Escott, Diane; Slade, Pauline; Spiby, Helen
During childbirth, in addition to or in place of analgesia, women manage pain using a range of coping strategies. Antenatal education provides an opportunity prior to birth to help women to prepare for an often painful event. However, this is usually carried out with little reference to the literature regarding psychological factors which influence the experience of pain. This review seeks to consider how recent developments in psychological knowledge could enhance care. Areas identified include range of coping strategies and factors influencing their efficacy and implementation. This draws on both the literature on management of acute pain in other scenarios and the limited literature related to childbirth related pain. The following recommendations for systematic evaluation in the context of antenatal education are made: (i) Increase the range of coping strategies currently utilized to include cognitive based strategies. (ii) Help women to identify and understand the nature of their own coping styles and preferences, including any unhelpful patterns of pain catastrophizing. (iii) Help women to develop their own unique set of coping strategies for labor. (iv) Strengthen feelings of coping self-efficacy by practice in class and reinforcement by the class teacher. (v) Develop implementation intentions which account for the changing context of childbirth and (vi) Actively develop prompting and reinforcement of use of identified coping strategies by birth partners. PMID:19709792
Mok, Ka Ho
This article critically examines how Asian countries have responded to the global economic crisis which started in late 2008, with particular reference to explore what major coping strategies have been adopted by these Asian governments to continue educational development. This comparative study highlights the significant role of the state in
Berzonsky, M D
This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development. PMID:1469598
Full Text Available The main objective of this exploratory descriptive research was to identifythe strategies developed by children between 7 and 12 years old fromsouthwest Bogotá to cope with punishment and to adapt themselves to theirsociocultural and home environments. Anthropological methods have beenused in this research because even though Psychology allows for a generalconceptualization of this issue, Anthropology provides different tools forthe understanding of the cultural and social elements in which the childlives. This research is composed by two different parts, in the first one childrenstrategies to cope punishment are identified through semi-structuredinterviews. In the second part, through life histories, the social and culturalsystem of four children is described. Thus, results and discussion are separatedaccording to this two moments, in order to try to present a dialoguebetween psychology and socials networks theory.
"Coping flexibility" was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese college
Quittner, A L; Tolbert, V E; Regoli, M J; Orenstein, D M; Hollingsworth, J L; Eigen, H
Critiqued previous conceptual and methodological approaches to the measurement of stress and coping. Applied Goldfried and D'Zurilla's behavior-analytic model to create a context-specific measure of problematic situations and coping strategies for parents of school-age children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The sample was stratified by child's gender and illness severity. Forty-seven families (46 mothers, 32 fathers) and 8 health care professionals completed structured interviews or daily diaries to obtain the widest range of problematic situations; 1,725 situations were elicited across all participants and then content-analyzed into 97 nonredundant categories in 11 domains (e.g., Discipline, Medical Care). Few differences were found in problem frequency or difficulty as a function of either gender or illness severity. Using empirical criteria, the most frequent and difficult problem situations were selected and developed into role-play vignettes that include relevant contextual, developmental, and interactional details. The Role-Play Inventory of Situations and Coping Strategies (RISCS) consists of 31 audiotaped vignettes designed to elicit and evaluate the coping strategies used by parents of children with CF. PMID:8920154
Bingen, Jim; Sage, Julie; Sirieix, Lucie
This paper reports the results of an exploratory investigation of the coping strategies of a small group of local food consumer âactivistsâ âthose committed to, and those who promote âeating locallyâ in Michigan. Following a brief review of discussions surrounding different definitions of local food and the concept of coping strategy, this paper presents the methods for collecting preliminary information about local food coping strategies in Michigan and then discusses the coping strategies o...
Full Text Available Background: Stress is one of the risk factors for the development of so many physical and especially psychological disorders. Now, the impression is focused on coping strategies versus previous emphasis on nature and severity of stress. The present study was performed to evaluate if fasting, not only as a religious behavior but also as a coping strategy can influence the way of coping with stress in humans. Methods: In a pre-test / post-test survey, 100 medical students were evaluated for stress coping strategies before and after the holy month of Ramadan using CS-R scale. Results: The results revealed that the use of ineffective coping strategies was significantly decreased after the holy month with no alterations in other strategies. In details, uses of superstitiousness, wishful thinking and self-medication coping strategies were statistically lower after Ramadan compared to values before it (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The present study showed that Ramadan fasting (a religious behavior or belief as a coping strategy has beneficial effect on the way of coping with stress in humans. Keywords: Stress, Coping Strategies, Religion, Ramadan, Medical Student
Moon, Chung in; Park, Hahn Kyu; Kim, Tak Won; Lee, Dong Yoon; Lee, Yong Hwan [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The purpose of this study is to analyze international and domestic constraints on the development of nuclear fuel cycle technology in Korea and to develop response strategies to deal with these constraints. This study proceeded as follows: Chapter 2 examined multilateral international constrains including IAEA safeguards system and NPT, bilateral international constraints such as the U.S.-Korea Nuclear Energy Cooperation Agreement and the U.S. nonproliferation policy, and domestic constraints like residents' anti nuclear movement and environmental protest movement. In Chapter 3, this study conducted a case study on Japan's nuclear fuel cycle programs as a basic research for the establishment of relevant response strategies vis-a-vis the international and domestic constraints. In this chapter, the focus of analysis was on Japan's strategies to deal with multilateral and bilateral pressures and domestic constraints. In Chapters 4 and 5, this study sought to elaborate Korea's strategies to cope with multilateral international constraints and U.S. constraints on the development of a domestic nuclear fuel cycle in Korea, respectively. The response strategies to domestic constraints were also illuminated in Chapter 6. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs. (author)
Lewis, Carolyn L; Brown, Sandra C
This descriptive study was designed to assess coping strategies of female adolescents infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) (N = 30). Results from the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Questionnaire (ACOPES) revealed that the most often utilized coping strategies identified by the adolescents were: listening to music, thinking about good things, making your own decisions, being close to someone you care about, sleeping, trying on your own to deal with problems, eating, watching television, daydreaming and praying. The adolescents also reported low utilization of certain maladaptive coping strategies such as alcohol and illicit drug usage. Chronic illnesses such as HIV, cancer and diabetes are difficult for adolescents because of the unique developmental tasks needed to understand the psychological and social impact caused by chronic illnesses. The research presented illustrates the complexities of stress and the effects of coping on psychological well-being, health behavior, and health. This research explores specific coping strategies used by HIV-infected adolescents. Findings provided baseline data of the various coping strategies of female adolescents infected with HIV in an outpatient setting. These findings may serve as a foundation for future studies on coping strategies among females infected with HIV. Furthermore, the findings may also be useful in developing an outpatient behavior-modification/coping effectiveness training program that is both gender-specific and culturally appropriate. PMID:12244842
Min Chen; Hailong Tang; Kun Zhang
In this paper, several critical issues related to Chinese high-speed rails (CHSR) are analyzed, investigated and discussed, including development background, reasons for high ticket fare, some typical factors that influence the environmental life-cycle assessment, time and cost comparison of typical door-to-door travel routes between different transport modes and complementary strategies among different transport modes. First, the results show that the expanding high...
Marlise, van Zyl; Yvonne, du Plessis.
Full Text Available As a large part of South Africa's economy is based on the mining industry, this research focused on exploring the coping strategies of business leaders in the mining industry during an economic downturn. Using qualitative research within a constructivist-interpretive paradigm, the researchers sought [...] a deeper understanding of how mining leaders cope during an economic downturn. A purposive sample of seven executive mining leaders of different mining houses was interviewed and data was analysed using Atlas.ti. A conceptual framework for understanding coping strategies at the individual, group and organisational levels for business leaders during an economic downturn was developed and is discussed here. This study contributed to theory and practice by focusing on coping responses to specific situations within a specific context instead of on general coping strategies.
Vandoninck, Sofie; d'Haenens, Leen
Understanding how children deal with problematic situations online is helpful in developing efficient awareness raising and online resilience building initiatives. In this article, we will discuss and develop typologies for online coping strategies. In a school survey, 2046 Flemish children aged 10-16 were asked about how they (would) respond when confronted with different types of online risks. Using principal component analyses and multi-dimensional scaling, we identified different types of cross-risk and risk-specific coping strategies, and explored which types of coping have similar underlying meanings. The results suggest to distinguish behavioral avoidance tactics from mere passive responses or indifference. Young people tend to perceive online coping strategies along two dimensions: engagement versus disengagement and technical versus non-technical measures. Behavioral avoidance is popular among younger children and is associated with a medium level of active engagement and often combined with communicative approaches. Girls are more communicative and respond more proactively. PMID:26513127
S Akuchekian; Ebrahimi, A.; S Alvandian
Background: Stress is one of the risk factors for the development of so many physical and especially psychological disorders. Now, the impression is focused on coping strategies versus previous emphasis on nature and severity of stress. The present study was performed to evaluate if fasting, not only as a religious behavior but also as a coping strategy can influence the way of coping with stress in humans. Methods: In a pre-test / post-test survey, 100 medical students were evaluated for str...
Estratégias de coping desenvolvidas por cuidadores de idosos portadores de doença crônica Estrategias de coping desarrolladas por cuidadores de ancianos portadores de enfermedad crónica Coping strategies caregivers of elderly with chronic diseases develop
Janete Pessuto Simonetti
Full Text Available Cuidar de um idoso com doença crônica pode representar uma ameaça e resultar em estresse. O sucesso em lidar com esta situação dependerá do coping, definido como um processo utilizado para controlar as demandas da relação indivíduo-ambiente. Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi detectar as estratégias de coping utilizadas por cuidadores de idosos. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo, com base na análise de discurso. A amostra foi composta por 16 indivíduos. As estratégias de coping mais utilizadas pelos cuidadores foram centradas na emoção e a tarefa de cuidar implica em mudanças em suas vidas, desempenhando as atividades sem auxílio, com sobrecarga, perda da liberdade e frustração. O estresse maior está relacionado à falta de ajuda por parte dos familiares e não à divisão das responsabilidades. Estimular o envolvimento da família, educar e fornecer orientações básicas, que possam minimizar as dificuldades do processo de cuidar, poderão contribuir para o bem-estar dos cuidadores.Cuidar a un anciano con enfermedad crónica puede representar una amenaza y resultar en estrés. El éxito para lidiar con esta situación dependerá del coping, definido como un proceso utilizado para controlar las demandas de la relación individuo-ambiente. En este trabajo, el objetivo fue detectar las estrategias de coping utilizadas por cuidadores de ancianos. Fue realizado un estudio cualitativo, con base en el análisis de discurso. La muestra estuvo conformada por 16 individuos. las estrategias de coping más utilizadas por los cuidadores estuvieron centradas en la emoción y la tarea de cuidar implica en cambios en sus vidas, desempeñando las actividades sin ayuda, con sobrecarga, pérdida de la libertad y frustración. El mayor estrés está relacionado a la falta de ayuda por parte de los familiares y no a la división de las responsabilidades. Estimular el involucramiento de la familia, educar y proporcionar orientaciones básicas, que puedan minimizar las dificultades del proceso de cuidar, podrán contribuir en el bienestar de los cuidadores.Care for a dependent elderly individual with a chronic disease can be a threat and cause stress. Success in dealing with this situation will depend on coping strategies, defined as processes used in order to control the demands of the individual-environment relationship. In this study the goal was to detect coping strategies used by caregivers for the elderly. A qualitative study was carried out through the analysis of coping discourse and theoretical reference. The sample was comprised of 16 individuals. It was observed that the coping strategies most used by caregivers were centered on emotion, and that caregiving tasks imply many changes in the life of caregivers, who perform them with no aid, with work overload, loss of liberty, and frustration. The greatest stress is related to the lack of help from family members and of shared responsibilities. Stimulating the involvement of the family, educating and giving basic orientation, which may reduce the difficulties of caregiving, could improve these individuals' well-being.
Niels C.L. Jacobs
Full Text Available The negative effects and the continuation of cyberbullying seem to depend on the coping strategies the victims use. To assess their coping strategies, self-report questionnaires (SRQs are used. However, these SRQs are often subject to several shortcomings: the (single and topological categorizations used in SRQs do not always adequately differentiate among various coping responses, in addition the strategies of general SRQs fail to accurately measure coping with cyberbullying. This study is therefore aimed to develop a SRQ that specifically measures coping with cyberbullying (i.e., Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire; CCQ and to discover whether other, not single and topological, categorizations of coping strategies can be found. Based on previous SRQs used in the (cyberbullying (i.e., traditional and cyberbullying literature (i.e., 49 studies were found with three different SRQs measuring coping with traditional bullying, cyberbullying or (cyberbullying items and categorizations were selected, compared and merged into a new questionnaire. In compliance with recommendations from the classical test-theory, a principal component analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis were done, and a final model was constructed. Seventeen items loaded onto four different coping categorizations: mental-, passive-, social-, and confrontational-coping. The CCQ appeared to have good internal consistency, acceptable test-retest reliability, good discriminant validity and the development of the CCQ fulfilled many of the recommendations from classical test-theory. The CCQ omits working in single and topological categorizations and measures cognitive, behavioral, approach and avoidance strategies.
Atkinson, D. E.
A changing climate is manifested at ground level through the day to day weather. For all Northern residents - community, industrial, operational and response - the need to think about the weather is ever present. Northern residents, and in particular, indigenous community residents, fully understand implications of the weather, however, a comment that has been heard more often is that old ways of knowing are not as reliable as they once were. Weather patterns seem less consistent and subject to more rapid fluctuations. Compromised traditional ways of knowing puts those who need to travel or hunt at greater risk. One response to adapt to this emerging reality is to make greater use of western sources of information, such as weather data and charts provided by NOAA's National Weather Service or Environment Canada. The federal weather agencies have very large and complex forecasting regions to cover, and so one problem is that it can be difficult to provide perfectly tailored forecasts, that cover all possible problems, right down to the very local scale in the communities. Only those affected have a complete feel for their own concerns. Thus, key to a strategy to improve the utility of available weather information is a linking of local-scale manifestations of problematic weather to the larger-scale weather patterns. This is done in two ways: by direct consultation with Northern residents, and by installation of equipment to measure parameters of interest to residents, which are not already being measured. This talk will overview projects in coastal Alaska and Canada targeting this objective. The challenge of designing and conducting interviews, and then of harvesting relevant information, will be visited using examples from the three major contexts: coastal community, industrial, and operational. Examples of how local comments can be married to weather products will be presented.
Full Text Available When compared to Latin America, Asian economies since 1980 have grown faster and have done so with relatively modest inequalities. Why? A comparison of Asia and Latin America underlines the superiority of the nationalist capitalist model of development, which has often been pursued more explicitly i [...] n Asia, over that of a dependent capitalist model, which has often been pursued in Latin America. In comparison to Latin America, the Asian model has facilitated higher and less volatile rates of economic growth and a greater political room to pursue social democratic policies. The "tap root" of these alternate pathways is relative autonomy from global constraints: states and economies in Asia have been more nationalist and autonomous than in Latin America.
Background. The aim of this review is to present common psychosocial problems in cancer patients and their possible coping strategies. Cancer patients are occupied with many psychosocial problems, which are only partially related to their health state and medical treatments. They are faced with a high social pressure, based on prejudices and stereotypes of this illness. The review presents the process of confrontation with the cancer diagnosis and of managing the psychological consequences of cancer. The effects of specific coping styles, psychosocial interventions and a social support on initiation, progression and recurrence of cancer are also described. Conclusions. Although some recent meta-analysis could not provide scientific evidence for the association between coping strategies and the cancer initiation, the progression or the recurrence (neither have studies rejected the thesis of association), the therapeutic window for the psychosocial intervention is still wide and shows an important effect on the quality of lives of many cancer patients. (author)
Vickie A Lambert
Full Text Available Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses? workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace.
Yoon, Jae ho; Lee, Ji hae; Lee, Chae Yeon; Cho, Minhee; Lee, Sang Min
The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate a significant suppressor effect among coping strategies on resilience. Two different samples were used to replicate the suppressor effect. Participants in the first example were 391 adolescents (middle school students) in Korea, and participants in the second example were 282 young adults
Revital Ludewig; Juan LaLlave
This chapter contributes towards understanding the effect of gender on judging. It examines whether the experiences of women and men judges with their profession support a gender differences or a gender similarities hypothesis. Women and men judges in Switzerland (N = 243) were asked to rank their experiences with professional difficulties, coping strategies, worklife balance, satisfaction and discrimination to determine whether there were differences or similarities due to...
Aparicio, Miriam Teresita
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study Coping Strategies as explanatory variables of Job Burnout, in employees (University graduates vs. non-university graduates working at government offices in Mendoza Argentina. In order to develop a more comprehensive approach to this issue, the methodology used includes quantitative techniques and qualitative techniques. The research entailed a comparative study. The results obtained from the quantitative data, show significant differences between university graduates who use strategies that seem to be closer to action and problem solving; and non-university graduates who use strategies linked to emotion. From an applied point of view, it is expected that the results may generate Ongoing Training Programs focusing on burnout and stress related to the development of positive Coping Strategies.
Kamile Bahar Ayd?n
Full Text Available Problem Statement: According to the relevant literature, strategies for coping with stress affect adolescents mental and physical health, school attendance and adaptation, academic achievement. If strategies for coping with stress suggested by Csikszentmihalyi are taught to adolescents, a more effective use of psychic energy and thus an increase in subjective experience quality can be achieved.Purpose of the Study: The aim of this study is to examine whether strategies coping with stress based on the Flow Theory predict adolescents mental health to a significant level.Method: The study was conducted on a total of 119 ninth grade students (61 females and 58 males aged 14-17 in a public high school in Ankara (in 2005-2006. The predictor variables of the study, the subscales of the Strategies for Coping with Stress Scale (SCSS, were struggle (S, personal control (PC, and active/effective contact with the environment (ACE. SCSS was developed based on Csikszentmihalyis flow theory. The predicted variables of the study were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI whose subscales of Turkish form were anxiety, depression, negative self, hostility and somatization. In the study, multiple linear regression analysis was used.Findings and Results: There were correlations ranging from ? =-.65 p<.001, R2 =.39 to ?=.30 P<.05, R2 =.07 between the subscales of SCSS and the subscales of BSI. Most correlation coefficients were negative as expected. Moreover, the regression models established between predicted and predictor variables were significant at p<.001 level excluding somatization. The most powerful predictor of mental health is the ACE strategy of coping with stress. The findings especially about ACE support the strategy of focusing attention on the world, which Csikszentmihalyi suggests as an effective strategy.Conclusions and Recommendations: The results depict that as the levels of adolescents stress coping strategies decrease, their psychological symptoms increase. These results support Csikszentmihalyis opinions on coping with stress and other relevant literature. Psychological help experts can control adolescents mental health and raise the quality of their subjective experiences by teaching them strategies of SCSS.
Kamile Bahar Ayd?n
Full Text Available Problem Statement: According to the relevant literature, strategies for coping with stress affect adolescents mental and physical health, school attendance and adaptation, academic achievement. If strategies for coping with stress suggested by Csikszentmihalyi are taught to adolescents, a more effective use of psychic energy and thus an increase in subjective experience quality can be achieved.Purpose of the Study: The aim of this study is to examine whether strategies coping with stress based on the Flow Theory predict adolescents mental health to a significant level.Method: The study was conducted on a total of 119 ninth grade students (61 females and 58 males aged 14-17 in a public high school in Ankara (in 2005-2006. The predictor variables of the study, the subscales of the Strategies for Coping with Stress Scale (SCSS, were struggle (S, personal control (PC, and active/effective contact with the environment (ACE. SCSS was developed based on Csikszentmihalyis flow theory. The predicted variables of the study were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI whose subscales of Turkish form were anxiety, depression, negative self, hostility and somatization. In the study, multiple linear regression analysis was used.Findings and Results: There were correlations ranging from ? =-.65 p<.001, R2 =.39 to ?=.30 P<.05, R2 =.07 between the subscales of SCSS and the subscales of BSI. Most correlation coefficients were negative as expected. Moreover, the regression models established between predicted and predictor variables were significant at p<.001 level excluding somatization. The most powerful predictor of mental health is the ACE strategy of coping with stress. The findings especially about ACE support the strategy of focusing attention on the world, which Csikszentmihalyi suggests as an effective strategy.Conclusions and Recommendations: The results depict that as the levels of adolescents stress coping strategies decrease, their psychological symptoms increase. These results support Csikszentmihalyis opinions on coping with stress and other relevant literature. Psychological help experts can control adolescents mental health and raise the quality of their subjective experiences by teaching them strategies of SCSS.
Carter, D M; Mackinnon, A; Copolov, D L
Many patients with psychotic disorders experience persistent auditory hallucinations despite rigorous pharmacological treatment. The experience of auditory hallucinations can heighten anxiety and depression. The high risk of suicide among patients experiencing auditory hallucinations is well recognized. Research in this area has been restricted to small samples or has collected information only on the use of such strategies without investigating their efficacy. The Mental Health Research Institute Unusual Perceptions Schedule incorporates a module focusing on coping strategies. This schedule was administered to 100 subjects, with the aim of investigating the relationship between strategy use and effectiveness, as well as the characteristics of subjects and their disorders. Eighty-one percent of the subjects were worried or upset by their hallucinations. The majority (66%) of the subjects reported they had ways of managing the voices, and 69% of them described at least some success using one or more strategies. There was a striking lack of correspondence between the number of subjects using a method and its related efficacy. No relationship was found between length of illness and number of strategies used. Multidimensional scaling of use and efficacy data revealed three groups of strategies. These groups do not correspond to previous classifications made on the basis of features of the strategies themselves. The pattern of results also suggests that training methods might be used to increase the options for patients troubled by auditory hallucinations. PMID:8600219
Timmermann, Marie; Naziri, Despina; Etienne, Anne-Marie
This article focuses on the relationship between defence mechanisms, coping strategies, palliative attitude, and the well-being of caregivers in palliative care units, who are confronted with death, suffering, and pain. They use many different defence mechanisms; however, studies linking their coping strategies and defence mechanisms are rare. This study uses a quantitative and qualitative design and is based on 18 caregivers (nurses) in 2 palliative care units in Belgium. Defence mechanisms are tested through a semi-structured interview, TAT, and DSQ-60. Coping strategies are evaluated through a semi-structured interview, COPE, and WCQ. To maximize our global approach, coping strategies and defence mechanisms are associated with measures of well-being and palliative attitude. We determined that defence mechanisms and coping strategies should not be seen as obstacles to professional practices. Palliative caregivers are more likely to adopt "mature" and "mental inhibition and compromise formation" defence mechanisms, as well as "emotion-focused" and "problem-focused" coping strategies. Defence mechanisms are more unconscious and constitute appropriate answers in extreme emotional situations. Coping strategies allow for more conscious processes of adaptation to the environment of palliative care units. This study shows positive relationships between different defence mechanisms and coping strategies, palliative attitudes, and caregivers' well-being. Institutions should improve the conditions for group exchange and for caregivers' individual introspection so that caregivers develop adapted capacities to cope with anxiety. PMID:19824279
Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.
This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research
Compas, Bruce E.
This chapter identifies four challenges to the study of the development of coping and regulation and outlines specific theoretical and empirical strategies for addressing them. The challenges are (1) to integrate work on coping and processes of emotion regulation, (2) to use the integration of research on neuro-biology and context to inform the
Kamile Bahar Ayd?n
Problem Statement: According to the relevant literature, strategies for coping with stress affect adolescents mental and physical health, school attendance and adaptation, academic achievement. If strategies for coping with stress suggested by Csikszentmihalyi are taught to adolescents, a more effective use of psychic energy and thus an increase in subjective experience quality can be achieved.Purpose of the Study: The aim of this study is to examine whether strategies coping with stre...
Satija, Y.K.; Advani, G. B.; Nathawat, S.S.
The influence of stressful life events and coping strategies was studied in 50 depressed and 50 non-depressed persons. It was observed that depressives experienced significantly more stressful life events and were also using significantly more avoidance coping strategies as compared to their non-depressed counterparts. The moderate and severely depressed patients were exposed to more stressful life events and were using more avoidance coping strategies as compared to mildly depressed patients.
Hana Chýlová; Ludmila Natovová
The aim of present study is to investigate the particularities of usingvarious stress coping strategies by undergraduate students at theCzech University of Life Sciences (CULS) with a special regard tothe balance between positive and negative stress coping strategies,and resulting consequences. Authors focused on comparingdifferences in the use of coping strategies between standardizedscores of the Czech population and student population, as well ason identifying differences in the use of cop...
Holt, Paul A.; Stone, Gerald L.
Investigated needs and coping strategies of 124 university students, five university staff, and five other persons involved in long-distance relationships. Most effective coping strategies appeared to be frequency of visits and quality of verbal communication. Results support the importance of relationship subtypes and frequent visits. (Author/NB)
Wallace Jean E; Lemaire Jane B
Abstract Background Physicians experience workplace stress and draw on different coping strategies. The primary goal of this paper is to use interview data to explore physicians' self reported coping strategies. In addition, questionnaire data is utilized to explore the degree to which the coping strategies are used and are associated with feelings of emotional exhaustion, a key symptom of burnout. Methods This mixed methods study explores factors related to physician wellness within a large ...
Every employee embodies manifestations of every demographic that attach to him or her different minority and majority statuses at the same time. As these statuses are often related to organizational hierarchies, employees frequently hold positions of dominance and subordination at the same time. Thus, a given individual's coping strategies (or coping behavior) in terms of minority stress due to organizational processes of hierarchization, marginalization and discrimination, are...
Schmied, Emily A; Padilla, Genieleah A; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Lauby, Melissa D Hiller; Harris, Erica; Taylor, Marcus K
A wealth of research has examined psychological responses to trauma among male military service members, but few studies have examined sex differences in response to trauma, such as coping strategies. This study assessed coping strategies used by male and female U.S. service members completing an intensely stressful mock-captivity exercise, compared strategies by sex, and assessed the relationship between coping and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Two hundred service members (78% male) completed self-report surveys before and after mock captivity. Surveys assessed demographics, service characteristics, PTSS, and coping strategies used during mock captivity. Participants used seven coping strategies: denial, self-blame, religion, self-distraction, behavioral disengagement, positive reframing, and planning. Women used denial (p?.05), self-blame (p?.05), and positive reinterpretation (p?.05) strategies more frequently than men, and they had higher PTSS levels following the exercise. Structural equation modeling showed that the relationship between sex and PTSS was fully mediated by coping strategies. The results of this study suggest that reducing the use of maladaptive coping strategies may mitigate PTSS among females. Future efforts should target improving coping during highly stressful and traumatic experiences. PMID:25465883
Jannone, Laura; O'Connell, Kathleen A.
The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by teens as they attempted to quit smoking. The teens were attending a school-based cessation program titled "Quit 2 Win" that was offered in four high schools. This study examined situations in which teens were tempted to smoke. The study compares coping strategies teens reported in
Full Text Available Victims of cyberbullying report a number of undesirable outcomes regarding their well-being, especially those who are not able to successfully cope with cyber victimization. Research on coping with cyberbullying has identified a number of different coping strategies that seem to be differentially adaptive in cases of cyber victimization. However, knowledge regarding the effectiveness of these strategies is scarce. This scarcity is partially due to the lack of valid and reliable instruments for the assessment of coping strategies in the context of cyber victimization. The present study outlines the development of the Coping with Cyberbullying Questionnaire (CWCBQ and tests of its reliability and construct validity over a total of five questionnaire development stages. The CWCBQ was developed in the context of a longitudinal study carried out in Switzerland and was also used with Italian and Irish samples of adolescents. The results of these different studies and stages resulted in a questionnaire that is composed of seven subscales (i.e., distal advice, assertiveness, helplessness/self-blame, active ignoring, retaliation, close support and technical coping with a total of 36 items. The CWCBQ is still being developed, but the results obtained so far suggested that the questionnaire was reliable and valid among the countries where it was used at different stages of its development. The CWCBQ is a promising tool for the understanding of potential coping with experiences of cyber victimization and for the development of prevention and intervention programs.
Liu, Ning; Tang, Shui-Yan; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Zhan, Xueyong
This paper examines how stakeholder demand and compliance capacity jointly shape corporate environmental coping strategies and subsequently environmental protection practices. A four-dimensional classification of coping strategies-formalism, accommodation, referencing, and self-determination-is conceptualized. Drawing on survey and interview data collected from manufacturing enterprises in China between 2010 and 2012, the paper shows that compared with formalism and accommodation, coping strategies of referencing and self-determination are associated with stronger environmental protection practices. Enterprises adjust their coping strategies by taking into account the constraints defined by both their internal and external environments. The results also demonstrate the potential synergetic effects of state and non-state stakeholders working together in promoting better corporate environmental coping strategies and environmental practices in China. PMID:26431641
Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Ferrer-García, Marta; Miranda-Castillo, Claudia
Deinstitutionalization has forced families of patients with schizophrenia to take responsibility of informal care, without having the tools to exert their role properly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the coping strategies of caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, belonging to the Aymara ethnic group, (aborigines who are located on the highlands of Northern Chile). The studied sample comprised 45 caregivers of patients with schizophrenia users of the Mental Health Service of Arica, Chile. The results from the Family Coping Questionnaire (FCQ) show that both, Aymara and non-Aymara caregivers use the same coping strategies except for spiritual help which is more likely to be used by Aymara. This strategy might be related with the worldview they possess, thus the relation with the deities has a meaningful importance in the way of explaining and coping with different phenomena. PMID:22198061
Granek, Leeat; Barrera, Maru; Scheinemann, Katrin; Bartels, Ute
This research examined pediatric oncologists coping strategies when their patients died of cancer. Twenty-one pediatric oncologists at 2 Canadian pediatric academic hospitals were interviewed about their coping strategies when patients died or were in the process of dying. The grounded theory method of data collection and data analysis were used. Line-by-line coding was used to establish codes and themes and constant comparison was used to establish relations among emerging codes and themes. Pediatric oncologists used engagement coping strategies with primary and secondary responses including emotional regulation (social support and religion), problem solving (supporting families at end of life), cognitive restructuring (making a difference and research), and distraction (breaks, physical activity, hobbies and entertainment, spending time with own children). They also used disengagement coping strategies that included voluntary avoidance (compartmentalization and withdrawing from families at end of life). Given the chronic nature of patient death in pediatric oncology and the emotionally difficult nature of this work, medical institutions such as hospitals have a responsibility to assist pediatric oncologists in coping with this challenging aspect of their work. Future research is needed to evaluate how best to implement these changes on the institutional level to help oncologists cope with patient death and the effect of using these strategies on their quality of life. PMID:26865337
Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Mertz, Ole
spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets. There are no large differences in applied coping strategies across the region, but district-level data demonstrate how local strategies differ between localities within the districts......Climate variability is an important stress factor for rural livelihoods in most developing countries where households have been adapting to environmental shocks for decades. Climate change results in increased variability and poses new challenges for rural livelihoods, as well as for policymakers...... in adjusting policies to changing conditions. This paper examines the potential relationships between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2,700 rural households in the Kagera region of...
Full Text Available Purpose: to find out the current trends regarding the use of students coping strategies. Objectives of the study were to identify the coping strategies that are used by students in the cognitive, emotional and behavioral areas, as well as the identification of adaptive, non-adaptive and adaptive choices regarding their coping behavior. Material: the study involved 600 students (300 - boys, 300 - girls. Age of study participants was 17 - 19 years. Results: the level of students using a number of cognitive, emotional and behavioral strategies has been identified according to the method of E.Heim. The tendencies for the use of students of adaptive, maladaptive and adaptive coping relatively fundamental idea lies behind. Conclusions: the most common coping strategy for students in the cognitive sphere is "self-preservation" in the emotional sphere is "optimism" in the behavioral field is "a distraction." The use of adaptive strategies of students quantify exceedes the use of maladaptive and relatively adaptive (except for behavioral adaptive strategies of boys and girls.
Wallace Jean E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians experience workplace stress and draw on different coping strategies. The primary goal of this paper is to use interview data to explore physicians' self reported coping strategies. In addition, questionnaire data is utilized to explore the degree to which the coping strategies are used and are associated with feelings of emotional exhaustion, a key symptom of burnout. Methods This mixed methods study explores factors related to physician wellness within a large health region in Western Canada. This paper focuses on the coping strategies that physicians use in response to work-related stress. The qualitative component explores physicians' self reported coping strategies through open ended interviews of 42 physicians representing diverse medical specialties and settings (91% response rate. The major themes extracted from the qualitative interviews were used to construct 12 survey items that were included in the comprehensive quantitative questionnaire. Questionnaires were sent to all eligible physicians in the health region with 1178 completed surveys (40% response rate. Questionnaire items were used to measure how often physicians draw on the various coping strategies. Feelings of burnout were also measured in the survey by 5 items from the Emotional Exhaustion subscale of the revised Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results Major themes identified from the interviews include coping strategies used at work (e.g., working through stress, talking with co-workers, taking a time out, using humor and after work (e.g., exercise, quiet time, spending time with family. Analysis of the questionnaire data showed three often used workplace coping strategies were positively correlated with feeling emotionally exhausted (i.e., keeping stress to oneself (r = .23, concentrating on what to do next (r = .16, and going on as if nothing happened (r = .07. Some less often used workplace coping strategies (e.g., taking a time out and all those used after work were negatively correlated with frequency of emotional exhaustion. Conclusions Physicians' self reported coping strategies are not all created equal in terms of frequency of use and correlation with feeling emotionally exhausted from one's work. This knowledge may be integrated into practical physician stress reduction interventions.
Vickie A Lambert; Clinton E Lambert
Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively w...
George, Astrid; Luz, Rita; De Tychey, Claude; Thilly, Nathalie; Spitz, Elisabeth
BackgroundThe aim of the present study was to explore the prospective relationship between anxiety symptoms and coping strategies during late pregnancy and early postpartum.MethodsParticipants completed the Hospital Anxiety Depression-Anxiety subscale and Carver's Brief COPE at two time points, namely during the last trimester of pregnancy (N?=?400) and at two months postpartum (N?=?158).ResultsAntenatally, 18.8% of pregnant women presented severe anxiety symptoms while 20.2% of women present...
Abstract The survey investigated the extent to which Brunei trainee teachers used the task-oriented, emotion-oriented, and avoidance-oriented coping strategies when in stressful situations. Data collection employed the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Participants consisted of 118 educational psychology student teachers at the University of Brunei Darussalam. Of these, 89 (75%) were females while 29 (25%) were males. The sample comprised of 71 (60%) BEd and 47 (40%) PGCE students. O...
Zeynep Medine ÖZMEN
Full Text Available Along with the development of science, the need for academicians is also increasing day by day. In many countries doctorate is a prerequisite for academicians. So, doctorate is very important for the quality of higher education and advancement of science. Therefore, the challenges of doctoral education period to be identified and to be solved by taking the opinions of doctoral students whom will be the future academicians. In this sense, this study aimed to describe challenges of doctoral students and their strategies to overcome these challenges. For this aim, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten doctoral students in the Department of Primary or Secondary Science and Mathematics Education in Karadeniz Technical University. Challenges faced by participants and their strategies were analyzed by using qualitative methods. Two researchers analyzed the data and thematic coding was used. After two researcher coded data the reliability of the analysis was calculated as 0.86. The findings are presented with three main themes: challenges, strategies and suggestions. It was seen that the most important challenges of the students were related with their supervisors, that they usually used self abandonment strategies to solve these challenges and that their made suggestions usually related to the challenges and also strategies. Considering the challenges faced by students as well as their suggestions to cope with these, solution proposals which may contribute in the development of doctoral education in Turkey were made.
Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Skinner, Karey
Examined the role of coping strategies as moderators of the effects of peer victimization on children's adjustment among 9- and 10-year-olds. Found that strategies such as problem solving that were beneficial for non-victimized children exacerbated difficulties for victimized children. Social support seeking buffered victimized girls but not boys.
Andover, Margaret S.; Pepper, Carolyn M.; Gibb, Brandon E.
The goal of this study was to examine the use of specific coping strategies among self-mutilating college students. The self-mutilating group (n = 44) reported utilizing avoidance strategies more often than did a control group (n = 44) matched for general psychological distress but with no history of self-mutilation. In addition, female, but not
Gilbert, Jenelle N.; Gilbert, Wade; Morawski, Cynthia
This article discusses the various sources of athlete stress and the strategies that coaches can use to help young athletes cope with it. The information is based on a study with a competitive adolescent soccer team and its two coaches, and a review of the coaching and sport psychology literature. The suggested coaching strategies can help to
Jensen, Charmaine; Forlini, Cynthia; Partridge, Brad; Hall, Wayne
Background: There are reports that some university students are using prescription stimulants for non-medical pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (PCE) to improve alertness, focus, memory, and mood in an attempt to manage the demands of study at university. Purported demand for PCEs in academic contexts have been based on incomplete understandings of student motivations, and often based on untested assumptions about the context within which stimulants are used. They may represent attempts to cope with biopsychosocial stressors in university life by offsetting students inadequate coping responses, which in turn may affect their cognitive performance. This study aimed to identify (a) what strategies students adopted to cope with the stress of university life and, (b) to assess whether students who have used stimulants for PCE exhibit particular stress or coping patterns. Methods: We interviewed 38 university students (with and without PCE experience) about their experience of managing student life, specifically their: educational values; study habits; achievement; stress management; getting assistance; competing activities and demands; health habits; and cognitive enhancement practices. All interview transcripts were coded into themes and analyzed. Results: Our thematic analysis revealed that, generally, self-rated coping ability decreased as students self-rated stress level increased. Students used emotion- and problem-focused coping for the most part and adjustment-focused coping to a lesser extent. Avoidance, an emotion-focused coping strategy, was the most common, followed by problem-focused coping strategies, the use of cognition on enhancing substances, and planning and monitoring of workload. PCE users predominantly used avoidant emotion-focused coping strategies until they no longer mitigated the distress of approaching deadlines resulting in the use of prescription stimulants as a substance-based problem-focused coping strategy. Conclusion: Our study suggests that students who choose coping responses that do not moderate stress where possible, may cause themselves additional distress and avoid learning more effective coping responses. Helping students to understand stress and coping, and develop realistic stress appraisal techniques, may assist students in general to maintain manageable distress levels and functioning. Furthermore, assisting students who may be inclined to use prescription stimulants for cognitive enhancement may reduce possible drug-related harms.
Azriani Abdul Rahman
Full Text Available Introduction: In the process of growing, adolescents experience stress and their coping abilities determine the outcome. School training further adds to this stressful situation. It is noteworthy that persistently high stress levels will impair students academic achievement, personal and professional development. This article describes the prevalence of stress, stressors and coping strategies among secondary school students in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on secondary school students in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Secondary school and participant selections were done via stratified random sampling with a sample size of 505 students. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Secondary School Stressors Questionnaire (3SQ and Brief COPE inventory were self-administered to measure stress level, sources of stress and coping strategies respectively among the participants. Results: Out of 505 selected participants, 421 (83.36% responded to this survey. This study found that the prevalence of distressed secondary school students was 32.8%. The major stressors for all types of schools were academic-related issues. This study showed that the students in technical school were more distressed than students elsewhere. Among the most frequent coping strategies used by the students were religion, positive reinterpretation, use of instrumental support, active coping and planning. There were relationships between intrapersonal and interpersonal related stressor, academic achievements, level of school and academic related stressor, attention from parent, behavioral disengagement, self-blame and planning coping strategies with stress level of the students. Conclusion: This study found that there was a high prevalence of distressed negatively stressed secondary school students, the major stressors were related to academic and contributing factors of stress were related to school training, students and parents. Training students on positive coping strategies, reducing stressor-related school training, and improving parent and teacher supports to the students will help to improve this condition.Key Words: Secondary school students, stressors, stress, coping, mental health
Delarmelindo, Rita de Cássia Altino; Parada, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima; Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Bocchi, Silvia Cristina Mangini
This article is part of a more comprehensive qualitative study which used grounded theory and symbolic interactionism as theoretical and methodological frameworks, resulting in the theoretical model entitled, Between suffering and hope: rehabilitation of urinary incontinence as an intervenient component. In order to communicate all the knowledge produced, part of this model is presented, and it refers to the process of coping with urinary incontinence by women without perspectives of access to surgical treatment after failure of conservative procedures. When interrelating the components (categories and subcategories) of these women's experience in order to compare and analyze them to understand their interaction, moral and psychosocial vulnerability were noticed within the experience of the group, which makes them susceptible to health risks and to compromise of their quality of life, observed in the movement of the group's experience. Research is needed to further understand experiences in which there are barriers to surgical treatment due to physicians' disbelief in its effectiveness. PMID:23743893
Simon Santana Diniz
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a relação entre fatores de personalidade e estratégias de coping em adolescentes. Participaram desta pesquisa 102 jovens de uma escola municipal de Goiânia com idade entre 11 e 15 anos, utilizando o Coping Response Inventory e a Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade. Os dados obtidos demonstraram que meninas utilizam mais a análise lógica para resolver seus problemas e os meninos apresentam maior pontuação em neuroticismo; que os adolescentes mais jovens utilizam mais coping de evitação e os mais velhos, o coping de aproximação; e que tanto a apreciação do problema como os traços de personalidade relacionam-se significativamente com o uso de estratégias de coping. Os resultados são discutidos de acordo com as teorias de coping.The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality factors and coping strategies in adolescents. 102 students from a municipal school in Goiânia aged between 11 and 15 years old was assessed using Coping Response Inventory and the "Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade". Data showed that girls use more logical analysis to solve their problems and that boys had higher scores on neuroticism; that younger adolescents use more avoidance coping responses and older ones use more approach coping responses; and that both coping appraisal and personality traits are significantly related to the use of coping strategies. The results are discussed according to coping theories.
Simon Santana, Diniz; Daniela S., Zanini.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a relação entre fatores de personalidade e estratégias de coping em adolescentes. Participaram desta pesquisa 102 jovens de uma escola municipal de Goiânia com idade entre 11 e 15 anos, utilizando o Coping Response Inventory e a Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade. [...] Os dados obtidos demonstraram que meninas utilizam mais a análise lógica para resolver seus problemas e os meninos apresentam maior pontuação em neuroticismo; que os adolescentes mais jovens utilizam mais coping de evitação e os mais velhos, o coping de aproximação; e que tanto a apreciação do problema como os traços de personalidade relacionam-se significativamente com o uso de estratégias de coping. Os resultados são discutidos de acordo com as teorias de coping. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality factors and coping strategies in adolescents. 102 students from a municipal school in Goiânia aged between 11 and 15 years old was assessed using Coping Response Inventory and the "Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade". Data s [...] howed that girls use more logical analysis to solve their problems and that boys had higher scores on neuroticism; that younger adolescents use more avoidance coping responses and older ones use more approach coping responses; and that both coping appraisal and personality traits are significantly related to the use of coping strategies. The results are discussed according to coping theories.
Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek
Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies. PMID:23865863
Azriani Abdul Rahman; Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim; Nurul Shazwani Abdul Rahman; Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff; Amirah Hayati Ahmad Hamid; Nadia Rabiyah Rosli; Nor Ayuni Zakaria; Nur Adila Che Rameli
Introduction: In the process of growing, adolescents experience stress and their coping abilities determine the outcome. School training further adds to this stressful situation. It is noteworthy that persistently high stress levels will impair students academic achievement, personal and professional development. This article describes the prevalence of stress, stressors and coping strategies among secondary school students in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Methodology: A cross-sectio...
Full Text Available This paper analyzes effectiveness of coping strategies that entrepreneurs use to daily manage work related stress. Coping is the process of expending efforts to solve personal and interpersonal problems and reducing stress induced by unpleasant and stressful situations. Two broad strategies of coping are identified; problem-based coping refers to a cognitively-based response behavior that includes efforts to alleviate stressful circumstances while emotion-based coping involves behavioural responses to regulate the affective consequences of stressful events. The purpose of this research is to analyze relationships among the coping strategies used by entrepreneurs and a set of antecedents influencing the selection of coping strategies. The methodology used is based on structural equation modeling and empirical data of 469 entrepreneurs from two European countries. Our results show that problem based coping facilitates well-being and venture performance. In addition, our findings also support interaction effects of founder centrality and contextual conditions of venturing on the extent entrepreneurs engage in coping. We believe that our insights can help in training entrepreneurs in the development of effective coping strategies that are context dependent. In specific, our results suggest entrepreneurs to engage in problem-focused strategies when they want to effectively address the economic aspects of their lives whereas when they engage in emotion based strategies they seem to increase the self-knowledge they need to start subsequent ventures and facilitate learning from failure. Future studies on coping strategies could study the interplay of coping strategies used to resolve challenging social situations that various stakeholders of practicing entrepreneurs impose.
Flávia Pereira da Costa
Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, which are the coping strategies used and the relation between type of coping, voice symptoms and communicative aspects. Method: 73 subjects, 33 in the experimental group, with diagnosis of PD, and 40 subjects in the control group, healthy and without vocal complaints. They underwent the following procedures: application of the Voice Symptons Scale VoiSS Brazilian Version, Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire VDCQ Brazilian Version, and the questionnaire Living with Dysarthria LwD. Results: The experimental group showed deviations in all protocols: VDCQ (p<0.001, VoiSS (p<0.001, LwD (p<0.001. The most frequently used coping strategy was self-control (p<0.001. The correlation between vocal symptoms and communicative aspects showed that the greater the impairment in communication, the greater the VoiSS emotional scores and the greater will be the amount of voice symptoms and signs. However, the vocal signs and symptoms and communicative aspects showed no correlation with coping. Conclusion: Patients with PD have a high amount of vocal signs and symptoms and the higher the occurrence, the more the patient reports being difficult to live with dysarthria, particularly when there are deviations in the emotional domain.
Khawaja, Nigar G.; Stallman, Helen M.
International students encounter a range of additional challenges as a part of their tertiary study experience. A qualitative approach was used to understand the challenges faced by international students, coping strategies that promoted their personal resilience and advice they have for future international students. Twenty-two international
China has entered into a new stage of demographic dynamics whereby population-related challenges are more complicated than ever before. The current one-child policy should be modified. However, the anticipated impacts of such a policy change should not be over-exaggerated. China's demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy.
Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Carson, Russell L.; Apavaloaie, Loredana; Tsouloupas, Costas
The purpose of this study was to identify the common stress factors among childcare providers and the coping strategies they use to relieve work stress feelings throughout the day. Qualitative data was gathered from a random sample of ten local childcare providers across different races, years of experience, and licensed childcare centers who
Vilnius : Advertising comp, 2009. s. 44-44. ISBN 978-609-95098-0-8. [European conference on Developmental Psychology /14./. 18.08.2009-22.08.2009, Vilnius] R&D Projects: GA ?R 406/09/2096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : coping strategie s * personality factors * physical disability * early adolescence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Full Text Available Introduction. In extreme life events basic assumptions are frequently reassessed and changed. Therefore, trauma requires re-education. Effective coping strategies enable individual to tolerate, minimize, accept or ignore what one cannot manage and to moderate the consequences of stressful, traumatic events. Materials and Methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate coping strategies in refugees with post-traumatic stress disorder prior and after group cognitive-behavioural therapy. The sample included 70 refugees who experienced multiple stressors such as organized violence, ethnic conflicts, bombing, expelling from their homes and life in exile. Impact Event Scales-Revised, Ways of Coping-Revised, Scale of Cognitive Self-regulation and Scale of Coping Strategies were administered before and after six months of group cognitive-behavioural therapy. Results. Post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees after therapy significantly decreased. Cognitive self-regulation was improved by moving locus of control from external to internal resources. Coping was qualitatively different, with a wider repertoire of adaptive strategies. Discussion. Cognitive group work facilitates processes of grieving, working-through of traumatic material, increasing emotional awareness and developing creativity in coping. Conclusion. Our findings highlight the positive impact of cognitive-behavioural treatment on post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic adjustment. .
The main problem of my master thesis was to research strategies for coping with the learning failure of Slovene primary school pupils and to explore the relation between these strategies and causal attributions for failure as well as motivation and goal achievement. In the theoretical part I dealt with the problem of pupils learning failure. The content refers to the interpretation of the concept of school failure and the factors that lead to it. Stress caused by failure, is one of the mo...
Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim
Coping is a dynamic physiological and psychological process in response to perceived environmental stress that functions to restore physiological homeostasis and reduce negative affect . Thematic content analysis was employed for references to 13 well-established coping strategies in interviews with 20 retired long-duration male cosmonauts. As in previous research with other space samples [2,3] the retired cosmonauts mentioned Problem-Oriented strategies more frequently than Emotion-Oriented ones. In the present sample, Seeking Social Support, Planful Problem Solving and Endurance/Obedience/Effort were the top three most mentioned coping strategies. Cosmonauts who had spent more than a year in space, compared to those who had spent less than a year, mentioned using Planful Problem Solving more as they recalled their career and retirement. Examining changes over time, spaceflight had a positive effect on Accepting Responsibility. Endurance/Obedience/Effort steadily decreased over time, while we found an inverted-U pattern for Distancing and Self-Control. Additional results in relation to other astronaut samples and the relationship between coping and post-flight growth are discussed.
PROGRAMA PARA DISMINUIR INDICADORES DE DEPRESIÓN MEDIANTE EL DESARROLLO DE ESTRATEGIAS DE AFRONTAMIENTO (Un estudio en adolescentes institucionalizados) / Decreasing Depression indicators through means of development coping strategies (a Study in Institutionalized Adolescents)
Claudia, Pereira Velásquez; Alejandra, Martínez Barrientos.
Full Text Available El propósito, de la presente investigación, fue verificar la efectividad del afrontamiento en la regulación de indicadores de alteración emocional y/o del estado de ánimo. Es así que dicho estudio pone a consideración un programa integral de intervención en el Afrontamiento en adolescentes instituci [...] onalizados. Este programa propone disminuir los indicadores de Depresión a través del desarrollo de estrategias de afrontamiento, busca lograr que los adolescentes desarrollen pensamientos, emociones y conductas más adaptativas en un contexto en el que el fenómeno de la Depresión tiende a masificarse, pero lo que preocupa es que no solo se presenta en adultos sino también en adolescentes y aún peor en niños. En los adolescentes, a los cuales se aplicó el diseño de intervención, se observó una disminución significativa de los indicadores de depresión y sus estrategias de afrontamiento lograron una adaptación positiva. Abstract in english The purpose of the present research, was to verify the effectiveness of coping strategies for decreasing indicators of emotional regulation for emotional alteration. This study considerates an integral program of intervention in Coping in institutionalized adolescents. This program proposes to dimin [...] ish the indicators of Depression through the development of coping strategies, looks for the development of thoughts, emotions and behaviors more adaptive in a context in which the phenomenon of Depression tends to amass itself, like in institutionalized adolescents, even more when this kind of indicators and their awful consequences appears not only in adults but in adolescents and still worse in children. In the adolescents, to which the intervention designed was applied, a significant diminution of the depression indicators was observed and the strategies of coping obtained a positive adaptation in their context.
Jones, Linda; Merry, Rosina; Mitchell, Donna
This paper explores Hero Stories, a different narrative approach developed to support a child with autism to gain self-control and allow him to navigate his world as a competent and capable learner. It examines the development and use of "Hero Stories books" as a strategy for assisting a child with autism to cope with stressful situations within
Gustems-Carnicer, Josep; Calderón, Caterina
The coping strategies used by students play a key role in their psychological well-being. This study examines the relationship between coping strategies and psychological well-being in a sample of 98 undergraduates aged between 19 and 42 years. Coping strategies were evaluated by means of the CRI-A (Moos, 1993), while psychological well-being was
Snel, Erik; Staring, Richard
Many highly developed Western welfare states witness recurrent concern about social security recipients who earn a bit on the side in the informal economy. Research has recently been conducted on this in the Netherlands. Interviewers rang the bells of the unemployed, social security recipients and the disabled to ask whether they ever broke the rules. The results were striking.
Full Text Available Abstract Background College students are prone to stress due to the transitional nature of college life. High levels of stress are believed to affect students' health and academic functions. If the stress is not dealt with effectively, feelings of loneliness, nervousness, sleeplessness and worrying may result. Effective coping strategies facilitate the return to a balanced state, reducing the negative effects of stress. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed to determine sources of stress and coping strategies in nursing students studying at the Iran Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery. All undergraduate nursing students enrolled in years 1-4 during academic year 2004-2005 were included in this study, with a total of 366 questionnaires fully completed by the students. The Student Stress Survey and the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Inventory (ACOPE were used for data collection. Results Most students reported "finding new friends" (76.2%, "working with people they did not know" (63.4% as interpersonal sources of stress, "new responsibilities" (72.1%, "started college" (65.8% as intrapersonal sources of stress more than others. The most frequent academic source of stress was "increased class workload" (66.9% and the most frequent environmental sources of stress were being "placed in unfamiliar situations" (64.2% and "waiting in long lines" (60.4%. Interpersonal and environmental sources of stress were reported more frequently than intrapersonal and academic sources. Mean interpersonal (P=0.04 and environmental (P=0.04 sources of stress were significantly greater in first year than in fourth year students. Among coping strategies in 12 areas, the family problem solving strategies, "trying to reason with parents and compromise" (73% and "going along with family rules" (68% were used "often or always" by most students. To cope with engaging in demanding activity, students often or always used "trying to figure out how to deal with problems" (66.4% and "trying to improve themselves" (64.5%. The self-reliance strategy, "trying to make their own decisions" (62%; the social support strategies, "apologizing to people" (59.6%, "trying to help other people solve their problems" (56.3%, and "trying to keep up friendships or make new friends" (54.4%; the spiritual strategy, "praying" (65.8%; the seeking diversions strategy, "listening to music" (57.7%, the relaxing strategy "day dreaming" (52.5%, and the effort to "be close with someone cares about you" (50.5% were each used "often or always" by a majority of students. Most students reported that the avoiding strategies "smoking" (93.7% and "drinking beer or wine" (92.9%, the ventilating strategies "saying mean things to people" and "swearing" (85.8%, the professional support strategies "getting professional counseling" (74.6% and "talking to a teacher or counselor" (67.2% and the humorous strategy "joking and keeping a sense of humor" (51.9% were used "seldom or never". Conclusion First year nursing students are exposed to a variety of stressors. Establishing a student support system during the first year and improving it throughout nursing school is necessary to equip nursing students with effective coping skills. Efforts should include counseling helpers and their teachers, strategies that can be called upon in these students' future nursing careers.
O'DWYER, CIARA MARY; Timonen, Virpi
Insights into daily living in residential care settings are rare. This article draws on a qualitative dataset (semi-structured interviews and recordings of residents council meetings) that gives a glimpse of the experiences and coping strategies of (older) people living in residential care. The data highlights the range of unmet needs of the residents, similar to the categories of physiological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualisation needs in Maslows hierarchy of needs theory. Our anal...
Hagani Hamid; Tafreshi Maryam; Seyedfatemi Naiemeh
Abstract Background College students are prone to stress due to the transitional nature of college life. High levels of stress are believed to affect students' health and academic functions. If the stress is not dealt with effectively, feelings of loneliness, nervousness, sleeplessness and worrying may result. Effective coping strategies facilitate the return to a balanced state, reducing the negative effects of stress. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed to determine...
Tayyari Dehbarez, Nasrin; Lynggaard, Vibeke; May, Ole; Søgaard, Rikke
Background Learning and coping education strategies (LC) was implemented to enhance patient attendance in the cardiac rehabilitation programme. This study assessed the cost-utility of LC compared to standard education (standard) as part of a rehabilitation programme for patients with ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Methods The study was conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial with 825 patients who were allocated to LC or standard rehabilitation and followed for 5 months. The ...
Akangbe, Ifeoluwa; Tetteh, Isaac
Nursing has been characterized as a high health risk profession due to the very heavy stressors common to the job. The study aimed at producing a descriptive information on occupational stress among nurses and effective coping strategies used in handling work-related stress. Research questions were formulated to assist the writers in meeting their objective during the research process. Narrative literature review methodology was used to answer the set research questions. The study was co...
Lynch, Jean Margaret
This study identifies the negative effects of bullying behaviour on thirty people in their place of work. Personality differences between participants in the study who claim to have been bullied and a matched control group, and the coping strategies employed in stressful periods were sought. Possible individual and organisational antecedents to bullying were identified. In addition, to using psychometric measures to obtain quantitative data the findings were enriched by including qualitative ...
Desarrollo de un nuevo cuestionario para medir las estrategias que las personas con VIH usan para afrontar el estigma y la discriminación / Development of a new questionnaire to measure coping strategies to stigma and discrimination in people with HIV
María José, Fuster Ruiz de Apodaca; Fernando, Molero; Francisco Pablo, Holgado Tello; Eneko, Sansinenea.
Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo elaborar un cuestionario para medir las estrategias que las personas con VIH usan para afrontar el estigma. Se partió para su desarrollo del modelo de Compas et al. (2001) sobre el estrés y su afrontamiento. Para ello, en primer lugar, y con la finalidad de obtener e [...] videncias de validez de contenido, se realizó un estudio cualitativo. Este estudio, se realizaron 40 entrevistas en profundidad a personas con VIH para conocer que estrategias usaban estas personas para afrontar el estigma y la discriminación. A partir de las categorías halladas en el análisis del contenido de las entrevistas, se diseñaron los ítems de la escala. Se seleccionaron los más relevantes por un grupo de jueces expertos. En segundo lugar, se llevó a cabo un estudio cuantitativo de carácter correlacional ex post-facto en el que se realizó una primera aproximación a la estructura factorial del cuestionario. En este estudio participaron 557 personas con VIH. Los resultados de esta investigación han mostrado que las personas con VIH utilizan una variedad de estrategias de afrontamiento tanto de Control Primario, como Secundario y de Evitación. Conocerlas abre la puerta al diseño de intervenciones para capacitar a las personas con VIH para afrontar el estigma y la discriminación. Abstract in english The main objective of this study is developing an instrument to measure the coping strategies to stigma that are used by persons with HIV. The Compas et al. (2001) model is used as framework. Firstly, in order to obtain content validity evidences, a qualitative study was carried out. Forty deeply in [...] terviews were done to persons with HIV to obtain data about which stigma and discrimination coping strategies were usually used. A content analysis of the interviews allows us to detect the main categories, and then we designed the items of the scale. Secondly, a correlational ex post-facto study was done to obtain a preliminary approximation about the factorial structure of the questionnaire. This study included the answers of 552 persons with HIV. The results show that the persons with HIV usually used a wide range of coping strategies (primary and secondary control, and avoidance). To know these coping strategies open the door to designed intervention programs to coping the stigma and discrimination.
Natalia Campos Barnabe
Full Text Available This study aimed at understanding the experience of individuals with intestinal diversions as regards coping with their new life conditions. The qualitative approach was used, involving 11 ostomized subjects. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews which were taped and later fully transcribed and analyzed according to Content Analysis as proposed by Bardin and the Coping theoretical framework . The findings in the study were evidenced by three core categories denominated: i did not choose it; i had to accept it and i have to live with the ostomy. The form to manage the condition of being ostomized was revealed by coping strategies which were based on both emotions and the problem itself. The study contributed for reflection and application of knowledge in assistance practice and teaching for care the ostomized.El objetivo del estudio fue comprender la experiencia que personas con derivaciones intestinales presenta al enfrentar esta nueva condición de vida. Se utilizó un enfoque de naturaleza cualitativa, con 11 sujetos estomizados. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas, grabadas y posteriormente transcritas en su totalidad, siendo analizadas según el Análisis de Contenido de Bardin y el fundamento teórico de Coping. Los hallazgos del estudio fueron en tres categorías centrales, denominadas: no lo elegí; tuve que aceptarlo y con(vivo con la estomía. La estrategia para controlar la condición, ser estomizado, se realizó a través de estrategias para enfrentar tanto aspectos emocionales como el problema en sí. El estudio contribuyó para reflexionar y utilizar el conocimiento en la práctica asistencial y para la educación en cuanto al cuidado del entomizado.Este trabalho objetivou compreender a experiência de pessoas com derivações intestinais, quanto ao enfrentamento à nova condição de vida. Realizou-se estudo qualitativo, sendo entrevistados 11 sujeitos ostomizados. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, gravadas e posteriormente transcritas na íntegra e foram analisadas segundo a proposta de análise de conteúdo de Bardin e do referencial teórico de Coping . Os achados do estudo evidenciaram-se por três categorias centrais: eu não escolhi; tive que aceitar e con(vivo com a ostomia. A forma para manejar a condição de estar ostomizado revelou-se por estratégias de enfrentamento tanto baseadas na emoção, como no problema. O estudo contribuiu para a reflexão e a utilização do conhecimento na prática assistencial e de ensino para cuidar do ostomizado.
Natalia Campos, Barnabe; Magda Cristina Queiroz, Dell' Acqua.
Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou compreender a experiência de pessoas com derivações intestinais, quanto ao enfrentamento à nova condição de vida. Realizou-se estudo qualitativo, sendo entrevistados 11 sujeitos ostomizados. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, gravadas e poster [...] iormente transcritas na íntegra e foram analisadas segundo a proposta de análise de conteúdo de Bardin e do referencial teórico de Coping . Os achados do estudo evidenciaram-se por três categorias centrais: eu não escolhi; tive que aceitar e con(vivo) com a ostomia. A forma para manejar a condição de estar ostomizado revelou-se por estratégias de enfrentamento tanto baseadas na emoção, como no problema. O estudo contribuiu para a reflexão e a utilização do conhecimento na prática assistencial e de ensino para cuidar do ostomizado. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue comprender la experiencia que personas con derivaciones intestinales presenta al enfrentar esta nueva condición de vida. Se utilizó un enfoque de naturaleza cualitativa, con 11 sujetos estomizados. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas, g [...] rabadas y posteriormente transcritas en su totalidad, siendo analizadas según el Análisis de Contenido de Bardin y el fundamento teórico de Coping. Los hallazgos del estudio fueron en tres categorías centrales, denominadas: no lo elegí; tuve que aceptarlo y con(vivo) con la estomía. La estrategia para controlar la condición, ser estomizado, se realizó a través de estrategias para enfrentar tanto aspectos emocionales como el problema en sí. El estudio contribuyó para reflexionar y utilizar el conocimiento en la práctica asistencial y para la educación en cuanto al cuidado del entomizado. Abstract in english This study aimed at understanding the experience of individuals with intestinal diversions as regards coping with their new life conditions. The qualitative approach was used, involving 11 ostomized subjects. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews which were taped and later f [...] ully transcribed and analyzed according to Content Analysis as proposed by Bardin and the Coping theoretical framework . The findings in the study were evidenced by three core categories denominated: i did not choose it; i had to accept it and i have to live with the ostomy. The form to manage the condition of being ostomized was revealed by coping strategies which were based on both emotions and the problem itself. The study contributed for reflection and application of knowledge in assistance practice and teaching for care the ostomized.
K. Storm; S. Rothmann
The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between burnout, personality traits and coping strategies. A survey design was used. The study population consisted of 131 employees in a corporate pharmaceutical group. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, NEO Personality Inventory Revised and COPE were administered. Active coping strategies were associated with Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness, while passive coping strategies were assoc...
Na, Hyunjoo; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang
The study's purpose was to explore whether frequency of cyberbullying victimization, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies were associated with psychological adjustments among college student cyberbullying victims. A convenience sample of 121 students completed questionnaires. Linear regression analyses found frequency of cyberbullying victimization, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies respectively explained 30%, 30%, and 27% of the variance in depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. Frequency of cyberbullying victimization and approach and avoidance coping strategies were associated with psychological adjustments, with avoidance coping strategies being associated with all three psychological adjustments. Interventions should focus on teaching cyberbullying victims to not use avoidance coping strategies. PMID:26001714
Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Murdaca, Anna Maria; Costa, Sebastiano; Filippello, Pina; Larcan, Rosalba
The aim of this research was to compare parental stress, coping strategies and social support perceived in families of children with low functioning autism (n = 8), high functioning autism (n = 10), Down syndrome (n = 12) and parents of typically developing children (n = 20). Specifically, the objective was to investigate which variables (copingâ¦
Mancil, G. Richmond; Boyd, Brian A.; Bedesem, Pena
According to previous researchers, parents of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) consistently report more stress than parents of typically developing children or children with other developmental disorders (e.g., Down syndrome). This has peaked interest in the field in a related area, that being, identifying the coping
Muhamad Nanang Suprayogi
Full Text Available This study intended to know the description of stress coping strategies of 12th grade students of Jakarta 42 State Senior High School in facing National Exam. This study stems from the interest of researchers towards the number of cases of high school students who do not pass the National Exam. Researchers seek to impart knowledge to students on how to cope with their stress effectively and to the school and parents for providing the proper approach for students to face the National Exam. This study is a quantitative study using questionnaires as a measurement to know the description of stress coping strategies of Jakarta 42 State Senior High School students. Research instruments are compiled based on the theory developed by Lahey. In this research, obtained results that the class XII students of SMAN 42 Jakarta have a more predominant use of effective coping to cope with their stress in facing the National Exam. The most widely used strategy is removing stress and managing stress reaction
Phanichrat, Thanomjit; Townshend, Julia M.
This interpretative phenomenological analysis study explored seven adult survivors' experiences of coping with childhood sexual abuse and identified their coping strategies on the road to recovery. Data for the analysis was collected using semistructured interviews. The analytical process yielded two key theme clusters: avoidant coping strategies
Full Text Available Background: Nursing is considered as a stressful job when compared with other jobs. Prolonged stress without effective coping strategies affects not only nursesâ occupational life but also their nursing competencies. Medan is the biggest city in Sumatera Island of Indonesia. Two tertiary public hospital nurses in this city hold the responsibility in providing excellent care to their patients. Objective: To investigate the relationships between the nurseâs workplace stressors and the coping strategies used. Method: The descriptive correlational study was conducted to examine the relationships between workplace stressors and the coping strategies used in nurses of two public hospitals in Medan. The sample size of 126 nurses was drawn from selected in-patient units. Data were collected by using self-report questionnaires and focus group interview. The majority of subjects experienced low workplace stressors, where death/dying was the most commonly reported workplace stressor followed by workload. Religion was the most commonly used coping strategy. Result: Significant correlations were found between subscales of workplace stressors and coping strategies. Most of subjects used emotion-focused and dysfunctional coping strategies rather than problem-focused coping strategies. Conclusion: The nurse administrators in the hospitals need to advocate their in order to use problem-focused coping strategies more frequent than emotion-focused and dysfunctional coping strategies when dealing with workplace stressors. Keywords: workplace stressor, coping strategy, public hospital nurses
Timonen, Virpi; O'Dwyer, Ciara
Insights into daily living in residential care settings are rare. This article draws on a qualitative dataset (semi-structured interviews and recordings of residents' council meetings) that gives a glimpse of the experiences and coping strategies of (older) people living in residential care. The data highlight the range of unmet needs of the residents, similar to the categories of physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization needs in Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. Our analysis indicates that "higher" and "lower" needs are closely intertwined and mutually reinforcing and should therefore be accorded equal emphasis by professionals (including social workers) employed within residential care settings. PMID:19860294
Andersen, John; Larsen, JØrgen Elm
During the last decade the social assistance system in Denmark was been changed and become less generous. One important indication of this trend is that the social assistance benefit level was reduced to a lower level after 6 months. Furthermore the workfare obligations for social claiments (e.g. in terms of participation in job training schemes and a requirement? of a certain minimum amount ( app 3 months ) of employment in the open labour market has increased. The arguments in the policy discource has been that lower benefits increases motivation and realistic, rational jobseeking behavior. In short: lower benefit levels increases motivation which in turn increases labour market inclusion. This paper presents empirical results from an ongoing research project ( Consequences of living on the lowest social benefits financed by the Danish Social Council (Rådet for Socialt Udsatte) ,2008-2011) about living conditions and how Danish citizens on the lowest benefits coped with their life situation.The longitudinal data followed the long term receivers of social assistance respondents over 1 year in order to observe changes in (selvreported) health, living conditions and coping strategies The data consisted of 2 national surveys as well as 2 series of qualitative interviews with citizens on social assistance Among other things the respondents were about what they regarded as the most important barriers for improving their labour market and income position. A clear majority of the citizens responded that the reduction of their social assistance benefits after 3 months had reduced their mental health and not improved their social energy for job seeking. These results support the idea that lower benefits has a negative impact on active coping for labour market inclusion. A huge parts of the respondents reported that bad health including mental health - was the dominant barrier for active coping with their life situation. The results indicates that the present employment and social policy measures should have a much stronger focus on capacity building with regard mental health for citizens on the lowest social benefits
Wanderley de, Paula Júnior; Daniela Sacramento, Zanini.
Full Text Available Este estudo analisa estresse, estratégias de coping, resiliência e bem-estar subjetivo em pacientes oncológicos em tratamento radioterápico. Sessenta pessoas, com idades entre 26 a 82 anos (20 homens e 40 mulheres) responderam as escalas de Bem-Estar Subjetivo, Inventário de Resiliência e de Sintoma [...] s de Estresse e Coping Response Inventory - Adult Form (CRI-A). Os resultados apontam que o uso da estratégia de coping direta esteve associado a nível mais elevado de resiliência e afeto positivo, enquanto o uso da estratégia de evitação pode aumentar a percepção de afeto negativo e diminuir o relato de afeto positivo. Conclui-se que as estratégias de coping podem interferir no bem-estar subjetivo e podem estabelecer relação significativa com fatores de resiliência em paciente oncológico em radioterapia. Abstract in english This study analyzes stress, coping strategies, resilience and subjective well-being of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Sixty subjects, between 26 to 82 years old (20 man and 40 woman), answered the Subjective Well-Being Scale, the Resilience and the Stress Symptoms Inventory and the Coping [...] Response Inventory - Adult Form (CRI-A). The results showed that the use of approach coping strategies is associated with a higher level of resilience and with positive affect, while using avoidant coping strategies can lead to an increased perception of negative affect and to a lower report of positive affect. The results of this study suggest that coping strategies are related to resilience factors and can interfere with the subjective well-being of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment.
Bussey Rask, Marie; JÃ¸rgensen, Tina; Pinnerup Jensen, Jeanette; Bech JÃ¸rgensen, Katrine; Madsen, Mia; Nielsen, Bent; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; SÃ¸gaard Nielsen, Anette; GrÃ¸nbaek, Morten
An important issue regarding treatment for alcohol abuse is the high rate of relapse following treatment. In the research on treatment of alcohol abuse, the concept of coping has been proposed as a relevant factor in the relationship between relapse crises and treatment outcome. The present study...... investigated the role of pretreatment coping strategies in outcome of outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse. The pretreatment coping strategies of 136 clients receiving outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse were examined as a predictor of drinking pattern after treatment. The pretreatment coping strategies...... treatment for alcohol abuse. Restraint coping was found predictive of a positive drinking pattern at follow-up while the use of alcohol to cope was found predictive of a negative drinking pattern. Furthermore, the results showed tendencies towards the possibility that some coping strategies co...
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between burnout, personality traits and coping strategies. A survey design was used. The study population consisted of 131 employees in a corporate pharmaceutical group. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, NEO Personality Inventory Revised and COPE were administered. Active coping strategies were associated with Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness, while passive coping strategies were associated with Neuroticism, low Agreeableness and low Conscientiousness. Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were associated with lower emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation and higher personal accomplishment. Constructive coping strategies were associated with personal accomplishment. Opsomming Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om te bepaal of daar ân verband tussen uitbranding, persoonlikheidstrekke en coping-strategieÃ« bestaan. ân Opnameontwerp is gebruik. Die ondersoekgroep het bestaan uit 131 werknemers van ân korporatiewe apteekgroep. Drie vraelyste is gebruik, naamlik die Maslach-Uitbrandingsvraelys, die NEO Personality Inventory Revised en die COPE. Aktiewe coping-strategieÃ« is geassosieer met Emosionele Stabiliteit, Ekstroversie, Openheid vir Ervaring en Konsensieusheid, terwyl passiewe coping-strategieÃ« geassosieer is met Neurotisisme, lae Inskiklikheid en lae Konsensieusheid. Emosionele Stabiliteit, Ekstroversie, Openheid vir Ervaring, Inskiklikheid en Konsensieusheid is geassosieer met lae emosionele uitputting, lae depersonalisasie en hoÃ« persoonlike bereiking. Konstruktiewe coping-strategieÃ« is geassosieer met persoonlike bereiking.
Huang, Guoping; Zhang, Yalin; Momartin, Shakeh; Huang, Xuanyin; Zhao, Lan
The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female inmates in China. A total of 471 participants were assessed for CSA, personality traits, coping strategies, and frequency of lifetime PTSD. Results demonstrated that CSA and negative coping were predictive factors for lifetime PTSD among female inmates after personality traits were controlled. The findings suggest that CSA is one potential factor contributing to lifetime PTSD among female inmates. The importance of screening for CSA among female inmates was highly emphasized. Early intervention and prevention programmes based on coping skills may be useful to forestall the development of chronic PTSD in female inmates. PMID:18382850
Kralik, Kathleen M.; Danforth, Walter J.
Explored coping mechanisms for prevention of progressive lethality in suicidal behavior. College students (n=296) with no suicidal ideation, mild ideation, severe ideation, or having attempted suicide, completed Reasons for Living Inventory, instrument for age-specific coping cognitions, and scale of coping strategies for diminishing suicidality.
Seyedeh-Monavar Yazdi; Simin Hosseinian; Mansoure Eslami; Ali Fathi-Ashtiani
This study aims to find the relationship between quality of life and coping strategies in coronary heart disease patients. Two hundred coronary heart disease patients at Tehran Heart Center, who had been diagnosed with the disease 3 months before, were selected and filled out The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and Quality of Life-SF36. Results showed a discrepancy between quality of life indices and coping strategies. Task-oriented strategy had a positive and significant rel...
Helgeson, Jennifer F.; Simon Dietz; Stefan Hochrainer-Stigler
When a natural disaster hits, the affected households try to cope with its impacts. A variety of coping strategies, from reducing current consumption to disposing of productive assets, may be employed. The latter strategies are especially worrisome because they may reduce the capacity of the household to generate income in the future, possibly leading to chronic poverty. We used the results of a household survey in rural Uganda to ask, first, what coping strategies would tend to be employed i...
Nandkeolyar, Amit K; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Li, Andrew; Ekkirala, Srinivas; Bagger, Jessica
The present study examines a mediated moderation model of the effects of conscientiousness and coping strategies on the relationship between abusive supervision and employees' job performance. Across 2 studies conducted in India, we found evidence that the relationship between abusive supervision and job performance was weaker when employees were high in conscientiousness. In addition, we found that the use of an avoidance coping strategy facilitated a negative relationship between abusive supervision and performance. Finally, we found that the moderating effects of conscientiousness were mediated by the use of avoidance coping strategies. Our findings contribute to theories of abusive supervision, personality, coping strategies, and job performance. PMID:23978107
Van Lerberghe Wim
Full Text Available Health sector workers respond to inadequate salaries and working conditions by developing various individual "coping strategies" - some, but not all, of which are of a predatory nature. The paper reviews what is known about these practices and their potential consequences (competition for time, brain drain and conflicts of interest. By and large, governments have rarely been proactive in dealing with such problems, mainly because of their reluctance to address the issue openly. The effectiveness of many of these piecemeal reactions, particularly attempts to prohibit personnel from developing individual coping strategies, has been disappointing. The paper argues that a more proactive approach is required. Governments will need to recognize the dimension of the phenomenon and systematically assess the consequences of policy initiatives on the situation and behaviour of the individuals that make up their workforce.
Full Text Available The Peruvian anchovy fishery is the largest worldwide in terms of catches. The fishery started during the mid 1950s, and since then it has been highly dependent on natural stock fluctuations, due to the sensitivity of anchovy stocks to ocean-climate variability. The main driver of anchovy stock variability is the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO, and three extreme ENSO warm events were recorded in 19721973, 19831984 and 19971998. This study investigates the evolution of coping strategies developed by the anchovy fisheries to deal with climate variability and extreme ENSO events. Results showed eight coping strategies to reduce impacts on the fishery. These included: decentralized installation of anchovy processing factories; simultaneous ownership of fishing fleet and processing factories; use of low-cost unloading facilities; opportunistic utilization of invading fish populations; low cost intensive monitoring; rapid flexible management; reduction of fishmeal price uncertainty through controlled production based on market demand; and decoupling of fishmeal prices from those of other protein-rich feed substitutes like soybean. This research shows that there are concrete lessons to be learned from successful adaptations to cope with climate change-related extreme climatic events that impact the supply of natural resources. The lessons can contribute to improved policies for coping with climate change in the commercial fishery sector.
Lund, Thomas Bøker; Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte
Recent literature primarily from English speaking countries has made it very clear that there is a higher risk of obesity among individuals who live under economic constraints, especially if they live in so-called food insecure households. The reason for this association, however, is not well...... longitudinal data collected in 2008 and 2012 from a Danish household panel. Using data from the 2012 data only (N=1650), we show initially that obesity, also in Denmark, is clearly related to level of constraint (and especially food insecurity). We examine whether specific coping strategies employed because of...... food budget constraints (this includes: abstaining from luxury, prioritizing cheaper food, household efficiency) is associated with a reduced risk of obesity. Using a combined dataset with respondents that completed both the 2008 and 2012 questionnaire (approximately N=1080) we then examine whether...
Full Text Available The study explored the self-generated coping strategies employed by Muslim athletes from South East Asian region during the Ramadan fasting month. Sixty-five National elite Muslim athletes responded to an open-ended question on coping strategies employed during Ramadan fasting. Inductive content analysis identified five general dimensions from 54 meaning units which were abstracted into 14 first-order themes and 10 second order themes. The general dimension included four problem-focused coping: training modifications, dietary habits, psychological, rest and recovery, and one emotion-focused coping i.e., self- control. The coping strategies employed were diverse and dynamic in nature and no specific pattern was evident. The most frequently employed strategies were associated with training and dietary habits. Emotion focused coping was the least frequently used by the athletes
We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict. PMID:25695097
Even if the treatment of cancer has developed over the last decades 50% of the patients still die of their cancer. The doctor's way of dealing with his and his patient's anxiety must surely be of significance for the treatment the patient receives. In the first part of the thesis earlier studies of physicians' stress and ways of coping are reported. There is a lack of systematic studies which show how doctors working with cancer patients adjust to this work. The aim of this investigation is t...
Full Text Available Mothersâ emotional distress,when having a child with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD, isdifferent depending on depending on the thinking pattern (rational orirrational and cognitive coping strategies used. The aim of this study was to assess irrational beliefs, negativeautomatic thoughts, emotional distress, cognitive coping strategies and therelation between them, in mothers of children with ASD. Datawere collected from 65 mothers having a child with diagnosis of ASD. Several psychologicalinstruments were used to assess the irrational beliefs (ABSs, automatic negativethoughts (ATQ, emotional distress (PAD and cognitive coping strategies(CERQ. Mothers reported high levels of emotional distress, automatic negative thoughtsand irrational beliefs. The cognitive coping strategies that correlated positivelyand statistically significant with emotional distress were self-blame,catastrophizing and rumination. Self-blame and catastrophizing strategies correlatedpositively and statistically significant with the irrational beliefs. Theresults also suggest that the use of maladaptive coping strategies correlateswith a higher levels of irrational beliefs and emotional distress.
Gok Deniz; Musabak Ilgen; Tuncay Tarik; Kutlu Mustafa
Abstract Background This study provided essential information, about Turkish patients with type I and type II diabetes, concerning: levels of anxiety, coping strategies used, and relationships that exist among anxiety, coping strategies, sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Methods A sample comprising 161 Turkish adults with both types of diabetes participated in the study. The trait anxiety scale, the brief COPE, sociodemographic and medical questionnaire were administered to patien...
Bussey Rask, Marie; Jørgensen, Tina; Pinnerup Jensen, Jeanette; Bech Jørgensen, Katrine; Madsen, Mia; Nielsen, Bent; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Søgaard Nielsen, Anette; Grønbaek, Morten
An important issue regarding treatment for alcohol abuse is the high rate of relapse following treatment. In the research on treatment of alcohol abuse, the concept of coping has been proposed as a relevant factor in the relationship between relapse crises and treatment outcome. The present study investigated the role of pretreatment coping strategies in outcome of outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse. The pretreatment coping strategies of 136 clients receiving outpatient treatment for alcohol...
McDavitt, Bryce; Iverson, Ellen; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Wong, Carolyn F.; Kipke, Michele D.
Although the pervasiveness of heterosexism in the lives of gay and bisexual youth is well established, little is known about the strategies these youth use to cope with stigma and discrimination based on their sexual minority status. In this qualitative study, the authors present findings and implications for clinical practice based on interviews with 43 gay and bisexual young men. Respondents coping strategies are discussed in relation to current theory and research on coping with stigma, a...
The proposed integrated coping strategies include operation strategies for specific accident conditions, extension or revision of emergency operating procedures (EOPs), integration between EOPs and severe accident mitigation guidelines (SAMG), and so on. This paper reviewed mitigation strategies adopted in the U. S. EDMG and FLEX approaches, and then proposed extended coping strategies for BDBEEs. The extended coping strategies provide comprehensive mitigation approach including restoration of the RCS inventory and pressure control as well as mitigation strategies of the U. S. EDMG and FLEX. More detailed strategies will be developed in the near future following an evaluation of the various accident mitigation strategies being implemented worldwide in the aftermath of the Fukushima accident. An extended loss of all AC power occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, on March 11, 2011, by a large earthquake and subsequent tsunamis. This event led to loss of reactor core cooling and containment integrity functions at several units of the site, ultimately resulting in large release of radioactive materials into the environment. Extreme events, or beyond-design-basis external events (BDBEEs), as occurred in the Fukushima Daiichi plant, may threaten plant safety by disabling critical safety functions of nuclear power plants for an extended period. Therefore, coping strategies need to be developed to further enhance nuclear safety by maintaining or restoring core cooling and containment integrity for BDBEEs. This paper reviews the U. S. EDMG and FLEX approaches from the perspective of coping strategies, and proposes an integrated strategic approach to cope with BDBEEs by extending the concepts of EDMG and FLEX
Kim, Jaewhan; Ahn, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inn Seock [ISSA Technology, Inc., Germantown (United States)
The proposed integrated coping strategies include operation strategies for specific accident conditions, extension or revision of emergency operating procedures (EOPs), integration between EOPs and severe accident mitigation guidelines (SAMG), and so on. This paper reviewed mitigation strategies adopted in the U. S. EDMG and FLEX approaches, and then proposed extended coping strategies for BDBEEs. The extended coping strategies provide comprehensive mitigation approach including restoration of the RCS inventory and pressure control as well as mitigation strategies of the U. S. EDMG and FLEX. More detailed strategies will be developed in the near future following an evaluation of the various accident mitigation strategies being implemented worldwide in the aftermath of the Fukushima accident. An extended loss of all AC power occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, on March 11, 2011, by a large earthquake and subsequent tsunamis. This event led to loss of reactor core cooling and containment integrity functions at several units of the site, ultimately resulting in large release of radioactive materials into the environment. Extreme events, or beyond-design-basis external events (BDBEEs), as occurred in the Fukushima Daiichi plant, may threaten plant safety by disabling critical safety functions of nuclear power plants for an extended period. Therefore, coping strategies need to be developed to further enhance nuclear safety by maintaining or restoring core cooling and containment integrity for BDBEEs. This paper reviews the U. S. EDMG and FLEX approaches from the perspective of coping strategies, and proposes an integrated strategic approach to cope with BDBEEs by extending the concepts of EDMG and FLEX.
Paulyane T.M. Gomes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the challenges faced by families caring for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD in Brazil and the coping strategies employed. SOURCES: Systematic review of articles published until September of 2013, without language restrictions, using quality appraisal (AMSTAR and CASP/Oxford instruments. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The literature shows parental emotional overload as one of the main challenges faced by families, especially mothers. The main stressors were diagnostic postponement, difficulty dealing with the diagnosis and associated symptoms, and poor access to health services and social support. The predominant coping strategies found included information exchange between affected families and integrated healthcare network for patient and family support. CONCLUSION: ASD exerts strong influence on family dynamics, resulting in caregiver overload, especially in mothers. The Brazilian Unified Health System needs to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to strengthen the patient-family dyad and promote the full development and societal inclusion of children with ASD.
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between burnout, personality traits and coping strategies. A survey design was used. The study population consisted of 131 employees in a corporate pharmaceutical group. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, NEO Personality Inventory Revised and COPE were administered. Active coping strategies were associated with Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness, while passive coping strategies were associated with Neuroticism, low Agreeableness and low Conscientiousness. Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were associated with lower emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation and higher personal accomplishment. Constructive coping strategies were associated with personal accomplishment. Opsomming Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om te bepaal of daar n verband tussen uitbranding, persoonlikheidstrekke en coping-strategieë bestaan. n Opnameontwerp is gebruik. Die ondersoekgroep het bestaan uit 131 werknemers van n korporatiewe apteekgroep. Drie vraelyste is gebruik, naamlik die Maslach-Uitbrandingsvraelys, die NEO Personality Inventory Revised en die COPE. Aktiewe coping-strategieë is geassosieer met Emosionele Stabiliteit, Ekstroversie, Openheid vir Ervaring en Konsensieusheid, terwyl passiewe coping-strategieë geassosieer is met Neurotisisme, lae Inskiklikheid en lae Konsensieusheid. Emosionele Stabiliteit, Ekstroversie, Openheid vir Ervaring, Inskiklikheid en Konsensieusheid is geassosieer met lae emosionele uitputting, lae depersonalisasie en hoë persoonlike bereiking. Konstruktiewe coping-strategieë is geassosieer met persoonlike bereiking.
Wright, Mark; Banerjee, Robin; Hoek, Willemijn; Rieffe, Carolien; Novin, Sheida
Strategies that children use for coping with stressors are known to be related to emotional adjustment, but not enough is understood about specific links with social anxiety and depression. The present investigation tested differentiated associations of social anxiety and depression with specific types of coping strategies, and evaluated the
Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Kramer, Alexander
This article documents the coping strategies adopted by women victims of spousal violence in Pakistan. By drawing on 21 in-depth interviews conducted in Lahore and Sialkot (Pakistan), we found that the women tried to cope with violence by using various strategies, both emotion focused (e.g., use of religion, placating the husband, etc.) and
Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.
Adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) experience stressful social interactions and often utilize maladaptive coping strategies to manage these interactions. We investigated the specific types of "Active and Avoidant" coping strategies reported by 114 adults with mild ID to deal with stressful social interactions. Open-ended responses to a
Leung, Cynthia; Moore, Susan; Karnilowicz, Wally; Lung, C. L.
This study examined the association between relationship styles, coping strategies, and psychological distress among 144 Anglo-Australian and 250 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. The results indicated that relationship styles (secure, clingy, and fickle) influenced psychological distress through their association with coping strategies
Wallace, Sam Loc; Lee, Jayoung; Lee, Sang Min
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether effective coping strategies play an important role to reduce burnout levels among sexual or substance abuse counselors. The authors examined whether coping strategies mediated or moderated relations between job stress and burnout in a sample of 232 abuse-specific counselors. Results indicated
Smith, Martin M; Saklofske, Donald H; Keefer, Kateryna V; Tremblay, Paul F
Certain coping strategies alleviate stress and promote positive psychological outcomes, whereas others exacerbate stress and promote negative psychological outcomes. However, the efficacy of any given coping strategy may also depend on personal resiliency. This study examined whether personal resiliency moderated the effects of task-oriented, avoidance-oriented, and emotion-oriented coping strategies on measures of depression, anxiety, stress, positive affect, negative affect, and satisfaction with life. Results (N = 424 undergraduates) showed higher personal resiliency was associated with greater use of task-oriented coping strategies, which were in turn associated with more adaptive outcomes, and less reliance on nonconstructive emotion-oriented strategies, which in turn were associated with poorer psychological outcomes. In addition, individual differences in personal resiliency moderated the effects of task-oriented coping on negative affect and of emotion-oriented coping on negative affect and depression. Specifically, proactive task-oriented coping was associated with greater negative affect for people lower in personal resiliency. Moreover, high personal resiliency attenuated the negative effects of emotion-oriented coping on depression and negative affect. The effects of avoidance-oriented coping were mixed and were not associated with or dependent on levels of personal resiliency. PMID:25951375
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: the objective in this study was to describe the strategies developed by digestive stoma patients to cope with their situation.METHOD: a qualitative and descriptive study was undertaken, involving 21 stoma patients living in the provinces of Málaga and Granada (Spain. The informants were selected in accordance with criteria of appropriateness and diversity, through intentional sampling. The data were collected by means of semistructured interviews.RESULTS: the content analysis revealed three categories around which the distinct strategies were developed: Self-care, Adaptation to the bodily change and Self-help.CONCLUSION: the strategies developed are focusing on achieving the effective management of the stoma and are closely linked with the achievement of autonomy. Discovering the strategies applied is fundamental for the nursing professionals to offer high-quality care, centered on people and their process.
Full Text Available The main goal of this paper was to investigate associations between sociodemographic data, patient's clinical condition, indicators of anxiety, and coping strategies adopted by caregivers during leukemia diagnosis in order to indicate which factors may influence anxiety and the adopted coping strategies. In this study, 44 caregivers were enrolled and submitted to the Ways of Coping Scale (Brazilian Version - EMEP, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Results show associations among different coping categories, caregiver's age, education, and the presence of a spouse, as well as correlations related to anxiety, subject's gender, and the children's age. There was relevant association between anxiety and emotion-focused coping, suggesting the importance of interventions during the early stages of the treatment.O objetivo do estudo foi investigar associações entre dados sociodemográficos, condição clínica pediátrica, manifestações de ansiedade e estratégias de enfrentamento adotadas pelos cuidadores ao diagnóstico de leucemia, para indicar fatores influentes relativos a manifestações de ansiedade e estratégias de enfrentamento adotadas. Participaram do estudo 44 cuidadores, que responderam a Escala Modos de Enfrentamento de Problemas - EMEP, Inventário Beck de Ansiedade (BAI e questionário sociodemográfico. Os resultados indicam associações entre tipos de enfrentamento, idade do participante, escolaridade e presença de cônjuge, além de correlações entre manifestações de ansiedade, sexo do participante e idade da criança. Destaca-se uma associação importante entre manifestações de ansiedade e uso de estratégias de enfrentamento focalizadas na emoção, sugerindo a importância de intervenções nas fases iniciais de tratamento.
Juliana Dors Tigre da Silva
Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Pesquisas atuais estão direcionando seu foco aos aspectos psicossociais envolvidos nas dermatoses crônicas. Esses fatores podem contribuir para a exacerbação da psoríase entre 40 e 80% dos casos, causando grande impacto na qualidade de vida desses pacientes. OBJETIVOS: Verificar estratégias de coping e identificar níveis de estresse do portador de psoríase. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com amostra de 115 pacientes, divididos em 61 com psoríase e 54 do grupo controle com dermatoses crônicas. Instrumentos: Inventário de Estratégias de coping e Inventário de Sintomas de Estresse para Adultos de Lipp. RESULTADOS: Destacam-se as estratégias de coping autocontrole (p=0,027 e fuga e esquiva (p=0,014 utilizadas mais pelo grupo com psoríase e níveis de estresse altos para os dois grupos (p=0,838. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com psoríase utilizam estratégias de coping específicas para o enfrentamento da doença de pele, quando comparados a outros pacientes com doenças crônicas de pele demonstrando relevante nível de estresse. A integração dos resultados possibilita o entendimento do estado específico que portadores de psoríase vivenciam e que denuncia a premência de intervenções mais abrangentes que envolvam também as dimensões psíquica e social.ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Psychosocial aspects are the current focus of research on chronic dermatoses. These aspects may contribute to exacerbation of psoriasis in 40 to 80% of cases, thus having great impact on patients quality of life. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess coping strategies and to identify stress levels of patients with psoriasis. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of a sample of 115 patients, which included 61 patients with psoriasis and 54 patients with other chronic dermatoses as controls. Instruments: The Ways of Coping Questionnaire and the Lipp Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults. RESULTS: The coping strategies of self-control (p=0.027 and escape-avoidance (p=0.014 were the most used by patients with psoriasis and both groups present high stress levels (p=0.838. CONCLUSION: Patients with psoriasis use specific coping strategies to deal with their skin disorder when compared to other patients with chronic skin disorders; they also present stress levels as high as the control group. The integration of results enables understanding the special state of mind experienced by psoriasis patients to deal with the condition, thus showing the urgent need to develop broader intervention strategies, which also involve the social and psychic dimensions.
Juliana Dors Tigre da, Silva; Marisa Campio, Muller; Renan Rangel, Bonamigo.
Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Pesquisas atuais estão direcionando seu foco aos aspectos psicossociais envolvidos nas dermatoses crônicas. Esses fatores podem contribuir para a exacerbação da psoríase entre 40 e 80% dos casos, causando grande impacto na qualidade de vida desses pacientes. OBJETIVOS: Verificar estraté [...] gias de coping e identificar níveis de estresse do portador de psoríase. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com amostra de 115 pacientes, divididos em 61 com psoríase e 54 do grupo controle com dermatoses crônicas. Instrumentos: Inventário de Estratégias de coping e Inventário de Sintomas de Estresse para Adultos de Lipp. RESULTADOS: Destacam-se as estratégias de coping autocontrole (p=0,027) e fuga e esquiva (p=0,014) utilizadas mais pelo grupo com psoríase e níveis de estresse altos para os dois grupos (p=0,838). CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com psoríase utilizam estratégias de coping específicas para o enfrentamento da doença de pele, quando comparados a outros pacientes com doenças crônicas de pele demonstrando relevante nível de estresse. A integração dos resultados possibilita o entendimento do estado específico que portadores de psoríase vivenciam e que denuncia a premência de intervenções mais abrangentes que envolvam também as dimensões psíquica e social. Abstract in english ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Psychosocial aspects are the current focus of research on chronic dermatoses. These aspects may contribute to exacerbation of psoriasis in 40 to 80% of cases, thus having great impact on patients quality of life. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess coping strategies and to id [...] entify stress levels of patients with psoriasis. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of a sample of 115 patients, which included 61 patients with psoriasis and 54 patients with other chronic dermatoses as controls. Instruments: The Ways of Coping Questionnaire and the Lipp Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults. RESULTS: The coping strategies of self-control (p=0.027) and escape-avoidance (p=0.014) were the most used by patients with psoriasis and both groups present high stress levels (p=0.838). CONCLUSION: Patients with psoriasis use specific coping strategies to deal with their skin disorder when compared to other patients with chronic skin disorders; they also present stress levels as high as the control group. The integration of results enables understanding the special state of mind experienced by psoriasis patients to deal with the condition, thus showing the urgent need to develop broader intervention strategies, which also involve the social and psychic dimensions.
Estratégias de enfrentamento do estresse desenvolvidas por estudantes de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina / Stress coping strategies developed by medical students of the Federal University of Santa Catarina
Ronaldo, Zonta; Ana Carolina Couto, Robles; Suely, Grosseman.
Full Text Available Em um estudo qualitativo sobre a qualidade de vida de estudantes de Medicina, na Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, emergiu o tema "Estratégias de enfrentamento do estresse". O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar dados relativos a este tema, na perspectiva de melhorar a qualidade de vida do estu [...] dante de Medicina. Seguindo princípios da pesquisa qualitativa, o tema proposto é apresentado com base na análise dos dados empíricos, relativos a depoimentos selecionados do conjunto de dados dos 25 participantes do estudo e no diálogo com a literatura. Entre os que desenvolveram estratégias, as apontadas incluíam valorização dos relacionamentos interpessoais e de fenômenos do cotidiano, equilíbrio entre estudo e lazer, organização do tempo, cuidados com a saúde, alimentação e o sono, prática de atividade física, religiosidade, trabalhar a própria personalidade para lidar com situações adversas e procura por assistência psicológica. Sugere-se maior preocupação dos envolvidos na educação médica com a qualidade de vida do estudante de Medicina e o desenvolvimento de estratégias para promovê-la ou que preparem o estudante para lidar com o estresse durante a formação médica. Abstract in english The theme "Stress coping strategies"came up in the course of a qualitative study about the quality of life of medical students at the Federal University of Santa Catarina. The objective of this article is to present data related to this issue in the hope of improving the quality of life of the medic [...] al student. According to the principles of qualitative research, the theme proposed is presented based on the analysis of empirical data derived from selected statements of the 25 particpants of the study and from the literature. Those participants who developed strategies mentioned among others the importance of interpersonal relationships and day-to-day phenomena, balance between study and leisure, organization of one's time, physical exercise, health nutrition and sleep, religiosity, working the own personality to deal with adverse situations and seek for psychological assistance. One recommends a greater concern of those involved in medical education with the qualit y of life of the students and the development of strategies to promote this behavior or to prepare the students to cope with the stress during medical education.
Frolich, Nicoline; Brandt, Synnove; Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth; Aamodt, Per Olaf
Growing national and international competition for students puts pressure on higher education institutions (HEIs) to develop marketing and student recruitment strategies; these are also driven by financial stress caused by performance-based funding mechanisms. In this paper we explore Norwegian HEIs' student recruitment strategies. What type of
Jambor, Edina; Elliott, Marta
Research studies on the determinants of self-esteem of deaf individuals often yield inconsistent findings. The current study assessed the effects on self-esteem of factors related to deafness, such as the means of communication at home and severity of hearing loss with hearing aid, as well as the coping styles that deaf people adopt to cope with
Marina, Kohlsdorf; Áderson Luiz, Costa Junior.
Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi investigar associações entre dados sociodemográficos, condição clínica pediátrica, manifestações de ansiedade e estratégias de enfrentamento adotadas pelos cuidadores ao diagnóstico de leucemia, para indicar fatores influentes relativos a manifestações de ansiedade e estraté [...] gias de enfrentamento adotadas. Participaram do estudo 44 cuidadores, que responderam a Escala Modos de Enfrentamento de Problemas - EMEP, Inventário Beck de Ansiedade (BAI) e questionário sociodemográfico. Os resultados indicam associações entre tipos de enfrentamento, idade do participante, escolaridade e presença de cônjuge, além de correlações entre manifestações de ansiedade, sexo do participante e idade da criança. Destaca-se uma associação importante entre manifestações de ansiedade e uso de estratégias de enfrentamento focalizadas na emoção, sugerindo a importância de intervenções nas fases iniciais de tratamento. Abstract in english The main goal of this paper was to investigate associations between sociodemographic data, patient's clinical condition, indicators of anxiety, and coping strategies adopted by caregivers during leukemia diagnosis in order to indicate which factors may influence anxiety and the adopted coping strate [...] gies. In this study, 44 caregivers were enrolled and submitted to the Ways of Coping Scale (Brazilian Version - EMEP), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Results show associations among different coping categories, caregiver's age, education, and the presence of a spouse, as well as correlations related to anxiety, subject's gender, and the children's age. There was relevant association between anxiety and emotion-focused coping, suggesting the importance of interventions during the early stages of the treatment.
Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted; Kriegbaum, Margit; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between socioeconomic position and coping strategies in musculoskeletal pain. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Cross-sectional study of a random sample of 40- and 50-year-old Danes, participation rate 69%, n=7,125. The study included 1,287 persons who reported functional limitations due to musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: Data was collected by postal questionnaires and scales were developed on problem-solving coping and avoidant coping, based on a range of preliminary stu...
Delany, C; Miller, K J; El-Ansary, D; Remedios, L; Hosseini, A; McLeod, S
Clinical education is foundational to health professional training. However, it is also a time of increased stress for students. A student's perception of stressors and their capacity to effectively manage them is a legitimate concern for educators, because anxiety and decreased coping strategies can interfere with effective learning, clinical performance and capacity to care for patients. Resilience is emerging as a valuable construct to underpin positive coping strategies for learning and professional practice. We report the development and evaluation of a psycho-education resilience program designed to build practical skills-based resilience capacities in health science (physiotherapy) students. Six final year undergraduate physiotherapy students attended four action research sessions led by a clinical health psychologist. Resilience strategies drawn from cognitive behavioural therapy, and positive and performance psychology were introduced. Students identified personal learning stressors and their beliefs and responses. They chose specific resilience-based strategies to address them, and then reported their impact on learning performance and experiences. Thematic analysis of the audio-recorded and transcribed action research sessions, and students' de identified notes was conducted. Students' initial descriptions of stressors as 'problems' outside their control resulting in poor thinking and communication, low confidence and frustration, changed to a focus on how they managed and recognized learning challenges as normal or at least expected elements of the clinical learning environment. The research suggests that replacing stressful challenges with positive coping strategies offers a potentially powerful tool to build self-efficacy and cognitive control as well as greater self-awareness as a learner and future health practitioner. PMID:25835325
Bar-Hava, M; Azem, F; Azam, F; Yovel, I; Lessing, J B; Amit, A; Abramov, L; Militscher, I; Chen, J
This study examined the correlation between various coping strategies and sexual functioning and the likelihood of conception from in vitro fertilization (IVF). Self-reported questionnaires were distributed randomly among the 102 women enrolled in an IVF program, 96 of whom were recruited. Of the studied parameters, positive reinterpretation, and growth, and active coping strategies were found to be positively associated with sexual functioning, while there was a significantly (p self-restraint. Being sexually active during the IVF-treatment period was found to be positively associated (p < .05) with the likelihood of conception and with adaptive coping strategies. PMID:11554198
van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia
The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-sectional and prospective relationships between cognitive coping strategies and parental stress in parents of children with Down syndrome. A total of 621 participants filled out questionnaires, including the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire to measure cognitive coping and the Nijmeegse
Erickson, Sarah J.; Feldstein, Sarah W.
Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) in measuring adolescent humor, including the relationship between humor and coping style, defense style, depressive symptoms, and adjustment in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Humor, coping, defense strategies, depressive symptoms,
A. Heidari Pahlavian
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Etiological researches suggest that biopsychosocial dimensions are responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD. The main goal of the present research was to compare stressful life events and stress coping strategies in coronary heart patients (Acute Myocardial Infarction and non-patients. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional research 102 patients (all males suffering from acute myocardial infarction and 162 non-patient individuals after matching were studied and compared with regard to psychosocial life events and stress coping strategies through coping response inventory (Moos, 1993 , scaling of life Events (paykel , 1971 and researcher made questionnaire. Results: The result established that myocardial infarction patients experienced more stress than the control group during one year before heart- attack and they used more inadequate stress coping strategies comparing with the control individuals. Conclusion: This study showed that stress and inadequate coping strategies are important variables for the development of coronary heart diseases. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3:33-38
Full Text Available While the use of monitoring and evaluation (M&E by media development implementers is well documented, organizations coping strategies to adapt to new environments in media and development still remain a relatively unexplored area. The article aims at showing how the theoretical lessons learnt by the industry have been put into practice and how a successful change can be driven within an organization using outside experts. A results-oriented culture of performance and service has been enforced since the 1990s in the EU. Evaluation systems have been a powerful catalyst in driving the transition from media support to media development and in making the latter more independent from broadcasters and donors. In recent years, changes in media assistance procedures and aims have profoundly modified the traditional landscape. This article will not question these changes, their origin and motivations. It will focus on implementers coping strategies to adapt (or not to these new procedures and aims and how results-oriented evaluations can drive the shift from outputs to outcomes in a changing media development sector. Can capitalizing on experience be considered a learning process that prepares for change and improves the design and implementation of projects? To what extent can it help to empower the operator as an organization? Referring to various concrete case studies from British, French and German media assistance, the article will focus on virtuous change the circumstances that encourage structures, as well as donors who fund them, to better define and operationalize their strategies.
Holubova, Michaela; Prasko, Jan; Hruby, Radovan; Kamaradova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Latalova, Klara; Grambal, Ales
Background The modern psychiatric view of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and their treatment has led to an increasing focus on coping strategies and the quality of life of these patients. In the present study, the authors examined the relationship between demographic data, the severity of symptoms, coping strategies, and the quality of life in psychotic patients. It is important to study the inner experience and striving of these individuals as it has been linked to their well-being and treatment adherence. Methods Psychiatric outpatients who met International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision criteria for a psychotic disorder (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or delusional disorder) were recruited in the study. Questionnaires measuring the coping strategies (The Stress Coping Style Questionnaire [SVF-78]), the quality of life (Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire [Q-LES-Q]), and symptom severity (objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression objCGI; subjCGI) were assessed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, MannWhitney U test, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, and multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 109 psychotic patients were included in the study. The quality of life was significantly related to both the positive and negative coping strategies. The severity of disorder was highly negatively correlated with the quality of life score. The results of multiple stepwise regression analysis using the quality of life as a dependent variable showed that symptom severity (subjCGI, difference between subjCGI, and objCGI), negative coping strategies, positive coping strategies, and the difference between positive and negative coping strategies explain more than half variance. Conclusion Our study suggests the importance of utilizing the positive coping strategies in improving the quality of life in patients with psychotic disorders. PMID:26677331
Effective use of coping strategies by people with chronic pain conditions is associated with better functioning and adjustment to chronic disease. Although the effects of coping on pain have been well studied, less is known about how specific coping strategies relate to actual physical activity patterns in daily life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how different coping strategies relate to symptoms and physical activity patterns in a sample of adults with knee and hip osteoarthriti...
Dr. Annett Steinführer
Full Text Available This article examines the adaptation and coping strategies that are in place to safeguard the quality of life in a shrinking ageing region. In particular, it is investigated which resources are available to local policy-makers and the older population in order to pursue this goal. Following an introduction to the debate of regional science about demographic change and its consequences, we introduce a theoretical differentiation between adaptation and coping. Adaptation strategies refer to the decision-makers who provide or are involved in organising public service facilities. Coping strategies and capacities refer to the customers and users affected by the changes. The population is not only passively affected by changes in public services, but also actively grapples with changed levels of infrastructure and takes up measures to safeguard their own quality of life. Empirically, we employ the results of semi-structured interviews with local and regional key persons and group interviews with elderly inhabitants of two small towns in the Harz region. The region under study is among the most ageing rural areas in Germany. Its demographic characteristics are based on many years of selective out-migration and partially age-selective in-migration. The research results reveal many measures and strategies which have been developed and employed by the different actor groups when faced with tangible problems. However, they have not been planned with a long term perspective. The availability of economic and social resources (human resources and investment funds on the part of administrations, fi nancial resources and social networks on the part of the older population is the chief differentiating and often limiting factor for the success of these measures and strategies. This article comes to the conclusion that adaptation and coping will remain processes for safeguarding the quality of life in shrinking ageing regions for the longer term. In addition to the targeted effects, the unintended consequences of todays adaptation strategies will also infl uence the level and the design of future public services.
Full Text Available AimThis paper aimed to analyze the coping strategies adopted by patients in preparation to kidney transplant, as well as associations between coping and socio-demographic data.MethodA total of 76 patients took part in this descriptive, exploratory study. While waiting for the first medical consultation regarding kidney transplantation, participants answered the Brazilian version of the Ways of Coping Scale.ResultsThe main coping strategies adopted corresponded first to religiosity, then problem focused coping and seeking for social support. There were statistically significant associations between coping categories and gender, marital status, monthly income, childrens ages, and time in dialysis.ConclusionThis study highlights the main coping strategies adopted by patients in preparation to kidney transplant, and it also reveals associations between some socio-demographic data and coping. These results may promote further psychosocial interventions, which may help to improve preparation to kidney transplants, promoting better adaptation and treatment adherence as well as fewer psychological burdens.
Full Text Available Abstract Background An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and December 2008. Results Tamil refugees in Norway co-operated to appraise their shared life situation and accumulate resources communally to improve it in culturally meaningful ways. Long term aspirations were related to both the situation in the homeland and in exile. However, unforeseen social events created considerable challenges and forced them to modify and adapt their coping strategies. Conclusions We describe a form of coping previously not described in the scientific literature: Communal proactive coping strategies, defined as the process by which group members feel collectively responsible for their future well-being and co-operate to promote desired outcomes and prevent undesired changes. The study shows that proactive coping efforts occur in a dynamic social setting which may force people to use their accumulated proactive coping resources in reactive coping efforts. Theoretical and clinical implications are explored.
Naji, Simon; And Others
Plans are described for a 2-year project whose major focus is the identification of ways in which patients with hemophilia and their families assimilate, interpret, and act on information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Findings will be related to perceived risk, anxiety levels, and the development of coping strategies.
Smith-Jackson, TeriSue; Reel, Justine J; Thackeray, Rosemary
The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how college women cope with body image concerns, a topic which has rarely been studied. Semi-structured interviews with first-year female college students (N=30) revealed common strategies used for body image coping as well as their perceived effectiveness. While exercise was most frequently cited, other coping strategies included healthy eating, appearance changing, talking to friends or family, religion/spirituality, spending time alone, getting out and doing something, and self-acceptance. One of the emerging themes was participation in a cycle of eating as a result of body image concerns, and then feeling bad about themselves for eating. Participants identified that women in this cycle either adopt a self-defeatist attitude, believing they can do nothing about their appearance, or engage in self-improvement strategies, including goal setting. Far more women reported coping strategies that reflected avoidance or appearance fixing motives rather than acceptance. PMID:21705288
Full Text Available This book deals with coping strategies and defense mechanisms as two kinds of self-regulation of human behaviour. The defense mechanisms are described with some examples of fiction books.
Kelly, Megan M.; Tyrka, Audrey R; Price, Lawrence H.; Carpenter, Linda L.
This study examined sex differences in the use of coping strategies and their relationship to depression and anxiety-related psychopathology. Responses on measures of coping strategies, depression, and anxiety were obtained from a carefully screened nonclinical sample (N =107). The results demonstrated that women who used less positive reframing had higher levels of depressive symptoms compared with women who used more positive reframing and to men irrespective of their use of more or less po...
Elena PREDESCU; Dobrean, Anca; Cristina POP; Ioana MICLUTIA; Roxana SIPOS
Mothersâ emotional distress,when having a child with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), isdifferent depending on depending on the thinking pattern (rational orirrational) and cognitive coping strategies used. The aim of this study was to assess irrational beliefs, negativeautomatic thoughts, emotional distress, cognitive coping strategies and therelation between them, in mothers of children with ASD. Datawere collected from 65 mothers having a child with diagnosis of ASD. Several ps...
Bentur, Netta; Stark, Daphna Yaira; Resnizky, Shirli; Symon, Zvi
Coping with existential and spiritual concerns is inescapable in end-of-life care although not enough is known about the strategies and mechanisms involved. This pilot study focused on identifying the strategies for coping with existential and spiritual suffering at the end of life of secular Jews with advanced-stage cancer. Using the phenomenological approach to data collection, in-depth interviews were conducted with 22 patients receiving symptom relief care at a daycare oncology clinic. Th...
Sinico, Andre; Winter, Leonardo
This article presents part of a master´s degree research, which focused on investigating causes, symptoms, and strategies used by tertiary flute players to cope with music performance anxiety in the performance of an unaccompanied flute work in recital of evaluative character. However, it will present only the results on strategies of twelve flute students from three music colleges in Brazil to cope with music performance anxiety. Seven of participants were male, and five were female. The pro...
Lee, Jeungchan; Napadow, Vitaly; Park, Kyungmo
Background Acupuncture has been shown to reduce pain, and acupuncture-induced sensation may be important for this analgesia. In addition, cognitive coping strategies can influence sensory perception. However, the role of coping strategy on acupuncture modulation of pain and sensory thresholds, and the association between acupuncture sensation and these modulatory effects, is currently unknown. Methods Electroacupuncture (EA) was applied at acupoints ST36 and GB39 of 61 healthy adults. Differe...
Wetzel, Cordula Magdalena
Background stress can impair professional performance. Surgery is a highly demanding medical specialty, and performance is a critical factor for patient safety. Nevertheless, research on surgeon's stress, coping strategies and effects on surgical performance is lacking. Moreover, educational programmes addressing stress management for surgeons have not been established. Objectives i a) To identify potential stress factors, surgical coping strategies and effects on performance qualitatively b...
Shariff, Zalilah Mohd.; Khor, Geok Lin
This cross-sectional study assessed household food insecurity among low-income rural communities and examined its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as coping strategies to minimize food insecurity. Demographic, socioeconomic, expenditure and coping strategy data were collected from 200 women of poor households in a rural community in Malaysia. Households were categorized as either food secure (n=84) or food insecure (n=116) using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Foo...
Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim; Tan Chin Siong; Lim Xue Bin; Loke Hon Meng; Liew Yen Yee; Ling Heng Wei; Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
Introduction: As the prevalence of stress is rising rapidly among the community, it is important to understand their stressors and coping strategies for creating a psychological-friendly environment for the students in the future. The study aim was to explore the stress level, stressors, and coping strategies among first year medical students in Malaysian public universities and factors contributed to the stress at the end of year. Methodology: A multicenter cross-sectional study involving fo...
This study examined the sources of stress and mental health of nurses in Hong Kong. It also attempted to explore the functions of coping strategies in determining the stress and mental health of nurses. Results showed that more than one-third of the nurses could be considered as having poor mental health. While supervisory role produced the highest level of stress, organizational environment also created a substantial amount of stress for nurses. The most frequently used coping strategies wer...
Personality Dimensions, Religious Tendencies and Coping Strategies as Predictors of General Health in Iranian Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability: A Comparison with Mothers of Typically Developing Children
Mirsaleh, Y. R.; Rezai, H.; Khabaz, M.; Afkhami Ardekani, I.; Abdi, K.
Background: Challenges related to rearing children with intellectual disability (ID) may cause mothers of these children to have mental health status problems. Method: A total of 124 mothers who had a child with ID and 124 mothers of typically developing children were selected using random sampling. Data were collected using General health
Isabella Caroline, Belem; Nayara Malheiros, Caruzzo; José Roberto Andrade do, Nascimento Junior; José Luiz Lopes, Vieira; Lenamar Fiorese, Vieira.
Full Text Available Estudos têm apontado que, para desenvolver um perfil resiliente, os atletas precisam enfrentar as adversidades do contexto esportivo, utilizando recursos pessoais como otimismo, competitividade, motivação, maturidade e persistência. Este estudo objetivou analisar o impacto das estratégias de coping [...] na resiliência de atletas de vôlei de praia. Participaram 48 atletas adultos do Circuito Banco do Brasil de Vôlei de Praia. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Inventário de Estratégias de Coping (ACSI-28) e a Escala de Resiliência de Connor-Davidson (CD-RISC). Para a análise dos dados, utilizaram-se o teste de Shapiro-Wilk, "U" de Mann-Whitney, Anova de Medidas Repetidas seguida do Post Hoc de Bonferroni, Correlação de Spearman e Regressão Linear Simples (p Abstract in english Studies have shown that for developing a resilient profile athletes must deal with adversities in sports using personal resources such as optimism, competitiveness, motivation, maturity, and persistence. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of coping strategies on the resilience of [...] beach volleyball athletes. Forty-eight adult athletes of the Banco do Brasil Beach Volleyball Circuit participated in the study. The following instruments were used: Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 (ACSI-28) and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The data were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, Mann-Whitney U test, repeated-measures ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni test, Spearman's correlation test, and simple linear regression (p
McDavitt, Bryce; Iverson, Ellen; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Wong, Carolyn F; Kipke, Michele D
Although the pervasiveness of heterosexism in the lives of gay and bisexual youth is well established, little is known about the strategies these youth use to cope with stigma and discrimination based on their sexual minority status. In this qualitative study, the authors present findings and implications for clinical practice based on interviews with 43 gay and bisexual young men. Respondents' coping strategies are discussed in relation to current theory and research on coping with stigma, as well as the emerging field of emotion regulation. The narratives from the current study suggest that the emotion regulation paradigm is well suited to understanding the functions of strategies for coping with heterosexism and similar types of stigma. PMID:20967136
Berahmani, Adnane; Faysse, Nicolas; Errahj, Mostafa; Gafsi, Mohamed
In many developing countries where agricultural groundwater use led to aquifer overexploitation, direct control over farmers' groundwater use is difficult to implement. This calls for the set up, at least in the short term, of indirect policies, whose efficiency will depend on farmers' strategies. The different strategies adopted by farmers to cope with groundwater crisis are analyzed in the Chaouia Region in Morocco, where intensive agricultural groundwater use for the past fifty years has l...
Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a very distressing experience for children and requires a special effort of adjustment. Therefore, it seems to be crucial to explore coping resources for the experienced risk condition. In this sense, the study focuses on coping strategies and locus of control in children with ALL during the treatment phase, and on their possible relation. The correlation between children and maternal coping strategies is also investigated. The participants involved were an experimental group of 40 children with ALL and their mothers, and 30 healthy children as the control group. The tools used were: the Child Behavioral Style Scale and the Monitor-Blunter Style Scale to assess the coping strategies of children and mothers; the locus of Control Scale for Children to analyze the childrenâs perception of controlling the events. Both children with ALL and their mothers resorted to monitoring coping strategies with a statistically significant rate of occurrence (children: M=17.8, SD=3.8; mothers: M=10.48, SD=3.4. The data concerning the locus of control show this tendency towards internal causes (M=53.1, SD=4.7. There were statistically significant correlations between monitoring coping strategies and external locus of control (r=0.400, P<0.05. The results gained from the control group are almost equivalent. The outcomes show several interesting resources of the psychological functioning of children as well as of their mothers.
Full Text Available The focus of this study was the relatively unexplored link between perceived leadership styles and employees' current levels of workplace stress and coping strategies. The participants were 442 employees in five IT organisations in Slovenia. The theoretical background for leadership styles was taken from the full-range leadership model. Data were collected using three questionnaires: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a single questionnaire item on the current level of workplace stress. Correlations and linear regression were used to test whether leadership style influences the employees' stress-coping strategies.Lower levels of stress at work were found for employees whose leader showed more transformational or transactional leadership behaviours. The results showed low to moderate correlations between the three basic leadership styles and coping strategies such as positive reappraisal, seeking social assistance, and negative escape/avoidance. These coping strategies were more frequently used by employees whose leaders often used transformational and transactional leadership styles. Employees whose leaders frequently used passive-avoidant leadership style more often approach to stress situations with escape, avoidance, and rarely with positive reappraisal. But the regression models explained only 2% to 7% of the variance for certain coping strategie.
Zheng, Yuan; Byg, Anja
This paper documents rural households' perceptions of and responses to hailstorms and drought, which have been increasingly common in southwest China. This is important as the current coping behaviour serves as a starting point for future adaptations. Primary data were collected from 162 households by a questionnaire survey in three villages in Lijiang, Yunnan province. The results indicate that the majority of households have perceived an increasing occurrence of hailstorm and drought till present. Hailstorms were generally perceived to have more drastic impacts than drought. The most common coping strategy for both was to seek alternative income sources via sideline activities. In addition, there were hazard-specific coping strategies. Migrant work and assets depletion were important to cope with hailstorms while multiple strategies to solve water shortage were deployed during drought. Differences were also found across villages regarding the degree of perceived sensitivity and responses despite similar exposure to climate extremes. These differences are partly related to the nature of events and varied socio-economic characteristics of households, which influence their vulnerability and ability to cope. The study suggests initiatives which could facilitate coping. In addition to providing disaster relief and strengthening technical coping capacity, more efforts could be directed at spreading risk and revitalising livelihoods.
Shafiei, Ebrahim; Hoseini, Agha Fatemeh; Parsaeian, Farnaz; Heidarinejad, Ali; Azmal, Mohammad
Background: Cognitive-behavioral coping approach is known as an effective strategy to preventing relapse. Its goal is to forget incompatible behaviors and replaces them with the compatible answers. Objectives: This study examines relapse coping strategies in young adults in selected substance abuse treatment centers in Iran. Patients and Methods: The present is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 70 self-referred young addicts (18-24 years). Adolescence Relapse Coping Questionnaire was used to assess relapse coping strategies. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. Results: The findings revealed that 71.2% have experienced a relapse totally. It was hard to control the hypothetical high risk situation and they greatly wanted to use the substance (mean 7.39 of 10). Addicts have used of all three coping skills in âdefinitely would doâ level. Conclusion: Enhancing self-efficacy through training coping skills, especially abstinence - focused coping skills to react properly in high risk situation can be useful.
Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim
Full Text Available Introduction: As the prevalence of stress is rising rapidly among the community, it is important to understand their stressors and coping strategies for creating a psychological-friendly environment for the students in the future. The study aim was to explore the stress level, stressors, and coping strategies among first year medical students in Malaysian public universities and factors contributed to the stress at the end of year. Methodology: A multicenter cross-sectional study involving four Malaysian public universities. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Medical Student Stressor Questionnaire (MSSQ and Brief COPE inventory were self-administered to measure stress level, sources of stress and coping strategies respectively among the participants. Calculated sample size was 387. Results: Out of 387 selected participants, 359 (92.7% responded to this survey. This study found that the prevalence of distressed first year medical students at the end of year was 50%. The major stressors across the universities were academic-related issues. The top five coping strategies were religion, active coping, positive reinterpretation, acceptance and planning. University, parent income, and academic, group activities, and desire related stressors were significant factors contributing to the students stress (p-value < 0.05. Conclusion: This study found that there was a high prevalence of distressed among first year medical students at the end of year, the major stressors were related to academic and contributing factors of stress were related to university, coping strategy, types of stressor and parent income status. Training first year medical students on adaptive coping strategies, managing stressors, and improving peer-group supports to the students will help to improve this condition.
Chunping Ni; Daiwei Lo; Xiwen Liu; Jinfeng Ma; Shasha Xu; Lu Li,
Background: Recent research has emphasized the importance of coping. There is virtually nothing known about coping strategies and their relationship with self-esteem, individual and environmental factors among Chinese female nursing students. This study was to identify different coping strategies, the relationship between coping and self-esteem and influencing individual factors among Chinese female students in different years of nursing school. Method: The study used a cross-sectional design...
Moran, E.F. [Anthropological Center for Training in Global Environmental Change ACT, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Adams, R. [Center for the Study of Population, Institutions, and Environmental Change CIPEC, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Bakoyema, B.; Fiorini, S.T. [Anthropology Department, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Boucek, B. [Geography Department, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States)
This article reports on findings of a research project examining farmers' coping strategies in the Brazilian Amazon in response to El Nino related weather events. We examine the extent of vulnerability of small and large farmers to these events in a tropical rainforest environment. Little attention has been given to the impact of ENSO events in Amazonia, despite evidence for devastating fires during ENSOs. Although we found a range of locally developed forecasting techniques and coping mechanisms, farmers have sustained significant losses, and we suggest that increased access to scientific forecasts would greatly enhance the ability of the farmers in our study area to cope with El Nino related weather events. In Amazonia the El Nino phase of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate pattern leads to an extended period of reduced rainfall (Hobbs et al., 1998). This period of reduced rainfall can result in significant agricultural losses for farmers and ranchers in the area and in increased forest flammability. We have found that the majority of our study population uses several methods of forecasting, coping with, and adapting to drought events - and they recognize the economic losses they can experience and the loss of forests through the accidental spread of fire. The poorest farmers in our study area experience El Nino related drought events as a serious threat to their livelihoods. Their vulnerability is heightened during extreme climate events and our observations revealed that all of the farmers in our study would benefit from increased availability of improved forecast information relevant to their locality and their current farming strategies. This paper examines the availability and use of forecasts, the occurrence of accidental fires and techniques to prevent fire related losses, and the coping mechanisms for dealing with El Nino related drought in the agricultural regions surrounding the cities of Altamira and Santarem, in Para State, Brazil. Distribution of an El Nino Prediction Kit at the end of the study and a series of workshops may lead to better local information on rainfall variability and create a farmer-maintained grid of collecting stations to sensitize farmers to the variability of precipitation in the region, and on their property.
Altinyelken, Hulya Kosar
This article is based on a qualitative study that explored educational challenges and coping mechanisms of internal migrant girls whose families moved from the rural areas in the east to the western parts of Turkey. The study revealed that internal migrant girls have encountered a number of challenges that influence their educational achievement
Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L
Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N?=?300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed. PMID:24414302
Full Text Available Alessandro Iavarone,1,2 Antonio Rosario Ziello,3,4 Francesca Pastore,3 Angiola Maria Fasanaro,3 Carla Poderico5 1Neurological and Stroke Unit, CTO Hospital, 2Italian Association on Alzheimer's Disease (AIMA, 3Memory Clinic, Neurological Unit, AORN Cardarelli Hospital, Naples, Italy; 4Clinical Research, Telemedicine and Telepharmacy Centre, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy; 5Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy Background: Alzheimerâs disease (AD causes considerable distress in caregivers who are continuously required to deal with requests from patients. Coping strategies play a fundamental role in modulating the psychologic impact of the disease, although their role is still debated. The present study aims to evaluate the burden and anxiety experienced by caregivers, the effectiveness of adopted coping strategies, and their relationships with burden and anxiety. Methods: Eighty-six caregivers received the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI and the ÂState-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Y-1 and Y-2. The coping strategies were assessed by means of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS, according to the model proposed by Endler and Parker in 1990.Results: The CBI scores (overall and single sections were extremely high and correlated with dementia severity. Women, as well as older caregivers, showed higher scores. The trait anxiety (STAI-Y-2 correlated with the CBI overall score. The CISS showed that caregivers mainly adopted task-focused strategies. Women mainly adopted emotion-focused strategies and this style was related to a higher level of distress. Conclusion: AD is associated with high distress among caregivers. The burden strongly correlates with dementia severity and is higher in women and in elderly subjects. Chronic anxiety affects caregivers who mainly rely on emotion-oriented coping strategies. The findings suggest providing support to families of patients with AD through tailored strategies aimed to reshape the dysfunctional coping styles. Keywords: Alzheimerâs disease, distress, caregiver burden, stress, coping strategies
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the research was to investigate the role of coping strategies with stress in posttraumatic growth in a group of medical rescue workers. Material and Methods: The data on 80 medical rescuers who had experienced traumatic event in their worksite were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 21 to 67 years (M = 35.47; SD = 10.21. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies with Stress - Mini-Cope were used in the study. Results: The results revealed that the strategy "turning to religion" plays the major role in posttraumatic growth. Conclusions: In the process of emerging positive changes posttraumatic growth avoidance strategies seem to play more important role than strategies focused on the problem itself. Med Pr 2014;65(2:209217
Full Text Available Background: Due to the high clinical challenges, differences in coping strategies, and high workload in nurses, there is a need to develop strategies to keep them in the profession. The aim of the present study was to explore the Iranian nurses coping strategies to deal with intention to leave. Methods: A qualitative content analysis was used to obtain rich data. We performed 13 in-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews with nurses working in hospitals affiliated to Tabriz and Urmia Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran, selected through purposive sampling. Constant comparative method was used for data analysis. Results: Three categories and eleven subcategories emerged during data analysis. The extracted categories and sub-categories consisted of (I Self-empowerment (practical knowledge increase, responsibility, finding identification of the nurse, balancing work and life, seek support and humanitarian interests, (II Self-controlling (tolerance, avoidance, the routine-based performance, and (III Pursuing opportunities for advancement and promotion (community development, planning for higher education. Conclusion: Nurses make attempts to individually manage problems and stressors perceived from bedside that have led them to leave the bedside; these efforts have been effective in some cases but sometimes they are ineffective due to discontinuous training and relative competence in terms of how to manage and deal with problems. It is suggested that nurses should learn strategies scientifically to meet the challenges of bedside. Through enabling and supporting behaviors and creating opportunities for growth and professional development, nursery managers can help nurses to stay and achieve improvement of the quality of cares.
Valizadeh, Leila; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Habibzadeh, Hosein; Alilu, Leyla; Shakibi, Ali
Background: Due to the high clinical challenges, differences in coping strategies, and high workload in nurses, there is a need to develop strategies to keep them in the profession. The aim of the present study was to explore the Iranian nurses coping strategies to deal with intention to leave. Methods: A qualitative content analysis was used to obtain rich data. We performed 13 in-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews with nurses working in hospitals affiliated to Tabriz and Urmia Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran, selected through purposive sampling. Constant comparative method was used for data analysis. Results: Three categories and eleven subcategories emerged during data analysis. The extracted categories and sub-categories consisted of (I) Self-empowerment (practical knowledge increase, responsibility, finding identification of the nurse, balancing work and life, seek support and humanitarian interests), (II) Self-controlling (tolerance, avoidance, the routine-based performance), and (III) Pursuing opportunities for advancement and promotion (community development, planning for higher education). Conclusion: Nurses make attempts to individually manage problems and stressors perceived from bedside that have led them to leave the bedside; these efforts have been effective in some cases but sometimes they are ineffective due to discontinuous training and relative competence in terms of how to manage and deal with problems. It is suggested that nurses should learn strategies scientifically to meet the challenges of bedside. Through enabling and supporting behaviors and creating opportunities for growth and professional development, nursery managers can help nurses to stay and achieve improvement of the quality of cares. PMID:26448959
Full Text Available Individuals who care for family members receiving chronic hemodialysis (HD are likely to experience burdens that may adversely impact their patients. Effective coping strategies are shaped by various factors, including sociodemographic characteristics. To assess the relationship between caregivers and their patients, we studied 225 family-member caregivers of chronic HD patients through answering the Ways of Coping Questionnaire-Revised. Sociodemographic data, including caregiver age, gender, educational level, relationship to the patients, length of care time and weekly hours of caregiving were analyzed using the t-test, analysis of variance and least-significant difference post hoc test. Of the eight coping strategies investigated, seven were significantly related to at least one of the analyzed sociodemographic variables; these were confrontive coping, distancing, self-controlling, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, planful problem solving and positive reappraisal. The findings of the present study may be useful for administering dialysis by nurses for identifying coping strategies among caregivers and for establishing plans of care that would promote coping strategies in relation to the caregiver?s sociodemographic characteristics.
Individuals who care for family members receiving chronic hemodialysis (HD) are likely to experience burdens that may adversely impact their patients. Effective coping strategies are shaped by various factors, including sociodemographic characteristics. To assess the relationship between caregivers and their patients, we studied 225 family-member caregivers of chronic HD patients through answering the Ways of Coping Questionnaire-Revised. Sociodemographic data, including caregiver age, gender, educational level, relationship to the patients, length of care time and weekly hours of caregiving were analyzed using the t-test, analysis of variance and least-significant difference post hoc test. Of the eight coping strategies investigated, seven were significantly related to at least one of the analyzed sociodemographic variables; these were confrontive coping, distancing, self-controlling, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, planful problem solving and positive reappraisal. The findings of the present study may be useful for administering dialysis by nurses for identifying coping strategies among caregivers and for establishing plans of care that would promote coping strategies in relation to the caregiver's sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:26787574
Cabak, Anna; D?browska-Zimakowska, Anna; Truszczy?ska, Aleksandra; Rogala, Patryk; Laprus, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Wies?aw
BACKGROUND Treatment efficacy for the increasing prevalence of back pain is a great challenge for both health care providers and individuals coping with this problem. This study aimed to evaluate pain coping strategies used by primary care patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP) as a supplementation of medical diagnosis before a physiotherapy programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 88 people were divided into 3 age groups: young adults (21-40 years old), middle-aged adults (41-60 years old), and the elderly (over 60 years old). Data was gathered from rehabilitation centers and primary medical care facilities. A cross-sectional design was used. The Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) was completed before the physiotherapy course. RESULTS Patients complained of CLBP for 11.32±6.81 years on average. The most common strategies to cope with back pain included declaring that the pain is manageable, praying and hoping, as well as increased behavioral activity. Statistically significant differences in coping strategies were found between age groups. The elderly patients were more likely to "declare coping with pain" in comparison to the younger age groups (prehabilitation protocols in chronic pain treatment. PMID:26670743
Full Text Available Toshiyuki Tominaga,1,4 Hyungin Choi,2 Yasuhide Nagoshi,3 Yoshihisa Wada,4 Kenji Fukui41Health Management Doctor's Office (Mental Health, Salary, Personnel Health, and Welfare Division, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Iwakura Hospital, Kyoto, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry (Psychosomatic Medicine, Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: A multidimensional intervention integrating alexithymia, negative affect, and type of coping strategy is needed for the effective treatment of somatoform disorder; however, few studies have applied this approach to the three different dimensions of alexithymia in patients with somatoform disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between type of coping strategy and three different dimensions of alexithymia expressed in patients.Patients and methods: A total of 196 patients with somatoform disorder completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Spielberger StateTrait Anxiety Inventory, the Somatosensory Amplification Scale, and the Lazarus Stress Coping Inventory. The relationships between alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale 20 score and subscales, demographic variables, and psychological inventory scores were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis.Results: The mean Toronto Alexithymia Scale 20 total score (56.1±10.57 was positively correlated with the number of physical symptoms as well as with psychopathology scores (Self-Rating Depression Scale, StateTrait Anxiety Inventory trait, state, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale, but negatively correlated with planful problem solving, confrontive coping, seeking social support, and positive reappraisal coping scores. With respect to coping strategy, multiple regression analyses revealed that difficulty in identifying feelings was positively associated with an escapeavoidance strategy, difficulty in describing feelings was negatively associated with a seeking social support strategy, and externally oriented thinking was negatively associated with a confrontive coping strategy.Conclusion: Alexithymia was strongly associated with the number of somatic symptoms and negative affect. Patients with high difficulty in describing feelings tend to rely less on seeking social support, and patients with high externally oriented thinking tend to rely less on confrontive coping strategies. The coping skills intervention implemented should differ across individuals and should be based on the alexithymia dimension of each patient.Keywords: somatoform disorder, alexithymia, stress, coping strategies
Full Text Available Abstract Background Coping strategies have, in some countries, become so prevalent that it has been widely assumed that the very notion of civil services ethos has completely and possibly irreversibly disappeared. This paper describes the importance and the nature of pilfering of drugs by health staff in Mozambique and Cape Verde, as perceived by health professionals from these countries. Their opinions provide pointers as to how to tackle these problems. Methods This study is based on a self-administered questionnaire addressed to a convenience sample of health workers in Mozambique and in Cape Verde. Results The study confirms that misuse of access to pharmaceuticals has become a key element in the coping strategies health personnel develop to deal with difficult living conditions. Different professional groups (misuse their privileged access in different ways, but doctors diversify most. The study identifies the reasons given for misusing access to drugs, shows how the problem is perceived by the health workers, and discusses the implications for finding solutions to the problem. Our findings reflect, from the health workers themselves, a conflict between their self image of what it means to be an honest civil servant who wants to do a decent job, and the brute facts of life that make them betray that image. The manifest unease that this provokes is an important observation as such. Conclusion Our findings suggest that, even in the difficult circumstances observed in many countries, behaviours that depart from traditional civil servant deontology have not been interiorised as a norm. This ambiguity indicates that interventions to mitigate the erosion of proper conduct would be welcome. The time to act is now, before small-scale individual coping grows into large-scale, well-organized crime.
Michaelis Christensen, Camilla; Kristiansen, Maria; Norredam, Marie
, causing change and loss of social relations. A variety of coping strategies were used to cope with the pain, manage its consequences, and restore a level of health that would enable women to function and fulfil social roles. Many participants coped with the pain by altering everyday life, keeping daily......OBJECTIVE: To examine quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with chronic pain. DESIGN: Qualitative content analysis based on in-depth semistructured interviews. SETTING: A clinic specifically targeting immigrants at a larger university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark......, mental well-being and social relations. This included the ability to maintain activities of daily living and the ability to work. Chronic pain was further experienced as a cause of emotional distress, depression and altered personalities, which all had great consequences on women's social interactions...
Yazdi, Seyedeh-Monavar; Hosseinian, Simin; Eslami, Mansoure; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali
This study aims to find the relationship between quality of life and coping strategies in coronary heart disease patients. Two hundred coronary heart disease patients at Tehran Heart Center, who had been diagnosed with the disease 3 months before, were selected and filled out The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and Quality of Life-SF36. Results showed a discrepancy between quality of life indices and coping strategies. Task-oriented strategy had a positive and significant relationship with total quality of life and PF indices while it had a negative and significant relationship with MH, RE and RP indices. Emotional-oriented strategy had a positive and significant relationship with RP and RE indices while it had a negative and significant relationship with PF, GH, PH, total psychological health and total quality of life indices. Avoidance-oriented strategy had a negative and significant relationship only with MH index. Furthermore, quality of life aspects (physical and psychological) had a positive and significant relationship with emotional-oriented strategy, but it did not have a significant relationship with task-oriented and avoidance-oriented strategies. Also, the social aspect of quality of life did not have a significant relationship with any of the strategies. Considering the effect of stress on decreasing the quality of life, we recommend a psychologist train coping strategies to coronary heart disease patients along with medical treatments in order to improve recovery, maintain health and reduce recurrence.
Andersson, Mattias; Deighan, Francis
Amputation affects men and women of all ages, classes, races and religions. The patients reactions are, however, entirely unique. This is a literature study comprising fourteen scientific articles which make up the results. The psychosocial effects of amputation can be daunting and considering the mountain of literature on the subject, it is therefore necessary to start by explaining some of the research on stress, crisis, and coping. Brief descriptions of Lazaruss and Cullbergs work have ...
Zagreb : Society for Psychological Assistance, 2008. s. 128-128. ISBN 978-953-6353-19-4. [15th General Meeting of the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology. 10.06.2008-14.06.2008, Opatija] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA700250702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : coping * interaction al approach * behavioral consistency Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Michelle Ayala-Feliciano; Jaime J. Pons-Valerio; JosÃ© Pons-Madera; Acevedo, Summer F.
Background: In the US there are over 2.5 million breast cancer survivors (BCSs), most of whom have required some type of intensive treatment. How individuals cope with the treatment process may relate to why neurocognitive problems arise. Method: We explored the impact of treatment for breast cancer (BC) on performance of the Memory Island task, both on working memory and on the general index of cognitive performance in relation to coping strategies of BCSs compared to age-matched controls. R...
Eva Botjan?i?; Maja Pezdir; Janez Stare
The focus of this study was the relatively unexplored link between perceived leadership styles and employees' current levels of workplace stress and coping strategies. The participants were 442 employees in five IT organisations in Slovenia. The theoretical background for leadership styles was taken from the full-range leadership model. Data were collected using three questionnaires: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a single questionnaire item on the cur...
GUNLICKS-STOESSEL, MEREDITH L.; Powers, Sally I.
Stress in close relationships can have significant negative consequences for mental health, physical health, and long-term relationship functioning. Dysregulated physiological responses to stress are potential pathways through which relationship stress may lead to these kinds of outcomes, and the ways in which individuals attempt to cope with relationship stress are likely to impact their physiological responses. However, our understanding of the specific coping strategies that predict physio...
Mental skills have been shown to be effective in helping endurance athletes cope with the challenges of their sport. The purpose of this research was to examine ultraendurance triathletes cognitive coping strategies, while also exploring their motivational profiles. Using a phenomenological qualitative research methodology, guided by a grounded theoretical approach, 10 elite deca-ironmen, 8 male and 2 female, took part in interviews and completed two questionnaires, Motivations of Marath...
Naylor, Paul; Cowie, Helen; del Rey, Rosario
Through a questionnaire survey, the present study investigated the coping strategies of Year 7 (1112 years old) and Year 9 (1314 years old) pupils (N = 324) to find out what strategies they have used to overcome the difficulties of being bullied by peers. Fifty-one UK secondary schools, in each of which an anti-bullying peer support system had been in place for at least a year, participated. The coping strategies of those pupils who said that they had told someone (N = 279) about being bull...
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa
This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies)
This study examined the mediating roles of prospective teachers' boredom coping strategies (i.e. cognitive-approach, behavioral-approach, cognitive-avoidance, and behavioral-avoidance strategies) in the relationships between their perceptions of instrumentality and four aspects of engagement (i.e. agentic engagement, behavioral, engagement,
Wong, Bernard P. H.; Lam, Shui-fong; Leung, Doris; Ho, Daphne; Au-Yeung, Peter
This study presents a collaborative research project by school psychologists and educators in Hong Kong. It investigated the coping strategies used by Chinese parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders ("N"?=?380) to enhance their children's community integration and how these strategies were related to their perceptions of
Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K.; Blumberg, Herbert H.
A total of 407 students in a central London secondary school participated in a survey of different approaches to managing traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Student perceptions of individual coping strategies and school interventions for traditional bullying and cyberbullying were measured. Rankings of the strategies for traditional bullying
Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J
This study examined gender differences among homeless young adults' coping strategies and homelessness stressors as they relate to legal (e.g., full-time employment, selling personal possessions, selling blood/plasma) and illegal economic activity (e.g., selling drugs, theft, prostitution). A sample of 601 homeless young adults was recruited from 3 cities (Los Angeles, CA [n = 200], Austin, TX [n = 200], and Denver, CO [n = 201]) to participate in semi-structured interviews from March 2010 to July 2011. Risk and resilience correlates of legal and illegal economic activity were analyzed using six Ordinary Least Squares regression models with the full sample and with the female and male sub-samples. In the full sample, three variables (i.e., avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and mania) were associated with legal income generation whereas eight variables (i.e., social coping, age, arrest history, transience, peer substance use, antisocial personality disorder [ASPD], substance use disorder [SUD], and major depressive episode [MDE]) were associated with illegal economic activity. In the female sub-sample, three variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, race/ethnicity, and transience) were correlated with legal income generation whereas six variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, social coping, age, arrest history, peer substance use, and ASPD) were correlated with illegal economic activity. Among males, the model depicting legal income generation was not significant yet seven variables (i.e., social coping, age, transience, peer substance use, ASPD, SUD, and MDE) were associated with illegal economic activity. Understanding gender differences in coping strategies and economic activity might help customize interventions aimed at safe and legal income generation for this population. PMID:25942470
Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Lykeridou, Katerina
A range of psychosocial, medical, and demographic variables may influence pregnant women's psychological status. However the association between coping strategies, anxiety, worries, and depression during pregnancy is a relatively neglected area of research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies, antenatal anxiety, pregnancy worries, and depressive symptomatology after controlling for the effects of background variables. The study sample consisted of 163 pregnant women, with gestational age ranging from 11 to 26 weeks, attending antenatal screening at a Greek public hospital. Coping strategies were measured with Brief COPE, pregnancy worries were measured with Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), anxiety was assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X version), and depression was measured with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated among all study variables, followed by hierarchical multiple linear regression. In the univariate analysis, low annual income, unemployment, conception after an IVF treatment, and a previous history of miscarriage were associated with anxiety, depression, and worries. Additionally, almost all coping strategies (denial, behavioral disengagement, self-blame, self-distraction, substance use, acceptance, positive reframing, active coping, and seeking emotional support) were significantly associated with antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression. Linear regression analysis showed that only previous history of miscarriage, conception after IVF, as well as denial, behavioral disengagement and acceptance coping strategies were significantly related to anxiety, worries and depressive symptomatology. The risk factors found in this study could help clinicians target anxiety and depression screening to high-risk populations of pregnant women. Provision of adequate training for obstetricians and midwives in the detection and management of anxiety and depression among pregnant women should help to decrease the psychological burden during pregnancy. PMID:23558945
Daniel Briones Mella
Full Text Available Background: This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the relationship between several dimensions of the burnout syndrome with certain stress-coping strategies, seniority level and marital status in male staff from National Police in Vaparaíso, Chile.Methods: The sample collected in 2010 was composed of 338 male officers coming from various special units of a National Police in Valparaíso. Burnout and Coping Strategies were assessed and classified according Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and COPE Inventory, respectively. Data was analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlation, t-test for independent measures and Multiple Linear Regression to generate a predictive model.Results: The prevalence of the burnout syndrome disaggregated by grouping criteria, the dimensions concentrated in middle levels for emotional exhaustion with a 52.1%, a 51.8% for depersonalization and finally, personal achievement with a 48.8%. Only 28% of participants showed more exacerbated dimensions of the burnout syndrome. There was a weak and direct yet statistically significant relationship between personal achievement and active coping. Mental disconnection had a weak direct relationship between both coping strategies and emotional exhaustion also existed. Certain correlations between burnout dimensions and coping strategies focused on emotion as predictor variables over the criterion variable corresponding to emotional exhaustion were mental disconnection in first place, secondly, focusing on emotions, and emotional social support.Conclusions: Burnout dimensions scored medium values ??focusing mainly on emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment. Coping strategies are used in parallel and in general are not mutually exclusive. Finally, there were not any relationship between variables seniority level and marital status.
Jhalukpreya, Surujlal; Sheila, Nguyen.
Full Text Available Sport coaching can be a fulfilling and rewarding occupation, but can also be stressful because of the demands and expectations of various external factors. The complex and extraordinary demands placed on coaches, force them to perform multiple roles (e.g. educator, motivator, counsellor, adviser, tr [...] ainer, manager and administrator). Soccer coaches face a number of challenges, frustrations, conflicts and tensions, the enormity of which is often underestimated. This notion is supported by the description of coaching as a perilous occupation in which coaches experience pressures like stress, conflict and tension, media pressure and intrusions into family life. This study explored the perceptions of South African soccer coaches in terms of the mechanisms they use to cope with potential stressors experienced in their jobs and employed a non-experimental design, using a quantitative approach, to assess stress and coping strategies of South African coaches. One hundred and twelve soccer coaches, coaching at the provincial level and higher, completed a questionnaire on stress and stress coping mechanisms used in their coaching jobs. Descriptive data analysis was completed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS - version 16). The sources of stress experienced and coping methods used by the coaches were evaluated. Results revealed that the top three sources of stress were a lack of resources, fixture backlog and games where the outcome is critical, whilst the lowest three sources of stress were political interference, physical assaults from players and substituting a player. Moreover, various coping strategies used by the coaches showed that an average of 5.68%, 5.14% and 89.78% of the sample used maladaptive coping, emotion management coping and problem management coping strategies respectively. Academic and practical implications of the study results are discussed.
Full Text Available Background: Work as one of the most important activities in human life is related to stressful and difficult situations. Police officers make one of the many occupational groups that are particularly threatened by contact with a number of stressors. Therefore, their strategies of coping with stress are particularly important, because they play an important role in their functioning at work. The nature of the service as well as shift work and psychological costs incurred by police officers contribute to the emergence of chronic fatigue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of chronic fatigue in police officers and its relationship with the strategies of coping with occupational stress. Material and Methods: A group of 61 police officers was examined. The following research methods were used: 1 Latack Coping Scale examining stress coping strategies at work (positive thinking, direct action, avoidance/resignation, seeking help, alcohol or stimulants use; 2 Mood Assessment Questionnaire CIS-20R examining the level of chronic fatigue and its components (subjective feeling of fatigue, impaired attention and concentration, reduced motivation, reduced activity; 3 Personal questionnaire providing socio-demographic data. Results: It was found that the level of chronic fatigue in the group of the examined police officers was high (sten 8th. The most often used strategies of coping with stress were direct action and positive thinking, and the least often used strategy was the use of alcohol and stimulants. A significant negative correlation between the general level of chronic fatigue and the avoidance/ resignation strategy was found. Conclusions: The results indicate that chronic fatigue is a problem affecting police officers and it is related to the stress coping strategies used. Med Pr 2014;65(2:229238
Lawrence, Julia; Ashford, Kelly; Dent, Paul
This study sought to investigate differences in the coping strategies adopted by male and female first year students in a higher education environment and the extent to which such strategies had an impact on self-esteem and attainment. Results revealed significant differences between males and females in terms of engagement in coping strategies
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. Results The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students. The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. Conclusion The higher level of psychological morbidity warrants need for interventions like social and psychological support to improve the quality of life for these medical students. Student advisors and counselors may train students about stress management. There is also need to bring about academic changes in quality of teaching and evaluation system. A prospective study is necessary to study the association of psychological morbidity with demographic variables, sources of stress and coping strategies.
Selmer, Jan; Leung, Alicia S.M.
expatriates in Hong Kong regarding their coping strategies and adjustment. Findings - As predicted, the results showed that the female expatriates more often used problem focused than symptom focused coping strategies. Surprisingly, there was no association between problem focused coping strategies and socio...... in Hong Kong could have contributed to the unanticipated findings that there was no association between problem focused coping strategies and any type of adjustment studied. Through cross-cultural training, female business expatriates could benefit from being informed that applying symptom focused...
Mutumba, Massy; Bauermeister, José A; Musiime, Victor; Byaruhanga, Judith; Francis, Kiweewa; Snow, Rachel C; Tsai, Alexander C
Although more than 90% of youth perinatally infected with HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the psychosocial factors that impact their wellbeing, or how these youth cope with these challenges. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial challenges and coping strategies among perinatal HIV-infected adolescents in Uganda. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 38 HIV-infected adolescents aged 12-19 years at a large HIV treatment center in Kampala. Data were analyzed thematically to identify themes and domains related to stressors and specific coping strategies. Psychosocial challenges included stigma/discrimination, relationship challenges such as HIV status disclosure, and medication difficulties. Coping strategies included medication adherence, concealment or limited disclosure of HIV status, treatment optimism, social support, rationalizing, social comparison, spirituality/religiosity, avoidance, and distraction. Age and gender differences also emerged: younger participants generally lacked specific coping strategies; compared to females, male adolescents reported greater use of avoidance/distraction techniques. Findings underscore the need to address stigma within homes and schools, and to equip adolescents with the comprehensive knowledge and skills to address their varied challenges. PMID:25607900
Lind, R; Lillestøl, K; Valeur, Jørgen; Eriksen, H R; Tangen, T; Berstad, A; Arslan Lied, G
Psychological distress may be causally related to multiple, unexplained somatic symptoms. We have investigated job stress, coping strategies and subjective health complaints in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity. Sixty-four patients were compared with 65 controls. All participants filled in questionnaires focusing on job stress, job demands and control, work environment, coping strategies and subjective health complaints. Compared with controls, patients scored significantly lower on job stress and job demands, and significantly higher on authority over job decisions. Coping strategies and satisfaction with work environment did not differ significantly between the two groups, but the patients reported significantly more subjective health complaints than the controls. Scores on job stress and job demands were generally low in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity. It is unlikely, therefore, that the patients' high scores on subjective health complaints are causally related to the work situation. PMID:19961557
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of coping strategies, personality trait and social support as the main social and psychological factors on infertility stress.Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 201 infertile Iranian women referred to the Vali-e-Asr Reproductive health Research Center, and completed the following questionnaires: The fertility problem inventory, measuring perceived infertility related stress (Newton CR, 1999, big five factor personality questionnaire (Farahani, 2009, multidimensional scale of perceived social support MSPS (Zimmet 1988, and multidimensional assessment of coping (Endler, 1990.The results were then analyzed using the Pearson Correlation and stepwise regression.Results: Infertility stress has negative and significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, perceived social support and bring extrovert. It has a positive, significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. The results of the stepwise regression showed that emotion-oriented coping method, OCD and being extrovert are suitable predictors of infertility stress.Conclusion: About 22% of the infertility stress variance was explained by coping strategies and personality trait. Therefore our result demonstrates the importance of social and psychological factors on experiencing the infertility stress.
Jennifer F. Helgeson
Full Text Available When a natural disaster hits, the affected households try to cope with its impacts. A variety of coping strategies, from reducing current consumption to disposing of productive assets, may be employed. The latter strategies are especially worrisome because they may reduce the capacity of the household to generate income in the future, possibly leading to chronic poverty. We used the results of a household survey in rural Uganda to ask, first, what coping strategies would tend to be employed in the event of a weather disaster, second, given that multiple strategies can be chosen, in what combinations would they tend to be employed, and, third, given that asset-liquidation strategies can be particularly harmful for the future income prospects of households, what determines their uptake? Our survey is one of the largest of its kind, containing over 3000 observations garnered by local workers using smartphone technology. We found that in this rural sample, by far, the most frequently reported choice would be to sell livestock. This is rather striking because asset-based theories would predict more reliance on strategies like eating and spending less today, which avoid disposal of productive assets. It may well be that livestock is held as a form of liquid savings to, among other things, help bounce back from a weather disaster. Although, we did find that other strategies that might undermine future prospects were avoided, notably selling land or the home and disrupting the childrenâs education. Our econometric analysis revealed a fairly rich set of determinants of different subsets of coping strategies. Perhaps most notably, households with a more educated head are much less likely to choose coping strategies involving taking their own children out of education.
Maria Eloá Moreira da Silva Martins Pereira
Full Text Available Centros de pesquisa internacionais vêm realizando estudos sobre traumatismo raquimedular, no intuito de subsidiar intervenções voltadas para reabilitação e qualidade de vida de portadores de lesão medular. Assim, considerando os atuais interesses científicos e profissionais da Psicologia da Saúde, a presente investigação teve por objetivo compreender as estratégias de enfrentamento adotadas pelo paciente e seu familiar/acompanhante durante a participação em um programa de reabilitação. A amostra foi constituída por seis díades paciente/familiar. Os participantes foram avaliados, antes do ingresso no programa e ao seu término, através da aplicação da Escala de Modos de Enfrentar Problemas e de entrevista semi-estruturada. Os dados obtidos revelaram mudanças nas modalidades estratégicas empregadas entre a etapa de pré-reabilitação (religiosidade, pensamento positivo e busca de suporte social e a etapa de pós-reabilitação (focalização no problema, pensamento positivo e busca de suporte social.International research centers are developing studies on spinal cord injury, aiming to improve rehabilitation-geared interventions and quality of life for patients. Considering the present scientific and professional interests of Health Psychology, this paper aims at comprehending the coping strategies adopted by patient and their families/caregivers during participation in a rehabilitation program. The sample included six patient/family dyads. Participants were assessed before entrance and at the end of the program, through of The Ways of Coping Checklist- Revised and a semi-structured interview. Data indicate changes in the applied coping modalities prior to rehabilitation (religiousness, positive thoughts and seeking social support and after rehabilitation (problem-focused, positive thoughts and seeking social support.
Full Text Available Cluster headache (CH is a chronic syndrome characterized by excruciatingly painful attacks occurring with circadian and circannual periodicity. The objectives of the present study were, in CH patients, to determine by principal component analysis the factor structure of two instruments commonly used in clinics to evaluate pain locus of control (Cancer Locus of Control ScaleâCLCS and coping strategies (Coping Strategies QuestionnaireâCSQ, to examine the relationship between internal pain controllability and emotional distress, and to compare psychosocial distress and coping strategies between two subsets of patients with episodic or chronic CH. Results indicate, for CLCS, a 3-factor structure (internal controllability, medical controllability, religious controllability noticeably different in CH patients from the structure reported in patients with other painful pathologies and, for CSQ, a 5-factor structure of CSQ which did not markedly diverge from the classical structure. Perceived internal controllability of pain was strongly correlated with study measures of depression (HAD depression/anhedonia subscale, Beck Depression Inventory. Comparison between subsets of patients with episodic or chronic CH of emotional status, pain locus of control, perceived social support and coping strategies did not reveal significant differences apart for the Reinterpreting pain sensations strategy which was more often used by episodic CH patients. Observed tendencies for increased anxiety and perceived social support in patients with episodic CH, and for increased depression and more frequent use of the Ignoring pain sensations strategy in patients with chronic CH, warrant confirmation in larger groups of patients.
Full Text Available General health has been associated with many variables that from most important can be noted Life Style, Coping Strategies and Religiosity. This study examined the relationship between life style, coping strategies, religiosity and general health among Iranian students. This cross sectional study was conducted on 180 students 15-17 year olds who were selected via multi step cluster sampling method design from schools in the Varamin suburb, Iran in 2013. All students completed the questionnaires of life style, coping strategies, religiosity and general health and regression was used for data analyses. The statistical analysis revealed a positive relationship between life style, problem solving strategy and internal religiosity with general health (P<0.01 and a negative relationship between emotional coping strategy with general health (P<0.05. Life style, internal religiosity and problem-focused strategy predicted 32 percent of variance of general health and also share of life style in prediction general health was over of other variables. These results highlight the importance in considering life style at further understanding general health in students.
Vlaeminck, Pieter; Vanderhoydonks, Filip; Isabirye, Moses; Vranken, Liesbet
We investigate environmental migration as a mobile strategy to cope with geological mobility. Specifically, we look at resettlement strategies of people living in landslide prone areas to less risky areas as a mobile strategy to mitigate landslide risks in Uganda. Landslides are frequently occurring on the deforested and densely populated Southwestern foot slopes of the extinct Mt Elgon shield volcano, in the Mbale district, at the border between Uganda and Kenya. People are encroaching upon ...
Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S; Znoj, Hansjörg
This study analysed mechanisms through which stress-coping and temptation-coping strategies were associated with lapses. Furthermore, we explored whether distinct coping strategies differentially predicted reduced lapse risk, lower urge levels, or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses during the first week of an unassisted smoking cessation attempt. Participants were recruited via the internet and mass media in Switzerland. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) with mobile devices was used to assess urge levels and lapses. Online questionnaires were used to measure smoking behaviours and coping variables at baseline, as well as smoking behaviour at the three-month follow-up. The sample consisted of 243 individuals, aged 20 to 40, who reported 4199 observations. Findings of multilevel regression analyses show that coping was mainly associated with a reduced lapse risk and not with lower urge levels or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses. 'Calming down' and 'commitment to change' predicted a lower lapse risk and also a weaker relation between urge levels and lapses. 'Stimulus control' predicted a lower lapse risk and lower urge levels. Conversely, 'task-orientation' and 'risk assessment' were related to higher lapse risk and 'risk assessment' also to higher urge levels. Disengagement coping i.e. 'eating or shopping', 'distraction', and 'mobilising social support' did not affect lapse risk. Promising coping strategies during the initial stage of smoking cessation attempt are targeted directly at reducing the lapse risk and are characterised by engagement with the stressor or one's reactions towards the stressor and a focus on positive consequences instead of health risks. PMID:23501139
Elli Nur Hayati
Full Text Available Background: Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence. Objective: Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo. Design: A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence. Results: Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out. Conclusions: Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms.
Hayati, Elli Nur; Eriksson, Malin; Hakimi, Mohammad; Högberg, Ulf; Emmelin, Maria
Background Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence. Objective Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo. Design A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence. Results Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out. Conclusions Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms. PMID:23336615
Podaná, Zuzana; Imríková, Romana
Fear for the stalking victim's own safety or the safety of people close to them is of primary research interest due to the fact that fear is often required as a necessary condition for repetitive intrusive behavior to be defined as stalking. This study examines factors that increase levels of fear in stalking victims and analyzes their coping strategies, making use of data from a victimization survey among citizens of the Czech Republic (N = 2,503). Overall, 147 stalking victims were identified in the sample. Results show that female victims, those stalked by male offenders, and victims pursued over a long period of time, are most fearful. Higher levels of fear are elicited by strangers as opposed to partners or acquaintances. Among stalking practices, only direct aggression is significantly associated with fear, whereas monitoring the victim (comprising typical stalking behavior such as following the victim) increases the perception of the seriousness of stalking, but does not influence the victim's fear. In addition, three behavioral coping strategies have been identified: proactive behavior (47% of victims), avoidance (30%), and passivity (23%). The examination of the association between these coping strategies and victims' fear reveals that female victims, whose behavior is proactive, express higher levels of fear than male victims and than those choosing avoidance or passivity strategies. Overall, the study confirms gender differences in both the level of fear and coping strategies, and lends further support to appeals for eliminating the fear requirement from the stalking definition. PMID:25392391
Reenberg, Anette; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Fog, Bjarne
climatic events, population, agricultural strategies, land use, livelihood strategies, non-agricultural activities, etc. Satellite imagery and aerial photos show relative stability in agricultural land despite an increase in de facto population (51% from 1966-2006). A questionnaire survey of 48 households...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-pocket spending (OOPS is the major payment strategy for healthcare in Nigeria. Hence, the paper assessed the determinants socio-economic status (SES of OOPS and strategies for coping with payments for healthcare in urban, semi-urban and rural areas of southeast Nigeria. This paper provides information that would be required to improve financial accessibility and equity in financing within the public health care system. Methods The study areas were three rural and three urban areas from Ebonyi and Enugu states in South-east Nigeria. Cross-sectional survey using interviewer-administered questionnaires to randomly selected householders was the study tool. A socio-economic status (SES index that was developed using principal components analysis was used to examine levels of inequity in OOPS and regression analysis was used to examine the determinants of use of OOPS. Results All the SES groups equally sought healthcare when they needed to. However, the poorest households were most likely to use low level and informal providers such as traditional healers, whilst the least poor households were more likely to use the services of higher level and formal providers such as health centres and hospitals. The better-off SES more than worse-off SES groups used OOPS to pay for healthcare. The use of own money was the commonest payment-coping mechanism in the three communities. The sales of movable household assets or land were not commonly used as payment-coping mechanisms. Decreasing SES was associated with increased sale of household assets to cope with payment for healthcare in one of the communities. Fee exemptions and subsidies were almost non-existent as coping mechanisms in this study Conclusions There is the need to reduce OOPS and channel and improve equity in healthcare financing by designing and implementing payment strategies that will assure financial risk protection of the poor such pre-payment mechanisms with government paying for the poor.
Kolahi, Leila; Asemi, Neda; Mirzaei, Mohammadreza; Adibi, Neda; Beiraghdar, Mina; Mehr, Asieh Maghami
Background: There are many factors that affect the quality of life, for example, stress and the coping strategies. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common hormonal disorder leading to menstrual disorders, hirsutism, acne, obesity, infertility and abortion. In such cases, the patients suffer from a variety of stresses and face problems in their coping strategies with life's problems which can affect the quality of life and cause psychological distress and low the quality of life. The quality of life is a descriptive term which points to health and emotional, social and physical promotion of individuals as well as their ability to perform daily living tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of life and coping strategies in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Materials and Methods: To perform this study, randomly 200 women who had inclusion criteria and were referred to Ali Shariati Hospital in Isfahan were selected and responded DLQI questionnaire and Carver coping strategies and form of demographic characteristics. Results: The mean score of quality of life in the patients was 4.14 ± 5.57. It was shown that acne has no effective role on quality of life and coping strategies in contrast in hirsute and non-hirsute patients; there was a significant difference in quality of life P value emotional and social support) (P emotional strategies (r = 0.46). Conclusion: According to results of this study, patients with PCOS are at risk pcychologicla disorders that may be led to decrease of quality of life. Thus this patients need to support by oppositions strategies. Also not only physical treatment but also psychological surveillance especially social support must be done for them. PMID:26436082
Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin
This cross-sectional study assessed household food insecurity among low-income rural communities and examined its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as coping strategies to minimize food insecurity. Demographic, socioeconomic, expenditure and coping strategy data were collected from 200 women of poor households in a rural community in Malaysia. Households were categorized as either food secure (n=84) or food insecure (n=116) using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity instrument. T-test, Chi-square and logistic regression were utilized for comparison of factors between food secure and food insecure households and determination of factors associated with household food insecurity, respectively. More of the food insecure households were living below the poverty line, had a larger household size, more children and school-going children and mothers as housewives. As food insecure households had more school-going children, reducing expenditures on the children's education is an important strategy to reduce household expenditures. Borrowing money to buy foods, receiving foods from family members, relatives and neighbors and reducing the number of meals seemed to cushion the food insecure households from experiencing food insufficiency. Most of the food insecure households adopted the strategy on cooking whatever is available at home for their meals. The logistic regression model indicates that food insecure households were likely to have more children (OR=1.71; p<0.05) and non-working mothers (OR=6.15; p<0.05), did not own any land (OR=3.18; p<0.05) and adopted the strategy of food preparation based on whatever is available at their homes (OR=4.33; p<0.05). However, mothers who reported to borrow money to purchase food (OR=0.84; p<0.05) and households with higher incomes of fathers (OR=0.99; p<0.05) were more likely to be food secure. Understanding the factors that contribute to household food insecurity is imperative so that effective strategies could be developed and implemented. PMID:20126362
Bayram Çetin; Ahmet Ak?n
The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and the use of stress-coping strategies among college students. The sample consisted of 532 university students who were enrolled in different programs at Sakarya University, in Turkey. Of the participants, 279 were female and 253 were male. To assess strategies typically used in coping with stressful situations, the Coping Scale (Ozbay & Olivarez, 1999) and to measure achievement goal orientations ...
Kadayam G Gomathi; Soofia Ahmed; Jayadevan Sreedharan
Objectives: This study aimed to compare causes of stress and coping strategies adopted by a sample of undergraduate health-profession students at the Gulf Medical University, United Arab Emirates. Methods: An anonymous voluntary questionnaire-based survey was conducted, from January to July 2011, among first- and second-year medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and physiotherapy students (N = 212) to identify causes of stress. Coping strategies were studied using the Brief COPE Inventory. Results: W...
Paula Moraes, Pfeifer; Patricia Pereira, Ruschel; Solange, Bordignon.
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas por indivíduos que tiveram o coração transplantado e suas relações com percepção da doença e do transplante. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com análise quantitativa e qualitativa. A amostra de 32 pacientes foi avaliada pela Escala Modos de [...] Enfretamento de Problemas e questionário sociodemográfico; e cinco deles foram sorteados para entrevista. Realizou-se a avaliação da consistência interna da escala, cruzamentos entre as variáveis e os estilos de enfrentamento e a análise de conteúdo das entrevistas, relacionando os resultados ao discurso dos participantes. RESULTADOS: Os indivíduos utilizaram todos os estilos de enfrentamento, predominando o focalizado no problema. Nos participantes que receberam preparo psicológico, houve aumento estatisticamente significativo dos enfrentamentos focalizados no problema e na busca de suporte social. Entretanto, naqueles que não receberam preparo, houve aumento significativo da utilização do enfrentamento focalizado na emoção. Através do método de Bardin, revelaram-se como categorias: doença, reação ao chamado, transplante, fantasias, pós-operatório, equipe e enfrentamento. CONCLUSÕES: Os participantes utilizaram todos os estilos de enfrentamento, predominando a estratégia focalizada no problema. Os que receberam preparo psicológico usaram maior número de estratégias de enfrentamento ativas, o que evidencia a importância do acompanhamento psicológico durante o processo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To investigate coping strategies used by patients submitted to heart transplantation and whether they are related to the perception of the disease and transplantation. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with quantitative and qualitative analysis. The sample of 32 patients was assessed by the [...] Ways of Coping Scale and socio-demographic questionnaire, and five of them were selected for interviews. The internal consistency of the scale was assessed, the variables and strategies involved were crossed and content analysis of interviews, investigating the existence of a relationship with the speech of the participants. RESULTS: The individuals have used all coping styles, with a predominance of the problem-focused strategy. Psychologically prepared patients showed a statistically significant increase in the use of problem-focused coping and seek for social support. However, a significant increase in the use of emotion-focused coping was observed in patients who were not prepared. Analysis through the method of Bardin showed as categories: disease; reaction to call; transplantation; fantasies; postoperative; team and coping. CONCLUSION: Patients with a transplanted heart make use of all coping strategies, with a predominance of the problem-focused strategy. Psychologically prepared individuals used more active coping strategies, which highlights the importance of psychological support during the process.
Full Text Available Effective use of coping strategies by people with chronic pain conditions is associated with better functioning and adjustment to chronic disease. Although the effects of coping on pain have been well studied, less is known about how specific coping strategies relate to actual physical activity patterns in daily life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how different coping strategies relate to symptoms and physical activity patterns in a sample of adults with knee and hip osteoarthritis (N = 44. Physical activity was assessed by wrist-worn accelerometry; coping strategy use was assessed by the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory. We hypothesized that the use of coping strategies that reflect approach behaviors (e.g., Task Persistence, would be associated with higher average levels of physical activity, whereas avoidance coping behaviors (e.g., Resting, Asking for Assistance, Guarding and Pacing would be associated with lower average levels of physical activity. We also evaluated whether coping strategies moderated the association between momentary symptoms (pain and fatigue and activity. We hypothesized that higher levels of approach coping would be associated with a weaker association between symptoms and activity compared to lower levels of this type of coping. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the momentary association between coping and physical activity. We found that higher body mass index, fatigue, and the use of Guarding were significantly related to lower activity levels, whereas Asking for Assistance was significantly related to higher activity levels. Only Resting moderated the association between pain and activity. Guarding, Resting, Task Persistence, and Pacing moderated the association between fatigue and activity. This study provides an initial understanding of how people with osteoarthritis cope with symptoms as they engage in daily life activities using ecological momentary assessment and objective physical activity measurement.
Yildiz Findik, Ummu; Ozbas, Ayfer; Cavdar, Ikbal; Yildizeli Topcu, Sacide; Onler, Ebru
The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress levels and stress coping strategies of nursing students in their first operating room experience. This descriptive study was done with 126 nursing students who were having an experience in an operating room for the first time. Data were collected by using Personal Information Form, Clinical Stress Questionnaire, and Styles of Coping Inventory. The nursing students mostly had low clinical stress levels (M = 27.56, SD = 10.76) and adopted a self-confident approach in coping with stress (M = 14.3, SD = 3.58). The nursing students generally employed a helpless/self-accusatory approach among passive patterns as their clinical stress levels increased, used a self-confident and optimistic approach among active patterns as their average age increased, and those who had never been to an operating room previously used a submissive approach among passive patterns. The results showed that low levels of stress caused the nursing students to use active patterns in coping with stress, whereas increasing levels of stress resulted in employing passive patterns in stress coping. The nursing students should be ensured to maintain low levels of stress and use active patterns in stress coping. PMID:25801218
... movement. (Return to the top of the page) Travel Strategies Travel conditions that may be problematic for ... content. Avoid certain migraine âtriggersâ such as stress, anxiety, smoking, and certain foods. Drink adequate amounts of ...
Full Text Available The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate, using Leventhal's self-regulatory model of illness perceptions, the effects of subjective representations of health and hip fracture on coping strategies in a sample of 52 clients more than 65 years old at the beginning of intensive hospital rehabilitation programme. The results revealed that rehabilitation clients suffering from hip fracture preserved their sense of good general and mental health. Negative representation of hip fracture was related only to perception of temporary decline in physical activity and not to perception of other personal, social and economic consequences neither to perception of their controllability. Perception of poor physical competence influenced the use of less preferred coping strategies of behavioural, mental and alcohol/drug based disengagement, and denial. Rehabilitation clients preferred those cognitive-behavioural and emotional strategies which confirmed their perception of self-efficiency and confidence in therapeutic assistance.Strategies were thus selected according to active and planned endeavour to cope, and were based on acceptance, turning to religion, focusing and venting emotions, and seeking instrumental and social support. The study confirmed the hypothesis that negative representation of hip fracture and poor sense of physical competence had a restraining effect on the use of coping strategies. There was no evidence that coping strategies of hip fracture in elderly rehabilitation clients created a specific pattern, depending on the perception of its consequences and the appraisal of possibility to regain health control. The validity of the findings is limited by a relatively small and selected sample of cognitive intact and motivated older rehabilitation clients, use of specific, non-standardised instruments, and a cross-sectional approach.
Skaalvik, Einar M.; Skaalvik, Sidsel
This study explored job satisfaction, work-related stress, consequences of stress, and coping strategies among Norwegian teachers. The study is based on qualitative interviews with 30 working teachers and four retired teachers. The respondents reported high job satisfaction but also severe stress and exhaustion. Teachers of different ages or at
ViganÃ², Caterina; Calzolari, Roberta; Marinaccio, Paola Marianna; Bezzio, Cristina; Furfaro, Federica; Ba, Gabriella; Maconi, Giovanni
Background and Aims. This study investigated the proportion of CD patients in clinical remission with clinical depression, and coping strategies in those with severe depressive disorders. Materials and Methods. One hundred consecutive CD patients in clinical remission were screened for anxiety and depression by using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and patients with depressive symptoms were further investigated by means of Cognitive Behavioural Assessment 2.0 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Afterwards the coping strategies were assessed through the Brief-COPE questionnaire. Results. Twenty-one patients had anxious symptoms and 16 had depressive symptoms with or without anxiety. Seven of these patients (43.8%) showed significant depressive symptoms. Compared to patients without psychiatric disorders, these patients showed significant lower score in "positive reframing" (p: 0.017) and in "planning" (p: 0.046) and higher score in "use of instrumental social support" (p social support" (p: 0.003). Conclusions. Depressed CD patients in clinical remission may have dysfunctional coping strategies, meaning that they may not be able to implement functional strategies to manage at best stress related with their disease. PMID:26823663
Ayres, Melanie M.; Leaper, Campbell
The research examined (a) girls' responses to personal experiences of gender and/or ethnic/racial discrimination, (b) social support from parents and friends following the discrimination, and (c) the relationship between girls' reported coping strategies to the discrimination and their self-esteem. Participants were 74 adolescent girls ("M" = 16.3
Eren, Altay; Coskun, Hamit
Using person-centered and variable-centered analyses, this study examined the relationships between undergraduate students' time perspectives and boredom coping strategies. A total of 719 undergraduate students voluntarily participated in the study. Results of the study showed that undergraduate students' time perspectives can be
Crittenden, Patricia M.
Among findings of evaluation of the coping strategies of maltreated children (n=152) were that abused children and children both abused and neglected were difficult or compliant in interactions with their mothers, avoidant under stress, and aggressive with siblings; and that neglected children were cooperative in play with the mother, anxious
Oslo : NPA, 2009. s. 1-1. [European Congress of Psychology /11./. 14.07.2009-17.07. 2009, Oslo] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : prevention of stress * personality resources * coping strategies Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Steinhardt, Mary; Dolbier, Christyn
Objective: In this pilot study, the authors examined the effectiveness of a 4-week resilience intervention to enhance resilience, coping strategies, and protective factors, as well as decrease symptomatology during a period of increased academic stress. Participants and Methods: College students were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 30) and
Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; And Others
Evaluated factors associated with depression and suicidal behavior in 13-year-old (n=8) psychiatric inpatients. Suicidal behavior was associated with children's tendency to perceive their families as low in control and cohesiveness and high in conflict. Suicidal children generated fewer cognitive mediational strategies for coping with stress.
Gould, Madelyn S.; Velting, Drew; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lucas, Christopher; Thomas, John Graham; Chung, Michelle
Objective: To identify youths' attitudes about coping and help-seeking strategies for suicidal ideation/behavior and examine their demographic and clinical correlates. Method: A self-report survey was completed by high school students (N = 2,419) in six New York State schools from 1998 through 2001. The relationship between suicide attitudes and
González-Torres, Mª Carmen; Artuch-Garde, Raquel
Introduction: In the past two decades, increased attention has been given to the importance of non-cognitive factors in learning, and in academic, social and professional success. There are two quite interrelated variables that influence behavior when facing stress in the academic context, resilience and coping strategies, and only recently have
Sabiston, C. M.; Sedgwick, W. A.; Crocker, P. R. E.; Kowalski, K. C.; Mack, D. E.
This study explored adolescent females' experiences of social physique anxiety (SPA) and related coping strategies. A final sample of 31 adolescent females ages 13 to 18 years discussed dealing with SPA during individual semistructured interviews. Resultant themes pertaining to the transactional experiences of SPA were coded using content
Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.
Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than
Sharareh Abedi; Mohamad Reza Aghajani Mir; Seddigheh Esmaelzadeh; Gholamali Jorsarai; Hajar Pasha; Mahbobeh Faramarzi
Infertility is a complex crisis of life and increases psychological difficulties such as anxiety and depression. Identification of copy strategies for stressful events like infertility is important. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between coping strategies with anxiety and depression symptoms in men and womenâs infertile. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was conducted from 2011-2012 on 168 Iranian infertile couples referred to the Fatemeh Zahra infertility a...
Absolute poverty has been a social problem in rural Nigeria with its rate ever on the increase. All the previous government efforts in terms of poverty reduction projects and programmes failed to improve on the situation. In order to survive, the rural poor decided device survival strategies to cope with poverty. One of such strategies is the formulation of community based organizations (CBOs). The paper examines the nature, activities and impact of the CBOs on the rural poor. The CBOs were a...
Full Text Available Hazel Moore,1 Ian Stewart,1 Dermot Barnes-Holmes,2 Yvonne Barnes-Holmes,2 Brian E McGuire1,31School of Psychology, National University of Ireland, Galway, 2Department of Psychology, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, 3Centre for Pain Research, National University of Ireland, Galway, IrelandBackground: This study compared an acceptance-based strategy with a control-based strategy (distraction in terms of the ability of participants to tolerate a painful stimulus, across two experiments. In addition, participants were either actively encouraged, or not, to link pain tolerance with pursuit of valued goals to examine the impact of pursuing a personally meaningful goal or value on the extent to which pain will be tolerated.Methods: Participants in experiment 1 (n=41 and experiment 2 (n=52 were equally assigned to acceptance or distraction protocols. Further, half the participants in each group generated examples from their own lives in which they had pursued a valued objective, while the other half did not. In experiment 2, the values focus was enhanced to examine the impact on pain tolerance.Results: There were no significant differences overall between the acceptance and distraction groups on pain tolerance in either experiment. However, in experiment 2, individuals classified as accepting in terms of general coping style and who were assigned to the acceptance strategy showed significantly better pain tolerance than accepting individuals who were in the distraction condition. Across both experiments, those with strong goal-driven values in both protocols were more tolerant of pain. Participants appeared to have more difficulty adhering to acceptance than to distraction as a strategy.Conclusion: Acceptance may be associated with better tolerance of pain, but may also be more difficult to operationalize than distraction in experimental studies. Matching coping style and coping strategy may be most effective, and enhancement of goal-driven values may assist in pain coping.Keywords: pain, acceptance, values, coping
Gadhoke, Preety; Christiansen, Karina; Pardilla, Marla; Frick, Kevin; Gittelsohn, Joel
This article reveals women caregivers' perceptions and coping strategies to improve households' food and physical activity habits. Results emerged from the pre-intervention formative research phase of a multi-site, multi-level obesity prevention pilot intervention on American Indian (AI) reservations. Using purposive sampling, 250 adults and children participated in qualitative research. Results reveal that having local institutional support was a key structural facilitator. 'Family connectedness' emerged as a key relational facilitator. Hegemony of systems, food deserts, transportation, and weather were key structural barriers; Childcare needs and time constraints were key relational barriers. Women's coping strategies included planning ahead, maximizing, apportioning, tempting healthy, and social support. Findings informed the development and implementation of a novel obesity prevention pilot intervention tailored for each participating AI community addressing culturally relevant messages, institutional policies, and programs. We conclude with future consideration for comparative, ethnicity-based, class-based, and gender-specific studies on women's coping strategies for household health behaviors. PMID:25402721
Requirements traceability can in principle support stakeholders coping with rising development complexity. However, studies showed that practitioners rarely use available traceability information after its initial creation. In the position paper for the Dagstuhl seminar 1242, we argued that a more integrated approach allowing interactive traceability queries and context-specific traceability visualizations is needed to let practitioner access and use valuable traceability information. The inf...
Brown, Seth A; Williams, Kelly; Collins, Amanda
Only limited information on nonsuicidal deliberate self-harm behavior among nonclinical populations is available, and it is unclear whether coping and emotional difficulties remain among those with a past history of self-harm behavior. The purpose of this study is to examine emotions and coping strategies among three nonclinical groups with a recent, past, and no history of nonsuicidal deliberate self-harm behavior. College students completed self-report measures of self-harm behavior, suicidal thoughts, emotional dispositions, and coping strategies. Contrary to expectations, there were few differences in coping strategies among the three groups ( p > .0033). Those with a recent history (n = 23; in the last 12 months) and past history (n = 32; more than 12 months ago) of self-harm behavior reported greater levels of negative emotion (e.g., hostility, guilt, sadness) than those who have never self-harmed (n = 161; p 12 months ago), negative emotion differences were present, and both recent and past self-harmers merit concern in managing their negative emotions to lower their risk for future difficulties. PMID:17674395
Eventos estressores e estratégias de coping em adolescentes: implicações na aprendizagem / Stressful events and coping strategies among adolescents: implications for Learning / Eventos estresantes y estrategias de coping en adolescentes: implicaciones en el aprendizaje
Fernanda de Bastani, Busnello; Luiziana Souto, Schaefer; Christian Haag, Kristensen.
Full Text Available Ao longo da vida, nos deparamos com eventos com os quais não nos percebemos capacitados a lidar, o que pode gerar um estado de tensão no organismo denominado estresse. As alterações decorrentes do estresse e o impacto que provoca na vida das pessoas podem agravar a desadaptação do indivíduo em seu d [...] esenvolvimento, sobretudo no ambiente escolar. O presente artigo explora as relações entre eventos de vida estressores, estresse e estratégias de coping em adolescentes, discutindo as possíveis implicações desses fatores na aprendizagem. Além disso, são descritos os fatores ambientais e a neurobiologia do estresse, bem como o papel da resiliência no enfrentamento de situações estressantes. Abstract in spanish A lo largo de la vida nos enfrentamos con eventos con los cuales no nos sentimos capaces de lidiar, lo que puede generar un estado de tensión en el organismo denominado estrés. Las alteraciones a raíz del estrés y el impacto que provoca en la vida de las personas pueden agravar la falta de adaptació [...] n del individuo en su desarrollo, principalmente en el ambiente escolar. El presente artículo explora las relaciones entre eventos de vida estresantes, estrés y estrategias de Coping en adolescentes, discutiendo las posibles implicaciones de esos factores en el aprendizaje. Además, son descritos los factores ambientales y la neurobiología del estrés, así como el papel de la resiliencia en el enfrentamiento de situaciones estresantes. Abstract in english Throughout our lives we come across events that we think we are not able to deal with, which can generate a state of tension in the body called stress. The changes resulting from the stress and their impact on peoples lives may aggravate the maladjustment on the individual development, particularly [...] in the school environment. This article explores the relationship between stressful events, stress and coping strategies in adolescents, discussing the possible implications of these factors in the learning process. Moreover, environmental factors, the neurobiology of stress and the role of resilience in coping with stressful situations are described.
Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS has major effects on various aspects of life in these patients. Moreover, the concept of ability to cope with illness could be important in the evaluation of patients quality of life. Therefore, understanding of the patient's adaptation seems to be necessary. The aim of the present study is to provide a deep understanding of the coping strategies used by patients with PCOS. Methods: This study is qualitative content analysis and in order to conduct the study, through an in-depth interview, twenty patients with PCOS were purposively selected. Results: The main themes derived from the data were centered thinking (religious beliefs, thoughts paradox, practical steps (positive steps such as information and treatment seeking and negative steps such as separation and hiding and support seeking (family support, peer support, friend support. Conclusion: Patients in coping with PCOS were experiencing different conditions in various aspects of life: individual, family and social life. Some of these patients were not successful in effective coping and others were well adapted by support of others, religious and spiritual background and optimism. Given the high prevalence of physical, psychological and social problems in these patients, strengthening coping resources and identifying barriers can help to reconcile these patients to their disease and improve their quality of life.
A top executive for New England's biggest independent gas distributor says deregulation of the utility industry offers unprecedented opportunities for growth, but getting there will radically change the way it does business. To achieve dramatic growth, Bay State Gas Co. needs to base their strategies on anticipating the changes in the industry and aggressively positioning themselves to capture the new opportunities that the new business environment is creating. This includes: accelerating the unbundling of transportation service all the way to the residential customer level; forging strategic relationships with retail energy product and service companies as a means of increasing throughput on Bay State's system; implementing performance-based rates that provide financial incentives for lowering costs and improving customer service; accelerating the implementation of sophisticated information systems to streamline key business processes; and aggressively expanding Bay State's nonregulated Energy Products and Services business. These steps are discussed
Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Grambal, Ales; Kasalova, Petra; Sigmundova, Zuzana; Latalova, Klara; Vrbova, Kristyna
Background Approximately 30%60% of patients with neurotic spectrum disorders remain symptomatic despite treatment. Identifying the predictors of good response to psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatment may be useful for increasing treatment efficacy in neurotic patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of hope, coping strategies, and dissociation on the treatment response of this group of patients. Methods Pharmacoresistant patients, who underwent a 6-week psychotherapeutic program, were enrolled in the study. All patients completed the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) both objective and subjective forms, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II at baseline and after 6 weeks. The COPE Inventory, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS), and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) were completed at the start of the treatment. Results Seventy-six patients completed the study. The mean scores for all scales measuring the severity of the disorders (BAI, BDI-II, subjective and objective CGI) significantly decreased during the treatment. Several subscores of the COPE Inventory, the overall score of ADHS, and the overall score of DES significantly correlated with the treatment outcome. Multiple regression was used to find out which factors were the most significant predictors of the therapeutic outcomes. The most important predictors of the treatment response were the overall levels of hope and dissociation. Conclusion According to our results, a group of patients with a primary neurotic disorder, who prefer the use of maladaptive coping strategies, feel hopelessness, and have tendencies to dissociate, showed poor response to treatment. PMID:26028972
Full Text Available Marie Ociskova,1,2 Jan Prasko,2 Dana Kamaradova,2 Ales Grambal,2 Petra Kasalova,2 Zuzana Sigmundova,2 Klara Latalova,2 Kristyna Vrbova2 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Background: Approximately 30%60% of patients with neurotic spectrum disorders remain symptomatic despite treatment. Identifying the predictors of good response to psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatment may be useful for increasing treatment efficacy in neurotic patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of hope, coping strategies, and dissociation on the treatment response of this group of patients.Methods: Pharmacoresistant patients, who underwent a 6-week psychotherapeutic program, were enrolled in the study. All patients completed the Clinical Global Impression (CGI both objective and subjective forms, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II at baseline and after 6 weeks. The COPE Inventory, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES were completed at the start of the treatment.Results: Seventy-six patients completed the study. The mean scores for all scales measuring the severity of the disorders (BAI, BDI-II, subjective and objective CGI significantly decreased during the treatment. Several subscores of the COPE Inventory, the overall score of ADHS, and the overall score of DES significantly correlated with the treatment outcome. Multiple regression was used to find out which factors were the most significant predictors of the therapeutic outcomes. The most important predictors of the treatment response were the overall levels of hope and dissociation.Conclusion: According to our results, a group of patients with a primary neurotic disorder, who prefer the use of maladaptive coping strategies, feel hopelessness, and have tendencies to dissociate, showed poor response to treatment. Keywords: neurotic spectrum disorders, treatment efficacy, dissociation, coping strategy, hope
Gláucia Rosana Guerra, Benute; Daniele, Nonnenmacher; Luiz Flávio Mendes, Evangelista; Lilian Maria, Lopes; Mara Cristina Souza, Lucia; Marcelo, Zugaib.
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as estratégias de enfrentamento (coping) das gestantes frente ao diagnóstico de cardiopatia fetal. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistadas 50 gestantes que receberam o diagnóstico de cardiopatia fetal. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se uma entrevista semidirigida e o Inventário de Estratégi [...] a de Coping. A entrevista foi realizada, em média, 22 dias após terem recebido o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: Ao investigar como se sentiam em relação ao bebê, 56,0% relataram preocupação e fragilidade, enquanto que as demais (44,0%) afirmaram estarem felizes e bem. As estratégias mais utilizadas pelas gestantes foram: resolução de problemas (73,0%), suporte social (69,1%), fuga/esquiva (62,7%), e a estratégia menos utilizada foi a de afastamento (17,3%). Constatou-se que as mulheres com companheiro, utilizaram mais a estratégia de resolução de problemas (p Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the coping strategies of women facing a diagnosis of fetal heart disease. METHODS: We interviewed 50 women who had received a diagnosis of fetal heart disease. For data collection we used a semi-directed and Coping Strategy Inventory. The interview was conducted, on average, 22 [...] days after the diagnosis. RESULTS: When asked how they felt about the baby, 56.0% reported concern and fragility, while the remaining 44.0% said they were happy and well. The strategies most used by women were problem solving (73.0%), social support (69.1%) and escape/avoidance (62.7%), and the least used strategy was removal (17.3%). It was found that women with partners, as well as those with 1 or 2 children, used more the problem-solving strategy (p
Full Text Available During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a engagement in meaningful activities; (b social support; and (c positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents.
Full Text Available The aim of study is to make the garment CAD get faster development and popularization in China. Garment CAD enhances enterprise's economic and social benefits, but it actually receives the hindrance in the domestic application and popularization. The domestic popularity rate is obviously lower than that in European and American developed countries. The main barriers which existing in the application and popularization process of garment CAD in China are analyzed and corresponding countermeasures are proposed.
The objective of this paper is to set out the key components of a development strategy for Pakistan. A fundamental premise of our analysis is that the world economic environment is changing dramatically and a development strategy today must position itself to take advantage of the changes taking place. The paper is divided into five sections: First, we provide a brief review of Pakistans experience with development strategies so far. Next, we discuss the changes that have occurred, or are ta...
Full Text Available The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in a much faster pace than in the past, thanks to communication development so companies are obliged to adopt more specific strategies in order for them to be effective. This essay represents a literary review presenting a documentary research within the scientific articles and strategy and positioning books. The paper begins with the analysis of company strategies and the marketing strategies in general. The first author to group the product positioning strategies is Porter with his three generic strategies. Following the development of brands and because of the lack of competitiveness in the simple generic positioning strategies, this paper has also presented the newer positioning strategies proposed by Kotler, Treacy & Wiersema, and also more complex ones such as Bowman's Strategy Clock and Blankson and Kalafatis positioning strategy based on the type of the consumer. The fast expansion of local brands in all categories has led to mistakes in positioning strategies, categories also presented in the current essay. The results of this study show that new positioning strategies are more and more based on the consumer and market segments and on the product specification - which have also evolved in the last decades. Adaptability to fast changes in the competitive market will represent the future positioning strategies.
Jones, Lorelei; Exworthy, Mark; Frosini, Francesca
This paper reports findings from an ethnographic study that explored how market-based policies were implemented in one local health economy in England. We identified a number of coping strategies employed by local agents in response to multiple, rapidly changing and often contradictory central policies. These included prioritising the most pressing concern, relabelling existing initiatives as new policy and using new policies as a lever to realise local objectives. These coping strategies diluted the impact of market-based reforms. The impact of market-based policies was also tempered by the persistence of local social relationships in the form of 'sticky' referral patterns and agreements between organisations not to compete. Where national market-based policies disrupted local relationships they produced unintended consequences by creating an adversarial environment that prevented collaboration. PMID:23601569
Full Text Available College students at university have to face several stress factors. Although sports practice has been considered as having beneficial effects upon stress and general health, few studies have documented its influence on this specific population. The aim of this comparative study was to determine whether the intensity of the college students sports practice (categorized into three groups: rare, regular or intensive would influence their levels of stress and self-efficacy, their coping strategies and their academic success/failure. Three self-completion questionnaires were administered to 1071 French freshmen during their compulsory medical visit at the preventive medicine service of the university. Results indicated that students with intensive sport practice reported lower scores of general stress, academic stress and emotion-focused coping strategies, and higher scores of self-efficacy than those with rare practice. However, the proportion of successful students did not differ significantly between the three groups of sports practice.
Mancuso, Serafino G
Body image inflexibility, the unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions, is associated with negative body image and eating disorder symptoms. The present study investigated whether body image inflexibility mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies (appearance-fixing and experiential avoidance) in a college and community sample comprising 156 females aged 18-51 years (M=22.76, SD=6.96). Controlling for recruitment source (college vs. community), body image inflexibility fully mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies. Results indicated that an unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions is likely responsible for negative body image evaluation's relationship to appearance-fixing behaviours and experiential avoidance. Findings support extant evidence that interventions that explicitly target body image inflexibility, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, may have utility in treating body dissatisfaction in nonclinical populations. PMID:26595857
Kuhn, Juliane; Lenz, Albert
Our study collected qualitative and quantitative data about the illness-related experience of burden and about the coping strategies of children aged 8 to 13, who live with parents suffering from schizophrenia. Using the method of triangulation, we compare the content of script-based interviews conducted with 10 children to data concerning cross-situational coping strategies of these children, which we collected using a standardized method (SVF-KJ). Children in this population are exposed to a special kind of burden which is characterized by an high number of situations they find beyond their control, by a lack of stable family structures and by episodes of abrupt separation from parents because of hospitalisation, which, in some cases, the children remember as traumatizing. We observed coping attempts of children who live with a heavy burden in the shape of increased instrumental problem solving approaches, while the same children simultaneously exhibiting a reduced ability to share responsibility or to avoid situations which they cannot cope with through their problem solving attempts. In cases where favourable emotion regulation fails, these children quickly exhibit higher levels of aggressive behaviour. Their great need for social support stands in opposition to difficulties to accept help or recognize help as being available, which were reported by the children. The presence of a healthy parent and an age-adequate information on the illness of their parents have proven to be beneficial to the children's coping. Our findings confirm the necessity of increased social support to children of parents with mental disorder by extending the cooperation between institutions and by supporting social networks. PMID:19143233
Prinz, Patrick; Hertrich, Klaus; Hirschfelder, Ursula; de Zwaan, Martina
[english] Background: Previous studies found that stress, depression, burnout, anxiety, and depersonalisation play a significant role amongst dental and medical students. We wanted to examine if students of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg also would report elevated values as can been found in similar publications. Furthermore, particularly coping strategies were investigated.Methods: The data collection took place in April 2008 including 182 dental and medical students of the 4 and 5 aca...
This study attempts to explore some of the effects orphans children migrated into Norway can experienced after the dead of their parents and the strategies they used in coping with these challenges they meet in their new environment, Norway. Four orphans participated in this study. My focus is based on the description of their experiences, feelings, life and challenges. Moreover it has been of importance to find theories which can enlighten someone to get a better understanding about what ha...
Caterina ViganÃ²; Roberta Calzolari; Paola Marianna Marinaccio; Cristina Bezzio; Federica Furfaro; Gabriella Ba; Giovanni Maconi
Background and Aims. This study investigated the proportion of CD patients in clinical remission with clinical depression, and coping strategies in those with severe depressive disorders. Materials and Methods. One hundred consecutive CD patients in clinical remission were screened for anxiety and depression by using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and patients with depressive symptoms were further investigated by means of Cognitive Behavioural Assessment 2.0 and Beck Depression Invento...
ViganÃ², Caterina; Calzolari, Roberta; Marinaccio, Paola Marianna; Bezzio, Cristina; Furfaro, Federica; Ba, Gabriella; Maconi, Giovanni
Background and Aims. This study investigated the proportion of CD patients in clinical remission with clinical depression, and coping strategies in those with severe depressive disorders. Materials and Methods. One hundred consecutive CD patients in clinical remission were screened for anxiety and depression by using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and patients with depressive symptoms were further investigated by means of Cognitive Behavioural Assessment 2.0 and Beck Depression Invento...
Doménech Betoret, Fernando; Gómez Artiga, Amparo
This study examines the relationships among stressors, coping strategies, self-efficacy and burnout in a sample of 724 Spanish primary and secondary teachers. We understood stressors as barriers perceived by teachers that interfere with their work meeting learning objectives and which cause them stress and burnout. An analysis of teacher responses using hierarchical regression revealed that pedagogical barriers had significant positive effects on the burnout dimensions. Furthermore, the resul...
Paulyane T.M. Gomes; Leonardo H.L. Lima; Mayza K.G. Bueno; Liubiana A. AraÃºjo; Souza, Nathan M
OBJECTIVE: To describe the challenges faced by families caring for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Brazil and the coping strategies employed. SOURCES: Systematic review of articles published until September of 2013, without language restrictions, using quality appraisal (AMSTAR and CASP/Oxford instruments). SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The literature shows parental emotional overload as one of the main challenges faced by families, especially mothers. The main stressors were diagn...
Nnadozie Okonkwo Nnoli; Kolapo Olatunji Oluwasemire; Shukurat Adunni Sanni
This paper is based on the results of a pilot project conducted to strengthen Nigerian Meteorological Agencys (NIMET) capacity to provide reliable planting date forecast in Nigeria. This aspect of the project aimed at understanding traditional knowledge base and farmers prediction methods, community perceptions of impacts of rainfall variability, coping strategies and opportunities in Sokoto, Kano, Jigawa, Kaduna, Bauchi states of Nigeria. Based on prevalence of drought, a community was sel...
Shueh Yi Lian; Cai Lian Tam
The aim of this review was to evaluate research relating to the effects of coping strategies and resilience on the level of workplace stress. Much of the research focused on working mothers and working females in general. It was found that working females experienced more work stress as compared to men. And currently in Malaysia, social policies that support working females, especially working mothers, has not been adopted fully by most corporations. Furthermore, the evidence for effective pr...
Fernandes Maria; Omar Maria; Ferrinho Paulo; Blaise Pierre; Bugalho Ana; Van Lerberghe Wim
Abstract Background Coping strategies have, in some countries, become so prevalent that it has been widely assumed that the very notion of civil services ethos has completely and possibly irreversibly disappeared. This paper describes the importance and the nature of pilfering of drugs by health staff in Mozambique and Cape Verde, as perceived by health professionals from these countries. Their opinions provide pointers as to how to tackle these problems. Methods This study is based on a ...
Mukhopadhyay Chiranjoy; VS, Binu; Shankar Pathiyil R; Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T; Ray Biswabina; Menezes Ritesh G
Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical cur...
Blake, Christine E.; Devine, Carol M; Wethington, Elaine; Jastran, Margaret; Farrell, Tracy J; Bisogni, Carole A.
This study aimed to understand parents evaluations of the way they integrated work-family demands to manage food and eating. Employed, low/moderate-income, urban, U.S., Black, White, and Latino mothers (35) and fathers (34) participated in qualitative interviews exploring work and family conditions and spillover, food roles, and food-choice coping and family-adaptive strategies. Parents expressed a range of evaluations from overall satisfaction to overall dissatisfaction as well as dissatisf...
Kristensson Ekwall, Anna; Sivberg, Bengt; Rahm Hallberg, Ingalill
Aim. This paper reports a study to investigate coping strategies and sense of coherence in relation to gender, the extent of care, caregiving activities and health-related quality of life in a population-based sample of caregivers aged 75 and over. Background. Caring for another person can be stressful both emotionally, and caregiver burden may affect quality of life in a negative way for the carer. Caregivers experience of burden may depend on for example, the behaviour of the person...
Michaelis Christensen, Camilla; Kristiansen, Maria; Norredam, Marie
OBJECTIVE: To examine quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with chronic pain. DESIGN: Qualitative content analysis based on in-depth semistructured interviews. SETTING: A clinic specifically targeting immigrants at a larger university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Non-western female immigrant patients suffering from chronic pain (n=13). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Experiences of the impact of chronic pain on quality of life. RESULTS: Chronic pain was per...
Mohangi, Kesh; Ebersohn, L. (Liesel); Eloff, Irma F.
In this case study, we utilized a Resilience framework and Sense of Coherence theory to understand how a group of children coped while living in an institution as a consequence of HIV/AIDS. We followed a qualitative and interpretivist approach. The experiences of nine children (5 girls and 4 boys) aged between 11 and 15 years is highlighted. The primary data generation strategy was informal interviews. However, we based these interviews upon participatory task-based and multimodal ...
Rural societies in war-affected areas can be described as distressed livelihoods: they experience a dramatic increase in risk and uncertainty. How does this affect land use and agricultural coping strategies of small-scale farm households? This was the key research question of a multi-disciplinary, comparative village study carried out in the war-torn areas of Sri Lanka. The study employed the analytical framework of rural livelihoods promoted by DFID. In addition, theoretical models of ris...
Kilty, Jennifer Maureen
This study analyzes the self-injurious behaviours that women in prison adopt as coping strategies, the psy/medical practices and policies that govern such behaviours, and constructions of prisoner identity. Correctional officials and feminists have been aware of self-injurious behaviour among women prisoners since the 1970s, but little Canadian research on the topic has been conducted to date. By centring self-harming behaviours a nd examining the experiences of both federally and provincia...
Lam, Ching-yee; ???
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex phenomenon of abusive partners behavior and is a serious public health problem that affects womens health. It includes physical assaults, psychological aggressions, sexual abuse, and controlling behavior. Over the years, IPV was thought to be associated with chronic psychological stress. Although Chinese women have been shown using a variety of strategies to appraise, as well as cope with their abuse experience, not much is known about the relati...
R Nour; A Alharby; L Sharif; A A Siddiqi; O Tayan; Ahmed, M; Y M Alginahi
This study evaluates the perceptions of stress among Information and Communications Technology (ICT) students and their coping strategies in dealing with English as the medium of instruction during their university studies. A semi-structured administered survey was conducted using a sample of 267 male students of a Computer Science college from a midsize Middle Eastern university The study also used a phenomenological approach with semi-structured interviews carried out with ten students in o...
Mohammad Naghi Farahani; Mahya Ghazizadeh; Pooya Beigi; Soheila Hosseini; Batool Rashidi
Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of coping strategies, personality trait and social support as the main social and psychological factors on infertility stress.Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 201 infertile Iranian women referred to the Vali-e-Asr Reproductive health Research Center, and completed the following questionnaires: The fertility problem inventory, measuring perceived infertility related stress (Newton CR, 1999), big five factor persona...
Sesar, Kristina; imi?, Nataa; Barii?, Marijana
Aim To retrospectively analyze the rate of multi-type abuse in childhood and the effects of childhood abuse and type of coping strategies on the psychological adaptation of young adults in a sample form the student population of the University of Mostar. Methods The study was conducted on a convenience sample of 233 students from the University of Mostar (196 female and 37 male), with a median age of 20 (interquartile range, 2). Exposure to abuse was determined using t...
Santosh Patil*, Madhura M and Abdul khadar
Full Text Available Everyone suffers from one or other form stress. But how does our medical student fare in this aspect when they enter this vast, ever expanding and demanding field of medicine. This is our small step to look from eyes of our student. The aim of this study was to enumerate the stress symptoms experienced, followed by evaluating the causes of stress and coping strategies in south Indian medical students. A cross-sectional study was performed on first year medical students at Melmaruvathur Adhiparasakthi institute of medical sciences, Melmaruvathur, Tamilnadu. A total of 141 students were participating in the study; semi structured questionnaire was designed, and they have to grade them in order of which they experienced first. One-way ANOVA for symptoms of stress, causes and coping strategies and Independent Samples Test- Levene's Test for Equality of Variances was used to find out the difference between hostilities and days scholars. Symptom of Fatigue/weakness is more in boys than the girls <0.018; home sickness was more in girls than boys<0.002, the coping strategies like taking rest, involving in sports and cultural programs; self-isolation was significantly more in boys than girls. Hostilities are having more low moods compare to days scholars <0.025, coping strategy is by listening to music<0.01. Medical students will be having different types of causes for their stress, so medical faculties need to be aware of these problems and identify and deal with them as soon as possible.
McCarthy, Christopher; Mejia, Olga L.
Hypothesizes a model of acculturation, coping, and work happiness for immigrants that describes acculturation styles (integration, assimilation, separation, marginalization) and preventive and combative coping methods. Describes appropriate career counseling interventions. (SK)
SÃ¸rensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
This paper focus on how creative thinking, processes and methods can support the strategy development and planning process in organisations. First, several fundamental concepts related to both strategy development and planning are stipulated. In addition, the concept of living organisation will be...
Selmer, Jan; Leung, Alicia S.M.
Purpose - The purpose of this study is to explore coping strategies of female business expatriates and to examine how these strategies are associated with the women's international adjustment. Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected through mail surveys to Western female business...... in Hong Kong could have contributed to the unanticipated findings that there was no association between problem focused coping strategies and any type of adjustment studied. Through cross-cultural training, female business expatriates could benefit from being informed that applying symptom focused...... coping strategies may make them less well adjusted to a host location. Originality/value - Women still represent a relatively untapped source for expatriation and the research on female business expatriates is still inadequate in many respects. An important issue examined by this study is how women cope...
Carolina Domingues, Hirsch; Edison Luiz Devos, Barlem; Jamila Geri, Tomaschewski-Barlem; Valéria Lerch, Lunardi; Aline Cristina Calçada de, Oliveira.
Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: Identificar os preditores do estresse e as estratégias de coping utilizadas por estudantes de Enfermagem. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado com 146 estudantes de Enfermagem. Os instrumentos de pesquisa foram: o inventário de estratégias de coping e a escala de avaliação de estre [...] sse. Para análise dos dados utilizaram-se correlação de Pearson e análise de regressão. Resultados: Identificaram-se como preditores do estresse a formação acadêmica, conhecimento prático adquirido, e tempo e lazer. Os preditores do estresse apresentaram associação com as estratégias de coping negação do problema e fuga da realidade. Conclusão: As estratégias mais utilizadas frente a eventos estressores foram consideras negativas e de baixa eficácia por centrarem seus esforços na emoção, e não no problema, comprometendo o processo de formação profissional. Abstract in english Abstract Objective: To identify predictors of stress and coping strategies adopted by nursing students. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted with 146 nursing students. The research instruments consisted of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOC) and the Instrument for the Assessment of Stress i [...] n Nursing Students (ASNS). Data were analyzed using the Pearson's correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The following predictors of stress were identified: professional education, acquired practical knowledge, and free time and leisure. Predictors of stress were associated with denial and escape-avoidance coping strategies. Conclusion: The most common strategies used by students in stressful events were considered negative and of poor effectiveness, as efforts were focused on emotions and not on the problem, compromising students professional training process.
Thastum, Mikael; Herlin, Troels; Zachariae, Robert
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether pain-specific beliefs and coping strategies of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) independently predict their reported pain, while controlling for relevant demographic variables, disease activity, and parent-rated disability. To compare use of pain-coping strategies and pain-related beliefs of a selected subgroup of patients with high pain and low disease activity (high pain group) with the remaining patients. METHODS: Children with JIA (n = 56) compl...
Thastum, Mikael; Herlin, Troels; Zachariae, R.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether pain-specific beliefs and coping strategies of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) independently predict their reported pain, while controlling for relevant demographic variables, disease activity, and parent-rated disability. To compare use of pain-coping strategies and pain-related beliefs of a selected subgroup of patients with high pain and low disease activity (high pain group) with the remaining patients. METHODS: Children with JIA (n = 56) compl...
Nordin, Steven; Hedén Blomqvist, Ebba; Olsson, Petter; Stjärne, Pär; Ehnhage, Anders
CONCLUSIONS: Results from prior studies of quality of life (QoL) in heterogeneous patient groups (regarding disorder type and etiology) with olfactory disorders may be useful also for understanding QoL in homogeneous patient groups. Diagnosis and treatment of smell loss should be given high priority in polyposis with asthma, and coping strategies can be suggested to these patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of smell loss on daily life and coping strategies in patients with smell ...
ONeil, John W.; Steyn, Ben J.M. (Barend Johannes Marthinus)
The aim of this study was to determine the coping strategies that non-elite athletes use to overcome environmental factors during endurance events. A sample of 53 nonelite endurance athletes completed a questionnaire and interviews were conducted. The research focused on exploring individual experiences as well as identifying themes and patterns of behaviour during endurance events. The results indicated that endurance athletes used basically three coping strategies (responses) that were iden...
Full Text Available Modeling depression in animals is based on the observation of behaviors interpreted as analogue to human symptoms. Typical tests used in experimental depression research are designed to evoke an either-or outcome. It is known that explorative and coping strategies are relevant for depression, however these aspects are generally not considered in animal behavioral testing. Here we investigate the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL, a rat model of depression, compared to the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat in three independent tests where the animals are allowed to express a more extensive behavioral repertoire. The multivariate concentric square fieldâ¢ (MCSF and the novel cage tests evoke exploratory behaviors in a novel environment and the home cage change test evokes social behaviors in the re-establishment of a social hierarchy. In the MCSF test, FSL rats exhibited less exploratory drive and more risk-assessment behavior compared to SD rats. When re-exposed to the arena, FSL, but not SD rats, increased their exploratory behavior compared to the first trial and displayed risk-assessment behavior to the same extent as SD rats. Thus, the behavior of FSL rats was more similar to that of SDs when the rats were familiar with the arena. In the novel cage test FSL rats exhibited a reactive coping style, consistent with the reduced exploration observed in the MCSF. Reactive coping is associated with less aggressive behavior. Accordingly, FSL rats displayed less aggressive behavior in the home cage change test. Taken together, our data show that FSL rats express altered explorative behavior and reactive coping style. Reduced interest is a core symptom of depression, and individuals with a reactive coping style are more vulnerable to the disease. Our results support the use of FSL rats as an animal model of depression and increase our understanding of the FSL rat beyond the behavioral dimensions targeted by the traditional depression-related tests.
Wargnies, E; Houzé, L; Vanneste, J; Perez, T; Wallaert, B
The considerable progress that has been made in the treatment of cystic fibrosis has significantly increased life expectancy. The multi-disciplinary approach is now considered to be a priority by centers providing care for adults with cystic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate three psychological morbidities that are commonly present with this disease: depression, anxiety and poor coping mechanisms for stress. Sixteen subjects (aged 19 to 37 years) participated in this study and were divided in three groups according to the severity of their pulmonary disease. Assessments of depression and anxiety were made from two perspectives: 1) the subject's own perception of his/her depressive and anxious state; 2) a psychologist's assessment of the patients depressive and anxious state. Then, reactions to stress were explored by analyzing "coping" strategies employed. Results indicate that patients underestimated the level of their depressive and anxious state when compared to the psychologists assessment. The majority of them exhibited "coping" strategies based on emotional responses. Levels of anxiety and depression did not show any relationship with the severity of pulmonary disease suggesting that the major determinant of emotional well-being lies with the individual's own perception of their state and of the support available to them. PMID:17546812
Flanagan-Howard, Roisín; Carr, Alan; Shevlin, Mark; Dooley, Barbara A.; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Tierney, Kevin; WhiteWhite, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan
Objective. To develop a psychometric instrument to evaluate psychological processes associated with institutional abuse and coping strategies used to deal with such abuse. Methods. As part of a comprehensive assessment protocol, an inventory containing theoretically derived multi-item rational scales which assessed institutional abuse-related psychological processes and coping strategies were administered to 247 Irish adult survivors of institutional child abuse. Exploratory and conf...
Seher BALCI ÇEL?K
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the coping strategies with stres of the students who are from the Turkish Republic and those of the Middle Asian Turkish Republics. The population of the study consists of the students from Middle Asian Turkish Republics at Ondokuz May?s University in 2004-2005 Academic Year. This study was carried out on a total number of 437 students; 125 of them are from Middle Asian Turkish Republics and 312 from Turkish Republic. In this study, to determine the level of stres, Coping Stres Scale (CSS developed by Türküm (2002 based on the Folkman and Lazarus Models was used. According to the results of MANOVA, there is no significant difference between the Coping Strategies with stres of the students from Turkish Republics and the students from Middle Asian Turkish Republics in terms of sub-scale.
Brittian, Aerika S.; Toomey, Russell B.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Dumka, Larry E.
The literature identifying effective coping strategies related to perceived discrimination has yielded mixed findings, suggesting that recommendations for effective coping may vary by individual and group differences. The current study examined the influence of perceived discrimination and coping strategies on Mexican origin adolescents later internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, and assessed the moderating roles of gender and cultural orientation. Participants included 189 ado...
Judora J. Spangenberg
Full Text Available To examine the relationships between stress levels and, respectively, stressor appraisal, coping strategies and bio- graphical variables, 107 managers completed a biographical questionnaire. Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire, and Coping Strategy Indicator. Significant negative correlations were found between stress levels and appraisal scores on all work-related stressors. An avoidant coping strategy explained significant variance in stress levels in a model also containing social support-seeking and problem-solving coping strategies. It was concluded that an avoidant coping strategy probably contributed to increased stress levels. Female managers experienced significantly higher stress levels and utilized a social support-seeking coping strategy significantly more than male managers did. Opsomming Om die verband tussen stresvlakke en, onderskeidelik, taksering van stressors, streshanteringstrategiee en biografiese veranderlikes te ondersoek, het 107 bestuurders n biografiese vraelys, Ervaring vanWerk- en Lewensomstandighedevraelys en Streshanteringstrategieskaal voltooi. Beduidende negatiewe korrelasies is aangetref tussen stresvlakke en takseringtellings ten opsigte van alle werkverwante stressors. 'nVermydende streshantermgstrategie het beduidende variansie in stresvlakke verklaar in n model wat ook sosiale ondersteuningsoekende en pro-bleemoplossende streshanteringstrategiee ingesluit het. Die gevolgtrekking is bereik dat n vermydende stres- hanteringstrategie waarskynlik bygedra het tot verhoogde stresvlakke. Vroulike bestuurders het beduidend hoer stresvlakke ervaar en het n sosiale ondersteuningsoekende streshanteringstrategie beduidend meer gebnnk as manlike bestuurders.
Full Text Available We analyze statistical data concerning the level of criminal and deviant behavior in adolescents in the Russian Federation. With a focus on the mechanisms of coping with the stress, we describe approaches to studying risk factors for aggression in adolescents. We report the results of a preliminary empirical study aimed at identifying the specific coping strategies in adolescents with particular character traits who are prone to aggressive response. The authors note that as factors that increase the likelihood of aggressive response, one can considered a tendency to confrontation and unwillingness of constructive and rational problem-solving, as well as low self-control over emotional impulses. The important role in the formation of readiness to aggressive responses plays the emotion of anger and hostile perception of situations
Rossana De Feudis
Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the role of coping strategies in predicting emotional distress following breast cancer, over and above the illness severity, operationalized in terms of the type of surgery performed. In order to achieve this goal, two groups of newly diagnosed breast cancer women were selected and compared on the basis of the type of surgical treatment received. A subsample of 30 women with quadrantectomy and sentinel lymph-node biopsy (SLNB and a subsample of 31 patients with mastectomy and axillary dissection (MAD filled in the Brief Cope scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Summarizing, results showed that emotional support, venting, and humor explained a statistically significant increment of variance in psychological distress indices. Implication for clinical practice and future research were discussed.
Débora Dalbosco Dell'Aglio
Full Text Available Este estudo investigou estratégias de coping, definidas como esforços cognitivos e comportamentais utilizados frente a circunstâncias adversas, e o estilo atribucional de crianças de oito a dez anos. As crianças foram entrevistadas e suas respostas permitiram identificar 100 eventos, as estratégias utilizadas pelas crianças para lidarem com a situação estressante e suas atribuições causais para a ocorrência do evento. Os resultados indicaram uma utilização preferencial de estratégias de busca de apoio social e de ação agressiva frente ao conflito. Como estratégia alternativa, as crianças apontaram preferência pela estratégia de ação direta. A distração foi a estratégia mais utilizada para lidar com as emoções desencadeadas pelo evento. Nos eventos que envolveram conflitos com adultos, as estratégias de ação direta, evitação e aceitação foram mais utilizadas, enquanto que com pares as estratégias de ação agressiva e busca de apoio social foram mais freqüentes. Não foram encontradas relações significativas entre as estratégias de coping e estilo atribucional. Os resultados deste estudo reforçam a posição de que as estratégias de coping não são simplesmente disposicionais, mas determinadas pelo contexto do evento estressante.This study investigated coping strategies, defined as cognitive and behavioral efforts to deal with stressful situations, and the attributional styles utilized by 8-10 year-old children. The children were interviewed and their responses led to the identification of 100 stressful events, the strategies they employed to deal with theses events, and their causal attributions for the events. The results indicated that the strategies children used more often to deal with conflict were to look for social support and aggressive actions. As an alternative strategy, the children indicated a preference for direct action. Distraction was the main strategy to deal with emotions elicited by the event. Direct action, avoidance, and acceptance strategies were more used in situations involving conflicts with adults, while aggressive actions and seeking social support were more frequent in situations involving peers. No significant differences were identified between coping strategies and attributional styles. The results of this study support the hypothesis that coping strategies are not dispositional and that they seem to be determined by the context of the event
Burnard, P; Edwards, D; Fothergill, A; Hannigan, B; Coyle, D
There is evidence to suggest that community mental health nurses experience stress and burnout related to their work. Previous research has been limited by a number of methodological problems. One of the problems is that studies have tended to have small or unrepresentative samples, and many researchers have only examined mental health nurses as a subset within their research, which limits the generalizability of the findings. The All-Wales Community Mental Health Nurse (CMHN) Stress Study was set up in order to address this issue. The total population of CMHNs in Wales was surveyed (N = 614) and 301 (49%) responded. The questionnaire booklet contained a number of validated instruments to measure stress, burnout, and coping, together with a demographic questionnaire. The demographic questionnaire included three open ended-questions. These questions were asked in order in determine the CMHNs' own views of the sources of stress in the workplace, and to investigate which methods they use to cope. This paper reports the findings from the content analysis of the three questions. The results from the other measures are reported in the companion paper (Edwards et al. 2000). The most frequently cited stressors included perceived workload, excessive paperwork and administration, and a broad spectrum of client-related issues. Coping strategies that CMHNs reported using included peer support, a range of personal strategies such as relaxation, and belief in self and supervision. It appears from the findings that a range of factors such as organizational pressures and factors related to working with patients are important in determining stress levels, and that informal rather than formal support networks are the preferred methods of coping. PMID:11933510
Alastair van Heerden
Full Text Available Introduction: In South Africa where HIV prevalence is high, mentor mother programmes have been used to promote the health and wellbeing of women enrolled in government programmes preventing vertical transmission. The Masihambisane Project trained mentors to be educators and facilitators as expert patients in self-help groups. While this and other similar interventions demonstrate positive outcomes for mothers and their children, the long-term repercussions for mentors delivering the intervention are seldom considered. This article explores the personal impact of being a mentor, the potentially traumatizing effects of repeatedly sharing their experiences of living with HIV and the coping strategies they adopt. Results: Towards the end of the Masihambisane intervention, 10 semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with locally recruited mentors living with HIV and were thematically analysed. Mentors found the repeated telling of their stories a painful reminder of adverse personal experiences. In some cases, retelling caused a physical reaction. Mentors relied on coping strategies like taking breaks, writing their experiences down and debriefing sessions. Despite the difficulties associated with their role, some mentors found being advisors and the group sessions therapeutic and empowering. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the inclusion of peer mentors comes with certain responsibilities. While the mentors were resilient and some found the experience therapeutic and empowering found creative ways to cope with secondary trauma, the negative implications cannot be ignored. To effectively deliver a mentor-driven intervention to mothers enrolled in a programme to prevent vertical transmission, the possibilities of secondary trauma should be considered and mentors provided with ongoing counselling, training on coping skills and regular debriefing sessions.
Susana, Caires; Cândida, Silva.
Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um estudo realizado com 341 finalistas do ensino secundário do Norte de Portugal, visando à exploração do tipo e níveis de stress experienciados pelos alunos, e estratégias de coping mais frequentemente utilizadas. Os dados - recolhidos por meio do Inventário de Fatores de St [...] ress (12º ano) e do Inventário de Estratégias de Coping dos Adolescentes face a Experiências Problemáticas - revelam níveis de stress medianos, destacando-se a área acadêmica como a de maior dificuldade. A "Procura de apoio fora da família "; a "Resolução ativa dos problemas "e a "Distração e relativização da situação "surgem como as estratégias de coping mais frequentes. Destaca-se o papel diferenciador das variáveis gênero, escolaridade dos pais e rendimento escolar dos alunos nos níveis de stress experienciado. Abstract in english This paper presents a study involving 341 High School final-year students (from the North of Portugal), aimed at the exploration of the type and levels of stress experienced in their day-to-day lives, as well as the coping strategies they most frequently adopt. The data, based on the application of [...] the Inventory of Stress Factors (12th grade) and the Inventory of Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences, reveal medium stress levels and identify the academic factors as the most stressful. The "Search for support outside the family", the "Active problem solving "and the "Distraction and problem minimization "emerge as the most frequent coping strategies. Results also highlight the influence of gender, parents' level of education, and students' school performance on the levels of stress experienced by this group of final-year students.
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and the use of stress-coping strategies among college students. The sample consisted of 532 university students who were enrolled in different programs at Sakarya University, in Turkey. Of the participants, 279 were female and 253 were male. To assess strategies typically used in coping with stressful situations, the Coping Scale (Ozbay & Olivarez, 1999 and to measure achievement goal orientations of the sample the Achievement Goal Orientations Scale (Midgley et al.,1998 were administrated. Canonical correlation and MANOVA were conducted to statistically analyze the data. Consistent with hypotheses, results demonstrated that there were high relationships between students achievement goal orientations and their use of coping strategies.
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and the use of stress-coping strategies among college students. The sample consisted of 532 university students who were enrolled in different programs at Sakarya University, in Turkey. Of the participants, 279 were female and 253 were male. To assess strategies typically used in coping with stressful situations, the Coping Scale (Ozbay & Olivarez, 1999 and to measure achievement goal orientations of the sample the Achievement Goal Orientations Scale (Midgley et al.,1998 were administrated. Canonical correlation and MANOVA were conducted to statistically analyze the data. Consistent with hypotheses, results demonstrated that there were high relationships between students achievement goal orientations and their use of coping strategies.
Full Text Available Sport coaching can be a fulfilling and rewarding occupation, but can also be stressful because of the demands and expectations of various external factors. The complex and extraordinary demands placed on coaches, force them to perform multiple roles (e.g. educator, motivator, counsellor, adviser, trainer, manager and administrator. Soccer coaches face a number of challenges, frustrations, conflicts and tensions, the enormity of which is often underestimated. This notion is supported by the description of coaching as a perilous occupation in which coaches experience pressures like stress, conflict and tension, media pressure and intrusions into family life. This study explored the perceptions of South African soccer coaches in terms of the mechanisms they use to cope with potential stressors experienced in their jobs and employed a non-experimental design, using a quantitative approach, to assess stress and coping strategies of South African coaches. One hundred and twelve soccer coaches, coaching at the provincial level and higher, completed a questionnaire on stress and stress coping mechanisms used in their coaching jobs. Descriptive data analysis was completed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16. The sources of stress experienced and coping methods used by the coaches were evaluated. Results revealed that the top three sources of stress were a lack of resources, fixture backlog and games where the outcome is critical, whilst the lowest three sources of stress were political interference, physical assaults from players and substituting a player. Moreover, various coping strategies used by the coaches showed that an average of 5.68%, 5.14% and 89.78% of the sample used maladaptive coping, emotion management coping and problem management coping strategies respectively. Academic and practical implications of the study results are discussed.
OpsommingSport afrigting kan n baie vervullende en bevredigende beroepskeuse wees, maar as gevolg van die eise en verwagtinge van verskeie omgewings faktore, kan dit ook as n spanningsvolle beroep ervaar word. Afrigters moet verskeie rolle vertolk (o.a. opvoeder, motiveerder, sielkundige, adviseerder, afrigter, bestuurder en administrateur wat deel uitmaak van die komplekse en buitengewone eise wat op hulle geplaas word. Sokker afrigters beleef n aantal uitdagings, konflik situasies, frustrasies en spanning waarvan die impak of waarde daarvan selde gemeet kan word. Afrigting as n konsep word beskryf of gedefinieer as n potensieel onveilige en/of wisselvallige beroep waar die meerderheid afrigters spanning ervaar, konflik beleef, media druk moet verwerk en n geweldige inbreuk op hul persoonlike en familielewe ervaar. Hierdie studie ondersoek Suid-Afrikaanse sokker afrigters se persepsies aangaande die meganismes wat hulle gebruik om die potensiële spanning van hul beroep te bestuur. Die studie is gebaseer op n nie-eksperimentele ontwerp met n kwantitatiewe benadering van Suid-Afrikaanse sokker afrigters om spanning te evalueer en te bestuur. Een honderd en twaalf sokker afrigters wat op provinsiale vlak of hoër afgerig het, het vraelyste ingevul aangaande spanning en spanning hanteringstegnieke wat in hul afrigtingsberoepe gebruik is. Beskrywende data analise is met behulp van n statistiese pakket in Sosiale Wetenskap (SPSS-weergawe 16 gedoen. Die oorsake van spanning asook die hanteringstegnieke wat deur die afrigters gebruik is, is geevalueer. Die resultate het bevind dat daar drie duidelike oorsake van spanning was, naamlik n tekort aan hulpbronne, die akkumulasie van geskeduleerde wedstryde asook wedstryde waarvan die uitslag krities is. Die drie laagste oorsake van spanning was onder andere politieke inmenging, fisiese aanranding deur spelers en die vervanging van spelers. Die afrigters het n verskeidenheid van spannings hanteringstegnieke gebruik, maar die resultate toon dat 5.68%, 5.14% en 89.78% van die eksperimente
Psycho-social risks at work: stress and coping strategies in oncology nurses / Riesgos psicosociales en el trabajo: estrés y estrategias de coping en enfermeros en oncología / Riscos psicossociais no trabalho: estresse e estratégias de coping em enfermeiros em oncologia
Sandra da Fonte Sousa, Gomes; Margarida Maria Magalhães Cabugueira Custódio dos, Santos; Elisabete Teresa da Mata Almeida, Carolino.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar fontes de estresse e estratégias de coping em enfermeiros que exercem funções em três Serviços de Oncologia de Cirurgia Cabeça e Pescoço, de três hospitais centrais de Portugal. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, de carácter descritivo e exploratório, cuja amostra foi constituíd [...] a pelos 96 enfermeiros dos três serviços. Na recolha de dados, foram utilizados: Questionário Sociodemográfico, Questionário de Saúde Geral-12, Inventário de Estressores Ocupacionais e Brief COPE. RESULTADOS: verificaram-se níveis razoáveis de saúde geral. Os estressores mais referidos foram: sobrecarga de trabalho, baixa remuneração salarial, espaço físico onde se desenvolve a profissão, situações emocionalmente perturbadoras e falta de reconhecimento da profissão. As estratégias de coping mais utilizadas foram: planeamento, coping ativo, aceitação e autodistração. CONCLUSÃO: os estressores identificados relacionam-se principalmente a aspetos organizacionais e condições de trabalho, e as estratégias de coping escolhidas estão direcionadas para a resolução de problemas e melhoria do bem-estar dos enfermeiros. Percentagem expressiva de enfermeiros apresentou níveis elevados de pressão e emoções deprimidas. Os resultados apresentados corroboram estudos anteriores que alertam para a importância do desenvolvimento de estratégias de prevenção dos níveis de estresse. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: identificar fuentes de estrés y estrategias de coping en enfermeros que ejercen funciones en tres Servicios de Oncología de Cirugía Cabeza y Cuello, de tres hospitales centrales de Portugal. MÉTODO: estudio transversal, de carácter descriptivo y exploratorio, cuya muestra fue constit [...] uida por los 96 enfermeros de los tres servicios. En la recolección de datos fueron utilizados: Cuestionario Socio-demográfico; Cuestionario de Salud General-12; Inventario de estresores Ocupacionales; Brief COPE. RESULTADOS: se verificaron niveles razonables de salud general. Los estresores más referidos fueron: sobrecarga de trabajo; baja remuneración salarial; espacio físico donde se desarrolla la profesión; situaciones emocionalmente perturbadoras y falta de reconocimiento de la profesión. Las estrategias de coping más utilizadas fueron: planificación; coping activo; aceptación y auto-distracción. CONCLUSIÓN: los estresores identificados se relacionan principalmente con aspectos de organización y condiciones de trabajo, y las estrategias de coping escogidas están dirigidas para la resolución de problemas y la mejoría del bienestar de los enfermeros. Un porcentaje expresivo de enfermeros presentó niveles elevados de presión y emociones de depresión. Los resultados presentados corroboran estudios anteriores que alertan para la importancia del desarrollo de estrategias de prevención de los niveles de estrés. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to identify sources of stress and coping strategies in nurses who work in three Head and Neck Surgery Oncology Services, in three central hospitals in Portugal. METHOD: a cross-sectional descriptive-exploratory study, whose sample was made up of the 96 nurses from the three services [...] . The following were used in the data collection: a socio-demographic questionnaire; the 12-item General Health Questionnaire; and the Occupational Stress Inventory; Brief COPE. RESULTS: reasonable levels of general health were ascertained. The most-mentioned stressors were: burden with work; low pay; the physical space where they work; emotionally-disturbing situations and lack of recognition of the profession. The most-used coping strategies were: planning; active coping; acceptance and self-distraction. CONCLUSION: the stressors identified are mainly related to organizational aspects and work conditions, and the coping strategies chosen are aimed at resolving problems and improving the nurses' well-being. A significant percentage of the nurses presents high levels of pressure and depressed emotions. The results presented corroborate pre
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as estratégias de coping adotadas por crianças vítimas e não vítimas de violência doméstica, quando inseridas no microssistema escolar. Participaram da pesquisa 87 crianças divididas em dois grupos: 49 vítimas e 38 não vítimas de violência doméstica, as quais responderam a uma entrevista estruturada nas suas escolas, que visava a identificar os problemas mais freqüentes experienciados com os professores e com os colegas e as estratégias de coping utilizadas. As crianças vítimas de violência doméstica apontaram como problema de maior freqüência as agressões verbais por parte da professora e a estratégia de coping de agredir fisicamente para lidar nos conflitos com seus pares. As crianças não vítimas citaram com maior freqüência a busca de apoio de outras pessoas como estratégia para lidar com seus problemas junto aos colegas. As meninas adotaram a inação, quando enfrentam problemas com seus professores e se incomodam mais com as agressões verbais destes. Os resultados são discutidos levando em conta o contexto ecológico e as relações hierárquicas e apontam subsídios para programas de intervenção, que promovam resiliência e adaptação sadia de criançasà escola.The present study aimed to investigate coping strategies of domestic violence victimized and non-victimized children in school's microsystem. Eighty-seven children, divided in two groups participated in this study: 49 victimized and 38 non-victimized children. They answered a structured interview to identify the most frequent conflicts faced with teachers and classmates and the coping strategies to deal with those issues. The victimized children reported higher frequency of verbal aggression from teachers, and physical aggressions as coping strategies to deal with peers. The non-victimized children seemed to look for others' support as coping strategies to deal with problems they have with their classmates. Girls did not seem to act when they faced problems with their teachers, and they felt more upset with teacher's verbal aggression. Results are discussed based on the ecological context and hierarchical relations, and give subsidies out to support intervention programs, to promote resilience and children's healthy adaptation to school.
Full Text Available Our experience of stress depends on how we evaluate the circumstances impacting our individual well-being. In principle, any event can be a stressor. Certain events can produce complex emotional states, such as a mixture of anger and worry. If such states are prolonged, they can lead to stress. Stress can be identified by means of such expressive components as facial expression and signs of stress in the voice. Indeed, the voice is particularly sensitive to stress and is frequently used to measure stress levels. Coping strategies differ from person to person and are not mutually exclusive. Often, people use multiple strategies at the same time. Not all of these strategies are good for individual well-being or favor a cooperation-based work culture. To avoid employee burnout, companies should keep an eye on the stress load of their employees and develop trainings to increase emotional competences and improve constructive stress management.
R. Irawati Ismail
Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Beberapa strategi penanganan yang dapat mengurangi tingkat stres. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengidentifikasi beberapa strategi yang dominan terhadap tingkat skor stres total.Metode:Pada penelitian potong lintang dengan sampel purposif mahasiswa kedokteran pasca sarjana Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia pada bulan April-Juli 2011. Kuesioner yang digunakan ialah kuesioner strategi mengurangi stres dan self reporting questionnaire WHO (SRQ-20. Regresi liniar digunakan Untuk mengidentifikasi faktor dominan terhadap tingkat stres dipergunakan regresi linear.Hasil: Subjek terdiri dari 272 orang, usia 23-44 tahun. Empat hal menurunkan skor stres total (menerima realitas, berbicara dengan seseorang yang dapat melakukan sesuatu, meminta bantuan Allah, dan menertawakan situasi yang bermasalah. Sebaiknya tiga faktor meningkatkan skor stres total (menyelesaikan langkah demi langkah pada suatu waktu, berbicara dengan seseorang untuk mengetahui lebih lanjut tentang situasi, dan mengakui tidak bisa menangani pemecahan situasi. Satu poin menerima realitas situasi mengurangi 0,493 poin skor total stress [koefisien regresi (? = -0,493, P = 0,002]. Sementara satu poin mencari pertolongan Allah akan mengurangi 0,307 poin skor stres total (? = -0,307, P = 0,056. Namun, satu poin melakukan satu langkah pada suatu waktu akan meningkatkan 0,54 poin skor stres total (? = 0,540, P = 0,005.Kesimpulan: Menerima realitas, berbicara dengan seseorang yang dapat melakukan sesuatu, meminta bantuan Allah, dan menertawakan situasi akan menurunkan tingkat stres. Sebaiknya, menyelesaikan langkah demi langkah pada suatu waktu, berbicara dengan seseorang untuk mengetahui lebih lanjut tentang situasi, dan mengakui tidak bisa menangani memecahkan situasi, meningkatkan skor stres total.Kata kunci:strategi pengendalan stres, meminta pertolongan AlllahAbstractBackground:Several coping strategies may minimize stress levels. This study aimed to identify several dominant coping strategies related to total stress score levels.Methods:A cross-sectional purposive sampling method study among postgraduate medical students of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia was done April-July 2011. We used a coping strategies questionnaire and the WHO SRQ-20. Linear regression was used to identify dominant coping strategies related to stress levels.Results:This study had 272 subjects, aged 23-47 years. Four items decreased the total stress score (accepting the reality of the fact, talking to someone who could do something, seeking Gods help, and laughing about the situation. However, three factors increased the total stress score (taking one step at a time has to be done, talking to someone to find out more about the situation, and admitting cant deal solving the situation. One point of accepting the reality of the situation reduced 0.493 points the total stress score [regression coefficient (?= -0.493; P=0.002]. While one point seeking Gods help reduced 0.307 points the total stress score (?= -0.307; P=0.056. However, one point of doing one step at a time increased 0.54 point the total stress score (?=0.540; P=0.005.Conclusions: Accepting the reality of the situation, talking to someone who could do something, seeking Gods help, and laughing about the situation decreased the stress level. However, taking one step at a time, talking to someone to find out more about the situation and admitting cant deal solving the situation, increased the total stress score.Key words:stress level, coping strategies, age, seeking Gods help
Luby Stephen P
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the out-of pocket expenditure and coping strategies adopted by families of children admitted in a hospital in Bangladesh with pneumonia. Methods Trained interviewers surveyed parents of 90 children and conducted in-depth interviews with six families below the age of 5 years who were admitted to the largest pediatric hospital in Bangladesh with a diagnosis of pneumonia. We estimated the total cost of illness associated with hospitalization and explored the coping strategies of the families. Results The mean expenditure of the families for the illness episode was US$ 94 (±SD 52.5 with 75% having spent more than half of their total monthly expenditure on this hospitalization. Three fourths (68/90, 76% of the families managed the expenditure by borrowing, mortgaging or selling assets; 64% had to borrow the full cost of hospitalization and 10% borrowed from the formal sector with a monthly interest rate of 5 to 30%. The burden was highest for the people from poor income strata. Families earning ?US$ 59 per month were 10 times more likely than families earning ?US$ 59 per month to borrow money (OR = 10.0, 95% CI: 2.8-38.8. To repay their debts, 22% of families reported that they would work extra hours and 50% planned to reduce spending on food and education for their children. Conclusions Coping strategies adopted by the families to manage the out-of-pocket expenditure for children requiring hospitalization were catastrophic for the majority of the families. Efforts to prevent childhood pneumonia for example, by vaccination against the most common pathogens, by improving air quality and by improving childhood nutrition can provide a double advantage. They can prevent both disease and poverty.
People are exposed to different environmental risks, their manifestations harm people according to the magnitude, intensity and the number of people concerned. This subject is very ample, therefore we consider only two kinds of risks: the natural risks (especially earthquakes) that have always threatened humanity, and the industrial risks that characterise our modern society. We are interested in risk perception, stress and coping strategies in these two kinds of extreme situations. We concentrate our study on two Mexican events: an industrial explosion accident in 1984 and 1985 (big earthquake, both devastated big urban zones. The consequences were enormous at all levels: personal, psychological, social, political and economical. Facing risk situations people can have stress reactions when a sign of danger appears. According to Jean RIVOLIER (1994), these situations must not be confounded with banal events of everyday life. Stress in those cases is not the stress we confront everyday, so people have to apply other strategies to face she stress and the incidents of the kind of extreme situations. To tackle our subject we are going to review some concepts used in our study: stress, coping strategies and risk perception. (author)
Marilú Bouchon; Milena Arias Schreiber; Miguel Ñiquen
The Peruvian anchovy fishery is the largest worldwide in terms of catches. The fishery started during the mid 1950s, and since then it has been highly dependent on natural stock fluctuations, due to the sensitivity of anchovy stocks to ocean-climate variability. The main driver of anchovy stock variability is the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and three extreme ENSO warm events were recorded in 19721973, 19831984 and 19971998. This study investigates the evolution of coping strategie...
Bakibinga, Pauline; Vinje, Hege Forbech; Mittelmark, Maurice
Nursing in Uganda is a highly stressful, underpaid profession, leading to worrisome attrition levels; yet some nurses do manage to stay on the job and thrive. This study explored the ways in which religion influences the work lives and coping strategies of Ugandan nurses who thrive despite job stress. Participants were 15 female nurses working in faith-based and non-faith-based facilities in Uganda. The nurses were all actively religious people, a fact not known at the time they were recruited. All the nurses revealed that religious values affected their performance positively, enabling them to find meaning even in the face of adversity. PMID:23670725
Santosh Patil*, Madhura M and Abdul khadar
Everyone suffers from one or other form stress. But how does our medical student fare in this aspect when they enter this vast, ever expanding and demanding field of medicine. This is our small step to look from eyes of our student. The aim of this study was to enumerate the stress symptoms experienced, followed by evaluating the causes of stress and coping strategies in south Indian medical students. A cross-sectional study was performed on first year medical students at Melmaruvathur Adhipa...
Seyi Olalekan, Olawuyi
Full Text Available Rural households in Nigeria are vulnerable to shock becauseof their limited capacity to make informed decision onsecured coping strategies which is further aggravated by somehouseholds specific socio-economic characteristics. Attemptswere made to identify shocks being faced by households headsand coping strategies. Multistage sampling technique was usedto select 80 respondents and well structured questionnaire wasused to collect data through in-depth interview. Data wereanalysed using descriptive statistics to describe households socio-economic variables; Probit analysis was also used to determinethe relationship between personal socio-economic characteristicsof the respondents, shocks and choice of coping actions. Theresults revealed that a large share of households experiencemultidimensional shocks, which are mainly associated toecological but also suffer from other economic, demographicand social factors. Majority of households undertake copingactions in response to shocks; coping strategies employed butnot limited to include borrowing, distress sales of assets,remittances, adjustment in food intake, drawing on savings. Educational status, household size, per capita income, shocks type,coping strategies, among others are found to significantly affectthe choice of coping actions and are likely to have implicationsfor households future welfare status.
Stressing factors and coping strategies used by oncology nurses / Fatores estressantes e estratégias de coping dos enfermeiros atuantes em oncologia / Factores estresantes y estrategias de coping utilizadas por los enfermeros que actúan en oncología
Andrea Bezerra, Rodrigues; Eliane Corrêa, Chaves.
Full Text Available Na especialidade oncologia, são muitos os fatores que podem conduzir o profissional de enfermagem ao stress ocupacional. Para tentar controlar essa situação, o indivíduo pode utilizar estratégias de coping, que é um esforço cognitivo e comportamental utilizado frente a evento estressor. Os objetivos [...] desse estudo foram identificar os fatores estressantes para enfermeiros que atuam em oncologia e verificar as estratégias de coping utilizadas pelos mesmos. Foram utilizados dois questionários: um inventário de dados demográficos, construído pela autora, e o inventário de estratégias de coping de Folkman e Lazarus. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que os fatores considerados mais estressantes para os enfermeiros de oncologia são: o óbito dos pacientes (28,6%), as situações de emergência (16,9%), os problemas de relacionamento com a equipe de enfermagem (15,5%) e as situações relacionadas ao processo de trabalho (15,5%). Na população estudada, a estratégia de coping mais utilizada foi a reavaliação positiva. Abstract in spanish En la especialidad de Oncología son muchos los factores que pueden conducir al profesional de enfermería al estrés ocupacional. Para tratar de controlar esa situación, el individuo puede utilizar estrategias de coping, que es un esfuerzo cognitivo y de comportamiento utilizado frente a un evento que [...] causa estrés. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron identificar los factores que causan estrés en los enfermeros que actúan en Oncología y verificar las estrategias de coping utilizadas por los mismos. Se utilizaron dos cuestionarios: uno para el inventario de datos demográficos construido por la autora y otro para el inventario de estrategias de coping de Folkman y Lazarus. Los resultados de la investigación muestran que los factores considerados más estresantes por los enfermeros de Oncología son: la muerte de los pacientes (28,6%), las situaciones de emergencia (16,9%), los problemas de relación dentro del equipo de enfermería (15,5%) y las situaciones relacionadas al proceso de trabajo (15,5%). En la población estudiada, la estrategia de coping más utilizada fue la de reevaluación positiva. Abstract in english In the oncology specialty, many factors can result in occupational stress in nursing professionals. As an attempt to controlling this situation, individuals may use coping strategies. Coping is a cognitive and behavioral effort one uses to face a stressful situation. The aims of this study were to i [...] dentify the stressful factors regarding oncology nurses, and to verify what coping strategies they use. Two questionnaires were used: a demographic data inventory, designed by the researcher, and the Folkman and Lazarus coping strategies inventory. The results showed that the main stressful factors for oncology nurses are patient death (28.6%), emergency situations (16.9%), relationship issues with the nursing team (15.5%), and work-process situations (15.5%). In the studied population, the main coping strategy used was positive reappraisal.
Marina, Kohlsdorf; Áderson Luiz da, Costa Junior.
Full Text Available Este trabalho efetua uma revisão de literatura na área de psiconcologia pediátrica, destacando estudos e pesquisas relativos ao tema do enfrentamento da doença e do tratamento, publicados entre 1996 e 2007. Os resultados dos estudos evidenciam que um tratamento onco-hematológico pediátrico está asso [...] ciado a diversas mudanças na dinâmica familiar, rotina pessoal e modificação de repertórios de comportamentos, como conseqüências do tratamento médico prolongado, episódios de internação hospitalar, exposição a procedimentos médicos invasivos e a protocolos de quimioterapia antineoplásica, além de vivências de ansiedade, dúvidas, medos e perdas. Constata-se, ainda, a necessidade de investigação, na literatura nacional, do processo de desenvolvimento de diferentes estratégias de enfrentamento adotadas por cuidadores de populações pediátricas submetidas a tratamento onco-hematológico. A literatura internacional aponta que são necessários mais estudos que investiguem o processo das mudanças psicossociais, ajustamento psicológico, adaptação e modificações nas estratégias de enfrentamento, ao longo das diversas etapas do tratamento. Abstract in english This paper is a review of literature in pediatric psychoncology, concerning studies and research published between 1996 and 2007, related to parental coping with disease and treatment. The results highlight that pediatric oncohematology treatment is associated with various changes in family dynamics [...] , personal routine, and changes in the behavior repertoire, as a consequence of extended medical care, hospital admissions, submission to invasive procedures and antineoplasic chemotherapy protocols, as well as experiences of anxiety, doubt, fear and loss. It is still necessary to investigate, in national literature, how different coping strategies are developed by pediatric caregivers, during cancer treatment. International literature suggests that more research is needed into the process of psychosocial changes, psychological adjustment, adaptation, and changes in coping strategies, during the course of the various stages of treatment.
Balmer, D H; Gikundi, E; Billingsley, M C; Kihuho, F G; Kimani, M; Wang'ondu, J; Njoroge, H
This study investigated the experiences and knowledge of adolescents in Nairobi, Kenya to understand how the decisions they make affect their health. Data were gathered from a sample of 216 youths aged 12-22 years (equally divided between males and females) who lived in lower socioeconomic areas. The youth met in groups of 12 over a period of 6 months. An equal number of groups were all male, all female, and mixed. The educational distribution of the participants varied according to age and was normal for Nairobi. Each group met with a qualified counselor who facilitated discussion. The minutes of the group meetings provided qualitative data. During the first 6 weeks of meetings, the facilitators led the groups through a series of exercises to create an atmosphere in which the youth felt free to express themselves. During the 20-week second stage, an open agenda was used, and the facilitators restricted their role to clarifying issues and resolving conflicts. The topics, which were ranked according to the percentage of time they consumed, included (in order) emerging sexuality, drugs, alcohol, pregnancy, rape (many of the girls were victims and some of the boys were perpetuators), suicide, marriage, religion, abortion, sexually transmitted diseases/AIDS, parents, contraceptives, money, masturbation, lying, politics, language, and leisure/sports. Values expressed in order of importance were parental love, education, honesty, employment, religion, money, personal freedom, friendship, beauty, marriage, and politics. Coping strategies were use of drugs, stealing, masturbation, alcohol, providing sex for favors, noncooperation, lying, secret language, clubs, silence, religion, and exercise/sports. It is concluded that social changes in developing countries have exacerbated the ambiguity experienced by adolescents and that a comprehensive review of adolescents is necessary in order to improve their health. PMID:9215508
Exaustão emocional: relações com a percepção de suporte organizacional e com as estratégias de coping no trabalho / Emotional exhaustion: relationships with the perceived organizational support and coping strategies in the work place
Mauricio Robayo, Tamayo; Bartholomeu Tôrres, Tróccoli.
Full Text Available A exaustão emocional é considerada como o fator central do burnout. Diversas pesquisas mostram que características do ambiente de trabalho e do trabalhador estão associadas ao desenvolvimento da exaustão emocional. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de uma investigação sobre dois aspectos importa [...] ntes para o estudo da exaustão emocional: a percepção de suporte organizacional (PSO) e o coping no trabalho. 369 trabalhadores responderam uma escala de exaustão emocional, uma de PSO e outra de coping no trabalho. Os fatores gestão de desempenho, sobrecarga, suporte social e ascensão e salários da escala de PSO e o fator escape da escala de coping revelaram-se preditores significativos da dimensão exaustão psicológica da escala de exaustão emocional. A segunda dimensão desta escala, percepção de desgaste, só foi predita significativamente pelos fatores suporte social e sobrecarga da escala de PSO. Recomendações para lidar com a exaustão emocional são apresentadas. Abstract in english Emotional exhaustion is regarded as the principal dimension of the burnout. Several studies show that characteristics of job setting and the employee are associated with the development of emotional exhaustion. This study present the results of a research about the relationship among emotional exhau [...] stion, the perceived organizational support (POS) and coping strategies in the work place. 396 workers answered a scale of emotional exhaustion, one of POS and one another of coping. The dimensions performance management, overload, social support and promotion and salaries from the POS scale and the dimension escape from the coping scale were significant predictors of the dimension psychological exhaustion from the emotional exhaustion scale. The second dimension from the emotional exhaustion scale, perception of wear, was significantly predicted only by the factors social support and overload from the POS scale. Recommendations for the management of emotional exhaustion are presented.
Exaustão emocional: relações com a percepção de suporte organizacional e com as estratégias de coping no trabalho Emotional exhaustion: relationships with the perceived organizational support and coping strategies in the work place
Mauricio Robayo Tamayo
Full Text Available A exaustão emocional é considerada como o fator central do burnout. Diversas pesquisas mostram que características do ambiente de trabalho e do trabalhador estão associadas ao desenvolvimento da exaustão emocional. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de uma investigação sobre dois aspectos importantes para o estudo da exaustão emocional: a percepção de suporte organizacional (PSO e o coping no trabalho. 369 trabalhadores responderam uma escala de exaustão emocional, uma de PSO e outra de coping no trabalho. Os fatores gestão de desempenho, sobrecarga, suporte social e ascensão e salários da escala de PSO e o fator escape da escala de coping revelaram-se preditores significativos da dimensão exaustão psicológica da escala de exaustão emocional. A segunda dimensão desta escala, percepção de desgaste, só foi predita significativamente pelos fatores suporte social e sobrecarga da escala de PSO. Recomendações para lidar com a exaustão emocional são apresentadas.Emotional exhaustion is regarded as the principal dimension of the burnout. Several studies show that characteristics of job setting and the employee are associated with the development of emotional exhaustion. This study present the results of a research about the relationship among emotional exhaustion, the perceived organizational support (POS and coping strategies in the work place. 396 workers answered a scale of emotional exhaustion, one of POS and one another of coping. The dimensions performance management, overload, social support and promotion and salaries from the POS scale and the dimension escape from the coping scale were significant predictors of the dimension psychological exhaustion from the emotional exhaustion scale. The second dimension from the emotional exhaustion scale, perception of wear, was significantly predicted only by the factors social support and overload from the POS scale. Recommendations for the management of emotional exhaustion are presented.
Weathers, Benita; Kessler, Lisa; Collier, Aliya; Stopfer, Jill E.; Domchek, Susan; Halbert, Chanita Hughes
This observational study evaluated utilization of religious coping strategies among 95 African American women who were at increased risk for having a BRCA1/BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation. Overall, women reported high levels of collaborative coping; however, women with fewer than 2 affected relatives (? = ?1.97, P = 0.04) and those who had a lower perceived risk of having a BRCA1/2 mutation (? = ?2.72, P = 0.01) reported significantly greater collaborative coping. These results suggest that African ...
Pratishtha Bhattacharyya; Rabindra Kumar Pradhan
Parental child rearing practices are regarded as significant step towards development of coping skills in children and adolescents. The role of fathers in childs progress from infancy through adulthood is undeniable. The unique bond that a father and a child share is instrumental in influencing various behavioural outcomes in children. For a traditional country like India the emergence of active involvement of fathers in parenting is increasingly becoming popular. The present study investiga...
Dias, Cláudia S.; Cruz, José Fernando A.; Fonseca, António Manuel
The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of anxiety, threat perception, and the coping strategies used by Portuguese athletes, and to assess differences between athletes of different sexes, ages and sports. In this investigation there were 550 male and female participating athletes, aged between 15 and 35 years (19.8 ± 4.5), representing several individual and team sports. Subjects filled out the Portuguese versions of the Sport Anxiety Scale  and of the Brief COPE ...
Yoo, Woohyun; Shah, Dhavan V.; Shaw, Bret R; KIM, EUNKYUNG; Smaglik, Paul; ROBERTS, LINDA J.; Hawkins, Robert P.; Pingree, Suzanne; McDowell, Helene; Gustafson, David H
Despite the importance of family environment and computer-mediated social support (CMSS) for women with breast cancer, little is known about the interplay of these sources of care and assistance on patients' coping strategies. To understand this relation, the authors examined the effect of family environment as a predictor of the use of CMSS groups as well as a moderator of the relation between group participation and forms of coping. Data were collected from 111 patients in CMSS groups in th...
Saidatulakmal Mohd; Jamalludin Sulaiman; Senadjki Abdelhak
The wellbeing and livelihoods of people are two important aspects of poverty which in turn area dependent on the households' coping capabilities and their abilities to manage risks. The roles of institutions such as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and particularly the government are important in ensuring the welfare of the people. Empirically, little is known on the link between households' coping strategies, government policies and institutions. This study investigates and analyzes the...
Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce
Objective?The heightened risk of cigarette smoking found among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths may be because smoking serves as a coping strategy used to adapt to the greater stress experienced by LGB youths. The current report examines whether smoking moderates the relation between stress and subsequent psychological distress, and whether alternative coping resources (i.e., social support) moderate the relation between smoking and subsequent distress.?Method?An ethnically diverse sam...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The health insurance system in Taiwan is comprised of public health insurance and private health insurance. The public health insurance, called universal national health insurance (NHI, was first established in 1995 and amended in 2011. The goal of this study is to provide an updated description of several important aspects of health insurance in Taiwan. Of special interest are household insurance coverage, medical expenditures (both gross and out-of-pocket, and coping strategies. Methods Data was collected via a phone call survey conducted in August and September of 2011. A household was the unit for survey and data analysis. A total of 2,424 households covering all major counties and cities in Taiwan were surveyed. Results The survey revealed that households with smaller sizes and higher incomes were more likely to have higher coverage of public and private health insurance. In addition, households with the presence of chronic diseases were more likely to have both types of insurance. Analysis of both gross and out-of-pocket medical expenditure was conducted. It was suggested that health insurance could not fully remove the financial burden caused by illness. The presence of chronic disease and inpatient treatment were significantly associated with higher gross and out-of-pocket medical expenditure. In addition, the presence of inpatient treatment was significantly associated with extremely high medical expenditure. Regional differences were also observed, with households in the northern, central, and southern regions having less gross medical expenditures than those on the offshore islands. Households with the presence of inpatient treatment were more likely to cope with medical expenditure using means other than salaries. Conclusion Despite the considerable achievements of the health insurance system in Taiwan, there is still room for improvement. This study investigated coverage, cost, and coping strategies and may be informative to stakeholders of both basic and commercial health insurance.
MADELYN ROUSELLE A. CRUZAT
Full Text Available There are many studies with regard to problems caused by shift work, thus, shift workers are recently thinking about how to solve and implement behaviors that will reduce the problems caused by their work. The present study sought to determine the effects of shift work in a Business Process Outsourcing company in terms of shift workers health, Psychological well â being and their coping mechanisms and provide an Action Plan for training and development. A total number of 210 respondents who were administered Shift Work Index Questionnaire and were tabulated and analyzed using Factor Analysis, ANOVA and Post Hoc Analysis in Sheffe method. The overall results of the study showed that the level of coping mechanisms such as social, domestic, sleep routine and work performance suggests significant difference with the three groups of shift workers, thus, the hypothesis is rejected. However, health and well â being do not show significant difference as to the response of the three groups of shift workers, hence the hypothesis was supported. In lieu with other researches, it was determined that shift workers have their own coping strategies to deal with their problem and when it results to successful coping, it leads to restoration of physical and psychological well â being. When the coping skills are not adequate the stress may lead to negative physical and psychological well â being. The implications of Action Plan is that BPO Companies may develop and enhance trainings and development seminars and programs which involves Physical health activities, Psychological health programs and Coping Mechanism strategies to limit the problems encountered by shift workers.
INTERVENÇÕES UTILIZADAS NA PROMOÇÃO DE ESTRATÉGIAS DE COPING NA DEPRESSÃO EM MULHERES COM CÂNCER / APPLIED INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE COPING STRATEGIES FOR DEPRESSION AMONG WOMEN WITH CANCER / INTERVENCIONES UTILIZADAS PARA PROMOVER ESTRATEGIAS DE COPING PARA LA DEPRESIÓN ENTRE MUJERES CON CÁNCER
LUCIMARA, MORELI; JEANNE MARIE R, STACCIARINI; ARIANE, DE FREITAS CARDOSO; EMILIA, CAMPOS DE CARVALHO.
Full Text Available A depressão tem sido observada em portadores de doenças crônico-degenerativas, incluindo câncer. A utilização de diferentes estratégias de coping nessas condições patológicas pode ser extremamente importante, em face da presença de fatores estressores e sentimentos indesejáveis. Buscou-se identifica [...] r, por meio de revisão sistemática, os tipos de estudo para promover estratégia de coping e as intervenções utilizadas para promover tais estratégias em situação de depressão, em mulheres com câncer. Foram consultadas três bases de dados eletrônicas, utilizando as palavras chave depression, coping e cancer para busca de publicações em Inglês, Português e Espanhol. A busca foi limitada ao gênero feminino e aos tipos de estudo: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial e review. Foram encontrados 376 artigos, excluídos os que não possuíam texto na íntegra disponível e as repetições em diferentes bases de dados; foram eleitos 22 artigos oriundos de diferentes países (63% da America do Norte), e publicados em periódicos de diferentes áreas de conhecimento; são de modelo experimental (63%); recentes (1996 a 2006); foram adotadas estratégias individuais (59,9%) e grupais; o suporte emocional e a terapia cognitiva foram as mais empregadas. As intervenções que promovam estratégias de coping identificadas podem ser eficazes, com diminuição significante de depressão e aumento de coping e qualidade de vida; recomenda-se que o enfermeiro as empregue para redução de depressão ao longo do processo terapêutico do câncer. Abstract in spanish La depresión ha sido observada en portadores de enfermedades cronico-degenerativas, incluyendo el cáncer. El uso de diferentes estrategias de coping para lidiar con estas condiciones patológicas puede ser extremadamente importante, en vista de la presencia de factores de estrés y sentimientos indese [...] ables. Se buscó identificar, por medio de una revisión sistemática, los tipos de estudio para promover estrategias de coping y las intervenciones usadas para promover tales estrategias en situaciones de depresión en mujeres con cáncer. Fueron consultadas 3 bases de datos electrónicas, utilizando las palabras clave depression, coping y cáncer para buscar publicaciones en inglés, portugués y español. La búsqueda fue limitada al género femenino y a los tipos de estudio: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial y review. Fueron encontrados 376 artículos. Excluidos aquéllos sin texto completo disponible y las repeticiones en diferentes bases de datos, fueron elegidos 22 artículos originarios de diferentes países (63% de América del Norte) y publicados en periódicos de diferentes áreas de conocimiento; son del tipo experimental (63%); recientes (1996 a 2006); fueron adoptadas estrategias individuales (59,9%) y grupales; el apoyo emocional y la terapia cognitiva fueron las más empleadas. Las intervenciones que promueven estrategias de coping identificadas pueden ser eficaces, con disminución significativa de la depresión y aumento del coping y calidad de vida. Se recomienda que el enfermero las emplee para reducir la depresión a lo largo del proceso terapéutico del cáncer. Abstract in english Depression has been observed in patients with chronic-degenerative diseases, including cancer. Using different coping strategies can be extremely important under these pathological conditions, considering the presence of stress and unwanted feelings. The purpose of this systematic review was to iden [...] tify types of studies aimed at promoting coping strategies for depression among women with cancer and interventions used to promote these strategies. Three different electronic databases were reviewed, using the key words depression, coping and cancer to seek publications in English, Portuguese and Spanish, which resulted in 376 articles. The search was limited to female gender and the study types: clinical trial, meta-analysis, randomized control trial and review. After excluding
Lopera, Mónica M; Einarson, Thomas R; Iván Bula, Jorge
Our objective was to estimate the out-of-pocket expenditure related to medical and non-medical items on health care covered by individuals or household members, and to describe coping strategies they use to meet the financial burden. We undertook a cross-sectional survey with a convenience sample of 540 adults with HIV living in urban areas of Bogotá, Colombia. Univariate and bivariate analyses were done. We found that although 95% of the patients with HIV in the sample had health insurance, individuals and families spent about 13% of their incomes on medical and non-medical items monthly. Those costs increased for patients taking the second or third antiretroviral drug (ARV) treatment scheme and for patients with AIDS-related physical disabilities. We found statistically significant differences in spending among different insurance plans and socioeconomic status (SES; p?0.05). As a result of the high out-of-pocket expenses, households had to alter their budgets, reducing consumption of basic needs and modifying financial and social family dynamics. Those coping strategies might increase both current and structural poverty. Lack of comprehensive health care increases the economic burden for patients, in terms of financial but also social impact. PMID:21749222
Until the present day, research on fuel poverty focussing on the point of view of those concerned is few and far between. The present paper aims at filling this gap, analysing experiences with and behavioural responses to fuel poverty. It examines the day-to-day energy situation of households, which are poor/at-risk-of-poverty and/or suffering from fuel poverty in a case study conducted in the Austrian capital Vienna. Qualitative interviews provide the data for investigating the relevant factors in causing fuel poverty (among those, bad housing conditions, outdated appliances, financial problems), and provide a basis for discussion about the respective behavioural strategies of the people concerned. The results show that the ways of handling this problematic situation vary greatly and that people follow different strategies when it comes to inventing solutions for coping with the restrictions and finding ways of satisfying at least a part of their basic energy needs. Nonetheless, it also clearly surfaces that the scope of action is limited in many cases, which in turn only supports the claim that changes in the overall conditions are essential. - Highlights: ? This paper scrutinises experiences with and behavioural reactions to fuel poverty. ? Analysis of 50 qualitative interviews in Viennese low-income households. ? Low-income and/or fuel poor households face various strains. ? Ways of dealing with fuel poverty vary greatly, scope of action is limited. ? Households are very creative when it comes to coping with restricted conditions.
Lalanza, Jaume F; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Cigarroa, Igor; Gagliano, Humberto; Fuentes, Silvia; Armario, Antonio; Capdevila, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M
Recent evidence has revealed the impact of exercise in alleviating anxiety and mood disorders; however, the exercise protocol that exerts such benefit is far from known. The current study was aimed to assess the effects of long-term moderate exercise on behavioural coping strategies (active vs. passive) and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal response in rats. Sprague-Dawley male and female rats were exposed to 32-weeks of treadmill exercise and then tested for two-way active avoidance learning (shuttle-box). Two groups were used as controls: a non-handled sedentary group, receiving no manipulation, and a control group exposed to a stationary treadmill. Female rats displayed shorter escape responses and higher number of avoidance responses, reaching criterion for performance earlier than male rats. In both sexes, exercise shortened escape latencies, increased the total number of avoidances and diminished the number of trials needed to reach criterion for performance. Those effects were greater during acquisition in female rats, but remained over the shuttle-box sessions in treadmill trained male rats. In females, exercise did not change ACTH and corticosterone levels after shuttle-box acquisition. Collectively, treadmill exercise improved active coping strategies in a sex-dependent manner. In a broader context, moderate exercise could serve as a therapeutic intervention for anxiety and mood disorders. PMID:26538081
KneÅ¾eviÄ, Jasmina; KneÅ¾eviÄ, Miroslav
In addition to cope with usual stressful circumstances at work, nowadays, it is important to examine what kind of mental capacities of medical staff are adaptive in respect of a new type of stress â job insecurity. Special focus is put upon self structures as personality determinants and the role they have in coping.. The aim of the study was to determine the role of the self structures in active coping with job insecurity. It was supposed that the increasing integration of self structure...
Renata Brasil, Araujo; Margareth da Silva, Oliveira; Rosemeri Siqueira, Pedroso; Maria da Graça Tanori de, Castro.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a associação entre a intensidade do craving e os tipos de habilidade de coping utilizados por dependentes de tabaco. MÉTODO: Estudo experimental. A amostra foi de 201 sujeitos, com uma média de idade de 38,15 anos. Os participantes foram divididos, al [...] eatoriamente, em grupos de zero, 30 e 60 minutos de abstinência do tabaco. Os instrumentos aplicados foram uma ficha com dados sociodemográficos, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Questionnaire of Smoking Urges e Inventário de Estratégias de Coping. RESULTADOS: As estratégias de coping mais utilizadas, em ordem decrescente, foram aceitação de responsabilidade, auto-controle e distanciamento. Foram encontradas correlações positivas entre a estratégia de confrontamento e total de pontos do Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (rs = 0,146; p = 0,045) e pontos no Fator 1 (rs = 0,165; p = 0,023). CONCLUSÃO: O craving mais intenso pode levar o dependente a utilizar estratégias de confrontamento que são pouco eficientes na contenção das emoções e no enfrentamento das situações de risco de recaída. Este achado é relevante, pois demonstra que, no tratamento de tabagistas, é preciso psicoeducar os pacientes para os riscos da utilização deste tipo de estratégia e ajudá-los para que utilizem novos tipos de estratégias de coping para o manejo do craving. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the intensity of craving and the types of coping skills used by nicotine-dependent patients. METHOD: This was an experimental study. The sample comprised 201 subjects, mean age 38.15 years. The participants were randomly div [...] ided into groups of zero, 30 and 60 minutes of nicotine abstinence. The following instruments were administered: the Chart of Sociodemographic Data, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges, and the Coping Strategies Inventory. RESULTS: The most frequently used coping strategies are presented in descending order: accepting responsibility, self-control and distancing. There was a positive correlation between the confrontive coping strategy and the total score on the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (rs = 0.146; p = 0.045) and the score on Factor 1 (rs = 0.165; p = 0.023). CONCLUSION: The most intense craving can lead nicotine-dependent individuals to use confrontive coping strategies that make them unable to control their emotions or to face the situations of high risk of relapse. This finding demonstrates that the treatment of smokers should include psychological education about the pitfalls of using these types of strategy and should teach them new types of coping strategies for craving management.
Flicker, Sharon M.; Cerulli, Catherine; Swogger, Marc T.; TALBOT, NANCY L.
This investigation examined the relationship of abuse-specific coping strategies and perceived responses to abuse disclosure to symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress among 131 women seeking a protection order against an intimate partner. Disengagement, denial, and self-blame coping strategies, as well as blaming of the participant by others, were associated with greater depressive and posttraumatic symptoms. None of the strategies of coping or responses to abuse disclosure were nega...
Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Hackenbruch, Julia; Schipper, Hans
Given urbanization trend and a higher probability of heat waves in Europe, heat discomfort or heat stress for the population in cities is a growing concern that is addressed from various perspectives, such as urban micro climate, urban and spatial planning, human health, work performance and economic impacts. This presentation focuses on subjective heat stress experienced by urban citizens. In order to better understand individual subjective heat stress of urban citizens and how different measures to cope with heat stress in everyday life are applied, a questionnaire survey was conducted in Karlsruhe, Germany. Karlsruhe is located in one of the warmest regions in Germany and holds the German temperature record of 40.2°C in August 2003. In 2013, two hot weather periods with continuous heat warnings by the German Weather Service for 7 and 8 days occurred during the last 10 days of July and first 10 days of August 2013 with an inofficial maximum temperature of again 40.2°C on July 27th in Karlsruhe (not taken by the official network of the German Weather Service). The survey data was collected in the six weeks after the heat using an online-questionnaire on the website of the South German Climate Office that was announced via newspapers and social media channels to reach a wide audience in Karlsruhe. The questionnaire was additionally sent as paper version to groups of senior citizens to ensure having enough respondents from this heat sensitive social group in the sample. The 428 respondents aged 17-94 show differences in subjective heat stress experienced at home, at work and during various typical activities in daily routine. They differ also in the measures they used to adjust to and cope with the heat such as drinking more, evading the heat, seeking cooler places, changing daily routines, or use of air condition. Differences in heat stress can be explained by housing type, age, subjective health status, employment, and different coping measures and strategies. While some results match with expectations and also with results obtained in other studies, for example that people living in the attic floor experienced higher subjective heat stress levels at home, some results are surprising: against expectations, respondents 65 years and older on average reported lower subjective heat-stress levels than younger ones - a result that can partly be linked to the different coping strategies applied by both groups.
Crego, Antonio; Carrillo-Diaz, María; Armfield, Jason M; Romero, Martín
Academic stress negatively affects students' performance. However, little is known of the processes that may be involved in this association. This study aimed to analyze how other variables such as coping strategies and exam-related self-efficacy could be related to academic stress and performance for dental students. An online survey, including measures of coping strategies, perceived stress, exam-related self-efficacy, and academic performance, was completed by undergraduate dental students in Madrid, Spain. Of the 275 students invited to take the survey, 201 participated (response rate 73.6%). Rational coping strategies (problem-solving, positive reappraisal, seeking social support) were negatively associated with perceived stress (?=-0.25, pstudents' exam-related self-efficacy, and this relation was found to be partially mediated by the students' perceived stress (?=-0.30, pstudents' exam-related self-efficacy partially mediated this relation (?=0.23, pstudents who perceived themselves as more efficient in completing examinations reported better grades. Using adequate coping strategies (i.e., rational coping) may help to reduce stress for dental students and, through their effect on exam-related self-efficacy appraisals, contribute to improved academic performance. PMID:26834134
Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed to evaluate depression and anxiety levels and coping strategies with stress in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD and hemodialysis (HD patients.Method: Study which was planned as a descriptive cross-sectional research has been made among patients who were under treatment with CAPD or HD for chronic renal failure in Cumhuriyet University Hospital in 01-31 August 2007. Questions were asked to determine the demographic profile, tobacco and alcohol use patterns and psychological status of the patients. Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory I-II (STAI-I, STAI-II and Coping Strategies With Stress Inventory (COPE were used for psychological evaluation.Results: Depression rate was 33.3% in CAPD patients and 61.3% in HD patients. Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory I-II (STAI-I, STAI-II scores were 14.1±8.4, 39.3±4.7, 47.6±5.1 and 19.9±9.9, 41.0±3.7, 49.5±6.2 in CAPD and HD patients respectively. CAPD patients depression scores were significantly lower than HD patients (p0.05. In both groups the most frequently used coping strategy was religious coping followed by positive reinterpretation and development methods. The only significant difference between groups were in to laugh it off and not to worry about it strategies. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety appeared frequently in all dialysis patients, but depression was more frequent in HD patients. Therefore it is considered necessary for dialysis patients (CAPD and HD to be under regular psychiatric evaluation. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2008; 45: 78-84
María Cristina, Richaud de Minzi.
Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra la importancia de las relaciones primarias, en el desarrollo de recursos positivos para afrontar la amenaza y que las interacciones durante la niñez y la temprana adolescencia reflejan patrones aprendidos dentro de la familia. Cuando los niños se sienten aceptados por sus [...] padres les resulta más fácil adaptarse, mientras que las relaciones percibidas como inapropiadas, particularmente si son experimentadas como distantes, se asocian habitualmente con afrontamientos desadaptativos, tales como la inhibición. La relación negativa más común entre la madre y el niño parece ser el distanciamiento de la primera; en el caso del padre, una vez que su influencia se vuelve más significativa, es además del distanciamiento, la hostilidad. Por último, las interacciones sociales primarias parecen tener una influencia importante, especialmente sobre la impulsividad, la conducta agresiva y la falta de atención en los niños. Aparentemente, parece bastante claro que la influencia de los padres, en particular de la madre, interactúa con la de los pares en la determinación de la conducta de los niños. Finalmente, las relaciones con una madre con un estilo permisivo que propicia la autonomía, defiende a los adolescentes de sentimientos de profunda soledad. Abstract in english The works here presented show the importance of primary relationships in the development of positive resources to cope with menace and that interactions with peers during childhood and early adolescence reflect patterns learnt within the family. When children feel accepted by their parents they find [...] it easier to adapt; while a relationship which is perceived as inappropriate, particularly if it is experienced as distant, is usually associated with non-adaptive coping, such as inhibition. The most common negative relationship between mother and child seems to be the former's distancing; in the case of the father, once his influence becomes more significant, there is hostility as well as distancing. Lastly, social primary interactions appear to have a remarkable influence, especially on impulsiveness, aggressive behaviour and lack of attention in children. Apparently, it seems quite clear that parents' the mother's in particular, and peer perception interact to shape the child's behaviour. Finally, the relationship with a mother with a permissive style which fosters autonomy, defends adolescents from feelings of deep loneliness.
Sheila A. Boamah
Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, hydro-meteorological related disasters, such as floods, account for the majority of the total number of natural disasters. Over the past century, floods have affected 38 million people, claimed several lives and caused substantial economic losses in the region. The goal of this paper is to examine how personality disposition, social network, and socio-demographic factors mitigate the complex relationship between stressful life experiences of floods and ocean surges and the adoption of coping strategies among coastal communities in Nigeria and Tanzania. Generalized linear models (GLM were fitted to cross-sectional survey data on 1003 and 1253 individuals in three contiguous coastal areas in Nigeria and Tanzania, respectively. Marked differences in the type of coping strategies were observed across the two countries. In Tanzania, the zero-order relationships between adoption of coping strategies and age, employment and income disappeared at the multivariate level. Only experience of floods in the past year and social network resources were significant predictors of participants adoption of coping strategies, unlike in Nigeria, where a plethora of factors such as experience of ocean surges in the past one year, personality disposition, age, education, experience of flood in the past one year, ethnicity, income, housing quality and employment status were still statistically significant at the multivariate level. Our findings suggest that influence of previous experience on adoption of coping strategies is spatially ubiquitous. Consequently, context-specific policies aimed at encouraging the adoption of flood-related coping strategies in vulnerable locations should be designed based on local needs and orientation.
Zhao, Fang-Fang; Lei, Xiao-Ling; He, Wei; Gu, Yan-Hong; Li, Dong-Wen
The aim of the study was to explore the coping strategy and the effects of self-efficacy of Chinese undergraduate nursing students when they face the stress in clinical practice. Convenience sampling was used to recruit undergraduate nursing students in Mainland China who have practiced 3 months in hospitals in their final college year. Self-report questionnaires including demographics, Perceived Stress Scale, coping behaviour inventory and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale were collected. The results showed that during clinical practice, assignments and workload were the most common stress to students; transference was the most frequently used coping strategy by students. Self-efficacy not only had a positive main effect in predicting the frequency of use of staying optimistic and problem solving strategies but also moderated the effects of stress from taking care of patients on transference strategy, as well as stress from assignments and workload on problem solving strategy. It is essential to bolster the students' self-efficacy to reduce stress and adopt positively the coping strategies during clinical practice. PMID:24750234
Several studies on households and individuals coping with disasters have been made. The Philippines, being a disaster prone area, has to grapple with the yearly damage caused by deluge or drought. The eruption of the Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 has the greatest toll to the country's economy because it did not only claim lives, properties, and resources at that time, but continues to do so up to the present day, which is why the disaster has been characterised as a lingering disaster. This study prov...
Full Text Available The wellbeing and livelihoods of people are two important aspects of poverty which in turn area dependent on the households' coping capabilities and their abilities to manage risks. The roles of institutions such as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs and particularly the government are important in ensuring the welfare of the people. Empirically, little is known on the link between households' coping strategies, government policies and institutions. This study investigates and analyzes the role of people's risk management and coping strategies in building their capacities. Using a structured socio-economic questionnaire, 302 randomly selected farmers in both states were tested. Household income decreased by RM52, RM81 and RM102 due to illnesses, floods and economic recession respectively. In order to cope with these stressors, households implemented coping strategies rather than preparatory ones which can strengthen their capacities to manage against any unexpected threat. In some cases these strategies threatened households welfare. Less risky production activities, spending saving and out-migration looking for job led to decrease households monthly income by as high as RM123, RM139 and RM166, respectively. Although the results showed that institutions did not lead households to fall into poverty trap, their supports also made no difference. These institutions are active and provide the needed services to the communities only after a disaster have occurred. This observation is based on the positive relationship between households coping strategies and institutional supports (r = 0.310, p = 0.000. The relationship between households risk management and institutional support was not significant (r = 0.087, p = 0.067 based on this study.
Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the Zhejiang SMEs business operation and financing difficulties analysis and the banks coping strategy. Since the beginning of 2011, Zhejiang SMEs have fallen into business difficulties under heavy pressure from 3-shortage and 2-high, namely, shortage of money, shortage of electricity and shortage of labor and high cost and high taxes. This even leads to the tide of enterprise collapse. In such a dilemma, problems of financial shortage and financing difficulties of SMEs are quite prominent. Besides, main financing channel of Zhejiang SMEs is the private credit market while loans from banks accounting only a minor proportion. Thus, enterprises have relatively vulnerable capital chain and large capital liquidity risk. Banks shall actively deal with this problem, pay much attention and strengthen risk management, strengthen asset preservation and effectively improve the risk management level of banks.
Bogale, Tadele; Mariam, Damen Haile; Ali, Ahmed
The paper describes a cross-sectional household survey conducted in randomly-selected villages in rural Ethiopia to assess strategies of households for coping with financial and time costs of illness. Results of the survey showed that the average monthly household health expenditure was 32.87 Birr (about 4.1 US dollars [1 US dollar = 8 Birr at the time of study]). In addition, the average time lost due to illness was 9.23 days for the sick and 7.38 days for their caretakers. Monetary price was a significant (passets, and using savings. Division of labour among household members was used for compensating for the loss of working time due to sickness. The findings of the study indicate that financial and time costs of illness seem to significantly contribute to the impoverishment of rural households. PMID:16117372
Full Text Available A new phenomenon of violence among pupils has been spreading over Europe in the last few years: Cyberbullying, the repeated and intended hurting of weaker schoolmates via modern communication technologies. This study shows (based on a sample of 1987 pupils, that cyberbullying exists in Germany, although the number of incidents is still rather small. It could also be shown, that the pupils who act as cyberbullies are the same as those who bully others in real life. The same overlap was found to be true for the victims. Cyberbullying can therefore be considered a subcategory of ordinary bullying instead of being considered a whole new phenomenon. The exploration of coping strategies showed, that a common factor structure underlies physical, verbal and cyberbullying. Considering the fact that the findings of the study are based on an online questionnaire with restricted representativeness, the results should however be interpreted carefully.
Bittner, James G; Khan, Zarrish; Babu, Maya; Hamed, Osama
Practicing physicians and surgeons, medical and surgical residents, and medical students dedicate their lives to providing optimum patient care, but doing so places them at significant risk for personal and professional stress and, ultimately, burnout. Of great concern is the fact that unrecognized stress and unmanaged burnout are more prevalent among residents than previously believed. Research shows that stress without conflict resolution may lead to burnout, which can contribute to impaired technical performance, medical errors, physical and mental health problems, and even increase the risk of suicide. Therefore, it is crucial that surgeons, and the organizations that train and employ them, recognize the early signs of stress and burnout, adopt adaptive coping strategies, and maintain a culture wherein work-life balance and surgeon well-being are shared goals. PMID:22319907
Leda Maria Delmondes Freitas, Trindade; Maria Jésia, Vieira.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer as situações estressantes e as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas por alunos de medicina na relação de atendimento ao paciente. MÉTODO: Estudo exploratório, descritivo e qualitativo realizado na Universidade Federal de Sergipe com 50 alunos do 10º período do curso médico. Uti [...] lizou-se questionário autoaplicável com perguntas abertas e fechadas. Os dados foram interpretados pela análise de conteúdo categorial. RESULTADOS: As relações interpessoais aluno-professor, aluno-paciente e aluno-familiar do paciente proporcionaram aos estudantes vivências embaraçosas e constrangedoras, fazendo-os sentir-se expostos e vulneráveis. O sofrimento do paciente também constituiu uma situação estressora que mobilizou nos estudantes a adoção de estratégias de enfrentamento (aceitação de responsabilidade, resolução de problemas, suporte social, reavaliação positiva, fuga-esquiva e religiosidade) para controlar e minimizar seus sentimentos. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo revelou as situações e fatores estressantes inerentes à vivência acadêmica, os quais levaram o estudante a desenvolver comportamentos adaptativos identificados como estratégias de enfrentamento. A pesquisa também sinalizou a importância de se dar atenção às especificidades e necessidades do aluno e do docente. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To understand stressful situations and coping strategies used by medicine students in relation to patient care. METHODS: Exploratory, descriptive and qualitative study conducted at the Federal University of Sergipe with fifty 5th year medicine students. A self-report containing open-ended [...] and closed questions was used. The data was interpreted through categorical content analysis. RESULTS: The interpersonal relationships between student-teacher, student-patient, and student-patient's family led to undergraduates experiencing embarrassing and awkward situations, making them feel exposed and vulnerable. Patient suffering was a really stressful situation, forcing students to adopt coping strategies (acceptance of responsibility, problem solving, social support, positive reappraisal, escape-avoidance, and religious belief) to control and minimize their feelings. CONCLUSION: The study revealed situations and stressors inherent to the academic experience, which led the student to develop adaptive behaviors identified as coping strategies. The survey also indicated the importance of giving attention to the specificities and needs of the student and the teacher.
Full Text Available The goal of this study is to explore risk perception and coping strategies used by adults living near the volcano Popocatépetl in Mexico. Qualitative and semi-quantitative data were collected with a questionnaire from 192 adult respondents. These respondents were divided into four groups (G1-G4 according to the risk zone in which they live (generally the degree of hazard decreases with increasing distances from the volcano. Analyses of the completed questionnaires were made according to sex and age range of the respondents. Not surprisingly volcanic risk was perceived as more worrisome by people living in the zone nearest the volcanos crater (G1. However, when we asked what risks could affect them directly, perceptions changed, and volcanic risk was appraised as the most important risk potentially affecting them and their homes for risk zones G1, G2 and G3. Despite sporadic information given by the Civil Defense authorities, a high percentage of people exposed to volcanic hazards do not feel prepared to face an eruptive event, and people have no strategy to cope with general perceived risks. A high percentage of participants in the four groups stated that they would leave the area if an eruptive event occurred. This statement reflects the serious misinformation, because civil authorities do not require people living in the third and fourth zones to evacuate. The results of study demonstrate the critical need to reinforce public information campaigns regarding volcanic risk in communities vulnerable to direct damage in the event of a stronger eruption of the volcano Popocatépetl
Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Muhammed, Abbas Hedayiet; Abdulrahman, Hemen Ahmed
The aims were, first, to identify behavioural, cognitive, emotional, and social coping responses to traumatic and stressful situations, and second, to examine how the nature and severity of traumatic events are associated with coping dimensions. Third, the effectiveness of coping dimensions was evaluated for their ability to buffer the children's
Anderson, Miriam J.; Marwit, Samuel J.; Vandenberg, Brian; Chibnall, John T.
The authors examined the associations of 3 types of psychological coping (task-based, emotion-based, avoidance), 2 types of religious coping (positive, negative), and their interactions with grief of 57 mothers bereaved by the sudden death of a child. Results indicated that mothers who use emotion-based coping report significantly higher levels of
Caplan, Leslie J.; Schooler, Carmi
We examine the relations among socioeconomic status, control beliefs, and two coping styles (problem-focused vs. emotion-focused) in the context of financial stress. Findings indicate that low socioeconomic status (SES) is linked to greater use of emotion-focused financial coping and lesser use of problem-focused financial coping. The effects of
A qualitative exploratory study investigated the experiences and needs of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness in Ireland. The current mixed-methods secondary study used content analysis and statistical procedures to identify and explore the coping strategies emerging from the original interviews. The majority of family carers reported use of active behavioural coping strategies, sometimes combined with active cognitive or avoidance strategies. The percentage of cares reporting use of active cognitive strategies was the lowest among those whose ill relative lived in their home, and the highest among those whose relative lived independently. Participants with identified active cognitive strategies often reported that their relative was employed or in training. Participants who reported use of avoidance strategies were significantly younger than participants who did not report use of such strategies. The lowest percentage of avoidance strategies was among participants whose ill relative lived independently, whereas the highest was among carers whose relative lived in their home. The findings of this study highlight the importance of a contextual approach to studying coping styles and processes. Further research questions and methodological implications are discussed.
Davis, Alissa; Roth, Alexis; Brand, Juanita Ebert; Zimet, Gregory D; Van Der Pol, Barbara
This study focused on understanding the coping strategies and related behavioural changes of women who were recently diagnosed with herpes simplex virus type 2. In particular, we were interested in how coping strategies, condom use, and acyclovir uptake evolve over time. Twenty-eight women screening positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 were recruited through a public health STD clinic and the Indianapolis Community Court. Participants completed three semi-structured interviews with a woman researcher over a six-month period. The interviews focused on coping strategies for dealing with a diagnosis, frequency of condom use, suppressive and episodic acyclovir use, and the utilisation of herpes simplex virus type 2 support groups. Interview data were analysed using content analysis to identify and interpret concepts and themes that emerged from the interviews. Women employed a variety of coping strategies following an herpes simplex virus type 2 diagnosis. Of the women, 32% reported an increase in religious activities, 20% of women reported an increase in substance use, and 56% of women reported engaging in other coping activities. A total of 80% of women reported abstaining from sex immediately following the diagnosis, but 76% of women reported engaging in sex again by the six-month interview. Condom and medication use did not increase and herpes simplex virus type 2 support groups were not utilised by participants. All participants reported engaging in at least one coping mechanism after receiving their diagnosis. A positive diagnosis did not seem to result in increased use of condoms for the majority of participants and the use of acyclovir was low overall. PMID:25792549
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Postpartum depression is one of most important health problems in women. This study was performed with the purpose of comparing the frequency of postpartum depression in pregnant women with emotion and problem-focused coping strategies. Methods: This study was conducted as a prospective cohort study on 200 pregnant women with stress (low and high levels. The samples were pregnant women referred to all health-treatment, centers of Ardabil, which were selected using a multi-stage sampling method; and according to coping strategy, they were divided into two groups: emotion-focused and problem-focused. Low-risk pregnant women completed questionnaires about demographic characteristics, perceived stress, and Billings and Moos coping strategies in the 38th to 42th week of their pregnancy, and completed the Edinburgh depression scale in the 3th to 4th weeks after childbirth. Data were analyzed using chi 2 and t tests. p<0.05 considered significant.Results: In this study, 170 participant women (85% used emotion-focused strategy and 30 women (15% used problem-focused strategy. Frequency of postpartum depression was 6.7% in the problem-focused group and 8.2% in the emotion-focused group. There was no significant difference in the frequency of postpartum depression between women with the problem- and emotion-focused strategies. Relative risk for postpartum depression was 1.2 times more among the women used emotion-focused strategy than women used problem-focused strategy (p<0.05.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, there was no significant relationship between postpartum depression and the two emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies. This can be due to high influence of postpartum specific endocrine factors in the etiology of this type of depression compared to other depressions.
Full Text Available This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of zones by severity of flooding, interviews with households, sub-ward leaders, and municipal and city officials. Non-participant observation, primarily taking photographs, complemented these methods. Laboratory tests of water samples taken from shallow wells in the settlement were performed to establish the level of pollution. In addition, records of prevalence of water-borne diseases were gathered from a dispensary within the settlement to corroborate flooding events, water pollution and occurrence of such diseases. Findings show that flooding is contributed to by the lack of a coordinated stormwater drainage system; haphazard housing development within the valley; and blocking of the water stream by haphazard dumping of solid waste and construction. Risks associated with flooding include water and air pollution, diseases, waterlogging and blocked accessibility. The most common coping strategies at household level are use of sandbags and tree logs; raised pit latrines and doorsteps; provision of water outlet pipes above plinth level; construction of embankments, protection walls and elevation of house foundations; seasonal displacement; and boiling and chemical treatment of water. Recommendations for future action at household, community and city level are made.
Greer, Tawanda M.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine coping strategies as moderators of the relationship between individual race-related stress and mental health symptoms among a sample of 128 African American women. Coping strategies refer to efforts used to resolve problems and those used to manage, endure, or alleviate distress. Culture-specific
Milton, Beth S.; Dugdill, Lindsey; Porcellato, Lorna A.; Springett, R. Jane
While studies have shown that adults use smoking to deal with stress, little research has been carried out with children to explore their perceptions of smoking as a coping strategy. Qualitative questionnaire and interview data were generated with children aged 9-11 years. Participants perceived that adults smoked to relieve boredom and stress,
Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; McConnell, David; Gething, Lindsay; Cant, Rosemary; Kendig, Hal
Background: Older parent-carers in Australia are the subject of increasing policy and practice attention due to concerns about their ongoing ability to care in the light of their own ageing and the ageing of their adult son or daughter. This paper examines health status and the coping strategies of a group of older Australian parents caring for an
Lenamar Fiorese Vieira
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a síndrome de "burnout" e as estratégias de "coping" de jogadores de vôlei de praia. Participaram 93 atletas, das categorias sub-21 e "open" do circuito brasileiro de vôlei de praia. Como instrumentos foram utilizados uma ficha com dados de identificação, Questionário de "Burnout" para Atletas e Inventário Atlético das Estratégias de "Coping". Para análise dos dados utilizou-se teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, coeficiente Alpha de Cronbach, teste 'U' de Mann-Whitney, teste de Kruskal-Wallis e coeficiente de correlação de Spearman, adotando p This study aimed to analyze burnout syndrome and coping strategies of beach volleyball players. Ninety-three athletes participated, being one group of under-21 age and another group of adult category. The both group are composed by players of the Brazilian beach volleyball championship. The instruments used were a form with data identification, Burnout Questionnaire for Athletes and Athletic Inventory of Coping Strategies. For data analysis, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, 'U' Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlation coefficient, were used, considering p < 0.05. There was a significant and negative correlation between the dimensions of burnout and coping strategies. For the dimensions of burnout, just ranking obtained significant difference, while for coping strategies, gender, category, ranking and practice time showed significant differences. It was concluded that the higher burnout, fewer beach volleyball athletes use coping strategies.
Full Text Available This study evaluates the perceptions of stress among Information and Communications Technology (ICT students and their coping strategies in dealing with English as the medium of instruction during their university studies. A semi-structured administered survey was conducted using a sample of 267 male students of a Computer Science college from a midsize Middle Eastern university The study also used a phenomenological approach with semi-structured interviews carried out with ten students in order to clarify some of the findings of this study. Since the research topic is based on student's stress perceptions, the phenomenological analysis of transcribed student's interviews was also an appropriate tool for this study. Phenomenology enables participants to express their feelings about a particular situation or incident in their own point of view which may not be easy to express on a survey. All students who took part in this study thought that they had been stressed at one time or another due to having English as the medium of instruction without a Preparatory Year English Program (PYEP before entering ICT courses. 62% of the students maintained that they have had episodes of stress due to the English language during their studies at one time or another. The students use different mechanisms toÂ cope up with stress outside the university by engaging themselves in sports, surfing the web, Meditation, hanging out with, friends, sleeping or going in to isolation. The students demand interactive' English language courses, more leisure time activities on campus, proper guidance in English language courses to ease their ICT course-studies. advisory services and peer counsel ling on campus to reduce their stress.
Full Text Available Los profesionales de enfermería de salud mental trabajan principalmente con la palabra. El conocimiento y uso adecuado de estrategias de afrontamiento adaptativas, ante los problemas, favorece su trabajo. Este estudio tiene como principales objetivos: conocer las estrategias de afrontamiento que usan un grupo de profesionales de enfermería y comprobar cuáles de ellas correlacionan con satisfacción laboral. Para ello se tomado como población las enfermeras de salud mental de tres servicios del Hospital Virgen de la Victoria de Málaga. La muestra, compuesta por 44 sujetos, ha supuesto el 81,48 de la población. Las variables estudiadas se han obtenido de la contestación de autoinformes y cuestionarios anónimos tras la aceptación voluntaria de participar en el estudio. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que las enfermeras de salud mental no usan en su mayoría estrategias adaptativas. No obstante existe una correlación positiva entre el uso de estrategias adaptativas, principalmente resolución de problemas y satisfacción laboral. Estos hallazgos sugieren la necesidad de formación y entrenamiento en el uso de estrategias de afrontamiento.The present work has two main aims: knowing the nurses uses about coping strategies and testing if there is any relationship between coping strategies and job satisfaction. It were applied several questionnaires to a sample of 44 nurses which were working en three services of mental health in the Virgen de la Victoria Hospital of Málaga. The results showed that the mental health nurses did not uses adaptive coping strategies. However there is a positive relationship between adaptive coping strategies and job satisfaction. These results suggest that the mental heath nurses need training about adaptive coping strategies.
J.M., Perea-Baena; L.M., Sánchez-Gil.
Full Text Available Los profesionales de enfermería de salud mental trabajan principalmente con la palabra. El conocimiento y uso adecuado de estrategias de afrontamiento adaptativas, ante los problemas, favorece su trabajo. Este estudio tiene como principales objetivos: conocer las estrategias de afrontamiento que usa [...] n un grupo de profesionales de enfermería y comprobar cuáles de ellas correlacionan con satisfacción laboral. Para ello se tomado como población las enfermeras de salud mental de tres servicios del Hospital Virgen de la Victoria de Málaga. La muestra, compuesta por 44 sujetos, ha supuesto el 81,48 de la población. Las variables estudiadas se han obtenido de la contestación de autoinformes y cuestionarios anónimos tras la aceptación voluntaria de participar en el estudio. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que las enfermeras de salud mental no usan en su mayoría estrategias adaptativas. No obstante existe una correlación positiva entre el uso de estrategias adaptativas, principalmente resolución de problemas y satisfacción laboral. Estos hallazgos sugieren la necesidad de formación y entrenamiento en el uso de estrategias de afrontamiento. Abstract in english The present work has two main aims: knowing the nurses uses about coping strategies and testing if there is any relationship between coping strategies and job satisfaction. It were applied several questionnaires to a sample of 44 nurses which were working en three services of mental health in the V [...] irgen de la Victoria Hospital of Málaga. The results showed that the mental health nurses did not uses adaptive coping strategies. However there is a positive relationship between adaptive coping strategies and job satisfaction. These results suggest that the mental heath nurses need training about adaptive coping strategies.
Full Text Available Review of the Monograph: Fforde, Adam (2009, Coping with Facts: A Skeptics Guide to the Problem of Development, Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Pr Inc. ; ISBN-13: 978-1565492684, 246 pages
Full Text Available Fatigue is one of the symptoms of MS that is often experienced and causes irritating situations. This study was planned and applied as a descriptive and a cross-sectional study. Study was conducted at Neurology Department of Gulhane Military Medical Academy from December 2009 to March 2010. This study was carried out using 53 participants with MS. The data were collected by using Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. 94.3% of the MS patients sampled reported that they experience the fatigue. Their perceptions about the factors affecting the fatigue are as follows: the major factor on fatigue is reported to be sadness and frustration (92 %. Stress is stated to be the second significant factor affecting the fatigue (86 %. The third significant factor for the participants is found to be the increase in the physical activity either at home or at work (78%. The mean FSS score is 5.01 (SD=1.54 for the participants. 92.4 % of the participants (49 persons employ such strategies, while 7.9 % (4 persons of them do not employ any specific coping strategy for the fatigue.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although empirical evidence is available on the coping-health link in older age, research on this topic is needed with non-clinical samples of ethnically diverse older women. To contribute to filling such a research gap, we tested whether these women's general health and functional limitations were associated with specific coping strategies (selected for their particular relevance to health issues and with known health-related demographics, i.e., age, ethnicity, income, and married status. Methods In this cross-sectional study, respondents were recruited at community facilities including stores and senior centers. The sample consisted of 180 community-dwelling women (age 52-98 screened for dementia; 64% of them reported having an ethnic minority status. The assessment battery contained the Mini-Cog, a demographics list, the Brief COPE, and the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Results Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that older women who used behavioral disengagement and, to a smaller degree, self-distraction as a form of coping reported lower levels of general health. The opposite was the case for positive reframing and, to a lesser degree, substance use. Moreover, lower income was related to worse general health and (together with more advanced age physical functioning. None of the coping strategies achieved significance in the physical functioning model. Conclusions These cross-sectional findings need corroboration by longitudinal research prior to developing related clinical interventions. Based on the initial evidence provided herein, clinicians working with this population should consider establishing the therapeutic goal of increasing the use of positive reframing while diminishing behavioral disengagement.
Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objective of the study was to analyze the correlation among intensity of food insecurity and food coping strategy with energy intake and child nutritional status. The study design was a crosectional study. Research was conducted in Pandeglang Distric, in April - May July 2009. A purposive sampling were applied to select 220 households. The data collected include socio economi, food coping strategy, intensity of food insequrity and, food intake. The Rank Sperman and Pearsons test were applied to analyse correlation between variable socio economic, food insecurity intensity, food coping strategy and energy intake. Logistic regression was used to analyze determinant of food insecurity intensity. Multiple regression was used to analyse determinant of energy intake. The results showed that there were significant correlatin between intensity of food insequrity with household expenditure, and food coping startegy. Determinan of food insecurity intensity were household expenditure per capita (OR=0.033 and type of food insecurity program (OR=6.664. determinan of energy intake were food insecurity intensity, household expenditure percapita and household size.
Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel
National surveys indicate high rates of suicidal ideation in youth, especially among females. Coping skill training programs hold promise as a potential intervention that can help young people better manage stress and not consider suicide as a solution to life's problems. To assess the promise of this strategy, the present research examined which coping strategies (if any) predicted reduction in youth suicidal ideation over a 1-year follow-up, and explored the potential pathways through which their influence was channeled. Two waves of panel data from a nationally representative sample of youth, assessed 1 year apart (N?=?710; Mean age?=?18 years) were analyzed separately by gender using multiple group path analytic procedures. Four coping strategies, namely problem solving, emotional regulation, support seeking and acceptance were found to predict reduction in suicidal ideation among both males and females. However, the influence of these strategies (at baseline) was channeled through distinct pathways. The effect of emotional regulation (and acceptance) was channeled through its use at follow-up and was mediated by reductions in perceived stress and depressive symptoms, leading to reduction in suicidal ideation. The influence of support seeking was also channeled through its more recent use at follow-up, but directly predicted reduction in suicidal ideation, with no effect on perceived stress or depressive symptoms. The effect of problem solving on suicidal ideation was mediated by reduction in depressive symptoms, but was not channeled through its use at follow-up, suggesting a longer time course for the protective influence of this strategy. Finally, acceptance had a direct risk-enhancing effect on suicidal ideation. Coping strategies commonly used by youth can be effective in reducing suicidal ideation and therefore universal training in the effective use of these strategies should be considered. An understanding of the distinct pathways through which their effect on suicidal ideation is transmitted can better inform the design of youth suicide prevention interventions. PMID:23054197
Task 4 of this collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focused on the design of the hierarchical supervisory control for multiple-module units. The state of the IRIS plant design--specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design--made developing a detailed hierarchical control difficult at this time. However, other simultaneous and ongoing efforts have contributed to providing the needed information. This report summarizes the results achieved under Task 4 of this Financial Assistance Award. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 discusses the IRIS control functions. Next, it briefly reviews the current control concepts, and then reviews the maneuvering requirements for the IRIS plant. It closes by noting the benefits that automated sequences have in reducing operator workload. Section 3 examines reactor loading in the frequency domain to establish some guidelines for module operation, paying particular attention to strategies for using process steam for desalination and/or district heating. The final subsection discusses the implications for reactor control, and argues that using the envisioned percentage (up to 10%) of the NSSS thermal output for these purposes should not significantly affect the NSSS control strategies. Section 4 uses some very general economic assumptions to suggest how one should approach multi-module operation. It concludes that the well-known algorithms used for economic dispatching could be used to help manage a multi-unit IRIS site. Section 5 addresses the human performance factors of multi-module operation. Section 6 summarizes our conclusions
La relación entre el estrés laboral, las fuentes que le dan origen y las estrategias de coping en el sector público y el privado / The relationship between work stress, sources of stress and coping strategies in public and private sectors
Valentina, Ramos; Filomena, Jordão.
Full Text Available El sector resulta relevante en la medición del estrés laboral, los estresores y las estrategias de coping, por lo que nuestro objetivo de investigación fue relacionar estas variables dentro el contexto portugués. Nuestra muestra fue de 310 trabajadores distribuidos por sector a los que se aplicó un [...] inventario con una pregunta general sobre estrés y dos escalas sobre estresores y coping. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando análisis univariados y cálculos de correlaciones. Nuestros resultados no indicaron diferencias en las correlaciones significativas entre estresor y estrés por sector. Sin embargo, la correlación significativa entre estresores, estrés y coping sí fue específica para cada sector. Fue relevante la existencia de correlaciones significativas entre coping y estresores sin la influencia del estrés y entre coping y estrés sin la influencia de estresores. Nuestro estudio reconoce el papel del sector en el estudio del estrés, mostrando nuevas relaciones entre los estresores, el estrés y el coping. Abstract in english The sector has been relevant in the measurement of work stress, stressors, and coping strategies. So, our research objective was to relate these variables within the Portuguese context. We used a sample of 310 employees distributed by sector, who responded to an inventory with a general question abo [...] ut stress and two scales to measure stressors and coping. The data was analyzed using correlation calculations. Our results indicated no significant differences in correlations between stressor and stress by sector. However, we obtained specific significant correlation between stressors, stress, and coping itself for each sector. The existence of significant correlations between coping and stressors without the influence of stress, and between coping and stress without the influence of stressors has to be highlighted. Our study recognizes sector's role in the study of stress, showing new relationships between stressors, stress, and coping.
Chen Su-May Sheih
Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The aggressive patrons outrageous and unreasonable behavior would have serious influence on circulation librarians. However, in order to maintain the service quality, emotional labor is usually performed by the librarians when encounter aggressive patrons. Emotional labor is the manipulation of the required emotional expression, and the strategies used to maintain the service quality. To understand circulation librarians service strategies coping with aggressive patrons from the perspective of emotional labor, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted in this study. The interviewees consisted of 15 university circulation librarians all over Taiwan. The findings revealed that the factors which may elicit aggressive reaction included library services and the patrons personal traits. And to cope with the aggressive patrons, the circulation librarians would employ self-controlling, surface acting, and other service strategies such as persuasion or active listening.
Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Mertz, Ole
Climate variability is an important stress factor for rural livelihoods in most developing countries where households have been adapting to environmental shocks for decades. Climate change results in increased variability and poses new challenges for rural livelihoods, as well as for policymakers in adjusting policies to changing conditions. This paper examines the potential relationships between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest ...
Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.
The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific
Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Boonen, Annelis; Vázquez-Mellado, Janitzia; Reyes-Lagunes, Isabel; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo; Goycochea, Maria Victoria; Bernard-Medina, Ana G; Rodríguez-Amado, Jacqueline; Casasola-Vargas, Julio; Garza-Elizondo, Mario A; Aceves, Francisco J; Shumski, Clara; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben
This article aims to identify the strategies for coping with health and daily-life stressors of Mexican patients with chronic rheumatic disease. We analyzed the baseline data of a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and gout. Their strategies for coping were identified with a validated questionnaire. Comparisons between health and daily-life stressors and between the 3 clinical conditions were made. With regression analyses, we determined the contribution of individual, socioeconomic, educational, and health-related quality-of-life variables to health status and coping strategy. We identified several predominant coping strategies in response to daily-life and health stressors in 261 patients with RA, 226 with AS, and 206 with gout. Evasive and reappraisal strategies were predominant when patients cope with health stressors; emotional/negative and evasive strategies predominated when coping with daily-life stressors. There was a significant association between the evasive pattern and the low short-form health survey (SF-36) scores and health stressors across the 3 diseases. Besides some differences between diagnoses, the most important finding was the predominance of the evasive strategy and its association with low SF-36 score and high level of pain in patients with gout. Patients with rheumatic diseases cope in different ways when confronted with health and daily-life stressors. The strategy of coping differs across diagnoses; emotional/negative and evasive strategies are associated with poor health-related quality of life. The identification of the coping strategies could result in the design of psychosocial interventions to improve self-management. PMID:25761177
Teacher burnout contributes to poor psychological and physical health, absenteeism, early retirement, and leads to inadequate teacher performance with adverse outcomes in student learning and achievement. Effective coping skills have been proposed as possible protectors from the effects of burnout; therefore, examining teachers' coping
Hilton, Timothy; DeJong, Cornell
This study examines coping behaviors and felt experiences of homeless adults in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Data from in-depth interviews with 55 homeless adults reveal 5 general coping pattern groups: shelter users, campers, couch hoppers, mixed users, and circumstantial homeless. Homeless adults within each group experienced similar levels of
Parker, Glennys; Lee, Christina
We examined relationships between abuse, coping, and psychological health among 143 women who had experienced abuse in adult relationships. Measures included characteristics of the abuse, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, Sense of Coherence, and four measures of psychological wellbeing--the SF-36 Mental Component Scale, the General
Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.
Stress, coping, perceptions of control, and psychological distress of 88 adults with mild mental retardation were assessed. Stressful interpersonal interactions and concerns over personal competencies occurred most frequently. Frequency and stress impact were positively associated with a composite score of psychological distress. Active coping was
Cardoso, Juan AndrÃ©s; Pineda, Marcela; JimÃ©nez, Juan de la Cruz; Vergara, Manuel Fernando; Rao, Idupulapati M
Drought severely limits forage productivity of C4 grasses across the tropics. The avoidance of water deficit by increasing the capacity for water uptake or by controlling water loss are common responses in forage C4 grasses. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II are tropical C4 grasses used for livestock production due to their reputed resistance to drought conditions. However, there is scant information on the mechanisms used by these grasses to overcome water-limited conditions. Therefore, assessments of cumulative transpired water, shoot growth, leaf rolling, leaf gas exchange, dry mass production and a number of morpho-physiological traits were recorded over a period of 21 days under well-watered or drought conditions. Drought reduced shoot dry mass of both grasses by 35 %, yet each grass exhibited contrasting strategies to cope with water shortage. Napier grass transpired most available water by the end of the drought treatment, whereas a significant amount of water was still available for Mulato II. Napier grass maintained carbon assimilation until the soil was fairly dry, whereas Mulato II restricted water loss by early stomatal closure at relatively wet soil conditions. Our results suggest that Napier grass exhibits a 'water-spending' behaviour that might be targeted to areas with intermittent drought stress, whereas Mulato II displays a 'water-saving' nature that could be directed to areas with longer dry periods. PMID:26333827
Wilson, Barbara A; Kopelman, Michael; Kapur, Narinder
Profound loss of awareness for the past in amnesia has implications for our understanding of memory and belief systems, and how they may become disrupted in neurological conditions. We report the case of CW, a professional musician who became severely amnesic in 1985 following herpes simplex viral encephalitis (HSVE) at the age of 46 years. For many years CW stated several times a day that he had just woken up. He frequently wrote this in his diary too. When shown examples of his diary entries or videos of himself playing or conducting music, he recognised both his handwriting and himself on the video screen but stated vehemently that he "was not conscious then". In a previous paper (Wilson, Baddeley, & Kapur 1995), it was suggested that this lack of awareness for the past was a delusion, defined as a strongly held belief in the face of contradictory evidence (rather than implying any kind of psychiatric disorder per se). As a contribution to the academic debate regarding theories of "self", in the present paper we will review this explanation of CW's state as it had been in those early years, and we will also consider two other possibilities - namely, that CW had suffered from a loss of "autobiographical self" or "extended consciousness" (see Damasio, 2000, pp. 198-199), and that his verbal reports simply reflected a form of coping strategy to help him deal with the limited evidence he had available in "declarative" memory. PMID:18609007
Full Text Available The need to maintain a non-mineral dependent economy and daunting food import bills have been the drive for the provision of extension services, which is dependent on motivated extension work force.. Extension personnel will not stay motivated under circumstances where the risk of job burnout is hig [...] h. A simple random technique was used to select 120 extension agents from 328. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire (reliability coefficient of 0.85) and were analyzed with frequency counts, percentages one-way analysis of variance and multiple regressions. The result shows that 68% of the agents are males 85% married; 50% are above 40 years and 66% have at least a BSc degree. Burnout symptoms manifest mostly as depression (48%), insomnia (40%), headaches (43%), and weight loss (44%). Popular coping strategies are keeping positive attitude at all times, setting self-realistic goals, and maintaining healthy relationship with co-workers. A significant difference exists in burnout symptoms experienced across the states (F = 5.71, df 3117 p
Andre, Barcaui; Ana Cristina, Limongi-França.
Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a relação entre o estresse percebido no trabalho, a estratégia de enfrentamento adotada e a qualidade de vida de gerentes atuantes em organizações brasileiras. Foram aplicados três instrumentos em conjunto: o Job Stress Scale, de Karasek, o Coping with Job Stress, de Latack, e o [...] WHOQOL - Bref, da OMS, em uma amostra de 1.290 gerentes distribuídos pelo Brasil. Aplicou-se uma análise de correlação entre as variáveis: estresse, qualidade de vida e estratégia de enfrentamento. Para melhor avaliar a relação das três dimensões de interesse, foram desenvolvidos modelos de regressão linear e regressão logística. Os achados demonstraram que a maior parte dos gerentes encontra-se em um nível elevado de estresse, mas com bom suporte social e boa percepção quanto à sua qualidade de vida. A maioria utiliza estratégias de controle para enfrentamento do estresse. As estratégias de controle e administração de sintomas influenciam significativamente a percepção de qualidade de vida, enquanto que estratégias de evitação implicam em diminuição dessa percepção. Gerentes com alta tensão (Karasek & Theorell, 1990) tendem a ter uma qualidade de vida mais pobre, mesmo moderada pelo apoio social. Abstract in english This study analyzes the relationship between perceived stress at work, the coping strategy adopted, and the quality of life of active managers in Brazilian organizations. Three instruments were applied together: Karasek's Job Stress Scale, Latack's Coping with Job Stress and WHO'S WHOQOL-Bref to a s [...] ample of 1290 managers throughout Brazil. An analysis of the correlation between the variables stress, quality of life and coping strategy was applied. To further evaluate the relationship between the three dimensions of interest, linear and logistic regression models were developed. The findings show that most managers find themselves under a high stress level, but share good social support and have good perceptions about their quality of life. Most use control strategies to cope with stress. Control strategies and symptom management significantly influence the perception of quality of life, whereas avoidance strategies imply a decrease in this perception. Managers with jobs classified as high strain (Karasek & Theorell, 1990) tend to have a poorer quality of life, even when moderated by social support.
Full Text Available Livestock keeping is increasingly becoming more popular in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. However, lack of feed is a real challenge. Inadequate feed supply in urban areas is due to many interacting factors, which include among others land shortage, high cost of feeds, climate risks and poor quality of feeds. The objective of this study was to identify and examine the effectiveness of the strategies adopted by livestock farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda to cope with feed scarcity. A total of 120 livestock farmers from Kampala were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Dairy cattle (48.3% and chickens (37.5% were the most common species, followed by pigs (34.2%, goats (26.7% and sheep (3.3%. Farm size was generally small both in terms of herd size and total landholding. Cattle and pig farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala ranked feed scarcity as their first major constraint, while chicken farmers had high cost of feeds. These farmers have adopted several strategies for coping with feed scarcity. Among the major coping strategies adopted were: changing of feed resources based on availability and cost (37.5%, purchasing of feed ingredients in bulk (29.7%, using crop/food wastes (26.6%, harvesting of forages growing naturally in open access lands (23.4% and reducing herd size (17.2%. However, most of the coping strategies adopted were largely aimed at dealing with the perennial challenge of feed scarcity on a day-by-day basis rather than dealing with it using sustainable and long-term strategies.
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the research is to investigate the mediating role of coping strategies for stress in the relation between resiliency and post-traumatic growth in a group of paramedics. Material and Methods: Data of 80 paramedics who have experienced traumatic event at their worksites was analyzed. The age range of the participants was 2167 years old (mean: 35.47, standard deviation: 10.21. The Post-traumatic Growth Inventory, the Assessment Resiliency Scale and Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies for Stress Mini-Cope were used in the study. Results: Venting of negative emotions and denial appeared as suppressors in analyzing the relation, while planning plays mediating role between resiliency and post-traumatic growth. Conclusions: In the process of post-traumatic growth, both avoidance and problem-focused strategies are important. Moreover, controlling such strategies as Venting and Denial may result in a high level of posttraumatic growth in the study group. The data supports that resiliency may have direct or indirect impact on post-traumatic changes. The results allow to understand the mechanisms of resiliency better, that relationship with post-traumatic growth is ambiguous.
Renato Mendonça, Ribeiro; Daniele Alcalá, Pompeo; Maria Helena, Pinto; Rita de Cassia Helú Mendonça, Ribeiro.
Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: Identificar as estratégias de enfrentamento dos enfermeiros em serviço hospitalar de emergência e relacioná-las às variáveis sociodemográficas e profissionais. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 89 enfermeiros. Os instrumentos de pesquisa foram: formulário para caracterização dos sujei [...] tos e o Inventário de Estratégias de Enfrentamento de Folkman e Lazarus. Resultados: As estratégias de enfrentamento mais utilizadas foram: resolução de problemas e reavaliação positiva; a menos utilizada, foi o confronto. As estratégias confronto, reavaliação positiva, e fuga e esquiva foram associadas ao sexo masculino, não ter um companheiro e trabalhar em período noturno, respectivamente. Conclusão: As estratégias de enfrentamento podem ser auxiliadas por acompanhamento escuta, programas educacionais e um espaço para discussão das dificuldades relacionadas ao trabalho. Abstract in english Abstract Objective: To identify the coping strategies of nurses in hospital emergency services, and relate them to sociodemographic and professional variables. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 89 nurses. Research instruments included a form to characterize the research subjects and the Ways of Co [...] ping Questionnaire by Folkman and Lazarus. Results: The most commonly used coping strategies were problem solving and positive reappraisal, whereas the least used was confrontation. The strategies of confrontation, positive reappraisal and escape-avoidance were associated with the male sex, not having a partner and working night shifts, respectively. Conclusion: Coping strategies can be aided by listening, monitoring, educational programs and creation of a space for discussion of work-related difficulties.
Monica A. Ayieko
Full Text Available This study was conducted in Kenya. Samples of children and caregivers were selected using the EPI method. Food vendors and procurement strategy, demographic and socio-economic indicators of household were analyzed. A social economic index was derived. To understand the association between D ietary D iversity Score and mean anthropometric indices, confounding factors were identified on the basis of the UNICEF conceptual model of causes of malnutrition. A stepwise testing of confounders was done systematically resulting in a final m ultivariate model of regression on the mean nutritional indices. Only 32.8% were able to produce enough to last a year, most households did not meet their dietary needs. 48% of the households received food remittance as supplementary. Coping strategies within households were identified based on their frequency of occurrence. The observed poor breastfeeding beyond infancy underscores the need to stress on the contribution and benefits of breastfeeding to children, communities, and health system s. Dietary diversity positively correlated to household food availability. Increased consumption of common staples negatively correlated to food availability and dietary diversity. Stepw ise regression identified access to roots and tubers, legumes and pulses, and carbonated drinks as the main determinants of food procurement and availability. Study shows that food production in households cannot meet food needs of even an area w ith adequate rainfall patterns. Low levels of education, employment and income observed among female caregivers constrain household purchasing power and knowledge required to select nutritious foods. Thus, empowering the women has far reaching benefits for nutritional outcomes of children.
This study focused on the coping strategies of parents' with children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and the relation between these strategies and parenting styles. Coping strategies were measured using the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and the Purpose in Life Test (PIL-R). Parental attitudes toward loving care, stress, worry, and guilt feelings were assessed using the Family Impact Questionnaire. Two groups of participants were included: parents with children with ASD (EG) (n = 66) ...
Javier Pérez Padilla
Full Text Available In this study parenting stress and coping strategies in a sample of 109 mothers from at-risk families were analyzed. Results obtained show over half of these women experienced clinical levels of parenting stress, and problem focused coping strategies were the most commonly used. Moreover, the main characteristics of these families and their trajectories in Child and Family Protection Services were correlated with parenting stress and coping strategies. The global valuation of family risk informed by professionals was significantly related to parenting stress.
Full Text Available Absolute poverty has been a social problem in rural Nigeria with its rate ever on the increase. All the previous government efforts in terms of poverty reduction projects and programmes failed to improve on the situation. In order to survive, the rural poor decided device survival strategies to cope with poverty. One of such strategies is the formulation of community based organizations (CBOs. The paper examines the nature, activities and impact of the CBOs on the rural poor. The CBOs were able to minimally mobilize both human and material resources, established both primary and secondary schools, built cottage industries, constructed culverts and bridges, established community health clinics, local financial institutions, donation of relief materials contributed food and cloths to less-privileged, widows and orphans. The CBOS are handicapped due to certain problems such as lack of adequate funds, corruption, accountability, credibility among their leaders, illiteracy, and lack of commitment among some members and limited sustainability of projects. The paper advocates for government to intervene in form of finding lasting solutions to these problems. Key words: Absolute rural poverty; Coping strategy; Benue State NigeriaResumé: La pauvreté absolue a été un problème social dans le Nigeria rural avec un taux qui augmentent de façon constante. Tous les efforts gouvernementaux précédents en termes de projets de réduction de la pauvreté et des programmes ont échoué, la situation ne s'améliore guère. Afin de survivre les pauvres ruraux ont décidé une stratégie de survivance dartifice pour régler le problème de la pauvreté. Une de telles stratégies est la formulation dorganisations basées de communauté (CBOs. Le papier examine la nature, les activités et limpact du CBOs sur les pauvres ruraux. Les CBOs étaient capables mobiliser très peu de ressources sur le plan humain et matériel, les écoles primaires et secondaires ont été établies, les travaux artisanaux à domicile ont été construits, les caniveaux et les ponts ont été construit, des cliniques de santé de communauté ont été établies, ainsi que des institutions financiers locales, la donation de matériel pour soulager la situation comme les aliments et les vêtements aux peuple qui sont des moins favorises, les veuves et des orphelins. la donation de matériels(matières de soulagement la nourriture contribuée et des tissus à moins - privilégié, des veuves et des orphelins. On handicape le CBOS en raison de certains problèmes comme le manque de fonds adéquats, la corruption, la responsabilité, la crédibilité parmi leurs leaders, lanalphabétisme et le manque dengagement parmi certains membres ont limite ce projet. Le papier recommande pour le gouvernement dintervenir dans la forme de trouver des solutions durables a ces problèmes.Mots-clés: Pauvretérurale absolue; Stratégie dadaptation; LEtat Benue Nigeria
Alessandra Brunoro Motta
Full Text Available Estudos indicam que a hospitalização pode afetar o desenvolvimento da criança, interferindo na qualidade de vida. Para lidar com essa situação, o brincar tem funcionado como estratégia de enfrentamento. Procurando-se avaliar a importância dada ao brincar pela criança e caracterizar atividades lúdicas possíveis no hospital, 28 crianças hospitalizadas com câncer (6-12 anos, em Vitória/ES, foram entrevistadas e responderam a um instrumento especialmente elaborado (AEH - Avaliação das Estratégias de Enfrentamento da Hospitalização - Conjunto B: Brincar no hospital, contendo 20 desenhos de brinquedos e brincadeiras, classificados em jogos de Exercícios, Simbólicos, de Acoplagem, de Regras e Atividades Diversas. 78,6% das crianças relataram que gostariam de brincar no hospital, o que é justificado principalmente pela sua função lúdica, na companhia de outras crianças internadas. Não houve diferenças significativas nas escolhas entre as categorias de brincadeiras. O instrumento mostrou que o brincar pode ser um recurso adequado para a adaptação da criança hospitalizada, permitindo personalizar a intervenção.Studies have shown that the hospitalization can affect a child development interfering with his/her quality of life. In order to deal with this situation, the act of playing has worked as a coping strategy. With the purpose to assess of the importance children give to play and to characterize possible playful activities in the hospital, 28 children hospitalized with cancer (6-12 years in Vitória, ES, were interviewed and took part on an instrument specially developed (AEH Evaluation of the Coping Strategies of the Hospitalization - group B: Playing in the hospital, consisting of 20 drawings of toys and games classified in games of Exercises, Symbolic Game, Game of Connection, Game of Rules and a variety of Activities. 78,6% of the children said that they would like playing in the hospital, which is justified mainly by its ludic function, in the company of other hospitalzed children. There were no significant differences in the choices among the categories of games. The instrument showed that playing can be an appropriated resource to jelp with the adjustment of the hospitalized child, making the treatment a personalized intervention.
Alessandra Brunoro, Motta; Sônia Regina Fiorim, Enumo.
Full Text Available Estudos indicam que a hospitalização pode afetar o desenvolvimento da criança, interferindo na qualidade de vida. Para lidar com essa situação, o brincar tem funcionado como estratégia de enfrentamento. Procurando-se avaliar a importância dada ao brincar pela criança e caracterizar atividades lúdica [...] s possíveis no hospital, 28 crianças hospitalizadas com câncer (6-12 anos), em Vitória/ES, foram entrevistadas e responderam a um instrumento especialmente elaborado (AEH - Avaliação das Estratégias de Enfrentamento da Hospitalização - Conjunto B: Brincar no hospital), contendo 20 desenhos de brinquedos e brincadeiras, classificados em jogos de Exercícios, Simbólicos, de Acoplagem, de Regras e Atividades Diversas. 78,6% das crianças relataram que gostariam de brincar no hospital, o que é justificado principalmente pela sua função lúdica, na companhia de outras crianças internadas. Não houve diferenças significativas nas escolhas entre as categorias de brincadeiras. O instrumento mostrou que o brincar pode ser um recurso adequado para a adaptação da criança hospitalizada, permitindo personalizar a intervenção. Abstract in english Studies have shown that the hospitalization can affect a child development interfering with his/her quality of life. In order to deal with this situation, the act of playing has worked as a coping strategy. With the purpose to assess of the importance children give to play and to characterize possib [...] le playful activities in the hospital, 28 children hospitalized with cancer (6-12 years) in Vitória, ES, were interviewed and took part on an instrument specially developed (AEH Evaluation of the Coping Strategies of the Hospitalization - group B: Playing in the hospital), consisting of 20 drawings of toys and games classified in games of Exercises, Symbolic Game, Game of Connection, Game of Rules and a variety of Activities. 78,6% of the children said that they would like playing in the hospital, which is justified mainly by its ludic function, in the company of other hospitalzed children. There were no significant differences in the choices among the categories of games. The instrument showed that playing can be an appropriated resource to jelp with the adjustment of the hospitalized child, making the treatment a personalized intervention.
Doolittle, Benjamin R.; Windish, Donna M.
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the correlation of burnout syndrome with specific coping strategies, behaviors, and spiritual attitudes among interns in internal medicine, primary care, and internal medicine/pediatrics residency programs at two institutions. Methods: Intern physicians completed anonymous voluntary surveys prior to starting the internship in June 2009 and in the middle of the internship in February 2010. Three validated survey instruments were used to explore burnout, coping, and spiritual attitudes: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the COPE Inventory, and the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. The interns were in programs at the Yale University School of Medicine and a Yale-affiliated community hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Results: The prevalence of self-identified burnout prior to starting the internship was 1/66 (1.5%) in June 2009, increasing to 10/53 (18.9%) in February 2010 (P<0.0001). From June 2009 to February 2010, the prevalence of high emotional exhaustion increased from 30/66 (45.5%) to 45/53 (84.9%) (P<0.0001), and that of high depersonalization increased from 42/66 (63.6%) to 45/53 (84.9%) (P=0.01). Interns who employed the strategies of acceptance and active coping were less likely to experience emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (P<0.05). Perceptions of high personal accomplishment was 75.5% and was positively correlated with total scores on the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale, as well as the internal/fluid and existential/meditative domains of that instrument. Specific behaviors did not impact burnout. Conclusion: Burnout increased during the intern year. Acceptance, active coping, and spirituality were correlated with less burnout. Specific behaviors were not correlated with burnout domains. PMID:26201403
Benjamin R. Doolittle
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to determine the correlation of burnout syndrome with specific coping strategies, behaviors, and spiritual attitudes among interns in internal medicine, primary care, and internal medicine/pediatrics residency programs at two institutions. Methods: Intern physicians completed anonymous voluntary surveys prior to starting the internship in June 2009 and in the middle of the internship in February 2010. Three validated survey instruments were used to explore burnout, coping, and spiritual attitudes: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the COPE Inventory, and the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. The interns were in programs at the Yale University School of Medicine and a Yale-affiliated community hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Results: The prevalence of self-identified burnout prior to starting the internship was 1/66 (1.5% in June 2009, increasing to 10/53 (18.9% in February 2010 (P<0.0001. From June 2009 to February 2010, the prevalence of high emotional exhaustion increased from 30/66 (45.5% to 45/53 (84.9% (P<0.0001, and that of high depersonalization increased from 42/66 (63.6% to 45/53 (84.9% (P=0.01. Interns who employed the strategies of acceptance and active coping were less likely to experience emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (P<0.05. Perceptions of high personal accomplishment was 75.5% and was positively correlated with total scores on the Hatch Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale, as well as the internal/fluid and existential/meditative domains of that instrument. Specific behaviors did not impact burnout. Conclusion: Burnout increased during the intern year. Acceptance, active coping, and spirituality were correlated with less burnout. Specific behaviors were not correlated with burnout domains.
Rachel M. Roberts; Tamara Muller; Annabel Sweeney; Drago Bratkovic; Anne Gannoni
Objective: To explore the pregnancy-related stresses anticipated and experienced by women with phenylketonuria (PKU) and the coping strategies and supports utilised or anticipated to be beneficial during pregnancy. Methods: Thematic analysis of interview data from eight women with PKU in a cross-sectional, qualitative study. Five of the participants had never had a pregnancy but were planning to in the future, two participants had children, and one participant was pregnant. Results: The...
Jansen, Karine Aasgaard
Abuse and Suffering A feminist perspective on Domestic Violence, Bodies and Battered Womens Coping Strategies in Mauritius. At least one out of every three women around the world has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime- with the abuser usually someone known to her. Violence against women and girls is a universal problem of epidemic proportions. Perhaps the most pervasive human rights violation that we know today, it devastates lives, fractures communit...
This paper addresses, homesickness, an important issue in the area of international human resource management. It uses psychological and sociological literature to highlight the negative effects of homesickness on migrant workers and expatriates. These effects range from psychological disruptions to physical manifestations that affect the health and welfare of individuals and impact on work performance. The paper presents a model of coping strategies used by expatriates to deal with homesickn...
Doolittle, Benjamin R.; Windish, Donna M
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the correlation of burnout syndrome with specific coping strategies, behaviors, and spiritual attitudes among interns in internal medicine, primary care, and internal medicine/pediatrics residency programs at two institutions. Methods: Intern physicians completed anonymous voluntary surveys prior to starting the internship in June 2009 and in the middle of the internship in February 2010. Three validated survey instruments were used to explore burnout, c...
Emma Ivarsson; Magdalena Presto; Felix Bareeba; Richard Lumu; Justine Nambi-Kasozi; Constantine Bakyusa Katongole; Jan Erik Lindberg
Livestock keeping is increasingly becoming more popular in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. However, lack of feed is a real challenge. Inadequate feed supply in urban areas is due to many interacting factors, which include among others land shortage, high cost of feeds, climate risks and poor quality of feeds. The objective of this study was to identify and examine the effectiveness of the strategies adopted by livestock farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda to cope wit...
Hollensen, Svend; Schimmelpfennig, Christian
while exploiting the benefits of global integration. The challenge is to balance the local knowledge with global reach. In the case of Persil Abaya Shampoo (for the Middle East market) and Persil Black Gel (for the European market), Henkel chose a strategy that successfully benefitted from the...... markets and used Persil Abayasâ particular significance in the Arab world to its advantage. The results document that it has been possible for Henkelâs Persil to gain competitive advantages in terms of higher market shares, with the âglocalisation strategyâ in the (Middle East) liquid detergent market.......The glocalisation strategy strives to achieve the slogan, âthink globally but act locallyâ, through dynamic interdependence between headquarters and subsidiaries and/or local intermediaries around the world. Companies following such a strategy coordinate their efforts, ensuring local flexibility...
Full Text Available This study sought to establish the psychometric properties of a Coping Strategies Inventory Short Form (CSISF by examining coping skills in the Jackson Heart Study cohort. We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, PearsonÃ¢ÂÂs correlation, and Cronbach Alpha to examine reliability and validity in the CSI-SF that solicited responses from 5302 African American men and women between the ages of 35 and 84. One item was dropped from the 16-item CSI-SF, making it a 15-item survey. No significant effects were found for age and gender, strengthening the generalizability of the CSI-SF. The internal consistency reliability analysis revealed reliability between alpha = 0.58-0.72 for all of the scales, and all of the fit indices used to examine the CSI-SF provided support for its use as an adequate measure of coping. This study provides empirical support for utilizing this instrument in future efforts to understand the role of coping in moderating health outcomes.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es explorar la percepción de riesgo y las estrategias de afrontamiento utilizadas por personas adultas que viven cerca del volcán Popocatépetl en México. Se recolectaron datos tanto cualitativos como semi-cuantitativos a partir de un cuestionario que se aplicó a las 192 p [...] ersonas participantes. Éstos, fueron divididos en cuatro grupos (G1-G4) conforme a la zona de riesgo en la cual viven (en general el grado de peligro volcánico disminuye con la distancia). Sin sorpresa, observamos que el riesgo volcánico fue percibido como más preocupante por la gente que vive en la zona más cercana al cráter del volcán. Sin embargo, cuando preguntamos sobre los riesgos que los afectan más directamente, estas percepciones cambian, y el riesgo volcánico es evaluado como el riesgo más importante para los grupos G1, G2 y G3. A pesar de la información dada por las autoridades de Protección Civil, un alto porcentaje de personas expuestas a los peligros volcánicos no se sienten preparadas para enfrentar un evento eruptivo y no tienen estrategias para enfrentar los riesgos percibidos. Un alto porcentaje de participantes en los cuatro grupos sostuvieron que ellos dejarían la zona si ocurriera una erupción. Esta afirmación refleja una seria falta de información, puesto que las autoridades civiles no sugieren que la gente que vive en las zonas tres y cuatro evacuen. Se sugiere reforzar las campañas de información pública en las comunidades cercanas al Popocatépetl. Abstract in english The goal of this study is to explore risk perception and coping strategies used by adults living near the volcano Popocatépetl in Mexico. Qualitative and semi-quantitative data were collected with a questionnaire from 192 adult respondents. These respondents were divided into four groups (G1-G4) acc [...] ording to the risk zone in which they live (generally the degree of hazard decreases with increasing distances from the volcano). Analyses of the completed questionnaires were made according to sex and age range of the respondents. Not surprisingly volcanic risk was perceived as more worrisome by people living in the zone nearest the volcano's crater (G1). However, when we asked what risks could affect them directly, perceptions changed, and volcanic risk was appraised as the most important risk potentially affecting them and their homes for risk zones G1, G2 and G3. Despite sporadic information given by the Civil Defense authorities, a high percentage of people exposed to volcanic hazards do not feel prepared to face an eruptive event, and people have no strategy to cope with general perceived risks. A high percentage of participants in the four groups stated that they would leave the area if an eruptive event occurred. This statement reflects the serious misinformation, because civil authorities do not require people living in the third and fourth zones to evacuate. The results of study demonstrate the critical need to reinforce public information campaigns regarding volcanic risk in communities vulnerable to direct damage in the event of a stronger eruption of the volcano Popocatépetl.
Tanaka, Makoto; Kawakami, Aki; Iwao, Yasushi; Fukushima, Tsuneo; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko
The study objective was to investigate the nature and perceived effectiveness of strategies that patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) use in response to worsening symptoms. Questionnaires to investigate the use and perceived effectiveness of 11 types of strategies for coping with possible flare-ups were mailed to 1,641 members of the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of Japan. The responses were analyzed separately by disease type: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD). A total of 400 questionnaires were analyzed from 260 UC and 140 CD patients. The strategies used most by both patient groups were "change contents of meals" and "get more sleep." In addition, "skip some meals" was commonly used by CD patients. The most effective strategies were "use extra topical corticosteroids" (30 of the 56 subjects, 53.6%) among UC patients, and "skip some meals" (70 of the 114 subjects, 61.4%), and "take/add to the elemental diet" (53 of 89 subjects, 59.6%) among CD patients. The coping strategies used most by patients with IBD involved lifestyle modifications. However, the additional use of medications was regarded as the most effective, despite the small number of patients who used this strategy. Additional use of topical medications for UC patients and diet modifications for CD patients should be emphasized in self-management education for patients. PMID:26825563
Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia
The aim of the present study was to find relevant coping factors for the development of psychological intervention programs for young people with Type 1 (T1) diabetes. A wide range of coping techniques was studied, including cognitive coping, behavioral coping and goal adjustment coping. A total of 78 young people with T1 diabetes participated. They were contacted through a social networking website, several Internet sites, and flyers. A wide range of coping techniques appeared to be related to depressive symptoms. Especially the cognitive coping strategies self-blame, rumination, refocus positive, and other-blame, together with goal adjustment coping, were of importance. A large proportion of the variance of depressive symptoms could be explained (65Â %). These findings suggest that these specific coping strategies should be part of coping skills trainings for young people with T1 diabetes. PMID:25614324
Md Mizanur Rahman
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate self-reported illness and household strategies for coping with payments for health care in a city in Bangladesh. METHODS: A cluster-sampled probability survey of 1593 households in the city of Rajshahi, Bangladesh, was conducted in 2011. Multilevel logistic regression - with adjustment for any clustering within households - was used to examine the risk of self-reported illness in the previous 30 days. A multilevel Poisson regression model, with adjustment for clustering within households and individuals, was used to explore factors potentially associated with the risk of health-care-related "distress" financing (e.g. paying for health care by borrowing, selling, reducing food expenditure, removing children from school or performing additional paid work. FINDINGS: According to the interviewees, about 45% of the surveyed individuals had suffered at least one episode of illness in the previous 30 days. The most frequently reported illnesses among children younger than 5 years and adults were common tropical infections and noncommunicable diseases, respectively. The risks of self-reported illness in the previous 30 days were relatively high for adults older than 44 years, women and members of households in the poorest quintile. Distress financing, which had been implemented to cover health-care payments associated with 13% of the reported episodes, was significantly associated with heart and liver disease, asthma, typhoid, inpatient care, the use of public outpatient facilities, and poverty at the household level. CONCLUSION: Despite the subsidization of public health services in Bangladesh, high prevalences of distress financing - and illness - were detected in the surveyed, urban households.
Marsac, Meghan L; Donlon, Katharine A.; Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Winston, Flaura K.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy
Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe childrens coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within ...
Recent research has highlighted the need to recognise occupation-specific risk factors contributing to stress and burnout. As health professionals, it is important for dentists to recognise the symptoms and the effects of stress on physical, psychological and professional well being. This article reviews the relevant scientific evidence, and provides practical cognitive psychological measures to guide improved well-being for dentists. Any stigma-related factors need to be acknowledged and addressed for the wellbeing of dentists and their patients, and the dental profession is well placed to provide leadership on this issue. Peer support is central to meeting this challenge.
Benishek, Lois A.; Morrow, Susan L.
Estimates indicate that 1 in 4 women and 1 in 7 men have been sexually abused as children. These statistics may be underestimated based on anecdotal information relayed by many therapists who specialize in working with survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Effects of childhood sexual abuse have far reaching implications for the survivors' abilities
Lopez, Naty; Johnson, Sara; Black, Nicki
Dental students deal with various stressors while in dental school. While some develop adaptive coping skills, others may suffer from damaging effects of constant and increasing levels of stress. This study evaluated a peer mentoring program at a dental school in the Midwest to determine student perceptions of its benefits and to identify areas for improvement. Data were collected through a survey sent out to all dental classes online. The twenty-five-item survey was based on student responses during two focus groups held to elicit student assessment of the peer mentoring program. Sixty-six percent of the student body participated with representation from all four classes. Students find their peer mentoring program an effective tool in helping them deal with stress especially during transition phases of their curriculum, first into dental school and later from preclinic to the clinics. Having a mentor means easy access to an available person who can help students relieve anxieties about dental school. Experiencing dental school enables a student to serve as a mentor, so a non-dental student is seen as not effective. Peer mentoring needs to be loosely structured and flexible and should cover all years in the dental curriculum. PMID:21045224
Lynggaard, Vibeke; May, Ole
BACKGROUND: Due to improved treatments and ageing population, many countries now report increasing prevalence in rates of ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Cardiac rehabilitation has potential to reduce morbidity and mortality, but not all patients complete. In light of favourable effects of cardiac rehabilitation it is important to develop patient education methods which can enhance adherence to this effective program. The LC-REHAB study aims to compare the effect of a new patient education strategy in cardiac rehabilitation called 'learning and coping' to that of standard care. Further, this paper aims to describe the theoretical basis and details of this intervention. METHODS/DESIGN: Open parallel randomised controlled trial conducted in three hospital units in Denmark among patients recently discharged with ischemic heart disease or heart failure. Patients are allocated to either the intervention group with learning and coping strategies incorporated into standard care in cardiac rehabilitation or the control group who receive the usual cardiac rehabilitation program. Learning and coping consists of two individual clarifying interviews, participation of experienced patients as educators together with health professionals and theory based, situated and inductive teaching. Usual care in cardiac rehabilitation is characterised by a structured deductive teaching style with use of identical pre-written slides in all hospital units. In both groups, cardiac rehabilitation consists of training three times a week and education once a week over eight weeks. The primary outcomes are adherence to cardiac rehabilitation, morbidity and mortality, while secondary outcomes are quality of life (SF-12, Health education impact questionnaire and Major Depression Inventory) and lifestyle and risk factors (Body Mass Index, waist circumference, blood pressure, exercise work capacity, lipid profile and DXA-scan). Data collection occurs four times; at baseline, at immediate completion of cardiac rehabilitation, and at three months and three years after the finished program. DISCUSSION: It is expected that learning and coping incorporated in cardiac rehabilitation will improve adherence in cardiac rehabilitation and may decrease morbidity and mortality. By describing learning and coping strategies the study aims to provide knowledge that can contribute to an increased transparency in patient education in cardiac rehabilitation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier NCT01668394.
Abdolali Lahsaeizadeh; Golmorad Moradi
AbstractStatement of Problem: Most of the scientists believe that psychological and behavioral problems of theYouth are roots of the aggression. These behaviors can cause to problems between individual, crimes,offense to others rights and internalization can lead to physical and psychological problem. The importanceof coping strategies about Condition to showing youngsters behavior it has been clear by scientists.Objective: The Examination of Relation to Between Coping Strategies and Aggressi...
Giovanna Perricone; Marina Prista Guerra; Orlanda Cruz; Concetta Polizzi; Lìgia Lima; Maria Regina Morales; Marina Serra de Lemos; Valentina Fontana
A childs oncological or chronic disease is a stressful situation for parents. This stress may make it difficult for appropriate management strategies aimed at promoting the childs wellbeing and helping him or her cope with a disease to be adopted. In particular, this study focuses on the possible connections between the variable national cultural influences and the parental strategies used to cope with a childs severe disease by comparing the experiences of Italian and Portuguese mothers. The...
Elena Predescu; Roxana ?ipo?
The Quality of Life (QoL) represents a dimension of the overall status and of the wellbeing that might be influenced by various factors. Mothers emotional and behavioral reactions, when having a child with diagnosis of mental disorder, are different depending on the emotional distress and cognitive coping strategies used. The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive coping strategies, emotional distress and the relationship between them and the quality of life in mothers of children wi...
Fernando Austria Corrales
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate hypothesized structural and functional relationships between coping strategies and factors associated with burnout syndrome in independent samples of health workers from different hospitals and hospital care settings. We applied the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the scale of Coping with Extreme Risks adapted to the Mexican population, we analyzed the responses of 354 health workers in a tertiary hospital and 300 from a reference hospital. The samples were intentional, non-probability, quota. The group was formed by nurses, paramedics, diagnostics services, physicians and resident physicians. Results confirmed the factor structure of the instruments in the twosamples and showed that the use of active coping strategies (control, information seeking, social support, among others has protective effects on the factors associated withthe syndrome (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal fulfillment at work, regardless of the sample, context and type of hospital care. We discuss the results andtheir implications in relation to external validity and findings in other related research.
Liwenga, Emma T.
In this paper, it is argued that local knowledge for adapting to water scarcity is important for integrated resource management by taking into consideration both the natural and social constraints in a particular setting based on accumulated experience. The paper examines the relevance of local knowledge in sustaining agricultural production in the semiarid areas of central Tanzania. The paper specifically focuses on how water scarcity, as the major limiting factor, is addressed in the study area using local knowledge to sustain livelihoods of its people. The study was conducted in four villages; Mzula, Ilolo, Chanhumba and Ngahelezi, situation in Mvumi Division in Dodoma Region. The study mainly employed qualitative data collection techniques. Participatory methods provided a means of exploring perceptions and gaining deeper insights regarding natural resource utilization in terms of problems and opportunities. The main data sources drawn upon in this study were documentation, group interviews and field observations. Group interviews involved discussions with a group of 6-12 people selected on the basis of gender, age and socio-economic groups. Data analysis entailed structural and content analysis within the adaptive livelihood framework in relation to management of water scarcity using local knowledge. The findings confirm that rainfall is the main limiting factor for agricultural activities in the drylands of Central Tanzania. As such, local communities have developed, through time, indigenous knowledge to cope with such environments utilizing seasonality and diversity of landscapes. Use of this local knowledge is therefore effective in managing water scarcity by ensuring a continuous production of crops throughout the year. This practice implies increased food availability and accessibility through sales of such agricultural products. Local innovations for water management, such as cultivation in sandy rivers, appear to be very important means of accessing water in these dryland areas. It can therefore be concluded that utilization of local knowledge has wide impact on integrated water resource management. These implications are important considerations for development of adaptive water system innovations at community level.
Treviño, Lara A.; Baker, Liana; McIntosh, Scott; Mustian, Karen; Seplaki, Christopher L.; Guido, Joseph J.; Deborah J Ossip
Smoking prevalence for those ages 4565 is higher than the national average and the number of mid-life and older smokers is expected to increase as baby boomers age. Cessation, even after age 65, confers health benefits. Both physiologic and psychological mechanisms support use of physical activity (PA) 1 as a coping tool for quitting and improving health. This study focused on use of PA for coping with urges to smoke, factors associated with use, and whether use of PA was associated with abs...
Snyder, Kevin; Barry, Mark; Plona, Zachary; Ho, Andrew; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Valentino, Rita J
The age of stressor exposure can determine its neurobehavioral impact. For example, exposure of adolescent male rats to resident-intruder stress impairs cognitive flexibility in adulthood. The current study examined the impact of this stressor in female rats. Rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress during early adolescence (EA), mid-adolescence (MA) or adulthood (Adult). They were tested in an operant strategy-shifting task for side discrimination (SD), reversal learning (REV) and strategy set-shifting (SHIFT) the following week. Performance varied with age, stress and coping style. MA and EA rats performed SD and SHIFT better than other ages, respectively. Social stress impaired performance in rats depending on their coping strategy as determined by a short (SL) or long (LL) latency to become subordinate. SL rats were impaired in SD and REV, whereas EA-LL rats were impaired in SHIFT. These impairing effects of female adolescent stress did not endure into adulthood. Strategy set-shifting performance for female adolescents was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation as indicated by c-fos expression suggesting that this region is engaged during task performance. This contrasts with the inverse relationship between these indices reported for male adolescent rats. Together, the results demonstrate that social stress produces cognitive impairments for female rats that depend on age and coping style but unlike males, the impairing effects of female adolescent social stress are immediate and do not endure into adulthood. Sex differences in the impact of adolescent social stress on cognition may reflect differences in mPFC engagement during the task. PMID:25746514
Full Text Available Regional development policies in the EU Member States have included tools whoseimportance varied from one country to another. Can be identified by negative incentives forregional development policy towards location in crowded areas or control over the location,the reallocation of economic activities in national territory, creation of adequateinfrastructure, measures to enhance development, financial incentives granted toenterprises. Sustainable business development, rehabilitation of social infrastructure,including social housing and improved social services. Improved regional and localtransportation are key areas of intervention rehabilitation and upgrading of county roads,city streets, including road construction and rehabilitation of belt.
Full Text Available Investigadores, um pouco por todo o mundo, começaram a preocupar-se com o fenómeno do burnout, ao identificarem este sintoma essencialmente nas profissões que envolviam uma relação assistencial ou de ajuda, como o caso dos médicos, enfermeiros e psicólogos. Contudo, não tardou que se percebesse que este fenómeno pudesse também estar presente na profissão docente de uma forma muito significativa. A docência é, na atualidade, uma das profissões mais sujeitas a altos níveis de stresse, podendo levar ao burnout, caso se torne recorrente. Muitos docentes conseguem adaptar-se e reagir de uma forma funcional perante as dificuldades próprias da profissão, tornando-se profissionais engaged, ou seja, enquanto alguns professores vivenciam as dimensões negativas do burnout (exaustão emocional, despersonalização e perda de realização profissional, outros experienciam as três dimensões positivas do engagement(vigor, dedicação e absorção profissional. Com a entrada da chamada "psicologia positiva", surge uma nova perspectiva de estudo que procura respostas para determinadas formas de envolvimento profissional. Assim, apesar do fenómeno do engagement ainda não estar muito estudado, encontrar professores engagedcom a sua profissão também é uma realidade presente em muitos países. O recurso a estratégias de coping é uma forma de lidar com as dificuldades inerentes ao exercício da profissão docente. Logo, é importante perceber de que forma a utilização de determinado tipo de estratégia decoping poderá conduzir ao burnoutou, preferencialmente, ao engagement.Researchers throughout the world have started to worry about the phenomenon of burnout, identifying it mainly in professions that involve a relation of assistance or help, as in the case of medical doctors, nurses, and psychologists. However, it was not long before it was noticed that such phenomenon can also be present in the teaching profession in a very significant way. Teaching is nowadays one of the professions subjected to the highest levels of stress, which can lead to burnout when the situation becomes recurrent. Many teachers manage to adapt and to react in a functional way when faced with the difficulties inherent to their profession, becoming engaged professionals, that is to say, while some teachers experience the negative dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and loss of professional fulfillment, others experience the three positive dimensions of engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption in the profession. With the arrival of the so-called "positive psychology", there comes a new perspective of investigation, which seeks to give answers to certain forms of professional involvement. Thus, despite the fact that the phenomenon of engagement has still been little studied, to find teachers engaged with their profession is also a reality in many countries. Resorting to strategies of coping is one way of dealing with the difficulties inherent to the exercise of the teaching profession. Therefore, it is important to observe in which way the use of certain type of strategy of coping can lead to burnout or, preferably, to engagement.
Margarida, Pocinho; Célia Xavier, Perestrelo.
Full Text Available Investigadores, um pouco por todo o mundo, começaram a preocupar-se com o fenómeno do burnout, ao identificarem este sintoma essencialmente nas profissões que envolviam uma relação assistencial ou de ajuda, como o caso dos médicos, enfermeiros e psicólogos. Contudo, não tardou que se percebesse que [...] este fenómeno pudesse também estar presente na profissão docente de uma forma muito significativa. A docência é, na atualidade, uma das profissões mais sujeitas a altos níveis de stresse, podendo levar ao burnout, caso se torne recorrente. Muitos docentes conseguem adaptar-se e reagir de uma forma funcional perante as dificuldades próprias da profissão, tornando-se profissionais engaged, ou seja, enquanto alguns professores vivenciam as dimensões negativas do burnout (exaustão emocional, despersonalização e perda de realização profissional), outros experienciam as três dimensões positivas do engagement(vigor, dedicação e absorção profissional). Com a entrada da chamada "psicologia positiva", surge uma nova perspectiva de estudo que procura respostas para determinadas formas de envolvimento profissional. Assim, apesar do fenómeno do engagement ainda não estar muito estudado, encontrar professores engagedcom a sua profissão também é uma realidade presente em muitos países. O recurso a estratégias de coping é uma forma de lidar com as dificuldades inerentes ao exercício da profissão docente. Logo, é importante perceber de que forma a utilização de determinado tipo de estratégia decoping poderá conduzir ao burnoutou, preferencialmente, ao engagement. Abstract in english Researchers throughout the world have started to worry about the phenomenon of burnout, identifying it mainly in professions that involve a relation of assistance or help, as in the case of medical doctors, nurses, and psychologists. However, it was not long before it was noticed that such phenomeno [...] n can also be present in the teaching profession in a very significant way. Teaching is nowadays one of the professions subjected to the highest levels of stress, which can lead to burnout when the situation becomes recurrent. Many teachers manage to adapt and to react in a functional way when faced with the difficulties inherent to their profession, becoming engaged professionals, that is to say, while some teachers experience the negative dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and loss of professional fulfillment), others experience the three positive dimensions of engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption in the profession). With the arrival of the so-called "positive psychology", there comes a new perspective of investigation, which seeks to give answers to certain forms of professional involvement. Thus, despite the fact that the phenomenon of engagement has still been little studied, to find teachers engaged with their profession is also a reality in many countries. Resorting to strategies of coping is one way of dealing with the difficulties inherent to the exercise of the teaching profession. Therefore, it is important to observe in which way the use of certain type of strategy of coping can lead to burnout or, preferably, to engagement.
Perricone, Giovanna; Guerra, Marina Prista; Cruz, Orlanda; Polizzi, Concetta; Lima, Lígia; Morales, Maria Regina; de Lemos, Marina Serra; Fontana, Valentina
A child's oncological or chronic disease is a stressful situation for parents. This stress may make it difficult for appropriate management strategies aimed at promoting the child's wellbeing and helping him or her cope with a disease to be adopted. In particular, this study focuses on the possible connections between the variable national cultural influences and the parental strategies used to cope with a child's severe disease by comparing the experiences of Italian and Portuguese mothers. The study investigates differences and cross-cultural elements among the coping strategies used by Italian and Portuguese mothers of children with oncological or chronic disease. Two groups of mothers took part: 59 Italian mothers (average age 37.7 years; SD=4.5) and 36 Portuguese mothers (average age 39.3 years; SD=4.6). The tool used was the Italian and the Portuguese versions of the COPE inventory that measures five coping strategies: Social Support, Avoidance Coping, Positive Aptitude, Religious Faith and Humor, Active Coping. There were statistically significant differences between Portuguese and Italian mothers regarding Social Support (F(3, 94)=6.32, P=0.014, ?(2)=0.065), Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94)=20.06, P=0.001, ?(2)=0.18, higher values for Portuguese mothers) and Avoidance Coping (F(3, 94)=3.30, P=0.06, ?(2)=0.035, higher values for Italian mothers). Regarding child's disease, the only statistically significant difference was in Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94)=7.49, P=0.007, ?(2)=0.076, higher values for mothers of children with chronic disease). The findings of specific cultural transversalities provide the basis for reflection on important factors emerging on the relationship between physicians and parents. In fact, mothers' coping abilities may allow health workers involved in a child's care not only to understand how parents face a distressful event, but also to provide them with professional support. PMID:23904966
Haeseler, Lisa Ann
Women and children coping with issues of domestic violence abuse urgently require help from early childhood professionals. The U.S. Department of Justice (2008) details these women and children are in peril. This article focuses on female domestic violence abuse. It presents some warning signs of domestic violence. It also offers steps on how to
Discusses ways people cope with extramarital relationships of their spouses. Results found avoidance was significantly more common among women, especially among women with a low self-esteem. Both avoidance and reappraisal correlated positively with neuroticism. Communication occurred more often among people with high marital satisfaction. (Author)
Results: Sense of Community at work predicted greater Compassion Satisfaction, independent of coping style, gender, or job characteristics. Conclusions: These preliminary findings suggest that workplace Sense of Community is associated with an individuals reported Compassion Satisfaction and may help explain resilience in healthcare staff.
Full Text Available Background: It has previously been demonstrated that there is a significant drop in all domains of quality of life among interns during internship. Aims: A modified version of the health consultant?s job stress and satisfaction questionnaire (HCJSSQ was used to assess and quantify aspects of internship that were perceived as stressful and satisfying. Methods used to cope with work place stress were explored. Settings and Design: A prospective cohort study was undertaken among 93 medical interns doing a rotating internship at the Christian Medical College and Hospital, a tertiary-care hospital in southern India. Materials and Methods: After completion of 6 months of internship, the modified version of the HCJSSQ was administered to all participants. Statistical Analysis: The data were entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 9 by double data entry technique. Percentages of interns reporting high levels of stress, satisfaction were calculated. Results: While 63.4% of interns reported high levels of satisfaction, 45.2% of the interns experienced high levels of stress, 17.6% coped with work stress by using alcohol and nicotine, and 37% coped through unhealthy eating habits. Conclusion: More people found internship satisfying than stressful. However, a high proportion found it stressful, and many reported unhealthy coping mechanisms.
Ahmadi, Fereshteh; Ahmadi, Nader
The authors have conducted a quantitative survey to examine the extent to which the results obtained in a qualitative study among cancer patients in Sweden (Ahmadi, Culture, religion and spirituality in coping: The example of cancer patients in Sweden, Uppsala, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006) are applicable to a wider population of cancer patients in this country. In addition to questions relating to the former qualitative study, this survey also references the RCOPE questionnaire (designed by Kenneth I Pargament) in the design of the new quantitative study. In this study, questionnaires were distributed among persons diagnosed with cancer; 2,355 people responded. The results show that nature has been the most important coping method among cancer patients in Sweden. The highest mean value (2.9) is the factor 'nature has been an important resource to you so that you could deal with your illnesses'. Two out of three respondents (68 %) affirm that this method helped them feel significantly better during or after illness. The second highest average (2.8) is the factor 'listening to 'natural music' (birdsong and the wind)'. Two out of three respondents (66 %) answered that this coping method significantly helped them feel better during illness. The third highest average (2.7) is the factor 'to walk or engage in any activity outdoors gives you a spiritual sense'. This survey concerning the role of nature as the most important coping method for cancer patients confirms the result obtained from the previous qualitative studies. PMID:24363200
Oluwole C Omolase
CONCLUSION: The leading job stressor was no time for leisure followed by overwork and financial constraint. Most respondents drew inspiration from religious belief to cope with stress. There is need for creation of recreational facilities in the hospitals and improvement in the welfare package of medical practitioners [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 13-18
Hooshyar, Nahid T.
Mothers' coping mechanisms and adaptations to having a handicapped child were analyzed through extensive structured interviews with mothers of eight preschool-aged Down syndrome children and a language impaired child. Three illustrative case studies are presented, and general conclusions are drawn. Mothers of Down syndrome children go through the
Using the framework of boundary theory as applied to the work-life-school construct, the study focused on part-time MBA students who worked full-time, their tendency to segment or integrate their numerous roles, and the coping tactics they utilized in redistributing their efforts as they added graduate school to these roles. The research
Goldberg, Joel O.; Wheeler, Heather; Lubinsky, Tobi; Van Exan, Jessica
This article outlines an 8-week curriculum that was created to help outpatients develop cognitive and behavioral skills for coping with delusions and hallucinations as well as to reduce patients' comorbid subjective levels of distress (e.g., depression, anxiety). The manualized protocol consisted of psychoeducation and training in a variety of CBT
The purpose in this study is to investigate how the educational system in Tanzania is seen to enable the transformations of globalization in order to develop the economy, society and individuals. I look at how educational development in Tanzania is described, what the purpose of educational development is and under which conditions educational development is seen to enable global transformations. The main perspectives of this study are globalization and governmentality to highlight global tra...
Bianchini, V; Roncone, R; Giusti, L; Casacchia, M; Cifone, MG; Pollice, R
Aim of the study was the assessment of coping strategies, specifically substance use and post-traumatic growth (PTG), in 411 college students two years after 2009 LAquila earthquake. Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) was used to assess PTG and one question about substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis) was asked to verify if students had modified their use in the post-earthquake compared with the pre-earthquake period. The 77.1% of college students were exposed to LAquila...
Flávia Pereira da, Costa.
Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), which are the coping strategies used and the relation between type of coping, voice symptoms and communicative aspects. Method: 73 subjects, 33 in the experimental group, with diagnosis of PD, and 40 subjects in the control group, he [...] althy and without vocal complaints. They underwent the following procedures: application of the Voice Symptons Scale VoiSS Brazilian Version, Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire VDCQ Brazilian Version, and the questionnaire Living with Dysarthria LwD. Results: The experimental group showed deviations in all protocols: VDCQ (p
GregDécamps; EmilieBoujut; CamilleBrisset
College students at university have to face several stress factors. Although sports practice has been considered as having beneficial effects upon stress and general health, few studies have documented its influence on this specific population. The aim of this comparative study was to determine whether the intensity of the college students sports practice (categorized into three groups: rare, regular, or intensive) would influence their levels of stress and self-efficacy, their coping strate...
Schneider, H.; Hill, S.; Blandford, A. E.
Background: Self-management technologies, such as patient-controlled electronic health records (PCEHRs), have the potential to help people manage and cope with disease. Objectives: This study set out to investigate patient familiesâ lived experiences of working with a PCEHR. Method: We conducted a semi-structured qualitative field study with patient families and clinicians at a childrenâs hospital in the UK that uses a PCEHR. All families were managing the health of a child with a serious chr...
In the South African context adolescents need to cope with societal and family-related stressors seen as everyday stressors, such as parental divorce, violence in communities, bereavement and pressure in schools. Research has shown that these everyday stressors could have negative effects on their well-being. It was further seen that such a high exposure to everyday stress like school-based stressors leads to an increase in unhealthy behaviour, such as smoking and alcohol use in early adolesc...
Susmita Chandramouleeswaran; Edwin, Natasha C; Deepa Braganza
Background: It has previously been demonstrated that there is a significant drop in all domains of quality of life among interns during internship. Aims: A modified version of the health consultant?s job stress and satisfaction questionnaire (HCJSSQ) was used to assess and quantify aspects of internship that were perceived as stressful and satisfying. Methods used to cope with work place stress were explored. Settings and Design: A prospective cohort study was undertaken among 93 medical inte...
Full Text Available In the process of strategic planning the strategy of development as well as applications realizing it are formulated. Planning is the basis for preparing and taking decisions referring to principles, trends and the pace of far-reaching development. Elaboration of the strategy of regional development management is the undertaking of large scale complexity. It comprises decisions referring to development perspectives, formulating purposes and determining (choice the methods of their realization, analysis of social and political conditions, collecting and processing the information. Conditioning of defining the strategy has a versatile character. None of the above-mentioned areas can be regarded as less important. The purpose of this study is to attempt to identify basic problems of forming the strategy of regional development management. The study contains a brief description of planning regional development on the basis of the literature of the subject, and then empirical verification of the accepted hypothesis. Considerations and based upon them conclusions can be useful in working out the strategy of regional development management.
Brink, Beatrix; De la Rey, Cheryl
The main objective of this study was to identify the coping strategies used by successful South African women of all races in dealing with work-family interaction strain. Using a transactional approach, the study also investigated cognitive appraisal as a key antecedent of coping with work-family interaction strain. A survey was conducted with a sample comprising 110 women in the public, corporate and self-employed sectors of the economy. All the participants were married with at least one...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Stress among students of the health sciences can lead to reduced performance of future healthcare human resources. To address this threat there is a need to develop a robust understanding of the nature and intensity of stress in these professionals. To help approaching this goal, the present study assessed stress-induced life change in students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences by quantifying their stressful life events.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study was carried out. Using a cluster sampling method, 248 students were randomly selected from the students of medicine, nursing, dental medicine, pharmacy, allied-medicine, health, midwifery, medical management and information, and rehabilitation disciplines. Based on the concept of Life Change Units (LCU, a questionnaire was developed to quantify the stressful events in student life. The questionnaire contained 54 weighed items about stressful life events related to four groups of interpersonal (10 items, personal (16 items, academic (14 items, and environmental (14 items stress sources. Validity of the questionnaire was determined by expert opinion. The questionnaire reliability was ensured by Cronbachs alpha of 0.88. The mean LCU loading of demographic groups was compared using t test and ANOVA.Findings: The average LCU loading in student was 71. Twenty seven percent of the students reported an average LCU loading 300. The highest reported life changes were related to personal factors (86, followed by interpersonal (79, environmental (63, and academic (55 factors. Male students showed significantly higher life change as compared with their female counterparts (P < 0.01. Students of medical and graduate courses jointly expressed significantly higher life change as compared with the under graduate students (P < 0.01. Students of nursing showed significantly higher life change in comparison to other students except medical students (P < 0.01. Upper-year students reported higher life change as compared with freshman students (P < 0.01. LCU loading was found significantly higher in students with sleeplessness (P < 0.05 and muscle spasm (P < 0.05, whereas no significant effect was observed for other clinical symptoms.Conclusions: Our study indicated that a considerable percentage of students are exposed to a high risk of health problems. This observation points out the urgent need for implementing effective stress management strategies to assist students in coping with stress. Such a strategy should primarily focus on enhancing students personal life management and communication. Male and upper-year students need to receive particular attention. Stress in students of medical and nursing disciplines needs to be specifically characterized and addressed.
Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.
Leandro Martín, Casari; Johana, Anglada; Celeste, Daher.
Full Text Available Este artículo analizó las estrategias de afrontamiento y la ansiedad ante situación de examen en 140 estudiantes universitarios de Psicología de la Universidad del Aconcagua de la provincia de Mendoza. Además, evaluó las diferencias y el grado de relación entre estas dos variables en cuanto a género [...] , materias rendidas y año académico. Los resultados mostraron que las estrategias de afrontamiento fueron la búsqueda de Gratificaciones Alternativas y la Descarga Emocional; además, que los estudiantes presentan un nivel bajo de ansiedad. Se encontraron relaciones significativas entre ansiedad ante exámenes y estrategias de afrontamiento, como también entre estas variables en relación al género y el año de cursado. No se encontraron resultados significativos al correlacionar con cantidad de materias rendidas. Abstract in english This paper analyzed the coping strategies and exam anxiety in 140 Psychology majors at the University of the Aconcagua, in the state of Mendoza. It also evaluated the differences and the relationship between these two variables according to gender, completed courses and academic year. Results showed [...] that the coping strategies included the Search for Alternative Bonuses and Emotional Discharge; students also reported a low level of anxiety. Significant associations were found between these two variables, as well in relation to gender and the academic year. No significant results were found in the relationship with completed courses.
WHITTEMORE, ROBIN; GREY, MARGARET; Lindemann, Evie; Ambrosino, Jodie; Jaser, Sarah
The purpose of this study was to develop an Internet coping skills training program and to evaluate its feasibility and acceptability compared with an Internet education intervention for teenagers with type 1 diabetes. A multiphase mixed-methods design with focus groups, a randomized pilot study, and a program evaluation was used. Teenagers with type 1 diabetes, parents, and health professionals were included in the development and evaluative phases along with the research and information tec...
Melin, Marika; Astvik, Wanja; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
This study investigates the relationship between the work conditions in higher education work settings, the academic staff's strategies for handling excessive workload and impact on well-being and work-life balance. The results show that there is a risk that staff in academic work places will start using compensatory coping strategies to deal
Carroll, Linda J; Ferrari, Robert
OBJECTIVE: Coping is shown to affect outcomes in chronic pain patients; however, few studies have examined the role of coping in the course of recovery in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of coping style for 2 key aspects of WAD recovery, reductions in neck pain, and in disability. METHODS: A population-based prospective cohort study design was used to study 2986 adults with traffic-related WAD. Participants were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 4, 8, and 12 months postinjury. Coping was measured at 6 weeks using the Pain Management Inventory, and neck pain recovery was assessed at each subsequent follow-up, using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Disability was assessed at each follow-up using the Pain Disability Index (PDI). Pain recovery was defined as a VAS score of 0 to 10; disability recovery was defined as a PDI score of 0 to 4. Data analysis used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Those using high versus low levels of passive coping at 6 weeks postinjury experienced 28% slower pain recovery and 43% slower disability recovery. Adjusted hazard rate ratios for pain recovery and disability recovery were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.59-0.88) and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.41-0.78), respectively. Active coping was not associated with recovery of neck pain or disability. CONCLUSIONS: Passive coping style predicts neck pain and self-assessed disability recovery. It may be beneficial to assess and improve coping style early in WAD.
Fenhann, Jørgen Villy; Ramlau, Marianne
This report presents the findings of a study for low carbon development strategy for Maldives. The study was implemented under the Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Environment and Energy (MEE), Maldives and URC and was financed by Danida, Denmarks development aid agency under...
Full Text Available Many studies have shown evidence of high levels of stress in families with autistic children. Concerning this process, it is important to consider the coping strategies used by family members in face of the adverse circumstances. The purpose of this study is to investigate the coping strategies of mothers when dealing with their autistic children, as well as how they deal with their own emotions unleashed by the stress. Thirty mothers, between 30 and 56 years old participated in the study. Their children have met the criteria for autism and attended special education schools. The coping strategies were investigated using a semi-structured interview, which was transcribed and analyzed by content analysis. The main difficulties refer to the child's behavior. In relation to these difficulties, the strategy used by the mothers was predominantly direct action and acceptance. Concerning the strategies to deal with their own emotions, the most frequent categories were distraction, reaching out for social/religious support, lack of action and avoidance. Results are discussed in terms of stress and maternal adaptation model.
Full Text Available This paper explains the strategy employed by a case study company to implement lean across the business, and to reflect on the success of this approach so other companies may consider this learning and how it might be useful to them. The strategy to enact lean in the case study company was based on creating a number of standard tools/ways of working. These tools can be considered to be standardised work for key aspects of the construction process that the company undertakes. The aim of the tools was to ensure that critical tasks would be carried out to the correct standard (quality, time, cost, health and safety every time, across the business. Achievement of this is expected to lead to improved performance and elimination of variation (waste. To implement this strategy of using standardised work to eliminate variation and lead to improved performance, a step-by-step process was developed to create the tools/standardised work. The paper describes the process that was undertaken and how it aimed to not only produce a number of tools/standardised work, but also to involve people and managers from across the business such that lean philosophy and thinking might also begin to become embedded. The paper will firstly explain, with reference to the relevant literature, how and why the strategy to implement standardised work was chosen, the process that was defined to develop the standardised work, and what happened when that process was put into practice. The findings of the paper show that whilst the completed tools delivered business benefits, the development of the tools did not follow the planned process. The paper discusses how people within the business responded to this strategy and how the process had to be continuously adapted to cope with the current business environment and path dependencies, further evidencing that lean implementations need to be tailored to suit the needs of the individual firm, rather than there being a one size fits all solution. Further, the conclusions will be set in the context of what lean has become to mean to the case study organisation, and how this sits in the wider debate of whether lean is an all encompassing philosophy or a set of prescriptive tools and techniques.
Tach, Laura; Amorim, Mariana
Residents of poor and minority neighborhoods have less access to healthy, affordable food than their counterparts in more advantaged neighborhoods, and these disparities translate into population-level health disparities by race and socioeconomic status. Current research debates the extent of these disparities and how they translate into unequal health outcomes, but it has paid less attention to the micro-level decision-making processes and strategies residents employ to access food in the context of constrained personal and neighborhood resources. We examined this gap in the literature using data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 66 poor residents of three urban neighborhoods with varying nutritional environments. We found that economic and geographic constraints strongly influenced where and how residents shopped, but within those constraints, residents developed a number of adaptive strategies to maximize the quality and variety of their groceries. We also found that higher-quality stores and purchases were important to residents not only for their material benefits-such as health and cost-but also for their symbolic value. The presence of many stores, close stores, and high-quality stores offered opportunities for symbolic consumption and boosted neighborhood reputations but also created settings for social exclusion. These results illuminate how inequalities in nutritional environments shape residents' lived experiences and highlight residents' agency and resourcefulness in responding to such constraints. PMID:26382655
Reyes, Beverly A. S.; Zitnik, Gerard; Foster, Celia; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J.
Abstract Stress increases vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, partly by affecting brain monoamine systems, such as the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine system. During stress, LC activity is coregulated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and endogenous opioids. This study identified neural circuitry that regulates LC activity of intruder rats during the residentintruder model of social stress. LC afferents were retrogradely labeled with Fluorogold (FG) and rats were subjected to one or five daily exposures to an aggressive resident. Sections through the nucleus paragigantocellularis (PGi) and central amygdalar nucleus (CNA), major sources of enkephalin (ENK) and CRF LC afferents, respectively, were immunocytochemically processed to detect c-fos, FG, and CRF or ENK. In response to a single exposure, intruder rats assumed defeat with a relatively short latency (SL). LC neurons, PGI-ENK LC afferents, and CNA-CRF LC afferents were activated in these rats as indicated by increased c-fos expression. With repeated stress, rats exhibited either a SL or long latency (LL) to defeat and these strategies were associated with distinct patterns of neuronal activation. In SL rats, LC neurons were activated, as were CNA-CRF LC afferents but not PGI-ENK LC afferents. LL rats had an opposite pattern, maintaining activation of PGi-ENK LC afferents but not CNA-CRF LC afferents or LC neurons. Together, these results indicate that the establishment of different coping strategies to social stress is associated with changes in the circuitry that regulates activity of the brain norepinephrine system. This may underlie differential vulnerability to the consequences of social stress that characterize these different coping strategies. PMID:26634226
Full Text Available Abstract Background 20 million migrant workers in China lost their jobs during the economic crisis of 2008. Both urban migration and unemployment have long been documented to be associated with vulnerability to mental problems. This study aims to examine the mental health of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China and its relation to duration of unemployment and coping strategy during the recent economic crisis. Methods The data were collected through interview-based survey with a sample of 210 unemployed migrant workers in Zhejiang Province of China from 2008 to 2009. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and seven short demographic questions were used. Results The majority of the unemployed migrant workers were found to be young male manufacturing industry workers with short-term unemployment and a relatively low education level. Nearly 50% of unemployed migrant workers were classified as mentally unhealthy and the most frequently reported symptom was depression. Compared with the adult norm of 1986, 2003, and 2007 in China, unemployed migrants had more mental problems. Long-term unemployed migrant workers had more psychiatric symptoms than the short-term unemployed workers and employed migrant workers. Unemployed migrant workers with immature coping strategies expressed significantly more psychiatric symptoms than those with mixed and mature coping strategies. Duration of unemployment and two coping strategies, problem-solving and self-blaming, predicted the mental problems of unemployed migrant workers. Conclusions The results indicated that mental health status of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China was poorer than the national adult norm. More psychiatric symptoms are evidenced among unemployed migrant workers who lost their jobs for a long term and who had immature coping strategies. These findings can be used for prevention and intervention of mental illness among unemployed migrant workers.
Full Text Available Astrid Sandmoe, Solveig HaugeFaculty of Health and Social Studies, Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, NorwayBackground: Abuse of older people is a serious issue and is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and professionals will encounter elderly victims of abuse in all areas of the health care system. An important health determinant is behavioral factors, including coping style, which will impact on how older people manage stress and maintain control in their lives, and thereby protect themselves from abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the coping strategies elderly people abused by their offspring used to manage everyday life.Methods: A qualitative approach was used and 14 elderly victims of abuse were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and subjected to qualitative content analysis.Results: Five main coping strategies were identified. The main strategy was linked to the role of parent. Another prominent strategy was attitude towards being victimized. Further strategies were associated with hope for a better relationship with offspring in the future, while others felt that they had done the best they could, or that their offspring were no longer their responsibility. The results are discussed in light of theoretical perspectives related to coping and resilience.Conclusion: Abuse of older people by their offspring imposes severe stress on victims and challenges the values and beliefs about the caring nature of families. The findings of this study indicate that victims of abuse use a wide range of coping techniques to manage everyday life, and that some strategies help them to maintain their self-respect in their role as parents and find some sort of resilience.Keywords: elder abuse, older parents, coping
Kidd, Sean A.; Carroll, Michelle R.
This study examined the impact of coping strategies employed by homeless youth upon suicidal ideation, suicide attempts on the streets, and feeling trapped/helpless. Coping strategies examined in the analysis included problem-focused and avoidant coping, along with several coping strategies identified in previous exploratory qualitative studies.
Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.
Lenamar Fiorese, Vieira; Nayara Malheiros, Carruzo; Paulo Vitor Suto, Aizava; Patrícia Aparecida Gaion, Rigoni.
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a síndrome de "burnout" e as estratégias de "coping" de jogadores de vôlei de praia. Participaram 93 atletas, das categorias sub-21 e "open" do circuito brasileiro de vôlei de praia. Como instrumentos foram utilizados uma ficha com dados de identificação, Ques [...] tionário de "Burnout" para Atletas e Inventário Atlético das Estratégias de "Coping". Para análise dos dados utilizou-se teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, coeficiente Alpha de Cronbach, teste 'U' de Mann-Whitney, teste de Kruskal-Wallis e coeficiente de correlação de Spearman, adotando p Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze burnout syndrome and coping strategies of beach volleyball players. Ninety-three athletes participated, being one group of under-21 age and another group of adult category. The both group are composed by players of the Brazilian beach volleyball championship. The instrume [...] nts used were a form with data identification, Burnout Questionnaire for Athletes and Athletic Inventory of Coping Strategies. For data analysis, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, 'U' Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlation coefficient, were used, considering p
Falconier, Mariana K
The accumulated knowledge about the negative impact of financial strain on couple's relationship functioning and the magnitude of the latest economic downturn have brought together the fields of financial counseling and couples' therapy. This article describes the development of a new interdisciplinary program that aims at helping couples under financial strain improve their financial management, communication, and dyadic coping skills. The article also reports the results from its initial pilot-testing with data collected from 18 financially distressed couples before and after participation in the program and 3 months later. Results from repeated measures ANOVAs suggest that the program may help reduce both partners' financial strain and the male negative communication and improve both partners' financial management skills and strategies to cope together with financial strain, and the male relationship satisfaction. These findings together with the high satisfaction reported by participants regarding the structure and content of the sessions and homework suggest that this program may be a promising approach to help couples experiencing financial strain. Gender differences, clinical implications, and possibilities for further research are also discussed. PMID:24910157
We present an overview of the VL approach to promote research and education in developing countries and to help reduce the technology gap of the digital divide. We discuss software tools for instrument control, data sharing and e-collaboration with special attention on low-bandwidth networks. We analyse the VL tentative costs involved and the skills needed for the VL administration. We conclude by identifying some VL strategies for development. (author)
Differences in personality, mood and coping ability between athletes of a high competitive level with long-term injuries (n = 81), with a mean age of 24.4 years, and a matched non-injured group (n = 64), with a mean age of 24.2 years, were investigated. Three self-rating scales were employed: mood adjective check-list, general coping questionnaire and Karolinska scales of personality. Although no differences in basic personality traits were found, being injured was found to result in a depressed mood state and in the activation of coping strategies directed at receiving help. Comparisons were made between injured male and female athletes as well as between team-sport and individual-sport athletes. Women were found to become more anxious and tense and to have a stronger inclination to use emotion-focused coping strategies. Team-sport athletes were found to cope more in terms of 'passive acceptance' of help from others, whereas individual athletes were found to activate 'problem-solving' strategies in face of a stressor. The results suggest that social aspects of rehabilitative work are important and support the concept that rehabilitative work with long-term injured athletes should be individualized to be maximally effective. They also support the usefulness of cognitive models of the injured athlete's experience of being long-term injured. Such models, however, do not account for differences between the sexes or between individual and team athletes. PMID:9458505
In this book authors analyse the present state of economy as well as strategy of perspectives of development of Slovak society. A key issue in the next 5 to 10 years in the energy sector will mainly address energy security, diversification of energy sources, renewable energy sources and energy savings. The strategic goal is to transform energy into a form that will ensure long competition-capable and reliable supply of all forms of energy, taking into account sustainable development, security of supply and technical security. The strategy of energy security of Slovakia in 2030 is to achieve a competitive energy industry, ensuring safe, reliable and efficient supply of all forms of energy at affordable prices with regard to consumer protection, environmental protection, sustainable development, security of supply and technical security.
Wang, Feng-Shuang; Jin, Ou; Feng, Hua; Wang, Feng-Hua; Ren, Chun-Hui
To survey the nurse stress and analyze stressors in new nurses from pharmacy intravenous admixture service (PIAS). A questionnaire survey referring to the revised stressor scale was carried out on 52 new nurses of PIAS in four hospitals in Harbin. The average stress score for all participants was 2.43±0.63, as medium level of stress. The stressors were classified into 6 categories: ensuring up-to-date knowledge of professional nursing skills, increased workload and work-time, interpersonal relationship, ensuring knowledge of equipments, attending educational programs, and decreased occupational demand. The most important stressors included fear of medical accident occurrence, fear of failure in performance assessment, fear of occupational injuries, feeling fatigue and lack of sleep. Considering the various kinds of stressors in the working places, it was necessary for managers' to use appropriate strategies to cope with the job stress in new nurses of PIAS. PMID:26770583
Bjelica Artur L.
Full Text Available Introduction Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH represents an extremely important problem in perinatology. Despite numerous clinical observations and studies, the etiology and exact sequence of pathophysiological events accompanying this specific disorder have remained still unresolved. The concepts most often considered are those that include genetic, endocrine and immunological mechanisms. Besides, one can also find in the literature considerations addressing potential participation of psychological factors in pregnancy-induced hypertension. Material and methods The study included two groups of women - 100 women with PIH and 100 of women with normal course of pregnancy, which were tested using two questionnaires concerning pregnancy as a stressful event and using strategies for coping with stress. Results and discussion Women with PIH experience pregnancy in a more stressful way than women with regular course of pregnancy. However, it is necessary to point out that respondents of both groups thought that pregnant women seek attention from everyone from their environment, and that their husbands/partners should pay special attention to them during pregnancy. The importance of relationship between partners during pregnancy and the emotional life of pregnant woman has been also examined by other researchers. These data suggest that pregnancy is an emotionally vulnerable period during which women demand special attention from the environment and especially from their husbands/partners. In view of using particular strategies to cope with stress, certain differences have been registered between the two groups of women. Namely, women with PIH utilize much more the mechanism of seeking social support and much less the mechanism of positive redefinition, compared with women with normal course of pregnancy. Conclusion From the psychosocial approach, pregnancy may be considered as a specific state of high emotional tension, which can represent a potent stressor. In the frame of specific reactions to stress, pregnancy as a stress-inducing situation may lead to transformation of emotional tension to biochemical and vegetative response, and thus contribute to onset of pregnancy-induced hypertension.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the ego-state of obese people in terms of transactional analysis and to determine the relationship between coping with overweight strategies, Ego-structure, global self-esteem, and body self-esteem levels. Methods: One-hundred-seventy-one overweight and obese adult females were examined by a general practitioner and a specialist in obesity management. The ego-state, global self-esteem, and body self-esteem were assessed using the Ego State Questionnaire (ESQ, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Body-Esteem Scale, respectively. Results: Participants were divided into three subgroups: A no attempts at weight loss currently (35.1%, B self-attempted weight loss (33.9%, C professional obesity treatment (31.0%. Age, education level, professional status, marital status, and number of children,along with the onset of being overweight/obese were similar in all subgroups. Subgroups B and C statistically and significantly made frequent attempts at weight loss (p<0.001 and experienced yo-yo effect (p<0.001 more than subgroup A. Effective weight loss attempts were observed significantly more often in subgroups C (p<0.001. Only mean lies scale results were significantly higher in subgroups A and C compared to B (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. While self-esteem, sexual attractiveness, weight concern, physical condition and ego-states were similar in all study subgroups. Conclusions: Structure of the Ego-states, self-esteem and body-esteem did not influence the strategies of coping with overweight. Self-esteem is related to spontaneous Ego-child and Ego-adult levels, while the sense of sexual attractiveness is affected only by Ego-spontaneous child.
Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.
This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of
María del Carmen Hernández
Full Text Available The deep benthic communities of tropical lakes are poorly understood with respect to their composition, abundance, biomass and regulatory factors. Whereas the hypolimnia of temperate oligotrophic lakes remain oxygenated, the higher temperatures in tropical lakes frequently lead to the rapid development of hypolimnetic anoxia independent of trophic status. The deep benthic communities of tropical lakes must therefore develop strategies to respond to anoxic conditions. The dynamics of the deep benthic community of Lake Alchichica were studied over 15 months. We hypothesized that the sedimentation of the winter diatom bloom constitutes an input of high-quality food that contributes to the establishment and development of the deep benthic community. However, the remineralization of this organic matter leads to the prompt development of hypolimnetic anoxia, thus limiting the establishment and/or persistence of the deep benthic community. In contrast with the diverse littoral benthic community (50 taxa in Lake Alchichica, only two species constitute its deep benthic community, the ostracod Candona cf. patzcuaro and the chironomid Chironomus cf. austini, which combined exhibit a low density (1197±1976 ind m-2 and biomass (16.13±30.81 mg C m-2. C. patzcuaro is dominant and is present throughout the year, whereas Ch. austini is recorded only when the bottom water of the lake is oxygenated. A comparison with the analogous but temperate Lake Mergozzo in Italy illustrates the role that anoxia plays in tropical lakes by diminishing not only taxonomic richness (13 versus 2 spp. in temperate versus tropical lakes, respectively but also abundance (1145 versus 287 ind m-2, respectively. C. patzcuaro is found throughout the annual cycle of the lakes profundal zone, entering into diapause during the anoxic period and recovering as soon as the profundal zone reoxygenates. Ch. austini has adjusted its life cycle to use the habitat and available resources while the bottom of the lake is oxygenated and emerges en masse at the onset of anoxia. The presence of oxygen and abundant fresh food favors the development of the deep benthic community and yields increases in density and biomass. However, the anoxia that rapidly occurs during the stratification period and the presence of hydrogen sulfide are the key factors that limit deep benthic community colonization and/or permanence in the profundal zone of the tropical Lake Alchichica.
This paper reports the results of a study of strategies that Dutch children with dyslexia employ to cope with recurrent academic failure. All of the students in the study had developed strategies for protecting their self-esteem. Using Harter's theory of coping with discrepancies between performance and standards, we distinguish four strategies:
INTERVENÇÕES UTILIZADAS NA PROMOÇÃO DE ESTRATÉGIAS DE COPING NA DEPRESSÃO EM MULHERES COM CÂNCER INTERVENCIONES UTILIZADAS PARA PROMOVER ESTRATEGIAS DE COPING PARA LA DEPRESIÓN ENTRE MUJERES CON CÁNCER APPLIED INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE COPING STRATEGIES FOR DEPRESSION AMONG WOMEN WITH CANCER
LUCIMARA MORELI; JEANNE MARIE R STACCIARINI; ARIANE DE FREITAS CARDOSO; EMILIA CAMPOS DE CARVALHO
A depressão tem sido observada em portadores de doenças crônico-degenerativas, incluindo câncer. A utilização de diferentes estratégias de coping nessas condições patológicas pode ser extremamente importante, em face da presença de fatores estressores e sentimentos indesejáveis. Buscou-se identificar, por meio de revisão sistemática, os tipos de estudo para promover estratégia de coping e as intervenções utilizadas para promover tais estratégias em situação de depressão, em mulheres com cânce...
Full Text Available A childs oncological or chronic disease is a stressful situation for parents. This stress may make it difficult for appropriate management strategies aimed at promoting the childs well-being and helping him or her cope with a disease to be adopted. In particular, this study focuses on the possible connections between the variable national cultural influences and the parental strategies used to cope with a childs severe disease by comparing the experiences of Italian and Portuguese mothers. The study investigates differences and cross-cultural elements among the coping strategies used by Italian and Portuguese mothers of children with oncological or chronic disease. Two groups of mothers took part: 59 Italian mothers (average age 37.7 years; SD=4.5 and 36 Portuguese mothers (average age 39.3 years; SD=4.6. The tool used was the Italian and the Portuguese versions of the COPE inventory that measures five coping strategies: Social Support, Avoidance Coping, Positive Aptitude, Religious Faith and Humor, Active Coping. There were statistically significant differences between Portuguese and Italian mothers regarding Social Support (F(3, 94=6.32, P=0.014, ?2=0.065, Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94=20.06, P=0.001, ?2=0.18, higher values for Portuguese mothers and Avoidance Coping (F(3, 94=3.30, P=0.06, ?2=0.035, higher values for Italian mothers. Regarding childs disease, the only statistically significant difference was in Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94=7.49, P=0.007, ?2=0.076, higher values for mothers of children with chronic disease. The findings of specific cultural transversalities provide the basis for reflection on important factors emerging on the relationship between physicians and parents. In fact, mothers coping abilities may allow health workers involved in a childs care not only to understand how parents face a distressful event, but also to provide them with professional support.
Gemma, Costa-Requena; M. Carmen, Cantarell-Aixendri; Gemma, Parramon-Puig; Daniel, Serón-Micas.
Full Text Available Introducción: El optimismo disposicional aparece como un recurso personal que determina el estilo de afrontamiento y respuesta adaptativa ante enfermedades crónicas. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron averiguar las relaciones entre el constructo de optimismo disposicional y las estrategias de afro [...] ntamiento en pacientes con trasplante renal reciente, y evaluar diferencias en la utilización de estrategias de afrontamiento según el grado de optimismo disposicional. Material y métodos: Consecutivamente se eligen pacientes hospitalizados en el servicio de nefrología tras realizar el trasplante renal. Los instrumentos de evaluación fueron el Life Orientation Test-Revised y el Inventario de Estrategias de Afrontamiento. Los datos son analizados con medidas de tendencia central, análisis correlacional y comparación de medias con la prueba t de Student. Resultados: Participan 66 pacientes con trasplante renal. El estilo de afrontamiento que caracteriza a pacientes con trasplante renal reciente sería la Retirada social y la Evitación de problemas. Las correlaciones entre optimismo disposicional y estrategias de afrontamiento son significativas, en sentido positivo en Resolución de problemas (p Abstract in english Introduction: Dispositional optimism is a personal resource that determines the coping style and adaptive response to chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between dispositional optimism and coping strategies in patients with recent kidney transplantation and evaluat [...] e the differences in the use of coping strategies in accordance with the level of dispositional optimism. Material and method: Patients who were hospitalised in the nephrology department were selected consecutively after kidney transplantation was performed. The evaluation instruments were the Life Orientation Test-Revised, and the Coping Strategies Inventory. The data were analysed with central tendency measures, correlation analyses and means were compared using Student's t-test. Results: 66 patients with a kidney transplant participated in the study. The coping styles that characterised patients with a recent kidney transplantation were Social withdrawal and Problem avoidance. Correlations between dispositional optimism and coping strategies were significant in a positive direction in Problem-solving (p
Camila Gastelumendi Gonçalves
Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between coping styles and strategies, and personality styles in a sample of 41 young volunteers of an institution that alleviates poverty in Lima. Peruvian adaptations of COPE and MIPS scales were administered. The results show that volunteers have higher scores on adaptive coping strategies. High scores in some particular personality styles were reported, which allowed to establish a personality profile of this group. According with theoretical framework, most coping strategies correlated with most personality styles, revealing four particular tendencies in these volunteers: they wish to have contact with other people, they usually see positive aspects of situations, they look forward for challenges, and they developed adaptive coping strategies.
Van der Brug, Mienke
Longitudinal research provides insight about the life trajectories of children, the challenges that children experience in different phases of their lives, and the way children cope with these challenges. The article examines the perspectives of 14 orphaned or vulnerable children, initially aged 9 to 12 years (in grades 3 and 4), concerning changes in their difficulties and coping strategies. The children participated in the research in 2003 and again in a follow-up study in 2010 to 2012. Focus group discussions with the children/adolescents were used, as well as child-orientated methods such as drawings, and in-depth interviews with the adolescents and caregivers. Most of the participants described their life situation as better at the time of the 2010/12 study than it had been in 2003. In general, they were receiving more financial support than before from their immediate and extended family or were supporting themselves. One important change since 2003 was that nine of the 14 had since received a state-provided child welfare grant for at least some years. Also, those who said they had previously experienced mistreatment had since left these home situations. The children's agency in making positive changes to their life situations is described by the participants. As adolescents, they tried to access family support by actively asking for financial assistance, and in return they generally felt obligated to support the family once they began earning an income. The strategies they most used to get away from abusive home situations were to inform a relative about the mistreatment or to run away. Children's and adolescents' limitations concerning strategies for improving their adverse living situations are also discussed. PMID:25860101
Estratégias de enfrentamento, dificuldades funcionais e fatores associados em idosos institucionalizados Coping strategies, functional difficulties, and associated factors in institutionalized elderly
Analise de Souza Vivan
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é verificar as estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas pelos idosos em face das dificuldades funcionais e a existência de associação entre o uso das estratégias e variáveis como sintomas depressivos, sexo, escolaridade, idade, estado civil e percepção da saúde. Participaram do estudo 103 idosos institucionalizados, que apresentavam necessidade de assistência em no mínimo uma atividade de vida diária. O delineamento foi transversal, com a utilização dos seguintes instrumentos: Ficha de Dados Pessoais, Escala de Atividades da Vida Diária, Breve Entrevista Internacional de Neuropsiquiatria Modificada, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental, Inventário de Estratégias de Coping e Escala de Depressão Geriátrica. As estratégias de enfrentamento mais utilizadas pela amostra foram a de autocontrole e resolução de problemas. Encontraram-se associações significativas entre as variáveis escolaridade e depressão. Os resultados da pesquisa sugerem que a avaliação das estratégias utilizadas em face de eventos estressores pode auxiliar na análise da situação e na adequação das estratégias escolhidas, ajudando também em processos de mudança no contexto clínico.The aim of this study was to analyze the strategies used by elderly people to cope with functional difficulties, and to investigate a possible association between such strategies and variables like depressive symptoms, gender, schooling, marital status, and self-perceived health. 103 institutionalized elderly individuals participated in the study. They required assistance for at least one activity of daily living. The study was cross-sectional and used the following indicators: Personal Data Chart, Activities of Daily Living Scale, Modified Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Mini-Mental Examination, Coping Strategies Inventory, and Geriatric Depression Scale. The most widely used coping strategies in the sample were self-control and problem solving. Significant associations were found between schooling and depression. The findings suggest that assessing coping strategies for stressful events can assist analysis of the situation and appropriate adaptation of the chosen strategies, so as to foster changes within the medical context.
Full Text Available Early maladaptive schema is assumed to be a disrupting factor for quality of life. Yet, the mechanism of this vulnerability is not well known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristic of emotional intelligence and coping strategy with stress as a mediator between early maladaptive defectiveness/ shame and mental quality of life. Participants were 245 men and women in Isfahan who were selected as the sample by availability sampling method. They completed the Petrides and Furnham's Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF, Coping Inventory for stressful situation (CISS and WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF and Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF. Data was analyzed by means of structural equation modeling. The results indicated that the suggested model of study needs modification and only emotional intelligence was the mediator. Standard path coefficient of defectiveness/shame schema to emotional intelligence was -0.55 and emotional intelligence to problem focused coping, emotion focused coping and mental quality of life were 0.49, -0.59 and 0.78 (p<0.05. Based on results, emotional intelligence training can improve mental quality of life and coping strategies in people who have early defectiveness/shame maladaptive schema.
Cadamuro, Alessia; Versari, Annalisa; Vezzali, Loris; Giovannini, Dino; Trifiletti, Elena
Background: In May 2012, Northern Italy was struck by a tremendous series of earthquakes, which had devastating consequences and persisted for several months. Previous research shows that coping strategies and Theory of Mind (ToM) can help sustaining cognitive performance after a traumatic experience. Objective: We conducted a study to examine
Coban, Aysel Esen; Hamamci, Zeynep
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a didactic stress management program, group counselling, and a control group on school counsellors' stress coping strategies. Thirty-four school counsellors were randomly assigned to either a didactic stress management group, group counselling, or a control group. The didactic stress management
Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina
Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who
Hager, Alanna D.; Runtz, Marsha G.
Objective: This retrospective, cross-sectional study investigated the association between childhood physical and psychological maltreatment and self-reported physical health concerns in adult women. The mediating roles of perceived stress and coping strategies were examined. Methods: Participants were 235 women (aged 18-59 years) recruited from
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Elmore, Corinn A.; Campbell, Cynthya L.; Wethington, Anna
The purpose of the current study was to examine the tripartite model of depression and anxiety in a community-based sample of 278 African American adolescents (M age = 12.89) from low-income communities and to identify stressors and coping strategies that were associated with the specific features of each disorder. Participants reported on
South Africa as a developing country is faced with numerous challenges amongst them is the shortage of skills in the working environment. Skills shortage has been aggravated by the retirement of the ageing skilled workforce and emigration of most experienced professionals to first world countries. Some professionals once they acquire the experience they opt out for a consultative business. This leaves a gap or void in the industries which can results into poor performance and quality, lessening of business standards and loosing competition. This challenge need to be attended to, because it will lead to hiring of consultants in most jobs or having many young and less experienced professionals and new graduates filling these gaps. The South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has developed a strategic plan to serve as a guideline on how these challenges mentioned above can be addressed . The proposed strategy will be aligned with skills development in the line of work and should get support from the nuclear Industry. Young professionals and recent graduates are the most affected people who lack skills and shall benefit from these programmes. In order for skill development and transfer to be accomplished there should be a Skill Development and Transfer Strategy and procedures to be followed. (authors)
Mutshena, M.T.; Nkuna, K.K. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Pty (Ltd), P O Box 9394, Centurion, 0046 (South Africa); South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (South Africa); Thugwane, S.J. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (South Africa); Rasweswe, M.A. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (South Africa); Nuclear Energy Cooperation of South Africa, P O Box 582, PRETORIA 0001 (South Africa)
South Africa as a developing country is faced with numerous challenges amongst them is the shortage of skills in the working environment. Skills shortage has been aggravated by the retirement of the ageing skilled workforce and emigration of most experienced professionals to first world countries. Some professionals once they acquire the experience they opt out for a consultative business. This leaves a gap or void in the industries which can results into poor performance and quality, lessening of business standards and loosing competition. This challenge need to be attended to, because it will lead to hiring of consultants in most jobs or having many young and less experienced professionals and new graduates filling these gaps. The South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has developed a strategic plan to serve as a guideline on how these challenges mentioned above can be addressed . The proposed strategy will be aligned with skills development in the line of work and should get support from the nuclear Industry. Young professionals and recent graduates are the most affected people who lack skills and shall benefit from these programmes. In order for skill development and transfer to be accomplished there should be a Skill Development and Transfer Strategy and procedures to be followed. (authors)
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Today, the occupational education is needed not only by the graduates but also by the development of our society. The occupational education provides a new space for the university library in Re-positioning and development. So the libraries should conform to the situation and do entrepreneurship education and the role service orientation conversion. The university libraries have some unique advantages of enterprise education, so they have the mission and responsibilities of training creative and enterprise talents. The author points that the university library should take measures to serve the enterprise education, such as: exploring resources, establishing a platform for enterprise education, setting up relevant courses etc.
Key words: Occupational education; University library; Service strategy
Aujourd'hui, l'enseignement professionnel est nÃ©cessaire non seulement par les diplÃ´mÃ©s, mais aussi par le dÃ©veloppement de notre sociÃ©tÃ©. L'enseignement professionnel offre un nouvel espace pour la bibliothÃ¨que universitaire de Re-positionnement et de dÃ©veloppement. Ainsi les bibliothÃ¨ques doivent Ãªtre conformes Ã la situation et faire enseignement de l'entrepreneuriat et la conversion d'orientation rÃ´le de service. Les bibliothÃ¨ques universitaires ont certains avantages uniques de formation Ã l'entreprise, de sorte qu'ils ont la mission et les responsabilitÃ©s de la formation des talents crÃ©atifs et d'entreprise. L'auteur que la bibliothÃ¨que de l'universitÃ© devraient prendre des mesures pour servir Ã l'Ã©ducation de l'entreprise, tels que: l'exploration des ressources, Ã©tablir une plateforme de formation Ã l'entreprise, la mise en place des cours pertinent... etc.
Mots clÃ©s: Education Professionnelle; BibliothÃ¨que Universitaire; StratÃ©gie de service
Aldwin, Carolyn M.
Sudden economic change can have devastating effects on the wellbeing of a country, as witnessed by the dramatic increases in suicide rates in the former Soviet Socialist Republics. However, it is possible to use economic development to promote happiness, if one understands the relationship between culture, coping, and resilience to stress. Cultures shape both normative stressors and individuals responses to them; individual coping strategies and cultural institutions must change to accommoda...
Estratégias de coping e percepção da doença em pais de crianças com doença crónica: o contexto do cuidador / Coping strategies and illness perception in parents of children with chronic disease: the caretaker context / Estrategias de afrontamiento y percepción de la enfermedad en padres de nifios con enfermedad crónica: contexto del cuidador
Michele, Coletto; Sheila, Câmara.
Full Text Available O estudo avaliou a relação entre a percepção da doença e os tipos de estratégias de coping utilizadas pelos pais/cuidadores de crianças com doença crónica. Participaram 40 cuidadores identificados nos serviços de atendimento disponíveis no município de Canoas/RS no período de abril a maio de 2007. O [...] s instrumentos utilizados foram o Inventário de Estratégias de Coping, o Questionário de Percepção da Doença adaptado para os cuidadores e um Questionário sócio-demográfico desenvolvido para o estudo. As mães constituíram a maioria dos cuidadores. Os resultados demonstraram a percepção de piores consequências da doença associada a uma maior utilização da estratégia de coping de fuga e esquiva, enquanto que uma menor utilização dessa mesma estratégia relaciona-se uma maior clareza em termos dos sintomas. Abstract in spanish El estudio evaluó la relación entre la percepción y los tipos de estretagias de afrontamiento utilizadas por los padres/cuidadores de niños con enfermedad crónica. Participaron cuarenta ciudadores identificados en los servicios de atención disponibles en el municipio de canoas/RS en el periodo de ab [...] ril a mayo de 2007. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el inventario de estratégias de afrontamiento, el cuestionario de percepción de la enfermedad adaptado para los cuidadores y un cuestioanrio socio-demográfico desarrollado para el estudio. Las madres constituían la mayoría de cuidadores. Los resultados demostraron que la peor perecpción de consecuencias de las enfermedades están asociadas a una mayor utilización de la estrategia de afrontamiento de huida y escape, mientras que un uso menor de esa misma estratégia se relaciona con una mayor claridad en términos de los síntomas. Abstract in english The study evaluated the relation between illness perception and coping strategies used by parents/caretakers of children with chronic illness. The participants were the 40 participants identified in the available services in the town of Canoas/RS in 2007, April to May. As instruments, were used the [...] Inventory of Coping Strategies, Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) adapted for the parents/caretaker and a partner-demographic Questionnaire developed for the study. The mothers constituted to majority of the caretaker. The results showed the perception of worse consequences of the illness associates-itself to a higher utilization of the coping strategy of escape- avoidance, whereas a lower utilization of that same strategy relates-itself to more clarity about the symptoms.
Burnout, Depression und Depersonalisation Psychologische Faktoren und Bewältigungsstrategien bei Studierenden der Zahn- und Humanmedizin [Burnout, depression and depersonalisation Psychological factors and coping strategies in dental and medical students
Full Text Available [english] Background: Previous studies found that stress, depression, burnout, anxiety, and depersonalisation play a significant role amongst dental and medical students. We wanted to examine if students of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg also would report elevated values as can been found in similar publications. Furthermore, particularly coping strategies were investigated.Methods: The data collection took place in April 2008 including 182 dental and medical students of the 4 and 5 academic year at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Demographic data and the following screening instruments were used: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale (CDS-9, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Brief COPE. Results: Descriptive statistics showed higher pathological values in dental students than in medical students. The difference was especially pronounced on the depersonalisation scale (CDS-9, with 20.4% of the dental students, but only 5.5% of the medical students showing scores above a cut-off of 19. The scores decreased in the course of 3 semesters of dentistry. The students with elevated values showed a higher degree of dysfunctional coping. Conclusion: Our results obtained with the screening instruments are in line with the results of previous investigations of other authors and point out the importance of this issue. It might be useful to develop programs teaching dental students more adaptive coping strategies before their first patient contact.[german] Hintergrund: Studien der vergangenen Jahre zeigten, dass Stress, Depression, Burnout-Syndrom, Angst und Depersonalisation während des Studiums der Zahn- und Humanmedizin einen besonderen Stellenwert einnehmen. Es stellt sich die Frage, ob auch bei Studierenden der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg erhöhte Werte, wie sie in der Literatur gefunden werden, nachweisbar sind. Zudem soll untersucht werden, welche Arten von Bewältigungsstrategien vorkommen.Methodik: Die Datenerhebung fand im April 2008 bei 182 Studenten der Human- und Zahnmedizin des 4. und 5. Studienjahres an der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg statt. Neben der demographischen Erhebung kamen folgende Screening Instrumente zum Einsatz: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale (CDS-9, Kurzversion, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Brief COPE. Ergebnisse: In der deskriptiven Statistik zeigten sich bei den Zahnmedizinstudenten erhöhte Werte im Vergleich zu den Humanmedizinstudenten. Besonders deutlich war der Unterschied bei den Werten der Depersonalisations-Skala (CDS-9. Es hatten 20.4% der Zahnmedizin- und nur 5,5% der Humanmedizinstudenten Werte über dem cut-off von 19. Im Querschnitt der drei Studiensemester Zahnmedizin nahm die Anzahl der Studierenden mit auffälligen Werten ab. Studierende mit auffälligen Werten zeigten ein höheres Maß an dysfunktionalen Bewältigungsstrategien. Schlussfolgerung: Die Messwerte der Screening Instrumente ähneln der Untersuchungen anderer Autoren und unterstreichen die Bedeutung der Thematik. Aus Sicht der Prävention könnte sich bei Studenten der Zahnmedizin die Zeit vor dem ersten Patientenkontakt anbieten, um geeignete Bewältigungsstrategien zu vermitteln.
Juliana Dors Tigre da Silva; Marisa Campio Muller; Renan Rangel Bonamigo
FUNDAMENTOS: Pesquisas atuais estão direcionando seu foco aos aspectos psicossociais envolvidos nas dermatoses crônicas. Esses fatores podem contribuir para a exacerbação da psoríase entre 40 e 80% dos casos, causando grande impacto na qualidade de vida desses pacientes. OBJETIVOS: Verificar estratégias de coping e identificar níveis de estresse do portador de psoríase. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com amostra de 115 pacientes, divididos em 61 com psoríase e 54 do grupo controle com dermatose...
Carlo, Schmidt; Débora Dalbosco, Dell' Aglio; Cleonice Alves, Bosa.
Full Text Available Estudos têm apontado evidências de estresse em famílias de portadores de autismo. Neste processo, deve-se considerar as estratégias de coping utilizadas pelos familiares frente às circunstâncias adversas. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as estratégias de coping maternas frente a dificuldades d [...] os portadores de autismo, assim como as estratégias das mães para lidar com as próprias emoções desencadeadas pelo estresse. Participaram 30 mães, entre 30 a 56 anos, cujos filhos apresentam diagnóstico de autismo e freqüentam instituições de atendimento. Utilizou-se uma entrevista semi-estruturada, a qual foi transcrita e analisada com base na Análise de Conteúdo. As principais dificuldades se referem ao comportamento do filho, frente às quais as mães utilizam predominantemente as estratégias de ação direta e de aceitação. Quanto às estratégias para lidar com as emoções, as categorias mais freqüentes foram distração, busca de apoio social/religioso, inação e evitação. Os resultados são discutidos considerando-se o estresse e a adaptação materna. Abstract in english Many studies have shown evidence of high levels of stress in families with autistic children. Concerning this process, it is important to consider the coping strategies used by family members in face of the adverse circumstances. The purpose of this study is to investigate the coping strategies of m [...] others when dealing with their autistic children, as well as how they deal with their own emotions unleashed by the stress. Thirty mothers, between 30 and 56 years old participated in the study. Their children have met the criteria for autism and attended special education schools. The coping strategies were investigated using a semi-structured interview, which was transcribed and analyzed by content analysis. The main difficulties refer to the child's behavior. In relation to these difficulties, the strategy used by the mothers was predominantly direct action and acceptance. Concerning the strategies to deal with their own emotions, the most frequent categories were distraction, reaching out for social/religious support, lack of action and avoidance. Results are discussed in terms of stress and maternal adaptation model.
Full Text Available Estudos têm apontado evidências de estresse em famílias de portadores de autismo. Neste processo, deve-se considerar as estratégias de coping utilizadas pelos familiares frente às circunstâncias adversas. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as estratégias de coping maternas frente a dificuldades dos portadores de autismo, assim como as estratégias das mães para lidar com as próprias emoções desencadeadas pelo estresse. Participaram 30 mães, entre 30 a 56 anos, cujos filhos apresentam diagnóstico de autismo e freqüentam instituições de atendimento. Utilizou-se uma entrevista semi-estruturada, a qual foi transcrita e analisada com base na Análise de Conteúdo. As principais dificuldades se referem ao comportamento do filho, frente às quais as mães utilizam predominantemente as estratégias de ação direta e de aceitação. Quanto às estratégias para lidar com as emoções, as categorias mais freqüentes foram distração, busca de apoio social/religioso, inação e evitação. Os resultados são discutidos considerando-se o estresse e a adaptação materna.Many studies have shown evidence of high levels of stress in families with autistic children. Concerning this process, it is important to consider the coping strategies used by family members in face of the adverse circumstances. The purpose of this study is to investigate the coping strategies of mothers when dealing with their autistic children, as well as how they deal with their own emotions unleashed by the stress. Thirty mothers, between 30 and 56 years old participated in the study. Their children have met the criteria for autism and attended special education schools. The coping strategies were investigated using a semi-structured interview, which was transcribed and analyzed by content analysis. The main difficulties refer to the child's behavior. In relation to these difficulties, the strategy used by the mothers was predominantly direct action and acceptance. Concerning the strategies to deal with their own emotions, the most frequent categories were distraction, reaching out for social/religious support, lack of action and avoidance. Results are discussed in terms of stress and maternal adaptation model.
Borowiec, Brittney G; Darcy, Kimberly L; Gillette, Danielle M; Scott, Graham R
Many fish encounter hypoxia on a daily cycle, but the physiological effects of intermittent hypoxia are poorly understood. We investigated whether acclimation to constant (sustained) hypoxia or to intermittent diel cycles of nocturnal hypoxia (12?h normoxia:12?h hypoxia) had distinct effects on hypoxia tolerance or on several determinants of O2 transport and O2 utilization in estuarine killifish. Adult killifish were acclimated to normoxia, constant hypoxia, or intermittent hypoxia for 7 or 28?days in brackish water (4?ppt). Acclimation to both hypoxia patterns led to comparable reductions in critical O2 tension and resting O2 consumption rate, but only constant hypoxia reduced the O2 tension at loss of equilibrium. Constant (but not intermittent) hypoxia decreased filament length and the proportion of seawater-type mitochondrion-rich cells in the gills (which may reduce ion loss and the associated costs of active ion uptake), increased blood haemoglobin content, and reduced the abundance of oxidative fibres in the swimming muscle. In contrast, only intermittent hypoxia augmented the oxidative and gluconeogenic enzyme activities in the liver and increased the capillarity of glycolytic muscle, each of which should facilitate recovery between hypoxia bouts. Neither exposure pattern affected muscle myoglobin content or the activities of metabolic enzymes in the brain or heart, but intermittent hypoxia increased brain mass. We conclude that the pattern of hypoxia exposure has an important influence on the mechanisms of acclimation, and that the optimal strategies used to cope with intermittent hypoxia may be distinct from those for coping with constant hypoxia. PMID:25722002
Burgess, Rochelle; Campbell, Catherine
Increasing attention is paid to impacts of HIV/AIDS on women's mental health, often framed by decontextualized psychiatric understandings of emotional distress and treatment. We contribute to the small qualitative literature extending these findings through exploring HIV/AIDS--affected women's own accounts of their distress-focusing on the impacts of social context, and women's efforts to cope outside of medical support services. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with women experiencing depression or anxiety-like symptoms in a wider study of services in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Thematic analysis was framed by Summerfield's emphasis on contexts and resilience. Women highlighted family conflicts (particularly abandonment by men), community-level violence, poverty and HIV/AIDS as drivers of distress. Whilst HIV/AIDS placed significant burdens on women, poverty and relationship difficulties were more central in their accounts. Four coping mechanisms were identified. Women drew on indigenous local resources in their psychological re-framing of negative situations, and their mobilisation of emotional and financial support from inter-personal networks, churches and HIV support groups. Less commonly, they sought expert advice from traditional healers, medical services or social workers, but access to these was limited. Though all tried to supplement government grants with income generation efforts, only a minority regarded these as successful. Findings support ongoing efforts to bolster strained mental health services with support groups, which often offer valuable emotional and practical support. Without parallel poverty alleviation strategies, however, support groups may sometimes offer little more than encouraging passive acceptance of the inevitability of suffering--potentially exacerbating the hopelessness underpinning women's distress. PMID:24670517
Dejene K. Mengistu
Climate change adversely affects Ethiopian economy due to heavy dependence of the agricultural sector on rainfall. A decrease of rainfall and rise in temperature has been increasing the exposure of the country to frequent drought. The study was conducted in central Tigray, Adiha tabia, to examine the perception of farmers on trends of climate changes and existing coping strategies. Farmers knowledge of various adaptation strategies, drought early warning system and weather forecasting were a...
Webster, Vicki; Brough, Paula; Daly, Kathleen
Sustained destructive leadership behaviours are associated with negative outcomes that produce serious workplace problems, yet there is scant research into how followers effectively cope with toxic leader behaviours. Despite numerous attempts to develop typologies of coping behaviours, there remains much to learn, especially in relation to this specific workplace stressor. This mixed method research investigates the coping strategies reported by 76 followers to cope with the psychological, emotional and physical consequences of their leader's adverse behaviour. Coping instances were categorized using two existing theoretical coping frameworks, and the ability of these frameworks to explain responses to real-world experiences with toxic leadership are discussed. Common coping strategies reported included assertively challenging the leader, seeking social support, ruminating, taking leave and leaving the organization. Organizational interventions to increase effectiveness of follower coping with the impact of toxic leadership are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25470138
The Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) recovery guideline of the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) Emergency Operating Guidelines (EOG) provides operator actions which must be accomplished in the event of a SGTR. The goal of the guideline is to safely establish Shutdown Cooling System (SCS) entry conditions while minimizing radiological releases to the environment and maintaining adequate core cooling. The current KSNP SGTR EOG uses the strategy that requires immediate rapid cooldown of Reactor Coolant System (RCS) using Atmospheric Dump Valves (ADVs) on both steam generators to a temperature lower than the saturation temperature corresponding to the lowest Main Steam Safety Valves (MSSVs) opening setpoint, followed by an isolation of the affected steam generator. This strategy helps to prevent unnecessary lifting and possible stuck-open of MSSVs on the affected steam generator side after isolation. Generally, the safety analysis for SGTR is performed based on the automatic mitigation actions provided by the engineered safety features and operator actions as directed in the SGTR EOG. For a conservatism, this analysis assumes a Loss of Off-site Power (LOOP) and a postulated single-failure of stuck-open ADV which is used for the initial rapid RCS cooldown. However, a concern on the radiological release through the stuck-open ADV can be eliminated by changing the SGTR recovery strategy. Therefore, a feasibility study has been performed to develop a new SGTR recovery strategy which requires an immediate isolation of the affected steam generator followed by a rapid cooldown of RCS using the ADV on the intact steam generator only. The results of the analyses have been evaluated from the standpoint of the total amount of radiological release to the environment and the possibility of overfill of the affected steam generator. The best-estimate analysis results with the new SGTR recovery strategy show that the amount of radiological release to the environment can be reduced and the time that the affected steam generator reaches the maximum indicated level can be delayed as compared to the former strategy although the possibility of MSSV lift after isolation increases. (authors)
McClure, Joanne W.
The purpose of the study was to examine the experiences of international graduates to find out how they perceived their new learning environment in Singapore, and to explore the strategies they employed to adjust to, manage and construct meaning out of their learning situation. A qualitative, critical incidents methodology was used in the
Explores how the individuality of students affects their time management strategies in doing undergraduate final year projects. Investigates how four students responded differently to the same time management advice given by the supervisor of their final year projects in two different teacher education programs on teaching English as a Second
Jáuregui Lobera, I; Garrido, O; Santiago Fernández, M J; Alvarez Bautista, E
The aim of the study was to determine any gender differences in the social comparisons made by caregivers of eating disorder patients and to analyse the relationship between social comparison and personality, age of caregivers, self-esteem, duration of illness, duration of treatment and perceived health and quality of life. We also explored the possibility of classifying caregivers according to these variables. Comparison strategies were analysed in a sample of 96 caregivers of eating disorder patients. The social comparison during illness scale, visual analogue scales of health and quality of life, self-esteem scale of Rosenberg and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire were used. In order to explore possible groupings a cluster analysis was performed. A significant correlation between the use of more unfavourable strategies, neuroticism and low self-esteem was found. Women adopted worse strategies and the cluster analysis revealed two sub-groups with respect to comparisons, personality, self-esteem, self-perceived health status and quality of life. The finding of subgroups associated with worse comparison strategies, higher neuroticism, lower self-esteem and a poorer self-perception of health and quality of life could have repercussions as regards the prognosis of eating disorders and, at all events, should be taken into account during therapeutic work with families. PMID:21040222
Francis M. Mathooko; Martin Ogutu
This study was undertaken to establish strategies adopted by public universities in Kenya in response to changes in the environment. The study design was descriptive and utilized a cross-sectional survey of all the public universities in Kenya through administration of a structured questionnaire to the top management team. Additional primary data were collected through observations and interviews. Secondary data were collected from published works and, universities and government documents in...
Full Text Available Third year PhD candidate at the University of Oradea, under the guidance of Professor Mrs. Alina BÃÆdulescu in the doctoral research project entitled: "Doctoral studies and Ph.D. candidates for competitive research on a knowledge based society", a co-financed project by the European Social Fund through the Sectoral Operational Program for Human Resources Development 2007 - 2013, Priority Axis 1. "Education and training in support for growth and development of a knowledge based society" I chose to present this subject in order to demonstrate the connection that exists between tourism and development. Having as research topic "Tourism and development in the Euro regional contextÃ¢â¬Â I dedicated a subchapter of this thesis in presenting tourism as a development strategy. Thus we have analysed a series of specialised papers encountered at national and international level in order to achieve a synthesis about the addressed topic. Authors like Sharpley and Telfer (2002 found that the specialised literature in the tourism domain contains few articles on the relationship between tourism and development despite the fact that tourism remains an important area of the economic policy regarding development in most regions of the world. Writings on tourism, that debate development, are often written in terms of the impact of tourism on the environment in which it unfolds. Following statistical data collected on Faits saillants OMT du tourisme, 2011 Edition I found that indeed tourism is an important element in the development strategies. The research methodology that was used consisted in documentation from the specialised literature and the site http://mkt.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/unwtohighlights11frhr.pdf in order to gather representative data on the evolution of international tourism for the 1950-2010 period, also highlighting the potential success of tourism in the economic development. For this study to be more representative I presented the evolution of international tourist arrivals in the main tourist regions of the world. The graphical representation shows that Europe is the main destination for tourists from around the world. Projections made by UNWTO (2011, confirm the fact that international tourism is continuously expanding, in 2020, the number of international tourists arrivals is approaching 1.6 billion.
This plan provides an overview, work to date, and the path forward for the design development strategy of the Aging cask for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository site. Waste for subsurface emplacement at the repository includes US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (HLW), DOE SNF, commercial fuel in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), uncanistered bare fuel, naval fuel, and other waste types. Table 1-1 lists the types of radioactive materials that may be aged at YMP, and those materials that will not be placed in an aging cask or module. This plan presents the strategy for design development of the Aging system. The Aging system will not handle naval fuel, DOE HLW, MCOs, or DOE SNF since those materials will be delivered to the repository in a state and sequence that allows them to be placed into waste packages for emplacement. Some CSNF from nuclear reactors, especially CSNF that is thermally too hot for emplacement underground, will need to be aged at the repository
Baris, Muhsin Kutsi
Trying to anticipate future security environment and strategy development for future challenges are inevitable for any state who seeks coherent solutions for the future threats. This report is aiming to put the importance of strategy development for future security environment. In the first part, a theoretical approach on future security environment is discussed. Following two parts are about strategy and strategy development including a valid strategy theory or model which defines what the s...
Aysel, Milanlioglu; Pinar Güzel, Özdemir; Vedat, Cilingir; Tezay Çakin, Gülec; Mehmet Nuri, Aydin; Temel, Tombul.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Investigar as estratégias de enfrentamento, as características de humor e a associação entre estes aspectos em pacientes com diagnóstico de esclerose múltipla em comparação a indivíduos saudáveis. Método: Foram incluídos no estudo 50 pacientes com diagnóstico de esclerose múltipla de [...] acordo com os critérios de McDonald e 31 pessoas saudáveis. Além da caracterização sócio-econômica, foram aplicados a todos os pacientes testes para avaliar o Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), o Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Scale (COPE) e o Profile of Mood States (POMS). Resultados: Escores referentes a estratégias de enfrentamento não funcionais foram significativamente maiores na forma secundariamente progressiva (p?0.05). Escores relativos a depressão-abatimento, fadiga-inércia e escores totais POMS foram significativamente maiores na forma secundariamente progressiva (p?0.05). Conclusão: Os resultados deste estudo mostram a importância de programas de reabilitação que encorajem os pacientes com esclerose múltipla a praticar exercícios com maiores níveis de vigor e atividade. Abstract in english Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the coping strategies, mood characteristics and the association between these aspects in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and healthy subjects. Method: Fifty consecutive patients who were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis acco [...] rding to McDonald criteria and thirty-one healthy subjects were included in the study. In addition to the sociodemographic form, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Scale (COPE), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) tests were applied to the participants. Results: Non-functional coping strategies were significantly higher in the secondary-progressive type (p?0.05). Depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia and total POMS scores were significantly higher in the secondary-progressive type (p?0.05). Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrate the importance of rehabilitation programs that encourage exercise among patients with multiple sclerosis to increase vigor-activity levels.
Shell Canada's social performance plan was outlined in this presentation. Stakeholder engagement is a key strategy in the company's response to the concerns and broader priorities of different groups and individuals affected by their operations. A review of the business and societal values of stakeholder engagement was presented. Key benefits include greater profitability; protection of the environment; effective resource management; community benefits; and the delivery of value to customers. It was suggested that a continuous engagement process helps companies to assess impacts and work on strategies to avoid and mitigate negative impacts. A framework for social performance management was presented. It was noted that accountability and transparency are key components of Shell's progress towards sustainable development, and their direct and indirect contributions to the communities and societies where they operate. The social impact of core business operations is now a focus of the company. Key concerns of the social performance plan include environmental and health impacts; land use and changes in local economies; cultural concerns; and infrastructure impacts. An outline of Shell's Listening and Responding Program was also provided. refs., tabs., figs
Steele, Rebekah; Lauder, William; Caperchione, Cristina; Anastasi, Jenny
The inter-connections between educational, family and social spheres of life are integral to the experiences and outcomes of mature student participation in education. This relationship highlights the need to understand the educational experience in the context of the life of the mature student. Mature nursing students have been shown to experience many difficulties during their course. These problems include childcare, relationship and financial difficulties. What is not well documented are the problems and coping strategies of future nursing students who are undertaking Access to Nursing courses and whether these mirror those found in mature nursing students. This small scale exploratory study investigated the course-related problems and coping strategies of mature students undertaking an access to nursing in a Further Education College. This study is one part of a larger programme of research investigating mature students in nursing. In-depth interviews were conducted on mature students and data were analysed using content analysis methods. Content analysis revealed particular concerns regarding the obstacles faced by mature nursing students. In particular the findings suggested that financial difficulties and re-entry into tertiary education were the prominent concerns for these individuals. The coping mechanisms identified to overcome these problems included; support networks, prioritizing and organising, and positive expectations and attitudes for the future. Understanding how students cope with their difficulties will provide the building block for future intervention strategies designed to minimise problems and increase retention rates. Further longitudinal research is required on the long term and cumulative nature of stress and coping in this group from access to post-qualification. PMID:16054270
Giselle, Vetere; Paula, Azrilevich; María Cecilia, Colombo; Ricardo, Rodríguez Biglieri.
Full Text Available El siguiente trabajo se enmarca dentro de un proyecto UBACyT sobre conductas de afrontamiento en trastornos de ansiedad. En el presente artículo se muestran los resultados de una revisión bibliográica sobre la utilización de la preocupación como estrategia de afrontamiento en pacientes con trastorno [...] de ansiedad generalizada. El método utilizado consistió en una búsqueda de los trabajos disponibles en las bases de datos PubMed, Scielo, Lilacs y Ebsco utilizando como palabras clave afrontamiento, ansiedad generalizada y preocupación. En primer lugar se describen brevemente las características del cuadro y se define el concepto de afrontamiento y sus diversos tipos. Seguidamente, en base a los resultados obtenidos en la búsqueda se analiza el concepto de preocupación así como las consecuencias de su uso como estrategia de afrontamiento en pacientes con trastorno de ansiedad generalizada. Finalmente se discuten las implicancias de los resultados para el tratamiento del cuadro. Abstract in english The following work is part of a research project about coping behaviors in anxiety disorders. In this paper we show the results of a literature review focused on the use of worry as a coping strategy in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. The method used consisted of a bibliographic search o [...] f the available studies in the PubMed, Scielo, Lilacs and Ebsco databases using the terms coping strategies, generalized anxiety and concern as keywords. First, we briely describe the characteristics of the disorder and deine the concept of coping and its diverse forms. Then, following the results found in the search we explore the concept of worry and the consequences of its use as a coping strategy in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Finally, we discuss the implications of the results for the treatment of the disorder.
The Office of Technology Development (TD) supports research and development of technologies that will lower cost, reduce risk, improve safety, and accelerate cleanup of the Nuclear Weapons Complex and provide solutions to currently untractable environmental problems. The TD strategic plan outlines Applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT and E) that will provide needed technology products to be used by Environmental Restoration and Waste Management operations (i.e., our customers). The TD strategic plan is derived from EM Goals, Objectives, and Strategy and is incorporated into DOE'S Five-Year Plan for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The TD strategic plan is developed based on integrating customer requirements, and is complemented by a top-down, bottom-up analysis of Site Specific Technology Needs and environmental problems. The execution of TD's strategic plan is implemented largely through Integrated Programs (IP) and Integrated Demonstrations (ID). IDs have proven to be a cost-effective method of managing technology development, testing and evaluation, and implementation of successful technology systems into the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs. The Savannah River ID for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Saturated Soils resulted in a 51 percent cost savings over stand-alone demonstrations, saving over $8 million. The IPs and IDs are selected based on customer needs, technical complexity, and complex-wide regulatory and compliance agreements. New technology systems are selected for incorporation into an IP or ID from offerings of the DOE laboratories, industry, and the universities. A major TD initiative was announced in August 1991, with the release of a Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) requesting industry and universities to propose innovative new technologies to clean up the Weapons Complex. (author)
Estratégias de Coping de Crianças e Adolescentes em Eventos Estressantes com Pares e com Adultos / Stratégie de Comportement des Enfants et des Adolescents (Coping) Dans les Conflits Impliquant des Pairs et des Adultes / Strategies Used by Children and Adolescents to Cope with Conflicts Involving Peers and Adults
Full Text Available Foram investigadas estratégias de coping em 215 crianças e adolescentes de ambos os sexos, de 7 a 15 anos, que freqüentavam escolas públicas de periferia. Metade dos participantes (n=105, M=10,6 anos) estavam abrigados num órgão governamental de proteção e os demais (n=110, M=9,9 anos) freqüentavam [...] as mesmas escolas e moravam com a família. Através de entrevistas os participantes relataram eventos estressantes recentes e a forma como lidaram com a situação. Os eventos foram classificados considerando se envolviam pares (ou seja, pessoas de mesma idade) ou adultos e foram identificados sete tipos de estratégias de coping: ação agressiva, evitação, busca de apoio, ação direta, inação, aceitação e expressão emocional. Análises demonstraram que crianças de 7 a 10 anos utilizaram mais as estratégias de inação e busca de apoio, enquanto que o grupo de 11 a 15 anos utilizou mais a estratégia de ação direta. Nos eventos com adultos, foram mais freqüentes as estratégias de evitação, aceitação e expressão emocional, enquanto que com pares a ação agressiva e busca de apoio foram mais utilizadas. Estes resultados sugerem que a idade e as pessoas envolvidas na situação estressante são fatores determinantes na escolha da estratégia a ser utilizada, entendendo-se coping como um processo situacional. Abstract in english The present study investigated coping strategies of 215 children and adolescents of both sexes, 7 to 15 years old, who attended public schools on the periphery of a southern Brazilian capital. About half the participants were living in state institutions for abandoned children (n=105, mean age=10.6) [...] . The remaining (n=110, mean age=9.9) attended the same schools but were living with their families. The participants were asked about recent stressing events and how they had dealt with the situation. The events were classified as involving either peers or adults. Content analyses led to the identification of seven categories of coping strategies: support seeking, aggressive actions, acceptance, avoidance, direct actions, doing nothing, and emotional expression. Analyses showed that younger children (seven to 10 years of age) used more strategies involving seeking support or doing nothing whereas older children used more direct action strategies. In situations involving adults, avoidance, acceptance, and emotional expression strategies were more frequent than in situations involving peers. In the latter, aggressive actions and support seeking strategies were used more often. These findings suggest that the age and the persons who are involved in a stressful situation may affect the use of strategies and that coping may be a situational process.
Jorge enrique Palacio Sañudo
Full Text Available The academic burnout might be accompanied of inadequate strategies of coping, contributing to the accentuation of difficulties in the GPA or aca- demicperformance.Takingintoaccounttheimplicationsofthesevariables in the performance and the dropout rate at university level, is relevant to investigate the relationship of the academic burnout and coping strategies with the academic performance. A correlational study with a sample of 283 students of the programs of Psychology and Physical therapy of the daytime hours of a private university of Barranquilla, who answered to the MBI-SS and to the Scale of Strategies of Coping Modified (EEC-M was conduc- ted. The results showed that the majority of the students were presenting low levels of academic burnout. Nevertheless, it was corroborated that the high Exhaustion and Cynicism can negatively affect academic performan- ce; on the contrary, the Self-efficacy to studies, favored it significantly; for what it is possible to establish a negative relation between burnout and the academic performance. Inside the strategies more frequently used by the students, it was found that those that use the one of Solution of Problems in university activities tend to obtain more favorable results in their academic performance.
Pires, TÃ¢nia Sofia Fernandes; Maia, Ãngela
Background: Maladjusted coping strategies after motor vehicle accidents (MVA) can contribute to the development of psychological symptoms, as PTSD. Methods: Measures of Acute Stress Disorder, PTSD scale, Coping, Social Support and physical health were used to evaluate 101MVA victims with serious injuries 5 days, 4 and 12 months after the accident Findings: 67% of the participants had ASD (T1), 58% had PTSD at T2 and 47% had PTSD at T3. Victims that report more general coping strategies...
Zhao, Siqi; Liu, He; Ma, Hongkun; Jiao, Mingli; Li, Ye; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Yihua; Gao, Lijun; Hong, Sun; Kang, Zheng; Wu, Qunhong; Qiao, Hong
A cross-sectional survey of healthcare professionals from 19 hospitals in six cities of Heilongjiang Province, China was conducted. This study had two objectives: (1) to examine the factors influencing healthcare workers' opinions of strategies to prevent workplace violence, using social support theory, and (2) to encourage healthcare organisations and the larger society to offer greater support to healthcare workers. The respondents exposed to workplace violence expected to receive organisational and social support. Those exposed to psychological violence had a strong opinion of the need for target training to strengthen their competence in responding to violence (OR = 1.319, 95% CI: 1.034-1.658) and enacting workplace violence legislation (OR = 1.968, 95% CI: 1.523-2.543).Those exposed to physical violence thought it might be useful to reinforce staff with back-up support (OR = 3.101, 95% CI: 1.085-8.860). Those exposed to both types of violence and those with high anxiety levels need greater support at both the organisational and societal levels. PMID:26580633
Maria Neves, Alves; Eusébio Augusto Medeiros de, Oliveira.
Full Text Available O desemprego constitui um flagelo na nossa sociedade. Os professores são uma das categorias profissionais mais atingidas. Esta situação tem consequências sociais e psicológicas que se reflectem na saúde do indivíduo. O objectivo deste estudo é compreender o stress e a forma como os professores lidam [...] com ele, ou seja a utilização de estratégias de adaptação (coping). A amostra contempla 100 professores do 2º ciclo, 50 desempregados e 50 exercendo a docência, em ambos os casos 25 homens e 25 mulheres a residir na zona norte de Portugal. Os professores do primeiro grupo encontravam-se desempregados ou aguardando a entrada na profissão. Os instrumentos utilizados para a avaliação do stress foram a Escala Toulosana de Stress (ETS) e a Escala Toulousana de Coping (STC) para perceber as estratégias face ao stress. Os resultados mostram que os professores desempregados ou com retardamento na entrada para a docência têm um stress elevado (p. Abstract in english Unemployment is one of the scourges of modern society and teachers are among the professional categories most affected by it. This situation gives rise to social and psychological consequences with repercussions on an individual's health. The objective of this study is to understand the nature of th [...] e stress and how teachers cope with it. The sample consisted of 100 secondary school teachers in Northern Portugal, 50 of whom were unemployed and 50 who were actively teaching, each group being equally divided in gender (25 men and 25 women). The teachers in the first group had either been made unemployed or were still waiting to enter the profession. The instruments used for the purposes of evaluation were the Toulouse Stress Scale (TSS) to measure the level of stress and the Toulouse Coping Scale (TCS) to determine the strategies used to deal with it. The results showed that teachers who are unemployed or whose entry into the profession has been delayed, suffer increased stress in comparison with teachers practising their profession. The nature of the stress can be summarised as: socio-emotional tension, physical tension and depression, physical perturbations and agitation. Both groups demonstrated increased stress with regard to the future, tiredness and temporary anguish. There were no differences between men and women, though the youngest individuals demonstrated significantly higher levels of stress than the older teachers. The strategy of coping most employed by unemployed teachers is withdrawing from society to reduce stress.
Today, the occupational education is needed not only by the graduates but also by the development of our society. The occupational education provides a new space for the university library in Re-positioning and development. So the libraries should conform to the situation and do entrepreneurship education and the role service orientation conversion. The university libraries have some unique advantages of enterprise education, so they have the mission and responsibilities of training ...
Helvy Giovanny, Sierra Vargas; Ángela Marcela, Güichá-Duitama; Yenny, Salamanca Camargo.
Full Text Available Introducción: los estilos de personalidad tienden a ser determinantes en la selección de un oficio o disciplina, no obstante esto no quiere decir que estos no se vean permeados por la forma como el sujeto afronta las situaciones determinantes de su entorno. Objetivo: determinar la relación entre est [...] ilos de Personalidad y Estrategias de Afrontamiento en estudiantes de psicología de una universidad colombiana, a partir del Inventario de Estilos de Personalidad MIPS y la escala de estrategias de Coping Modifica EEC-M. Materiales y métodos: se trabajó con un diseño descriptivo correlacional, no experimental con una muestra de 120 participantes (85 mujeres y 35 hombres). Resultados: se encontró que los estilos de personalidad característicos en mujeres son sensación, sistematización, conformismo y descontento; mientras que en hombres, son los de adecuación, intuición, pensamiento, retraimiento y discrepancia. Respecto a las estrategias de afrontamiento, las mujeres se caracterizan por estrategias de apoyo social y los hombres por reevaluación positiva. Conclusiones: la relación entre los estilos de personalidad y las estrategias de afrontamiento evidencia que los estilos expansión, modificación, individualidad, extraversión, pensamiento, sistematización, sociabilidad y decisión se relacionan frecuentemente con estrategias de afrontamiento tales como la solución de problemas, la reevaluación positiva, la autonomía y el apoyo social. (MÉD.UIS. 2014;27(2):15-27) Abstract in english Introduction: personality styles tend to be decisive in the choice of a profession or discipline, however this does not mean that these are not seen as permeated by the way the subject is facing the determining conditions of their environment. Objective: To determine the relationship between styles [...] of Personality and Coping Strategies in psychology students from a Colombian university, from the Inventory of Personality Styles MIPS and Coping Strategies Scale Amendment to EEC- M. Materials and methods: It worked with a non-experimental descriptive correlational design with a sample of 120 participants (85 women and 35 men). Results: It found that the characteristic personality styles in women are feeling, systematization, complacency and discontent; while men are the adequacy, intuition, thinking, and withdrawal discrepancy. Regarding coping strategies, women are characterized by strategies of social support and positive reappraisal men. Conclusions: The relationship between personality styles and coping styles evidence that expansion, modification, individuality, extraversion, thinking, systematization, sociability and decision are often related to coping strategies such as problem solving, positive reappraisal, autonomy and social support. (MÉD.UIS. 2014;27(2):15-27)
Panek, Micha?; Pietras, Tadeusz; Witusik, Andrzej; Wieteska, ?ukasz; Ma?achowska, Beata; Mokros, ?ukasz; Fendler, Wojciech; Szemraj, Janusz; Kuna, Piotr
Background: Personal and environmental factors might have an impact on strategies of coping with stress and temperamental traits according to the Regulative Theory of Temperament in asthmatic patients. They can modify the clinical picture, the course of a disease and effectiveness of treatment. Personal variables are key factors in determining formal characteristic of behavior and effective management method in asthmatic patients. Aim of study: The aim of the study was to identify selected personal and environmental factors, as well as factors inducing attacks and asthma exacerbations or maintaining them in a complex of personal traits of patients. Methods: Two hundred and eighty one participants were included in the study. Of this number 122 subjects were healthy volunteers and 159 were asthmatic patients. In all the subjects the authors applied the Formal Characteristic of Behaviour FCZ-KT Temperament Inventory, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Scale. Genotyping of polymorphic forms of NR3C1 gene was conducted with PCR-RFLP and PCR-HRM methods. Expression of TGF?1 gene was measured with the use of qRT-PCR. Results: The authors confirmed a significant influence of personal and environmental factors, such as: age, height, body weight, sex, asthma exacerbations, drugs administered by patients, allergy and psychopathological variables on strategies of coping with stress by asthmatic patients (Task-Oriented Coping, Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance-Oriented Coping, distraction seeking, social diversion). Temperamental traits (Briskness, Perseverance, Sensory Sensitivity, Emotional Reactivity, Endurance, Activity) depend on age, sex, body weight, genetic predispositions and they are modified by asthma exacerbations, allergy, drugs administered by patients, depression and anxiety (state and trait). The authors confirmed a correlation between Tth111I polymorphic form of NR3C1 gene and perseverance (p= 0.0450). It was noted that an increase in the TGF?1 expression level led to a decrease in the patients' emotional reactivity (p= 0.0212). Conclusions: Strategies of coping with stress and temperamental traits according to the Regulative Theory of Temperament in asthmatic patients are determined by personal and environmental factors. PMID:26079811
Full Text Available The article discusses the participatory elaboration of strategies for sustainable regional development in an Alpine tourist region in Austria to cope with global change effects evolving locally, considering climate change, economic change as well as (local societal change. Local stakeholders in an Alpine village in the Montafon region contributed in workshops to achieve the final results: participant teams conducted system analyses of the regional system to explore key elements of the region. Narrative scenarios described possible positive and negative development trends and indicated the critical issues controlling future development; 3D-images of landscape transition simulations show the consequences of certain development directions. Alternative development directions supported the local stakeholders to elaborate regional development strategies. In the end, the scientist team derived generic strategies for Alpine regions based on the locally developed strategy bundle. The article presents the intention, progress and outcome of the participatory approach and elaborates the potential to derive generic strategies from local ones and discusses the possibly occurring conflicts regarding cross-scale transfers of these local strategies. Overall, tourism was seen as a key element for future regional development, which can on the one hand derogate Alpine regions and is on the other hand threatened by climate change and diminution of landscape attractiveness. The suggested development strategies will help to cope with global change issues mitigating the negative consequences on the local society and environment.
Griffing, Sascha; Lewis, Carla S.; Chu, Melissa; Sage, Robert; Jospitre, Tania; Madry, Lorraine; Primm, Beny J.
Research suggests that the use of disengaged or avoidant strategies to cope with interpersonal violence contributes to the development of depressive symptoms and other psychological difficulties. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who are exposed to subsequent episodes of abuse may be more likely to rely on disengaged coping strategies,
Kyushu Electric Power Company started in FY 1986 research and development of an electric automobile as one of the measures to level the electric power load, completed the basic concept to cope with the global environmental problems in June, 1991 and since then, such research and development have been carried forward as an activity contributing the preservation of the environment. In putting it concretely, the following 3 items have been pursued, namely development of electric automobiles, development of batteries for electric automobiles, and development of the infrastructure therefor as well as maintenance techniques. The development of electric automobiles started with evaluation tests of an electric automobile of British make (1986), then the first electric automobile was developed (1988), and based on these results, two kinds of prototypes have been developed jointly with Nissan Motor Company. The second kind of such a vehicle achieved a travelling distance per full electric charging of 160km and the maximum speed of 115km/h. Also from 1994 to 1996, 15 electric automobiles were posted at 4 service stations centering around Fukuoka City for evaluation tests of operation of electric automobiles in actual services. In addition, a light electric automobile, an electric scooter, etc. have been developed. Regarding electric batteries, 3 kinds such as closed-type have been under development. 12 figs., 1 tab.
Estratégias de enfrentamento em crianças em situação pré-cirúrgica: relação com idade, sexo, experiência com cirurgia e estresse / Coping strategies among children in a pre-surgical situation: Relationship with age, gender, experience with surgery and stress
Luciana Esgalha, Carnier; Flávia Helena Pereira, Padovani; Gimol Benzaquen, Perosa; Olga Maria Piazentin Rolim, Rodrigues.
Full Text Available O estudo objetivou verificar as estratégias de enfrentamento de crianças, com idade entre 7 e 12 anos, em situação pré-cirúrgica, e sua relação com variáveis sociodemográficas, presença de estresse na criança, no acompanhante e experiência prévia com cirurgia. Para tanto, 58 crianças internadas para [...] realização de cirurgias eletivas responderam ao instrumento de avaliação das estratégias de enfrentamento da hospitalização e a um questionário de avaliação do estresse. O acompanhante respondeu a um levantamento sociodemográfico e ao inventário de sintomas de estresse de Lipp. As estratégias mais utilizadas foram distração e solução do problema e as menos utilizadas, afastamento social e oposição. Meninas e filhos de pais com estresse usaram significativamente mais estratégias de regulação da emoção. Observou-se maior uso de reestruturação cognitiva em crianças mais velhas e com experiência prévia em cirurgia. Os resultados sinalizam a necessidade de considerar as variáveis estudadas quando da elaboração de programas de preparação cirúrgica. Abstract in english This study's aim was to verify coping strategies among children aged between 7 and 12 years old who will be experiencing surgery and the potential relationship of coping strategies with sociodemographic variables, stress in children and in companions, and the child's prior experience with surgery. A [...] total of 58 children hospitalized and waiting for elective surgeries responded to the Assessment Instrument of Coping to Hospitalization and an instrument to assess stress. The companion received a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory. Problem-solving strategies and distraction were the most frequent strategies used, while social withdrawal and opposition were the least frequent. Girls and children of stressful parents used emotion regulation strategies with significantly more frequency. Likewise, greater cognitive restructuring was observed in older children and those with prior experience with surgeries. The results show the need to consider the studied variables when developing pre-operative preparation programs.