ensayo clínico hecho aleatorio objetivó evaluar la auriculoterapia para disminución de niveles de estrés en 75 profesionales de Enfermería de un hospital y analizar los principales dominios de Coping que se modificaron después del tratamiento. METODOLOGÍA: los sujetos fueron divididos en grupos (Control, Agujas, Semillas, recibieron 8 sesiones en los puntos Shenmen, Riñón y Tronco Cerebral. El Grupo Control no recibió ninguna intervención. RESULTADOS: se constataron diferencias significativas por la ANOVA para niveles de estrés entre el Grupo Aguja/Controle en la tercera y cuarta evaluaciones, según scores de estrés de la Lista de Síntoma de Estrés de Vasconcelos. Para el Inventario de Folkman y Lazarus, se logró diferencia estadística para el dominio Alejamiento entre los Grupos Aguja/Controle después del tratamiento; y en el análisis dentro del mismo grupo, se lograron diferencias significativas para el dominio Confrontación en la cuarta evaluación entre Grupos Aguja/Controle y para Soporte Social, en la tercera evaluación para los Grupos Aguja/Semillas. CONCLUSIONES:la auriculoterapia con agujas apocó los niveles de estrés significativamente y hubo disminución de la utilización de los dominios Alejamiento, Confrontación y Soporte Social para los grupos de intervención después del tratamiento, sugiriendo que la auriculoterapia tanto con agujas cuanto con semillas puede producir un impacto positivo para mejorar estrategia de Coping en el equipo de Enfermería. Más estudios, sin embargo, se hacen necesarios para que se pueda conocer el alcance de la técnica.OBJETIVOS: trata-se de ensaio clínico randomizado com o objetivo de avaliar a auriculoterapia, para diminuição de níveis de estresse, em 75 profissionais de enfermagem de um hospital e analisar os principais domínios de coping que se modificaram após o tratamento. METODOLOGIA: os sujeitos foram divididos em grupos (controle, agulhas, sementes, receberam 8 sessões nos pontos Shenmen, rim e tronco cerebral. O grupo controle não recebeu nenhuma intervenção. RESULTADOS: constataram-se diferenças significativas pela ANOVA, para níveis de estresse entre o grupo agulha/controle na terceira e quarta avaliações, segundo escores de estresse da Lista de Sintoma de Stress de Vasconcelos. Para o Inventário de Folkman e Lazarus, obteve-se diferença estatística para o domínio afastamento entre os grupos agulha/controle, após tratamento; e, na análise dentro do mesmo grupo, obtiveram-se diferenças significativas para o domínio confronto, na quarta avaliação entre grupos agulha/controle e para suporte social, na terceira avaliação para os grupos agulha/semente. CONCLUSÕES: a auriculoterapia com agulhas diminuiu os níveis de estresse significativamente e houve diminuição da utilização d
Leonice Fumiko Sato Kurebayashi
This paper explores issues in developing and implementing a competency-based human resource development strategy. The paper summarizes a literature review on how competency models can improve HR performance. A case study is presented of American Medical Systems (AMS), a mid-sized health-care and medical device company, where the model is being
Gangani, Noordeen T.; McLean, Gary N.; Braden, Richard A.
The papers presented at the conference are published in 4 separate volumes. The conference was designed to study development opportunities in arid and desert zones and bring together the latest technology on desert development. Included in this volume were papers on renewable and mineral resources in arid regions, resource development strategies, and constraints to development. Separate abstracts have been prepared for items within scope for inclusion in the Energy Data Base
The papers presented at the conference are published in 4 separate volumes. The conference was designed to study development opportunities in arid and desert zones and bring together the latest technology on desert development. Included in this volume were papers on renewable and mineral resources in arid regions, resource development strategies, and constraints to development. Separate abstracts have been prepared for items within scope for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)
Biswas, M.R.; Biswas, A.K. (eds.)
Food insecurity is turning out to be one of the worst crises of world in future. Developing countries are especially considered vulnerable to be hit most severely by this impending danger. Resource scarce regions of Pakistan are also included in the list of marginalized areas where population is not able to manage its food by herself. The present study was designed to analyze the state of household food security concerns and identify managing strategies for dealing with shortage of food patterns in Northern Pakistan. The research was based upon a survey of randomly selected two districts. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used for data collection. The results indicated that prices of food items were very high. It also delineated that lack of irrigational water; limited market access, and high cost of fertilizers were leading production related constraints. As a resort to these constraints and due to low output from the food crops there was found a shift from subsistence to cash seeking cropping patterns of the growers. This increase in income was perceived as a mean to ensure household food security. Furthermore, at household level the respondents expressed to reduce their expenses on the agricultural inputs in future. (author)
Full Text Available ... seem insurmountable, good intentions alone cannot sustain the behavior. Coping becomes difficult and a persons ability to ... work is identifying the individuals motivation to change behavior, then helping set achievable behavioral goals and guiding ...
The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether adolescents who deliberately harmed themselves or had thoughts of self-harm differed from other adolescents in terms of help-seeking, communication and coping strategies. The participants were 6020 15-16 year-old school pupils who were surveyed using an anonymous self-report questionnaire.
Evans, E.; Hawton, K.; Rodham, K.
The current study focused on the problems which students encounter while listening to the English language, the mental processes they activate in listening comprehension, and the strategies they use in different phases of comprehension. Also, it aimed to find out whether there were any differences between advanced and intermediate students in their use of the listening strategies. Data was collected using the "think aloud" technique in which students (4th year English majors, Fa...
Nahed Mohamed Mahmoud Ghoneim
The current study focused on the problems which students encounter while listening to the English language, the mental processes they activate in listening comprehension, and the strategies they use in different phases of comprehension. Also, it aimed to find out whether there were any differences between advanced and intermediate students in their use of the listening strategies. Data was collected using the "think aloud" technique in which students (4th year ...
Nahed Mohamed Mahmoud Ghoneim
Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 1317 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified random sampling methods. Food insecurity was measured using scales validated in developing countries. Dietary practices were measured using dietary diversity score, food variety score and frequency of consuming animal source food. Multivariable regression models were used to compare dietary behaviors by food security status after controlling for socio-demographic and economic covariates. Food insecure adolescents had low dietary diversity score (P<0.001), low mean food variety score (P<0.001) and low frequency of consuming animal source foods (P<0.001). After adjusting for other variables in a multivariable logistic regression model, adolescent food insecurity (P<0.001) and rural residence (P<0.001) were negatively associated with the likelihood of having a diversified diet (P<0.001) and frequency of consuming animal source foods, while a high household income tertile was positively associated. Similarly, multivariable linear regression model showed that adolescent food insecurity was negatively associated with food variety score, while residence in semi-urban areas (P<0.001), in urban areas (P<0.001) and high household income tertile (P?=?0.013) were positively associated. Girls were less likely to have diversified diet (P?=?0.001) compared with boys. Our findings suggest that food insecurity has negative consequence on optimal dietary intake of adolescents. Food security interventions should look into ways of targeting adolescents to mitigate these dietary consequences and provide alternative strategies to improve dietary quality of adolescents in Southwest Ethiopia.
Belachew, Tefera; Lindstrom, David; Gebremariam, Abebe; Hogan, Dennis; Lachat, Carl; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick
A methodology has been developed to explicitly and quantitatively evaluate acceptable alternative repository development strategies, in terms of the degree to which they are likely to satisfy a specified set of system objectives (e.g., minimizing overall costs through closure, time to initial waste receipt and long-term health effects). An open-quotes acceptableclose quotes strategy is one which has a high likelihood of satisfying specified system functions and requirements. Simple but comprehensive system models have been developed to estimate the relevant consequences of any strategy, explicitly considering system uncertainties and contingencies, including the possibility of finding the site to be unsuitable and having to develop a repository elsewhere. Such open-quotes technical assessments,close quotes which are appropriately developed by technical experts, can then be combined with separate open-quotes value judgementsclose quotes regarding preferences and tradeoffs among the consequences, which are appropriately determined by the decision makers/stake holders (rather than by the technical experts) in order to explicitly determine preferences among the acceptable strategies. Implementation of the methodology has been demonstrated by example
Occupational violence in nursing: explanations and coping strategies / Violencia laboral en enfermeras: explicaciones y estrategias de afrontamiento / Violência laboral em enfermeiras: explicações e estratégias de enfrentamento
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do estudo foi explorar parte da experiência do assédio laboral, vivenciado por treze enfermeiras chilenas, analisando a relação entre as explicações e as estratégias de enfrentamento, para formular um modelo compreensivo que inclua os elementos envolvidos e que possa ser utilizado para de [...] senvolver estratégias preventivas. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semiestruturadas, utilizando como critério de finalização a saturação teórica e analisados segundo os procedimentos da Grounded Theory. A análise relacional mostra a influência de fatores perpetuantes do fenômeno, também dos fatores organizacionais e dos relacionados à execução do papel profissional. A partir do modelo compreensivo se postula que esse tipo de violência é fenômeno circular, no qual os elementos envolvidos se influenciariam e se relacionariam com as construções narrativas do fenômeno e com elementos contextuais, todos podem, também, ser considerados como parte da causalidade mais provável do mesmo. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue explorar parte de la experiencia de hostigamiento laboral vivida por trece enfermeras chilenas, analizando la relación entre sus explicaciones y sus estrategias de afrontamiento, para luego formular un modelo comprensivo que contenga los elementos involucrados y que pueda [...] utilizarse para desarrollar estrategias preventivas. Los datos se recolectaron a través de entrevistas semi estructuradas utilizando como criterio de finalización la saturación teórica y se analizaron según los procedimientos de la Grounded Theory. El análisis relacional muestra la influencia de factores que perpetuán el fenómeno, tanto los organizacionales como los relativos a la ejecución del rol profesional; utilizando el modelo comprensivo se postula que este tipo de violencia es un fenómeno circular, en el cual los elementos intervinientes se influyen mutuamente relacionándose con las construcciones narrativas del fenómeno y con los elementos contextuales, los cuales también pueden considerarse como parte de la causalidad más próxima del mismo. Abstract in english This study explored part of the experience of occupational harassment, experienced by thirteen Chilean nurses, analyzing the relationship between the explanations and their coping strategies, to formulate a comprehensive model that includes the involved elements and that can be used to develop preve [...] ntive strategies. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, using theoretical saturation as the ending criterion and were analyzed according to the procedures of Grounded Theory. The relational analysis shows the influence of factors that perpetuate the phenomenon, both the organizational factors and the ones related to the execution of professional roles. According to the comprehensive model, this kind of violence is a circular phenomenon, in which the involved elements influence each other and are related to the narrative constructions of the phenomenon and to contextual elements, which can also be considered as part of the most probable cause of it.
Angelina María Dois, Castellón.
Liverpool John Moores University (JMU) is one of the largest universities in the United Kingdom. It is a multi-faculty institution with in excess of 20,000 students. Its first learning strategy, in 1995, sought to identify and make explicit the University's commitment to learning development and to integrate this in the context of other University
McClelland, Robert J.
Most of the farmers in the arid and semi arid are poorly endowed with resources. Market liberalisation and withdrawal of government support (subsidies) in accessing some of the modern technologies has led to decreased use of most of the modern recommended technologies due to their high prices. A a coping strategy most of the resources poor farmers have turned to utilization of the indigenous technology to sustain their agricultural production. The main objective of this paper is to document the indigenous technologies utilized by farmers, explore the possibility of refining/calibrating and up-scaling them and the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing them as identified by the farmers. The method for data collection was by use of interviews the farmers who were stratified in terms of gender and age sets (young, middle aged and old) and data analysed by use of qualitative methods. The results indicate that, most farmers do utilize indigenous technology in crops, livestock pests, diseases, soil and water conservation as cropping strategies to increase input prices due to market liberalization and withdrawal of government subsidies. It was also observed that, there is need for scientists to calibrate the most important practices for improved adoption and up-scaling of the main indigenous technologies within and outside the study areas
Full Text Available The current study focused on the problems which students encounter while listening to the English language, the mental processes they activate in listening comprehension, and the strategies they use in different phases of comprehension. Also, it aimed to find out whether there were any differences between advanced and intermediate students in their use of the listening strategies. Data was collected using the "think aloud" technique in which students (4th year English majors, Faculty of Education, Menoufia University were asked to mention any problem they face during a listening comprehension activity and indicate what they were thinking to solve the problem. The findings indicated that advanced and intermediate participants encountered the same problems with different percentages, and activated three groups of processes. The advanced group students used top down strategies more than the intermediate ones.
Nahed Mohamed Mahmoud Ghoneim
This study aimed to apply the construal level theory (CLT) to increase the relaxation adoption as a coping behavior in adolescents with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The theory offers a framework that assumes decision-making about adoption of any given behavior depends on perceived temporal distance from the desired or recommended behavior and thus individual might perceive any information or intervention, at two levels (low or high). In doing so, a trial was conducted on 1578 high school students suffering from PMS. The precaution adoption process model was applied to categorize students in six stages, based on their intention to adopt a behavior. The focus of this study was on students who were in stage 3 of the model (undecided to adopt a behavior that was relaxation). Overall, 411 students were identified and randomly assigned to the three study groups: group 1 (n = 98) who received a CLT-driven intervention containing detailed information about relaxation (low-level construal, LLC); group 2 (n = 150) who received a CTL-driven intervention containing general information about relaxation (high-level construal, HLC); and group 3 (n = 163) who received nothing (control group). The progression from stage 3 toward stage 6 (action) was considered as the desired outcome and it was hypothesized that LLC intervention would be more effective than HLC intervention. Compared to participants in the control group, participants in the high and low construal groups were significantly more likely to advance to the action stage (P < 0.001). In addition, students in the low construal group had made an apparent higher stage progression as compared to the high construal group, although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.33). The findings suggest that, for people who are undecided to adopt a new health action, LLC intervention might be more effective. PMID:22788244
Delara, Mahin; Ghofranipour, Fazllollah; Fallah, Parviz Azad; Tavafian, Sedighe Sadat; Kazemnejad, Anoushirvan; Montazeri, Ali; Sani, Abolfazl Rahmani; Kooshki, Mehdi
This study aims to contribute to the understanding of how existing theories of strategy and strategic changes may be applied in a real-world Balanced Scorecard (BSC) context. In other words, how a strategy is connected to an existing BSC in a real-world setting. What makes this study interesting and relevant is the current turbulent state of the worldwide economy that is likely to lead to strategic adjustments and changes to a larger extent, which should be reflected in a strategic tool such ...
This Command Paper sets out the Government's strategy for sustainable development, taking into account the national and international developments that have occurred since its previous policy statement ('A better quality of life: a strategy for sustainable development in the United Kingdom', Cm 4345; ISBN 0101434529) published in May 1999, including devolution in Scotland and Wales and the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development. The strategy is based on four agreed priorities of sustainable consumption and production, climate change, natural resource protection, and sustainable communities with a focus on tackling environmental inequalities; and uses a new indicator set with commitments to look at new indicators such as on well-being. Proposals include: the establishment of a new Community Action 2020 programme; and strengthening the role of the Sustainable Development Commission to ensure an independent review of government progress, with all central government departments and executive agencies to produce sustainable development actions plans by December 2005. 1 annex.
Full Text Available One of the earliest and most consistent findings in behavioral neuroscience research is that learning changes the brain. Here we consider how learning as an aspect of coping in the context of stress exposure induces neuroadaptations that enhance emotion regulation and resilience. A systematic review of the literature identified 15 brain imaging studies in which humans with specific phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder were randomized to stress exposure therapies that diminished subsequent indications of anxiety. Most of these studies focused on functional changes in the amygdala and anterior corticolimbic brain circuits that control cognitive, motivational, and emotional aspects of physiology and behavior. Corresponding structural brain changes and the timing, frequency, and duration of stress exposure required to modify brain functions remain to be elucidated in future research. These studies will advance our understanding of coping as a learning process and provide mechanistic insights for the development of new interventions that promote stress coping skills.
The paper focuses on assessing the wider perspectives of adaptive resource management strategies in former subsistence agriculture societies in the SW Pacific. Firstly, we will briefly introduce the theoretical context related to the livelihood framework, adaptation to socio-environmental change and the concept of coupled human-environmental timelines. Secondly, with point of departure in a baseline characterization of Bellona Island derived from a comprehensive survey in the late 1960s and resent fieldwork in late 2006, we present the case of Bellona Island. Key issues addressed concern climatic events, population, agricultural strategies, land use, livelihood strategies, non-agricultural activities, etc. Satellite imagery and aerial photos show relative stability in agricultural land despite an increase in de facto population (51% from 1966-2006). A questionnaire survey of 48 households provide data on the entire household livelihood portfolio and reveal that the natural resources remains a widespread activity, yet increasingly supplemented by other income generating activities( ex. shop keeping, private business, government employment). Group interviews have been employed to reveal how local farmers perceive cause-effect relationships between societal and environmental events and their individual and collective management of resources. The coupled human-environment timelines are used to discuss ways in which the local communities' adaptive resource management strategies have been employed in the face of main drivers of change, incl. climatic and socio-economic changes in the recent past.
Reenberg, Anette; Birch-Thomsen, Torben
The purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare resource requirements and other fuel cycle quantities for alternative reactor deployment strategies. The paper examines from global and national perspectives the interaction of various fuel cycle alternatives described in the previous U.S. submissions to Working Groups 4, 5, 8 and Subgroup 1A/2A. Nuclear energy forecasts of Subgroup 1A/2A are used in the calculation of uranium demand for each strategy. These uranium demands are then compared to U.S. estimates of annual uranium producibility. Annual rather than cumulative p